The meaning of the symbols of dream, dictionary/ seen in a dream.

What does the symbols of dream and dictionary/ mean in a dream?

The keywords of this dream: Dream Dictionary/


A blood clot that may partially or wholly block the flow of blood through a blood vessel... thrombosis


Abnormally fast heartbeat.... tachycardia


The painful expelling cramps of the tubular smooth muscles and ducts. Normal peristalsis of various types produce no pain or sensation (except for the dreaded borborygmies); only the energetic expulsion contraction can induce referred pain. Examples: Nausea, gas pain, uterine cramps, gall bladder pain.... tenesmus


A medication that has its medicinal agent dissolved in alcohol... tincture


See Tabaco.... tobacco


An agent that is used to give strength to the system... tonic


A pathological alteration of the supporting tissues of a tooth due to abnormal occlusion... trauma

Clinical Trial

A controlled research study of the safety and effectiveness of drugs, devices or techniques that occurs in four phases, starting with the enrolment of a small number of people, to the later stages in which thousands of people are involved prior to approval by the licensing authorities (for example, the Food and Drug Administration).... clinical trial

Connective Tissue

Sometimes called ?brous tissue, this is one of the most abundant tissues in the body, holding together the body’s many di?erent structures. Connective tissue comprises a matrix of substances called mucopolysaccharides in which are embedded various specialist tissues and cells. These include elastic (yellow), collagenous (white) and reticular ?bres as well as macrophages (see MACROPHAGE) and MAST CELLS. Assembled in di?ering proportions, this provides structures with varying functions: bone, cartilage, tendons, ligaments and fatty and elastic tissues. Collagenous connective tissue binds the muscles together and provides the substance of skin. It is also laid down in wound repair, forming the scar tissue. Contracting with time, connective tissue becomes denser, causing the puckering that is typical in serious wounds or burns. (See ADHESION; SCAR; WOUNDS.)... connective tissue

Delirium Tremens

(DTs) A distinct neurologic disorder suffered by late-in­the-game alcoholics, characterized by sensory confusion (is it red or sour, hot or loud, smelly or wet, am I thinking or screaming); part of the problem is the result of diminished myelination of nerves and decreased brain antioxidant insulation (cholesterol), with nerve impulses “shorting out” across temporary synapses. It sounds ugly.... delirium tremens

Occupational Therapy

Therapy designed to help individuals improve their independence in daily living activities through rehabilitation, exercises and the use of assistive devices. In addition, such therapy provides activities to promote growth, self-fulfilment and self-esteem.... occupational therapy


A genus of cestodes (tapeworms), which include Taenia saginata (beef tapeworm), T. solium (pork tapeworm) and T. asiatica (Asian pork tapeworm). All have human final (definitive) hosts.... taenia


An increase of fluid around the heart.... tamponade


Tanacetum vulgare. N.O. Compositae.

Habitat: This common English wild plant was formerly cultivated in gardens, but is now rarely seen away from the borders of fields and waysides.

Features ? The tough, slightly ribbed stems reach a height of two or three feet, terminating in the peculiar bunch of yellow, flat, button-like flowers by which the plant may be easily recognised in July and August; the flowers look, indeed, as if all the petals had been pulled off, leaving only the central florets. Leaf stalks grow on alternate sides of the stem, the leaves themselves being six to eight inches long by about four inches broad, deeply cut pinnately. The crushed leaves and flowers give a pronounced aromatic smell, and have a bitter taste.

Tansy herb is probably the best of all the media for getting rid of worms in children, and a dose according to age should be given night and morning fasting. The infusion of 1 ounce to 1 pint of boiling water is used.

The medicine is also esteemed in some quarters for the treatment of hysteria and certain other of the nervous disorders of women. For this purpose a wineglassful of the infusion should be taken frequently.

The old-time herbalists used Tansy as a stimulating tonic for a poor digestive apparatus, but to-day herbal compounds of greater efficacy are prescribed for dyspepsia.


Linaria vulgaris. N.O. Scrophulariaceae.

Synonym: Butter and Eggs, Flaxweed, Pennywort. The name "Toad Flax" because of a supposed similarity between the mouth of the flower and that of the toad.

Habitat: Hedgerows and cornfields.

Features ? Stem one to two feet higli, upright, only slightly branched. Leaves numerous, grass-like, tapering to a point. Stem and leaves are smooth, with a pale bluish hue. Flowers shaped like the snapdragon (antirrhinum), pale yellow, mouth closed by projecting orange-coloured lower lip ; clustered together at top of stem.

Part used ? Herb.

Action: Hepatic, alterative, astringent, detergent.

To some extent in prescriptions for jaundice, hepatic torpor and skin diseases. Is also sometimes included in pile ointments. The 1 ounce to 1 pint infusion is taken in doses of 2 fl. ounces.... tansy


A neoplasm possibly starting in the foetus and having different types of tissues; e.g., ovarian teratoma often have teeth, adenoma, and connective tissue proliferation.... teratoma


The principal reproductive androgen of males, largely responsible for sexual maturation, some libido, and a range of metabolic reactions that, while supplying short-term strengths, creates a long-term fragility and brittleness if not in balance with less garish but more sustainable metabolic buffers. It is secreted by the Leydig cells of the testes, as well as smaller amounts in the adrenal cortices of both sexes. It is made under the direction of LH from the pituitary, and, if oversecreted, can be inhibited by sperm-producing cells, diminished pituitary support, and a rise in blood levels of its waste-product, stored in adipose tissues...estradiol... testosterone


An infective disease due to the toxins of Clostridium tetani... tetanus


See CANDIDA.... thrush


A pathologic thyroid hyperfunction. It is sometimes referred to as exophthalmic goiter. An overt disease, sometimes life-threatening, it is very different from the moderately elevated basal metabolism some constitutional types manifest under stress.... thyrotoxicosis


Also called ringworm. Refers to a variety of superficial fungal infections of the skin on different areas of the body caused by dermatphyte fungi belonging to the genera Epidemophytum, Microsporosum, and Trichophytum..... tinea


A very tight ligature applied over the proximal portion of an extremity (limb) to occlude the artery to prevent blood reaching the distal part of the limb. Useful for severe, uncontrolled arterial bleeding, but dangerous when used for envenomation.... tourniquet


The condition of general poisoning caused by the entrance of soluble bacterial toxins into the blood... toxaemia


A zoonotic disease caused by the apicomplexan protozoan Toxoplasma gondii. The definitive hosts of this parasite species are felids (cats).... toxoplasmosis


The cartilage tube that brings air from the larynx to the two bronchi of the lungs. It is lined with mucus membranes and ciliated epithelia.... trachea


An eye infection causing a purulent conjunctivitis and which can lead to blindness unless treated. Caused by Chlamydia trachomatis serotypes A, B and C.... trachoma

Trigeminal Neuralgia

Facial neuralgia or tic doulourex. This is pain of the gasserian ganglion or one or more branches of the trigeminal nerves. It is felt as pain along the side or top of the head, the scalp and around the eyes...a “skin headache”...and sometimes accompanied by facial muscle cramps. It is usually initiated by trigger points, with blood sugar irregularities and substance sensitivities often lowering their threshold of irritation.... trigeminal neuralgia


The three three-month sections of a pregnancy.... trimester

Tropical Ulcer

A cutaneous ulcer seen particularly in malnourished individuals. The cause of these ulcers is often ascribed to a synergistic infection by the spirochaete Treponema vincentii and the anaerobic Gram negative rod, Fusobacterium nucleatum.... tropical ulcer


A disease caused by parasites of the genus Trypanosoma and including sleeping sickness in Africa and Chagas disease in Central and South America.... trypanosomiasis


A zoonotic infection of rabbits and other small mammals, caused by the Gram negative rod, Francisella tularensis.... tularaemia


A mass or swelling. The lump can be a neoplasm (benign or malignant) or a tumour can be a mass due to an infection or inflammation.... tumour

Urinary Tract

(UT) The kidneys and the lower urinary tract, which includes the ureters, bladder, and urethra.... urinary tract

Adipose Tissue

Adipose tissue, or fat, is a loose variety of ?brous tissue in the meshes of which lie cells, each of which is distended by several small drops, or one large drop, of fat. This tissue replaces ?brous tissue when the amount of food taken is in excess of the bodily requirements. Adipose tissue occurs as a layer beneath the skin and also around several internal organs. (See DIET; FAT; OBESITY.)... adipose tissue

Behaviour Therapy

A form of psychiatric treatment based on learning theory. Symptoms are considered to be conditioned responses, and treatment is aimed at removing them, regardless of the underlying diagnosis. Desensitisation, operant conditioning, and aversion therapy are examples of behaviour therapy. (See MENTAL ILLNESS.)... behaviour therapy

Blood Transfusion

See TRANSFUSION – Transfusion of blood.... blood transfusion

Botulinum Toxin

The toxin of the anaerobic bacterium CLOSTRIDIUM botulinum is now routinely used to treat focal DYSTONIA in adults. This includes blepharospasm (see EYE, DISORDERS OF), SPASMODIC TORTICOLLIS, muscular spasms of the face, squint and some types of tremor. Injected close to where the nerve enters the affected muscles, the toxin blocks nerve transmissions for up to four months, so relieving symptoms. The toxin is also used in cerebral palsy. Although very e?ective, there are many possible unwanted effects, especially if too high a dose is used or the injection is misplaced.... botulinum toxin


This drug – a mixture of trimethoprim and the sulphonamide, sulphamethoxazole – should be used only in the prophylaxis or treatment of pneumocystis PNEUMONIA, and in acute exacerbations of chronic BRONCHITIS, urinary tract infections and otitis media (see EAR, DISEASES OF), where indicated.... co-trimoxazole

Coronary Thrombosis

See HEART, DISEASES OF.... coronary thrombosis

Exchange Transfusion

A method of treating newborn infants with HAEMOLYTIC DISEASE. Blood is taken out of the baby through the umbilical vein and is replaced with the same quantity of blood from a donor that is compatible with the mother’s blood. The procedure is repeated several times to get rid of damaged cells while maintaining the infant’s blood volume and keeping its red cell count constant. (See also TRANSFUSION.)... exchange transfusion

Double Blind Trial

A scienti?c study in which di?erent patients receive a di?erent drug, the same drug at a different dose, or a placebo – with neither the investigators assessing the outcome nor the subjects being treated knowing which of these the latter are receiving. The aim is to remove any hint of bias due to the investigators’ or patients’ preferences or preconceptions. The results are analysed after all the data have been collected and the code has been broken. Trials should have a separate supervising committee, the members of which know the code but do not take part in the study. Their job is to check the results at intervals so they can stop the trial if one arm of treatment is clearly better than another. Otherwise, it would be unethical to continue. (See INTERVENTION STUDY.)... double blind trial

Group Therapy

Psychotherapy in which at least two, but more commonly up to ten, patients, as well as the therapist, take part. The therapist encourages the patients to analyse their own and the others’ emotional and psychological diffculties. Group therapy is also used to help patients sharing the same condition – for instance, alcoholism or compulsive gambling. They discuss their problems for perhaps an hour twice a week and explore ways of resolving them.... group therapy

Heaf Test

A skin test to ?nd out if a person is immune to TUBERCULOSIS. TUBERCULIN (a preparation derived from the TUBERCLE bacillus) is injected via punctures in the skin of the forearm, using a spring-loaded gunlike instrument with six very short needles set in circular form. A positive test is indicated by a red raised reaction of the skin: this means that the subject is immune. If the result is negative, the subject can be given BCG VACCINE.... heaf test

Ingrowing Toenail

The sides of the toenail curve downwards, resulting in in?ammation of the skin next to the nail which spreads to the base of the nail. The skin and nail base may become painful and badly infected. If antibiotics and local dressing do not cure the condition, surgery to remove part of the nail will be required.... ingrowing toenail

Gene Therapy

Gene therapy is the transfer of normal GENES into a patient to combat the effects of abnormal genes which are causing disease(s). The GENETIC ENGINEERING technique used is SOMATIC cell gene therapy in which the healthy gene is put into somatic cells that produce other cells – for example, stem cells that develop into BONE MARROW. Descendants of these altered cells will be normal and, when su?cient numbers have developed, the patient’s genetic disorder should be remedied. The abnormal gene, however, will still be present in the treated individual’s germ cells (eggs or sperm) so he or she can still pass the inherited defect on to succeeding generations.

Gene therapy is currently used to treat disorders caused by a fault in a single recessive gene, when the defect can remedied by introducing a normal ALLELE. Treating disorders caused by dominant genes is more complicated. CYSTIC FIBROSIS is an example of a disease caused by a recessive gene, and clinical trials are taking place on the e?ectiveness of using LIPOSOMES to introduce the normal gene into the lungs of someone with the disorder. Trials are also underway to test the e?ectiveness of introducing tumour-suppressing genes into cancer cells to check their spread.

Gene therapy was ?rst used in 1990 to treat an American patient. Eleven European medical research councils (including the UK’s) recommended in 1988 that gene therapy should be restricted to correcting disease or defects, and that it should be limited to somatic cells. Interventions in germ-line cells (the sperm and egg) to e?ect changes that would be inherited, though technically feasible, is not allowed (see CLONING; HUMAN GENOME).... gene therapy

Glyceryl Trinitrate

Also known as trinitrin and nitroglycerin, this is a drug used in the treatment of ANGINA PECTORIS and left ventricular failure of the heart. It is normally given as a sublingual tablet or spray, though percutaneous preparations may be useful in the prophylaxis of angina – particularly for patients who suffer attacks at rest, and especially at night. Sublingually it provides rapid symptomatic relief of angina, but is only e?ective for 20–30 minutes. It is a potent vasodilator, and this may lead to unwanted side-effects such as ?ushing, headache, and postural HYPOTENSION. Its antispasmodic effects are also valuable in the treatment of ASTHMA, biliary and renal colic, and certain cases of VOMITING. (See also COLIC.)... glyceryl trinitrate

Magnesium Trisilicate

A white powder with mild antacid properties (see ANTACIDS) and a prolonged action, it is used for treating peptic ulceration – commonly combined with quickly acting antacids. It has a mild laxative e?ect (see LAXATIVES).... magnesium trisilicate

Mantoux Test

A test for TUBERCULOSIS. It consists in injecting into the super?cial layers of the skin (i.e. intradermally) a very small quantity of old TUBERCULIN which contains a protein ANTIGEN to TB. A positive reaction of the skin – swelling and redness – shows that the person so reacting has been infected at some time in the past with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, it does not mean that such a person is suffering from active tuberculosis.... mantoux test

Milk Teeth

The temporary teeth of children. (For the time of their appearance, see under TEETH.)... milk teeth

Multidisciplinary Team

Consists of members of different disciplines, involved in the same task (assessing people, setting goals and making care recommendations) and working along side each other, but functioning independently. Each member undertakes his or her own tasks without explicit regard to the interaction. These teams are traditionally led by the highest ranking team member.... multidisciplinary team

Nasogastric Tube

A small-bore plastic or rubber tube passed into the stomach through the nose, pharynx and then the oesophagus. It is used either to aspirate gas and liquid from the stomach or to pass food or drugs into it.... nasogastric tube

Patch Test

This is used to identify possible substances that may be causing a patient’s ALLERGY. Small amounts of di?erent substances are placed on the skin – usually of the back or arm. If the patient is allergic then a red ?are and swelling will appear, usually within about 15 minutes. Sometimes the reaction may take longer – up to three days – to develop.... patch test

Rorschach Test

A psychological test (see PSYCHOLOGY) for investigating personality and disorders of personality. Also called the ‘ink blot test’, it is now rarely used. It was devised by a Swiss psychiatrist, Hermann Rorschach (1884–1922), who determined individuals’ reactions to a series of symmetrical ink-blots, ten in number and standardised by him.... rorschach test

Siamese Twins


Sore Throat

A raw sensation at the back of the throat. A common symptom, the cause is usually PHARYNGITIS, sometimes TONSILLITIS. It is often the presenting symptom of colds, INFLUENZA, LARYNGITIS and infectious MONONUCLEOSIS. Sore throats caused by streptococcal infection (see STREPTOCOCCUS) should be treated with antibiotics, as should other bacteria-initiated sore throats; otherwise, symptomatic treatment with analgesics and antiseptic gargles is suf?cient for this usually self-limiting condition.... sore throat

Speech Therapy

The treatment of speech and communication disorders.... speech therapy

Supraventricular Tachycardia

An unusually fast but regular beating of the HEART occurring for periods that may last several hours or days. In most people with this abnormality the heart rate is between 140 and 180 beats a minute; rarely, the rate may rise as high as 250–300 beats. The condition occurs when abnormal electrical impulses that arise in the upper chambers (atria) of the heart override the normal control centre – the sinoatrial node – for the heartbeat. Symptoms usually include breathlessness, palpitations, pain in the chest and fainting. An ELECTROCARDIOGRAM (ECG) is taken to help make the diagnosis. An acute episode can sometimes be stopped by VALSAVA’S MANOEUVRE or by drinking cold water. Anti-arrhythmic drugs (see ARRHYTHMIA) such as adenosine and digoxin are used to treat recurrent attacks. Occasionally, a severe attack may need to be treated with an electric shock to the heart: this is known as DEFIBRILLATION.... supraventricular tachycardia


Excessively above normal and rapid breathing rate.... tachypnoea


Also known colloquially as club-foot, this is a deformity apparent at birth, affecting the ankle and foot: the foot is twisted at the ankle-joint so that the sole does not rest on the ground when standing. The heel may be pulled up so that the individual walks on the toes (talipes equinus); the toes may be bent up and the heel used for walking (talipes calcaneus); the sole may be twisted inwards (varus) or outwards (valgus); or the individual may have a combination of deformities (equinovarus). The condition is probably the result of genetic predisposition with an environmental trigger. In the UK the incidence is one in 1,000 live births and talipes is more common in boys than in girls, with 10 per cent of sufferers having a ?rst-degree relative with the same condition. Clinically, there are two types of congenital talipes equinovarus (CTEV): a milder form – resolving CTEV – in which full correction to the normal position is relatively easily achieved; and a more severe type

– resistant CTEV – which is harder to correct; and the infant has reduced calf-muscle bulk and abnormally shaped bones.

Treatment should be started at birth with the foot corrected to an improved position and then maintained in plaster of Paris or strapping

– a procedure performed weekly or more often. If the deformity is not corrected by around six weeks of age, a decision has to be made about whether to carry out surgical correction. If a deformity persists to maturity, a triple arthrodosis – fusion of three affected joints – may be required.... talipes


The square-shaped bone which forms the lower part of the ankle-joint and unites the leg bones to the foot.... talus


Tamarindus indica

Description: The tamarind is a large, densely branched tree, up to 25 meters tall. Its has pinnate leaves (divided like a feather) with 10 to 15 pairs of leaflets.

Habitat and Distribution: The tamarind grows in the drier parts of Africa, Asia, and the Philippines. Although it is thought to be a native of Africa, it has been cultivated in India for so long that it looks like a native tree. It is also found in the American tropics, the West Indies, Central America, and tropical South America.

Edible Parts: The pulp surrounding the seeds is rich in vitamin C and is an important survival food. You can make a pleasantly acid drink by mixing the pulp with water and sugar or honey and letting the mixture mature for several days. Suck the pulp to relieve thirst. Cook the young, unripe fruits or seedpods with meat. Use the young leaves in soup. You must cook the seeds. Roast them above a fire or in ashes. Another way is to remove the seed coat and soak the seeds in salted water and grated coconut for 24 hours, then cook them. You can peel the tamarind bark and chew it.... tamarind


A plug of compressed gauze or cotton wool inserted into a wound or ori?ce to arrest bleeding. Also inserted into the VAGINA to absorb the ?ow of blood during MENSTRUATION. Infected tampons may cause TOXIC SHOCK SYNDROME, a potentially dangerous but fortunately uncommon reaction.... tampon


An OESTROGENS receptor antagonist – namely, the drug blocks the action of oestrogen – which is the treatment of choice for breast cancer (see BREASTS, DISEASES OF) in postmenopausal women in conjunction with LUMPECTOMY or partial or complete MASTECTOMY. Around 30 per cent of patients in whom breast cancer has spread to adjacent glands or beyond respond to this hormonal treatment. In patients with tumours that are oestrogen-sensitive, the positive response to tamoxifen is 60 per cent; those tumours that are not oestrogen-sensitive are much less likely to respond to the drug. Tamoxifen increases both survival rates and the period between the diagnosis of the tumour and appearance of metastatic growth (see METASTASIS) in tumours sensitive to it. The drug has fewer adverse effects than most others used for treating breast cancer. Patients in whom the cancer has spread to the bone(s) may suffer pain with tamoxifen treatment.

Tamoxifen is also used to treat INFERTILITY, being taken on certain days of the menstrual cycle (see MENSTRUATION).... tamoxifen


Tannin, or tannic acid, is an uncrystallisable white powder, soluble in water or glycerin. It is extracted from oak galls in large amount, but it is also present in almost all vegetable infusions. Tannic acid acts as an astringent.... tannin

Tardive Dyskinesia

Also known as orofacial DYSKINESIA, this is characterised by involuntary chewing and grimacing, usually the result of years of taking ANTIPSYCHOTIC DRUGS, particularly in the elderly when these drugs are sometimes used to sedate troublesome patients.... tardive dyskinesia


The region of the instep with its seven bones, the chief of which are the TALUS supporting the leg-bones and the CALCANEUS or heel-bone, the others being the navicular, cuboid, and three cuneiform bones.... tarsus


A concretion that forms on the TEETH near the margin of the gum, consisting chie?y of phosphate of lime deposited from the saliva. Mixed with this are food particles, and this is an ideal medium for bacteria to ?ourish in. Regular brushing of the teeth is a preventive measure. Dentists or dental hygienists routinely remove tartar, because it gives rise to wasting of the gums and loosening of the teeth.... tartar


See TONGUE.... taste

Temporal Arteritis

In?ammation of the TEMPORAL ARTERY. Also known as giant cell arteritis, it often affects other arteries too, mainly in the head. It predominantly affects the elderly. The artery becomes tender with reddening of the overlying skin; headache and blindness may also occur. The diagnosis is con?rmed by temporal artery BIOPSY, and treatment is with steroids (see STEROID).... temporal arteritis


In?ammation of a TENDON. Usually caused by unusual or excessive physical activity, it may also be infective in origin or secondary to a connective-tissue disorder. The pain and in?ammation may be treated with NONSTEROIDAL ANTI-INFLAMMATORY DRUGS (NSAIDS), immobilisation splinting, and STEROID injections. Repetitive strain injury (RSI), caused by constant use of a keyboard (typewriter, word processor or computer), is tendinitis occurring in the hands and arms (see UPPER LIMB DISORDERS).... tendinitis

Tendon Transfer

Reconstructive surgery in which the TENDON from an unimportant muscle is removed and used to repair or replace a damaged tendon of a major muscle.... tendon transfer


A benzodiazepine anxiolytic (see BENZODIAZEPINES; ANXIOLYTICS) derived from diazepam. To be used with care for short-term treatment of insomnia, generally associated with di?culty in falling asleep, frequent nocturnal awakening or early-morning awakening. Temazepam is a relatively quick-acting hypnotic of short duration, so – although there is little hangover the next morning compared with other hypnotics – there may still be some drowsiness and e?ect on skilled tasks such as driving. It should be avoided in elderly people who are at risk of becoming ataxic and so liable to falling and injuring themselves. Temazepam is often abused by drug addicts.... temazepam


Referring or relating to the temporal region (see TEMPLE).... temporal


A tendon – also known as sinew, or leader – is the cord of tissue that attaches the end of a muscle to the bone or other structure upon which the muscle acts when it contracts. Tendons are composed of bundles of white ?brous tissue arranged in a very dense manner, and are of great strength. Some are rounded, some ?attened bands, whilst others are very short – the muscle-?bres being attached almost directly to the bone. Most tendons are surrounded by sheaths lined with membrane similar to the SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE lining joint-cavities: in this sheath the tendon glides smoothly over surrounding parts. The ?bres of a tendon pass into the substance of the bone and blend with the ?bres composing it. One of the largest tendons in the body is the Achilles tendon, or tendo calcaneus, which attaches the muscle of the calf to the calcaneus or heel-bone.

Tendon injuries are one of the hazards of sports (see SPORTS MEDICINE). They usually result from indirect violence, or overuse, rather than direct violence.

Rupture usually results from the sudden application of an unbalanced load. Thus, complete rupture of the Achilles tendon is common in taking an awkward step backwards playing squash. There is sudden pain; the victim is often under the impression that he or she has received a blow. This is accompanied by loss of function, and a gap may be felt in the tendon.

Partial Rupture is also accompanied by pain, but there is no breach of continuity or complete loss of function. Treatment of a complete rupture usually means surgical repair followed by immobilisation of the tendon in plaster of Paris for six weeks. Partial rupture usually responds to physiotherapy and immobilisation, but healing is slow.... tendon




A beta2 adrenoreceptor agonist that acts as a BRONCHODILATOR (see also BETAADRENOCEPTOR-BLOCKING DRUGS). As an aerosol (see INHALANTS), it is of particular value in the treatment of mild to moderate attacks of ASTHMA; it is also available in oral and parenteral forms, as well as subcutaneous, intramuscular, or slow intravenous injection.... terbutaline

Tertiary Care

The provision of highly specialized services in ambulatory and hospital settings.... tertiary care

Tertiary Prevention

A process aimed at limiting the negative effects of an established disease.... tertiary prevention


See TESTICLE.... testis

Test Meal

(1) The name given to a gastric-function test, involving injection of HISTAMINE – a powerful stimulator of gastric juice, or pentagastin. After the stimulant has been injected, the digestive juices are withdrawn through a stomach tube (inserted through the nose and throat) and their volume and chemistry measured. A similar test is used to assess the working of the PANCREAS.

(2) The second meaning (also called test feed) applies to a diagnostic procedure for congenital PYLORIC STENOSIS, whereby a paediatrician feels over the baby’s abdomen while he or she is feeding. The pyloric mass can be felt as a ?rm swelling with the consistency of a squash ball, which comes and goes under the examiner’s ?ngers.... test meal


Every man has two testicles or testes which are the sexual glands. In the fetus, they develop in the abdomen, but before birth they descend into a fold or pouch of skin known as the SCROTUM. Each testicle consists of up to 1,000 minute tubes lined by cells from which the spermatozoa (see SPERMATOZOON) are formed. Around 4·5 million spermatozoa are produced per gram of testicle per day. These tubes communicate with one another near the centre of the testicle, and are connected by a much coiled tube, the EPIDIDYMIS, with the ductus, or VAS DEFERENS, which enters the abdomen and passes on to the base of the bladder. This duct, after joining a reservoir known as the seminal vesicle, opens, close to the duct from the other side of the body, into the URETHRA where it passes through the PROSTATE GLAND. Owing to the convolutions of these ducts leading from the testicles to the urethra, and their indirect route, the passage from testicle to urethra is over 6 metres (20 feet) in length. In addition to producing spermotozoa, the testicle also forms the hormone TESTOSTERONE which is responsible for the development of male characteristics.... testicle

Tetralogy Of Fallot

The most common form of cyanotic congenital heart disease. The tetralogy consists of stenosis of the pulmonary valve (see PULMONARY STENOSIS); a defect in the septum separating the two ventricles (see VENTRICLE); the AORTA over-riding both ventricles; marked HYPERTROPHY of the right ventricle. Surgery is required to remedy the defects.... tetralogy of fallot


PARALYSIS of the body’s four limbs, also called quadriplegia.... tetraplegia


A condition characterised by SPASM of muscle, usually caused by a fall in blood CALCIUM levels. This results in hyperexcitability of muscles which may go into spasm at the slightest stimulus. This is well demonstrated in two of the classical signs of the disease: Chvostek’s sign, in which the muscles of the face contract when the cheek is tapped over the facial nerve as it emerges on the cheek; and Erb’s sign, in which muscles go into spasm in response to an electrical stimulus which normally causes only a contraction of the muscle. Tetany occurs in newborn babies, especially if they are premature, and in infants; as a result of RICKETS, excessive vomiting, or certain forms of NEPHRITIS. It may also be due to lack of the active principle of the PARATHYROID glands. Overbreathing may also cause it. Treatment consists of the administration of calcium salts, and in severe cases this is done by giving calcium gluconate intravenously or intramuscularly. High doses of vitamin D are also required.... tetany


(Plural: thalami.) One of two masses of grey matter lying on either side of the third ventricle of the BRAIN. It is an important relay and coordinating station for sensory impulses such as those for sight.... thalamus


Also known as Cooley’s anaemia, this is a condition characterised by severe ANAEMIA, due to an abnormal form of HAEMOGLOBIN in the blood. It is an inherited disease which is widely spread across the Mediterranean through the Middle East and into the Far East. It has a particularly high incidence in Greece and in Italy. The abnormal haemoglobin prevents the affected red cells from functioning properly. This results in the anaemia. The SPLEEN enlarges and abnormalities occur in the BONE MARROW. If someone inherits the disease from both parents, he or she is seriously affected but, if only one parent had the abnormal gene (see GENES), the person could well be free of symptoms. The severe form of the disorder is called thalassaemia major and affected individuals need repeated blood transfusions as well as treatment to remove excessive iron from their body. The disease can be diagnosed by prenatal investigation.... thalassaemia


A sedative and hypnotic drug long withdrawn from the market because it causes TERATOGENESIS. If taken during the ?rst trimester of pregnancy it may cause an unusual limb deformity in the fetus known as phocomelia (‘seal’ or ‘?ipper’ extremities).... thalidomide


An element that is toxic to nerve and liver tissues. A poisoned victim’s hair falls out and does not regrow. Treatment is the administration of CHELATING AGENTS. (See also POISONS.)

The radio-isotope (see ISOTOPE) thallium201 is used as a tracer during special imaging studies of blood ?ow through the heart muscle in the diagnosis of myocardial ischaemia (see HEART, DISEASES OF.)... thallium


An alkaloid (see ALKALOIDS) structurally similar to CAFFEINE, and found in small amounts in tea. Its main use is for the relief of BRONCHOSPASM, where beta-2 adrenoceptor stimulants have failed. It is given intravenously in combination with the stabilising agent ethylenediamine (as aminophylline) for the treatment of severe ASTHMA or paroxysmal nocturnal DYSPNOEA. Formerly used in the treatment of left ventricular failure, it has been largely superseded by more e?ective DIURETICS. When indicated, aminophylline should be given by very slow intravenous injection; acute overdose may cause convulsions and cardiac ARRHYTHMIA.... theophylline


A method of detecting the amount of heat produced by di?erent parts of the body. This is done with an infra-red sensitive photographic ?lm. High blood ?ow in an area shows up as a heat zone and thus tumours such as breast cancer can be identi?ed. The process records such changes in temperature in a record known as a thermogram. Unfortunately, such hot areas of skin are caused by a number of other conditions; this is therefore a diagnostic method that can be used only as a rough screening procedure.... thermography


An instrument for measuring a person’s body TEMPERATURE. A traditional clinical thermometer comprises a glass capillary tube sealed at one end with a MERCURY-?lled bulb at the other. The mercury expands (rises) and contracts (falls) according to the temperature of the bulb, which may be placed under the tongue or arm or in the rectum. Calibration is in degrees Celsius or Fahrenheit. Modern thermometers use an electric probe linked to a digital read-out display, providing an instant reading. Hospitals now have electronic devices that maintain constant monitoring of patients’ temperatures, pulse rates and blood pressure.... thermometer


The drug of choice for adults infected with the intestinal parasite Strongyloides stercoralis (see STRONGYLOIDIASIS). Its side-effects, including ANOREXIA, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, abdominal pain, itching and drowsiness, are more troublesome in elderly patients.... thiabendazole


The British Pharmacopoeia name for vitamin B1. Also known as ANEURINE, it is found in the husks of cereal grains. Its de?ciency may be produced by too careful milling of rice, or by a diet of white bread to the exclusion of brown bread and other cereal sources of this vitamin. The resulting disease is a form of NEURITIS with muscular weakness and heart failure known as BERIBERI. The best sources of this vitamin are wholemeal ?our, bacon, liver, egg-yolk, yeast and the pulses. The daily requirement is dependent, among other things, upon the total food intake, and has been estimated to be in the region of 0·5 mg of thiamine per 1,000 calories, increased during pregnancy to 2 mg daily as a minimum. (See APPENDIX 5: VITAMINS.)... thiamine


Cirsium species

Description: This plant may grow as high as 1.5 meters. Its leaves are long-pointed, deeply lobed, and prickly.

Habitat and Distribution: Thistles grow worldwide in dry woods and fields.

Edible Parts: Peel the stalks, cut them into short sections, and boil them before eating. The roots are edible raw or cooked.


Some thistle species are poisonous.

Other Uses: Twist the tough fibers of the stems to make a strong twine.... thistle

Thoracic Duct

This is the bodies’ main lymph collecting vessel. It starts in the little collecting bladder in the abdomen (the cisterna chyli), moves up the center of the body in front of the spinal chord, alongside the esophagus and aorta to the neck, where it drains into the left subclavian vein. It drains the lymph from the entire body, except the head, right thorax and arm, which collects lymph separately and drains into the right subclavian vein. Lacking the ability to contract and expand, the thoracic duct relies on its valves and the kinetic energy of breathing and nearby arterial pumping to drain lymph upwards.... thoracic duct


Another name for the CHEST. Also the title of a medical journal read by chest physicians.... thorax


A tremor or vibration felt on applying the hand to the surface of the body. It is felt particularly over the region of the heart in conditions in which the valve openings are narrowed or an ANEURYSM is present.... thrill

Thromboangiitis Obliterans

Also known as Buerger’s disease, this is an in?ammatory disease involving the blood vessels and nerves of the limbs, particularly the lower limbs. TOBACCO is an important cause. Pain is the outstanding symptom, accompanied by pallor of the affected part; intermittent CLAUDICATION caused by a reduction in blood supply is common. Sooner or later ulceration and GANGRENE tend to develop in the feet or hands when AMPUTATION of the affected part may be necessary. There is no speci?c treatment, but, if seen in the early stages, considerable relief may be given to the patient. Regular walking exercise is helpful and affected individuals should not smoke.... thromboangiitis obliterans


See PLATELETS.... thrombocyte


A fall in the number of PLATELETS (thrombocytes) in the blood caused by failure of production or excessive destruction of platelets. The result is bleeding into the skin (PURPURA), serious bleeding after injury and spontaneous bruising. (See also IDIOPATHIC THROMBOCYTOPENIC PURPURA (ITP).)... thrombocytopenia


The formation of a thrombus (BLOOD CLOT) in one part of the circulatory system from which a portion becomes detached and lodges in another blood vessel, partially or completely obstructing the blood ?ow (an EMBOLISM). Most commonly a thrombus is formed in the veins of the leg – DEEP VEIN THROMBOSIS (DVT)

– and the embolism lodges in the pulmonary (lung) circulation. PULMONARY EMBOLISM is a potentially fatal condition and requires urgent anticoagulant treatment (see ANTICOAGULANTS) and sometimes surgery. Extended periods lying in bed or prolonged sitting in a con?ned position such as a car or aeroplane can cause DVT; venous thromboses in the legs may occur after surgery and preventive anticoagulant treatment with HEPARIN and warfarin is often used. Similar treatment is needed if a thrombus develops. STREPTOKINASE is also used to treat thromboembolism.... thromboembolism


In?ammation of the veins combined with clot formation. (See BLOOD CLOT; VEINS, DISEASES OF.)... thrombophlebitis


A BLOOD CLOT. Usually describing the formation of a clot within a vessel obstructing the ?ow of blood, but it can also describe blood which has escaped from a damaged vessel and clotted in the surrounding tissue. (See also THROMBOSIS.)... thrombus


A tumour of the THYMUS GLAND. Such tumours are rare and are classi?ed according to the variety of thymus tissue from which they develop. Epithelial thymomas grow slowly and rarely spread. If the tumour arises from LYMPHOID TISSUE, it may progress to a generalised non-Hodgkin’s LYMPHOMA. Another variety is a thymic TERATOMA which is normally benign in women but malignant in men. Thymomas may affect the working of the immune system (see IMMUNITY), increasing the likelihood of infection. They are also associated with MYASTHENIA GRAVIS – an autoimmune disorder; removal of the gland may cure the disorder.... thymoma


Surgical removal of the THYROID GLAND. Partial thyroidectomy – removal of part of the gland – is sometimes done in patients with hyperthyroidism (see under THYROID GLAND, DISEASES OF) when drug treatment has failed to control the disorder.... thyroidectomy


See under THYROID GLAND, DISEASES OF.... thyroiditis


(T4) A crystalline substance, containing IODINE, isolated from the THYROID GLAND and possessing the properties of thyroid extract. It has also been synthesised. It is used in patients with defective function of the thyroid, such as myxoedema (see THYROID GLAND, DISEASES OF

– Hypothyroidism).... thyroxine

Thyroid Cancer

A rare disease that accounts for around 1 per cent of all cancers, cancer of the THYROID GLAND usually presents as an isolated hard nodule in the neck. The rate at which the nodule grows depends upon the patient’s age and type of cancer cell. Pain is not usually a feature, but the increasing size may result in the tumour pressing on vital structures in the neck – for example, the nerves controlling the LARYNX (resulting in hoarseness) and the PHARYNX (causing di?culty in swallowing). If more than one nodule is present, they are likely to be benign, not malignant. Treatment is by surgical removal after which the patient will need to take THYROXINE for the rest of his or her life. Radioactive iodine is usually given after surgery to destroy any residual cancerous cells. If treated early, the outlook is good.... thyroid cancer

Thyroid Gland

A highly vascular organ situated in front of the neck. It consists of a narrow isthmus crossing the windpipe close to its upper end, and joining together two lateral lobes which run upwards, one on each side of the LARYNX. The gland is therefore shaped somewhat like a horseshoe, each lateral lobe being about 5 cm (2 inches) long and the isthmus about 12 mm (••• inch) wide, and it is ?rmly bound to the larynx. The weight of the thyroid gland is about 28·5 grams (1 ounce), but it is larger in females than in males and in some women increases in size during MENSTRUATION. It often reaches an enormous size in the condition known as GOITRE (see also THYROID GLAND, DISEASES OF).

Function The chief function of the thyroid gland is to produce a hormone (see HORMONES) rich in iodine – THYROXINE, which controls the rate of body METABOLISM. Thus, if it is de?cient in infants they fail to grow and suffer LEARNING DISABILITY, a condition formerly known as CRETINISM. If the de?ciency develops in adult life, the individual becomes obese, lethargic, and develops a coarse skin, a condition known as hypothyroidism (see under THYROID GLAND, DISEASES OF). Overactivity of the thyroid, or hyperthyroidism, results in loss of weight, rapid heart action, anxiety, overactivity and increased appetite. (See THYROID GLAND, DISEASES OF – Thyrotoxicosis.)

The production of the thyroid hormone is controlled by a hormone of the PITUITARY GLAND – the thyrotrophic hormone.... thyroid gland


The larger of the two bones in the leg. One surface of the tibia lies immediately beneath the skin in front, forming the shin; fractures of this bone are usually compound ones. The thigh bone abuts on the larger upper end of the tibia at the knee-joint, whilst below, the tibia and ?bula together enter into the ankle-joint, the two bosses or malleoli at the ankle belonging, the inner to the tibia, the outer to the ?bula.... tibia


A noise heard in the EAR without any external cause. It often accompanies DEAFNESS, and severely deaf patients ?nd tinnitus as troubling as – if not more so than – the deafness. Tinnitus is described as ‘objective’ if it is produced by sound generated within the body by vascular tumours or abnormal blood ?ows. In patients with conductive hearing loss, tinnitus may be the consequence of the blocking of outside noises so that their own bodily activities become audible. Even normal people occasionally suffer from tinnitus, but rarely at a level which prompts them to seek medical advice. Present knowledge of the neurophysiological mechanisms is that the noise ‘arises’ high in the central nervous system in the subcortical regions of the BRAIN.

The resting level of spontaneous neuronal activity in the hearing system is only just below that at which sound enters a person’s consciousness – a consequence of the ?ne-tuning of normal hearing; so it is not, perhaps, surprising that normally ‘unheard’ neuronal activity becomes audible. If a patient suffers sensorineural deafness, the body may ‘reset’ the awareness threshold of neural activity, with the brain attempting greater sensitivity in an e?ort to overcome the deafness. The condition has a strong emotional element and its management calls for a psychological approach to help sufferers cope with what are, in e?ect, physically untreatable symptoms. They should be reassured that tinnitus is not a signal of an impending stroke or of a disorder of the brain. COGNITIVE BEHAVIOUR THERAPY can be valuable in coping with the unwanted noise. Traditionally, masking sounds, generated by an electrical device in the ear, were used to help tinnitus sufferers by, in e?ect, making the tinnitus inaudible. Even with the introduction of psychological retraining treatment, these maskers may still be helpful; the masking-noise volume, however, should be kept as low as possible or it will interfere with the retraining process. For patients with very troublesome tinnitus, lengthy counselling and retraining courses may be required. Surgery is not recommended.

Under the auspices of the Royal National Institute for Deaf People, the RNID Tinnitus Helpline has been established. Calls are charged at local rates. (See also MENIÈRE’S DISEASE.)... tinnitus


A collection of cells similar in structure or function.... tissue

Tissue Typing

The essential procedure for matching the tissue of a recipient in need of transplanted tissue or organ to that of a potential donor. Unless there is a reasonable match, the recipient’s immune system (see IMMUNITY) will reject the donor’s organ. The main factors that are relevant to an individual’s reaction to donor tissue are called histocompatability antigens (see ANTIGEN). These are mostly human leucocyte antigens (HLAs – see HLA SYSTEM) present on the surface of cells. HLAs are inherited and, like ?ngerprints, unique to an individual, although identical twins have identical HLAs and hence are perfect matches for TRANSPLANTATION procedures.... tissue typing


An aminoglycoside antibiotic used to treat serious infections such as MENINGITIS and PERITONITIS as well as those affecting bones, joints and lungs. It is given by injection, sometimes in conjunction with penicillin. It has a range of side-effects including damage to the balance and hearing mechanisms as well as to the kidney.... tobramycin


A sulphonamide derivative, or sulphonylurea (see SULPHONYLUREAS), which lowers the level of the blood sugar in DIABETES MELLITUS. As it is rapidly excreted from the body, it has to be taken twice daily. Like CHLORPROPAMIDE, it may induce undue sensitivity to alcohol.... tolbutamide


This occurs when the response to a particular amount of a drug or physiological messenger decreases, so that a larger dose must be given to produce the same response as before. It is particularly common with certain drug dependencies (see DEPENDENCE): for example, with MORPHINE or HEROIN.... tolerance


A technique using X-RAYS or ULTRASOUND to build up a focused image of a ‘slice’ through the body at a given level. By producing a series of such slices at di?erent depths, a three-dimensional image of the body structures can be built up.... tomography


The tongue is made up of several muscles, is richly supplied with blood vessels and nerves, and is covered by highly specialised MUCOUS MEMBRANE. It consists of a free part known as the tip, a body, and a hinder ?xed part or root. The under-surface lies upon the ?oor of the mouth, whilst the upper surface is curved from side to side, and still more from before backwards so as to adapt it to the roof of the mouth. At its root, the tongue is in contact with, and ?rmly united to, the upper edge of the LARYNX; so that in some persons who can depress the tongue readily the tip of the EPIGLOTTIS may be seen projecting upwards at its hinder part.

Structure The substance of the tongue consists almost entirely of muscles running in various directions. The tongue also has numerous outside attachments: one muscle on each side unites it to the lower jaw-bone just behind the chin, and this muscle serves to protrude the tongue from the mouth; other muscles, which retract the tongue, attach it to the hyoid bone, the larynx, the PALATE, and the styloid process on the base of the SKULL.

The mucous membrane on the undersurface of the tongue is very thin. In the middle line, a fold of mucous membrane, the frenum, passes from the under-surface to the ?oor of the mouth; when this frenum is attached too far forwards towards the tip of the tongue, the movements of the organ are impeded – the condition being known as tongue-tie. On the upper surface or dorsum of the tongue, the mucous membrane is thicker, and in its front two-thirds is studded with projections or papillae, most of which are conical. Some of them end in long ?laments, and are then known as ?liform papillae. On the tip, and towards the edges of the tongue, small, red, rounded fungiform papillae are seen, which act as end-organs for the sense of taste – as do circumvallate papillae, each of which is surrounded by a trench along which open numerous taste-buds. These taste-buds are also found in the fungiform papillae, scattered over

the throat, FAUCES, and palate. Five nerves, originating from the ?fth, seventh, ninth, tenth and 12th cervical nerves supply the tongue.... tongue


Tonsillitis is the in?ammation of the TONSILS. The disorder may be the precurosor of a virus-induced infection of the upper respiratory tract such as the COMMON COLD, INFLUENZA or infectious MONONUCLEOSIS, in which case the in?ammation usually subsides as other symptoms develop. Such virus-induced tonsillitis does not respond to treatment with antibiotics. This section describes tonsillitis caused by bacterial infection.

Acute tonsillitis The infection is never entirely con?ned to the tonsils; there is always some involvement of the surrounding throat or pharynx. The converse is true that in many cases of ‘sore throat’, the tonsils are involved in the generalised in?ammation of the throat.

Causes Most commonly caused by the ?haemolytic STREPTOCOCCUS, its incidence is highest in the winter months. In the developing world it may be the presenting feature of DIPHTHERIA, a disease now virtually non-existant in the West since the introduction of IMMUNISATION.

Symptoms The onset is usually fairly sudden with pain on swallowing, fever and malaise. On examination, the tonsils are engorged and covered with a whitish discharge (PUS). This may occur at scattered areas over the tonsillar crypts (follicular tonsillitis), or it may be more extensive. The glands under the jaw are enlarged and tender, and there may be pain in the ear on the affected side: although usually referred pain, this may indicate spread of the infection up the Eustachian tube to the ear, particularly in children. Occasionally an ABSCESS, or quinsy, develops around the affected tonsil. Due to a collection of pus, it usually comes on four to ?ve days after the onset of the disease, and requires specialist surgical treatment.

Treatment Most cases need no treatment. Therefore, it is advisable to take a throat swab to assess the nature of any bacterial treatment before starting treatment. Penicillin or erythromycin are the drugs of choice where betahaemolytic streptococci are isolated, together with paracetamol or aspirin, and plenty of ?uids. Removal of tonsils is indicated: when the tonsils and adenoids are permanently so enlarged as to interfere with breathing (in such cases the adenoids are removed as well as the tonsils); when the individual is subject to recurrent attacks of acute tonsillitis which are causing signi?cant debility, absence from school or work on a regular basis (more than four times a year); when there is evidence of a tumour of the tonsil. Recurrent sore throat is not an indication for removing tonsils.... tonsillitis


See TEETH.... tooth


The name given to urate-based deposits which form in connection with joints or tendon sheaths as the result of attacks of GOUT. At ?rst the tophus is a soft mass, but later becomes quite hard. It is composed of biurate of soda.... tophus


Pertaining to drugs or other treatment applied locally to the area being treated – e.g. the skin, eye, etc.... topical


Twisting. The term is applied to the process in which organs, or tumours, which are attached to the rest of the body by a narrow neck or pedicle, become twisted so as to narrow the blood vessels or other structures in the pedicle. (See TESTICLE, DISEASES OF.)

Torsion is also the term applied to the twisting of the small arteries severed at an operation, by which bleeding from them is stopped.... torsion


This is shortness of the sternomastoid muscle on one side, resulting in asymmetry and limitation of movement of the neck. (See SPASMODIC TORTICOLLIS; WRY-NECK.)... torticollis


The ability to cause ill effects. Poisoning.... toxicity


The science dealing with POISONS.... toxicology

Toxic Shock Syndrome

First described in 1978, this disorder is characterised by high fever, diarrhoea, SHOCK and a rash. It is frequently associated with the use of tampons (see TAMPON), but has occasionally been reported in men. The syndrome may also be linked to the use of contraceptives such as the diaphragm, cap and sponge (see under CONTRACEPTION), and skin wounds or infections may also be a cause. The disease is due to a staphylococcal toxin (see STAPHYLOCOCCUS; TOXINS). Treatment consists of supportive measures to combat shock and eradication of the staphylococcus by ANTIBIOTICS. The design of tampons has been improved. Recurrence of the disorder has been reported and women who have had an episode should stop using tampons and vaginal contraceptives.... toxic shock syndrome


A disease acquired by swallowing the ova (eggs) of a roundworm which lives in the intestine of cats (Toxocara cati) or dogs (Toxocara canis). In humans, the small larval worms produced by these ova migrate to various parts of the body, including the retina of the EYE, where they then die, producing a small GRANULOMA which in turn may produce allergic reactions. In the eye it may cause choroidretinitis. It is said that 2 per cent of apparently healthy people in Britain have been infected in this way. A course of treatment with thiabendazole is recommended, though the drug has side-effects and should be used with caution in the elderly.... toxocariasis


A toxin (see TOXINS) which has been rendered non-toxic by certain chemicals, or by heat, or by being partly neutralised by antitoxin. The best-known example is DIPHTHERIA toxoid. (See also IMMUNITY.)... toxoid


A compound introduced into the body, the progress of which can subsequently be followed and information obtained about the body’s metabolic activities. Radioactive tracers are compounds labelled with RADIONUCLIDE which give o? radiation. This can be measured with a gamma camera or a scintigram. The information is used in the investigation of suspected tumours in the BRAIN or malfunctioning of the THYROID GLAND.... tracer


In?ammation of the TRACHEA. It may occur along with BRONCHITIS, or independently, due to similar causes. Usually a viral condition, treatment may be unnecessary (see CROUP). A rare condition, bacterial tracheitis, is more dangerous as the patient produces large amount of thick, sticky SPUTUM which may block the airway causing respiratory failure and collapse. Treatment is by insertion of an endotracheal tube under general anaesthesia (see ENDOTRACHEAL INTUBATION), removing the secretions and using high-dose antibiotics.... tracheitis


The application of a pulling force to the distal part of a fracture in order to allow the fracture to heal with the bone in correct alignment. There are many di?erent methods for applying traction, usually involving weights and pulleys.... traction


A profound SLEEP from which a person cannot for a time be aroused, but which is not due to organic disease. The power of voluntary movement is lost, although sensibility and even consciousness may remain. It is a disturbance in mental functions and may be associated with CATALEPSY, AUTOMATISM and petit mal EPILEPSY. A trance may be induced by HYPNOTISM. (See also ECSTASY).... trance


Also known as tracheotomy. The operation in which the TRACHEA or windpipe is opened from the front of the neck, so that air may be directly drawn or passed into the lower AIR PASSAGES. The opening is made through the second and third rings of the trachea.

Reasons for operation The cause of laryngeal obstruction should be treated but, if obstruction is acute and endangering the patient’s life, urgent intervention is necessary. In most cases the insertion of an endotracheal tube either through the nose or mouth and down the pharynx through the larynx to bypass the obstruction is e?ective (see ENDOTRACHEAL INTUBATION). If not, tracheostomy is performed. The majority of tracheostomies performed nowadays are for patients in intensive-therapy-unit situations. These patients require airway intervention for prolonged periods to facilitate arti?cial ventilation which is performed by means of a mechanical ventilator. The presence of a tube passing through the larynx for a prolonged period of time is associated with long-term damage to the larynx, and therefore any patients requiring prolonged intubation usually undergo a tracheostomy to prevent further damage. Endotracheal intubation is also the preferred method of airway-intervention for acute in?ammatory disorders of the upper airway (as opposed to tracheostomy); tracheostomy in these cases is performed only in the emergency situation if facilities for endotracheal intubation are not available or if they are unsuccessful. Tracheostomy may also be performed for large tumours which obstruct the larynx until some form of treatment is instituted. Similarly it may be needed in conditions whereby the nerve supply to the larynx has been jeopardised, impairing its protective function of the upper airway and its respiratory function.

Tracheostomy tubes When the trachea has been opened – by an incision through the skin between the Adam’s apple and the clavicles; another through the THYROID GLAND followed by a small vertical incision in the trachea

– a metal or plastic tube is inserted to maintain the opening. There is always an outer tube which is ?xed in position by tapes passing round the neck, and an inner tube which slides freely out of and into the other, so that it may be removed at any time for cleansing, and is readily coughed-out should it happen to become blocked by mucus.

After-treatment When the operation has been performed for some permanent obstruction, the tube must be worn permanently; and the double metal tube is in such cases replaced after a short time by a soft plastic single one. When the operation has relieved some obstruction caused, say, by diphtheria, the tube is left out now and then for a few hours, and ?nally, at the end of a week or so, is removed altogether, after which the wound quickly heals up.... tracheostomy

Tranexamic Acid

A drug used in the control of bleeding. It inhibits the activation of PLASMINOGEN and FIBRINOLYSIS, and may be useful when bleeding cannot be stopped – for instance, dental extraction in HAEMOPHILIA. The drug is also useful in MENORRHAGIA.... tranexamic acid


The term used to describe an exchange of genetic material between CHROMOSOMES. It is an important factor in the etiology, or causation, of certain congenital abnormalities such as, for example, DOWN’S (DOWN) SYNDROME. It is one of the main abnormalities sought for in AMNIOSCOPY.... translocation


One of the monoamine oxidase inhibitor ANTIDEPRESSANT DRUGS.... tranylcypromine


The administration of any ?uid into a person’s vein using a drip. This apparatus facilitates a continuous injection in which the ?uid ?ows by force of gravity from a suspended bottle, via a tube that is ?xed to a hollow needle inserted into a vein (usually in the front of the elbow). Saline solution, PLASMA and whole BLOOD (see below) are the most commonly administered ?uids. Saline is used to restore ?uid to a seriously dehydrated individual (see DEHYDRATION) and may be used as a temporary measure in SHOCK due to blood loss while the appropriate type of blood is being obtained for transfusion. Saline may also be useful as a way of administering a regular supply of a drug over a period of time. Plasma is normally used as a temporary measure in the treatment of shock until appropriately matched blood is available or if for any reason, such as for a patient with severe burns, plasma is preferable to blood.

Transfusion of blood is a technique that has been used since the 17th century – although, until the 20th century, with a subsequent high mortality rate. It was only when incompatibility of BLOOD GROUPS was considered as a potential cause of this high mortality that routine blood-testing became standard practice. Since the National Blood Transfusion Service was started in the United Kingdom (in 1946), blood for transfusion has been collected from voluntary, unpaid donors: this is screened for infections such as SYPHILIS, HIV, HEPATITIS and nvCJD (see CREUTZFELDT-JAKOB DISEASE (CJD)), sorted by group, and stored in blood-banks throughout the country.

In the UK in 2004, the National Blood Authority – today’s transfusion service – announced that it would no longer accept donations from anyone who had received a blood transfusion since 1980 – because of the remote possibility that they might have been infected with the PRION which causes nvCJD.

A standard transfusion bottle has been developed, and whole blood may be stored at 2–6 °C for three weeks before use. Transfusions may then be given of whole blood, plasma, blood cells, or PLATELETS, as appropriate. Stored in the dried form at 4–21 °C, away from direct sunlight, human plasma is stable for ?ve years and is easily reconstituted by adding sterile distilled water.

The National Blood Authority prepares several components from each donated unit of blood: whole blood is rarely used in adults. This permits each product, whether plasma or various red-cell concentrates, to be stored under ideal conditions and used in appropriate clinical circumstances – say, to restore blood loss or to treat haemostatic disorders.

Transfusion of blood products can cause complications. Around 5 per cent of transfused patients suffer from a reaction; most are mild, but they can be severe and occasionally fatal. It can be di?cult to distinguish a transfusion reaction from symptoms of the condition being treated, but the safe course is to stop the transfusion and start appropriate investigation.

In the developed world, clinicians can expect to have access to high-quality blood products, with the responsibility of providing blood resting with a specially organised transfusion service. The cause of most fatal haemolytic transfusion reactions is a clerical error due to faulty labelling and/or failure to identify the recipient correctly. Hospitals should have a strict protocol to prevent such errors.

Arti?cial blood Transfusion with blood from donors is facing increasing problems. Demand is rising; suitable blood donors are becoming harder to attract; the processes of taking, storing and cross-matching donor blood are time-consuming and expensive; the shelf-life is six weeks; and the risk of adverse reactions or infection from transfused blood, although small, is always present. Arti?cial blood would largely overcome these drawbacks. Several companies in North America are now preparing this: one product uses puri?ed HAEMOGLOBIN from humans and another from cows. These provide oxygen-carrying capacity, are unlikely to be infectious and do not provoke immunological rejections. Yet another product, called Oxygene®, does not contain any animal or human blood products; it comprises salt water and a substance called per?ubron, the molecules of which store oxygen and absorb carbon dioxide more e?ectively than does haemoglobin. Within 24 hours of being transfused into a person’s bloodstream, per?ubron evaporates and is harmlessly breathed out by the recipient. Arti?cial blood is especially valuable in that it contains no unwanted proteins that can provoke adverse immunological reactions. Furthermore, it is disease-free, lasts for up to three years and is no more expensive than donor blood. It could well take the place of donor blood within a few years.

Autologous transfusion is the use of an individual’s own blood, provided in advance, for transfusion during or after a surgical operation. This is a valuable procedure for operations that may require large transfusions or where a person has a rare blood group. Its use has increased for several reasons:

fear of infection such as HIV and hepatitis.

shortages of donor blood and the rising cost of units of blood.

substantial reduction of risk of incompatible transfusions. In practice, blood transfusion in the UK is

remarkably safe, but there is always room for improvement. So, in the 1990s, a UK inquiry on the Serious Hazards of Transfusion (SHOT) was launched. It established (1998) that of 169 recently reported serious hazards following blood transfusion, 81 had involved a blood component being given to the wrong patient, while only eight were the result of viral or bacterial infections.

There are three ways to use a patient’s own blood in transfusion:

(1) predeposit autologous donation (PAD) – taking blood from a patient before operation and transfusing this blood back into the patient as required during and after operation.

(2) acute normovalaemic haemodilution (ANH) – diluting previously withdrawn blood and thus increasing the volume before transfusion.

(3) perioperative cell salvage (PCS) – the use of centrifugal cell separation on blood saved during an operation, particularly spinal surgery where blood loss may be considerable.

The government has urged NHS trusts to consider the introduction of PCS as a possible adjunct or alternative to banked-blood transfusion. In one centre (Nottingham), PCS has been used in the form of continuous autologous transfusion for several years with success.

Exchange transfusion is the method of treatment in severe cases of HAEMOLYTIC DISEASE OF THE NEWBORN. It consists of replacing the whole of the baby’s blood with Rh-negative blood of the correct blood group for the baby.... transfusion


Branch of SURGERY specialising in the treatment of wounds and disabilities arising from injuries.... traumatology

Travel Sickness

Sickness induced by any form of transport, whether by sea, air, motor-car or train. (See also MOTION (TRAVEL) SICKNESS.)

Traveller’s diarrhoea is an all-toocommon a?iction of the traveller, which basks in a multiplicity of names: for example, Aden gut, Aztec two-step, Basra belly, Delhi belly, Gippy tummy, Hong Kong dog, Montezuma’s revenge, Tokyo trots, turista. It is caused by a variety of micro-organisms, usually E. coli. Some people seem to be more prone to it than others, although for no good cause. Obvious preventive measures include the avoidance of salads, unpeeled fruit and ice cream, and never drinking unboiled or unbottled water. If diarrhoea occurs, co-phenotrope and loperamide are often used to reduce the frequency of bowel movements in adults. Prophylactic antibacterial drugs are not advisable.... travel sickness

Trench Fever

An infectious disease caused by Rickettsia quintana which is transmitted by the body louse. Large epidemics occurred among troops on active service during World War I. It recurred on a smaller scale in World War II, but is now rare.... trench fever


A ?ne involuntary movement. Tremors may be seen in projecting parts like the hands, head and tongue, or they may involve muscles. Coarse tremors, which prevent a person from drinking a glass of water without spilling it, are found in MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS (MS) and in CHOREA; somewhat ?ner tremors, which produce trembling of the hands or tongue when they are stretched out, are caused by alcoholism (see ALCOHOL) and other forms of poisoning, by PARKINSONISM, and by the weakness which follows some acute disease or characterises old age. A ?ne tremor of the outstretched ?ngers is a characteristic of thyrotoxicosis (see under THYROID GLAND, DISEASES OF); very ?ne tremors, visible in the muscles of face or limbs and known as ?brillary tremors, are present in general paralysis of the insane (see SYPHILIS), and in progressive muscular atrophy or wasting palsy. Tremors may occur at rest and disappear on movement as in Parkinsonism, or they may occur only on movement (intention tremors) as in cerebellar disease.... tremor

Trench Foot

This is due to prolonged exposure of the feet to water – particularly cold water. Trench warfare is a common precipitating factor, and the condition was rampant during World War I. Cases also occurred during World War II and during the Falklands campaign. (The less common form, due to warm-water immersion, occurred with some frequency in the Vietnam war.) It is characterised by painful swelling of the feet accompanied in due course by blistering and ulceration which, in severe, untreated cases, may progress to GANGRENE. In mild cases recovery may be complete in a month, but severe cases may drag on for a year. (See also IMMERSION FOOT.)

Treatment Drying of the feet overnight, where practicable, is the best method of prevention, accompanied by avoidance of constrictive clothing and tight boots, and of prolonged immobility. Frequent rest periods and daily changing of socks also help. The application of silicone grease once a day is another useful preventive measure. In the early stages, treatment consists of rest in bed and warmth; in more severe cases treatment is as for infected tissues and ulceration. ANALGESICS are usually necessary to ease the pain. Technically, smoking should be forbidden, but the adverse psychological effects of this in troops on active service may outweigh its advantages.... trench foot


One of the CORTICOSTEROIDS with a potency equivalent to that of PREDNISONE, but less likely to cause retention of sodium. It is used for the suppression of in?ammatory and allergic disorders, and is used particularly for treating the skin and joints by local injection.... triamcinolone


A condition in which the eyelashes become ingrown. (See EYE, DISORDERS OF.)... trichiasis


The disease caused by infection with TRICHOMONAS VAGINALIS.... trichomoniasis


An obsessional impulse to pull out one’s own hair.... trichotillomania


Trichinosis, or trichiniasis, is a disease caused by eating meat infected with the parasitic nematode worm, Trichinella spiralis. Although it infects more than 100 animal species, this nematode usually infects humans via pig meat in which the immature spiralis is encysted. The full-grown female worm, which inhabits the intestine, is 3 mm in length, and the larvae, to whose movements the disease is due, are much smaller. The disease is acquired by eating raw or underdone pork from pigs that have been infected with the worm. When such a piece of meat is eaten, the embryos contained in it are set free and develop into full-grown trichinellae; from each pair of these, 1,000 or more new embryos may arise in a few weeks. These burrow through the walls of the gut, spread throughout the body and settle in voluntary muscle.

Prevention is based on thorough inspection of meat in slaughterhouses; even cooking, unless the meat is in slices, is not an e?cient protection. Pigs should not be fed on unboiled garbage. Rats may be a source of sporadic outbreaks, as infected rats have been found near piggeries. The disease is widely distributed throughout the Americas, Asia, Africa and the Arctic. Sporadic cases and epidemics occur and outbreaks also appear in Europe, although rarely in Britain.

Treatment Thiabendazole or mebendazole are usually e?ective, while STEROID treatment helps patients with systemic illness and muscle tenderness.... trichinosis

Tricuspid Valve

The valve, with three cusps or ?aps, that guards the opening from the right atrium into the right ventricle of the HEART.... tricuspid valve

Trigger Finger

Also called snapping ?nger. This is the condition in which, when the ?ngers are straightened on unclenching the ?st, one ?nger – usually the ring or middle ?nger – remains bent. The cause is obscure. In severe cases treatment consists of opening up the sheath surrounding the tendon of the affected ?nger. When con?ned to the thumb, the condition is known as trigger thumb.... trigger finger


A LIPID or neutral FAT comprising GLYCEROL and three fatty-acid molecules. Triglycerides are manufactured in the body from the digested products of fat in the diet. Fats are stored in the body as triglycerides.... triglyceride


This is the triangular basement muscle of the urinary bladder. It differs in structure and nerves from the top of the bladder, the detrusor muscle, which expands as the bladder fills, and contracts during urination under parasympathetic nerve stimulus. The trigone does not expand, is under sympathetic nerve stimulus, and supplies the rigidity and sphincter support for the urethra in front and the ureters in back.... trigone


Trimethoprim is an antibacterial agent used in the treatment of infections of the URINARY TRACT. It is also a constituent of COTRIMOXAZOLE – a combination that should be used with caution as it can damage kidney function. Trimethoprim is also used to treat acute and chronic BRONCHITIS.... trimethoprim


One of the TRICYCLIC ANTIDEPRESSANT DRUGS which also acts as a sedative.... trimipramine


A worldwide infection, particularly common in the tropics. It is caused by Trichuris trichiura, or whipworm, so-called because of its shape – the rear end being stout and the front end hair-like, resembling the lash of a whip. The male measures 5 cm and the female 4 cm in length. Infection results from eating vegetables, or drinking water, polluted with the ova (eggs). These hatch out in the large INTESTINE and the diagnosis is made by ?nding the eggs in the stools (FAECES). The worms seldom cause any trouble unless they are present in large numbers when, especially in malnourished children, they may cause bleeding from the bowels, ANAEMIA and PROLAPSE of the RECTUM. The most e?ective drug is MEBENDAZOLE.... trichuriasis

Trigeminal Nerve

The ?fth cranial nerve (arising from the BRAIN). It consists of three divisions: (1) the ophthalmic nerve, which is purely sensory in function, being distributed mainly over the forehead and front part of the scalp; (2) the maxillary nerve, which is also sensory and distributed to the skin of the cheek, the mucous membrane of the mouth and throat, and the upper teeth; and (3) the mandibular nerve, which is the nerve of sensation to the lower part of the face, the tongue and the lower teeth, as well as being the motor nerve to the muscles concerned in chewing. The trigeminal nerve is of special interest, owing to its liability to NEURALGIA – TRIGEMINAL NEURALGIA, or tic douloureux as it is also known, being the most painful form known.... trigeminal nerve


Another name for TETANUS.... trismus

Trochlear Nerve

The fourth cranial nerve (arising from the BRAIN), which acts upon the superior oblique muscle of the EYE.... trochlear nerve

Tropical Medicine

In simple terms, tropical medicine is the medicine practised in the tropics. It arose as a discipline in the 19th century when physicians responsible for the health of colonists and soldiers from the dominant, European countries were faced with diseases not encountered in temperate climates. With extensive worldwide travel possible today, tropical diseases are now being widely seen in returning travellers and expatriates.... tropical medicine


A major vessel or nerve from which lesser ones arise; or the main part of the body excluding the head, neck and limbs.... trunk


A device used to support a HERNIA; or to retain the protruding organ within the cavity from which it tends to pass. Every truss possesses a pad of some sort to cover the opening and a belt or spring to keep it in position.

Before applying a truss the wearer must make certain that the hernia has been reduced; this may mean lying down beforehand. A truss will rarely control a hernia satisfactorily, and it should be considered as a temporary measure only until surgical correction is possible. In the past, trusses have been supplied to patients considered too frail for surgery, but modern anaes-thetic techniques mean that most people can have their hernias surgically repaired.... truss

Tubal Pregnancy

Also known as ECTOPIC PREGNANCY. Implantation of the EMBRYO in one of the FALLOPIAN TUBES, rather than in the lining of the UTERUS. The patient usually complains of pain between six and ten weeks’ gestation and, if the Fallopian tube is not removed, there may be rupture with potentially life-threatening haemorrhage.... tubal pregnancy


A fleshy, underground part of a stem or root. Example: potato, Paeonia.... tuber


The term is used in two distinct senses. As a descriptive term in anatomy, a tubercle means a small elevation or roughness upon a BONE, such as the tubercles of the ribs. In the pathological sense, a tubercle is a small mass, barely visible to the naked eye, formed in some organ as the starting-point of TUBERCULOSIS. The name of tubercle bacillus was originally given to the micro-organism that causes this disease, but was subsequently changed to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The term ‘tubercular’ should strictly be applied to anything connected with or resembling tubercles or nodules, and the term ‘tuberculous’ to anything pertaining to the disease tuberculosis.... tubercle


Tuberculosis results form infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The lungs are the site most often affected, but most organs in the body can be involved in tuberculosis. The other common sites are LYMPH NODES, bones, gastrointestinal tract, kidneys, skin and MENINGES.

The weight loss and wasting associated with tuberculosis before treatment was available led to the disease’s popular name of consumption. Enlargement of the glands in the neck, formerly called scrofula, was known also as the ‘king’s evil’ from the supersition that a touch of the royal hand could cure the condition. Lupus vulgaris (see under LUPUS) is another of the skin manifestations of the disease.

The typical pathological change in tuberculosis involves the formation of clusters of cells called granulomas (see GRANULOMA) with death of the cells in the centre producing CASEATION.

It is estimated that there are 7–8 million new cases of tuberculosis worldwide each year, with 2–3 million deaths. The incidence of tuberculosis in developed countries has shown a steady decline throughout the 20th century, mainly as a result of improved nutrition and social conditions and accelerated by the development of antituberculous chemotherapy in the 1940s. Since the mid-1980s the decline has stopped, and incidence has even started to rise again in inner-city areas. In 2002, 7,239 cases of tuberculosis were noti?ed in the UK compared with 6,442 a decade earlier; more than 390 deaths in 2003 were attributed to the disease. Factors involved in this rise are immigration from higher-prevalence areas, poorer social conditions and homelessness in some urban centres and the association with HIV infection and drug abuse. The incidence of tuberculosis is also rising in many developing countries because of the emergence of resistant strains of the tubercle bacillus (see below). In the UK recently there have been serious outbreaks in a handful of urban-based schools.... tuberculosis

Tuberous Sclerosis

Also called epiloia: a rare inherited disease transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait. EPILEPSY in childhood is often the ?rst manifestation (see INFANTILE SPASMS), although ovoid hypopigmented macules (‘ash leaf patches’) in the skin may be detected in infancy. Later an ACNE-like eruption of the face (adenoma sebaceum), ?brous outgrowths around the nails and ?brous plaques on the lower back (shagreen patch) can all occur. Half of those affected have learning diffculties and behaviour problems, and autistic symptoms may occur (see AUTISM).

Characteristic white streaks appear on the optic fundi (see EYE). Molecular genetic testing can identify up to 90 per cent of individuals with a tuberin gene. Genetic counselling of families is helpful. Relatives of those with this condition can obtain help and guidance from the Tuberous Sclerosis Association of Great Britain.... tuberous sclerosis



Tympanic Membrane

The ear-drum, which separates the external and middle ear. (See EAR.)... tympanic membrane

Typhoid Fever

See ENTERIC FEVER.... typhoid fever


A louse-borne febrile illness of humans caused by Rickettsia prowazekii, A similar but milder zoonotic illness is murine typhus, caused by R. typhi harboured by rodents and transmitted by the tropical rat flea, Xenopsylla. The so-called tick typhus group of diseases are better called spotted fevers.... typhus

Wisdom Tooth

A popular name for the last molar tooth on either side of each jaw (see TEETH). These teeth are the last to appear and should develop in early adult life, but often they do not cut the gum till the age of 20 or 25; indeed, they may sometimes remain permanently impacted in the jaw-bone. This occurs in up to 25 per cent of individuals. The lower third molar is often impacted against the second because of the direction in which it erupts.... wisdom tooth

Hormone Replacement Therapy (hrt)

Within a few years medical scientists have introduced into the domestic scene a steroid which has changed the whole course of female history. HRT has solved some basic medical problems by making good the loss of oestrogen in a woman’s body when menstruation is finished and her body learns to adjust.

A lack of oestrogen induces hot flushes, night sweats, thinning of the bones (osteoporosis) with possible fractures, and a wide range of physical and emotional disorders.

HRT also prevents the increased frequency of coronary disease which may follow the menopause. With oestrogen only, HRT appears to increase the incidence of cancer of the uterine body. Use of oestrogen and progestogen avoids this.

HRT is available as a tablet, transdermal patch, implant or topical cream. Most women notice temporary improvement in their appearance and hot flushes as long as treatment is continued. HRT is not prescribed by the herbal practitioner. Soya and Hops are a mild alternative.

Side-effects of such treatment include blood pressure rise, weight gain and periods probably continue with a monthly bleed. Elderly women taking HRT for osteoporosis may develop bleeding problems, the risk of blood clot and gall bladder diseases.

Helonias has proved a useful alternative, effective in eliminating excess fluids, reducing hot flushes, and relieving that bloated feeling, thus helping the older woman to live a normal life.

Damiana. 1 heaped teaspoon leaves to each cup boiling water; infuse 5-10 minutes; strain. 1 cup 2-3 times daily for 3-6 weeks.

Sarsaparilla. 1oz (30g) root in 1 pint (500ml) water; simmer gently 20 minutes; strain. 1 cup 2-3 times daily for 3-6 weeks.

Supplementation. Daily. Vitamin E, 400iu. Vitamin B-complex (high potency). Evening Primrose oil capsules, 500mg morning and evening. Dolomite, for Calcium and Magnesium, 2 tablets morning and evening.

Note: An extensive study of breast cancer risks with HRT revealed a positive link between the risk of cancer and length of use. Risk of the disease increased with all types of women using HRT with every year of use. Pre-menstrual women were more than twice at risk. It would appear that oestrogens cannot be taken without risk. (Centre for Disease Control, Atlanta, USA) See: OESTROGENS. ... hormone replacement therapy (hrt)

Achilles Tendon

A thick tendon that joins the calf muscles to the heel bone (calcaneus) and pulls up that bone. The tendon is prone to rupture in middle-aged people playing vigorous sports such as squash or tennis. Named after the classical Greek hero Achilles, who was reputedly vulnerable to his enemies only in his heel.... achilles tendon

Aseptic Technique

Not septic; free from septic material technique.... aseptic technique

Aversion Therapy

A form of psychological treatment in which such an unpleasant response is induced to his or her psychological aberration that the patient decides to give it up. Thus the victim of alcoholism is given a drug that makes the subsequent drinking of alcoholic liquors so unpleasant, by inducing nausea and vomiting, that he or she decides to give up drinking. (See ALCOHOL; DISULFIRAM.) Aversion therapy may help in the treatment of alcoholism, drug addiction, sexual deviations such as transvestism, and compulsive gambling.... aversion therapy

Blood Test

Removal of venous, capillary or arterial blood for haematological, microbiological or biochemical laboratory investigations.... blood test

Bone Marrow Transplant

The procedure by which malignant or defective bone marrow in a patient is replaced with normal bone marrow. Sometimes the patient’s own marrow is used (when the disease is in remission); after storage using tissue-freezing technique (cryopreservation) it is reinfused into the patient once the diseased marrow has been treated (autologous transplant). More commonly, a transplant uses marrow from a donor whose tissue has been matched for compatibility. The recipient’s marrow is destroyed with CYTOTOXIC drugs before transfusion. The recipient is initially nursed in an isolated environment to reduce the risk of infection.

Disorders that can be helped or even cured include certain types of LEUKAEMIA and many inherited disorders of the immune system (see IMMUNITY).... bone marrow transplant

Caloric Test

A test for vestibular function (see EAR). It is performed by irrigating the external auditory meatus of the ear with alternate cold and hot water. This usually stimulates the vestibular apparatus, causing nystagmus (see DIABETES MELLITUS – Diabetic eye disease). If the vestibular apparatus is affected by disease, the response may be absent or reduced.... caloric test

Cardiac Tamponade

Compression of the heart due to abnormal accumulation of ?uid within the ?brous covering of the heart (PERICARDIUM). The result is irregular rhythm and death if the ?uid is not removed.... cardiac tamponade

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

A condition characterised by attacks of pain and tingling in the ?rst three or four ?ngers of one or both hands. The attacks usually occur at night. Carpal tunnel syndrome is caused by pressure on the median nerve as it passes under the strong ligament that lies across the front of the wrist. The condition may respond to use of a night splint on the hand; otherwise a corticosteroid injection under the ligament may help. If not, pressure is relieved by surgical division of the compressing ligament.... carpal tunnel syndrome

Clotting Time

See COAGULATION.... clotting time

Conservative Treatment

Medical treatment which involves the minimum of active interference by the practitioner. For example, a disc lesion in the back might be treated by bed rest in contrast to surgical intervention to remove the damaged disc.... conservative treatment

Coomb’s Test

A sensitive test that detects ANTIBODIES to the body’s red cells (see ERYTHROCYTE). There are two methods: one – the direct method – identi?es those antibodies that are bound to the cells; the other, indirect, method identi?es those circulating unattached in the serum.... coomb’s test

Computed Tomography

Tomography is an X-ray examination technique in which only structures in a particular plane produce clearly focused images. Whole-body computed tomography was introduced in 1977 and has already made a major impact in the investigation and management of medical and surgical disease. The technique is particularly valuable where a mass distorts the contour of an organ (e.g. a pancreatic tumour – see PANCREAS, DISORDERS OF) or where a lesion has a density di?erent from that of surrounding tissue (e.g. a metastasis in the LIVER).

Computed tomography can distinguish soft tissues from cysts or fat, but in general soft-tissue masses have similar appearances, so that distinguishing an in?ammatory mass from a malignant process may be impossible. The technique is particularly useful in patients with suspected malignancy; it can also de?ne the extent of the cancer by detecting enlarged lymph nodes, indicating lymphatic spread. The main indications for computed tomography of the body are: mediastinal masses, suspected pulmonary metastases, adrenal disease, pancreatic masses, retroperitoneal lymph nodes, intra-abdominal abscesses, orbital tumours and the staging of cancer as a guide to e?ective treatment.... computed tomography

Conjoined Twins

Identical twins who are united bodily but are possessed of separate personalities. Their frequency is not known, but it has been estimated that throughout the world, six or more conjoined twins are born every year who are capable of separation. The earliest case on record is that of the ‘Biddendon Maids’ who were born in England in 1100. The ‘Scottish Brothers’ lived for 28 years at the court of James III of Scotland. Perhaps the most famous conjoined twins, however, were Chang and Eng, who were born of Chinese parents in Siam in 1811. It was they who were responsible for the introduction of the term, ‘Siamese twins’, which still remains the popular name for ‘conjoined twins’. They were joined together at the lower end of the chest bone, and achieved fame by being shown in Barnum’s circus in the United States. They subsequently married English sisters and settled as farmers in North Carolina. They died in 1874.

The earliest attempt at surgical separation is said to have been made by Dr Farius of Basle in 1689. The ?rst successful separation in Great Britain was in 1912: both twins survived the operation and one survived well into adult life. This is said to be the ?rst occasion on which both twins survived the operation. The success of the operation is largely dependent upon the degree of union between the twins. Thus, if this is only skin, subcutaneous tissue and cartilage, the prospects of survival for both twins are good; but if some vital organ such as the liver is shared, the operation is much more hazardous. (See MULTIPLE BIRTHS.)... conjoined twins

Dick Test

Skin test used to determine the immune s tatus to scarlet fever.... dick test

Dizygotic Twins

Two people born at the same time to the same parents after fertilisation of two separate oöcytes (see OÖCYTE). They may be of di?erent sexes and are no more likely to resemble each other than any other sibling pairs.... dizygotic twins

Elastic Tissue

CONNECTIVE TISSUE which contains a profusion of yellow elastic ?bres. Long, slender and branching, these ?bres (made up of elastin, an albumin-like PROTEIN) ensure that the elastic tissue is ?exible and stretchable. The dermis layer of the skin, arterial walls and the alveolar walls in the LUNGS all contain elastic tissue.... elastic tissue

Fallopian Tubes

Tubes, one on each side, lying in the pelvic area of the abdomen, which are attached at one end to the UTERUS, and have the other unattached but lying close to the ovary (see OVARIES). Each is 10–12·5 cm (4–5 inches) long, large at the end next to the ovary, but communicating with the womb by an opening which admits only a bristle. These tubes conduct the ova (see OVUM) from the ovaries to the interior of the womb. Blockage of the Fallopian tubes by a chronic in?ammatory process resulting from infection is a not uncommon cause of infertility in women. (See ECTOPIC PREGNANCY; REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM.)... fallopian tubes

Fetal Transplant

A procedure in which cells – for example, from the pancreas – are taken from an aborted FETUS and then transplanted into the malfunctioning organ (pancreas) of an individual with a disorder of that organ (in this case, diabetes). The cells from the fetus are intended to take over the function of the host’s diseased or damaged cells. Fetal brain cells have also been transplanted into brains of people suffering from PARKINSONISM. These treatments are at an experimental stage.... fetal transplant

Gastrointestinal Tract

The passage along which the food passes, in which it is digested (see DIGESTION), and from which it is absorbed by lymphatics and blood vessels into the circulation. The tract consists of the mouth, pharynx or throat, oesophagus or gullet, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine, in this order. For details, see articles under these headings. The total length in humans is about 9 metres.... gastrointestinal tract

Glucose-tolerance Test

A way of assessing the body’s e?ciency at metabolising GLUCOSE. The test is used in the diagnosis of DIABETES MELLITUS. The patient is starved for up to 16 hours, after which he or she is fed glucose by mouth. The concentrations of glucose in the blood and urine are then measured at half-hour intervals over a period of two hours.... glucose-tolerance test

Embryo Transfer

Embryo transfer is the process whereby the initial stages of procreation are produced outside the human body and completed in the uterus or womb. The procedure is also known as ‘embryo transplantation’ and ‘in vitro fertilisation’ (IVF). It consists of extracting an ovum (or egg) from the prospective mother’s body and placing this in a dish where it is mixed with the male partner’s SEMEN and special nutrient ?uids. After the ovum is fertilised by the sperm it is transferred to another dish containing a special nutrient solution. Here it is left for several days while the normal early stages of development (see FETUS) take place. The early EMBRYO, as it has then become, is then implanted in the mother’s uterus, where it ‘takes root’ and develops as a normal fetus.

The ?rst ‘test-tube baby’ – to use the popular, and widely used, term for such a child – was born by CAESAREAN SECTION in England on 25 July 1978. Many other children conceived in this manner have since been born, and, though only 10 per cent of women conceive at the ?rst attempt, the overall success rate is improving. Embryo transplantation and research are controversial procedures and in many countries, including the UK, are controlled by legislation. Embryo transfer and research using embryos are regulated by the Human Fertilisation & Embryology Authority (see ASSISTED CONCEPTION; APPENDIX 7: STATUTORY ORGANISATIONS).... embryo transfer

Freudian Theory

A theory that emotional and allied diseases are due to a psychic injury or trauma, generally of a sexual nature, which did not produce an adequate reaction when it was received and therefore remains as a subconscious or ‘affect’ memory to trouble the patient’s mind. As an extension of this theory, Freudian treatment consists of encouraging the patient to tell everything that happens to be associated with trains of thought which lead up to this memory, thus securing a ‘purging’ of the mind from the original ‘affect memory’ which is the cause of the symptoms. This form of treatment is also called psychocatharsis or abreaction.

The general term, psychoanalysis, is applied, in the ?rst place, to the method of helping the patient to recover buried memories by free association of thoughts. In the second place, the term is applied to the body of psychological knowledge and theory accumulated and devised by Sigmund Freud (1856–1939) and his followers. The term ‘psychoanalyst’ has traditionally been applied to those who have undergone Freudian training, but Freud’s ideas are being increasingly questioned by some modern psychiatrists.... freudian theory


Chionanthus virginica. N.O. Oleaceae.

Synonym: Old Man's Beard, Snowdrop Tree.

Habitat: U.S.A

Features ? A small tree with snow-white flowers which hang down like fringe—hence the common name and synonyms. Root about one-eighth inch thick, dull brown with irregular concave scars on outer surface, inside smooth, yellowish-brown. Fracture short, inner layer shows projecting bundles of stone cells. Very bitter taste.

Part used ? Root bark.

Action: Alterative, hepatic, diuretic, tonic.

In stomach and liver disorders, and poor digestive functioning generally. Also finds a place in gall-stone prescriptions and those for certain female disorders, in which latter Pulsatilla is another frequent constituent. The 1 ounce to 1 pint infusion is taken internally in 1-4 tablespoonful doses, and is applied as lotion and injection.... fringe-tree

Gamete Intrafallopian Transfer (gift)

Another method of helping infertile couples. In over half of women diagnosed as infertile, the Fallopian tubes are normal, and in many it is unknown why they cannot conceive – although some have ENDOMETRIOSIS.

Eggs are obtained and mixed with the partner’s semen, then introduced into the woman’s Fallopian tubes for fertilisation to take place. The fertilised egg travels to the uterus where IMPLANTATION occurs and pregnancy proceeds. A variation of GIFT is zygote intrafallopian transfer (ZIFT) in which early development of the fertilised eggs happens in the laboratory before the young embryo is transferred to the Fallopian tubes. GIFT is best used in couples with unexplained infertility or with minor degrees of male or female cervical factor infertility. The success rate is about 17 per cent. (See also ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION.)... gamete intrafallopian transfer (gift)

Identical Twins

See MULTIPLE BIRTHS.... identical twins

Intelligence Test

A standardised procedure of mental assessment to determine an individual’s intellectual ability. The result is produced as a score termed the INTELLIGENCE QUOTIENT (IQ). The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) and one for children, the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WICS), are commonly used, as is the Stanford-Binet Scale. Assessments are made for educational purposes and to help in the diagnoses of people with possible mental retardation or intellectual deterioration.... intelligence test

Interdisciplinary Team

Consists of members who work together interdependently to develop goals and a common treatment plan, although they maintain distinct professional responsibilities and individual assignments. In contrast to multidisciplinary teams, leadership functions are shared.... interdisciplinary team

Holy Thistle

Carbenia benedicta. N.O. Compositae.

Synonym: Carduus benedictus, Blessed Thistle.

Features ? Thomas Johnson, in his edition of Gerard's Herbal, published in 1636, gives us the following description of this member of the familiar thistle family ? "The stalks of Carduus benedictus are round, rough and pliable, and being parted into diverse branches, do lie flat on the ground ; the leaves are jagged round about and full of

harmless prickles in the edges; the heads on the top of the stalks are set with and environed with sharp prickling leaves, out of which standeth a yellow flower; the seed is long and set with hairs at the top like a beard; the root is white and parted into strings; the whole herb, leaves and stalks, and also the heads, are covered with a thin down."

Action: Although more popular among the old herbalists than among those of to-day. Holy Thistle is still valued for its tonic, stimulant and diaphoretic properties.

Mainly used in digestive troubles, the 1 ounce to 1 pint infusion, given warm in wineglass doses several times daily, is also found capable of breaking up obstinate colds. As it is held to stimulate the mammary glands, the infusion has been given with the object of promoting the secretion of milk.

Tilke is enthusiastic in his praise of the herb ? "I have found it such a clarifier of the blood, that by drinking an infusion once or twice a day, sweeted with honey, instead of tea, it would be a perfect cure for the headache, or what is commonly called the meagrims." The same writer recommends it as a salad "instead of watercresses."

The medicinal use of Holy Thistle goes back far beyond the days of Tilke, or even Johnson. William Turner, Domestic Physician to the Lord Protector Somerset in the reign of King Edward VI, in his Herbal published 1568, agrees with Tilke that the herb is "very good for the headache and the megram."... holy thistle

Kveim Test

The characteristic histological test used for the diagnosis of SARCOIDOSIS. The test involves an intradermal injection of sarcoid SPLEEN tissue. If positive, non-caseating granulomata (see GRANULOMA) are seen at the injection site in 4– 6 weeks. A positive test is highly speci?c for sarcoid, but if negative, this would not be excluded.... kveim test


Also known as croup – see under LARYNX, DISORDERS OF.... laryngo-tracheo-bronchitis

Locum Tenens

A doctor who stands in for another.... locum tenens

Lymphoid Tissue

Tissue involved in the formation of LYMPH, lymphocytes (see LYMPHOCYTE), and ANTIBODIES. It consists of the LYMPH NODES, THYMUS GLAND, TONSILS and SPLEEN.... lymphoid tissue

Milk Thistle

When consumed as a tea, milk thistle herb, (not as in dairy milk) is a gentle liver cleanser. It contains properties that help the liver to regenerate and function at a higher capacity. “Milk Thistle can also assist in the production of bile, which can help with our digestive process.... milk thistle

Monozygotic Twins

Twins who develop from a single OVUM fertilised by a single SPERMATOZOON. Also known as identical or uniovular twins (see MULTIPLE BIRTHS).... monozygotic twins

Neural Tube

The structure in the EMBRYO from which the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD develop.... neural tube

Neural Tube Defects

Congenital abnormalities resulting from the failure of the NEURAL TUBE to form normally. The resulting conditions include SPINA BIFIDA, MENINGOCELE and defects in the bones of the SKULL.... neural tube defects

Oxygen Tent

A sheet of plastic put over a hospital bed with OXYGEN fed into it so that a patient can receive oxygen. Such treatment may be for a heart or lung condition in which the normal atmospheric concentration of oxygen is insu?cient to enable the person to oxygenate the blood ?owing through the lungs to a normal level, so extra oxygen is provided in the patient’s immediate surroundings.... oxygen tent

Papanicolaou Test

See CERVICAL SMEAR.... papanicolaou test

Percutaneous Transluminal Coronary Angioplasty

A treatment for a stenosed (restricted) coronary artery (see ARTERIES). A balloon-tipped catheter (see CATHETERS) is passed through an incision in the skin of the chest into the artery of the HEART that has developed stenosis (narrowing). The balloon is aligned with the stenosed section and then in?ated to dilate the coronary artery and allow the blood to ?ow more freely.... percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty

Photodynamic Therapy

This comprises a photosensitising agent (one activated by light), which accumulates in malignant tissue, and a source of light that activates the photosensitiser, triggering it to generate highly reactive oxygen compounds that destroy malignant cells. One such photosensitiser is temopor?n. Photodynamic therapy is used to treat various types of malignancy; a recognised complication is photosensitivity, when a patient may suffer burns after transient exposure to sunlight. Photodynamic therapy is increasingly used and photosensitivity reactions may also become more common.... photodynamic therapy

Primary Care Trust

See GENERAL PRACTITIONER (GP)... primary care trust

Pregnancy Tests

There are several tests for pregnancy (see PREGNANCY AND LABOUR) in its early stages, and these can be done on blood or urine; some of the urine tests may be carried out at home. Most tests are based on the detection of HUMAN CHORIONIC GONADOTROPHIN (HCG) in the woman’s urine. They are nearly 100 per cent accurate and may show positive as early as 30 days after the ?rst day of the last normal period.

The haemagglutination inhibition test This, and the subsequent tests to be mentioned, are known as immunological tests. They are based upon the e?ect of the urine from a pregnant woman upon the interaction of red blood cells, which have been sensitised to human gonadotrophin, and anti-gonadotrophin serum. They have the great practical advantage of being performed in a test-tube or even on a slide. Because of their ease and speed of performance, a result can be obtained in two hours.

Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) This is the basis of many of the pregnancy-testing kits obtainable from pharmacies. It is a highly sensitive antibody test and can detect very low concentrations of human chorionic gonadotrophin. Positive results show up as early as ten days after fertilisation – namely, four days before the ?rst missed period.

Ultrasound The fetal sac can be detected by ULTRASOUND from ?ve weeks, and a fetal echo at around six or seven weeks (see also PRENATAL SCREENING OR DIAGNOSIS).... pregnancy tests

Pulmonary Function Tests

Tests to assess how the LUNGS are functioning. They range from simple spirometry (measuring breathing capacity) to sophisticated physiological assessments.

Static lung volumes and capacities can be measured: these include vital capacity – the maximum volume of air that can be exhaled slowly and completely after a maximum deep breath; forced vital capacity is a similar manoeuvre using maximal forceful exhalation and can be measured along with expiratory ?ow rates using simple spirometry; total lung capacity is the total volume of air in the chest after a deep breath in; functional residual capacity is the volume of air in the lungs at the end of a normal expiration, with all respiratory muscles relaxed.

Dynamic lung volumes and ?ow rates re?ect the state of the airways. The forced expiratory volume (FEV) is the amount of air forcefully exhaled during the ?rst second after a full breath – it normally accounts for over 75 per cent of the vital capacity. Maximal voluntary ventilation is calculated by asking the patient to breathe as deeply and quickly as possible for 12 seconds; this test can be used to check the internal consistency of other tests and the extent of co-operation by the patient, important when assessing possible neuromuscular weakness affecting respiration. There are several other more sophisticated tests which may not be necessary when assessing most patients. Measurement of arterial blood gases is also an important part of any assessment of lung function.... pulmonary function tests

Relaxation Therapy

This is a treatment in which patients are helped to reduce their levels of anxiety by reducing their muscle tone. It can be used on its own or in conjunction with a broader PSYCHOTHERAPY regime. The technique guides people on how to cope with stressful situations and deal with phobias – see PHOBIA.... relaxation therapy

Renal Tubule

See KIDNEYS.... renal tubule

Reverse Transcriptase

An ENZYME, usually found in retroviruses (see RETROVIRUS), that catalyses the manufacture of DNA from RNA, enabling the viral RNA to amalgamate with the DNA of the infected host.... reverse transcriptase

Scrub Typhus

A febrile illness caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi, transmitted through the larval stage of several species of infected trombiculid mites, often called chiggers. The endemic region is a roughly triangular area bounded by Japan in the north, Pakistan in the west and with Queensland, Vanuatu and the Solomon Islands in the South.... scrub typhus

Scanning Techniques

Ways of producing images of body organs that record, process and analyse sound waves, radio waves or X-RAYS passing through or generated by the body’s tissues. ULTRASOUND scanning using high-frequency, inaudible sound waves directed at the area of the body being studied is the most generally used scanning procedure. Sound waves are re?ected more powerfully by some structures than others, and a pattern of those re?ections is detected and shown on a screen. Other screening methods include COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET SCANNING) and RADIONUCLIDE scanning, which measures the di?erential uptake of radioactive materials in the body’s tissues.... scanning techniques

Screening Test

The screening of apparently healthy people to identify those who may have treatable diseases. Cervical smears are done when screening women to detect if they have cancer or precancer of the neck of the womb (cervix). Newborn babies are screened for hip dislocation. Screening tests are not designed to diagnose individual persons, but rather to divide a population into a large number at low risk and a small number at high risk of a condition. This allows clinicians to concentrate on a sub-section of the population. All screening tests produce false negative and false positive results, a problem often misunderstood by those at the receiving end. Factors to be assessed when planning screening procedures include the severity, frequency and distribution of the disease, and the availability and e?ectiveness of treatment. Convenience, safety, sensitivity and cost should also be assessed. In the United Kingdom the government has supported the extension of screening procedures for breast cancer, cervical cancer, hypertension and diabetes. (See PREVENTIVE MEDICINE.)... screening test

Sella Turcica

The deep hollow on the upper surface of the sphenoid bone in which the PITUITARY GLAND is enclosed.... sella turcica

Sex Therapy

The counselling and treatment of individuals with psychosexual dysfunction (see SEXUAL DYSFUNCTION). Around half of couples experience some type of sexual problem during their relationships, and for most of them the diffculties are psychological. Sexual therapy is usually given to both partners, but sometimes individual counselling is necessary. Couples may sometimes ?nd that group therapy is helpful. Therapy has proved e?ective especially for women with VAGINISMUS (spasm of vaginal muscles), men with PREMATURE EJACULATION or IMPOTENCE, and men and women who fail to achieve ORGASM.... sex therapy

Shock Therapy


Sinus Tachycardia

A regular heart rate of 100 or more beats a minute, caused by increased electrical activity in the SINOATRIAL NODE (see also HEART). This level of tachycardia is normal during and just after exercise, and may also be caused by stress or anxiety. If tachycardia persists when the person is resting, it may be due to underlying disease such as thyrotoxicosis (see under THYROID GLAND, DISEASES OF) and investigation is advisable.... sinus tachycardia

Strep Throat

An infection of the throat with STREPTOCOCCUS bacteria: it is most common in children and symptoms range from minor discomfort to sore throat, fever, general malaise and enlarged LYMPH nodes in the neck. If symptoms are severe the infection may lead to SCARLET FEVER. PENICILLIN is the treatment of choice.... strep throat


A solid, disc-like preparation made by compression of a powder and containing a drug or drugs mixed usually with sugar and other material. Tablets are widely used because of their convenience and accurate dosage.... tablet


Rapidly developing TOLERANCE to a drug.... tachyphylaxis


An IMMUNOSUPPRESSANT drug used for primary immunosuppression in recipients of kidney or liver transplants (see TRANSPLANTATION) where the natural rejection process has been resistant to conventional immunosuppression regimens such as CORTICOSTEROIDS, AZATHIOPRINE and CICLOSPORIN A. It is also used, with caution, in some severe cases of eczema (see DERMATITIS).... tacrolimus


Perceptible to, pertaining to or related to the sense of TOUCH.... tactile


A parasitic disorder caused by taeniae or tapeworms.

In the case of infestation with Taenia saginata, the host may not have any symptoms and only become aware that he or she is infested upon sight of the tapeworm – or rather, part of it – in the stools (FAECES). In the case of Taenia solium the outlook is more serious because the eggs, when swallowed, are liable to migrate into the tissues of the body (as they do in the pig) and cause hydatid cysts. If these occur in the muscles they may cause little trouble but, if they occur in the brain or liver, they can prove very serious.

Hydatid cysts often grow to a great size, budding o? smaller cysts in their interior. The symptoms produced by a hydatid cyst depend mainly upon the effects of its size and consequent pressure.

Treatment of tapeworm infestation is the administration (on a named-patient basis) of niclosamide or praziquantal. Hydatid disease is treated by surgical removal, sometimes in coordination with albendazole.... taeniasis


Talc is a soft mineral consisting of magnesium silicate. It is much used as an ingredient of dusting powders.... talc

Tamarindus Indica

Linn. 643

English: Big Marigold, Aztec or African Marigold.

Ayurvedic: Jhandu, Gendaa.

Unani: Sadbarg, Gul-hazaaraa, Gul-jaafari.

Siddha: Thuruksaamanthi.

Action: Whole plant—infusion useful in cold and bronchitis, also in the treatment of rheumatism.

Flowers—alterative; juice used for bleeding piles. Leaves—styptic, applied externally to boils and carbuncles; muscle pains. Leaves and florets— emengagogue, diuretic, vermifuge.

The flowers gave lutein esters of dipalmitate, dimyristate and mono- myristate. Fresh petals gave hydrox- yflavones, quercetagetin and tagetiin.

The plant yields an essential oil containing limonene, ocimene, linalyl acetate, linalool, tagetone and n-nonyl aldehyde as major components.

The aqueous extract of flowers showed activity against Gram-positive bacteria.

Tagetes mmuta Linn., synonym T. glandulifera Schrank (North-west Himalayas; native to South America), known as Stinking-Roger, gives highest yield of the essential oil with high carbonyl content, calculated as tagetone among the Tagetes sp. grown in India.... tamarindus indica


See TAENIASIS.... tapeworm


A MASSAGE technique in which a part of the body is hit repeatedly and quickly with the hands. The technique is useful in helping patients with BRONCHITIS to loosen the MUCUS in the air passages of their lungs, thus helping them to cough it up.... tapotement


The popular name for the withdrawal of OEDEMA ?uid from the cavities or the subcutaneous tissues of the body. (See also ASPIRATION.)... tapping

Target Cell

Abnormal ERYTHROCYTES which are large and ‘?oppy’ and have a ringed appearance, similar to that of a target, when stained and viewed under the microscope. This change from normal may occur with iron-de?ciency ANAEMIA, liver disease, a small SPLEEN, haemoglobinopathies (disorders of HAEMOGLOBIN), and THALASSAEMIA.

A target cell is also a cell that is the focus of attack by macrophages (killer cells – see MACROPHAGE) or ANTIBODIES; it may also be the site of action of a speci?c hormone (see HORMONES).... target cell

Target Organ

The speci?c organ (or tissue) at which a hormone (see HORMONES), drug or other agent is aimed to bring about its physiological or pharmacological e?ect.... target organ

Targeting / Target Population / Target Group

The group of persons for whom an intervention is planned. For example, the targeting of services to particular user groups.... targeting / target population / target group


Complex oily mixtures derived from coal or wood (pine). Prolonged exposure to some crude tars occupationally may lead to multiple cutaneous warty lesions (pitch warts). Squamous carcinoma may supervene. More re?ned extracts of tar are used in dermatological therapy, especially in PSORIASIS.... tars


Of or pertaining to the TARSUS of the foot and ankle – this comprises TALUS, calcaneus navicular, cuboid and three cuneiform bones – or eyelid (see EYE).... tarsal


(Aramaic) One who is well-behaved Tavie, Tavee, Tavy, Tavey, Tavea... tavi


This has been a cult, or fashion, since the earliest days of history. Apart from the mixed motives for its use, it has a therapeutic use in matching the colour of skin grafts (see GRAFT). It is performed by implanting particles of col-our pigment into the deeper layer of the skin known as the corium (see SKIN). This is done by means of a needle or needles. The main medical hazard of tattooing is infection, particularly HEPATITIS. The tattooed person may also become allergic to one of the pigments used, particularly cinnabar. Removal, which should be done by a plastic surgeon, always leaves a residual scar, and often needs to be followed by a skin graft. Removal is not allowed under the National Health Service unless there is some medical reason: for example, allergic reactions to it. Other methods of removal are by CRYOSURGERY, DERMABRASION and laser surgery. These, too, must only be carried out under skilled medical supervision.

In order to reduce the health hazards, tattooists – along with acupuncturists, cosmetic skinpiercers and hair electrolysers – are required by UK legislation to register their premises with health and local authorities before starting business. The practitioners have to satisfy the authorities that adequate precautions have been taken to prevent the transmission of infections.... tattooing


A group of CYTOTOXIC drugs administered intravenously for the treatment of advanced ovarian cancer (see OVARIES, DISEASES OF) and secondary spread of breast cancer (see BREASTS, DISEASES OF). Given under specialist supervision in hospital, taxanes are not e?ective for all patients but results are encouraging when they do respond. Side-effects include HYPERSENSITIVITY, MYELOSUPPRESSION, cardiac ARRHYTHMIA, and peripheral NEUROPATHY. Examples of the taxanes are PACLITAXEL and DOCETAXEL.... taxanes


The method of pushing back, into the abdominal cavity, a loop of bowel which has passed through the wall in consequence of a rupture.... taxis


A RETINOIDS preparation recently introduced for the topical treatment of PSORIASIS. It is

applied in the evening and continued for up to six weeks. Tazarotene is not suitable for those aged under 18.... tazarotene


See EYE – Lacrimal apparatus.... tears


Hard organs developed from the mucous membranes of the mouth and embedded in the jawbones, used to bite and grind food and to aid clarity of speech.

Structure Each tooth is composed of enamel, dentine, cement, pulp and periodontal membrane. ENAMEL is the almost translucent material which covers the crown of a tooth. It is the most highly calci?ed material in the body, 96–97 per cent being composed of calci?ed salts. It is arranged from millions of long, six-sided prisms set on end on the dentine (see below), and is thickest over the biting surface of the tooth. With increasing age or the ingestion of abrasive foods the teeth may be worn away on the surface, so that the dentine becomes visible. The outer sides of some teeth may be worn away by bad tooth-brushing technique. DENTINE is a dense yellowish-white material from which the bulk and the basic shape of a tooth are formed. It is like ivory and is harder than bone but softer than enamel. The crown of the tooth is covered by the hard protective enamel and the root is covered by a bone-like substance called cement. Decay can erode dentine faster than enamel (see TEETH, DISORDERS OF – Caries of the teeth). CEMENT or cementum is a thin bone-like material which covers the roots of teeth and helps hold them in the bone. Fibres of the periodontal membrane (see below) are embedded in the cement and the bone. When the gums recede, part of the cement may be exposed and the cells die. Once this has happened, the periodontal membrane can no longer be attached to the tooth and, if su?cient cement is destroyed, the tooth-support will be so weakened that the tooth will become loose. PULP This is the inner core of the tooth and is

composed of a highly vascular, delicate ?brous tissue with many ?ne nerve-?bres. The pulp is very sensitive to temperature variation and to touch. If the pulp becomes exposed it will become infected and usually cannot overcome this. Root-canal treatment or extraction of the tooth may be necessary. PERIODONTAL MEMBRANE This is a layer of ?brous tissue arranged in groups of ?bres which surround and support the root of a tooth in a bone socket. The ?bres are interspersed with blood vessels and nerves. Loss of the membrane leads to loss of the tooth. The membrane can release and re-attach the ?bres to allow the tooth to move when it erupts, or (to correct dental deformities) is being moved by orthodontic springs.

Arrangement and form Teeth are present in most mammals and nearly all have two sets: a temporary or milk set, followed by a permanent or adult set. In some animals, like the toothed whale, all the teeth are similar; but in humans there are four di?erent shapes: incisors, canines (eye-teeth), premolars (bicuspids), and molars. The incisors are chisel-shaped and the canine is pointed. Premolars have two cusps on the crown (one medial to the other) and molars have at least four cusps. They are arranged together in an arch in each jaw and the

cusps of opposing teeth interdigitate. Some herbivores have no upper anterior teeth but use a pad of gum instead. As each arch is symmetrical, the teeth in an upper and lower quadrant can be used to identify the animal. In humans, the quadrants are the same: in other words, in the child there are two incisors, one canine and two molars (total teeth 20); in the adult there are two incisors, one canine, two premolars and three molars (total 32). This mixture of tooth-form suggests that humans are omnivorous. Anatomically the crown of the tooth has mesial and distal surfaces which touch the tooth next to it. The mesial surface is the one nearer to the centre line and the distal is the further away. The biting surface is called the incisal edge for the anterior teeth and the occlusal surface for the posteriors.

Development The ?rst stage in the formation of the teeth is the appearance of a down-growth of EPITHELIUM into the underlying mesoderm. This is the dental lamina, and from it ten smaller swellings in each jaw appear. These become bell-shaped and enclose a part of the mesoderm, the cells of which become specialised and are called the dental papillae. The epithelial cells produce enamel and the dental papilla forms the dentine, cement and pulp. At a ?xed time the teeth start to erupt and a root is formed. Before the deciduous teeth erupt, the permanent teeth form, medial to them. In due course the deciduous roots resorb and the permanent teeth are then able to push the crowns out and erupt themselves. If this process is disturbed, the permanent teeth may be displaced and appear in an abnormal position or be impacted.

Eruption of teeth is in a de?nite order and at a ?xed time, although there may be a few months’ leeway in either direction which is of no signi?cance. Excessive delay is found in some congenital disorders such as CRETINISM. It may also be associated with local abnormalities of the jaws such as cysts, malformed teeth and supernumerary teeth.

The usual order of eruption of deciduous teeth is:

Middle incisors 6–8 months Lateral incisors 8–10 months First molars 12–16 months Canines (eye-teeth) 16–20 months Second molars 20–30 months

The usual order of eruption of permanent teeth is:

First molars 6–7 years Middle incisors 6–8 years Lateral incisors 7–9 years Canines 9–12 years First and second premolars 10–12 years Second molars 11–13 years Third molars (wisdom teeth) 17–21 years

The permanent teeth of the upper (top) and lower (bottom) jaws.

Teeth, Disorders of

Teething, or the process of eruption of the teeth in infants, may be accompanied by irritability, salivation and loss of sleep. The child will tend to rub or touch the painful area. Relief may be obtained in the child by allowing it to chew on a hard object such as a toy or rusk. Mild ANALGESICS may be given if the child is restless and wakens in the night. A serious pitfall is to assume that an infant’s symptoms of ill-health are due to teething, as the cause may be more serious. Fever and ?ts (see SEIZURE) are not due to teething.

Toothache is the pain felt when there is in?ammation of the pulp or periodontal membrane of a tooth (see TEETH – Structure). It can vary in intensity and may be recurring. The commonest cause is caries (see below) when the cavity is close to the pulp. Once the pulp has become infected, this is likely to spread from the apex of the tooth into the bone to form an abscess (gumboil – see below). A lesser but more long-lasting pain is felt when the dentine is unprotected. This can occur when the enamel is lost due to decay or trauma or because the gums have receded. This pain is often associated with temperature-change or sweet foods. Expert dental advice should be sought early, before the decay is extensive. If a large cavity is accessible, temporary relief may be obtained by inserting a small piece of cotton wool soaked, for example, in oil of cloves.

Alveolar abscess, dental abscess or gumboil This is an ABSCESS caused by an infected tooth. It may be present as a large swelling or cause trismus (inability to open the mouth). Treatment is drainage of the PUS, extraction of the tooth and/or ANTIBIOTICS.

Caries of the teeth or dental decay is very common in the more a?uent countries and is most common in children and young adults. Increasing awareness of the causes has resulted in a considerable improvement in dental health, particularly in recent years; this has coincided with a rise in general health. Now more than half of ?ve-year-old children are caries-free and of the others, 10 per cent have half of the remaining carious cavities. Since the start of the National Health Service, the emphasis has been on preventive dentistry, and now edentulous patients are mainly found among the elderly who had their teeth removed before 1948.

The cause of caries is probably acid produced by oral bacteria from dietary carbohydrates, particularly re?ned sugar, and this dissolves part of the enamel; the dentine is eroded more quickly as it is softer (see TEETH – Structure). The exposed smooth surfaces are usually protected as they are easily cleaned during normal eating and by brushing. Irregular and overcrowded teeth are more at risk from decay as they are di?cult to clean. Primitive people who chew coarse foods rarely get caries. Fluoride in the drinking water at about one part per million is associated with a reduction in the caries rate.

Prolonged severe disease in infancy is associated with poor calci?cation of the teeth, making them more vulnerable to decay. As the teeth are formed and partly calci?ed by the time of birth, the diet and health of the mother are also important to the teeth of the child. Pregnant mothers and children should have a good balanced diet with su?cient calcium and vitamin

D. A ?brous diet will also aid cleansing of the teeth and stimulate the circulation in the teeth and jaws. The caries rate can be reduced by regular brushing with a ?uoride toothpaste two or three times per day and certainly before going to sleep. The provision of sweet or sugary juices in an infant’s bottle should be avoided.

Irregularity of the permanent teeth may be due to an abnormality in the growth of the jaws or to the early or late loss of the deciduous set (see TEETH – Development). Most frequently it is due to an imbalance in the size of the teeth and the length of the jaws. Some improvement may take place with age, but many will require the help of an orthodontist (specialist dentist) who can correct many malocclusions by removing a few teeth to allow the others to be moved into a good position by means of springs and elastics on various appliances which are worn in the mouth.

Loosening of the teeth may be due to an accident or in?ammation of the GUM. Teeth loosened by trauma may be replaced and splinted in the socket, even if knocked right out. If the loosening is due to periodontal disease, the prognosis is less favourable.

Discoloration of the teeth may be intrinsic or extrinsic: in other words, the stain may be in the calci?ed structure or stuck on to it. Intrinsic staining may be due to JAUNDICE or the antibiotic tetracycline. Extrinsic stain may be due to tea, co?ee, tobacco, pan (a mixture of chuna and betel nuts wrapped in a leaf), iron-containing medicines or excess ?uoride.

Gingivitis or in?ammation of the gum may occur as an acute or chronic condition. In the acute form it is often part of a general infection of the mouth, and principally occurs in children or young adults – resolving after 10–14 days. The chronic form occurs later in life and tends to be progressive. Various microorganisms may be found on the lesions, including anaerobes. Antiseptic mouthwashes may help, and once the painful stage is past, the gums should be thoroughly cleaned and any calculus removed. In severe conditions an antibiotic may be required.

Periodontal disease is the spread of gingivitis (see above) to involve the periodontal membrane of the tooth; in its ?orid form it used to be called pyorrhoea. In this, the membrane becomes damaged by the in?ammatory process and a space or pocket is formed into which a probe can be easily passed. As the pocket becomes more extensive, the tooth loosens. The loss of the periodontal membrane also leads to the loss of supporting bone. Chronic in?ammation soon occurs and is di?cult to eradicate. Pain is not a feature of the disease but there is often an unpleasant odour (halitosis). The gums bleed easily and there may be DYSPEPSIA. Treatment is largely aimed at stabilising the condition rather than curing it.

Dental abscess is an infection that arises in or around a tooth and spreads to involve the bone. It may occur many years after a blow has killed the pulp of the tooth, or more quickly after caries has reached the pulp. At ?rst the pain may be mild and intermittent but eventually it will become severe and a swelling will develop in the gum over the apex of the tooth. A radiograph of the tooth will show a round clear area at the apex of the tooth. Treatment may be by painting the gum with a mild counter-irritant such as a tincture of aconite and iodine in the early stages, but later root-canal therapy or apicectomy may be required. If a swelling is present, it may need to be drained or the o?ending teeth extracted and antibiotics given.

Injuries to teeth are common. The more minor injuries include crazing and the loss of small chips of enamel, and the major ones include a broken root and avulsion of the entire tooth. A specialist dental opinion should be sought as soon as possible. A tooth that has been knocked out can be re-implanted if it is clean and replaced within a few hours. It will then require splinting in place for 4–6 weeks.

Prevention of dental disease As with other disorders, prevention is better than cure. Children should be taught at an early age to keep their teeth and gums clean and to avoid re?ned sugars between meals. It is better to ?nish a meal with a drink of water rather than a sweetened drink. Fluoride in some of its forms is useful in the reduction of dental caries; in some parts of the UK natural water contains ?uoride, and in some areas where ?uoride content is low, arti?cial ?uoridation of the water supply is carried out. Overcrowding of the teeth, obvious maldevelopment of the jaw and persistent thumbsucking into the teens are all indications for seeking the advice of an orthodontist. Generally, adults have less trouble with decay but more with periodontal disease and, as its onset is insidious, regular dental inspections are desirable.... teeth


See under TEETH, DISORDERS OF.... teething


This refers to zigzag lines that patients with MIGRAINE often experience as a visual AURA preceding an attack.... teichopsia


Abnormal dilatation of ARTERIOLES and venules (see VENULE). In the skin it is seen in spider NAEVUS and ROSACEA particularly.... telangiectasis


A broad term used to describe medicine at a distance through a communications link. Although distance education has been used successfully for some time, more recently distance diagnosis and treatment have been successfully piloted. In teleradiology, radiographic images are transmitted to a distant site for interpretation by a radiologist. A telepathologist can look down, and in some cases control, a microscope located several hundred miles away. In a teleconsultation, the doctor and patient are in di?erent places, joined by a communications link such as medical videoconferencing. In its simplest form, this kind of telemedicine uses the telephone; more recently, full-colour two-way video and audio links have been used. Telesurgery, combining televisual and robotic techniques, is also under development.

Telemedicine is useful for remote locations, such as the Antartic, or on board ships, or aeroplanes, where it may be di?cult or impossible to get a doctor to the patient. It can also speed up the referral process, reduce unnecessary referrals and improve communication between professionals. It has potential value in pilot projects of ‘hospital at home’ care.... telemedicine


Body temperature is the result of a balance of heat-generating forces, chie?y METABOLISM and muscular activity, and heat-loss, mainly from blood circulation through and evaporation from the skin and lungs. The physiological process of homeostasis – a neurological and hormonal feedback mechanism – maintains the healthy person’s body at the correct temperature. Disturbance of temperature, as in disease, may be caused by impairment of any of these bodily functions, or by malfunction of the controlling centre in the brain.

In humans the ‘normal’ temperature is around 37 °C (98·4 °F). It may rise as high as 43 °C or fall to 32 °C in various conditions, but the risk to life is only serious above 41 °C or below 35 °C.

Fall in temperature may accompany major loss of blood, starvation, and the state of collapse (see SHOCK) which may occur in severe FEVER and other acute conditions. Certain chronic diseases, notably hypothyroidism (see THYROID GLAND, DISEASES OF), are generally accompanied by a subnormal temperature. Increased temperature is a characteristic of many acute diseases, particularly infections; indeed, many diseases have a characteristic pattern that enables a provisional diagnosis to be made or acts as a warning of possible complications. In most cases the temperature gradually abates as the patient recovers, but in others, such as PNEUMONIA and TYPHUS FEVER, the untreated disease ends rapidly by a CRISIS in which the temperature falls, perspiration breaks out, the pulse rate falls, and breathing becomes quieter. This crisis is often preceded by an increase in symptoms, including an epicritical rise in temperature.

Body temperature is usually measured on the Celsius scale, on a thermometer reading from 35 °C to 43·3 °C. Measurement may be taken in the mouth (under the tongue), in the armpit, the external ear canal or (occasionally in infants) in the rectum. (See also THERMOMETER.)

Treatment Abnormally low temperatures may be treated by application of external heat, or reduction of heat loss from the body surface. High temperature may be treated in various ways, apart from the primary treatment of the underlying condition. Treatment of hyperthermia or hypothermia should ensure a gradual return to normal temperature (see ANTIPYRETICS.... temperature

Temporal Artery

A branch of the external carotid artery that is the main vessel supplying blood to the temple and scalp.... temporal artery

Temporal Lobe

Part of the cerebral cortex in each hemisphere of the BRAIN. Areas of the temporal lobe are involved in the understanding of sound and spoken language.... temporal lobe

Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

More accurately called complex partial seizures, this is a type of EPILEPSY in which the abnormal cerebral activity originates in the temporal lobe of the BRAIN. It is characterised by hallucinations of smell and sometimes of taste, hearing, or sight. There may be disturbances of memory, including déjà vu phenomena. AUTOMATISM may occur, but consciousness is seldom lost.... temporal lobe epilepsy


Pain experienced when a diseased part is handled.... tenderness


The side of the head above the line between the eye and ear. The term, temporal, is applied to the muscles, nerves, and artery of this region. The hair usually begins to turn grey ?rst at the temples.... temple


Also called tenovaginitis: in?ammation of a TENDON and of the sheath enveloping it.... tendovaginitis


A pre?x denoting some relation to a TENDON.... teno


Also called tenositis: in?ammation of a TENDON.... tenosynovitis


An operation in which one or more tendons (see TENDON) are divided, usually with the object of remedying some deformity.... tenotomy


See TENDOVAGINITIS.... tenovaginitis

Tennis Elbow

The medical name for this condition is epicondylitis. The condition is characterised by pain and tenderness on the outside of the elbow and is the result of in?ammation in the TENDON that attaches the muscles which extend the elbow to the HUMERUS bone. Epicondylitis can be the result of playing a lot of tennis or other racquet sports, gardening, ‘do it yourself’ work, or any activity that constantly pulls the tendon at its point of attachment. Lifting heavy objects aggravates the condition. Treatment is resting the arm, ANALGESICS and/or NON-STEROIDAL ANTI-INFLAMMATORY DRUGS (NSAIDS). Sometimes ULTRASOUND therapy may promote healing, but persistent severe pain may necessitate the local injection of CORTICOSTEROIDS. Rarely, surgery may be recommended to release the tendon.... tennis elbow


A wide ?ap of DURA MATER forming a partition between the cerebrum and cerebellum (see BRAIN) and supporting the former.... tentorium

Terminal Care

Medical and nursing care of persons in the terminal stage of an illness. See also “palliative care”.... terminal care

Testicular Feminization Syndrome

A rare inherited condition in which a genetic male with internal testes has the external appearance of a female. The syndrome is a form of intersex and is the most common form of male pseudohermaphroditism.

The cause is a defective response of the body tissues to testosterone.

The causative genes are carried on the X chromosome, and so females can be carriers. Affected individuals appear to be girls throughout childhood, and most develop female secondary sexual characteristics at puberty; but amenorrhoea occurs, and a diagnosis is usually made during investigations to find its cause. Chromosome analysis shows the presence of male chromosomes and blood tests show male levels of testosterone. Treatment of testicular feminization syndrome involves surgical removal of the testes, to prevent cancerous change in later life, and therapy with oestrogen drugs. An affected person is not fertile but can live a normal life as a woman.... testicular feminization syndrome


A drug used to test the functioning of the adrenal glands. Tetracosactide is a chemical analogue of the natural hormone corticotrophin (ACTH). stimulates the cortices of the adrenal glands to secrete hormones such as cortisol. To diagnose a disorder of the adrenal glands, a tetracosactide injection is given and the blood cortisol level measured. Failure of the level to rise indicates an abnormality.... tetracosactide


A barbiturate drug that is widely used as a general anaesthetic (see anaesthesia, general). Thiopental is given by intravenous injection.... thiopental


An operation in which the chest is opened to provide access to organs in the chest cavity.

There are 2 types of thoracotomy: lateral and anterior. In a lateral thoracotomy the chest is opened between 2 ribs to provide access to the lungs, major blood vessels, and the oesophagus. In an anterior thoracotomy, an incision down the sternum (breastbone) provides access to the heart and the coronary arteries.... thoracotomy


The production of physical defects in the FETUS. A drug may interfere with a mechanism that is essential for growth, and result in arrested or distorted development of the fetus – and yet cause no disturbance in adults, in whom these growth processes have ceased. Whether and how the EMBRYO is affected depends on what stage of development it has reached when the drug is given. The age of early di?erentiation – that is, from the beginning of the third week to the end of the tenth week of pregnancy – is the time of greatest susceptibility. After this time the likelihood of CONGENITAL malformation resulting from drug treatment is less, although the death of the fetus can occur at any time as a result of drugs crossing the PLACENTA or as a result of their e?ect on the placental circulation.

Although the risks are nil or very small with most drugs, no medication should be given to a pregnant woman, particularly during the ?rst few months of pregnancy, unless it is absolutely essential for her health or that of her unborn child. Alcohol is regarded as ‘medication’ in this context.... teratogenesis

Tertian Fever

The name applied to that type of MALARIA in which the fever reappears every other day.... tertian fever

Test-tube Baby

See EMBRYO TRANSFER.... test-tube baby


The toxin responsible for envenomation in blue-ringed octopus and Japanese Fugu (tetrodotoxic) poisoning from puffer fish ingestion.... tetrodotoxin


A group of broad-spectrum ANTIBIOTICS which include oxytetracycline, tetracycline, doxycycline, lymecycline, minocycline, and demeclocycline.

All the preparations are virtually identical, being active against both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria (see GRAM’S STAIN). Derived from cultures of streptomyces bacteria, their value has lessened owing to increasing resistance to the group among bacteria. However, they remain the treatment of choice for BRUCELLOSIS, LYME DISEASE, TRACHOMA, PSITTACOSIS, Q FEVER, SALPINGITIS, URETHRITIS and LYMPHOGRANULOMA INGUINALE, as well as for infections caused by MYCOPLASMA, certain rickettsiae (see RICKETTSIA) and CHLAMYDIA. Additionally they are used in the treatment of ACNE, but are not advised in children under 12 as they may produce permanent discoloration of the teeth. Tetracyclines must not be used if a woman is pregnant as the infant’s deciduous teeth will be stained.... tetracyclines


A sheath-like structure enclosing an organ or part.... theca


Refers to a treatment for the cure or control of a disease.... therapeutic

Therapeutic Index

In anticancer therapy, this is the ratio of a dose of the treatment agent that damages normal cells to the dose necessary to produce a determined level of anticancer activity. The index shows the e?ectiveness of the treatment against the cancer.... therapeutic index


The general name applied to di?erent methods of treatment and healing.... therapeutics


The treatment of injury or disease.... therapy

Thermoluminescent Dosimeter

A commonly used device for measuring people’s exposure to RADIATION. It contains activated sodium ?uoride which luminesces in proportion to the radiation dose to which it is exposed.... thermoluminescent dosimeter


The end of a sensory NERVE that reacts to changes in temperature. Such receptors are widely distributed in the SKIN as well as the mucous membranes of the mouth and throat.... thermoreceptor


A tranquilliser that is a useful antipsychotic drug. (See NEUROLEPTICS.)... thioridazine


Thiazides are a group of moderately potent DIURETICS which are e?ective when taken by mouth. They act by inhibiting the reabsorption of sodium and chloride in the renal tubules. They also have a blood-pressure-lowering e?ect. Chlorothiazide was the ?rst member of this group to be introduced. Their main use is to relieve OEDEMA in heart failure.

All thiazides are active by mouth with an onset of action within 1–2 hours, and a duration of 12–24 hours. Chlorthalidone is a thiazide-related compound that has a longer duration of action and only requires to be given on alternate days. The other thiazide drugs available include bendro?uazide, cyclopenthiazide, hydrochlorothiazide, hydro?umethiazide, indapamide, mefruside, methychlothiazide, metolazone, polythiazide and xipamide.... thiazides


The sensation of thirst is generally felt at the back of the throat, because, when there is a de?ciency of water in the system, the throat and mouth especially become parched by evaporation of moisture from their surface. Thirst is increased by heat, and is a constant symptom of FEVER; it is also present in diseases which remove a considerable amount of ?uid from the system, such as diarrhoea, DIABETES MELLITUS and DIABETES INSIPIDUS, and after great loss of blood by haemorrhage. A demand for water is also a feature of many conditions associated with prolonged exertion, severe exhaustion and DEHYDRATION.... thirst


The withdrawal of ?uid from the pleural cavity. (See ASPIRATION.)... thoracocentesis


The operation of removing a varying number of ribs so that the underlying lung collapses. It was formerly done to treat pulmonary TUBERCULOSIS.... thoracoplasty

Thought Disorders

Thought is a mental activity by which people reason, solve problems, form judgements and communicate with each other by speech, writing and behaviour. Disturbances of thought are re?ected in how a person communicates: the normal logic of thought is broken up and a person may randomly move from one subject to another. SCHIZOPHRENIA is a mental illness characterised by thought disorder. Confusion, DEMENTIA, DEPRESSION and MANIA are other conditions in which thought disorders may be a marked feature. (See also MENTAL ILLNESS.)... thought disorders


See ENTEROBIASIS.... threadworm


One of the essential or indispensable AMINO ACIDS.... threonine


The degree of stimulation, or electrical depolarisation, necessary to produce an action potential in a nerve-?bre (see NEURON(E); NERVE). Stimulation below this level elicits no conducted impulse, and supramaximal stimulation will elicit the same response as a threshold stimulus.... threshold


In popular language, this is a vague term applied indi?erently to the region in front of the neck, to the LARYNX or organ of voice, and to the cavity at the back of the mouth. The correct use of the word denotes the PHARYNX or cavity into which the nose, mouth, gullet, and larynx all open. (See also TONSILS; NOSE.)... throat


See COAGULATION.... thrombin


The breakdown of a BLOOD CLOT by enzymic activity (see ENZYME). Naturally occurring enzymes limit the enlargement of clots, and drugs – for example, STREPTOKINASE – may be given to ‘dissolve’ clots (e.g. following a coronary THROMBOSIS – see under HEART, DISEASES OF). The drug needs to be given within 6–12 hours to be e?ective in reducing the death rate, so prompt diagnosis and transfer to hospital is essential: a short ‘door-to-needle’ time. An unwanted e?ect may be increased risk of bleeding, especially in the elderly. It has been used in trials in patients with PULMONARY EMBOLISM and with peripheral arterial disease, but its value in these conditions is uncertain.... thrombolysis


Also known as thrombokinase, this is an ENZYME formed in the preliminary stages of the COAGULATION of blood. It converts the inactive PROTHROMBIN into the enzyme THROMBIN.... thromboplastin


A substance produced in the blood PLATELETS which induces aggregation of platelets and thereby THROMBOSIS. It is also a vasoconstrictor (a substance that causes the constriction of blood vessels).... thromboxane


Also called ?nger-sucking, this is a universal and harmless habit in infancy. It is usually given up gradually during the pre-school period, but quite often persists after school age – especially if the child is tired, lonely or unhappy. In these cases the remedy is to deal with the cause. It is cruel to use threats or punishment to try to stop the habit.... thumb-sucking


See Tomillo.... thyme


A cell that develops in the THYMUS GLAND, probably from a stem cell of bone marrow. It is a precursor of T-lymphocytes originating in the gland (see LYMPHOCYTE).... thymocyte


The iodine-containing protein that is stored in the thyroid gland. It is converted into circulating thyroxines when the thyroid is stimulated by TSH (Thyroid Stimulating Hormone) from the pituitary (in turn stimulated by the hypothalamus, where thyroxine levels are actually monitored). See: T4... thyroglobulin

Thyroid Cartilage

The largest cartilage in the LARYNX and forms the prominence of the Adam’s apple in front of the neck.... thyroid cartilage


The strength of a solution as determined by TITRATION. In medicine it is used to describe the amount of antibody (see ANTIBODIES) present in a known volume of SERUM.... titre


A regular nodding movement of the head that sometimes involves the trunk. The term can also refer to a staggering or reeling condition, especially due to disease of the SPINAL CORD or cerebellum (see BRAIN).... titubation


Two almond-shaped glands (see GLAND) situated one on each side of the narrow FAUCES where the mouth joins the throat. Each has a structure resembling that of a lymphatic gland, and consists of an elevation of the mucous membrane presenting 12–15 openings, which lead into pits or lacunae. The mucous covering is formed by the ordinary mucous membrane of the mouth, which also lines the pits; and the main substance of the gland is composed of loose connective tissue containing lymph corpuscles in its meshes, and packed here and there into denser nodules or follicles. The tonsils play an important role in the protective mechanism of the body against infection.... tonsils


See TEETH, DISORDERS OF.... toothache


A condition of bodily and mental inactivity, not amounting to sleep, but interfering greatly with the ordinary habits and pursuits. It is often found in people suffering from fever, and is a common symptom in aged people whose arteries are diseased.... torpor


The sense that enables an individual to assess the physical characteristics of objects – for example, their size, shape, temperature and texture. The sense of touch is considered here along with other senses associated with the skin and muscles. The cutaneous senses comprise:

Touch sense proper, by which we perceive a touch or stroke and estimate the size and shape of bodies with which we come into contact, but which we do not see.

Pressure sense, by which we judge the heaviness of weights laid upon the skin, or appreciate the hardness of objects by pressing against them.

Heat sense, by which we perceive that an object is warmer than the skin.

Cold sense, by which we perceive that an object touching the skin is cold.

Pain sense, by which we appreciate pricks, pinches and other painful impressions.

Muscular sensitiveness, by which the painfulness of a squeeze is perceived. It is produced probably by direct pressure upon the nerve-?bres in the muscles.

Muscular sense, by which we test the weight of an object held in the hand, or gauge the amount of energy expended on an e?ort.

Sense of locality, by which we can, without looking, tell the position and attitude of any part of the body.

Common sensation, which is a vague term used to mean composite sensations produced by several of the foregoing, like tickling, or creeping, and the vague sense of well-being or the reverse that the mind receives from internal organs. (See the entry on PAIN.)

The structure of the end-organs situated in the skin, which receive impressions from the outer world, and of the nerve-?bres which conduct these impressions to the central nervous system, have been described under NERVOUS SYSTEM. (See also SKIN.)

Touch affects the Meissner’s or touch corpuscles placed beneath the epidermis; as these di?er in closeness in di?erent parts of the skin, the delicacy of the sense of touch varies greatly. Thus the points of a pair of compasses can be felt as two on the tip of the tongue when separated by only 1 mm; on the tips of the ?ngers they must be separated to twice that distance, whilst on the arm or leg they cannot be felt as two points unless separated by over 25 mm, and on the back they must be separated by more than 50 mm. On the parts covered by hair, the nerves ending around the roots of the hairs also take up impressions of touch.

Pressure is estimated probably through the same nerve-endings and nerves that have to do with touch, but it depends upon a di?erence in the sensations of parts pressed on and those of surrounding parts. Heat-sense, cold-sense and pain-sense all depend upon di?erent nerve-endings in the skin; by using various tests, the skin may be mapped out into a mosaic of little areas where the di?erent kinds of impressions are registered. Whilst the tongue and ?nger-tips are the parts most sensitive to touch, they are comparatively insensitive to heat, and can easily bear temperatures which the cheek or elbow could not tolerate. The muscular sense depends upon the sensory organs known as muscle-spindles, which are scattered through the substance of the muscles, and the sense of locality is dependent partly upon these and partly upon the nerves which end in tendons, ligaments and joints.

Disorders of the sense of touch occur in various diseases. HYPERAESTHESIA is a condition in which there is excessive sensitiveness to any stimulus, such as touch. When this reaches the stage when a mere touch or gentle handling causes acute pain, it is known as hyperalgesia. It is found in various diseases of the SPINAL CORD immediately above the level of the disease, combined often with loss of sensation below the diseased part. It is also present in NEURALGIA, the skin of the neuralgic area becoming excessively tender to touch, heat or cold. Heightened sensibility to temperature is a common symptom of NEURITIS. ANAESTHESIA, or diminution of the sense of touch, causing often a feeling of numbness, is present in many diseases affecting the nerves of sensation or their continuations up the posterior part of the spinal cord. The condition of dissociated analgesia, in which a touch is quite well felt, although there is complete insensibility to pain, is present in the disease of the spinal cord known as SYRINGOMYELIA, and a?ords a proof that the nerve-?bres for pain and those for touch are quite separate. In tabes dorsalis (see SYPHILIS) there is sometimes loss of the sense of touch on feet or arms; but in other cases of this disease there is no loss of the sense of touch, although there is a complete loss of the sense of locality in the lower limbs, thus proving that these two senses are quite distinct. PARAESTHESIAE are abnormal sensations such as creeping, tingling, pricking or hot ?ushes.... touch


Poisonous or likely to be lethal.... toxic


Any poisonous substance of microbic, vegetable or animal origin. A substance that is harmful to the tissues.... toxin


(1) Thin strips of bony tissue occurring in cancellous BONE – sometimes called spongy bone.

(2) A band of CONNECTIVE TISSUE passing from the outer part of an organ to the interior, separating the organ into discrete chambers.... trabecula

Trace Elements

Chemical elements that are distributed throughout the tissues of the body in very small amounts and are essential for the nutrition of the body. Nine such elements are now recognised: cobalt, copper, ?uorine, iodine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, selenium and zinc.... trace elements


A neurological operation to relieve intractable PAIN. The thalamic tracts of the SPINAL CORD contain the nerve-?bres that signal pain. They travel from the source of the pain – in an organ or tissue such as skin or bone – via the cord to the brain stem and cortex (see BRAIN) where the individual becomes ‘conscious’ of the pain. The operation aims to sever these tracts within the medulla oblongata of the brain.... tractotomy


See DIET; EXERCISE.... training

Transdisciplinary Team

In this team, each member becomes so familiar with the roles and responsibilities of the other members that tasks and functions become interchangeable to some extent. This type of team is difficult to operationalize.... transdisciplinary team


The passage of liquid – called the transudate – through a membrane: for example, the passage of blood through the wall of a capillary vessel.... transudation


An anatomical description of a line, plane or structure at right-angles to the long axis of an organ or the body.... transverse


Transplantation of tissues or organs of the body are de?ned as an allotransplant, if from another person; an autotransplant, if from the patient him or herself – for example, a skin graft (see GRAFT; SKIN-GRAFTING); and a xenotransplant, if from an animal.

The pioneering success was achieved with transplantation of the kidney in the 1970s; this has been most successful when the transplanted kidney has come from an identical twin. Less successful have been live transplants from other blood relatives, while least successful have been transplants from other live donors and cadaver donors. The results, however, are steadily improving. Thus the one-year functional survival of kidneys transplanted from unrelated dead donors has risen from around 50 per cent to over 80 per cent, and survival rates of 80 per cent after three years are not uncommon. For a well-matched transplant from a live related donor, the survival rate after ?ve years is around 90 per cent. And, of course, if a transplanted kidney fails to function, the patient can always be switched on to some form of DIALYSIS. In the United Kingdom the supply of cadaveric (dead) kidneys for transplantation is only about half that necessary to meet the demand.

Other organs that have been transplanted with increasing success are the heart, the lungs, the liver, bone marrow, and the cornea of the eye. Heart, lung, liver and pancreas transplantations are now carried out in specialist centres. It is estimated that in the United Kingdom, approximately 200 patients a year between the ages of 15 and 55 would bene?t from a liver transplant if an adequate number of donors were available. More than 100 liver transplants are carried out annually in the United Kingdom and one-year-survival rates of up to 80 per cent have been achieved.

The major outstanding problem is how to prevent the recipient’s body from rejecting and destroying the transplanted organ. Such rejection is part of the normal protective mechanism of the body (see IMMUNITY). Good progress has been made in techniques of tissue-typing and immunosuppression to overcome the problem. Drugs are now available that can suppress the immune reactions of the recipient, which are responsible for the rejection of the transplanted organ. Notable among these are CICLOSPORIN A, which revolutionised the success rate, and TACROLIMUS, a macrolide immunosuppressant.

Another promising development is antilymphocytic serum (ALS), which reduces the activity of the lymphocytes (see LYMPHOCYTE) cells which play an important part in maintaining the integrity of the body against foreign bodies.

Donor cards are now available in all general practitioners’ surgeries and pharmacies but, of the millions of cards distributed since 1972, too few have been used. The reasons are complex but include the reluctance of the public and doctors to consider organ donation; poor organisation for recovery of donor kidneys; and worries about the diagnosis of death. A code of practice for procedures relating to the removal of organs for transplantation was produced in 1978, and this code has been revised in the light of further views expressed by the Conference of Medical Royal Colleges and Faculties of the United Kingdom on the Diagnosis of Brain Death. Under the Human Tissue Act 1961, only the person lawfully in possession of the body or his or her designate can authorise the removal of organs from a body. This authorisation may be given orally.

Patients who may become suitable donors after death are those who have suffered severe and irreversible brain damage – since such patients will be dependent upon arti?cial ventilation. Patients with malignant disease or systemic infection, and patients with renal disease, including chronic hypertension, are unsuitable.

If a patient carries a signed donor card or has otherwise recorded his or her wishes, there is no legal requirement to establish lack of objection on the part of relatives – although it is good practice to take account of the views of close relatives. If a relative objects, despite the known request by the patient, sta? will need to judge, according to the circumstances of the case, whether it is wise to proceed with organ removal. If a patient who has died is not known to have requested that his or her organs be removed for transplantation after death, the designated person may only authorise the removal if, having made such reasonable enquiry as may be practical, he or she has no reason to believe (a) that the deceased had expressed an objection to his or her body being so dealt with after death, or (b) that the surviving spouse or any surviving relative of the deceased objects to the body being so dealt with. Sta? will need to decide who is best quali?ed to approach the relatives. This should be someone with appropriate experience who is aware how much the relative already knows about the patient’s condition. Relatives should not normally be approached before death has occurred, but sometimes a relative approaches the hospital sta? and suggests some time in advance that the patient’s organs might be used for transplantation after death. The sta? of hospitals and organ exchange organisations must respect the wishes of the donor, the recipient and their families with respect to anonymity.

Relatives who enquire should be told that some post-mortem treatment of the donor’s body will be necessary if the organs are to be removed in good condition. It is ethical (see ETHICS) to maintain arti?cial ventilation and heartbeat until removal of organs has been completed. This is essential in the case of heart and liver transplants, and many doctors think it is desirable when removing kidneys. O?cial criteria have been issued in Britain to recognise when BRAIN-STEM DEATH has occurred. This is an important protection for patients and relatives when someone with a terminal condition

– usually as a result of an accident – is considered as a possible organ donor.... transplantation


A bone in the wrist, one of the carpal group (see HAND).... trapezium

Travel Medicine

That aspect of public health which seeks to prevent illnesses and injuries occurring to travellers, especially those going abroad, and manages problems arising in travellers coming back or from abroad. It is also concerned about the impact of tourism on health and the provision of health and safetyservices for tourists.... travel medicine


A process designed to achieve a desired health status for a patient or client.... treatment


The name of a genus of spirochaetal microorganisms which consist of slender spirals and which progress by means of bending movements. Treponema pallidum (formerly called Spirochaeta pallida) is the causative organism of SYPHILIS.... treponema


Derived from the French word for ‘sorting’, triage is a universal term applied to methods of allocating treatment prioritisations for casualties from disasters or in warfare. The procedure helps a medical team to treat casualties who, although badly injured, can be saved; to defer those whose treatment is less urgent; and to provide care and comfort for those with fatal injuries.

Triage is now operated in accident and emergency departments by a ‘triage nurse’ who allocates a degree of priority so that patients are seen in order of severity rather than according to their time of arrival.... triage


A muscle of the posterior upper arm which acts to extend the forearm. So-named because it originates from three heads.... triceps


A genus of nematode worms which cause the zoonotic infection trichinellosis (trichinosis). Includes five species, all of which can infect humans, Trichinella spiralis, T. nativa, T. nelsoni, T. britovi and T.pseudospiralis... trichinella


See TRICHINOSIS.... trichiniasis


See DERMATOPHYTES.... trichophyton

Tricuspid Incompetence

Failure of the TRICUSPID VALVE in the HEART to close fully, thus permitting blood to leak back into the right atrium during contractions of the right ventricle. This reduces the heart’s pumping e?ciency, and right-sided heart failure usually results. Treatment for heart failure (using DIURETICS and ACE inhibitor drugs) usually restores function, but sometimes heart surgery is required to repair or replace the defective valve.... tricuspid incompetence

Tricuspid Stenosis

The normal working of the TRICUSPID VALVE in the HEART is impeded by a narrowing of the opening, often as a sequel of RHEUMATIC FEVER. As with TRICUSPID INCOMPETENCE, heart failure may result and treatment is similar, with surgery to repair or replace the faulty valve an option.... tricuspid stenosis


Having three leaflets in a compound leaf, like a clover.... trifoliate


See PICRIC ACID.... trinitrophenol

Triple Vaccine

Also known as DPT vaccine, this is an injection that provides IMMUNITY against DIPHTHERIA, pertussis (whooping-cough) and TETANUS. It is given as a course of three injections at around the ages of two, three and four months. A booster dose of diphtheria and tetanus is given at primary-school age. Certain infants – those with a family history of EPILEPSY, or who have neurological disorders or who have reacted severely to the ?rst dose – should not have the pertussis element of DPT. (See MMR VACCINE; IMMUNISATION.)... triple vaccine


An instrument provided with a sharp three-sided point ?tted inside a tube or cannula, and used for puncturing cavities of the body in which ?uid has collected.... trocar


The name given to two bony prominences at the upper end of the thigh-bone (FEMUR). The greater trochanter can be felt on the outer side of the thigh; the lesser trochanter is a small prominence on the inner side of this bone.... trochanter


The outer layer of the fertilised OVUM which attaches the ovum to the wall of the UTERUS (or womb) and supplies nutrition to the EMBRYO.... trophoblast


A stage in the life of the parasite Plasmodium, that is the cause of MALARIA. It has a ring-shaped body and single nucleus and grows in the blood cell, after which it divides to form a schizont.... trophozoite

Tropical Diseases

Technically, those diseases occurring in the area of the globe situated between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn: pertaining to the sun. They include many ‘exotic’ infections – many of them parasitic in origin – which fall under the umbrella of ‘TROPICAL MEDICINE’. However, disease in the tropics is far broader than this and includes numerous other infections, many of them with a viral or bacterial basis: for example, the viral hepatidises, streptococcal and pneumococcal infections, and tuberculosis. The prevalence of other diseases, such as rheumatic cardiac disease, cirrhosis, heptocellular carcinoma (‘hepatoma’), and various nutrition-related problems, is also much increased in most areas of the tropics. With people from developed countries increasingly travelling to worldwide destinations for business and holiday, the ‘importation’ of tropical diseases to temperate climates should be borne in mind when people fall ill.


Tropical Medicinal Plants

Tropical countries are a treasure house of a wide variety of medicinal plants. Some species are found wild, while a number of species have been domesticated by the farmers. Many species have been grown in homesteads and become part of traditional home remedies. A limited number of species are commercially cultivated though a few more have potential for large-scale production. The important tropical and subtropical medicinal plants are discussed here highlighting the importance, medicinal and other uses, distribution, botany, agrotechnology, chemical constituents and activity. For practical convenience of the discussion in this book, they are classified under the following four broad groups.

a) Medicinal herbs

b) Medicinal shrubs

c) Medicinal climbers

d)Medicinal trees... tropical medicinal plants


A genus of microscopic parasites, several of which are responsible for causing SLEEPING SICKNESS and some allied diseases.... trypanosoma


The chief protein ENZYME of the pancreatic secretion. Secreted by the PANCREAS as trypsinogen (an inactive form), it is converted in the duodenum by another enzyme, enteropeptidase. It changes proteins into peptones and forms the main constituent of pancreatic extracts used for digestion of food. (See PEPTONISED FOODS.)... trypsin


(1) One of the nine indispensable (essential) AMINO ACIDS. Like other amino acids, tryptophan is needed by the body to synthesise the proteins necessary for its growth and functioning. The description indispensable – previously the adjective used was essential – is applied because the body is unable to manufacture these amino acids, which have to be obtained from food or drink.

(2) A drug that has helped some patients with resistant DEPRESSION. Used as a supporting drug with other treatment, tryptophan was withdrawn because of side-effects; it has, however, been reintroduced for use in hospital for patients for whom no alternative treatment is suitable. (See also MENTAL ILLNESS.)... tryptophan


A biting fly found in Africa, genus Glossina, which may transmit sleeping sickness.... tsetse


The term given to any skin lesion which is the result of infection with the tubercle bacillus, or Mycobacterium tuberculosis as it is now known.... tuberculide


Tuberculin is the name originally given by Koch in 1890 to a preparation derived from the tubercle bacillus, or Mycobacterium tuberculosis as it is now known, and intended for the diagnosis or treatment of TUBERCULOSIS.... tuberculin


A small tube. There are several named tubules in the body: examples include convoluted tubules in the NEPHRON of the kidney (see KIDNEYS) and the seminiferous tubules in the testes (see TESTICLE).... tubule

Tulle Gras

A wound dressing of gauze impregnated with soft para?n to prevent it from sticking to the wound.... tulle gras


A swelling usually caused by blood or other body ?uids accumulating in the tissues, often as a consequence of injury. An erect PENIS, when blood ?lls the corpus cavernosa in the organ, is sometimes described as tumescent.... tumescence


Being or becoming swollen or engorged.... turgor


Purification... turmeric


Also known as meteorism. Distension of the abdomen due to the presence of gas or air in the INTESTINE or in the peritoneal cavity (see PERITONEUM). The abdomen when struck with the ?ngers, gives under these conditions a drum-like (tympanitic) note.... tympanites


Another name for the middle EAR.... tympanum


A variety of the chemical compound amine, which is derived from ammonia. A sympathomimetic agent with an action which resembles that of ADRENALINE, tyramine occurs in mistletoe, mature cheese, beers, red wine and decaying animal matter. This adrenaline e?ect is potentially dangerous for patients taking MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITORS (MAOIS) – ANTIDEPRESSANT DRUGS – because, when combined with tyramine, the blood pressure rises sharply. Such patients should avoid taking cheese, beers and red wine.... tyramine


One of the AMINO ACIDS. Tyrosine is important in the production of CATECHOLAMINES, MELANIN and THYROXINE.... tyrosine

Van Den Bergh Test

A test done on SERUM from patients with JAUNDICE to discover whether the excess BILIRUBIN in the blood – which causes the jaundice

– is conjugated or unconjugated. If conjugated, this indicates that HAEMOLYSIS is causing the jaundice; if unconjugated, disease of the LIVER or BILE DUCT is the likely diagnosis.... van den bergh test

Vision Tests

Most vision tests examine a person’s sharpness of VISION (visual acuity) and often of the ?eld of vision (see VISION, FIELD OF). Refraction tests assess whether a person has an error that can be corrected with glasses such as ASTIGMATISM, HYPERMETROPIA or MYOPIA. Visual acuity is tested using a Snellen chart when the patient tries to read letters of di?ering standard sizes from 6 metres away. The optician will prescribe lenses to correct any defects detected by vision tests.... vision tests

Wilms’ Tumour

Also called nephroblastoma. This is the commonest kidney tumour in infancy. It is a malignant tumour, which occurs in around one per 10,000 live births. The survival rate with modern treatment (removal of the kidney followed by radiotherapy and chemotherapy) is now around 80 per cent.... wilms’ tumour

Alimentary Tract

A long canal, the digestive tract, from the mouth to the anus, through which food passes in the process of digestion and absorption. ... alimentary tract

Cavernous Sinus Thrombosis

Thrombosis arising in the cavernous sinus of the sphenoid bone in the head.

Cause: Septicaemia or infected embolism conveyed from elsewhere – veins of the face, sinuses, head. May be a complication of meningitis.

Symptoms: headache, nausea, swelling of eyelids and forehead, pupils distended, veins of temples prominent, fever with severe constitutional disturbance.

Prognosis: usually fatal in the absence of orthodox antibiotics, but anti-staphylococcal herbs are helpful. Tinctures. Formula. Echinacea 3; Goldenseal 2; Myrrh (Tincture) 1. 1 teaspoon in water every 2 hours (acute). Thrice daily (chronic).

Treatment by or in liaison with general medical practitioner. ... cavernous sinus thrombosis

Cerebral Thrombosis

Formation of a blood clot within vessels of the brain. May be due to atheroma or embolism causing a blockage resulting in hypoxia (oxygen deficiency).

Alternatives. Teas. Lime flowers, Nettles, Horsetail, Ginkgo, Oats, Mistletoe, Yarrow.

Tea. Mix equal parts: Ginkgo, Hawthorn, Yarrow. One heaped teaspoon to each cup boiling water; infuse 5-10 minutes; 1 cup thrice daily.

Tablets/capsules. Ginkgo, Hawthorn, Prickly Ash.


Supplements. Daily: Vitamin E 1000mg; B6 50mg; B12 2mcg. Selenium 200mcg; Zinc 15mg. Strict bedrest; regulate bowels; avoid excessive physical and mental exertion. ... cerebral thrombosis

Carbon Tetrachloride

(CCl) A colourless, poisonous, volatile chemical with a characteristic odour that is present in some home dry-cleaning fluids and industrial solvents. It can cause dizziness, confusion, and liver and kidney damage if it is inhaled or swallowed.... carbon tetrachloride

Brain Tumour

An abnormal growth in or on the brain. Tumours may be primary growths arising directly from tissues within the skull or metastases (secondary growths) that have spread from tumours elsewhere in the body. The cause of primary brain tumours is not known. About 60 per cent are gliomas (frequently cancerous), which arise from the brain tissue. Other primary tumours include meningiomas, acoustic neuromas, and pituitary tumours. Most of these tumours are noncancerous, but their size can cause local damage. Certain types of primary brain tumour mainly affect children. These include 2 types of glioma called medulloblastoma and cerebellar astrocytoma. Primary brain tumours virtually never spread (metastasize) outside the central nervous system.

Symptoms include muscle weakness, loss of vision, or other sensory disturbances, speech difficulties, and epileptic seizures. Increased pressure within the skull can cause headache, visual disturbances, vomiting, and impaired mental functioning. Hydrocephalus may occur.

When possible, primary tumours are removed by surgery after opening the skull (see craniotomy).

In cases where a tumour cannot be completely removed, as much as possible of it will be cut away to relieve pressure.

For primary and secondary tumours, radiotherapy or anticancer drugs may also be given.

Corticosteroid drugs are often prescribed temporarily to reduce the size of a tumour and associated brain swelling.... brain tumour

Deciduous Teeth

See primary teeth.... deciduous teeth

Deep Vein Thrombosis

See thrombosis, deep vein.... deep vein thrombosis

Desmoid Tumour

A growth, usually in the abdominal wall.

The tumour is hard, with a well-defined edge.

The tumours occur most frequently in women who have had children.

They may also arise at the sites of old surgical incisions.

Surgical removal is the usual treatment.... desmoid tumour

Electroconvulsive Therapy

See ECT.... electroconvulsive therapy

Failure To Thrive

Failure of expected growth in an infant or toddler, usually assessed by comparing the rate at which a baby gains weight with a standardized growth chart. An undiagnosed illness such as a urinary infection may be the cause. Emotional or physical deprivation can also cause failure to thrive. A child who fails to grow at the appropriate rate needs tests to determine the cause.... failure to thrive

Fallot’s Tetralogy

See tetralogy of Fallot.... fallot’s tetralogy

Family Therapy

A form of psychotherapy that aims to promote greater harmony and understanding between members of a family, most often between parents and adolescent children.... family therapy

Gamete Intrafallopian Transfer

(GIFT) A technique for assisting conception (see infertility), which can only be used if a woman has normal fallopian tubes. In , eggs are removed from an ovary during laparoscopy and mixed with sperm in the laboratory before both are introduced into a fallopian tube. A fertilized egg may then become implanted in the uterus.... gamete intrafallopian transfer

Germ Cell Tumour

A growth comprised of immature sperm cells in the male testis or of immature ova in the female ovary. A seminoma is one type of germ cell tumour (see testis, cancer of).... germ cell tumour

Eustachian Tube

The passage that runs from the middle ear into the back of the nose, just above the soft palate. The tube acts as a drainage channel from the middle ear and maintains hearing by opening periodically to regulate air pressure. The lower end of the tube opens during swallowing and yawning, allowing air to flow up to the middle ear, equalizing the air pressure on both sides of the eardrum.

When a viral infection such as a cold causes blockage of the eustachian tube, equalization cannot occur, resulting in severe pain and temporary impairment of hearing. A person with a blocked eustachian tube who is subjected to rapid pressure changes may suffer from barotrauma. Glue ear or chronic otitis media may occur if the tube is blocked, preventing adequate drainage from the middle ear. These conditions, which often result in partial hearing loss are more common in children. This is partly because their adenoids are larger and more likely to cause a blockage if they become infected and partly because children’s eustachhian tubes are shorter than those of adults.... eustachian tube

Fallopian Tube

One of the 2 tubes that extend from the uterus to the ovary. The fallopian tube transports eggs and sperm and is where fertilization takes place.

The tube opens into the uterus at one end, and the other end, which is divided into fimbriae (finger-like projections), lies close to the ovary. The tube has muscular walls lined by cells with cilia (hair-like projections). The fimbriae take up the egg after it is expelled from the ovary. The beating cilia and muscular contractions propel the egg towards the uterus. After intercourse, sperm swim up the fallopian tube from the uterus. The lining of the tube and its secretions sustain the egg and sperm, encouraging fertilization, and nourish the egg until it reaches the uterus.

Salpingitis is inflammation of the fallopian tube, usually the result of a sexually transmitted bacterial infection, that can lead to infertility.

An ectopic pregnancy (development of an embryo outside the uterus) most commonly occurs in the fallopian tube.... fallopian tube

Gilles De La Tourette’s Syndrome

A rare, inherited neurological disorder.

It starts in childhood with repetitive grimaces and tics.

Involuntary barks, grunts, or other noises may appear as the disease progresses.

In some cases, the sufferer has episodes of issuing foul language.

The syndrome is more common in males.

It is usually of lifelong duration, but antipsychotic drugs can help in some cases.... gilles de la tourette’s syndrome

Glomus Tumour

A small, bluish swelling in the skin, usually on a finger or toe near or under the nail, which is tender to touch and more painful if the limb is hot or cold.

The cause is overgrowth of the nerve structures that normally control blood flow and temperature in the skin.

The tumours are harmless but are surgically removed.... glomus tumour

Night Terror

A disorder, occurring mainly in children, that consists of abrupt arousals from sleep in a terrified state. Night terror (also called sleep terror) usually starts between the ages of 4 and 7, gradually disappearing in early adolescence.

Episodes occur during (nonrapid eye movement) sleep, usually half an hour to 3 and a half hours after falling asleep. Sufferers wake up screaming in a semiconscious state and remain frightened for some minutes. They do not recognize familiar faces or surroundings, and usually cannot be comforted. The sufferer gradually falls back to sleep and has no memory of the event the following day.

Night terror in children has no serious significance, but, in adults, is likely to be associated with an anxiety disorder.... night terror

Oral Rehydration Therapy

See rehydration therapy.... oral rehydration therapy

Positron Emission Tomography


PET scanning.... positron emission tomography

Post-traumatic Stress Disorder

A form of anxiety that develops after a stressful or frightening event.

Common causes include natural disasters, violence, rape, torture, serious physical injury, and military combat.

Symptoms, which may develop many months after the event, include recurring memories or dreams of the event, a sense of personal isolation, and disturbed sleep and concentration.

There may be a deadening of feelings, or irritability and feelings of guilt, sometimes building up to depression.

Most people recover, in time, with emotional support and counselling.... post-traumatic stress disorder

Primary Teeth

The 1st teeth (also known as milk teeth), which usually start to appear at age 6 months and are replaced by the permanent teeth from about age 6 years. There are 20 primary teeth, 10 in each jaw. (See also teeth; eruption of teeth; teething.)... primary teeth

Renal Tubular Acidosis

A condition in which the kidneys are unable to excrete normal amounts of acid made by the body.

The blood is more acidic than normal, and the urine less acidic.

Causes include kidney damage due to disease, drugs, or a genetic disorder; but in many cases the cause is unknown.

The acidosis may result in osteomalacia, kidney stones (see calculus, urinary tract), nephrocalcinosis, and hypokalaemia (an abnormally low level of potassium in the blood).... renal tubular acidosis

Root-canal Treatment

A dental procedure performed to save a tooth in which the pulp (see pulp, dental) has died or become untreatably diseased, usually as the result of extensive dental caries.

The pulp is removed through a hole drilled in the crown. An antibiotic paste and a temporary filling are packed in. A few days later, the filling is removed and the canals are checked for infection. When no infection is detected the cavity is filled and the roots are sealed with cement. If the cavity is not filled completely, periodontitis may occur.

Treated teeth may turn grey but their appearance can be restored by bonding (see bonding, dental), fitting an artificial crown (see crown, dental), or by bleaching (see bleaching, dental).... root-canal treatment


An alpha-blocker drug used for the treatment of urinary symptoms due to an enlarged prostate gland (see prostate, enlarged).

Side effects include low blood pressure, drowsiness, dry mouth, and gastrointestinal disturbances.... tamsulosin


Pain in the rear part of the foot, usually associated with flat-feet.... tarsalgia


Surgery in which the upper and lower eyelids are partially or completely sewn together.

Tarsorrhaphy may be used as part of the treatment of corneal ulcer, or to protect the corneas of people who cannot close their eyes or those with exophthalmos.

The eyelids are later cut apart and allowed to open.... tarsorrhaphy

Temporomandibular Joint

The joint between the mandible (lower jaw bone) and the skull.... temporomandibular joint

Temporomandibular Joint Syndrome

Pain and other symptoms affecting the head, jaw, and face, thought to result when the temporomandibular joints and the muscles and ligaments attached to them do not work together correctly. Causes include spasm of the chewing muscles, an incorrect bite (see malocclusion), jaw, head, or neck injuries, or osteoarthritis. Common symptoms include headaches, tenderness of the jaw muscles, and aching facial pain. Treatment involves correction of any underlying abnormality, analgesic drugs, and, in some cases, injection of corticosteroid drugs into the joint.... temporomandibular joint syndrome


A physical, chemical, or biological agent, such as radiation, the drug thalidomide, and the rubella virus, that causes abnormalities in a developing embryo or fetus.... teratogen


An antifungal drug used to treat fungal nail or skin infections. Side effects are rare with topical use but may include local irritation. Taken as tablets, the drug may cause nausea, abdominal pain, and, occasionally a rash.... terbinafine

Testis, Retractile

A testis that is drawn up.... testis, retractile


The removal of a thrombus that is blocking a blood vessel. It is performed as an emergency procedure if a major artery is blocked, or as a precautionary measure if there is a risk of an embolus breaking off. Before surgery, the site of the thrombus is established by angiography and the patient may be given anticoagulant drugs.... thrombectomy


A tendency for blood to clot too readily due to an inherited abnormality in proteins such as factor V. It may not be recognized until specific circumstances such as injury or air travel cause symptoms or signs. (See also thrombosis, deep vein.)... thrombophilia


A gland that forms part of the immune system.

The thymus lies behind the sternum and consists of 2 lobes that join in front of the trachea.

Each lobe is made of lymphoid tissue consisting of lymphocytes, epithelium, and fat.

The thymus conditions lymphocytes to become T-cells.

It plays a part in the immune response until puberty, gradually enlarging during this time.

After puberty, it shrinks, but some glandular tissue remains until middle-age.... thymus


A rarely used anthelmintic drug used to treat worm infestations, including strongyloidiasis. It has been replaced by Femur newer anthelmin-Patellatics that have few side effects.... tiabendazole

Tietze’s Syndrome

Chest pain localized to an area on the front of the chest wall, usually made worse by movement of the arms or trunk or by pressure on the chest wall. The syndrome is caused by inflammation of 1 or several rib cartilages and symptoms may persist for months. Treatment is with analgesics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, or local injections of corticosteroid drugs into the cartilage.... tietze’s syndrome


A beta-blocker drug used to treat hypertension and angina pectoris.

Timolol may also be given after a myocardial infarction.

It is used as eye-drops to treat glaucoma.

Possible side effects, such as cold hands and feet, are typical of other beta-blockers.

Eye-drops may cause irritation, blurred vision, and headache.... timolol


A constituent of vitamin E.

Four tocopherols (alpha, beta, gamma, and delta) and several tocopherol derivatives together make up the vitamin.... tocopherol

Toddler’s Diarrhoea

A common condition affecting some children for a period after the introduction of an adult diet. It occurs because the child is unable to digest food properly, perhaps because of inadequate chewing; the diarrhoea contains recognizable pieces of food. This diarrhoea is no cause for concern, and no treatment is needed.... toddler’s diarrhoea

Todd’s Paralysis

Weakness in part of the body following some types of epileptic seizure (see epilepsy).

The weakness may last for minutes, hours, or even days, but there is no lasting effect.

The cause is thought to be temporary damage to the motor cortex (the area of the brain that controls movement).... todd’s paralysis


A suffix denoting the operation of cutting or making an incision.... tomy


A minor mouth defect, also known as ankyloglossia, in which the frenulum (the band of tissue attaching the underside of the tongue to the floor of the mouth) is too short and extends forwards to the tip of the tongue. There are usually no symptoms apart from limited movement of the tongue. Rarely, the condition causes a speech defect, and a minor operation is required to divide the frenulum.... tongue-tie


Surgical removal of the tonsils, which is now performed only if a child suffers frequent, recurrent attacks of severe tonsillitis. The operation is also carried out to treat quinsy (an abscess around the tonsil).... tonsillectomy

Tourette’s Syndrome

See Gilles de la Tourette’s syndrome.... tourette’s syndrome


A surgical procedure to control glaucoma by allowing the fluid from the front chamber of the eye to drain out under the conjunctiva.... trabeculectomy


Cutting of the trachea. (See also tracheostomy.)... tracheotomy


Any one of a group of organs that form a common pathway to perform a particular function. The term also refers to a bundle of nerve fibres that have a common function.... tract


An opioid drug used to relieve severe pain following a heart attack, surgery, or serious illness.

It is less likely to cause dependence with long-term use than most opioids.

Possible side effects include nausea, vomiting, drowsiness, confusion, and impaired consciousness.... tramadol

Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation

See TENS.... transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation


The unconscious displacement of emotions from people who were important during one’s childhood, such as parents, to other people during adulthood. (See also psychoanalysis.)... transference

Transient Ischaemic Attack

(TIA) A brief interruption of the blood supply to part of the brain, which causes temporary impairment of vision, speech, sensation, or movement. The episode typically lasts for several minutes or, at the most, for a few hours. TIAs are sometimes described as mini strokes, and they can be the prelude to a stroke.

TIAs may be caused by a blood clot (see embolism) temporarily blocking an artery that supplies the brain, or by narrowing of an artery as a result of atherosclerosis.

After a TIA, tests such as CT scanning, blood tests, ultrasound scanning, or angiography may be needed to determine a cause. In some cases, the heart is studied as a possible source of blood clots. Treatment is aimed at preventing stroke, which occurs within 5 years in up to one third of patients with TIA. Treatments include endarterectomy, anticoagulant drugs, or aspirin.... transient ischaemic attack


A procedure that is sometimes carried out during physical examination of a lump or swelling.

Light from a small torch is shone on 1 side of the lump; if it can be seen on the other side, the lump contains clear fluid.... transillumination

Transposition Of The Great Vessels

A serious form of congenital heart disease in which the aorta and pulmonary artery are transposed. Open heart surgery is needed to correct the defect.... transposition of the great vessels


Also called cross-dressing, a persistent desire by a man to dress in women’s clothing.... transvestism


An antidepressant drug with a strong sedative effect that is used to treat depression accompanied by anxiety or insomnia.

Possible side effects include drowsiness, constipation, dry mouth, dizziness, and, rarely, priapism.... trazodone


The scientific name for any fluke or schistosome.... trematode


A hollow, cylindrical instrument with a saw-toothed edge used for cutting a circular hole, usually in bone.... trephine


A topical drug that is chemically related to vitamin A and is used to treat acne and certain skin disorders such as ichthyosis. Tretinoin may aggravate acne in the first few weeks of treatment but usually improves the condition within 3–4 months. Possible side effects include irritation, peeling, and discoloration of the skin. Exposure of the skin to sunlight while using tretinoin may aggravate irritation and can lead to sunburn.... tretinoin


A diuretic drug used to treat hypertension and oedema.

Possible adverse effects include nausea, vomiting, weakness, and rash.... triamterene

Tricyclic Antidepressants

A type of antidepressant drug.

Tricyclic antidepressants prevent neurotransmitters in the brain from being reabsorbed, thereby increasing their level.

Examples are amitriptyline, clomipramine, and imipramine.... tricyclic antidepressants


An antipsychotic drug used to treat schizophrenia.... trifluoperazine


Also called alimemazine. An antihistamine drug used to relieve itching in allergic conditions, and as a premedication in children. Side effects are typical of antihistamines.... trimeprazine


The presence of an extra chromosome within a person’s cells, making 3 of a particular chromosome instead of the usual 2. A fault during meiosis to form egg or sperm cells leaves an egg or sperm with an extra chromosome. When the egg or sperm takes part in fertilization, the resulting embryo inherits an extra chromosome in each of its cells.

The most common trisomy is of chromosome 21 (Down’s syndrome). Trisomy 18 (Edward’s syndrome) and trisomy 13 (Patau’s syndrome) are less common; trisomy 8 and trisomy 22 are very rare. Partial trisomy, with only part of a chromosome in triplicate, also occurs. Full trisomies cause abnormalities such as skeletal and heart defects and learning difficulties. Except in Down’s syndrome, babies usually die in early infancy. The effects of partial trisomies depend on the amount of extra chromosomal material present.

Diagnosis is made by chromosome analysis of cells, which may be obtained from the fetus by amniocentesis or after the birth. There is no specific treatment. Parents of an affected child should seek genetic counselling.... trisomy


A drug used to dilate the pupil. Adverse effects of the drug include blurred vision, increased sensitivity to light, stinging, and, rarely, dry mouth, flushing, and glaucoma.... tropicamide


A prominent area on a bone to which tendons are attached.... tuberosity

Tunnel Vision

Loss of the peripheral visual field to the extent that only objects straight ahead can be seen clearly. Tunnel vision is most commonly caused by chronic glaucoma. Retinitis pigmentosa is another possible cause.... tunnel vision

Turner’s Syndrome

A disorder caused by a chromosomal abnormality that only affects females. The abnormality may arise in 1 of 3 ways: affected females may have only 1 X chromosome instead of 2; they may have 1 normal and 1 defective X chromosome; or they may have a mixture of cells (see mosaicism), in which some of the cells are missing an X chromosome, some have extra chromosomes, and others have the normal complement of chromosomes. Turner’s syndrome causes short stature; webbing of the skin of the neck; absence or retarded development of sexual characteristics; amenorrhea, coarctation of the aorta, and abnormalities of the eyes and bones.

Treatment with growth hormone from infancy helps girls with Turner’s syndrome to achieve near normal height. Coarctation of the aorta is treated surgically. Treatment with oestrogen drugs induces menstruation, but it does not make affected girls fertile.... turner’s syndrome


The abbreviation for transurethral resection of the prostate. TURP is a surgical procedure in which the central part of an enlarged prostate gland is removed (see prostate, enlarged). A viewing instrument called a resectoscope is passed along the urethra until it reaches the prostate. A heated wire loop, or sometimes a cutting edge, is inserted through the resectoscope and used to cut away excess prostate tissue. ... turp


An operation on the ear to treat conductive deafness by repairing a hole in the eardrum (see myringoplasty) or by repositioning or reconstructing diseased ossicles.... tympanoplasty

Ventricular Tachycardia

A serious cardiac arrhythmia in which each heartbeat is initiated from electrical activity in the ventricles rather than from the sinoatrial node in the right atrium.

It is caused by an abnormally fast heart-rate due to serious heart disease, such as myocardial infarction or cardiomyopathy.

It may last for a few seconds or for several days.

Diagnosis is confirmed by ECG.

Emergency treatment is with defibrillation and an antiarrhythmic drug.... ventricular tachycardia


n. a unit of heat equal to 100,000 British thermal units. 1 therm = 1.055 × 108 joules.... therm


adj. see tuberous.... tuberose

Acacia Torta

(Roxb.) Craib.

Synonym: A. intsia willd.

A. caesia Wright and Arn. non-Willd.

Family: Mimosaceae.

Habitat: Throughout India in the dry and intermediate zones; ascending to an altitude of about 1,200 m in the Himalayas.

Ayurvedic: Aadaari, Lataa Khadira (related sp., see. A. pennata).

Siddha/Tamil: Kariyundu, Ingu.

Folk: Araar, Chilar (Punjab), Aila (Maharashtra).

Action: Flower—emmenagogue. Bark—anti-inflammatory, antiseptic (in skin diseases). Bark contains 17% tannins, triterpene alcohol, saponins of acacic acid, lupeol and a steroid, acaciol. An alkaloid, tryptamine, is present in the root and stem bark.

Various plant parts are used in cough, bronchitis, measles, tubercular fistula and in the treatment of menstrual disorders. The bark is used for washing the hair.... acacia torta

Acute Life-threatening Event (alte)

See ALTE.... acute life-threatening event (alte)

Adders Tongue

Healing ... adders tongue

Adenosine Triphosphate (atp)

A compound comprising the chemical substances adenine, ribose and phosphates. The chemical bonds of the phosphates contain energy needed for cell METABOLISM that occurs when muscle cells contract. This energy is made available when ATP breaks up to form other chemical groupings – adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and adenosine monophosphate (AMP). The energy needed for recombining AMP and ADP to form ATP is produced by the breakdown of carbohydrates or other constituencies of food.... adenosine triphosphate (atp)

Advance Statements About Medical Treatment

See LIVING WILL.... advance statements about medical treatment

Aged Care Assessment Team

Multidisciplinary team of health professionals that is responsible for comprehensive assessments of the needs of older persons, including their suitability for hospital, home or institutional care.... aged care assessment team

Alkanna Tinctoria

(L.) Tausch.

Family: Boraginaceae.

Habitat: Cultivated in Central and southern Europe.

English: Alkanet, Dyers' or Spanish Bugloss.

Unani: Ratanjot. National Formulary of Unani Medicine equated Ratanjot with Onosma echioides Linn., found in Kashmir and Kumaon.

Siddha/Tamil: Ratthapaalai, Surul- pattai, Dineshavalli.

Action: Astringent, antimicrobial (used for indolent ulcers, wounds, erysipelas).

The root contains up to 5% alkan- nins, which are lipophilic isohexenyl- naphthazarin red pigments; tannins and wax. A pyrrolizidine (hepatotox- ic) alkaloid has also been isolated from the herb. The alkannins have antimicrobial and wound-healing properties and are non-toxic in mice. They have been used clinically for indolent ulcers.... alkanna tinctoria

Allocative Tool

A means by which resources are allocated, which may be used in a number of ways. For example, an allocative tool may be a health policy in which there is a direct provision of income, services, or goods to groups of individuals who usually reap benefits in receiving them.... allocative tool

Alternative And Complementary Health Care / Medicine / Therapies

Health care practices that are not currently an integral part of conventional medicine. The list of these practices changes over time as the practices and therapies are proven safe and effective and become accepted as mainstream health care practices. These unorthodox approaches to health care are not based on biomedical explanations for their effectiveness. Examples include homeopathy, herbal formulas, and use of other natural products as preventive and treatment agents.... alternative and complementary health care / medicine / therapies

Anterior Tibial Syndrome

See under MUSCLES, DISORDERS OF – Compression syndrome.... anterior tibial syndrome

Appropriate Health Technology

Methods, procedures, techniques and equipment that are scientifically valid, adapted to local needs and acceptable to those who use them and to those for whom they are used, and that can be maintained and utilized with resources the community or country can afford.... appropriate health technology

Assistive Technology

An umbrella term for any device or system that allows individuals to perform tasks they would otherwise be unable to do or increases the ease and safety with which tasks can be performed.... assistive technology

Autologous Blood Transfusion

See TRANSFUSION – Transfusion of blood.... autologous blood transfusion

Allspice Tea: A Tasty Choice

Allspice tea is well known for its healing properties and, it proved to be an important ingredient when cooking stews, soups but not only. Allspice Tea description The Allspice plant was discovered by Christopher Columbus on a Jamaican island, in 1494. The Spaniards called it “pimienta” (pepper) and started to use it widely when cooking. It is a small berry, tasting like a mixture of pepper, cloves, juniper, nutmeg and cinnamon. Nowadays, this plant is added to recipes and brewes in order to obtain a healing beverage. Due to its taste, Allspice is commonly used to flavor stews and soups. Rice dishes become tastier when this spice is added. Allspice tea is best known for its aid in digestive processes but not only. Allspice Tea brewing To prepare Allspice tea:
  • place 1 or 2 teaspoons of dried allspice fruit (or powder) in 1 cup of boiling water
  • steep them for 10 to 20 minutes
  • drink the tea (sugar or honey might be added)
Allspice Tea benefits Allspice tea is said to:
  • facilitate and promote good digestion
  • help bloating, belching and flatulence
  • help in preventing allergies
  • help lower blood sugar
  • help relieve toothache and muscle/joint pain
  • help uplift the mood and relax the body
Allspice Tea side effects Breastfeeding mothers and pregnant women must not take allspice in any form. Allspice tea may cause serious allergic reactions in hypersensitive individuals. It is contraindicated for those with chronic gastrointestinal conditions such as duodenal ulcers, reflux disease, spastic colitis, diverticulitis, disarticulates and ulcerative colitis. It should not be consumed by patients with cancer. Also, allspice tea should not be intaken by people with a high risk of cancer. Discovered by Christopher Columbus, allspice plant was firstused in cooking recipes and afterwards, the resulting beverage turned out to be a useful aid in treating several ailments. Allspice tea is a good choice to treat oneself and to strengthen the body.... allspice tea: a tasty choice

Amaranthus Tricolor


Synonym: A. gangeticus Linn. A. melancholicus Linn. A. polygamus Linn. Hook. f. in part. A. tristis Linn.

Family: Amaranthaceae.

Habitat: Cultivated throughout India.

English: Chinese Spinach, Garden Amaranth, Fountain Plant.

Ayurvedic: Maarisha-rakta (red var.).

Siddha/Tamil: Arai-keerai, Siru- keerai, Thandu-keerai, Mulakkerai (Tamil).

Folk: Laal Shaak, Laal Marashaa.

Action: Astringent (in menorrhagia, leucorrhoea, dysentery, diarrhoea, haemorrhagic colitis); also used in cough, bronchitis and consumption; externally emollient.

The plant contains amarantin, isoa- marantin, betaine, amino acids, sterols.

Dosage: Leaf, seed, root—10-20 ml juice. (API Vol. III.) Powder—2- 4 g. (CCRAS.)... amaranthus tricolor

Antiaris Toxicaria


Anthocephalus cadamba Miq.

Synonym: A. indicus A. Rich. A. chinensis (Lam.) A. Rich. ex Walp.

Family: Rubiaceae.

Habitat: Assam, Bengal, southwards to Andhra Pradesh and western Ghats.

English: Kadam.

Ayurvedic: Kadamba, Priyaka, Vrtta-pushpa, Nipa, Halipriya. Kadambaka is equated with Adina cordifolia.

Siddha/Tamil: Venkadambu, Vellai Kadambam.

Action: Stembark—febrifugal, antidiuretic, anthelmintic, hypo- glycaemic. Fruit—cooling; anti- catarrhal, blood purifier, analgesic.

Family: Moraceae.

Habitat: Western Ghats from Konkan southwards to Trivandrum, up to 600 m.

English: Sacking tree, Upas tree.

Ayurvedic: Valkala vrksha.

Siddha/Tamil: Aranthelli, Mara-uri, Nettavil.

Folk: Jangali Lakuch, Jasund, Chaandakudaa.

Action: Seed—febrifuge, antidysen- teric (in minute doses). Latex— circulatory stimulant (in minute doses.)

The latex contains a series of poisonous cardenolides, of which alpha- and/or beta-antiarin are the main components. The total amount of crystalline cardiac glycosides in the latex ranges from 0.1 to 2.5%; alpha-antiarin from 0.0 to 1.38% and beta-antiarin from 0.075 to 1.44%. Antiarins are said to act on the heart more powerfully than digitalin. Beta-antiarin is more potent than alpha-antiarin.

Latex, in small quantities, is a mild cardiac and circulatory stimulant, whereas in large quantities it acts as a myocardial poison. It stimulates intestinal and uterine contractions.

As many as 34 Kedde-positive substances were reported in the seed sample from Indonesia. The latex sample showed the presence of 29 Kedde- positive substances.... antiaris toxicaria

B Nosed. The Test For Brain-stem Death Are:

Fixed dilated pupils of the eyes



No cranial motor response to somatic (physical) stimulation

Absent gag and cough re?exes

No respiratory e?ort in response to APNOEA despite adequate concentrations of CARBON DIOXIDE in the arterial blood.... b nosed. the test for brain-stem death are:

Antidiarrhoeal Treatments

Initial treatment of acute DIARRHOEA is to prevent or correct the loss of ?uid and ELECTROLYTES from the body. This is a priority especially in infants and elderly people. Rehydration can be achieved orally or, in severe cases, by urgent admission to hospital for the replacement of ?uid and electrolytes.

For adults with acute diarrhoea, short-term symptomatic treatment can be achieved with antimotility drugs such as codeine phosphate, co-phenotrope or loperamide hydrochloride. Adsorbent drugs, for example, KAOLIN, should not be used in acute diarrhoea, but bulk-forming drugs – ispaghula or methylcellulose

– can help to control the consistency of faeces in patients with ileostomies and colostomies (see ILEOSTOMY; COLOSTOMY), or those with diarrhoea caused by DIVERTICULAR DISEASE.

Irritable bowel syndrome, malabsorption syndrom, ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease and diverticular disease are often accompanied by diarrhoea; for more information on these conditions, see under separate entries.

ANTIBIOTICS may sometimes cause diarrhoea and this side-e?ect should be borne in mind when the cause of the condition is being investigated.... antidiarrhoeal treatments

Azima Tetracantha


Family: Salvadoraceae.

Habitat: Peninsular India, Orissa, West Bengal.

English: Mistletoe Berrythorn.

Siddha/Tamil: Mulchangan.

Folk: Kundali.

Action: Root—diuretic (used in Siddha medicine for dropsy and rheumatism). Leaves—stimulant (used in rheumatism); expectorant, antispasmodic (used in cough and asthma); given to women after confinement. Bark—antiperiodic, astringent, expectorant.

The leaves contain the alkaloids az- imine, azcarpine and carpine. EtOH (50%) extract of aerial parts exhibited spasmogenic activity.... azima tetracantha

Bai Hao Oolong Tea - The Taiwanese Oolong Tea

Bai Hao Oolong Tea is a type of oolong tea, made from the leaves of the Camellia sinensis plant. Although Oolong tea is known as a traditional Chinese tea, the Bai Hao Oolong tea is made in Taiwan. Find out more about the Bai Hao Oolong tea! About Bai Hao Oolong tea Bai Hao Oolong tea is a type of Oolong tea produced in Taiwan, in the Hsinchu County. In English, it means “white tip oolong tea”. It is also known by the name Dongfang meiren; in English, its name is translated as “oriental beauty tea”. It is also said that, at the beginning of the 20th century, a British tea merchant presented Queen Elizabeth II. After tasting it, she also called it “Oriental Beauty”, which became one of the tea’s well-known names. The name Bai Hao Oolong tea, translated as “white tip oolong tea”, refers to the leaves. Theyare dark purple or brown, while the tips have a white, silvery color. The Bai Hao Oolong tea has a sweet and fruity taste, while the color of the beverage is a beautiful bright reddish-orange. Production of Bai Hao Oolong tea The tea bushes that produce the leaves of Bai Hao Oolong tea are cultivated in Northern Taiwan. They are grown without using any kind of pesticide. This is to encourage the tea green leafhopper to feed on the leaves, stems, and buds in order to suck the phloem juice. The buds then turn white, as the plant becomes oxidized where it was bit. This is what gives the tea its unique, sweet flavor. In order to have the tea green leafhopper bite on the plants, it is necessary that the bushes producing Bai Hao Oolongtea leaves be cultivated in warmer areas. The tea bushes are planted in the northwestern part of the country, in lower altitude areas which have sufficient sunshine and humidity. It is harvested during mid-summer and then, it is fermented up to 70%. Only the bud and the top two leaves are used. How to prepare Bai Hao Oolong tea In order to prepare Bai Hao Oolong tea, use two grams of tea leaves for every 150 ml of water. The ideal water temperature is around 80°C-85°C, while the steeping time is of 1-2 minutes. The Bai Hao Oolongtea leaves can be used for more than one brewing, though you have to gradually increase steeping time. Benefits of Bai Hao Oolong tea Oolong teas are good for our health, and the Bai Hao Oolong tea is not an exception. Read more about some health benefits of the Bai Hao Oolong tea. First, the polyphenols in its composition help you to lose weight. They increase the function of the enzymes which are responsible with burning fat. That’s why it’s a good idea to drink cups of Bai Hao Oolong teaif you’re on a diet. Bai Hao Oolong tea also contains fluoride, which helps you maintain a good oral hygiene. It helps protect your teeth as it prevents the decaying of teeth and stops the plaque build-up. Overall, it makes your teeth stronger. The polyphenols in the Bai Hao Oolong tea also help treat skin problems such as eczema and rashes. Other skin problems can be treated with Bai Hao Oolong tea, as well. The antioxidants in its composition fight against the free radicals affecting your skin. Some of the skin benefits include reducing the dark spots and wrinkles, slowing down the aging process, and improving the color of the skin. They also help protect you against cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Drinking Bai Hao Oolong tea also helps reduce high blood pressure and blood sugar levels. It is especially good for diabetes patients, who can keep the blood glucose level under control. Lastly,Bai Hao Oolong teais also helpful when it comes to increasing energy, reducing stress and improving brain power. Side effects of Bai Hao Oolong tea While there are many health benefits when drinking Bai Hao Oolong tea, don’t forget that there are a few side effects, as well. One is related to the caffeine found in the Bai Hao Oolong tea. Although the amount is less than in most types of black tea, you still have to be careful if caffeine isn’t good for your body. Be careful not to get the following symptoms: insomnia, anxiety, headache, dizziness, irritability, and blurred vision. Also, pregnant women have to reduce the amount of tea they drink, as the caffeine may cause miscarriages and birth defects. It can also affect the child during breast feeding. It’s important not to drink too much tea either, including Bai Hao Oolong tea. IT is generally recommended that you not drink more than six cups of tea a day. General symptoms that may appear when drinking too much tea are loss of appetite, diarrhea, vomiting, headaches, dizziness, insomnia, and irregular heartbeats. Also, it was discovered that, among elderly people, excessive amount of Bai Hao Oolong tea can cause hypokalemia. The Bai Hao Oolong tea is a richly-flavored, fruity tea that also keeps you healthy. If you decide to include it in your daily diet, you surely won’t regret it.... bai hao oolong tea - the taiwanese oolong tea

Barany’s Test

A test for gauging the e?ciency of the balancing mechanism (the vestibular apparatus) by applying hot or cold air or water to the external ear.... barany’s test

Bauhinia Tomentosa


Family: Caesalpiniaceae.

Habitat: Southern India, Assam and Bihar.

English: Yellow Bauhinia, St. Thomas tree, Bell Bauhinia.

Ayurvedic: Pita Kovidaara (yellow- flowered var.), Pita Kanchana.

Siddha/Tamil: Kokkumandarai, Tiruvaatti, Kanjani.

Folk: Kachnaar.

Action: Antidysenteric. Fruit— diuretic. Bark—astringent. Root bark—vermifuge. A decoction of the root bark is prescribed for liver diseases. Seed—used for wound healing.

Seeds yield a fatty oil called ebony oil, a water soluble mucilage and saponins. Flowers gave isoquercitrin (6%), rutin (4.6%) and quercetin (small amounts).... bauhinia tomentosa

Binovular Twins

Twins who result from the fertilisation of two separate ova. (See MULTIPLE BIRTHS.)... binovular twins

Birch Tea: Not Only A Tasty Beverage

Birch tea is a medicinal beverage made from the leaves or the bark of the plant. It is enjoyed worldwide for its health benefits and also for its tasty flavor. Birch tea description Birch is a soft-wood tree, found in the woodlands of cold climate countries, especially in North America and Europe. It is a fast-growing tree that can reach 65 feet in height. The birch tree is known for its silvery-white bark that tends to peel off in layers. The ‘oil of birch’ has potent properties in the anti-cancer treatment. Birch is a natural pain reliever with salicylate, the compound found in aspirin. Birch leaf is a medicinal remedy for various forms of upset stomach. Birch tea is the resulting beverage from brewing the abovementioned plant. Birch tea brewing To make Birch tea from the leaves:
  • Place 2 to 3 teaspoonfuls in a cup and pour on boiling water.
  • Cover the mix and allow it to steep for 10 minutes.
  • Drink the tea about three times a day.
Birch tea can also be made using the bark of the tree:
  • Place a teaspoon of dried birch bark in a cup of boiling water.
  • Allow it to steep for 15 minutes.
  • Drink the tea twice or thrice a day.
Birch tea can be sweetened with honey. The resulting beverage has a very aromatic flavor. The parts used for tea are the leaves, twigs, and the bark. Birch tea benefits Birch tea has been successfully used to:
  • alleviate joint pain related to rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis
  • combat gout
  • fight urinary disorders
  • increase urination
  • treat melanoma
  • help fighting skin breakouts and other dermatological problems (applied topically as a wash or added to bath water)
  • soothe sore muscles
Also, Birch tea may help remove excess fluids from the body. Birch tea side effects Birch tea is not recommended to pregnant and nursing women. Also, it not advised to people allergic to aspirin. Birch tea is best known for itsanti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory and anti-viral properties. It is also largely used to remove excess fluids from the body.... birch tea: not only a tasty beverage

Bitter Tonic

A bitter-tasting substance or formula used to increase a deficient appetite, improve the acidity of stomach secretions and protein digestion, and slightly speed up the orderly emptying of the stomach. A good bitter tonic should possess little, if any, drug effect, only acting on oral and stomach functions and secretions. Dry mouth, bad gums, teeth problems with bad breath in the morning, and weak digestion, often with constipation, are the main deficiency symptoms. A bitter tonic has little effect in normal digestion. Example: Gentiana... bitter tonic

Bolam Test

A medico-legal defence for a clinician accused of failing to provide an acceptable standard of care for one of his or her quali?cation and experience. The defence is that a responsible body of medical practitioners would have taken the same action, even though others would have acted di?erently. The precise size of a ‘responsible body’ has not been de?ned. The test has been modi?ed following a case referred to as Bolitho, in which it was held that the Bolam defence failed if it could be shown that the actions relied upon, although shown to be carried out by some responsible doctors, were nonetheless illogical.... bolam test

Bone Transplant

The insertion of a piece of bone from another site or from another person to ?ll a defect, provide supporting tissue, or encourage the growth of new bone.... bone transplant

Blessed Thistle Tea Is Good For Health

Blessed Thistle tea is a medicinal beverage useful in treating a large array of ailments such as constipation, but not only. Blessed Thistle Tea description Blessed thistle was at first used in Ayurvedic medicine in India and Bhutan. It was introduced in Europe in the 1500s where it gained the title “blessed” for its use in treating plague. The blessed thistle is a weed with prickly leaves and yellow flowers surrounded by purple spikes, found mostly in North Africa, Western Asia and Southern Europe. The leaves, the flowers and the stem are used to prepare Blessed thistle tea. Blessed Thistle Tea brewing Blessed thistle tea can be prepared in the following way: douse about 1 to 3 dried blessed thistle herb in a cup of boiled water for 5 to 15 minutes. It can then be drunk three times a day before meals. Blessed Thistle Tea benefits Blessed Thistle tea has been successfully used to:
  • treat digestive problems, like gas, constipation and stomach upset
  • improve appetite
  • detoxify the body
  • support liver and gallbladder
  • stimulate menstrual flow
Blessed Thistle Tea side effects High doses of Blessed thistle tea can cause:
  • stomach irritation and vomiting
  • liver disease
  • gastrointestinal and liver problems and esophageal or nasal cancer
Blessed Thistle tea is a natural remedy to detoxify the body and thus, to enhance the immunity and support the normal functioning of the human organs.... blessed thistle tea is good for health

British Thermal Unit (btu)

An o?cially recognised measurement of heat: a unit is equal to the quantity of heat needed to raise the temperature of one pound of water by 1°Fahrenheit. One BTU is equivalent to 1,055 joules (see JOULE).... british thermal unit (btu)

Bronchial Tubes

See AIR PASSAGES; BRONCHUS; LUNGS.... bronchial tubes

Cadillo Tres Pies

Gingerbush (Pavonia spinifex).

Plant Part Used: Leaf, root.

Dominican Medicinal Uses: The leaf and root are traditionally prepared as a tea by decoction and administered orally for disorders of the kidney, gallbladder or liver, blood in the urine, hepatitis, sexually transmitted infections, uterine fibroids, tumors, cysts and menopausal hot flashes.

Safety: Insufficient information identified.

Contraindications: Unknown; insufficient information identified in the available literature.

Drug Interactions: Unknown; insufficient information identified in the available literature.

Laboratory & Preclinical Data: The chloroform extract of the plant has shown antibacterial activity in vitro.

* See entry for Cadillo de gato in “Part 3: Dominican Medicinal Plant Profiles” of this book for more information, including references.... cadillo tres pies

Calamus Tenuis


Synonym: C. amarus Lour.

Family: Palmae; Arecaceae.

Habitat: The sub-Himalayan tract from Dehra Dun to Assam.

English: Bareilly Cane.

Ayurvedic: Vetra (var.) (Vetasa, Salix caprea Linn., is a different drug).

Action: See C. rotang.... calamus tenuis

Calamus Travancoricus

Bedd. ex Hook. f.

Family: Palmae; Arecaceae.

Habitat: Deccan peninsula, from Malabar to Travancore.

English: Cane.

Ayurvedic: Vetra.

Siddha/Tamil: Pirambu.

Action: Tender leaves are used in dyspepsia, biliousness and as an anthelmintic. See C. rotang.... calamus travancoricus

Canine Teeth

... canine teeth

Carob Tree

Ceratonia siliqua

Description: This large tree has a spreading crown. Its leaves are compound and alternate. Its seedpods, also known as Saint John’s bread, are up to 45 centimeters long and are filled with round, hard seeds and a thick pulp.

Habitat and Distribution: This tree is found throughout the Mediterranean, the Middle East, and parts of North Africa.

Edible Parts: The young tender pods are edible raw or boiled. You can pulverize the seeds in mature pods and cook as porridge.... carob tree

Carthamus Tinctorius


Family: Asteraceae.

Habitat: Cultivated mainly as an oil-seed crop in Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra.

English: Safflower.

Ayurvedic: Kusumbha, Vahin- shikhaa, Vastraranjaka, Kusum.

Unani: Qurtum.

Siddha/Tamil: Chendurakam.

Action: Oil—aids prevention of arteriosclerosis, coronary heart disease and kidney disorders as a polyunsaturated fat. Flowers— stimulant, sedative, diuretic, emmenagogue; used in fevers and eruptive skin conditions, measles.

Charred safflower oil is used in rheumatism and for healing sores.

Key application: Dried flowers— in cardiovascular diseases, amen- orrhoea, dysmenorrhoea and retention of lochia; also in wounds and sores with pain and swelling. (Pharmocopoeia of the People's Republic of China, 1997.)

Safflower contains carthamone, lig- nans and a polysaccharide. The polysaccharide, composed of xylose, fructose, galactose, glucose, arabinose, rhamnose and uronic acid residues, stimulates immune function in mice. It induced antibody formation in mice following peritoneal injection. Extracts of flowers have also been tested in China on blood coagulation, where a prolongation of clothing time was observed and platelet aggregation inhibited. Chinese research indicates that Safflower flowers can reduce coronary artery disease, and lower cholesterol levels. Flowers and seeds exhibit lipase activity. The flower extract also exhibited anti-inflammatory, sedative and analgesic effect and inhibitory effect on spontaneous motor activity.

The plant contains a propanetriol derivative, which can be used for the treatment of circulatory disorders.

Recent research suggests that improving the lipid profile might not be as important to reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease as suggested. (Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, 2007.)

Safflower is contraindicated in pregnancy, gastric disorders, excessive menstruation, haemorrhagic diseases.

Wild and thorny Safflower, growing in the arid tract of Haryana and Punjab (locally known as Kantiaari, Poli, Poiyan) is equated with C. oxy- cantha Bieb. The plant is diuretic. Seed oil is applied topically to ulcers. The plant contains a sesquiterpene gly- coside. Aerial parts contain hinesol- beta-D-fucopyranoside. The plant also contains luteolin-7-glucoside.

Dosage: Leaf—3-6 g powder. (CCRAS.)... carthamus tinctorius

Cartílago De Tiburón

Shark cartilage; reported for use in preventing or treating cancer, tumors and uterine fibroids, sometimes combined with medicinal plants in home remedies; it is also taken for nourishing brain function.... cartílago de tiburón

Casearia Tomentosa


Synonym: C. elliptica Willd.

Family: Samydaceae; Flacourtiaceae.

Habitat: The Himalayas from Kashmir to Nepal, ascending to 1,000 m; throughout tropical India.

Ayurvedic: Chilhaka.

Siddha/Tamil: Kadichai.

Folk: Chillaa, Saptrangi.

Action: Root—hypoglycaemic. Root bark is used as a tonic in anaemic conditions.

Fruit pulp—diuretic, purgative, Leaves—anti-inflammatory. Fruit pulp —diuretic.

Ethanolic (80%) extract of the leaves showed significant anti-inflammatory activity in rats. Oil extracted from the seeds in rubbed on sprains. Various plant parts are used in neuralgia. and bladder. Chaksine has ganglion- blocking property. Chaksine and iso- chaksine possess a local anaesthetic effect intradermally. It produces a sustained fall in blood pressure of anaesthetized animals and produces a weak anti-acetylcholine effect. Roots also contains anthraquinones and aloe- emodin.

Dosage: Seed—3-6 g powder. (CCRAS.)... casearia tomentosa

Cassia Tora


Family: Calsalpiniaceae.

Habitat: Throughout India as a weed.

English: Sickle Senna, Ringworm Plant.

Ayurvedic: Chakramarda, Chakri, Prapunnaada, Dadrughna, Me- shalochana, Padmaata, Edagaja.

Unani: Penwaad Taarutaa.

Siddha/Tamil: Ushittgarai.

Folk: Chakavad, Daadamaari.

Action: Leaves—taken internally to prevent skin diseases; applied against eczema and ringworm; pounded and applied on cuts, act like tincture of iodine. Seeds, soaked in water, are taken for spermatorrhoea. A paste made of equal parts of leaves and seeds is given for jaundice. Pods are used in dysentery.

Along with other therapeutic applications, The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India indicated the use of the seed in paralysis and hemiplegia as a supporting drug.

The leaves contain chrysophanol, aloe-emodin, rhein and emodin. Mature leaves possess purgative properties and are sometimes utilized to adulterate the true senna; also used as an antiperiodic and anthelmintic.

The leaf extract exhibited antifungal activity against the ringworm fungus Microsporon nanum.

Seeds contain anthraquinone glyco- sides, naptho-pyrone glycosides, cas- siaside and rubrofusarin-6-beta-genti- obioside. These constituents showed significant hepatoprotective activity.

Thrachrysone, isolated from seeds, showed stronger antioxidant activity than tocopherol and BHA.

Chrysophanic acid-9-anthrone, extracted from the seed, was found to be active against ringworm fungi.

Dosage: Seed—1-3 g powder. (API Vol. III.)... cassia tora

Cat Tail

Lust... cat tail

Cell Salvage Transfusion

See TRANSFUSION.... cell salvage transfusion


See CLAW-FOOT.... claw-toes

Cedrela Toona


Synonym: Toona ciliata M. Roem.

Family: Meliaceae.

Habitat: Sub-Himalayan tract, Assam and throughout hilly regions of Central and South India.

English: Red Cedar, Toon, Indian Mahogany tree.

Ayurvedic: Tuunikaa, Nandi Vrksha.

Siddha/Tamil: Tunumaram, Santhana Vembu.

Folk: Toonaa.

Action: Bark—astringent, an- tidysenteric, antiperiodic. Flow- ers—emmenagogue. Leaf— spasmolytic, hypoglycaemic, an- tiprotozoal.

Bark and heartwood yielded tetra- nortriterpenoids, including toonacilin. Heartwood also gave a coumarin, ger- anylgernalol and its fatty esters. Toona- cilin and its 6-hydroxy derivatives are antifeedant.... cedrela toona

Centaury Tea - Diabetes Treatment

Centaury Tea has been known for centuries as a great medicinal remedy. It is said that Centaury plant is a very powerful diaphoretic, digestive, emetic, febrifuge, hepatic, homeopathic, poultice, stomachic, tonic and liver stimulator. Centaury is a plant from the gentian family which grows mainly in regions like Europe, Northern Africa and Eastern Australia. Also known as centaurium erythraea, this plant can easily be recognized by its triangular pale green leaves, pink flowers and yellowish anthers bloom. The fruit has the shape of a small oval capsule and it can only be harvested in the fall. Centaury Tea Properties Centaury has a bitter taste, which makes it a great ingredient for vermouth. Centaury Tea, however, is used by the alternative medicine for its great curative properties. The active constituents of Centaury Tea are: secoiridoids, alkaloids, phenolic acids, triterpenes, xanthone derivatives and triterpenes, which can only be released in the presence of hot water or other heating sources. Xanthone derivatives are also used by the alcohol producers in order to obtain a variety of liquors (especially the bitter ones). Centaury Tea Benefits Aside from its use as a vermouth ingredient, Centaury Tea has other health benefits, being prescribed by practitioners around the world since ancient times. Centaury Tea may be helpful in case you’re suffering from one of the following conditions: - Blood poisoning, by eliminating the toxins and increasing the blood flow. - A number of digestive ailments, such as constipation and gastritis. - Anemia, by nourishing the nervous system and increasing the coronary system function. - Diabetes and liver failure, by reconstructing the liver cells and lowering your blood sugar. - Kidney failure, by treating nephritis and other ailments of the urinary system. - Centaury Tea may also be used to induce appetite when taken before meals. How to make Centaury Tea Infusion Preparing Centaury Tea infusion is very easy. Use a teaspoon of freshly-picked or dried Centaury herbs for every cup of tea you want to make, add boiling water and wait 10 minutes for the health benefits to be released. Strain the decoction and drink it hot or cold. However, don’t drink more than 2 or 3 cups per day in order to avoid other health complications. Centaury Tea Side Effects When taken properly, Centaury Tea has no effects for adults. However, high dosages may lad to a number of ailments, such as nausea, diarrhea and vomiting. If you’ve been taking Centaury Tea for a while and you’re experiencing some unusual reactions, talk to your doctor as soon as possible! Centaury Tea Contraindications Don’t take Centaury Tea if you’re pregnant or breastfeeding. Also, children and patients suffering from severe diseases that require blood thinners and anti-coagulants ingestion should avoid taking Centaury Tea at all costs! The same advice if you’re preparing for a major surgery (Centaury Tea may interfere with the anesthetic). In order to gather more information, talk to an herbalist or to your doctor. Once he gives you the green light, add Centaury Tea to your shopping cart and enjoy the wonderful benefits of this tea responsibly!... centaury tea - diabetes treatment

Chlorophytum Tuberosum


Family: Liliaceae.

Habitat: Central and Peninsular India up to 1,350 m.

Ayurvedic: Musali, Mushali.

Unani: Musali.

Siddha: Vallaimusali.

Action: Dried tubers are used as tonic.

The commercial drug, Safed Musali, contains the tubers of C. arundinaceum Baker, C. tuberosum Baker and C. in- dicum (Willd.) Dress, synonym C. at- tenuatum Baker.

C. indicum is found on the hills in Kerala, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and on the hills near Udaipur in Rajasthan.

Dosage: Dried tuber—3-5 g powder. (CCRAS.)... chlorophytum tuberosum

Cobalt Treatment

Radiation that uses gamma rays generated by cobalt-60, a radioactive isotope of the element cobalt.... cobalt treatment

Cognitive Testing

In surveys, studying the process of interpretation of questions and the formation and reporting of responses by respondents to learn how to make the questions more accurately obtain the data the questionnaire is seeking.... cognitive testing

Child Development Teams (cdts)

Screening and surveillance uncover problems which then need careful attention. Most NHS districts have a CDT to carry out this task – working from child development centres – usually separate from hospitals. Various therapists, as well as consultant paediatricians in community child health, contribute to the work of the team. They include physiotherapists, occupational therapists, speech therapists, psychologists, health visitors and, in some centres, pre-school teachers or educational advisers and social workers. Their aims are to diagnose the child’s problems, identify his or her therapy needs and make recommendations to the local health and educational authorities on how these should be met. A member of the team will usually be appointed as the family’s ‘key worker’, who liaises with other members of the team and coordinates the child’s management. Regular review meetings are held, generally with parents sharing in the decisions made. Mostly children seen by CDTs are under ?ve years old, the school health service and educational authorities assuming responsibility thereafter.

Special needs The Children Act 1989, Education Acts 1981, 1986 and 1993, and the Chronically Sick and Disabled Persons Legislation 1979 impose various statutory duties to identify and provide assistance for children with special needs. They include the chronically ill as well as those with impaired development or disabilities such as CEREBRAL PALSY, or hearing, vision or intellectual impairment. Many CDTs keep a register of such children so that services can be e?ciently planned and evaluated. Parents of disabled children often feel isolated and neglected by society in general; they are frequently frustrated by the lack of resources available to help them cope with the sheer hard work involved. The CDT, through its key workers, does its best to absorb anger and divert frustration into constructive actions.

There are other groups of children who come to the attention of child health services. Community paediatricians act as advisers to adoption and fostering agencies, vital since many children needing alternative homes have special medical or educational needs or have behavioural or psychiatric problems. Many see a role in acting as advocates, not just for those with impairments but also for socially disadvantaged children, including those ‘looked after’ in children’s homes and those of travellers, asylum seekers, refugees and the homeless.

Child protection Regrettably, some children come to the attention of child health specialists because they have been beaten, neglected, emotionally or nutritionally starved or sexually assaulted by their parents or carers. Responsibility for the investigation of these children is that of local-authority social-services departments. However, child health professionals have a vital role in diagnosis, obtaining forensic evidence, advising courts, supervising the medical aspects of follow-up and teaching doctors, therapists and other professionals in training. (See CHILD ABUSE.)

School health services Once children have reached school age, the emphasis changes. The prime need becomes identifying those with problems that may interfere with learning – including those with special needs as de?ned above, but also those with behavioural problems. Teachers and parents are advised on how to manage these problems, while health promotion and health education are directed at children. Special problems, especially as children reach secondary school (aged 11–18) include accidents, substance abuse, psychosexual adjustment, antisocial behaviour, eating disorders and physical conditions which loom large in the minds of adolescents in particular, such as ACNE, short stature and delayed puberty.

There is no longer, in the UK, a universal school health service as many of its functions have been taken over by general practitioners and hospital and community paediatricians. However, most areas still have school nurses, some have school doctors, while others do not employ speci?c individuals for these tasks but share out aspects of the work between GPs, health visitors, community nurses and consultant paediatricians in child health.

Complementing their work is the community dental service whose role is to monitor the whole child population’s dental health, provide preventive programmes for all, and dental treatment for those who have di?culty using general dental services – for example, children with complex disability. All children in state-funded schools are dentally screened at ages ?ve and 15.

Successes and failures Since the inception of the NHS, hospital services for children have had enormous success: neonatal and infant mortality rates have fallen by two-thirds; deaths from PNEUMONIA have fallen from 600 per million children to a handful; and deaths from MENINGITIS have fallen to one-?fth of the previous level. Much of this has been due to the revolution in the management of pregnancy and labour, the invention of neonatal resuscitation and neonatal intensive care, and the provision of powerful antibiotics.

At the same time, some children acquire HIV infection and AIDS from their affected mothers (see AIDS/HIV); the prevalence of atopic (see ATOPY) diseases (ASTHMA, eczema – see DERMATITIS, HAY FEVER) is rising; more children attend hospital clinics with chronic CONSTIPATION; and little can be done for most viral diseases.

Community child health services can also boast of successes. The routine immunisation programme has wiped out SMALLPOX, DIPHTHERIA and POLIOMYELITIS and almost wiped out haemophilus and meningococcal C meningitis, measles and congenital RUBELLA syndrome. WHOOPING COUGH outbreaks continue but the death and chronic disability rates have been greatly reduced. Despite these huge health gains, continuing public scepticism about the safety of immunisation means that there can be no relaxation in the educational and health-promotion programme.

Services for severely and multiply disabled children have improved beyond all recognition with the closure of long-stay institutions, many of which were distinctly child-unfriendly. Nonetheless, scarce resources mean that families still carry heavy burdens. The incidence of SUDDEN INFANT DEATH SYNDROME (SIDS) has more than halved as a result of an educational programme based on ?rm scienti?c evidence that the risk can be reduced by putting babies to sleep on their backs, avoidance of parental smoking, not overheating, breast feeding and seeking medical attention early for illness.

Children have fewer accidents and better teeth but new problems have arisen: in the 1990s children throughout the developed world became fatter. A UK survey in 2004 found that one in ?ve children are overweight and one in 20 obese. Lack of exercise, the easy availability of food at all times and in all places, together with the rise of ‘snacking’, are likely to provoke signi?cant health problems as these children grow into adult life. Adolescents are at greater risk than ever of ill-health through substance abuse and unplanned pregnancy. Child health services are facing new challenges in the 21st century.... child development teams (cdts)

Computer-assisted Therapy

The application of computer technology to therapy.... computer-assisted therapy

Chondodendron Tomentosum

Ruiz et Par.

Family: Menispermaceae.

Habitat: A native of Peru and Brazil.

English: False Pareira Brava.

Ayurvedic: Paatha, Ambashthaa (true Pareira is equated with Cissampelos pareira root).

Action: Diuretic (used for chronic inflammation of urinary passages, calculus affections, jaundice, dropsy); also for leucorrhoea, rheumatism.

Roots and stem contain alkaloids, including delta-tubocurarine and l- curarine. Tubocurarine is a potent muscle relaxant. The plant contains toxic derivatives and must be used in medicinal doses with caution.

Tubocurarine alkaloid is used as tubocurarine chloride to paralyse body’s muscles during operations.... chondodendron tomentosum

Chukrassia Tabularis

A. Juss.

Family: Meliaceae.

Habitat: Hills of Sikkim, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu and the Andamans.

English: Bastard Cedar, White Cedar, Indian Red Wood.

Siddha/Tamil: Aglay, Melei Veppu.

Folk: Chikrassy.

Action: Bark—astringent, febrifuge, antidiarrhoeic, spasmolytic, diuretic. The plant is used in skeltal fractures.

The bark contains sitosterol, melia- none, scopoletin and 6,7-di-MeO- coumarin. The leaves gave querce- tin galactoside, galloyl glucocide and tannic acid. The bark and young leaves contain 15 and 20% tannin respectively. Seeds contain tetranortriterpenoids.

EtOH (50%) extract of the stem bark exhibited spasmolytic, hypoten- sive and diuretic activity. The saline extract of seeds showed haemaggluti- nating activity.... chukrassia tabularis

Cinnamomum Tamala

Family: Lauraceae.

Habitat: The subtropical Himalayas, Khasi and Jaintia Hills.

English: Indian Cassia, Lignea.

Ayurvedic: Tejapatra, Patra, Patraka, Utkat, Tamaalpatra, Naalukaa, Naalikaa.

Unani: Saleekhaa, Saazaj Hindi (Also equated with Zarnab/Telispattar by National Formulary of Unani Medicine, Part I.)

Siddha/Tamil: Talishpattiri (now equated with the leaf of Abies webbiana); Lavangappattiri.

Folk: Tejpaata.

Action: Leaf—Carminative, antidiarrhoeal, spasmolytic, an- tirheumatic, hypoglycaemic. Essential oil—fungicidal.

The oil from bark contains cin- namaldehyde (70-85%) as major constituent. (See.C.cassia.) Leaves from Nepal yield a volatile oil, containing mainly linalool 54.66%; cinnamalde- hyde 1.16%, alpha-and beta-pinene, p- cymene and limonene.

Cinnamomum wighti Meissn. is also equated with Tejapatra. The bud, known as Sirunaagappoo in Siddha/ Tamil, is used as Naagakeshara (black var.). (Naagakeshara is obtained from Mesuaferra and Dilleniapentagyne.)

C. impressinervium Meissn. (Sik- kim) and C. obtusifolium (Roxb.) Nees (the Central and Eastern Himalayas up to 2,100 m, Assam and Andaman Islands) are related species of Cinnamo- mum.

The leaves and bark contain cin- namaldehyde.

Dosage: Dried leaves—1-3 g powder. (API Vol. I.)... cinnamomum tamala

Cleavers Tea - Best Tonic For The Lymphatic System Available In Nature

Cleavers tea has been used for centuries, even in ancient Greece. It is considered probably the best tonic for the lymphatic system available. Discover all of its benefits and learn how to make the most of this type of tea. Description of Cleavers tea Cleavers is an annual green plant that grows mostly in Britain, North America and Eurasia regions. The green to white flowers look like small balls and they are very sticky, similar to the leaves. Scientifically named gallium aparine, cleavers is also called bedstraw, barweed, catchweed, grip grass. The entire cleavers plant is used in herbal medicine and is harvested just before it blooms in early summer. The active constituents of cleavers tea are chlorophyll, citric acide, rubichloric acid, galiosin and tannins. To benefit the most from these constituents, you can consume cleavers, usually found in the form of tea, extracts, capsule, or fresh for many cooking recipes. The roasted seeds are used as a coffee substitute and the young leaves can be eaten like spinach. Cleavers tea has a slightly bitter taste and no odor. Cleavers tea brew For a tasty Cleavers tea, take 2 to 3 teaspoons of the dried above-ground parts of the plant and infuse them in a 250 mg cup of hot water for 10 or 15 minutes. You may add sugar or honey to improve its taste and drink up to three times per day. Cleavers tea  Benefits Cleavers tea is a strong detoxifying for the lymphatic system. It is diuretic, thus treating most of urinary tract infections. It cleans the blood, the liver and kidneys. The tea can be used together with Uva Ursi or Echinacea for best results. Applied topically, Cleavers tea helps in the treatment of many skin conditions like acne, eczema, psoriasis, dandruff, itchy scalp, sunburns or even wounds. Cleavers tea can be used as a facial tonner because it helps clear the complexion. Cleavers tea Side effects Cleavers tea has no known side effects. Though it is widely safe, children, pregnant or nursing women should drink it with precaution. Cleavers tea can surely be included in a healthy lifestyle. As long as you don’t exaggerate with it, you can enjoy the benefits of this tea and even use the plant to prepare many tasty recipes and salads.... cleavers tea - best tonic for the lymphatic system available in nature

Computerised Tomography

See COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY.... computerised tomography

Connective Tissue Disorders

A group of generalised in?ammatory diseases that affect CONNECTIVE TISSUE in almost any system in the body. The term does not include those disorders of genetic origin. RHEUMATIC FEVER and RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS were traditionally classi?ed in this group, as were those diseases classed under the outdated heading COLLAGEN DISEASES.... connective tissue disorders

Clinical Trials

(See EVIDENCE-BASED MEDICINE.) Clinical trials aim to evaluate the relative effects of di?erent health-care interventions. They are based on the idea that there must a fair comparison of the alternatives in order to know which is better. Threats to a fair comparison include the play of chance and bias, both of which can cause people to draw the wrong conclusions about how e?ective a treatment or procedure is.

An appreciation of the need to account for chance and bias has led to development of methods where new treatments are compared to either a PLACEBO or to the standard treatment (or both) in a controlled, randomised clinical trial. ‘Controlled’ means that there is a comparison group of patients not receiving the test intervention, and ‘randomised’ implies that patients have been assigned to one or other treatment group entirely by chance and not because of their doctor’s preference. If possible, trials are ‘double-blind’ – that is, neither the patient nor the investigator knows who is receiving which intervention until after the trial is over. All such trials must follow proper ethical standards with the procedure fully explained to patients and their consent obtained.

The conduct, e?ectiveness and duplication of clinical trials have long been subjects of debate. Apart from occasional discoveries of deliberately fraudulent research (see RESEARCH FRAUD AND MISCONDUCT), the structure of some trials are unsatisfactory, statistical analyses are sometimes disputed and major problems have been the – usually unwitting – duplication of trials and non-publication of some trials, restricting access to their ?ndings. Duplication occurs because no formal international mechanism exists to enable research workers to discover whether a clinical trial they are planning is already underway elsewhere or has been completed but never published, perhaps because the results were negative, or no journal was willing to publish it, or the authors or funding authorities decided not to submit it for publication.

In the mid 1980s a proposal was made for an international register of clinical trials. In 1991 the NHS launched a research and development initiative and, liaising with the COCHRANE COLLABORATION, set out to collect systematically data from published randomised clinical trials. In 1994 the NHS set up a Centre for Reviews and Dissemination which, among other responsibilities, maintains a database of research reviews to provide NHS sta? with relevant information.

These e?orts are hampered by availability of information about trials in progress and unpublished completed trials. With a view to improving accessibility of relevant information, the publishers of Current Science, in 1998, launched an online metaregister of ongoing randomised controlled trials.

Subsequently, in October 1999, the editors of the British Medical Journal and the Lancet argued that the case for an international register of all clinical trials prior to their launch was unanswerable. ‘The public’, they said, ‘has the right to know what research is being funded. Researchers and research funders don’t want to waste resources repeating trials already underway.’ Given the widening recognition of the importance to patients and doctors of the practice of EVIDENCE-BASED MEDICINE, the easy availability of information on planned, ongoing and completed clinical trials is vital. The register was ?nally set up in 2005.... clinical trials

Clitoria Ternatea


Family: Papilionaceae; Fabaceae.

Habitat: Throughout India in tropical areas; also cultivated in hedges.

English: Butterfly Pea, Winged- leaved Clitoria, Mezereon.

Ayurvedic: Girikarnikaa, Aparaa- jitaa, Aasphota, Girimallikaa, Girikanyaa, Kokilaa,Yonipushpaa, Vishnukraantaa. (Evolvulus alsi- noides Linn. is also known as Vishnukraantaa, Vishnukranti). Used as Shankhapushpi in the South.

Unani: Mezereon Hindi.

Siddha/Tamil: Kakkanam.

Folk: Koyal (Punjab).

Action: Root—cathartic like jalap. Roots cause gripe and tenesmus, hence not recommended as purgative. Used in ascites. Root bark—diuretic (infusion used in irritation of bladder and urethra). Root juice—given in cold milk to liquefy phlegm in chronic bronchitis. The root, bark, seeds and leaves—used for gastric acidity. The root is administered with honey as a general tonic to children for improving mental faculty.

The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India recommends the dried leaf in migraine, psychoneurosis and mania.

An alcoholic extract of the plant showed sedative and hypothermic effect in rodents.

Rats, fed with ethanol extract of flowers, showed a significantly lowered serum sugar level in experimentally induced diabetes.

The seeds contain a nucleoprotein with its amino acid sequence similar to insulin, but for the absence of his- tidine, threonine, proline and crystine.

Seeds gave cinnamic acid, flavonol gly- coside. Leaves contain glycosides of kaempferol.

In South India, the seeds and roots constitute the drug Shankhapushpi, used as a nervine tonic. In other regions, Canscora decussata, Convolvulus pluricaulis, Evolvulus alsinoides and Lavendula bipinnata are used as Shan- khapushpi.

Dosage: Root—1-3 g powder (API Vol. II); dried leaf—2-5 g; seed—1- 3 g. (API Vol. IV.)... clitoria ternatea

Continuous Autologous Transfusion

See TRANSFUSION.... continuous autologous transfusion

Crossover Trial

A trial in which each of the groups involved will receive each of the treatments, but in a randomized order: that is, they will start in one arm of the trial, but will deliberately ‘cross over’ to the other arm(s) in turn.... crossover trial

Cognitive Behaviour Therapy

A talking therapy that re-trains the mind to question and banish negative thoughts, change emotional responses and change behaviour. It is based on the theory that some people develop unduly negative and pessimistic thoughts (cognitions) about themselves, their future and the world around them, putting them at risk of depression and other mental-health problems. Put simply, the treatment involves several sessions with a trained therapist who helps to identify the negative patterns of thinking and show that they are not usually realistic.

Research has shown that cognitive therapy is very e?ective in depression and that it can also help in anxiety, OBSESSIVE COMPULSIVE DISORDER, and EATING DISORDERS such as anorexia and bulimia nervosa. This therapy is also proving useful in helping people cope with HALLUCINATIONS and other symptoms of SCHIZOPHRENIA.... cognitive behaviour therapy

Community Mental Health Teams

Intended as a key part of the NHS’s local comprehensive mental health services serving populations of around 50,000, these multidisciplinary, multi-agency teams have been less e?ective than expected, in part due to varying modes of operation in di?erent districts. Some experts argue that the services they provide – for example, crisis intervention, liaison with primary care services and continuing care for long-term clients – could be delivered more e?ectively by several specialist teams rather than a single, large generic one comprising psychiatrists, psychologists, community mental health nurses, occupational therapists, support and (sometimes) social workers.... community mental health teams

Crown-of-thorns Starfish

Colloquial term for the starfish Acanthaster planci. See Acanthaster planci.... crown-of-thorns starfish

Day Therapy Centre

See “day care centre”.... day therapy centre

Deep Vein Thrombosis (dvt)

See THROMBOSIS; VEINS, DISEASES OF.... deep vein thrombosis (dvt)

Delphi Technique

An iterative group judgment technique in which a central source forwards surveys or questionnaires to isolated, anonymous (to each other) participants whose responses are collated/summarized and recirculated to the participants in multiple rounds for further modification/critique, producing a final group response (sometimes statistical).... delphi technique

Coomb Teak

Gmelina arborea


San: Gumbhari;

Hin:Gamari, Jugani-chukar;

Mal: Kumizhu, Kumpil;

Guj: Shewan; Pun:Gumbar; Mar: Shivanasal;

Kan: Kummuda;

Tam: Uni, Gumadi;

Tel: Gummadi;

Importance: Coomb teak, Candahar tree or Kashmeeri tree is a moderate sized, unarmed, deciduous tree which is a vital ingredient of the ”dasamula” (group of ten roots). The whole plant is medicinally very important. It promotes digestive power, improves memory, overcomes giddiness and is also used as an antidote for snake bite and scorpion sting. Roots are useful in hallucination, fever, dyspepsia, hyperdipsia, haemorrhoids, stomachalgia, heart diseases, nervous disorders, piles and burning sensation. Bark is used in fever and dyspepsia. Leaf paste is good for cephalagia and leaf juice is a good wash for foul ulcers and is also used in the treatment of gonorrhoea and cough. Flowers are recommended for leprosy, skin and blood diseases. The fruits are used for promoting the growth of hair and in anaemia, leprosy, ulcers, constipation, strangury, leucorrhoea, colpitis and lung disease.

Wood is one of the best and most reliable timber of India. It is used for making furniture, planks, carriages, printing boxes, musical instruments, shafts, axles, picture frames, jute bobbins, calipers, ship buildings, artificial limbs and stethoscopes.

In south India the bark of the tree is used by arrack manufacturers to regulate the fermentation of toddy. The plant is also grown in garden or avenues (Dey, 1988; Sivarajan and Indira, 1994).

Distribution: The plant is found wild throughout India from the foot of Himalayas to Kerala and Anadamans, in moist, semideciduous and open forests upto an altitude of 1500 m. It is also distributed in Sri Lanka and Philippines.

Botany: Gmelina arborea Roxb. Syn. Premna arborea Roth. belongs to Family Verbenaceae. It is an unarmed deciduous tree growing up to 20m height with whitish grey corky lenticellate bark, exfloliating in thin flakes. Branchlets and young parts are clothed with fine white mealy pubescence. Leaves are simple, opposite, broadly ovate, cordate, glandular, glabrous above when mature and fulvous-tomentose beneath. Flowers brownish yellow in terminal panicle. Calyx campanulate, pubescent outside and with 5 lobes. Corolla showy brownish yellow with short tube and oblique limbs. Stamens 4, didynamous and included. Ovary is 4 chambered with one ovule each; style slender ending in a bifid stigma. Fruits are fleshy ovoid drupes, orange yellow when ripe. Seeds 1 or 2, hard and oblong.

Agrotechnology: Coomb teak is a sun loving plant. It does not tolerate drought. But it grows in light frost. Rainfall higher than 2000mm and loose soil are ideal. The best method of propagation is by seeds but rarely propagated vegitatevely by stem cuttings also. Seed formation occurs in May-June. Seeds are dried well before use. They are soaked in water for 12 hours before sowing. Seed rate is 3kg/ha. Seeds are sown in nursery beds shortly before rains. Seeds germinate within one month. Seedlings are transplanted in the first rainy season when they are 7-10cm tall. Pits of size 50cm cube are made at a spacing of 3-4m and filled with sand, dried cowdung and surface soil, over which the seedlings are transplanted. 20kg organic manure is given once a year. Irrigation and weeding should be done on a regular basis. The common disease reported is sooty mould caused by Corticium salmonicolor which can be controlled by applying a suitable fungicide. The tree grows fast and may be ready for harvesting after 4 or 5 years. This plant is coppiced and traded. The roots are also used for medicinal purposes. The tree may stand up to 25 years.

Properties and activity: Roots and heart wood of Coomb teak are reported to contain gmelinol, hentriacontanol, n-octacosanol and -sitosterol. The roots contain sesquiterpenoid and apiosylskimmin, a coumarin characterised as umbelliferone-7-apiosyl glucoside and gmelofuran. The heart wood gives ceryl alcohol, cluytyl ferulate, lignans, arboreol, gmelonone, 6”-bromo isoarboreol, lignan hemiacetal and gummidiol. Leaves yield luteolin, apigenin, quercetin, hentriacontanol, -sitosterol, quercetogenin and other flavons. Fruits contain butyric acid, tartaric acid, and saccharine substances (Asolkar et al, 1992; Dey, 1988).

The roots are acrid, bitter, tonic, stomachic, laxative, galactogogue, demulcent, antibilious, febrifuge and anthelmintic. Bark is bitter, hypoglycaemic, antiviral, anticephalalgic and tonic. The leaves are demulcent, antigonorrhoeic and bechic. Flowers are sweet, refrigerant, astringent and acrid. Fruits are acrid, refrigerant, diuretic, astringent, aphrodisiac, trichogenous, alterant and tonic (Warrier et al; 1995).... coomb teak

Dicoma Tomentosa


Family: Compositae; Asteraceae.

Habitat: Native to Africa and Asia, found in north-western and southern India.

Folk: Navananji (Maharashtra), Vajradanti (Punjab).

Action: Febrifuge (used in febrile attacks after childbirth. Applied locally to putrescent wounds.

In Indian medicine, Vajradanti, equated with Potentilla arbuscula D. Don and its related species (Rosaceae), is used topically for strengthening gums and teeth.... dicoma tomentosa

Drug Therapy

The use of drugs to treat a medical problem, to improve a person’s condition or to otherwise produce a therapeutic effect.... drug therapy

Dwarf Tapeworm

Hymenolepis nana, a small cestode of rodents and humans.... dwarf tapeworm

Euphorbia Thomsoniana


Family: Euphorbiaceae.

Habitat: Kashmir, above 2,350 m.

Ayurvedic: Hiyaavali, Svarnakshiri (also equated with Argemone mexicana L., Papaveraceae.), Kanchanakshiri, Pitadugdhaa, Katuparni.

Folk: Hiravi (Kashmir). Titari (Himachal Pradesh).

Action: Root—purgative. Latex— used in eruptions and other skin diseases.... euphorbia thomsoniana

Coptis Teeta


Family: Ranunculaceae.

Habitat: Mishmi Hills in Arunachal Pradesh. Cultivated commercially in China.

Ayurvedic: Mamira, Maamiraa, Tiktamuulaa. (Pita-muulikaa and Hem-tantu are provisional synonyms.)

Unani: Maamisaa, Maamiraa.

Folk: Titaa (Bengal and Assam).

Action: Stomachic, antiperiodic, antibacterial, antifungal. Prescribed in debility, convalescence, intermittent fevers, dyspepsia, dysentery and intestinal catarrh. Used as a local application in thrush.

The rhizomes contains berberine (9%) as the major alkaloid; other alkaloids present are: coptin (0.08%), cop- tisin 0.02%) and jatrorrhizine (0.01%). Samples from China contained 9.2612.23% berberine, 2.39-3.25% coptisin and 3.20-4.46% jatrorrhizine. In China, the herb is used as an antidiabetic; the ethanolic (50%) extract exhibited hypoglycaemic and hypotensive activity.

The drug due to berberine and its related alkaloids promoted reticuloen- dothelium to increased phagocytosis of leucocytes in dog blood in vitro and in vivo.

Coptis chinensis (Huang Lian) inhibited erythrocyte haemolysis, decreased lipid peroxidation in brain and kidney, decreased generation of superoxide peroxidation and decreased hy- droxyl radicals in rats. (Life Sci, 2000, 66(8), 725-735.)

Dosage: Root—1-3 g powder. (CCRAS.)... coptis teeta

Croton Tiglium


Family: Euphorbiaceae.

Habitat: Native to South-East Asia. Now cultivated in Assam, Bengal and South India.

English: Purging Croton.

Ayurvedic: Jayapaala, Dravanti, Dantibija, Tintidiphala.

Unani: Habb-us-Salaateen, Jamaal- gotaa, Hubb-ul-Malook.

Siddha/Tamil: Nervaalam.

Action: Cathartic, rubefacient, irritant. Used in ascites, anasarca, dropsy and enlargement of abdominal viscera.

The seed oil is purgative. It produces severe symptoms of toxicity when taken internally or applied externally to the skin.

Croton oil showed tumour-promoting activity on mouse skin. The skin irritant and tumour promoting diterpene esters of the tigliane type (phorbol esters) and toxins have been isolated from the seeds. (In China, where the herb is employed for the treatment of gastro-intestinal disturbances, the highest incidence of naso- pharyngeal cancer has been reported.) 1 ml oil is usually fatal. Phorbols (terpenoids) from nonvolatile oil are toxic. Crotin, a toxic albuminous substance, is not extracted in the oil. The plant caused haematuria and swelling of lymph glands in animals.

Dosage: Seed—6-12 mg powder. (API Vol. IV.)... croton tiglium

Cucumis Trigonus


Synonym: C. pseudo-colocynthis Royle.

C.callosus (Rottl.) Congn. Bryonia callosa Rottl.

Habitat: Wild throughout the drier upland tracts of India. Ayurvedic: Indravaaruni (var.). Siddha/Tamil: Kattutumatti. Folk: Vishlumbha, Bhakuraa.

Action: Pulp of fruit—drastic purgative. Decoction of roots— milder in purgative action. Seeds— cooling, astringent; useful in bilious disorders. The fruit is used as a substitute for Colocynth.

The fruits contain steroid and tri- terpenoid compounds, cucurbitacin B and proteolytic enzymes. EtOH extract exhibits analgesic and anti- inflammatory activity; stimulates isolated uterus of guinea pigs.... cucumis trigonus

Cuipo Tree

Cavanillesia platanifolia

Description: This is a very dominant and easily detected tree because it extends above the other trees. Its height ranges from 45 to 60 meters. It has leaves only at the top and is bare 11 months out of the year. It has rings on its bark that extend to the top to make is easily recognizable. Its bark is reddish or gray in color. Its roots are light reddish-brown or yellowish-brown.

Habitat and Distribution: The cuipo tree is located primarily in Central American tropical rain forests in mountainous areas.

Edible Parts: To get water from this tree, cut a piece of the root and clean the dirt and bark off one end, keeping the root horizontal. Put the clean end to your mouth or canteen and raise the other. The water from this tree tastes like potato water.

Other Uses: Use young saplings and the branches’ inner bark to make rope.... cuipo tree

Eustachian Tubes

The passages, one on each side, leading from the throat to the middle ear. Each is about 38 mm (1••• inches) long and is large at either end, though at its narrowest part it only admits a ?ne probe. The tubes open widely in the act of swallowing or yawning. The opening into the throat is situated just behind the lower part of the nose, so that a catheter can be passed through the corresponding nostril into the tube for in?ation of the middle ear. (See also EAR; NOSE.)... eustachian tubes

Exit Traps

Devices typically placed over doors and windows of houses or animal shelters to catch mosquitoes leaving these buildings.... exit traps

Cyamopsis Tetragonoloba

(Linn.) Taub.

Family: Fabaceae; Papilionaceae.

Habitat: Cultivated throughout India, particularly in Haryana, Punjab, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh and Orissa.

English: Cluster bean, Guar.

Ayurvedic: Kshudra Shimbi, Gorakshaphalini, Guaar, Gwaalin.

Unani: Guaar phali.

Action: Laxative, antibilious. Gum—hypoglycaemic, hypolipi- daemic, appetite depressor (weight loss not observed), reduces glyco- suria during gum supplementation.

The administration of Guar gum (15 g/day) with normal diet for 6 weeks produced significant reduction in plasma, total cholesterol and LDL-choles- terol. The gum (10 g daily) is reported to decrease blood-glucose level in normal and diabetic volunteers. The supplementation of the gum in the diet of insulin-dependent diabetics failed to improve the long-term diabetic control, but significantly reduced serum cholesterol levels.

Taking Guar gum orally with meals was found to lower post-prandial glucose levels in patients with type 1 diabetes. (Am J clin Nutr, 56, 1992, 10561060.)

Oral administration of an ethanol extract of powdered pods has shown significant antiulcer, antisecretory and cytoprotective effects on various experimentally-induced gastric lesions in rats.

Guarmeal contains galactomannan, 3-epikatonic acid and a saponin.... cyamopsis tetragonoloba

Darjeeling Tea - The Champagne Of Teas

Darjeeling tea is a black tea grown in the Darjeeling district in West Bengal, India. Darjeeling tea is also called the “champagne of teas” since it is considered to be the finest tea in the world. At first, Darjeeling tea was available only as black tea but later on, Darjeeling white tea and Darjeeling oolong tea have been produced. Darjeeling tea is made from the small-leaved Chinese plant Camellia Sinensis, unlike most Indian teas that are made from the large-leaved Assam plant. The reason is that, in the early 1840’s, a civil surgeon of the Indian Medical Service named Dr. Campbell was transferred to Darjeeling and used seeds from China to experiment tea planting. How to brew Darjeeling tea Many tea drinkers complain about not getting the right flavor when drinking the Indian Darjeeling tea. The main reason why this happens is because the preparation of Darjeeling tea is a delicate process and ignoring even only one step can cause the loss of an authentic flavor and taste. Here are some important rules in brewing Darjeeling tea:
  • Use water that is free of chlorine, iron, salt and other type of impurities, because otherwise it can completely ruin the taste orDarjeeling tea.
  • An important detail that most people ignore is using the right teapot. That is why it is recommended the use of China porcelain teapots and cups.
  • For proper infusion, the Darjeeling tea leaves should be placed into the pot and then pour hot water on it.
  • And last, Darjeeling tea connoisseurs advise not to put any kind of milk, honey or sugar in it since they change the aromatic flavor of Darjeeling tea. Also, milk reduces the benefits of this tea.
Here are the brewing instructions: First of all, you have to boil the water. Once the water is boiled, let it cool for about 5 minutes because if it is too hot, the Darjeeling tea leaves might burn and you will lose the flavor. Then add one teaspoon of Darjeeling leaves per 8 oz cup in the teapot and slowly pour water over the leaves.  Let it steep between 2-5 minutes, but be careful! Steeping it for more than 5 minutes, may lead to a bitter cup of tea!  Try to drink it without any kind of sweetener or milk to really enjoy the flavor. Darjeeling Tea benefits Darjeeling tea has many benefits because of the high antioxidant content that combat free radicals and diseases. Also Darjeeling tea contains vitamins and minerals such as Vitamin C, Vitamin K, calcium, magnesium and potassium, according the University of Arizona.
  • Darjeeling tea strengthens your immune system, lowers cholesterol, fights dental plaque and maintains a healthy heart.
  • Provides relaxation because of the L-theanine (amino - acid) that reduces mental and physical stress. That is why, people who suffer from depression or have anxiety attacks are advised to drink Darjeeling tea since it offers a feeling of well-being.
  • It gives you energy, even though it has a small amount of caffeine. The L-theanine amino- acid softens caffeine’s speedy and uneven effects so that a person who is consuming Darjeeling tea feels relaxed and energized in the same time.
  • Darjeeling tea contains antioxidants called flavonoids that protect cells from free radical damage.
  • Reduces stroke risks and improves the function of blood vessels.
Darjeeling tea side effects  Since Darjeeling tea is a black tea, it has almost the same side effects as the simple black tea:
  • People with anemia and iron deficiency should avoid drinking Darjeeling black tea.
  • In cases of diabetes, even though Darjeeling tea’s caffeine content is softened by the the L-theanine amino - acid, still might affect blood sugar.
  • People who present calcium deficit shouldn’t drink black tea, including Darjeeling tea, since it could produce dizziness and the sensation of fainting.
  • Also, pregnant women are advised not to drink black tea.
Darjeeling tea is perfect for any time of the day and it is worldwide acknowledged as being to teas what champagne is to wine. It has a unique flavor that cannot be replicated anywhere else in the world!... darjeeling tea - the champagne of teas

Fallot’s Tetralogy

See TETRALOGY OF FALLOT.... fallot’s tetralogy

Fibrous Tissue

See CONNECTIVE TISSUE.... fibrous tissue

Ficus Talbotii

G. King.

Family: Moraceae.

Habitat: Peninsular India.

Ayurvedic: Plaksha (related species).

Siddha/Tamil: Itthi, Kal Itthi.

Action: Bark—antileprotic (used for ulcers and venereal diseases). Aerial parts exhibit diuretic, spasmolytic, CNS depressant and hypothermic activity.... ficus talbotii

Desmodium Triflorum

(Linn.) DC.

Synonym: Hedysarum triflorum Linn.

Family: Fabaceae.

Habitat: Throughout India, in the plains ascending to 1,200 m in Kumaon and 1,800 m in Kashmir.

Ayurvedic: Tripaadi, Hamsapaadi (Kerala).

Siddha/Tamil: Seruppadi.

Folk: Jangali Methi, Ran-methi.

Action: Fresh leaves—used internally as galactagogue and for diarrhoea; applied externally to wounds and abscesses. Root— diuretic. Also used for cough, asthma.

The leaf contains alkaloids (0.010.15%), major being beta-phenylethyl- amine; also contains tyramine and hy- paphorine. Hypaphorine is present in roots as well. Root contains 0.010.02% alkaloids.... desmodium triflorum

Dichlorodiphenyl Trichloroethane

DDT is the generally used abbreviation for the compound which has been given the o?cial name of dicophane. It was ?rst synthesised in 1874, but it was not until 1940 that, as a result of research work in Switzerland, its remarkable toxic action on insects was discovered. This work was taken up and rapidly expanded in Great Britain and the USA, and one of its ?rst practical applications was in controlling the spread of TYPHUS FEVER. This disease is transmitted by the louse, one of the insects for which DDT is most toxic. Its toxic action against the mosquito has also been amply proved, and it thus rapidly became one of the most e?ective measures in controlling MALARIA. DDT is toxic to a large range of insects in addition to the louse and the mosquito; these include house?ies, bed-bugs, clothes-moths, ?eas, cockroaches, and ants. It is also active against many agricultural and horticultural pests, including weevils, ?our beetles, pine saw?y, and most varieties of scale insect.

DDT has thus had a wide use in medicine, public health, veterinary medicine, horticulture, and agriculture. Unfortunately, the indiscriminate use of DDT is potentially hazardous, and its use is now restricted or banned in several countries, including the United Kingdom.

The danger of DDT is that it enters the biological food chain with the result that animals at the end of the food chain such as birds or predators may build up lethal concentrations of the substance in their tissues.

In any case, an increasing number of species of insects were becoming resistant to DDT. Fortunately, newer insecticides have been introduced which are toxic to DDT-resistant insects, but there are doubts whether this supply of new insecticides can be maintained as insects develop resistance to them.... dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane

Diospyros Tomentosa


Synonym: D. exsculpta Buch.-Ham.

Family: Ebenaceae.

Habitat: Sub-Himalayan tract from Ravi to Nepal, also in Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar and Orrisa.

English: Nepal Ebony Persimmon.

Ayurvedic: Viralaa, Tinduka (var.).

Siddha/Tamil: Tumbi.

Action: Astringent, anti- inflammatory, styptic. Various plant parts are used for dry cough, bronchitis, pleurisy, pneumonia, dysuria, fistula, tumours, bleeding gums, haemorrhagic conditions.

The leaves and stems gave beta- sitosterol, lupeol, betulin, betulinic and oleanolic acids.

Unsaponifiable matter of seeds showed CNS depressant activity.... diospyros tomentosa

Dipterocarpus Turbinatus

Gaertn. f.

Synonym: D. indicus Bedd.

Family: Dipterocarpaceae.

Habitat: The Andamans and Assam.

English: Common Gurjun tree, Wood Oil tree.

Ayurvedic: Ajakarna, Chhaagakar- na, Ashwakarna.

Siddha/Tamil: Enney, Saara.

Folk: Gurjan.

Action: Oleo-resin (known as Gurjan Oil or Gurjan Balsam)— stimulant to genitourinary system, diuretic, spasmolytic; used externally on ulcers, ringworm and other cutaneous affections. Bark—a decoction is prescribed rheumatism.

Essential oil from oleo-resin contained humulene, beta-caryophyllene, a bicyclic sesquiterpene hydrocarbon and a sesquiterpene alcohol.

The twig bark contains 9% tannin and 7.3% soluble non-tans.

Dosage: Oil—3-5 ml. (CCRAS.)... dipterocarpus turbinatus

Flexible Training

A term applied to the system of postgraduate medical training that allows young doctors to integrate their domestic commitments with the training requirements necessary to become a fully quali?ed specialist, usually by working part-time.... flexible training

Gamgee Tissue

A surgical dressing composed of a thick layer of cotton-wool between two layers of absorbent gauze, introduced by the Birmingham surgeon, Sampson Gamgee (1828–1886). Gamgee tissue has been a registered trademark since 1911.... gamgee tissue

Gene Testing

See GENETIC SCREENING.... gene testing

Genito-urinary Tract

This consists of the KIDNEYS, ureters (see URETER), URINARY BLADDER and URETHRA – and, in the male, also the genital organs.... genito-urinary tract

Geriatric Assessment Team

See “aged care assessment team”.... geriatric assessment team

Discover The Milk Thistle Tea

Milk Thistle tea is a type of herbal tea made from the plant with the same name: milk thistle. The plant has many health benefits, therefore making the tea good for your body. Find out more about the milk thistle tea in this article. About Milk Thistle Tea The main ingredient of the milk thistle tea is, of course, the milk thistle; it is made from the seeds of the plant. The milk thistle is a flowering plant of the daisy family, an annual or biennial herb which grows in the Mediterranean regions of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East. The stem is tall, branched but with no spines, and has large, alternate leaves. At the end of the stem, there are large flower heads, disk-shaped and pink-purple in color. The fruit of the plants consists of a black achene with a white pappus. The name of the plant comes from the way its leaves look. The edges of the leaves are streaked with milky-white veins. How to prepare Milk Thistle Tea You can easily prepare a cup of milk thistle tea in no more than 10 minutes. First, boil the water necessary for a cup of milk thistle tea. Add one teaspoon of milk thistle tea seeds and then, add the hot water. Let it steep for 4-7 minutes, depending on how strong you want the flavor of the tea to be. During summer, you can also try the iced tea version of the milk thistle tea. Place 6 teaspoons into a teapot or a heat resistant pitcher and then pour one and a half cups of boiled water. Let it steep for 5 minutes. Meanwhile, get a serving pitcher and fill it with cold water. Once the steeping time is done, pour the tea over the cold water, add ice, and then pour more cold water. Add sugar, honey or anything else you want to sweeten the taste. Benefits of Milk Thistle Tea The main health benefit of the milk thistle tea is related to its effectiveness in protecting the liver, thanks to one of its components, Silymarin. Silymarin is the main active ingredient of the milk thistle tea, working both as an anti-inflammatory and as an antioxidant. It helps with cirrhosis, jaundice, hepatitis, and gallbladder disorders. It also detoxifies the liver, as well as helping it by cleansing the blood. If you’ve got type 2 diabetes, drinkingmilk thistle tea might help you a lot, as well. Some of the benefits of milk thistle tea, related to diabetes, are:decrease in blood sugar levels, improvement in cholesterol and improvement in insulin resistance.  Also, by lowering the LDL “bad” cholesterol levels, milk thistle tea can help lower the chances of developing heart diseases. Other health benefits of milk thistle tea involve increasing the secretion of the bile in order to enhance the flow in the intestinal tract, helping to ease kidney and bladder irritations, and helping to remove obstructions in the spleen. Milk Thistle Tea side effects Despite its important health benefits, don’t forget that there are also a few side effects you might experience when drinking milk thistle tea. If you regularly drink milk thistle teafor a long period of time, it might end up having laxative effects. That can easily lead to diarrhea and, in some rare cases, it can also lead to nausea, gases, and an upset and bloating stomach. You should avoid drinking milk thistle tea if you know that you have a ragweed allergy. In this case, it can cause a rash or lead to more severe allergic reactions. Milk thistle tea also isn’t recommended to women who are pregnant or breast feeding. The main ingredient of milk thistle tea, the milk thistle herb, may mimic the effects of estrogen. Because of this, some women should avoid drinking milk thistle tea. This refers to women who have fibroid tumors or endometriosis, as well as women who are suffering from breast, uterine, and/or ovarian cancer. Also, don’t drink more than six cups of milk thistle tea (or any other type of tea) a day. Otherwise, it won’t be as helpful as it should be. The symptoms you might get are headaches, dizziness, insomnia, irregular heartbeats, vomiting, diarrhea and loss of appetite. Try the milk thistle tea! As an herbal tea, it helps you stay healthy, especially by protecting your liver. Still, don’t forget about the few side effects.... discover the milk thistle tea

Health Care Team

A group comprising a variety of professionals (medical practitioners, nurses, physical and occupational therapists, social workers, pharmacists, spiritual counsellors), as well as family members, who are involved in providing coordinated and comprehensive care. There are three types of health care team, defined by the degree of interaction among members and the sharing of responsibility for care:... health care team

Discover The Teas For Breastfeeding Women

It is well-known that tea should be avoided both during and after pregnancy. After you give birth, the tea you drink can affect the baby through breastfeeding. This is why you should be careful with the types of tea you drink if you are breastfeeding. Check teas for breastfeeding women Herbal teas are mostly considered safe for women who are breastfeeding. Still, there are some things you need to be careful with and check, before you start drinking an herbal tea while nursing. Make sure the herbal tea you drink does not contain caffeine. While it might not affect you, the caffeine found in tea can affect the baby. Also check if the herbal tea contains plants you are allergic to. It is not the baby you have to worry about in this case, but your own health, as it could prove to be harmful for you. It is best to speak with your doctor as well, before you drink a type of tea, even herbal ones. Check to see if the tea you have chosen is safe to take when you are breastfeeding, or if it does not decrease the breast milk supply. Make sure you choose the proper tea for breastfeeding. Teas for breastfeeding women There are many herbal teas which are recommended for breastfeeding women. Most of them help increase the breast milk supply. Organic mother’s milk tea is known to be useful, because of its ingredients (fennel, aniseed, and coriander help with the milk supply). Other herbal teas include raspberry leaf tea, nettle tea, or alfalfa tea. Also, you can drink blessed thistle tea and fennel tea in small amounts. Chamomile tea can also be consumed if you are breastfeeding. It will help you relax and have a peaceful sleep. Motherwort tea also helps you relax, as well as reduces the risk of getting post partum depression. Ginger tea can help with an upset stomach, as well as increase blood circulation. Teas you should avoid while breastfeeding During nursing periods, you should not drink teas that contain caffeine. This means you should avoid teas made from the Camellia Sinensis plant: white tea, black tea, green tea, and oolong tea. There are several types of tea which can reduce your breast milk supply. These include oregano tea, sage tea, spearmint tea, peppermint tea, borage tea, comfrey tea, yarrow tea, chickweed tea, parsley tea or thyme tea. Make sure you do not consume any of these teas while breastfeeding. Topically applied teas for breastfeeding Teas can be used topically, as well. There are some which help during breastfeeding periods when they are applied on the skin. Partridge tea can help in this way. When applied topically, it relieves the soreness you might get from breastfeeding. The tea you drink can affect both you and the baby even during nursing. Because of this, make sure you check to see if what you are drinking is safe. Choose one of these teas for breastfeeding and you will not have to worry about any side effects!... discover the teas for breastfeeding women

Elaeocarpus Tuberculatus


Family: Celastraceae.

Habitat: Throughout India, also planted as an ornamental.

Ayurvedic: Krishnamokshaka.

Siddha/Tamil: Selluppaimaram.

Folk: Kaalaa-mokhaa, Ratangaruur. Jamrasi (gum).

Action: Astringent, anti- inflammatory, emetic.

The bark and the leaves contain 813.5 and 8-15% tannin respectively.

Powdered leaves have a sternutatory action and are used as snuff to relieve headache and as a fumigatory in hysteria (in folk medicine it is believed that the smoke wards off ghosts.)

Fresh root bark is rubbed into a paste with water and applied to swellings. A cold water extract of the crushed roots is used as an emetic (fatal in overdoses).

Family: Elaeocarpaceae.

Habitat: Western Ghats from Kanara southwards. Ayurvedic: Rudraaksha (var.).... elaeocarpus tuberculatus

Electroconvulsive Therapy (ect)

A controversial but sometimes rapidly e?ective treatment for cases of severe DEPRESSION, particularly where psychotic features are present (see PSYCHOSIS), or in high-risk patients such as suicidal or post-partum patients. ECT is only indicated after antidepressants have been tried and shown to be ine?ective; the full procedure of treatment should be explained to the patient, whose consent must be obtained.

Before treatment, the patient will have been fasted for at least eight hours. After checking for any potential drug ALLERGY or interactions, the patient is given a general anaesthetic and muscle relaxants. Depending on the side of the patient’s dominance, either unilateral (on the side of the non-dominant hemisphere of the BRAIN) or bilateral (if dominance is uncertain,

e.g. in left-handed people) positioning of electrodes is used. Unilateral ECT has the advantage of being associated with less anterograde AMNESIA. When the current passes, the muscles will contract for approximately 10 seconds, with further tonic spasms lasting up to a minute. The patient should then be put in the COMA or recovery position and observed until fully conscious. Up to 12 treatments may be given over a month, improvement usually showing after the third session. Widely used at one time, the treatment is now given only rarely. It can be extremely frightening for patients and relatives and is not recommended for children.... electroconvulsive therapy (ect)

Health Care Technology Assessment (hcta)

The systematic evaluation of properties, effects and/or impacts of health care technology. It may address the direct, intended consequences of technologies as well as their indirect, unintended consequences.... health care technology assessment (hcta)

Health Target

A defined expected outcome generally based on specific and measurable changes.... health target

Health Team

A group of persons working together, where each member of the team contributes, in accordance with his or her competence and skill and in coordination with the functions of the others, in order to achieve the maximum benefit for the care recipient.... health team

Health Technology

The application of scientific knowledge to solving health problems. Health technologies include pharmaceuticals, medical devices, procedures or surgical techniques and management, communication and information systems innovations.... health technology

Euonymus Tingens


Family: Celastraceae.

Habitat: Tropical Himalayas from Simla to Bhutan between 2,150 and 3,200 m, and in Assam.

English: Spindle Wood, Wahoo. (Euonymus atropurpureus, found in Eastern and Central USA and Canada, is equated with Wahoo and Spindle tree.

Ayurvedic: Bhillotaka.

Folk: Chopra, Mermahaul, Kunku, Barphali.

Action: Cholagogue, laxative, diuretic, circulatory stimulant. Used for constipation, torpidity of liver, gall bladder disorders, jaundice and dyspepsia. Bark is used in diseases of the eye.

Key application: Bark—as laxative.

(The British Herbal Pharmacopoeia.)

The plant yielded triterpenes—epi- friedelinol, taraxerol, dulcitol, pris- timerin and tingenins A and B. Pris- timerin exhibited antitumour activity.

Only bark and root bark is used medicinally. The seeds are poisonous.

Toxic constituents of E. atropur- pureus are furan-a-carboxylic acid; d- phenyl-glucosone (sterol glucoside); euatroside; euatromonoside (steroid glycosides). (Francis Brinker.)... euonymus tingens

Eupatorium Triplinerve


Synonym: E. ayapana Vent.

Family: Compositae; Asteraceae.

Habitat: Native to Brazil; naturalized in many parts of India; grown in gardens of Maharashtra.

English: Ayapana Tea.

Ayurvedic: Vishalyakarani, Ayaapaana.

Siddha/Tamil: Ayapanai.

Folk: Ayapani (Maharashtra).

Action: Cardiac stimulant, laxative, emetic, expectorant, bechic, antiscorbutic, alterative. Used in ague, also in dyspepsia. Leaf— anticholerin, haemostatic.

The leaves contain ayapanin and ayapin, with pronounced haemostatic properties. The leaves also contain carotene and free vitamin C (25 mg/ 100 g); there is 100% increase in vitamin C content on frying the leaves in oil.

A aqueous extract of dried leaves and shoots exhibits cardiac stimulant activity, increasing the force of the heartbeat but diminishing its frequency.

The plant is comparable to chamo- mile (Anthemis sp.).... eupatorium triplinerve

Euphorbia Thymifolia


Family: Euphorbiaceae.

Habitat: Smaller var., equated with E. thymifolia, is found in tropical plains and low hills of India, ascending to 1,750 m. Bigger var., E. pilulifera/E. hirta Linn. is found in warmer parts of India from Punjab eastwards, and southwards to Kanyakumari.

Ayurvedic: Dudhi (smaller var.), Dugdhikaa, Naagaarjuni, Swaaduparni.

Siddha/Tamil: Sittrapaladi.

Action: Plant—antispasmodic, bronchodilator, antiasthmat- ic (used in bronchial asthma), galactagogue (also used for spermatorrhoea). Root—used in amenorrhoea. Latex—used in ringworm, dandruff. Leaf, seed and latex—purgative. A decoction of the plant, with honey, is given to treat haematuria.

Aerial parts gave epitaraxerol, n- hexacosanol, euphorbol, two derivatives of deoxyphorbol-OAC, 24-meth- ylene cycloartenol and quercetin galactoside. Co-carcinogenic activity is due to phorbol derivatives. The plant exhibits antimicrobial activity due to alkaloids.

Dosage: Whole plant—10-20 g paste. (CCRAS.)

Family: Euphorbiaceae.

Habitat: Native to Africa; naturalized in the warmer parts of India.

English: Milk-Bush, Milk Hedge, Indian tree Spurge, Aveloz, Petroleum Plant

Ayurvedic: Saptalaa, Saatalaa.

Siddha/Tamil: Tirukalli.

Folk: Angulia-thuuhar.

Action: Purgative, emetic, antiasthmatic, bechic. Used for whooping cough, asthma, dyspepsia, biliousness, jaundice, enlargement of spleen, leucorrhoea. Latex—applied externally on warts.

Used as a purgative and for rheumatism and neuralgia. Stem bark—used for gastralgia, colic, asthma.

The latex contains an ingol ester besides triterpenoids, euphorbinol and cycloeuphordenol.

Presence of a number of ingenol and phorbol esters (diterpenoids), and tri- terpenoids are reported from the plant. The stem gave hentriacontane, hentri- acontanol, beta-sitosterol, Me-ellagic and ellagic acids and kaempferol glu- coside.

The latex is a weak tumour promoter.... euphorbia thymifolia

Find Out More About Teas For Babies

A newborn baby needs to be taken care of properly. Parents have to be careful with what they give their baby to drink, as well, among other things. There are a few restrictions even when it comes to tea. Find out which are the proper types of tea for babies. When to give tea to babies Although herbal teas bring adults (and even children) many health benefits, this doesn’t apply to babies, as well. Even if mothers often prepare teas for babies, doctors recommend that this should happen only after the baby is 6 months old. The only thing babies should have until they are over 6 months old is the mother’s milk. The mother’s milk contains everything a newborn baby needs. Forbidden teas for babies While babies who are older than 6 motnhs can drink tea, there are still many types of tea which are forbidden to them. Babies shouldn’t be given teas that contain caffeine. This can lead to harmful side effects, which include an upset stomach or sleeping problems; it might also make the baby easily irritable. Besides caffeine, make sure the tea you give to your baby doesn’t contain polyphenols (it hinders the body’s absorption of iron, which can later cause learning problems), or star anise (Chinese star anise is sometimes contaminated with the Japanese one, which can be poisonous). Don’t give your baby sweetened tea, either. Check for “hidden” sugars, which are used to sweeten a usually bitter tea. Such teas can harm your baby’s developing teeth, and it might also make him refuse breast milk. Teas for babies Herbal teas which are considered safe to be given to children older than 6 months include chamomile, caraway, lemonbalm, fennel, catnip, and dill. All these teas for babies come with health benefits. Fennel, dill, caraway, and catnip tea helps your baby when he’s got stomach aches, trapped wind and colic. You can give lemonbalm and chamomile tea to calm your baby and help him relax. Also, babies don’t need to drink a full cup of tea. Either add a bit to your baby’s sipping cup, or offer your baby a few spoons of tea. Also, the herbs should be added to almost-boiling water, and steeping time shouldn’t last more than 5 minutes. If you choose the right type, tea can be a healthy beverage for your baby. Make sure it doesn’t contain any forbidden substances and only give it to your baby when he’s at least 6 months old.... find out more about teas for babies

Find Out More About Teas For Dogs

The healthiest beverage you could give a dog to drink could be water. However, tea comes with its own health benefits. You just have to be careful with the type of tea you give to your dog, as well as the quantity, and it’ll surely help keep your dog healthy. Recommended teas for dogs There are companies which produce tea blends especially for dogs. They come with many health-related benefits and in various flavors. Still, this doesn’t mean your dog can’t consume a few of the same types of tea you drink. Herbal teas are considered to be good for dogs; these include chamomile and essiac tea. Also, green tea is good for dogs, but only if it is caffeine-free. Benefits of teas for dogs Essiac tea is one tea variety that won’t be harmful for your dog. One important health benefit is that it strengthens your dog’s immunity, muscles, organs, bones, and tissues. It also works to remove toxin (including from the blood and bowel), and fights against cancer by helping the body destroy tumors. Chamomile tea is bound to improve your dog’s digestion, as well as its sleep. It is often recommended if your dog is a restless sleeper. This tea can also be used to clean various cuts, and also to wash the dog’s eyes if your pet has runny eyes. Lastly, green tea also works to strengthen the dog’s immunity, and fight against cancer. It might also make the dog’s fur healthier and shinier than before. How much tea to give your dog Despite the health benefits, you shouldn’t give your dog too much tea to drink. It is best to add a few teaspoons to his bowl of water, or sprinkle its food with the tea. It doesn’t have to be strong either, so don’t let it steep for the whole amount of time it usually requires. Side effects of teas for dogs Be careful with the green tea you give to your dog. Make sure it is caffeine-free, as caffeine can be harmful to dogs. Also, you shouldn’t give essiac tea to your dog if you know it has kidney problems, bowel obstructions, diarrhea, ulcers, colitis, or a brain tumor. If you pick the proper tea, dogs can enjoy its health benefits just as much as humans. Don’t hesitate to share your cup of tea with your pet!... find out more about teas for dogs

Health Technology Assessment (hta)

The systematic evaluation of the properties, effects or other impacts of health care technology. HTA is intended to inform decision-makers about health technologies and may measure the direct or indirect consequences of a given technology or treatment.... health technology assessment (hta)

Health Trend

A picture of a health situation, referring also to what led up to it and to prospects for the future.... health trend

Heart-lung Transplant

An operation in which a patient’s diseased lungs and heart are removed and replaced with donor organs from someone who has been certi?ed as ‘brain dead’ (see BRAIN-STEM DEATH). As well as the technical diffculties of such an operation, rejection by the recipient’s tissues of donated heart and lungs has proved hard to overcome. Since the early 1990s, however, immunosuppressant drug therapy (see CICLOSPORIN; TRANSPLANTATION) has facilitated the regular use of this type of surgery. Even so, patients receiving transplanted hearts and lungs face substantial risks such as lung infection and airway obstruction as well as the long-term problems of transplant rejection.... heart-lung transplant

Hormone Replacement Therapy(hrt)

See under MENOPAUSE.... hormone replacement therapy(hrt)

Human Organs Transplants Act

UK legislation that lays down the framework and rules governing organ transplantation. The UK Transplant Support Service Authority (UKTSSA), a special health authority set up in 1991, is responsible for administering the NHS Organ Donor Registry and the Act (see APPENDIX 7: STATUTORY ORGANISATIONS).... human organs transplants act

Hutchinson’s Teeth

The term applied to the narrowed and notched permanent incisor teeth which occur in congenital SYPHILIS. They are so-named after Sir Jonathan Hutchinson (1828–1913), the London physician who ?rst described them.... hutchinson’s teeth

Functions The Chief Uses Of The Tongue Are:

to push the food between the teeth for mastication, and then mould it into a bolus preparatory to swallowing;

as the organ of the sense of taste, and as an organ provided with a delicate sense of touch; and

to play a part in the production of speech. (See VOICE AND SPEECH.) It is usual to classify any taste as: sweet, bitter,

salt and acid, since ?ner distinctions are largely dependent upon the sense of smell. The loss of keenness in taste brought about by a cold in the head, or even by holding the nose while swallowing, is well known. Sweet tastes seem to be best appreciated by the tip of the tongue, acids on its edges, and bitters at the back. There are probably di?erent nerve-?bres and end-organs for the di?erent varieties of taste. Many tastes depend upon the ordinary sensations of the tongue.

Like other sensations, taste can be very highly educated for a time, as in tea-tasters and wine-tasters, but this special adaptation is lost after some years.... functions the chief uses of the tongue are:

Futile Medical Treatment

Treatment that is usually considered unable to produce the desired benefit either because it cannot achieve its physiological aim or because the burdens of the treatment are considered to outweigh the benefits for the particular individual. There are necessary value judgements involved in coming to an assessment of futility. These judgements must consider the individual’s, or proxy’s, assessment of worthwhile outcome. They should also take into account the medical practitioner or other provider’s perception of intent in treatment. They may also take into account community and institutional standards, which in turn may have used physiological or functional outcome measures.... futile medical treatment

Indigofera Trifoliata


Synonym: I. prostrata Willd.

Family: Fabaceae.

Habitat: Throughout greater parts of India.

Folk: Vana-methi.

Action: Astringent, antileucor- rhoeic, antirheumatic, alterative, restorative.

The seeds contain crude protein 31.5 pentosan 7.3, water soluble gum 3.0%.... indigofera trifoliata

Information Technology In Medicine

The advent of computing has had widespread effects in all areas of society, with medicine no exception. Computer systems are vital – as they are in any modern enterprise – for the administration of hospitals, general practices and health authorities, supporting payroll, ?nance, stock ordering and billing, resource and bed management, word-processing correspondence, laboratory-result reporting, appointment and record systems, and management audit.

The imaging systems of COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (see MRI) have powerful computer techniques underlying them.

Computerised statistical analysis of study data, population databases and disease registries is now routine, leading to enhanced understanding of the interplay between diseases and the population. And the results of research, available on computerised indexes such as MEDLINE, can be obtained in searches that take only seconds, compared with the hours or days necessary to accomplish the same task with its paper incarnation, Index Medicus.

Medical informatics The direct computerisation of those activities which are uniquely medical – history-taking, examination, diagnosis and treatment – has proved an elusive goal, although one hotly pursued by doctors, engineers and scientists working in the discipline of medical informatics. Computer techniques have scored some successes: patients are, for example, more willing to be honest about taboo areas, such as their drug or alcohol consumption, or their sexual proclivities, with a computer than face to face with a clinician; however, the practice of taking a history remains the cornerstone of clinical practice. The examination of the patient is unlikely to be supplanted by technological means in the foreseeable future; visual and tactile recognition systems are still in their infancy. Skilled interpretation of the result by machine rather than the human mind seems equally as remote. Working its way slowly outwards from its starting point in mathematical logic, ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE that in any way mimics its natural counterpart seems a distant prospect. Although there have been successes in computer-supported diagnosis in some specialised areas, such as the diagnosis of abdominal pain, workable systems that could supplant the mind of the generalist are still the dream of the many developers pursuing this goal, rather than a reality available to doctors in their consulting rooms now.

In therapeutics, computerised prescribing systems still require the doctor to make the decision about treatment, but facilitate the process of writing, issuing, and recording the prescription. In so doing, the system can provide automated checks, warning if necessary about allergies, potential drug interactions, or dosing errors. The built-in safety that this process o?ers is enhanced by the superior legibility of the script that ensues, reducing the potential for error when the medicine is dispensed by the nurse or the pharmacist.

Success in these individual applications continues to drive development, although the process has its critics, who are not slow to point to the lengthier consultations that arise when a computer is present in the consulting room and its distracting e?ect on communication with the patient.

Underlying these many software applications lies the ubiquitous personal computer – more powerful today than its mainframe predecessor of only 20 years ago – combined with networking technology that enables interconnection and the sharing of data. As in essence the doctor’s role involves the acquisition, manipulation and application of information – from the individual patient, and from the body of medical knowledge – great excitement surrounds the development of open systems that allow di?erent software and hardware platforms to interact. Many problems remain to be solved, not least the fact that for such systems to work, the whole organisation, and not just a few specialised individuals, must become computer literate. Such systems must be easy to learn to use, which requires an intuitive interface between user(s) and system(s) that is predictable and logical in its ordering and presentation of information.

Many other issues stand in the way of the development towards computerisation: standard systems of nomenclature for medical concepts have proved surprisingly di?cult to develop, but are crucial for successful information-sharing between users. Sharing information between existing legacy systems is a major challenge, often requiring customised software and extensive human intervention to enable the previous investments that an organisation has made in individual systems (e.g. laboratory-result reporting) to be integrated with newer technology. The beginnings of a global solution to this substantial obstacle to networking progress is in sight: the technology that enables the Internet – an international network of telephonically linked personal computers – also enables the establishment of intranets, in which individual servers (computers dedicated to serving information to other computers) act as repositories of ‘published’ data, which other users on the network may ‘browse’ as necessary in a client-server environment.

Systems that support this process are still in early stages of development, but the key conceptualisations are in place. Developments over the next 5–10 years will centre on the electronic patient record available to the clinician on an integrated clinical workstation. The clinical workstation – in essence a personal computer networked to the hospital or practice system – will enable the clinician to record clinical data and diagnoses, automate the ordering of investigations and the collection of the results, and facilitate referral and communication between the many professionals and departments involved in any individual patient’s care.

Once data is digitised – and that includes text, statistical tables, graphs, illustrations and radiological images, etc. – it may be as freely networked globally as locally. Consultations in which live video and sound transmissions are the bonds of the doctor-patient relationship (the techniques of telemedicine) are already reality, and have proved particularly convenient and cost-e?ective in linking the patient and the generalist to specialists in remote areas with low population density.

As with written personal medical records, con?dentiality of personal medical information on computers is essential. Computerised data are covered by the Data Protection Act 1984. This stipulates that data must:

be obtained and processed fairly and lawfully.

be held only for speci?ed lawful purposes.

•not be used in a manner incompatible with those purposes.

•only be recorded where necessary for these purposes.

be accurate and up to date.

not be stored longer than necessary.

be made available to the patient on request.

be protected by appropriate security and backup procedures. As these problems are solved, concerns about

privacy and con?dentiality arise. While paper records were often only con?dential by default, the potential for breaches of security in computerised networks is much graver. External breaches of the system by hackers are one serious concern, but internal breaches by authorised users making unauthorised use of the data are a much greater risk in practice. Governing network security so that clinical users have access on a need-to-know basis is a di?cult business: the software tools to enable this – encryption, and anonymisation (ensuring that clinical information about patients is anonymous to prevent con?dential information about them leaking out) of data collected for management and research processes – exist in the technical domain but remain a complex conundrum for solution in the real world.

The mushroom growth of websites covering myriad subjects has, of course, included health information. This ranges from clinical details on individual diseases to facts about medical organisations and institutes, patient support groups, etc. Some of this information contains comments and advice from orthodox and unorthodox practitioners. This open access to health information has been of great bene?t to patients and health professionals. But web browsers should be aware that not all the medical information, including suggested treatments, has been subject to PEER REVIEW, as is the case with most medical articles in recognised medical journals.... information technology in medicine

Gardenia Turgida


Synonym: Ceriscoides turgida Roxb.

Family: Rubiaceae.

Habitat: Throughout the greater part of India, up to 1,360 m

Ayurvedic: Mahaapindi, Karahaata, Kharahaara. (Bark is sold as Bhaargi.) Thanella.

Siddha/Tamil: Nanjundam, Malan- garai.

Action: Root—used as a remedy for indigestion in children. Fruits— used in affections of the mammary glands. Pounded pulp is applied to forehead in fever.

The bark and wood gave beta-sitos- terol, hederagenin, Me-esters of olea- nolic and gypsogenic acids. Root gave gardnins.

Saponins from bark decreased formation of histamine and may find use in asthma. (Market drug is expectorant and weak spasmolytic, but was not found effective in asthma.)... gardenia turgida

Gilles De La Tourette’s Syndrome

Also known as Tourette’s syndrome, this is a hereditary condition of severe and multiple tics (see TIC) of motor or vocal origin. It usually starts in childhood and becomes chronic (with remissions). With a prevalance of one in 2,000, a dominant gene (see GENES) with variable expression may be responsible. The disorder is associated with explosive vocal tics and grunts, occasionally obscene (see COPROLALIA). The patient may also involuntarily repeat the words or imitate the actions of others (see PALILALIA). HALOPERIDOL, pimozide (an oral antipsychotic drug similar to CHLORPROMAZINE hydrochloride) and clonidine are among drugs that may help to control this distressing, but fortunately rare, disorder.... gilles de la tourette’s syndrome

Grewia Tiliaefolia


Family: Tiliaceae.

Habitat: Upper Gengetic plain, Bihar, Bengal, Central and Peninsular India.

English: Dhaman.

Ayurvedic: Dhanvana, Dhanur- vriksha.

Siddha/Tamil: Tarra, Unnu, Sadachi.

Folk: Dhaamin, Dhaaman.

Action: Bark—antidysenteric. Stem bark—semen coagulant. Plant— used in fractures.

The roots and bark gave triterpe- noids.

A related species, Grewia optiva, found in sub-Himalayan tract at 5002,000 m, is also known as Dhaaman.... grewia tiliaefolia

International Statistical Classification Of Diseases And Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision (icd-10)

A list of diagnoses and identifying codes used by medical practitioners and other health care providers. The coding and terminology provide a uniform language that permits consistent communication on claim forms. Data from earlier time periods were coded using the appropriate revision of the ICD for that time period. Changes in classification of causes of death in successive revisions of the ICD may introduce discontinuities in cause of death statistics over time.... international statistical classification of diseases and related health problems, tenth revision (icd-10)

Ishihara’s Test

A test for colour vision, introduced by a Japanese doctor, comprising several plates with round dots of di?erent colours and sizes. It is also the name of a type of blood test for SYPHILIS.... ishihara’s test

Jobs Tears

Healing, Wishes, Luck... jobs tears

Jussiaea Tenella

Burm. f.

Synonym: J. linifolia Vahl. J. fissendocarpa Haines.

Family: Onagraceae.

Habitat: Watery and swampy places in Bihar and Orissa and in some parts of South India.

Ayurvedic: Jala-lavanga (var.).

Action: See J. suffruticosa.

An infusion of the root is given in syphilis. The plant is employed in poultice for pimples.... jussiaea tenella

Horseradish Tree

Moringa pterygosperma

Description: This tree grows from 4.5 to 14 meters tall. Its leaves have a fernlike appearance. Its flowers and long, pendulous fruits grow on the ends of the branches. Its fruit (pod) looks like a giant bean. Its 25-to 60-centimeter-long pods are triangular in cross section, with strong ribs. Its roots have a pungent odor.

Habitat and Distribution: This tree is found in the rain forests and semievergreen seasonal forests of the tropical regions. It is widespread in India, Southeast Asia, Africa, and Central America. Look for it in abandoned fields and gardens and at the edges of forests.

Edible Parts: The leaves are edible raw or cooked, depending on their hardness. Cut the young seedpods into short lengths and cook them like string beans or fry them. You can get oil for frying by boiling the young fruits of palms and skimming the oil off the surface of the water. You can eat the flowers as part of a salad. You can chew fresh, young seedpods to eat the pulpy and soft seeds. The roots may be ground as a substitute for seasoning similar to horseradish.... horseradish tree

Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura (itp)

Sometimes described as thrombocytopenia, this is an autoimmune disorder in which blood PLATELETS are destroyed. This disturbs the blood’s coagulative properties (see COAGULATION) and spontaneous bleeding (PURPURA) occurs into the skin. The disease may be acute in children but most recover without treatment. Adults may develop a more serious, chronic variety which requires treatment with CORTICOSTEROIDS and sometimes SPLENECTOMY. Should the disease persist despite these treatments, intravenous immunoglobulin or immunosuppressive drugs (see IMMUNOSUPPRESSION) are worth trying. Should the bleeding be or become life-threatening, concentrates of platelets should be administered.... idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (itp)

Indigofera Tinctoria


Family: Fabaceae.

Habitat: Cultivated in many parts of India.

English: Indigo.

Ayurvedic: Nilikaa, Nilaa, Nila, Nili, Nilini, Nilapushpa, Ranjani, Shaaradi, Tutthaa.

Unani: Habb-ul-Neel.

Siddha/Tamil: Nili, Averi, Asidai, Attipurashadam.

Action: Plant—antiseptic, hepato- protective, hypoglycaemic, nervine tonic. Used in enlargement of liver and spleen, skin diseases, leucoder- ma, burns, ulcers, piles, nervous disorders, epilepsy, asthma, lumbago, gout. Leaf—anti-inflammatory. Used in blennorrhagia. Root— diuretic. Used in hepatitis. Root and stem—laxative, expectorant, febrifuge, anticephalalgic, anti- tumour, anthelmintic, promote growth of hair.

The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India recommends the use of dried whole plant in phobia, delusion and disturbed mental state.

Indicine (5-15 mg/g, dry basis) and the flavonoids, apigenin, kaempferol, luteolin and quercetin are present in various plant parts, maximum in the leaves and minimum in the roots (however quercetin was minimum in leaves). The presence of coumarins, cardiac glycosides, saponins and tannins is also reported.

Alcoholic extract of the aerial parts showed hepatoprotective activity in experimental animals against CCl4- induced hepatic injury. The extract increased bile flow and liver weight in rats. The alcoholic extract also exhibited hypoglycaemic activity in rats.

The plant is used in the treatment of endogenous depression. It contains appreciable amounts of conjugated in- doxyl (indican). The use of indigo and its constituents, indirubin and indigotin, prevents allergic contact dermatitis. The 8 weeks old tissues in culture contain maximum histamine content (5.0 mg/g dry weight).

Dosage: Dried leaf—50-100 g for decoction; root—48 g for decoction (API Vol. II); whole plant—10-20 g for decoction. (API Vol. III.)... indigofera tinctoria

Levallorphan Tartrate

An antidote to MORPHINE. It is usually given intravenously.... levallorphan tartrate

Intensive Therapy Unit (itu)

Sometimes called an intensive care unit, this is a hospital unit in which seriously ill patients undergo resuscitation, monitoring and treatment. The units are sta?ed by doctors and nurses trained in INTENSIVE CARE MEDICINE, and patients receive 24-hour, one-to-one care with continuous monitoring of their condition with highly specialised electronic equipment that assesses vital body functions such as heart rate, respiration, blood pressure, temperature and blood chemistry. The average ITU in Britain has four to six beds, although units in larger hospitals, especially those dealing with tertiary-care referrals – for example, neurosurgical or organ transplant cases – are bigger, but 15 beds is usually the maximum. Annual throughput of patients ranges from fewer than 200 to more than 1,500 patients a year. As well as general ITUs, specialty units are provided for neonatal, paediatric, cardiothoracic and neurological patients in regional centres. The UK has 1–2 per cent of its hospital beds allocated to intensive care, a ?gure far below the average of 20 per cent provided in the United States. Thus patients undergoing intensive care in the UK are usually more seriously ill than those in the US. This is re?ected in the shortage of available ITU beds in Britain, especially in the winter. (See CORONARY CARE UNIT (CCU); HIGH DEPENDENCY UNIT.)... intensive therapy unit (itu)

Irish Breakfast - A Well Known Type Of Black Tea

Black tea is popular since ancient times when it was used even for meditation. Irish Breakfast black tea has lots of benefits if you drink it moderately and follow the storage instructions. Short description of Irish Breakfast tea Irish breakfast tea is a mixture of strong Indian black teas grown in Assam region. As a black tea, it has a strong flavour and higher caffeine content than green teas but considerably less than coffee. This type of tea is obtained allowing the tea leaves to fully oxidize naturally before being dried. The leaves are left to dry in wooden boxes, then rolled and stretched damp and cold. This process gives black leaves. In Chinese tradition it is also named Hongcha. This type of black tea keeps its flavor better and longer than green tea. Infusion color goes from dark red to brown and may have many intense flavors like almonds, wild flowers, fruits or malt. Due to its strength, Irish breakfast tea is usually served with milk, but may also be consumed plain or with lemon or sugar. This type of tea is often drunk in the morning. When it comes to storage, it is advisable to keep Irish Breakfast tea in ceramic, porcelain containers or in metal airtight boxes in a clean dry air light place. Don’t keep the tea in the refrigerator as it will lose its flavor because of too much moisture. Ingredients of Irish Breakfast tea Like most teas, the Irish breakfast tea version contains flavanoids, which contain anti-oxidative properties when consumed. Recent studies have shown that this type of tea also contains more caffeine than other teas. How to prepare the Irish Breakfast tea If you are using tea bags, usually use 1 tea bag per cup of water. Pour boiling water, in order to cover the leaves. Allow the Irish Breakfast tea to infuse for 3-5 minutes allowing the steam to release the leaves’ flavor. After that, remove the leaves, blend, let it cool for a few moments and enjoy. Your specific tea may come with a recommendation for preparation and brewing as well. Benefits of Irish Breakfast tea Like other black teas, consumption of Irish Breakfast tea has many health benefits. Drinking Irish Breakfast tea strengthens teeth and bones and helps boost the immune system keeping the viruses away. It also prevents tooth decay. It blocks LDL (bad) cholesterol and increase HDL (good) cholesterol, which improves artery function. The essential oils in tea leaves help digestion. Caffeine contained in this type of tea has many positive functions like relieving headaches, improving mood and helping concentration. It is also considered an old remedy for asthma symptoms. It also eliminates tiredness. Irish Breakfast tea reduces tumor growth. Some studies showed that TF-2 substance contained in tea, cause destruction of colon and rectum cancer cells, contributing to tumor reduction. Researchers also found that the benefits of black tea may include lowering the risk of heart attack and stroke. According to their findings, certain compounds found in the tea help relax and expand the arteries, thus increasing blood flow to the heart and minimizing clogging of the arteries. It is said that 4 cups of Irish Breakfast tea daily lower with 50% the risk of heart attack. Side effects of Irish Breakfast tea The side effect of Irish Breakfast tea may arise if you drink too much. They are mostly associated with caffeine may cause restlessness, palpitations, difficulty sleeping, anxiety, irritability, increased heart rate, and elevated blood pressure. Caffeine is also diuretic. Due to its interesting flavors and benefits, Irish Breakfast teas are suitable for regular consumption, but always remember to keep your moderation when you drink it.... irish breakfast - a well known type of black tea

Life-sustaining Treatment

Drugs, medical devices, or procedures that can keep alive a person who would otherwise die within a foreseeable, though usually uncertain, time. Examples include cardiopulmonary resuscitation, mechanical ventilation, renal dialysis, nutritional support (i.e. tube or intravenous feeding) and provision of antibiotics to fight life-threatening infections.... life-sustaining treatment

Light Traps

A mechanical trap which use a combination of light and/or carbon dioxide to attract and trap adult mosquitoes, e.g. Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Light Trap.... light traps

Ligularia Tussilaginea

(Burm. f) Makino.

Synonym: L. kaempferi Sieb & Zucc. Senecio kaempferi DC.

Family: Compositae; Asteraceae.

Habitat: Native to Japan; grows in Indian gardens.

Action: Used for obstinate skin diseases.

The rhizomes contain inulin and beta-dimethylacrylic acid.... ligularia tussilaginea

Liriodendron Tulipifera


Family: Magnoliaceae.

Habitat: Native to North America; introduced into hill stations in India.

English: Tulip tree.

Action: Bark—antipyretic, diaphoretic; used in rheumatism, dyspepsia and as antimalarial.

The root contains an alkaloid tulip- iferin, traces of a glycoside, essential oil and tannin.... liriodendron tulipifera

Isatis Tinctoria


Family: Crucifere; Brassicaceae.

Habitat: Native to Afghanistan and Western Tibet. Now cultivated as an ornamental.

English: Dyer's Woad.

Action: Plant—used in the form of an ointment for ulcers, oedematous and malignant tumours. Leaves— antimicrobial, antifungal.

The aerial parts yield tryptanthrin, indole-3-acetonitrile and p-coumaric acid methylester.

The roots contain anti-blood platelet aggregation constituents, uridine, hy- poxanthine, uracil and salicylic acid together with indigo, palmitic acid and beta-sitosterol.

In China, tablets made from the leaves and roots of Isatis tinctoria and Artemisia scoparia have been found to be effective in treating hepatitis B patients.... isatis tinctoria

Justica Tranquebariensis

Linn. f.

Family: Acanthaceae.

Habitat: Deccan, Mysore southwards.

Folk: Sivanarvembu (Tamil Nadu).

Action: Leaves—cooling, aperient; given for smallpox to children, bruised leaves applied to contusions.

The alcoholic extract of the aerial parts yielded several lignans, phy- tosterols, brassicasterol, campesterol, 7,22-ergostadienol, stigmasterol, sitosterol, spinasterol, 28-isofucostil and a sterol glucoside, beta-sitosterol-3-O- glucoside.

Justica vasculosa Wall. (Eastern Himalayas, Assam Khasi Hills) is also used for inflammations.... justica tranquebariensis

Krameria Triandra

Ruiz & Pav.

Family: Krameriaceae.

Habitat: Peru, Bolivia. Reported to be imported into India.

English: Peruvian Rhatany, Krameria.

Action: Astringent, styptic, antidiarrhoeal, vulnerary. Used for menorrhagia; topically for wounds, haemorrhoids and chilblains; as a lozenge, gargle or mouthwash for gingivitis and pharyngitis.

Key application: For topical treatment of mild inflammations of oral and pharyngeal mucosa. (German Commission E.)

The astringency of the drug is due to condensed tannins composed of pro- cyanidins and propelargondins.

In India, the roots of Hemidesmus indicus are sometimes used as a substitute for Rhatany.... krameria triandra

Kyllinga Triceps


Synonym: K. tenuifolia Stend. Cyperus triceps (Rottb.) Endl.

Family: Cyperaceae.

Habitat: Northwestern India, Gujarat, Rajasthan and South India.

Ayurvedic: Nirvishaa (var.) Mustaka (var.), Apivisha.

Folk: Mustu (Maharashtra).

Action: Root—febrifuge and antidermatosis. Also used for diabetes.

Kyllinga monocephala Rottb., synonym Cyperus kyllinga Endl., common throughout India, is also known as Nirvishaa, Nirbishi and Mustaa (var.). The root is used as diuretic (in polyuria), demulcent, refrigerant and antipyretic. It is prescribed for fistula, pustules, tumours, measles, diarrhoea and other intestinal affections.

Traces of hydrocyanic acid are reported to be present in the root, stems and nutlets.... kyllinga triceps

Lemon Thyme Tea

Lemon Thyme Tea is popular for treating infections, congestion problems, calming and relaxing the senses.  Lemon thyme (thymus citriodorus) can be recognized by its lace-shaped, light green colored leaves and lemon scent. Due to its aromatic leaves, lemon thyme is used as a flavoring agent for many dishes, especially those involving fish, chicken and vegetables. The constituents of lemon thyme tea include geraniol, esters, nerol, citronellol, citral and thymol. The essential oil that is extracted from the leaves contains a higher level of these constituents than the actual leaves. How To Make Lemon Thyme Tea You can brew Lemon Thyme Tea by placing small dried leaves in a kettle of boiled water. Let the mix steep for about 5-7 minutes. Then, using a strainer to catch the leaves, pour the tea into your cup. Lemon Thyme Tea Benefits
  • Helps fight asthma in children.
  • Prevents infections caused by viruses, fungi or bacteria.
  • Provides relaxation.
  • It can be gargled and used as a deodorizing mouthwash.
  • Facilitates good digestion.
  • Boosts your immune system.
Lemon Thyme Side Effects Like in the case of Lemon Verbena Tea , there are a few side effects that you sould keep in mind when drinking Lemon Thyme Tea:
  • If you suffer from allergies, avoid drinking Lemon Thyme Tea.
  • Do not drink Lemon Thyme Tea if you are pregnant or breastfeeding.
  • Avoid over-consumption
Lemon Thyme Tea is a wonderful tea with a tasty lemon flavor. Make sure you read the side effects listed above and stay away from them!... lemon thyme tea

Long-term Care (ltc) / Long-term Aged Care

A range of health care, personal care and social services provided to individuals who, due to frailty or level of physical or intellectual disability, are no longer able to live independently. Services may be for varying periods of time and may be provided in a person’s home, in the community or in residential facilities (e.g. nursing homes or assisted living facilities). These people have relatively stable medical conditions and are unlikely to greatly improve their level of functioning through medical intervention.... long-term care (ltc) / long-term aged care

Long-term Care Facility

See “high dependency care facility”.... long-term care facility

Long-term Care Insurance

Insurance policies which pay for long-term care services (such as nursing home and home care) that are generally not covered by other health insurance.... long-term care insurance

Lepidagathis Trinervis


Family: Acanthaceae.

Habitat: North-west Himalayas and Sikkim and from Bihar to central, western and southern India.

Folk: Safed Raasnaa (Bihar). Hiran-chaaro, Paniru (Gujarat).

Action: Plant—bitter tonic. Used for rheumatic affections. (Raasnaa is equated with Pluchea lanceolata.)

Related species of Lepidagathis: L. cristata Willd., and L. hamiltoniana Wall. ex Nees. These are used as a bitter tonic in fevers and are applied to itchy affections of the skin. The leaves of L. incurva D. Don, synonymL. hyali- na Nees are chewed to relieve cough.... lepidagathis trinervis

Lilium Tigrinum


Family: Liliaceae.

Habitat: Native to China and Japan; cultivated in Indian gardens.

English: Tiger Lily, Crumple Lily.

Action: Bulbs—used as a cardiac tonic. Flowers—used for ovarian neuralgia, also recommended in myoptic astigmia.

The bulbs of Lilium martagon Linn., Turk's Cap Lily, also possesses cardio- tonic properties and are used in the treatment of dysmenorrhoea; externally for ulcers.

Folk: Findora. Badai (Lushai).

Action: Dried bulb scales— demulcent; used like salep in pectoral complaints.... lilium tigrinum

Liver Disease In The Tropics

ACUTE LIVER DISEASE The hepatitis viruses (A– F) are of paramount importance. Hepatitis E (HEV) often produces acute hepatic failure in pregnant women; extensive epidemics – transmitted by contaminated drinking-water supplies – have been documented. HBV, especially in association with HDV, also causes acute liver failure in infected patients in several tropical countries: however, the major importance of HBV is that the infection leads to chronic liver disease (see below). Other hepatotoxic viruses include the EPSTEIN BARR VIRUS, CYTOMEGALOVIRUS (CMV), the ?avivirus causing YELLOW FEVER, Marburg/Ebola viruses, etc. Acute liver disease also occurs in the presence of several acute bacterial infections, including Salmonella typhi, brucellosis, leptospirosis, syphilis, etc. The complex type of jaundice associated with acute systemic bacterial infection – especially pneumococcal PNEUMONIA and pyomiositis – assumes a major importance in many tropical countries, especially those in Africa and in Papua New Guinea. Of protozoan infections, plasmodium falciparum malaria, LEISHMANIASIS, and TOXOPLASMOSIS should be considered. Ascaris lumbricoides (the roundworm) can produce obstruction to the biliary system. CHRONIC LIVER DISEASE Long-term disease is dominated by sequelae of HBV and HCV infections (often acquired during the neonatal period), both of which can cause chronic active hepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (‘hepatoma’) – one of the world’s most common malignancies. Chronic liver disease is also caused by SCHISTOSOMIASIS (usually Schistosoma mansoni and S. japonicum), and acute and chronic alcohol ingestion. Furthermore, many local herbal remedies and also orthodox chemotherapeutic compounds (e.g. those used in tuberculosis and leprosy) can result in chronic liver disease. HAEMOSIDEROSIS is a major problem in southern Africa. Hepatocytes contain excessive iron – derived primarily from an excessive intake, often present in locally brewed beer; however, a genetic predisposition seems likely. Indian childhood cirrhosis – associated with an excess of copper – is a major problem in India and surrounding countries. Epidemiological evidence shows that much of the copper is derived from copper vessels used to store milk after weaning. Veno-occlusive disease was ?rst described in Jamaica and is caused by pyrrolyzidine alkaloids (present in bush-tea). Several HIV-associated ‘opportunistic’ infections can give rise to hepatic disease (see AIDS/HIV).

A localised (focal) form of liver disease in all tropical/subtropical countries results from invasive Entamoeba histolytica infection (amoebic liver ‘abscess’); serology and imaging techniques assist in diagnosis. Hydatidosis also causes localised liver disease; one or more cysts usually involve the right lobe of the liver. Serological tests and imaging techniques are of value in diagnosis. Whilst surgery formerly constituted the sole method of management, prolonged courses of albendazole and/or praziquantel have now been shown to be e?ective; however, surgical intervention is still required in some cases.

Hepato-biliary disease is also a problem in many tropical/subtropical countries. In southeast Asia, Clonorchis sinensis and Opisthorchis viverini infections cause chronic biliary-tract infection, complicated by adenocarcinoma of the biliary system. Praziquantel is e?ective chemotherapy before advanced disease ensues. Fasciola hepatica (the liver ?uke) is a further hepato-biliary helminthic infection; treatment is with bithionol or triclabendazole, praziquantel being relatively ine?ective.... liver disease in the tropics

Lyssa Is Another Term For Rabies.

... lyssa is another term for rabies.

Maldescended Testis

See under TESTICLE, DISEASES OF.... maldescended testis

Means Test

The determination of eligibility for a publicly financed programme on the basis of an applicant’s income and assets (means).... means test

Lolium Temulentum


Family: Gramineae; Poaceae.

Habitat: The Western Himalayas, Punjab and Upper Gangetic Plain.

English: Darnel, Taumelloolch.

Ayurvedic: Mochani.

Folk: Mostaki, Visha-ghaasa (Bihar).

Action: Sedative.

The overground parts of the grass gave alkaloids—loline and perloline. The caryopses of the plant contain volatile alkaloids—N-acetylloline, N- formylloline and N-acetylnorloline.

Loline dihydrochloride did not show CNS toxicity.... lolium temulentum

Long-term Supportive Psychotherapy

is needed for patients with personality disorders or recurrent psychotic states, where the aim of treatment is to prevent deterioration and help the patient to achieve an optimal adaptation, making the most of his or her psychological assets. Such patients may ?nd more profound and unstructured forms of therapy distressing.

Behavioural therapy and cognitive therapy, often carried out by psychologists, attempt to clarify with the patient speci?c features of behaviour or mental outlook respectively, and to identify step-by-step methods that the patient can use for controlling the disorder. Behaviour therapy is commonly used for AGORAPHOBIA and other phobias, and cognitive therapy has been used for depression and anxiety. (See MENTAL ILLNESS.)... long-term supportive psychotherapy

Marsdenia Tenacissima

Wight & Arn.

Family: Asclepiadaceae.

Habitat: Himalayas from Kumaon to Assam, up to 1,500 m, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Deccan Peninsula.

English: White Turpeth.

Ayurvedic: Muurvaa, Atirasaa, Madhurasaa, Gokarni, Morataa, Madhulikaa, Suvaa, Devi, Tejani, Tiktavalli.

Siddha/Tamil: Perunkurinjan.

Folk: Maruaa-bel.

Action: Root—purgative, antispas- modic, mild CNS depressant; used in colic.

Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India recommends the bark in lipid disorders, also in polyuria and haemorrha- gic diseases.

Roots and seeds are rich in pregnane glycosides of 2-deoxysugars, which on hydrolysis gave genins and sugars. Stem yielded tenacissosides A to E. In folk medicine, the root is known as White Turpeth (Safed Nishoth). Op- erculina turpethum (Linn.) Silva Manso synonym Ipomoea turpethum R. Br. is the source of Turpeth (Nishoth) in Indian medicine.

Dosage: Root—2-6 g powder, 1020 g for decoction. (API, Vol.II.)... marsdenia tenacissima

Medial Tibial Syndrome

The term applied by athletes to a condition characterised by pain over the inner border of the shin, which occurs in most runners and sometimes in joggers. The syndrome, also known as shin splints, is due to muscular swelling resulting in inadequate blood supply in the muscle: hence the pain. The disorder may be the result of compartment syndrome (build-up of pressure in the muscles), TENDINITIS, muscle or bone in?ammation, or damage to the muscle. It usually disappears within a few weeks, responding to rest and PHYSIOTHERAPY, with or without injections. In some cases, however, it becomes chronic and so severe that it occurs even at rest. If the cause is the compartment syndrome, relief is usually obtained by a simple operation to relieve the pressure in the affected muscles.... medial tibial syndrome

Medical Dictionary

Medical Dictionary

[catlist id=11 numberposts=100 pagination=yes instance=2 orderby=title order=asc]

... medical dictionary

Menyanthes Trifoliata


Family: Gentianaceae.

Habitat: Native to Britain and Europe; found in Kashmir.

English: Bogbean, Buckbean, Goat's bean, Marsh Trefoil.

Folk: Buckbean.

Action: Bitter tonic, deobstruent. Laxative in large doses. Used for diseases of liver and gallbladder, and rheumatism. (Contraindicated in diarrhoea, dysentery and colitis.)

Key application: Leaf—in loss of appetite, peptic discomforts. (German Commission E.) As a bitter tonic. (The British Herbal Pharmacopoeia.) The drug stimulates saliva and gastric juice secretion. (German Commission E.)

The herb contains iridoid glyco- sides, foliamenthin, dihydrofoliamen- thin, menthiafolin and loganin; pyri- dine alkaloids including gentianine; coumarins (scopoletin); phenolic acids (caffeic, with protocatechuic, ferulic, sinapic, vanillic including others; fla- vonoids including rutin, hyperoside.

Choleretic action of the herb is attributed to the synergistic action of caffeic and ferulic acids and iridoid glycosides.

Scoparone and scopoletin (cou- marins isolated from the aerial parts) exhibit antihepatotoxic, choleretic and cholagogue properties.

The rhizomes contain dihydrofolia- menthin, loganin, menthiafolin and a triterpenoid saponin menyantho- side. Aqueous extract of the rhizome showed greater preserved renal function and higher glomerular filtration rate, possibly due to Platelet Activating Factor (PAF)-antagonistic effect of the extract.... menyanthes trifoliata

Mixed Tumour

A neoplasm with a number of different cell types undergoing cancerous change.... mixed tumour

Merremia Tridentata

(Linn.) Hallier. f.

Synonym: Convolvulus tridentatus Linn.

Ipomoea tridentata (L.) Roth.

Family: Convolvulaceae.

Habitat: Upper Gangetic Plain, Bihar, Orissa, West Bengal, South India and Gujarat.

Ayurvedic: Prasaarini (Kerala and Karnataka), Tala-nili.

Siddha/Tamil: Mudiyaakunthal.

Action: Laxative, astringent, anti-inflammatory. Used in piles, swellings, rheumatic affections, stiffness of the joints, hemiplegia and urinary affections.

The aerial parts contain the flavo- noids, diometin, luteolin and their 7- O-beta-D-glucosides.... merremia tridentata

Molar Teeth

The last three TEETH on each side of the JAW.... molar teeth

Momordica Tuberosa

(Roxb.) Cogn.

Synonym: M. cymbalaria Fenzl ex Naud.

Family: Cucurbitaceae.

Habitat: Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu, in bushes along the banks of water courses. (It is not cultivated.)

Ayurvedic: Kaarali-Kanda, Kudu- hunchi.

Siddha/Tamil: Athalaikai

Folk: Kakrol (Maharashtra).

Action: Tuberous root—emmena- gogue, abortifacient; acrid; contains a bitter glycoside.... momordica tuberosa

Motion (travel) Sickness

A characteristic set of symptoms experienced by many people when subjected to the constant changes of position caused, for example, by the pitching and rolling motion of a vessel at sea.

Depression, giddiness, nausea and vomiting are the most prominent.

Causes Although the vast majority of people appear to be liable to this ailment at sea, they do not all suffer alike. Many endure acute distress, whilst others are simply conscious of transient feelings of nausea and discomfort. A smaller proportion of people suffer from air and car sickness. The symptoms are a result of over-stimulation of the organs of balance in the inner EAR by continuous changes in the body’s position. The movements of the horizon worsen this situation.

Symptoms The symptoms generally show themselves soon after the journey has started, by the onset of giddiness and discomfort in the head, together with a sense of nausea and sinking at the stomach, which soon develops into intense sickness and vomiting. Most people recover quickly when the motion stops.

Treatment Innumerable preventives and remedies have been proposed. Cinnarizine 30 mg orally is useful 2 hours before travel, then 15 mg every 8 hours during the journey if necessary. Dimenhydrinate and promethazine are also commonly taken for motion sickness.... motion (travel) sickness

Murine Typhus

A zoonotic febrile disease caused by the rodent bacterial species, Rickettsia typhi, and transmitted by fleas of the genus Xenopsylla.... murine typhus

Narcissus Tazetta


Family: Amaryllidaceae.

Habitat: All over Europe. Grown in Indian gardens.

English: Narcissus, Daffodil, Lent Lily.

Unani: Nargis.

Action: Bulbs—powerfully emetic, diuretic, purgative. Poisonous. Oil is applied for curing baldness.

The bulbs are imported into India. Dried and sliced bulbs are sold as a substitute for bitter hermodactyls.

Alkaloids, lycorine, pseudolycorine, galanthamine, haemanthamine and narcisine, have been isolated from the bulbs of the species. The alkaloid nar- cisine is toxic.

The mucilage, narcissus T-gluco- mannan, isolated from the bulbs, was found to exhibit significant hypogly- caemic activity in mice.... narcissus tazetta

Nerves Twelve Nerves Come Off The Brain:

I. Olfactory, to the nose (smell).

II. Optic, to the eye (sight).

III. Oculomotor

Trochlear, to eye-muscles.


VI. Trigeminal, to skin of face.

VII. Facial, to muscles of face.

VIII. Vestibulocochlear, to ear (hearing and balancing).

IX. Glossopharyngeal, to tongue (taste).

X. Vagus, to heart, larynx, lungs, and stomach.

XI. Spinal accessory, to muscles in neck.

XII. Hypoglossal, to muscles of tongue.... nerves twelve nerves come off the brain:

Nominal Group Technique

A face-to-face group judgement technique in which participants generate silently, in writing, responses to a given question/problem; responses are collected and posted, but not identified by author, for all to see; responses are openly clarified, often in a round robin format; further iterations may follow; and a final set of responses is established by voting/ranking.... nominal group technique

Nature Of The Disease Tuberculosis Has

been recognised from earliest times. Evidence of the condition has been found in Egyptian mummies; in the fourth century BC Hippocrates, the Greek physician, called it phthisis because of the lung involvement; and in 1882 Koch announced the discovery of the causative organism, the tubercle bacillus or Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

The symptoms depend upon the site of the infection. General symptoms such as fever, weight loss and night sweats are common. In the most common form of pulmonary tuberculosis, cough and blood-stained sputum (haemoptysis) are common symptoms.

The route of infection is most often by inhalation, although it can be by ingestion of products such as infected milk. The results of contact depend upon the extent of the exposure and the susceptibility of the individual. Around 30 per cent of those closely exposed to the organism will be infected, but most will contain the infection with no signi?cant clinical illness and only a minority will go on to develop clinical disease. Around 5 per cent of those infected will develop post-primary disease over the next two or three years. The rest are at risk of reactivation of the disease later, particularly if their resistance is reduced by associated disease, poor nutrition or immunosuppression. In developed countries around 5 per cent of those infected will reactivate their healed tuberculosis into a clinical problem.

Immunosuppressed patients such as those infected with HIV are at much greater risk of developing clinical tuberculosis on primary contact or from reactivation. This is a particular problem in many developing countries, where there is a high incidence of both HIV and tuberculosis.

Diagnosis This depends upon identi?cation of mycobacteria on direct staining of sputum or other secretions or tissue, and upon culture of the organism. Culture takes 4–6 weeks but is necessary for di?erentiation from other non-tuberculous mycobacteria and for drug-sensitivity testing. Newer techniques involving DNA ampli?cation by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) can detect small numbers of organisms and help with earlier diagnosis.

Treatment This can be preventative or curative. Important elements of prevention are adequate nutrition and social conditions, BCG vaccination (see IMMUNISATION), an adequate public-health programme for contact tracing, and chemoprophylaxis. Radiological screening with mass miniature radiography is no longer used.

Vaccination with an attenuated organism (BCG – Bacillus Calmette Guerin) is used in the United Kingdom and some other countries at 12–13 years, or earlier in high-risk groups. Some studies show 80 per cent protection against tuberculosis for ten years after vaccination.

Cases of open tuberculosis need to be identi?ed; their close contacts should be reviewed for evidence of disease. Adequate antibiotic chemotherapy removes the infective risk after around two weeks of treatment. Chemoprophylaxis – the use of antituberculous therapy in those without clinical disease – may be used in contacts who develop a strong reaction on tuberculin skin testing or those at high risk because of associated disease.

The major principles of antibiotic chemotherapy for tuberculosis are that a combination of drugs needs to be used, and that treatment needs to be continued for a prolonged period – usually six months. Use of single agents or interrupted courses leads to the development of drug resistance. Serious outbreaks of multiply resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis have been seen mainly in AIDS units, where patients have greater susceptibility to the disease, but also in developing countries where maintenance of appropriate antibacterial therapy for six months or more can be di?cult.

Streptomycin was the ?rst useful agent identi?ed in 1944. The four drugs used most often now are RIFAMPICIN, ISONIAZID, PYRAZINAMIDE and ETHAMBUTOL. Three to four agents are used for the ?rst two months; then, when sensitivities are known and clinical response observed, two drugs, most often rifampicin and isoniazid, are continued for the rest of the course. Treatment is taken daily, although thrice-weekly, directly observed therapy is used when there is doubt about the patient’s compliance. All the antituberculous agents have a range of adverse effects that need to be monitored during treatment. Provided that the treatment is prescribed and taken appropriately, response to treatment is very good with cure of disease and very low relapse rates.... nature of the disease tuberculosis has

Nicotiana Tabacum


Family: Solanaceae.

Habitat: Native to tropical America; cultivated mainly in Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal.

English: Tobacco.

Ayurvedic: Taamraparna, Dhuu- mrapatraa.

Unani: Tambaakhu.

Action: Leaves—decoction is locally applied for muscle relaxation in dislocation, strangulated hernia and orchitis. Also for arthralgia, lumbago, rheumatism and gout (an ointment is made by simmering the leaves in lard). Not used internally as a medicine.

The plant contains nicotine as the major alkaloid.

Toxic influence of cigarette and bidi smoking on carboxyhaemoglobin levels of the blood of regular smokers was compared and no significant difference was observed in both of them. A py- rolysed tobacco product, used in India as a dentifrice, when administered to rats, showed activity comparable to benzo(a)pyrene, a potent carcinogen.

Habitual consumption of betel quid containing tobacco shows a strong cy- totoxic potential.

Nicotiana rustica Linn. is known as Kalakatiyaa or Vfilaayati tobacco. Its nicotine content is high and is not suitable for cigarettes, cigars or bidis. Different variants of this tobacco are used for hookah, chewing and snuff.... nicotiana tabacum

Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor

See REVERSE TRANSCRIPTASE INHIBITOR.... nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor

Or Eye-teeth – See Teeth.

... or eye-teeth – see teeth.

Oral Rehydration Therapy (ort)

This is the essential initial treatment for DIARRHOEA, and is particularly valuable for dehydrated children in developing countries ill with diseases such as CHOLERA. A litre of water containing one teaspoonful of salt and eight of sugar, taken by mouth, is readily absorbed. It replaces salts and water lost because of the diarrhoea and usually no other treatment is required.

In developed countries ORT is useful in treating gastroenteritis. There are a number of proprietary preparations, often dispensed as ?avoured sachets, including Dioralyte® and Rehydrate®.... oral rehydration therapy (ort)

Nyctanthes Arbor-tristis


Family: Oleaceae; Nyctanthaceae.

Habitat: Outer Himalaya, Assam, West Bengal; cultivated in many parts of India.

English: Tree of Sorrow, Night Jasmine, Coral Jasmine.

Ayurvedic: Paarijaata, Shephaali, Shephaalikaa, Mandaara.

Unani: Harasingaar.

Siddha: Pavazha mattigai.

Action: Leaves—bitter tonic, chola- gogue, febrifuge, anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, hypotensive, respiratory stimulant. Used for fevers, rheumatism, obstinate sciatica.

The leaves and seeds contain iri- doid glycosides; other constituents reported from the leaves are mannitol, beta-amyrin, beta-sitosterol, hentria- contane, benzoic acid, astragalin, nico- tiflorin, oleanolic acid, nyctanthic acid, friedelin and lupeol. The seeds contain a polysaccharide glucomannan.

All parts of the plant are used for allergic disorders. Alcoholic extract of the plant was found to inhibit passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) in experimental animals. The inhibition was comparable to standard drugs used for allergy and bronchial asthma.

Ethanolic extract of the leaves, flowers and seeds demonstrated strong stimulation of antigen specific and non-specific immunity in mice.

The 50% ethanolic extracts of the leaves, flowers, seeds and roots were found effective in treating caecal amoe- biasis caused by Entamoeba histolytica in rats. But the extracts did not exhibit direct amoebicidal activity in vitro against trophozoites of the parasite.

The iridoid glucosides showed an- tileishmanial activity both in vivo and in vitro.

Dosage: Leaf—10-20 ml juice. (CCRAS.)

Seeds—used in diabetes, also in cutaneous diseases. Filaments— astringent and cooling; prescribed for bleeding piles and menorrhagia. Plant—toxic on the nervous system.

The flowers contain flavonoids including quercetin, kaempferol, api- genin. Cardiac glucoside, nymphalin, showed sedative action in small doses.

The petroleum ether extract of the plant of Nymphaea species, given at a dose of 300 mg/kg i.p. prevented necrosis of the liver tissue and promoted, to some extent, liver regeneration in CCl4-induced toxicity.

Dosage: Dried flowers—3-6 g (API, Vol. III); seed—3-6 g. powder (CCRAS.).... nyctanthes arbor-tristis

Operculina Turpethum

(Linn.) Silva Manso.

Synonym: Ipomoea turpethum R. Br.

Family: Convolvulaceae.

Habitat: Throughout India up to 1,000 m; occasionally grown in gardens.

English: Indian Jalap, Turpeth.

Ayurvedic: Trivrta, Trivrtaa, Trib- handi, Triputaa, Saralaa, Suvahaa,

Rechani, Nishotra, Kumbha, Kaalaa, Shyaama, Shyaamaa.

Unani: Turbud, Nishoth.

Siddha/Tamil: Karunchivadai.

Action: Root—purgative, antiinflammatory (particularly used in rheumatic and paralytic affections; also in fevers, oedema, hepatic and haemophilic diseases).

White Turpeth is preferred to Black Turpeth as cathartic; the latter produces drastic purgation and causes vomiting, fainting and giddiness. White Turpeth is derived from Mars- denia tenacissima in folk medicine.

The active principle of O. turpethum is a glycosidic resin present in the drug up to 10%. It is similar to jalap resin and is concentrated mostly in the root bark. It contains an ether insoluble glycoside, turpethin, which constitutes about half of the resin and two ether soluble gly- cosides, alpha-and beta-turpethein (8 and 6% respectively).

Dosage: Root—1-3 g powder. (API, Vol. III.)... operculina turpethum

Organ Transplantation

See TRANSPLANTATION.... organ transplantation

Orthoptic Treatment

The examination and treatment by exercises of squints and their sequelae (see EYE, DISORDERS OF).... orthoptic treatment

Os Trigonum

A small accessory BONE behind the ankle-joint which is present in about 7 per cent of the population. It may be damaged by energetic springing from the toes in ballet, jumping or fast bowling.... os trigonum

Oxygen Toxicity

OXYGEN toxicity in human lungs causes an acute OEDEMA followed by ?brosis and PULMONARY HYPERTENSION. In the neonate, retrolental ?broplasia occurs and centralnervous-system damage may result in the infant having ?ts. Several factors are involved in toxicity and there is no absolute relationship to time or concentration, although inspired concentrations of under 50 per cent are probably safe for long periods.... oxygen toxicity

Patellar Tendinitis

Also known as jumper’s knee. In?ammation of the tendon of the extensor muscle of the thigh, in which the PATELLA or knee-cap is secured. Usually the result of injury or excessive use or stress – for example, in athletic training – symptoms include pain, tenderness and sometimes restricted movement of the parent muscle. Treatment may include NON-STEROIDAL ANTIINFLAMMATORY DRUGS (NSAIDS), ULTRASOUND treatment and PHYSIOTHERAPY, and, if persistent, injection of a corticosteroid drug (see CORTICOSTEROIDS) around the tendon.... patellar tendinitis

Orthosiphon Tomentosus

Benth. var. glabratus Hook. f.

Synonym: O. glabratus Benth.

Family: Labiatae; Lamiaceae.

Habitat: Orissa, Gujarat, South India, ascending up to 1,000 m in the hills.

Ayurvedic: Prataanikaa (non- classical).

Folk: Tulasi (var.), Kattu-thrithava (Kerala).

Action: Plant—a decoction is given in diarrhoea. Leaves—applied externally to cuts and wounds.... orthosiphon tomentosus

Paul-bunnell Test

A test for MONONUCLEOSIS which is based upon the fact that patients with this disease develop ANTIBODIES which agglutinate sheep red blood cells.... paul-bunnell test

Peak Biting Time

The period during which the biting cycle of a given mosquito species when the largest number of females take blood meals.... peak biting time

Pedilanthus Tithymaloides


Family: Euphorbiaceae.

Habitat: Native to West Indies; cultivated as an ornamental.

English: Slipper Plant, Bird-Cactus.

Folk: Vilaayati-sher (Maharashtra), Naagaphani, Naagadaman (Madhya Pradesh).

Action: Latex—used for warts, leucoderma, venereal diseases. Root—emetic (used in West Indies as Ipecacuanha).

An extract of the air-dried and powdered whole plant contains oc- tacosanol, cycloartenone, oxime and beta-sitosterol.

The latex from the stem contains the proteolytic enzyme, pedilanthain. It exhibited anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema and was more effective than the control drug phenylbutazone. The enzyme also showed anthelmintic property.

The leaves contain n-hentriaconta- nol and dehydrodammaronol-A. The root gave azafrin.... pedilanthus tithymaloides

Pepper Tree

Purification, Healing, Protection... pepper tree

Percutaneous Transhepatic Cholangiopancreatography (ptc)

A technique for displaying the bile ducts (see BILE DUCT) and pancreatic ducts (see PANCREAS) with radio-opaque dyes. These are introduced via a catheter (see CATHETERS) inserted into the ducts through an incision in the skin. An X-ray is then taken of the area.... percutaneous transhepatic cholangiopancreatography (ptc)

Peripheral-blood Stem-cell Transplants

These have almost completely replaced BONE MARROW TRANSPLANT, used to treat malignancies such as LEUKAEMIA and LYMPHOMA for the past 20 years. The high doses of CHEMOTHERAPY or RADIOTHERAPY used to treat these diseases destroy the bone marrow which contains stem cells from which all the blood cells derive. In 1989 stem cells were found in the blood during recovery from chemotherapy. By giving growth factors (cytokines), the number of stem cells in the blood increased for about three to four days. In a peripheral-blood stem-cell transplant, these cells can be separated from the peripheral blood, without a general anaesthetic. The cells taken by either method are then frozen and returned intravenously after the chemotherapy or radiotherapy is completed. Once transplanted, the stem cells usually take less than three weeks to repopulate the blood, compared to a month or more for a bone marrow transplant. This means that there is less risk of infection or bleeding during the recovery from the transplant. The whole procedure has a mortality risk of less than 5 per cent – half the risk of a bone marrow transplant.... peripheral-blood stem-cell transplants

Physical Therapy / Physiotherapy

1 Treatment of pain, disease or injury by physical means. 2 The profession concerned with promotion of health; prevention of physical disabilities; evaluation and rehabilitation of persons disabled by pain, disease or injury; and with treatment by physical therapeutic measures, as opposed to medical, surgical or radiologic measures.... physical therapy / physiotherapy

Piper Thomsoni

Hook. f.

Family: Piperaceae.

Habitat: Sikkim, Bengal, Manipur, Khasi and Jaintia hills.

Folk: Jangali Paan.

Action: Root—(macerated in water) diuretic.... piper thomsoni

Plasma Transfusion

This procedure is sometimes used instead of blood TRANSFUSION. PLASMA – the ?uid part of blood from which the cells have been separated

– may be dried and in powder form kept almost inde?nitely; when wanted it is reconstituted by adding sterile distilled water. In powder form it can be transported easily and over long distances. Transfusion of plasma is especially useful in the treatment of SHOCK. One advantage of plasma transfusion is that it is not necessary to carry out testing of blood groups before using it.... plasma transfusion

Phaseolus Trilobus

sensu Ait. & auct.

Synonym: Vigna trilobata (Linn.) Verdcourt.

Family: Papilionaceae; Fabaceae.

Habitat: Throughout India, up to an elevation of 2,100 m in the northeast.

English: Wild Gram.

Ayurvedic: Mudgaparni, Kaaka- parni, Suuryaparni, Alpikaa, Sahaa, Kaakamudraa, Maarjaargandhikaa. (P. adenanthus G. F. W., and Vigna pilosa Baker are used as Mudgaparni in the South. Dried aerial parts, root and seed are used.)

Siddha/Tamil: Kaatupayaru.

Folk: Jangali Moong, Mugavan.

Action: Whole plant—febrifuge. Leaves—sedative, cooling, an- tibilious. A decoction is used in intermittent fever. The plant contains friedelin, epifriedelin, stigmasterol and tannins. The bean contains methionine, tryptophan and tyrosine; also strepogenin, uridine, diphosphate-galacturonic acid. The seed protein contained lysine, valine, leucine and phenyl- alanine.

Dosage: Seed—50-100 ml. decoction (CCRAS.); whole plant— 3-5 g. (API, Vol. IV.)... phaseolus trilobus

Phlogacanthus Thyrsiflorus


Family: Acanthaceae.

Habitat: The sub-tropical Himalayas, Upper Gangetic Plain, Bihar, North Bengal and Assam.

Folk: Dieng-soh kajut (Meghalaya), Chuhai (Bihar), Titaaphul (Assam).

Action: Whole plant—used like Adhatoda vasica in whooping cough and menorrhagia. Fruits and leaves—burnt and prescribed for fevers. The leaves are reported to contain diterpene lactone, phlogantholide A and its glucoside.

A related species, P. jenkinsii C. B. Clarke, found in Assam, is also known as Titaaphul. A decoction of leaves is given for diseases of spleen and liver and for fevers.... phlogacanthus thyrsiflorus

Polianthes Tuberosa


Family: Amaryllidaceae.

Habitat: Native to Mexico; cultivated for ornamental use.

English: Tuberose.

Ayurvedic: Rajanigandhaa.

Siddha/Tamil: Nilasampangi.

Folk: Gulcheri, Gulshabbu.

Action: Flowers and bulbs— diuretic. Externally used for skin eruptions. The bulbs are rubbed with turmeric and butter and applied over red pimples of infants. The bulbs are reported to contain an alkaloid, lycorin, which causes vomiting.

Dried and powdered bulbs are used for gonorrhoea.... polianthes tuberosa

Portulaca Tuberosa


Synonym: P. pilosa Linn.

Family: Portulacaceae.

Habitat: Peninsular India, near sea-coasts.

Ayurvedic: Bichhuu-buuti.

Folk: Jangali Gaajar (Gujarat), Sanjivani (Bihar).

Action: Leaves—an infusion is given internally in dysuria; externally applied to erysipelas. The herb shows diuretic, calculolythic, analgesic and antipyretic properties.

The aerial parts contain diterpe- noids, pilosanone A and B. leucorrhoea, dysmenorrhoea, arthritis, cramps, kidney stones, bleeding piles; as a mouth wash in pyrrhoea, gingivitis and sore throat.

Key application: In mild dismenor- rhoeal disorders; as a support for treatment of milder, nonspecific, acute diarrhoea and in light inflammation of the oral and pharyngeal mucosa. (German Commission E.)

The plant gave anthocyanins—cy- anidin and delphinidin. Aerial parts gave tannins (2-10%). The plant also gave choline, betaine, histidine, an essential oil and vitamin E.

The maximum amounts of tannins occur in the root stock (up to 17.5% on dry basis). The ethanolic and aqueous extract of the herb (1 : 5) contain 0.3 to 0.8% of tannin. The tannin fraction exhibited anti-mutagenic effect.

Potentilla fruticosa HK. (temperate Himalaya) is also used like Silverweed.

The flowers and young shoots contain flavonoids, quercetin, terniflorin, tribuloside and (-)-catechin. The plant also contains stigmasterol, beta-sitos- terol and campesterol; (-)-epicatechol gallate, (±)-catechol, (-)-epicatechol, (-)-epigallocatechol and (-)-epigallo- catechol gallate have been isolated from aerial parts.... portulaca tuberosa

Positron-emission Tomography (pet)

See PET SCANNING.... positron-emission tomography (pet)

Post-coital Test

A test for INFERTILITY. A specimen of cervical mucus, taken up to 24 hours after coitus (during the post-ovulatory phase of the menstrual cycle), is examined microscopically to assess the motility of the sperms. If motility is above a certain level, then sperms and mucus are not interacting abnormally – thus eliminating one cause of sterility.... post-coital test

Promethazine Theoclate

A drug that is widely used in the alleviation or prevention of sea-sickness (see MOTION (TRAVEL) SICKNESS).... promethazine theoclate

Randomised Controlled Trial

A method of comparing the results between two or more groups of patients intentionally subjected to di?erent methods of treatment – or sometimes of prevention. Those subjects entering the trial have to give their informed permission. They are allocated to their respective groups using random numbers, with one group (controls) receiving no active treatment, instead receiving either PLACEBO or a traditional treatment. Preferably, neither the subject nor the assessor should know which ‘regimen’ is allocated to which subject: this is known as a double-blind trial.... randomised controlled trial

Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (ptsd)

A term introduced to PSYCHIATRY in 1980 after the Vietnam War. It is one of several psychiatric disorders that can develop in people exposed to severe trauma, such as a major physical injury, participation in warfare, assault or rape, or any event in which there is major loss of life or a threat of loss of life. Most people exposed to trauma do not develop psychiatric disorder; however, some develop immediate distress and, occasionally, the reaction can be delayed for many months. Someone with PTSD has regular recurrences of memories or images of the stressful event (‘?ashbacks’), especially when reminded of it. Insomnia, feelings of guilt and isolation, an inability to concentrate and irritability may result. DEPRESSION is very common. Support from friends and family is probably the best management, but those who do not recover quickly can be helped by antidepressants and psychological treatments such as COGNITIVE BEHAVIOUR THERAPY. Over the past few years, PTSD has featured increasingly in compensation litigation.... post-traumatic stress disorder (ptsd)

Premna Tomentosa


Cornulia corymbosa

Family: Verbenaceae.

Habitat: Peninsular India and Bihar up to 1,200 m.

English: Bastard Teak.

Ayurvedic: Agnimanth (var.).

Siddha/Tamil: Kolakottathekku pinari, Pondanganari.

Folk: Gineri (var.).

Action: Bark and essential oil of root—used in stomach disorders. Leaf—diuretic, vulnerary; prescribed as a tonic after child birth; used in dropsical affections. Pounded leaves—vulnerary.

The heartwood gave apigenin derivatives. The leaves gave essential oil containing d-and dl-limonene, beta- caryophyllene a sesquiterpene hydrocarbon, a diterpene hydrocarbon and a sesquiterpene tertiary alcohol.

The roots and rhizomes of P. veris and P. elatior contain a saponin, yielding a sapogenin, primulagenin A. A fla- vonol glycoside named primulaflavo- noloside has been reported in the flowers of P. veris. The root of P. veris are considered as a substitute for Senega (Polygala senega) roots.

Anthocyanidins have been detected in most of the Primula species, also a highly toxic allergenic substance, primin, in the leaves and glandular hairs. The floral and foliar parts of the different genotypes showed presence of kaempferol, quercetin and myricetin.... premna tomentosa

Pueraria Tuberosa


Family: Papilionaceae; Fabaceae.

Habitat: Punjab, Western Uttar Pradesh, Central India.

English: Indian Kudze.

Ayurvedic: Vidaari, Swaadukandaa, Ikshugandhaa, Gajavaajipriyaa, Kandapalaasha, Bhuumikushmaan- da. (Substitute for Jivaka and Rshabhaka.)

Folk: Bhui-kumhadaa, Suraal.

Action: Tuber—diuretic, cardiac tonic, galactagogue. Also used for fertility control. Root—used as a demulcent, and refrigerant in fevers, as cataplasm for swelling of joints, as galactagogue.

The butanolic extract of Pueraria tuberosa showed significant protection against hepatic damage in rats. The ethanolic extract of the tubers and its butanol and pre-puerarin fractions exhibited anti-implantation effect. The pure compounds, puerarin, daidzein and tuberosin, exhibited significant anti-implantation activity in hamsters.

In Indian medicine, Vidaari and Kshira-vidaari are used for promoting breast milk and semen, and as a restorative tonic. Most authors have equated Vidaari with Pueraria tuberosa and Kshira-vidaari with Ipomoea digi- tata.

In Western herbal, Pueraria lobata and P. tuberosa roots are used alone or in combination with other products for symptoms due to alcoholism. But preliminary research shows that Kudze does not improve sobriety in chronic alcoholics. (Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, 2007.)

Dosage: Tuber—3-5 g powder. (CCRAS.)... pueraria tuberosa

Recombinant Dna Technology

See GENETIC ENGINEERING.... recombinant dna technology

Red Tide

The appearance of a reddish-brown scum on the surface of the sea caused by dinoflagelates at certain times of the year when heat and other climatic conditions allow for vast expansion in their numbers. Unlike the dinoflagellates that cause PSP, they seems to cause no medical problem apart from irritation of the eyes (conjunctivitis), foul-tasting sea water, and leaving a rotting, unpleasant smell when they dry out on the beach.... red tide

Regurgitations, Tricuspid

Backflow of blood from the right ventricle (pumping deoxygenated thick venous blood into the lungs) into the right atrium (receiving used blood from the rest of the body) because of faulty closure of the tricuspid valve that guards between the two chambers.... regurgitations, tricuspid

Ranunculus Trichophyllus


Synonym: R. aquatilis Linn. var. capillaceus DC.

Family: Ranunculaceae.

Habitat: Kashmir to Sikkim.

English: Water Crowfoot, Water Fennel.

Ayurvedic: Kaandira (var.).

Folk: Tohlab (Kashmir).

Action: Herb—used in intermittent fevers, rheumatism and asthma.

Ranunculus muricatus Linn. (Punjab and Kashmir) is used in intermittent fevers, gout and asthma in Europe. The herb is rubefacient, vesicant and narcotic.... ranunculus trichophyllus

Rauvolfia Tetraphylla


Synonym: R. canescens L.

Family: Apocynaceae.

Habitat: Abundant in moist and warm regions of West Bengal, particularly in 24 Parganas and Howrah, and Kerala (as a weed).

Folk: Badaa Chaand.

Action: Root—sedative, hypotensive. Plant juice, mixed with castor oil, is applied to skin diseases and to destroy parasites.

The plant contains a number of alkaloids, including rauvolscine, aj- malicine, canescine, reserpine, pseu- doyohimbine; yohimbine, corynan- thene, raunescine, iso-raunescine and recanescine.

The major alkaloid is rauwolscine (alpha-yohimbine), present in the root bark (0.1%), stem bark (0.2%) and leaves (0.5%).

The roots are often used as a substitute or adulterant of those of R. serpentina, though the reserpine content of the dried root was found to be comparatively low (0.03-0.05%).

Family: Linaceae.

Habitat: The Himalayas from Kashmir to Sikkim; commonly grown in gardens.

English: Winter-Flax, Yellow Flax.

Ayurvedic: Baasanti.

Folk: Abai (Maharashtra).

Action: Plant—used for the treatment of paralysis in Bihar. The crushed leaves and stems are applied to wounds infested with maggots.... rauvolfia tetraphylla

Reminiscence Therapy

Treatment which aims to stimulate older people’s memories by means of old films, pictures, objects, music etc. It allows an older person to remember his or her life’s achievements and contribution and can enhance self-esteem.... reminiscence therapy

Respiratory Therapy

The diagnostic evaluation, management and treatment of the care of older persons with deficiencies and abnormalities of the cardiopulmonary (heart lung) system.... respiratory therapy

Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor

An agent that prevents the action of the viral ENZYME, REVERSE TRANSCRIPTASE, so disrupting the virus’s colonisation of its target host. The reverse transcriptase inhibitor ZIDOVUDINE is used (in combination with other agents) to treat HIV infection.... reverse transcriptase inhibitor

Rinnes Test

A hearing test in which a vibrating tuning fork is placed on the mastoid process (see EAR). When the subject can no longer hear the ringing, it is placed beside the ear. Normal subjects can then hear the noise once more, but in people with conductive DEAFNESS, air conduction does not persist after bone conduction has ceased. It can help to distinguish between nerve (sensorineural) and conduction deafness.... rinnes test

Rock Tripe

Umbilicaria species

Description: This plant forms large patches with curling edges. The top of the plant is usually black. The underside is lighter in color.

Habitat and Distribution: Look on rocks and boulders for this plant. It is common throughout North America.

Edible Parts: The entire plant is edible. Scrape it off the rock and wash it to remove grit. The plant may be dry and crunchy; soak it in water until it becomes soft. Rock tripes may contain large quantities of bitter substances; soaking or boiling them in several changes of water will remove the bitterness.


There are some reports of poisoning from rock tripe, so apply the Universal Edibility Test.... rock tripe

Repressed Memory Therapy

Also called recovered memory syndrome, this treatment was developed in the wake of the widespread exposure in the 1980s and 90s of the frequency of child sexual abuse. A controversial concept emerged in the USA, picked up later by some experts in the UK, that abused children sometimes suppress their unpleasant memories, and that subsequent PSYCHOTHERAPY could help some victims to recover these memories – thus possibly aiding rehabilitation. This recall of ‘repressed’ memories, however, was believed by some psychiatrists to be, in e?ect, a false memory implanted into the victim’s subconscious by the psychotherapy itself – or perhaps invented by the individual for personal motives.

In 1997 the Royal College of Psychiatrists in the UK produced a comprehensive report which was sceptical about the notion that the awareness of recurrent severe sexual abuse in children could be pushed entirely out of consciousness. The authors did not believe that events could remain inaccessible to conscious memory for decades, allegedly provoking vague non-speci?c symptoms to be recovered during psychotherapy with resolution of the symptoms. Supporting evidence pointed to the lack of any empirical proof that unconscious dissociation of unpleasant memories from conscious awareness occurred to protect the individual. Furthermore, experimental and natural events had shown that false memories, created through suggestion or in?uence, could be implanted. Many individuals who had claimed to have recovered memories of abuse subsequently withdrew and, often, non-speci?c symptoms allegedly linked to suppression worsened rather than improved as therapy to unlock memories proceeded. The conclusion is that recovered memory therapy should be viewed with great caution.... repressed memory therapy

Rhubarb, Turkey

Rheum palmatum. N.O. Polygonaceae.

Habitat: China.

Rheum palmatum was once transported from China through Persia to Turkey and was consequently known as "Turkey Rhubarb" ; when conveyed via India it was called "East Indian Rhubarb." This Chinese root is the popular medicinal Turkey Rhubarb of to-day, the best kind being that from the Shansi province of China.

Features ? The root is smooth and heavy, and arrives in this country peeled. It is identifiable by the dark brown spots and a reticulation of white lines. The Canton rhubarb is more fibrous, unspotted, and the white network is less prominent than that from Shansi. The quality of these roots is judged by the fracture, which should show bright, the inferior kinds being a dull brown.

Action: Aperient, stomachic, astringent, tonic.

Small doses of the powdered root are used in diarrhea, larger quantities acting as a thorough yet gentle purgative. Dose of powdered root, 3 to 30 grains.... rhubarb, turkey

Rubia Tinctorum


Family: Rubiaceae.

Habitat: Native to Southern Europe and parts of Asia; also found in Kashmir.

English: Alizari, European Madder.

Action: Root—used for menstrual and urinary disorders and liver diseases.

The root contains anthraquinone and their glycosides, including alizarin, purpurin, purpuroxanthin, pseudopurpurin, rubiadin, ruberythric acid and lucidin primeveroside. There are indications that lucidin is carcinogenic. All parts of the plant contained an iri- doid, asperuloside.... rubia tinctorum

Ruellia Tuberosa


Family: Acanthaceae.

Habitat: Native to central America; grown in Indian gardens.

English: Meadow-weed.

Siddha/Tamil: Tapas-kaaya.

Action: Herb—emetic; used as a substitute for ipecacuanha. A decoction is given in chronic bronchitis; also used as a diuretic for the treatment of stones in the bladder.... ruellia tuberosa

Ryle’s Tube

See NASOGASTRIC TUBE.... ryle’s tube

Saprosma Ternatum

Benth. & Hk. f. in part.

Family: Rubiaceae.

Habitat: Hills of Assam, in damp places and in the Andamans.

Folk: Bhedeli (Assam).

Action: Leaf—carminative, eaten to relieve flatulence and stomachache. A poultice is used after parturition.... saprosma ternatum

Scirpus Tuberosus


Synonym: S. maritimus C. B. Clarke non Linn.

Family: Cyperaceae.

Habitat: Marshy areas and on the banks of streams up to an altitude of 3,000 m.

English: Sea Clubrush.

Ayurvedic: Raaj Kasheruka.

Action: Tuberous root—astringent, diuretic, laxative.

Oil from rhizomes on hydrolysis gave phellonic acid.... scirpus tuberosus

Secular Trend

Changes over a long period of time, generally years or decades. Examples include the decline of tuberculosis mortality and the rise, followed by a decline, in coronary hearth disease mortality in Western countries.... secular trend

Sagittaria Trifolia


Synonym: S. sagittifolia Hook. f. (non L.)

Family: Alismataceae.

Habitat: Throughout the plains of India.

English: Old world Arrowhead.

Folk: Chhotaa Kuuta, Muyaa (Bengali).

Action: Plant—discutient, anti- galactagogue, astringent, antiinflammatory. Tuber—used for cutaneous diseases. Leaves—powder dusted in pruritus; mashed with molasses used in sore throat and inflammation of the breasts.

The plant contains a diterpene, sagit- tariol, beta-sitosterol, its glucoside and hentriacontanone. The diterpenes, tri- foliones A, B, C and D, inhibited his- tamine release from rat mast cells.

The bulbs contain sandaracopimar- ic acid which suppressed the immune function of animal T-cells.... sagittaria trifolia

Salix Tetrasperma


Family: Salicaceae.

Habitat: Throughout the greater part of India, along the banks of rivers and streams.

English: Indian Willow.

Ayurvedic: Jalavetasa, Naadeya, Niketan, Baishi.

Siddha/Tamil: Attupalai.

Folk: Vaanira, Vaalunja.

Action: Dried leaves—antiinflammatory, given in rheumatism, swellings, piles. Bark—febrifuge.

The bark is reported to contain 6.5% tannin, also salicin A.... salix tetrasperma

Selinum Tenuifolium

Wall. ex DC.

Synonym: S. candollei DC.

Family: Umbelliferae; Apiaceae.

Habitat: The Himalayas from Kashmir to Nepal at altitudes of 1,800-4,200 m.

Ayurvedic: Muraa, Surabhi, Daitya, Gandhakuti, Gandhavati. (Substitute for Nardostachys jatamansi.)

Siddha/Tamil: Mural.

Folk: Bhuutakeshi (Kashmir), Muur (Garhwal).

Action: Roots—sedative, analgesic.

Isoimperatorin and oxypeucedanin have been isolated as major inotropic constituents from the rhizomes.

The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia ofIn- dia recommends the root in syncope, giddiness, also for asthma.

Dosage: Root—1-3 g powder. (API, Vol. II.)... selinum tenuifolium

Seminiferous Tubules

The long tortuous tubules that form much of the testis (see TESTICLE) and carry the SEMEN to the URETHRA.... seminiferous tubules

Serum Therapy

See IMMUNOLOGY.... serum therapy

Short-term Aged Care

Involves care designed to improve the physical wellbeing and restore the health of older people to an optimum level following a serious illness.... short-term aged care

Short-term Supportive Psychotherapy

is aimed at stabilising and strengthening the psychological defence mechanisms of those patients who are confronted by a crisis which threatens to overwhelm their ability to cope, or who are struggling with the aftermath of major life events.... short-term supportive psychotherapy

Sempervivum Tectorum


Family: Crassulaceae.

Habitat: Nilgiris, as ornament. (A common garden plant in Britain and Europe.)

English: Houseleek

Action: Leaves—refrigerant, astringent, antispasmodic; applied as poultice to inflammatory conditions of skin. Juice of the leaves is applied topically for treating corns.

The leaves sliced in two and the inner surface applied to warts, act as a positive cure for corns.

The leaves contain tannin, malic acid and mucilage. Three related species are found in the alpine Himalayan range from Kumaon to Kashmir.... sempervivum tectorum

Sexually Transmitted Diseases (stds)

Sexually transmitted diseases – traditionally called venereal diseases – are infections transmitted by sexual intercourse (heterosexual and homosexual). In the United Kingdom they are treated in genito-urinary medicine (GUM) clinics. The incidences of these diseases are more common among people who have several sexual partners, as STDs are very infectious; some of the major STDs, particularly AIDS/HIV, are also transmitted by blood and so can result from needle-sharing by drug addicts, or by TRANSFUSION. The ‘traditional’ STDs – SYPHILIS, GONORRHOEA and CHANCROID – now comprise only 10 per cent of all such diseases treated in STD clinics: these clinics also treat patients with CHLAMYDIA, TRICHOMONIASIS, HERPES GENITALIS, MOLLUSCUM CONTAGIOSUM and genital WARTS. SCABIES and pubic lice (see PEDICULOSIS – Pediculus pubis) can also be transmitted by sexual intercourse, and HEPATITIS B is also recognised as an STD.

The incidence of STDs rose sharply during World War II but the advent of PENICILLIN and subsequent antibiotics meant that syphilis and gonorrhoea could be treated e?ectively. The arrival of oral contraception and more tolerant public attitudes to sexual activities resulted in an increase in the incidence of sexually transmitted infections. The diagnosis of NONSPECIFIC URETHRITIS (NSU), once given to many patients whose symptoms were not due to the traditional recognised infections, was in the 1970s realised to be wrong, as the condition was proved to be the result of infection by chlamydia.

Most STDs are treatable, but herpes is an infection that could become chronic, while hepatitis B and, of course, AIDS/HIV are potentially fatal – although treatment of HIV is now proving more e?ective. As well as the treatment and subsequent monitoring of patients with STDs, one of the important functions of clinics has been the tracing, treatment and follow-up of sexual contacts of infected individuals, a procedure that is conducted con?dentially.

Apart from AIDS/HIV, the incidence of STDs fell during the 1980s; however in some countries the agents causing syphilis and gonorrhoea began to develop resistance to antibiotics, which showed the continued importance of practising safe sex – in particular by restricting the number of sexual partners and ensuring the regular use of condoms. In the United Kingdom the rates per million of the male population infected by syphilis rose from 8.8 in 1991 to 9.7 in 1999; in females the ?gures were 4.0 to 4.5, respectively. For gonorrhoea, the ?gures for men were 399.4 in 1991 and 385 in 1999, with women also showing a reduction, from

216.5 to 171.3. In 1991, 552.6 per million of men had chlamydia, a ?gure which rose to

829.5 in 1999; for women in the same period the incidence also rose, from 622.5 to 1,077.1 per million. For genital herpes simplex virus, the infection rate for men fell from 236.6 per million to 227.7, whereas the ?gures for women showed a rise, 258.5 to 357. The incidence of AIDS/HIV is given under the relevant entry. (These ?gures are based on information in United Kingdom Health Statistics, 2001 edition, UKHSI, published by the O?ce of National Statistics.)... sexually transmitted diseases (stds)

Single-blind Trial

See “blinding”.... single-blind trial

Small-bowel Transplantantion

Before the advent of small-bowel transplants, long-term intravenous feeding (total parenteral nutrition or TPN) was the last option for patients with chronic intestinal failure. Most recipients are children, and small-bowel transplantation is currently reserved for patients unable to continue on long-term parenteral nutrition. The main constraints to small-bowel transplantation are the intensity of rejection (necessitating high levels of immunosuppression), and the lack of donors who are the same size as the recipient (a particular problem for children).... small-bowel transplantantion

Spasmodic Torticollis

A chronic condition in which the neck is rotated or deviated laterally, forwards, or backwards, often with additional jerking or tremor. It is a form of focal DYSTONIA, and should not be confused with the far commoner transient condition of acute painful wry-neck.... spasmodic torticollis

Stomach Tube

A soft rubber or plastic tube with rounded end, and usually about 75 cm (30 inches) in length, which is used for washing out the stomach when it contains some poisonous material. (See GASTRIC LAVAGE.) A narrower tube, 90 cm (36 inches) in length, is used to obtain a sample of gastric juice for examination. Such a tube can also be allowed to pass out of the stomach into the duodenum so that the contents of the upper part of the small intestine are similarly obtained for analysis.... stomach tube

Solanum Torvum


Family: Solanaceae.

Habitat: Throughout tropical parts of India, in waste places.

English: West Indian Turkey Berry.

Ayurvedic: Brihati (White-flowered- var.), Goshtha-vaartaaku.

Siddha/Tamil: Chundai.

Folk: Ran-Baingan, Goth-begun.

Action: Plant—digestive, diuretic, sedative. Leaves—haemostatic. Fruits—useful in liver and spleen enlargement (cooked and eaten as a vegetable); decoction used for cough. Root—used for poulticing cracks in feet.

Unripe fruits and leaves contain the glycoalkaloid, solasonine (0.37% total alkaloids in air-dried fruits of the plant from Khasi and Jaintia hills). Hydrolysis of the neutral glucosidal fraction yields a steroidal sapogenin, chloro- genin, which is rare in Solanum sp.

The fruits gave sitosterol-D-gluco- side.

Extracts of the plant affect the rate and amplitude of respiration, also blood pressure. They also contract isolated ileum of guinea-pig. Leaves contain no vitamin K or derivatives of naphthoquinone; their haemostatic action may be due to the oil or pectins or both.... solanum torvum

Solanum Trilobatum


Family: Solanaceae.

Habitat: Deccan Peninsula.

English: Climbing Brinjal.

Ayurvedic: Alarka, Valli- kantakaarikaa, Kantakaari-lataa.

Siddha/Tamil: Toothuvilai.

Action: Berries and flowers—a decoction is used for cough and chronic bronchitis.

The steroidal alkaloid, solasodine, is present in fruit and leaf of the plant (air-dried fruits and leaves from Coim- batore gave 0.96 and 0.36% respectively). A crude glycoalkaloid mixture, isolated from the plant material, contained about 20% beta-solamarine. The plant exhibited antimitotic, antitu- mour, antibacterial and antifungal activities and showed promising results in two cancer test systems—KB cell and sarcoma 180 in mice.... solanum trilobatum

Solanum Tuberosum


Habitat: Native to South America; grown almost throughout India.

English: Patoto.

Ayurvedic: Aaluka, Aaruka, Golaalu. (Aaluka, yam of Indian medicine, is equated with species of Dioscorea.)

Folk: Aaluu.

Action: Potatoes are consumed as food. Extract of leaves is used as antispasmodic in cough. Potato juice is given as an adjuvant in the treatment of peptic ulcer for bringing relief from pain and acidity. Starch and very small quantities of atropine alkaloids reduce digestive secretions and stomach acids. Potatoes are good for patients suffering from hyperacidity; boiled potatoes make an excellent diet for those having hypertension.... solanum tuberosum

Sophora Tomentosa


Family: Popilionaceae; Fabaceae.

Habitat: Grown in gardens for its bright-yellow flowers.

English: Sea coast Laburnum, Silver Bush.

Action: Seeds—dangerously emetocatharitc, toxic, febrifugal, stomachic. Seeds yield a fatty oil with expectorant properties. Decoction of seeds and roots is given in bilious disorders. Leaves— emetocathartic.

Constituents of the aerial parts include benzofurans; flavonoids including sophoraisoflavone A and B, sopho- ronol, iso-sophoranone-and iso-bava- chin. The leaves and seeds contain al- kaloids—matrine, cytisine and small amounts of methylcytisine. Cytisine is also present in the roots.

Cytisine possesses insecticidal and physiological properties similar to those of nicotine.

Sophoraisoflavone A exhibits anti- fungal activity.... sophora tomentosa


(Swahili) Resembling the morning star

Tariq, Taarique, Tarique... taariq


Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum).

Plant Part Used: Leaf.

Dominican Medicinal Uses: Leaves: poultice, topically, for wounds, skin infections, bug bites, sinus infection and headache.

Safety: Cases of toxic effects in humans have been reported due to ingestion of the dried leaf or nicotine and excessive exposure to the fresh leaf.

Contraindications: Pregnancy, lactation, children under 5 years.

Laboratory & Preclinical Data: In vitro: acaricidal, antifungal, insecticidal (methanolic leaf extracts); antifungal (seed).

* See entry for Tabaco in “Part 3: Dominican Medicinal Plant Profiles” of this book for more information, including references.... tabaco


(Gaelic) A genius; one of immeasurable intelligence

Tabban, Tabann, Tabanne, Tabana, Tabanna... taban


A family of biting flies commonly called horseflies or deerflies (genus Tabanus), sometimes vectors of loiasis.... tabanid


This means, literally, a wasting disease, and is a traditional name applied to various diseases such as tabes dorsalis (tertiary SYPHILIS) and TUBERCULOSIS accompanied by enlargement of glands (see GLAND).... tabes


(African / Egyptian) One who makes incantations / a talented woman Tabiah, Tabya, Tabea, Tabeah, Tabiya... tabia


(Arabic) A follower of Muhammad Tabinah, Tabyna, Tabeena, Tabeana... tabina

Statistical Test

A mathematical formula (or function) that is used to determine if the difference between outcomes of a treatment or intervention and a control group is great enough to conclude that the difference is statistically significant. Statistical tests generate a value that is associated with a particular P value. Among the variety of common statistical tests are: F, t, Z, and chi-square. The choice of a test depends upon the conditions of the study, e.g. what type of outcome variable is used, whether or not the subjects are randomly selected from a larger population, and whether it can be assumed that the outcome values of the population have a normal distribution or other type of distribution.... statistical test

Tabernaemontana Coronaria

(Jacq.) Willd.

Synonym: T. divaricata (L.) R. Br. Ervatamia coronaria (Jacq.) Staph. E. divaricata (L.) Burkill.

Family: Apocynaceae.

Habitat: Sub-Himalayan tract. Cultivated in gardens.

English: East Indian Rosebay.

Ayurvedic: Tagar, Nandivriksha (The Wealth of India); Nandi Pushpa. (Tagar is equated with Valeriana hardwickii and Nandivrksha with Cedrela toona.)

Siddha/Tamil: Nandiyavattam.

Folk: Tengari, Chaandani.

Action: Leaves—milky juice, antiinflammatory; applied to wounds. Flowers—mixed with oil, used in skin diseases. Root—acrid, anodyne; relieves toothache, also used as a vermicide.

Various parts of the plant are used in the indigenous system of medicine for the treatment of skin diseases and cancer. A decoction of leaves is used as antihypertensive and diuretic.

The plant from Sri Lanka (root, leaves and flowers) contain several indole alkaloids including voacristine, voacangine, coronaridine, vobasine, tabernaemontanine and dregamine. Isovoacristic hydrochloride, found in the plant, caused bradycardia in frogs and rabbits. The flowers contain an alkaloid tabersonine which is reported to show hypotensive effect on anaesthetized cats.

Coronaridine showed autonomic as well as CNS activity when tested for biological action in animals. It produced analgesia and was effective in suppressing foot-shock-induced rage in mice.

Indole alkaloid (I) inhibited HC1- induced ulcer in mice by 48.8%.

The crude alkaloid extracts of the leaves, bark and flowers exhibit antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus.... tabernaemontana coronaria

Tabernaemontana Dichotoma


Synonym: Ervatamia dichotoma Blatter.

Rejoua dichotoma Gamble.

Family: Apocynaceae.

Habitat: Western Ghats at low elevations.

English: Eve's Apple, Forbidden Fruit.

Siddha/Tamil: Kandalaippalai, Kattalari-palai.

Folk: Tengari (Var.).

Action: Seed, leaves, bark— purgative. Latex—cathartic.

The fruit gave the alkaloid, coronaridine. Root bark gave alkaloids— heyneanine and voacristine hydrox- yindolenine. The petroleum ether-ex- tractable alkaloids of the fruit showed CNS depressant and hypotensive activities.

Tabernaemontana heyneana Wall., synonym, Ervatamia heyneana Cooke is also equated with Tengari of Indian medicine.

The wood and stembark yielded indole alkaloids; ursolic acid, beta-amy- rin andbeta-amyrin acetate. A number of alkaloids showed cytotoxic activity. (Phytochemistry, 19,1980.)... tabernaemontana dichotoma


(African) A graceful woman Tabitah, Tabyta, Tabytah, Tabeeta, Tabeata, Tabieta, Tabeita... tabita


(Greek) Resembling a gazelle; known for beauty and grace Tabithah, Tabbitha, Tabetha, Tabbetha, Tabatha, Tabbatha, Tabotha, Tabbotha, Tabytha, Tabbytha, Tabiatha, Tabithia, Tabtha, Tabathia, Tabathe, Tabby, Tabbey, Tabbie, Tabbi, Tabbee... tabitha


(Native American) A woman wearing a tiara

Tablitah, Tableta, Tableeta, Tablyta, Tableyta, Tableata... tablita


(Spanish) One who plays a small drum Taborah, Taborra, Taboria, Taborya... tabora


(Native American) Having a voice that carries

Taborrie, Taborry, Taborrey, Taborree, Tabori, Taborie, Tabory, Taborey, Taboree, Taborea... taborri


A recently introduced, once-daily topical preparation for the treatment of plaque PSORIASIS.... tacalcitol

Tacca Pinnatifida

Forst. f.

Synonym: T. leontopetaloides (Linn.) Kuntze.

Family: Compositae; Asteraceae.

Habitat: Native to Mexico; cultivated in gardens all over India.... tacca pinnatifida

Strychnine Tree

Strychnos nux-vomica


San: Karaskara;

Hin: Kajra, Kuchila;

Mal: Kanjiram; ;

Tam: Itti, Kagodi, Kanjirai Mar:Jharkhatchura;

Kan: Hemmushti, Ittangi;

Tel: Mushti, Mushidi; Ori: Kora, Kachila

Importance: It is a large deciduous tree, with simple leaves and white fragrant flowers.

Strychnos is highly toxic to man and animals producing stiffness of muscles and convulsions, ultimately leading to death. However, in small doses it can also serve as efficacious cure forms of paralysis and other nervous disorders. The seeds are used as a remedy in intermittent fever, dyspepsia, chronic dysentery, paralytic and neuralgic affections, worms, epilepsy, chronic rheumatism, insomnia and colic. It is also useful in impotence, neuralgia of face, heart disease, spermatorrhoea, skin diseases, toxins, wounds, emaciation, cough and cholera. Leaves are applied as poultice in the treatment of chronic wounds and ulcers and the leaf decoction is useful in paralytic complaints. Root and root bark used in fever and dysentery (Nadkarni, 1982; Kurup et al, 1979).

Distribution: The plant is distributed throughout India in deciduous forests up to 1200m. It is also found in Sri Lanka, Siam, Indochina and Malaysia.

Botany: Strychnos nux-vomica Linn. is a large tree belonging to the family Loganiaceae. Leaves are simple, opposite, orbicular to ovate, 6-11.5x6-9.5cm, coriaceous, glabrous, 5 nerved, apex obtuse, acute or apiculate, transverse nerves irregular and inconspicuous. Inflorescence is many flowered terminal cymes, 2.5-5cm across. Bracts (5mm) and bracteoles (1.5mm) small. Flowers are white or greenish white and fragrant. Calyx 5 lobed, pubescent and small (2mm). Corolla salver shaped, tube cylindrical slightly hairy near the base within and greenish white, tube much elongate than the lobes. Tube 7mm and lobes 2.5mm long. Lobes 5 and valvate. Stamens 5, filaments short, 0.1mm long. Anthers 1.5mm subexerted, linear oblong. Ovary 1.5 mm, pubescent, 2 celled, ovules one to many. Style 9mm, stigma capitate. Fruit is a berry, 5-6cm diameter, globose, indehiscent, thick shelled, orange red when ripe with fleshy pulp enclosing the seeds. Seeds 1-many, discoid, compressed, coin like, concave on one side and convex on the other, covered with fine grey silky hairs.

The leaf fall is during December (do not shed all the leaves at a time) and new foliage appears in February. Flowering is during March - April and fruiting during May - December. Fruits take about 8-9 months to mature.

Properties and activity: Strychnine and brucine are the most important and toxic alkaloids present in the plant. They occur not only in the seeds but also in roots, wood, bark, fruit pulp and hard fruit shells. The minor alkaloids present in the plant are vomicine, -colubrine, -colubrine, pseudostrychnine and N-methyl-sec-pseudobrucine (novacine). Loganin a glycoside is also present (Warnat, 1932; Martin et al, 1953; Guggisberg et al, 1966; Bisset and Chaudhary, 1974). Chatterji and Basa (1967) reported vomicine as the major constituent alkaloid along with unidentified alkaloid in leaves and identified another alkaloid kajine (N-methyl pseudostrychnine) from the leaves of very young plants.

Root bark of S. nux-vomica yeilded 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy strychnine, 4 hydroxy strychine, nor-macusine, a new alkaloid 12 , 13 dihydro-12 -hydroxy isostrychnine named protostrychnine (Baser et al, 1979) methoxy strychnine, and mavacurine (Guggisberg et al, 1966). Leaves and root bark also yeilded 11 new alkaloids. 10-hydroxy strychnine, 3-12-dihydroxystrychnine, 12-hydroxy–11- methoxy strychnine, 3-12-dihydroxy- 11-methoxy strychnine,12-hydroxy strychnine-N- oxide 12-hydroxy-11-methoxy strychnine- N-oxide-19,20–dihydro isostrychnine, 16 , 17 dihydro-17 -hydroxy isostrychnine, O- methyl-macusine B, 16-epi-o-methyl–macusine B and normelinone B (Baser and Bisset, 1982).

De and Datta (1988) isolated 5 tertiary indole alkaloids viz. strychnine, brucine, vomicine, icajine and novacine from S.nux-vomica flowers. Bisset et al (1989) isolated and identified two phenolic glycosides salidroside and cuchiloside – a compound consisting of salidroside and an attached xylose unit, from the fruit of S.nux-vomica.

Rodriguez et al (1979) isolated an indole alkaloid from the seeds of S. nux- vomica and identified as a 3-methoxy icajine. A new alkaloid 15-hydroxy strychnine has been isolated from the seeds and the structure of the alkaloid established by spectroscopic data (Galeffi et al, 1979). Cai et al (1990a) isolated 4 new alkaloids isobrucine, isobrucine N-oxide, isostrychnine N-oxide and 2 hydroxy–3-methoxy strychnine from the heat treated seeds of S. nuxvomica and the structure of the alkaloids were determined by 13 CNMR (Cai et al, 1994). Cai et al (1990 b) studied the changes in the alkaloid composition of the seeds during drug processing. Saily et al (1994) determined the mineral elements in Strychnos nux-vomica. Corsaro et al (1995) reported polysaccharides from the seeds of Strychnos species.

Seeger and Neumann (1986) reviewed the physico-chemical characteristics, occurrence, identification, utilisation, poisoning, toxicity, kinetics, differential diagnosis and therapeutic uses of strychnine and brucine. Aspergillus niger, A. flavus and Pencillium citrinum showed regular association with Strychnos seeds and effectively deteriorated the alkaloid content of the seeds (Dutta, 1988; Dutta and Roy, 1992). Nicholson (1993) described the history, structure and synthesis of strychnine which occur in the seeds of S. nux-vomica. Rawal and Michoud (1991) developed a general solution for the synthesis of 2- azabicyclo (3.3.1) nonane substructure of Strychnos alkaloids.

Villar et al (1984) and Hayakawa et al (1984) developed HPLC method for the analysis of strychnine and brucine. Graf and Wittliner (1985), Kostennikova (1986) and Gaitonde and Joshi (1986) suggested different methods for the assay of strychnine and brucine. Biala et al, (1996) developed new method for the assay of alkaloids in S. nux- vomica.

The seeds are bitter, acrid, alexeteric, aphrodisiac, appetiser, antiperiodic, anthelmintic, digestive, febrifuge, emmenagogue, purgative, spinal, respiratory and cardiac stimulant and stomachic. The bark is bitter, and tonic and febrifuge (Nadkarni, 1954; Kurup et al, 1979; Warrier et al, 1996).

The quarternery alkaloid from the root bark of the Sri Lankan plant exhibited muscle-relaxant activity (Baser and Bisset, 1982). Antimicrobial activity of indole alkaloid isolated from the Strychnos nux-vomica was studied by Verpoorte et al, 1983. Shukla et al (1985) evaluated the efficacy of Rasnadigugglu compound consisting of S. nux-vomica, on rheumatoid arthritis and found to be effective in reducing inflammatory oedoma and rheumatoid arthritis. It also exhibited analgesic activity. A compound Unani formulation containing S. nux-vomica significantly attenuated withdrawal intensity in morphine dependent rats (Zatar et al, 1991). Shahana et al (1994) studied the effect of Unani drug combination (UDC) having Strychnos nux-vomica on the abstinence syndrome in moderately and severely morphine dependent rats. The UDC strikingly suppressed the abstinence syndrome was seen to possess central depressant and analgesic action.

Melone et al (1992) reported brucine-lethality in mice. Panda and Panda (1993) and Satyanarayanan et al (1994) reported antigastric ulcer activity of nux vomica in Shay rats. Banerjee and Pal (1994) reported the medicinal plants used by the tribals of plain land in India for hair and scalp preparation and S. nux-vomica being used to cure alopecia (baldness) by the tribals. Tripathi and Chaurasia (1996) studied the effect of S. nux-vomica alcohol extract on lipid peroxidation in rat liver.... strychnine tree

Tacca Aspera


Synonym: T. integrifolia Ker-Gawl.

Habitat: Aka hills in Arunachal Pradesh.

Ayurvedic: Vaaraahikanda (substitute), Vaaraahi. (Dioscorea bulbifera is equated with Vaaraahikanda.)

Folk: Duukarkand (Gujarat).

Action: Tuber—nutritive and digestive; applied to haemorrhagic diathesis, cachexia, leprosy and other cutaneous affections.

The tuber contains gamma-amino- butyric acid, glycine, leucine, valine, quercetin-3-arabinoside, D (-)-ribose, n-triacontanol, betulinic acid, castano- genin and taccalin.

Habitat: Entire Deccan Peninsula, extending into Madhya Pradesh and Bihar.

English: Fiji Arrowroot, Tahiti Arrowroot.

Ayurvedic: Suurana. (Instead of wild var., cultivated elephant-foot- yam, Amorphophallus paeoniifolius var. campanulatus, is used.)

Siddha/Tamil: Karachunai.

Action: Tuber—acrid, astringent, carminative, anthelmintic. Used in the treatment of piles, haemophilic conditions, internal abscesses, colic, enlargement of spleen, vomiting, asthma, bronchitis, elephantiasis and intestinal worms.

The tuber, macerated and repeatedly washed with water, yield a starch (76.0%).

The presence ofbeta-sitosterol, ceryl alcohol and taccalin (a bitter principle) has been reported in the tuber.

Taccagenin and leontogenin have been isolated froma acid hydrolysate of leaf extract. Diosgenin and its derivatives, isonarthogenin and isonu- atigenin together with nuatigenin have also been isolated.

A bitter extract, prepared by washing the grated tubers in running water, is a rubefacient; and is also given in diarrhoea and dysentery.... tacca aspera


(Native American) Resembling a deer

Tacincalah, Tacyncala, Tacyncalah, Tacincalla, Tacyncalla... tacincala


(Latin) Feminine form of Tacitus; mute; silenced

Tacitah, Taceta, Tacyta, Taycita, Taycyta, Tasita, Tacey, Taci, Tacie, Tacy, Tacee, Tacea, Taicey, Taici, Taicie, Taicee, Taicy, Taicea, Taycey, Taycy, Tayci, Taycie, Taycee, Taycea... tacita


(Native American) Having great ability as a runner

Taditah, Tadeta, Tadyta, Taditta, Tadetta, Tadytta, Tadeeta, Tadeata... tadita


An agent that kills tapeworms... taeiniacide


(Welsh) One who is much loved Taffey, Taff,, Tafie, Taffee, Taffye, Tafy, Tafey, Taffia, Tafia, Taffea, Tafea, Taffine... taffy


(African) One who gives glory to God... tafui

Tagetes Pat Ula

Linn. (Native to Mexico; cultivated in Indian gardens) known as French Marigold, is credited with nematocidal properties. The juice of flower heads is used on cuts and wounds.

Dosage: Leaf—10-20 ml juice. (CCRAS.)... tagetes pat ula


(Hebrew) A secret temptation Tahpenes... tahapenes


(Arabic) One who is chaste; pure Tahira, Taheera, Taheira, Tahyra, Tahera, Taahira, Tahiria, Tahiara, Taherri, Tahirra, Taheara... tahirah


(Arabic) A greeting of cheer Tahiyyah, Tahiya, Taheeyya, Taheeya... tahiyya


(Native American) From the cold Tahkie, Tahky, Tahkey, Tahkee, Tahkye, Taki, Tahkea... tahki


(Arabic) Beautification; one who is praised

Tahseen, Tahsene, Tahsyne, Tasine, Tahseene, Tahsean, Tahseane... tahsin


(Maori) A beloved child Tahupotikie, Tahupotikki, Tahupotyki... tahupotiki


(Arabic) One who is educated and cultured

Tahzeeb, Tahzebe, Tahzybe, Tazib, Tazyb, Tazeeb, Tahzeab, Tazeab... tahzib


(Native American) A loud crash of thunder

Taimah, Tayma, Taimi, Taimie, Taimy, Taimey, Taimee, Taimma, Taymi, Taymie, Taymmi, Taymmie, Taymy, Taymmy, Taimia, Taema, Taemi, Taemie, Taemy, Taemey... taima


(Native American) Born during the returning moon

Tainie, Tainy, Tainey, Tainee, Tainni, Tayni, Taynie, Tayney, Tayny, Taynee, Tainia, Tainn, Tainea, Taynea, Taeni, Taenie, Taeny, Taeney, Taenea, Taenee... taini


(Native American) One who spreads her wings

Taipah, Taypa, Taypah, Taippa, Taepa, Taepah... taipa


(Greek) One who is bound; the bond Taisah, Tais, Taysa, Tays, Thais, Thays, Thaisa, Thaysa, Taiza... taisa


(English) One who is cheerful; pleasant and bright

Tait, Tayt, Tayte, Taita, Tayta, Tayten, Taet, Taete, Taeta, Tate... taite


(Gaelic) A quiet and calm young lady... taithleach


(African / Hindi) One who is mentioned / wearing a crown Tajah, Tajae, Teja, Tejah... taja


(Polish) A princess; born into royalty Tajsah, Tajsia, Tajsi, Tajsie, Tajsy, Tajsey, Tajsee, Tajsea... tajsa


(Japanese) Tall and honorable woman Takah, Takka, Tacka... taka


(Japanese) A lofty child... takako


(Native American) Resembling a corn tassel

Takalah, Takalla, Takalya... takala


(Japanese) A treasured child; precious possession

Takarah, Takarra, Takarya, Takaria, Takra... takara


(Native American) Friend to everyone Takodah, Takodia, Takodya, Takota... takoda


(Armenian) A queen Takouhie, Takouhy, Takouhey, Takouhee, Takouhea... takouhi


(Native American) A stalking wolf Talah, Talla... tala


(Welsh) One who wears a royal crown

Talaithe, Talayth, Talaythe, Talaeth, Talaethe... talaith


(Native American) Resembling a cornflower

Talasie, Talasee, Talasea, Talasy, Talasey, Talasya, Talasia... talasi


(Hebrew / Greek) Morning dew from heaven / blooming

Taliah, Talea, Taleah, Taleya, Tallia, Talieya, Taleea, Taleia, Taleiya, Tylea, Tyleah, Taleana, Tylia, Tahlia, Tahleah, Tahleea, Tahleia, Talaya, Talayia, Taliya, Taliyah, Taliatha, Talley, Taley, Tally, Taly, Talli, Tali, Tallie, Talie, Tallee, Talee, Talya... talia


(Arabic) One who seeks knowledge Taliha, Talibah, Taliba, Talyha, Taleehah, Taleahah... talihah


(Armenian) Of the monastery Talene, Taleen, Taleene, Talyne, Talinia, Talinya, Taliniya... taline

Talinum Triangulare


Family: Portulaceceae.

Habitat: Native to tropical America; grown in Tamil Nadu.

English: Ceylon Spinach, Surinam Purslane, Flame Flower, Sweet Heart, Water Leaf, Ceylon Spinach.

Folk: Pasali, Cylon-keerai (Tamil Nadu)

Action: Leaves—used in polyuria. Diabetics and invalids use the leaves as a substitute for Amaranthus gangeticus Linn.... talinum triangulare


(American) Consecrated to God Talisah, Talysa, Taleesa, Talissa, Talise, Taleese, Talisia, Talisya, Talease, Taleasa... talisa


(American) A damsel; an innocent Talesha, Taleisha, Talysha, Taleesha, Tylesha, Taleysha, Taleshia, Talishia, Tylesia, Talesia, Taliesha, Taleasha... talisha


(Arabic) A maiden; young girl Talithah, Taletha, Taleetha, Talytha, Talithia, Talethia, Tiletha, Talith, Talethe, Talythe, Talita, Taleatha... talitha


(French) Of the forest; woodland dweller

Talliss, Tallisse, Tallys, Tallyse, Taliss, Talis, Talise, Talyss, Talyse, Taleese, Taleyse, Taleise, Taliese, Talease, Taleece, Taleace, Taliece, Taleice, Talice, Taleyce, Talissa, Talisa, Tallysa, Talysa, Talisia, Talissa, Talysia... tallis


(Native American) Running water; leaping water

Tallula, Talula, Talulah, Tallulla... tallulah


(French) Resembling a claw Talen, Talan, Tallon, Talin, Tallin, Talyn, Taelyn, Taelon, Tallen... talon


(Hebrew) Touched by the morning’s dew

Talore, Talora, Talori, Talorie, Talorey, Talory, Talorye, Taloria, Talorya, Talorra, Talorea... talor


(Japanese / Native American) As precious as a jewel / a thunderbolt Tamah, Tamaa, Tamala, Tamaiah, Tamalia, Tamalya... tama


(Indian) One who is desired Tamannah, Tamana, Tamanah, Tammana, Tammanna... tamanna


(Hebrew / Sanskrit) From the palm tree / a spice

Tamarah, Tamarra, Tamarya, Tamaria, Tamaira, Tammara, Tamora, Temara, Tamari, Tamarie, Tamura, Tymara, Tomara, Tamary, Tamarey, Tamera, Tamerra, Timera, Tamarae, Tamaree, Tamar, Tamor, Tamour, Tamer, Tameria, Tammera, Tamerai, Tamoya, Tameran, Tamyra, Tamyria, Tamra, Tammra, Tamira, Tamirra, Tamiria, Tamarla, Tamarsha, Tamijo, Tammy, Tamy, Tami, Tamie, Tamee, Tamey, Tammey, Tammee, Tamlyn, Tamya, Tamia, Tameia, Tamiya, Tamilyn, Tamryn... tamara


Tamarind (Tamarindus indica).

Plant Part Used: Fruit pulp, leaf, root, branch.

Dominican Medicinal Uses: Fruit pulp: aqueous extract, orally, for insomnia, hormonal imbalance, hot flashes and nightsweats. Leaf, bark, branch: decoction, orally, liver, kidney and prostate disorders and hepatitis.

Safety: Fruit pulp: widely consumed and generally considered safe; fruit or seed pods may contain an irritating, hypoglycemic alkaloid. Bark/leaves: insufficient information available.

Drug Interactions: Ibuprofen (fruit extract increases bioavailability).

Laboratory & Preclinical Data: In vivo: antidiabetic (seed extract), anti-inflammatory (plant extracts), colonic cell proliferation effects (fruit pulp).

In vitro: antioxidant (plant extract).

* See entry for Tamarindo in “Part 3: Dominican Medicinal Plant Profiles” of this book for more information, including references.... tamarindo


Exorcism, Protection... tamarisk

Tamarix Ericoides


Family: Tamaricaceae.

Habitat: South India, in river beds.

Ayurvedic: Maachika (related species).

Folk: Jhaau.

Action: Galls—astringent. Leaves— decoction is given for treating enlarged spleen; also cough.... tamarix ericoides


(African) Pageant winner Tamasha, Tomosha, Tomasha, Tamashia, Tamashya... tamasha


(English) One who brings great joy; music

Tamber, Tambreh, Tambrey, Tambry, Tambrie, Tambri, Tambree, Tambrea... tambre


(Aramaic) A twin Tamekah, Tameeka, Tamieka, Tameika, Tamecka, Temeka, Tymeka, Tomeka, Tameca, Tameeca, Tamekia, Tamecia, Tameaka... tameka


(Celtic) In mythology, the goddess of water; also the source of the name for the river Thames Tamesiss, Tamesys, Tamesyss... tamesis


(Japanese) Child of the people; sweet

Tameko, Tamicko, Tammiko, Tamyko, Tameeko, Tamiyo, Tamika, Tamicka, Tamica, Tameeka, Tameiko, Tamieko, Tamikia, Tamycko, Tamyka, Tamycka, Timiko, Timika, Tomiko, Tomika, Tymiko, Tymika, Tamike, Tamiqua, Tameako, Tameaka... tamiko


(Hebrew) One who is perfect; without flaw

Tammah, Teme, Temima... tamma


A Genus consisting of large carybdeid jellyfish present around the world, possibly covered by the colloquial term, Morbakka.... tamoya

Tamarix Aphylla

(Linn.) Karst.

Synonym: T. articulata Vahl. T. orientalis Forsk

Family: Tamaricaceae.

Habitat: Saline soils of Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan and Gujarat.

English: Athel, Tamarisk.

Ayurvedic: Maacheeka, Maachikaa.

Unani: Maayin Khurd.

Siddha/Tamil: Sivappattushavukku.

Folk: Laal jhaau. Galls—Chhoti- Maayin.

Action: Galls—astringent. Contain 50% tannin. Bark—contains 14% tannin.

Galls used as a substitute for oak- galls and sumac.

Galls contain polyphenols—gallic acid, ellagic acid, dehydrodigallic acid, dihydrojuglone-5-glucoside, isoferulic acid and juglanin; flavonoids including quercetin, its glucoside, isoquercitrin, its methyl derivative, tamarixetin and tamarixin.... tamarix aphylla

Tamarix Dioica


Family: Tamaricaceae.

Habitat: Throughout in river beds and near sea-coasts in Tamil Nadu.

Ayurvedic: Maachikaa (related species).

Siddha/Tamil: Nirumari.

Folk: Jhaau. Galls—Maayin.

Action: Twigs and galls—astringent. Tannin content—leaves 8%, twig- bark 10%, galls 50%.

The leaves gave tamarixetin, kaemp- feride, quercetiin and D-mannitol. Aerial parts contain trans-2-hydroxy- methoxycinnamic acid and isorham- netin. Hexane extract gave hentriacon- tan-7-ol.

The flavones (tamaridone and tama- done) have also been isolated from ethanolic extract, along with hexaco- syl-p-coumarate, gardenin, nevaden- sin and apigenin. Gardenin B exhibited antiviral and anti-invasive activity against solid tumours.... tamarix dioica

Tamarix Indica


Synonym: T. troupii Hole. T. gallica auct. non Linn.

Family: Tamaricaceae.

Habitat: North Indian saline or water-logged soils; on sandy banks in West Bengal, Bihar, Orissa and South India.

English: Takut Galls.

Ayurvedic: Jhaavuka, Bahugranthi- kaa, Shaavaka.

Unani: Maayeen Kalaan (large galls), Maayeen Khurd (small galls).

Siddha/Tamil: Sirusavakku.

Folk: Jhaau.

Action: Galls—astringent, given internally in dysentery and diarrhoea. Infusion used as a gargle for sore throat. Decoction applied to foul and sloughing ulcers. Pulverized galls, mixed with Vaseline, used for piles and anal fissures. Manna— mild laxative and expectorant. Tannin content—galls 40-50%, bark 15.3%; tannin and non-tannin ratio, quite high as compared to oak bark.

Alcoholic extract of the whole plant exhibited antiallergic activity.

Dosage: Gall, leaf, root—1-3 g powder. (CCRAS.)... tamarix indica


A soft tick (Argassid). The genus Ornithodoros are vectors of endemic relapsing fever due to Borrelia recurrentis (= B. duttoni).... tampan


(Latin) Worshipped in the home Tanaquille, Tanaquile, Tannaquil... tanaquil


(Indian) Daughter of mine Tanayah, Tannaya, Tanayya... tanaya


(American) A team player Tandyce, Tandise, Tandyse, Tandy, Tandey, Tandi, Tandie, Tandee, Tandea, Tandis, Tandia, Tandye, Tandya, Tanda, Tandalaya... tandice


(African) Having a beauty mark; a mole

Tandrah, Tandrea, Tandria, Tandrya, Tandriya... tandra


(African) Born on a Monday Taneshah, Taneesha, Tanisha, Taniesha, Tanishia, Tanitia, Tannicia, Tanniece, Tannisha, Tenicia, Teneesha, Tinecia, Tiniesha, Tynisha, Tainesha, Taneshya, Taneasha, Taneisha, Tahniesha, Tanashia, Tanashea, Tanishea, Taneshea, Tanysha, Tanicha, Tanasha, Tanesia, Tanessa... tanesha

Tanacetum Vulgare


Synonym: Chrysanthemum vulgare (L.) Bernh.

Family: Compositae; Asteraceae.

Habitat: Native to Europe; found as an escape in some parts of Kashmir.

English: Tansy.

Folk: Peilmundi (Kashmir).

Action: Plant—anthelmintic, bitter tonic, emmenagogue. Used for migraine, neuralgia and nausea; as a lotion for scabies. Toxicity depends upon thujone content of the part used. Tansy oil is used as a liniment for gout and rheumatism.

Aerial parts afforded terpenoids— tanacetin, vulgarones A and B, tamirin, tanacin and tanavulgarol; germacano- lides, stearic acid, and flavonoids— apigenin trimethyl ether, apigenin, luteolin, chrysoeriol, diometin, iso- rhamnetin, quercetin and axillarin. The leaves contain parthenolide, caffe- ic, chlorogenic, iso-chlorogenic acids and vibernitol.

Indian chemotype contains beta- thujone (28.1%) as the major constituent of the essential oil. Other constituents are: beta-thujyl alcohol 8.7, /-camphor 10.0 and cineol 11.8%. The leaves contain parthenolide, caf- feic, chlorogenic, isochlorogenic acid and vibernitol.

Tanacetum parthenium (L.) Schultz Bip. (native to Europe and British Isles), known as Feverfew, is available in India for prophylactic treatment of migraine. The characteristic constituents of the herb (dried, whole or fragmented parts) are sesquiterpene lactones of which parthenolide, a ger- macanolide, is the major component. (Indian species, T. vulgare leaf also contains parthenolide).

ESCOP recommends the herb for the management of migraine for at least a few months.

(See ESCOP and WHO monographs.)

It has been shown that Feverfew extract inhibits prostaglandin production and arachidonic acid release (this activity, at least partly, explains the herb's antiplatelet and antifebrile action). The extracts also inhibit secretion of serotonin from platelet granules and proteins from polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMN's). Since serotonin is implicated in the aetiology of migraine and PMN secretion is increased in rheumatoid arthritis. Feverfew is used in migraine and rheumatoid arthritis. (Potter's New Cyclopaedia.) Somehow, beneficial effects were not observed in a double-blind placebo-controlled trial on 40 women with rheumatoid arthritis. (WHO.)... tanacetum vulgare


(English) From the city of Tangiers

Tangerinah, Tangereena, Tangeryna, Tangereana, Tangerine, Tangeryne... tangerina


(American) The angel Tangiah, Tangya, Tangiya, Tangeah... tangia


(American) A lake goddess Tanginikah, Tanginica, Tanginicka, Tangynika, Tanginyka... tanginika


(Welsh) A pledge of peace... tangwystl


(Japanese / Melanesian / Tonkinese) From the valley / a sweetheart / a young woman

Tanie, Tany, Taney, Tanee, Tanni, Tanye, Tannie, Tanny, Tanney, Tannee, Tanea, Tannea... tani


(American) Feminine form of Daniel; God is my judge Tanielle, Tanial, Tanialle, Taniele, Taniell, Taniela, Taniella... taniel


(American) Queen of the fairies Tanikah, Taneeka, Tanyka, Tanica, Tanicka, Taniqua, Tanikka, Tannika, Tianika, Tannica, Tianeka, Taneka, Tanikqua, Taneaka... tanika


(Phoenician) In mythology, the goddess of love, fertility, moon, and stars Tanithe, Tanyth, Tanythe, Tanitha, Tanytha, Tanithia... tanith


(English) One who tans hides Taner, Tannar, Tannor, Tannis... tanner


A heavy metal that is used in surgery because it is easy to mould and does not corrode. It is particularly suitable for repairing defects in the SKULL bones.... tantulum


(Indian) My daughter Tanujah, Tanujia, Tanujya, Tanujiya... tanuja


(Indian) One who is beautiful; attractive

Tanushrie, Tanushry, Tanushrey, Tanushree, Tanushrea... tanushri


(Indian) Slender and beautiful woman

Tanvie, Tanvy, Tanvey, Tanvee, Tanvye, Tannvi, Tanvea... tanvi


(African) One who is sweet and unpredictable Tapangah... tapanga


(Indian) In mythology, the daughter of the sun god

Tapatie, Tapaty, Tapatey, Tapatee, Tapatye, Tapatea... tapati


A group of simple and complex phenol, polyphenol, and flavonoid compounds, bound with starches, and often so amorphous that they are classified as tannins simply because at some point in degradation they are astringent and contain variations on gallic acid. Produced by plants, tannins are generally protective substances found in the outer and inner tissues, often breaking down in time to phlebotannins and, finally, humin. All of the tannins are relatively resistant to digestion or fermentation, and either decrease the ability of animals to easily consume the living plant, or, as in deciduous trees, cause shed parts of the plant to decay so slowly that there is little likelihood of infection to the living tree from rotting dead material around its base. All tannins act as astringents, shrinking tissues and contracting structural proteins in the skin and mucosa. Tannin-containing plants can vary a great deal in their physiological effects and should be approached individually.... tannins

Tansy Tea - A Dangerous Vermifuge

Tansy Tea is a very good and natural vermifuge, used mainly to treat children. Tansy is a perennial plant, with long narrow leaves and bright yellow flowers. Originally from Asia, Tansy is now grown all over the world and used for medical purposes, even if physicians all over the world are being reticent when it comes to recommending it to patients. For a very large amount of time, Tansy Tea was used in order to induce miscarriage and many women died drinking too much of it. Tansy Tea Properties The main substances of Tansy Tea (tanacetin, volatile oil, tannic acid, parthenolides)are toxic in large quantities, so if you’re thinking about starting a treatment based on Tansy Tea it’s best to keep track of how much you drink per day. The parts that can be used for medical purposes are the leaves and the flowering tops and you can either make a tea out of them or use the leaves freshly picked. Tansy Tea Benefits Although the main use of the Tansy Tea was to treat worms in children, the modern applications of the alternative medicine point towards using it as a cooking ingredient that can be added in small amounts to a variety of salads and omelets, thanks to its cinnamon-like taste. Tansy Tea can also be used as a natural cosmetic product able to lighten skin and decolorize the unwanted sunspots. Today, the medical uses of the Tansy Tea have been loudly discredited, although you can still find it on markets and it’s legal to grow it in your own yard. However, it’s safe and actually indicated that you use Tansy in order to keep your vegetables pest-free rather than buy some random chemical repellent. How to make Tansy Tea Infusion When preparing Tansy Tea Infusion, you need to make sure that the concentration is not going to do you any harm (use a very small amount). Poor boiling water over the Tansy leaves and wait for about 5 minutes. Only take the tea as long as you’re sick (not more than a cup per day) and do not turn it into a daily habit. Tansy Tea cannot replace coffee and it’s toxic in high dosages. If you’ve taken this tea for a while and there are still no results, see a doctor immediately and stop taking Tansy Tea! Tansy Tea Side Effects Tansy Tea has many side effects. In fact, few physicians are brave enough to prescribe Tansy tea to their patients. It can cause spasms, hallucinations, convulsions. In very high dosages, it can cause death. Tansy Tea Contraindications Do not take Tansy Tea if you are pregnant or breastfeeding under no circumstances! Also, a very strong cup of Tansy Tea can cause death. There have been many reported cases of young women who died after ingesting a concentrated solution of this tea. Before making any moves towards using Tansy leaves or flowers, ask your doctor about the risks. If Tansy Tea seems a bit strong for your organism, next time you’re looking for a natural repellent, take it into consideration. It’s a very cheap method that will keep all worms away from your delicious vegetables!... tansy tea - a dangerous vermifuge


(Hebrew) In the Bible, Solomon’s daughter

Tafath, Taphathe, Tafathe... taphath


(Indian) From the river Tapie, Tapy, Tapey, Tapee, Tapti, Tapea, Taptie, Tapty, Taptey, Taptee, Taptea... tapi


(Welsh) Top of the rock Tappan, Tappin, Tappon, Tapen, Tappene... tappen


(Gaelic / Indian) Of the tower; rocky hill / star; in mythology, an astral goddess Tarah, Tarra, Tayra, Taraea, Tarai, Taralee, Tarali, Taraya, Tarha, Tarasa, Tarasha, Taralynn, Tarrah... tara


(Indian) Silver star Tarachande, Tarachanda, Tarachandia, Tarachandea, Tarachandiya, Tarachandya... tarachand


(Indian) In mythology, a woman who was turned into a demon Tarakah, Tarakia, Taracka, Tarackia, Tarakya, Tarakiya... taraka

Taraktogenos Kurzii


Synonym: Hydnocarpus Kurzii (King.)Warb. H. heterophyllus Kurx.

Habitat: Throughout upper Assam and Tripura in evergreen forests.

Folk: Chaalmogra.

Action: Kernel yields the true Chaal- moogra Oil (Oleum Chaulmoograe), used externally in leprosy.

Bark—astringent, rich in tannins, also used as a febrifuge.... taraktogenos kurzii


(Indian) Resembling a honeybee Taralah, Taralia, Taralla, Taralea, Taralya, Taraliya... tarala


(African) Born during daylight Taranah, Tarania, Taranna... tarana


(Persian) A beautiful melody; a song

Tarane, Taranne, Taranneh, Tarannum, Taranum... taraneh

Taraxacum Officinale

Weber ex Wiggers.

Family: Compositae; Asteraceae.

Habitat: Temperate Himalayas, Khasi Hills, Mishmi Hills, Gujarat and in hills of South India.

English: Common Dandelion.

Ayurvedic: Dugdh-pheni, Luutaari, Payaswani.

Unani: Kaanful, Kaasani Dashti, Kaasani Sahraayi, Hind-baa-al- Barri. (Not to be confused with Ci- chorium intybus, known as Kaasani.)

Folk: Dudhli, Dudhal.

Action: Root—diuretic, cholagogue, pancreatic and bile duct stimulant, stimulant to portal circulation, choleretic, urinary antiseptic, detoxicant, promotes elimination of plasma cholesterol. Used chiefly in kidney and liver disorders, for rheumatism and as a general tonic. A decoction is given for infective hepatitis.

Key application: In dyspepsia, loss of appetite, and for diuresis. (German Commission E, ESCOP.) ESCOP indicates its use for restoration of hepatic and biliary function.

Most of the diuretics cause loss of potassium, but dandelion leaves contain high levels of potassium.

The leaves and root contain sesqui- terpene lactones (bitter substances); triterpenes and sterols—beta-sitosterol, beta-sitosterol-glucosides, taraxasterol, psi-taratexol and taraxol; flavonoids, including among others, apigenin-7- O-glucosides and luteolin-7-O-gluco- sides; mucilages; inulin (2-40%, high values in autumn). The amaroids are cholagogic and secretolytic. (PDR.) An appetite-stimulating bitter has been identified as eudesmanolides (previously called taraxacin).

The vitamin A content is higher than in carrots.

The polysaccharides and aqueous extracts exhibited antitumour activity in animals. The anti-inflammatory activity has also been confirmed in animal studies.

The high K+ content of roots and leaves is considered responsible for the diuretic activity.

Dosage: Root—1-3 g powder. (CCRAS.)... taraxacum officinale


(Japanese) A bending branch Tarea, Tareya... taree


(Native American) Resembling a crane

Tareganne, Taregann... taregan

Tarenna Asiatica

(Linn.) Alston.

Synonym: Webra corymbosa Willd.

Family: Rubiaceae.

Habitat: Peninsular region, ascending to an altitude of 1,000 m, and in Assam.

Folk: Kuraa (Maharashtra).

Action: Fruit—smashed and applied to boils to promote suppuration. Leaves— used in skin diseases.

Thewholeplant, including theroots, contained D-mannitol. The leaves contain a flavone, corymbosin.... tarenna asiatica


(Native American) One with beautiful eyes... tareva-chine(shanay)


(Welsh) One acting as a shield; offering refuge

Tariane, Tarianne, Taryan, Taryanne... tarian


(American) From the holy hillside Tariana, Tarianna, Taryana, Taryanna... tariana


(Indian) A starlet Tarikah, Taryka, Tarykah, Taricka, Tarickah... tarika


(Irish) From the high, rocky hill Tarine, Taryn, Tarynn, Tarryn, Taren, Tarene, Tareen, Tarrin, Tarren, Tarron, Tarryne, Taryne, Tarina, Tareena, Taryna, Tarrina, Tarrena, Tarryna... tarin


(African) One to behold; to look at Tarysai... tarisai

Taro, Cocoyam, Elephant Ears, Eddo, Dasheen

Colocasia and Alocasia species

Description: All plants in these groups have large leaves, sometimes up to 1.8 meters tall, that grow from a very short stem. The rootstock is thick and fleshy and filled with starch.

Habitat and Distribution: These plants grow in the humid tropics. Look for them in fields and near homesites and villages.

Edible Parts: All parts of the plant are edible when boiled or roasted. When boiling, change the water once to get rid of any poison.


If eaten raw, these plants will cause a serious inflammation of the mouth and throat.... taro, cocoyam, elephant ears, eddo, dasheen


(Latin) In mythology, a woman killed for an act of treason Tarpeiah, Tarpia, Tarpya, Tarpiea... tarpeia


(Arabic) One who is merry; bringer of happiness

Tarube, Taroob, Tarrub, Taruh, Taroub, Taroube... tarub


(Thai) A beautiful view Tasane, Tasani, Tasanie, Tasany, Tasaney, Tasanye, Tasanea... tasanee


(Arabic) One who provides peace; satisfaction

Taskine, Taskeen, Taskeene, Taskyne, Takseen, Taksin, Taksyn... taskin


(Arabic) One who offers salutation and submission

Taslime, Tasleem, Tasleeme, Taslyme, Taslym... taslim


(American) A twin Tasmin, Tazmine, Tasmeen, Tasmyne, Tasmynne, Tasmeene, Tazmeen, Tazmyne, Tasmina, Tazmina, Tasmyna, Tazmyna... tasmine


(Arabic) From the fountain of paradise

Tasnime, Tasneem, Tasneeme, Tasnyme, Tasnym, Tasneam, Tasneame... tasnim


(Slavic) Form of Anastasia, meaning “one who shall rise again” Tasia, Tasyah, Tazia, Tazya, Tasiya, Taziya... tasya


(Slavic) Queen of the fairies Tatianah, Tatianna, Tatyana, Tatyanna, Tiahna, Tiane, Tianna, Tiauna... tatiana


(English) Bringer of joy; spirited Tatom, Tatim, Tatem, Tatam, Tatym... tatum


(English) Feminine form of Taurus; an astrological sign; the bull Taurah, Tauras, Taurae, Tauria, Taurina, Taurinia, Taurya, Tauryna... taura


(Swedish) Form of Gustava, meaning “from the staff of the gods” Tavah, Tave, Taveh... tava

Taverniera Cuneifolia


Synonym: T. nummularia Baker non-DC.

Family: Papilionaceae; Fabaceae.

Habitat: Plains of Punjab, Gujarat and the Deccan in waste places.

English: East Indian Moneywort.

Folk: Jethi-madh (Maharashtra).

Action: Leaves—used as a poultice for sloughing wounds. Root—used as a substitute for liquorice.... taverniera cuneifolia

Tarragon Tea - Insomnia Treatment

Tarragon Tea is best known for its ability to cure some forms of insomnia and other conditions of the nervous system, thanks to its strong aromatic flavor and substances. Although its use involves mainly the international cuisine, being added as an important ingredient to a variety of recipes, Tarragon is also good for health. Tarragon is a green perennial shrub with narrow leaves and lacking in hairs. It grows especially in the Northern hemisphere, in places like the United States, Asia and Siberia. It can easily be recognized by its small, yellow flowers. Tarragon Tea Properties Tarragon is the main ingredient in French salads and sauces that contain vinegar or as an old remedy for insomnia. The good thing about Tarragon Tea is that you can make it from the aerial parts of the plant as well as from its roots. This tea is very strong, containing tannis, coumarins and flavonoids, and up to 0.8% volatile oil, consisting of up to 70% methyl chervicol (estragole). The last substance is toxic and possibly carcinogenic, so pay attention to the amount of Tarragon you’re drinking or eating. Tarragon Tea Benefits Tarragon Tea is a great help if you’re suffering from arthritis, gout or rheumatism, experience flatulence and colic. In case you have worms, Tarragon Tea will flush them out of your system while calming your toothache and other localized pain. Actually, Tarragon Tea works as any other painkiller on the market and it’s natural! For menstrual problems, digestive track conditions and insomnia, this tea may come in hand: some say that half a cup of Tarragon Tea will make you sleep like a baby. However, don’t use a large amount of plants when preparing your tea or there’s a chance you’ll never wake up again! How to prepare Tarragon Tea Preparing Tarragon Tea couldn’t be any easier. Just turn boiling water over the dry or freshly picked Tarragon leaves and wait for about 5 minutes. You can drink it hot or cold, just make sure you don’t forget that this is a treatment used for your health and not an ordinary tea that could replace your morning coffee. Tarragon Tea Side Effects A long-term use of Tarragon Tea may cause cancer or even death because it contains a substance called estragole. If you’ve been drinking Tarragon Tea for a while and you’re experiencing dizziness or other nervous system problems, talk to your doctor right away! Tarragon Tea Contraindications Do not take Tarragon Tea if you’re pregnant or breastfeeding. Also, if you’ve suffered from cancer in the past, it is best to consult your doctor before drinking Tarragon Tea or simply avoid taking it. Very important: if you’re allergic to ragweed and related plants, you’ll have an allergic reaction to Tarragon Tea as well. Make sure you’re well informed before starting a Tarragon Tea cure so you won’t get any problems. If you’are having trouble sleeping or need something to bring relief in case of menstrual pains, Tarragon Tea may be the right answer. However, if you’re not completely sure about it, talk to your doctor first and see which treatment fits you best. When he gives you the green light, add Tarragon Tea to your shopping cart and enjoy the wonderful benefits of this tea!... tarragon tea - insomnia treatment


(Latin) Form of Octavia, meaning “the eighth-born child”

Taviah, Tavya, Tavea, Taveah, Tavita, Tavitah, Taviya... tavia


(American) Form of Wanda, meaning “a wanderer”

Tawanah, Tawanna, Taiwana, Tawanda... tawana


(Egyptian) In mythology, the goddess of pregnant women and childbirth Tawerett, Tawerette, Tawerete, Tauret, Taurett, Taurette, Taurete... taweret


(African) First child born after twins Tawiah, Tawya, Tawyah, Tawiya, Tawiyah, Tawea, Taweah... tawia


(Irish / English) From the green field / light brown; a warm sandy color Tawney, Tawni, Tawnie, Tawnee, Tawnia, Tawnya, Tawniya, Tawnea... tawny

Taxonomic Study

Identification of species and their genetic relationship to one another.... taxonomic study


Systematic binomial classification of all living things. e.g. Kingdom Phylum Class Order FamilyGenus Species... taxonomy

Taxus Baccata


Family: Taxaceae.

Habitat: Temperate Himalayas, Khasi Hills and Manipur.

English: European Yew. Himalayan Yew is equated with Taxus wal- lichiana Zucc., synonym T. baccata Linn. subspecies wallichiana (Zucc.) Pilgoe, T. baccata Hook. f.

Ayurvedic: Thunera, Sthauneya, Sthauneyaka, Shukapushpa, Dhaatri-patra, Vikarna. (Not a substitute for Taalisapatra.)

Unani: Zarnab.

Siddha/Tamil: Taaleespatri Bhedam.

Folk: Birmi, Thuno.

Action: Herb—CNS depressant; reduces motor activity; analgesic, anticonvulsant. Leaf used in nervousness, epilepsy, hysteria, asthma, chronic bronchitis. Leaf and fruit—antispasmodic, sedative, emmenagogue.

Berry—used in chronic bronchitis. Taxol—antimitotic; also being tried for the treatment of severe drug-resistant human malaria. (Chem Abstr, 1994, 21, 124674 j.) (The taxol content in Himalayan Yew varied with season and location from 0.045-0.130%.)

The needles contain diterpene esters of taxane-type (mixture is known as taxine 0.6-2.0%). Taxine consists of 11 compounds of which only tax- ine A and B have been characterized. Taxol, the diterpene amide, is found active against ovarian cancer in humans. (clinical results showed 24-30% response). The ester alkaloids in higher doses are cardiotoxic.

Dried needles contain biflavonoids, including sotetsuflavone, sequoifla- vone, sciadopitysin, ginkgetin, kayafla- vone, amentoflavone, beta-sitosterol, heptacosanol and surcose.

The needles gave several phenolics. Betuloside (rhododendron) exhibited hepatoprotective activity against hepa- totoxins in rats.

The seeds are poisonous and contain taxine.

The aqueous extract of leaves showed a depressant effect on the central nervous system in rats.

The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia ofIn- dia attributed antirheumatic, anticatar- rhal, insecticidal and wound-healing properties to the dried needles of Himalayan Yew and indicated the use of the drug in powder form (1-3 g) in disorders due to vitiated blood, tumours, dermatosis and helminthiasis.

Dosage: Leaf—1-3 g powder. (API, Vol. III.) Leaf, bark—3-5 g powder. (CCRAS.)... taxus baccata


(Native American) Resembling a young beaver

Tayanitah, Tayanitia, Tayanyta, Tayanytah, Tayaneeta, Tayanieta, Tayaneita, Tayaneata... tayanita


(French) Silence; peace Taice, Tace, Taece, Taeyce, Taycia, Tayse, Taise, Taese, Tase... tayce


(Native American) Born during the new moon

Tayin, Tayon, Tayan, Tayene, Tayenne, Tayine... tayen


(English) Cutter of cloth; one who alters garments

Tailor, Taylore, Taylar, Tayler, Talour, Taylre, Tailore, Tailar, Tailour, Taylour... taylor


(American) Beautiful happiness Taytan, Tayton, Taytin, Taytene... tayten


(Native American) A princess; born into royalty

Tazannah, Tazana, Tazanah, Tazanne, Tazane, Tazann... tazanna


(African) A railway line Tazarah, Tazarra, Tazarrah... tazara

Tea Tree Essential Oil

Tea Tree Essential Oil

Tea tree oil is often referred to as “medicine cabinet in a bottle,” as it’s remedies are seemingly endless. Check out these 79 uses for the ultimate survival remedy:
  1. Abrasions and minor cuts
  2. Acne
  3. Air freshener
  4. Allergies
  5. Arthritus
  6. Asthma
  7. Athletes foot
  8. Baby care
  9. Bacterial infections
  10. Bad breath
  11. Bladder infection
  12. Blisters
  13. Boils
  14. Bronchial congestion
  15. Bronchitus
  16. Bruises
  17. Bunions
  18. Burns
  19. Calluses/corns
  20. Canker sores
  21. Carbuncies
  22. Chapped lips
  23. Chicken pox
  24. Chigger bite
  25. Cold sores
  26. Coughs
  27. Dandruff
  28. Dermatitus
  29. Dry skin
  30. Eczema
  31. Emphysema
  32. Flea bites
  33. Gout
  34. Gum disease
  35. Head lice
  36. Hives
  37. Homemade mouthwash
  38. Household cleaning
  39. Immune system
  40. Infected wounds
  41. Inflammation
  42. Ingrown hair
  43. Insect repellant
  44. Jock itch
  45. Laryngitis
  46. Laundry helper
  47. Mildew/mold remover
  48. Mosquito bites
  49. Muscle aches/pains
  50. Mumps
  51. Nail fungus
  52. Pest control
  53. Plantar warts
  54. Psoriasis
  55. Rashes
  56. Rheumatism
  57. Ringworm
  58. Rubella
  59. Scabies
  60. Sciatica
  61. Seborrhea
  62. Shingles
  63. Shock
  64. Sinusitis
  65. Sore muscles
  66. Sore throat
  67. Staph infection
  68. Stye
  69. Sunburn
  70. Tattoos
  71. Thrush
  72. Ticks
  73. Toenail fungus
  74. Toothbrush cleaner
  75. Tonsillitus
  76. Vaginal infection
  77. Viral infections
  78. Warts
  79. Wounds
 ... tea tree essential oil

Teaching Hospital

A hospital that provides education for students in the health professions.... teaching hospital


(Gaelic) One who is attractive; good- looking

Tegan, Tegau, Teegan, Teygan... teagan


(American) Resembling a bright- colored duck; a greenish-blue color Teale, Teala, Teela, Tealia, Tealiya... teal


(Irish) In mythology, a place where kings met Teamhaire, Teamhare, Teamharre... teamhair

Tea For Sore Throat

Thanks to their anti-inflammatory action, medicinal teas can be taken by almost anyone. All you have to do is make sure you follow the specifications. Sore throat means a severe pain, localized in the neck area, which has internal trigger. Sometimes, this pain can be caused by colds or flu and some other times it’s a reaction to all kinds of external parasites. A very powerful smell, an environment abundant in toxins can also be a cause for sore throat. However, you can treat it by using a Tea for Sore Throat, even if we’re talking about a pain caused by an infection or by overexposing the laryngeal cords. When using a Tea for Sore Throat, not only that you help your system detoxify, but also lower the amount of infection triggers, such as bacteria or microbes. How Tea for Sore Throat Works Generally, their action involves a medium amount of time. In other words, you need to be patient when you decide to go with a Tea for Sore Throat instead of a traditional treatment. The improvement is only noticeable after a while. The main characteristic of a Tea for Sore Throat is that its action, although safe and focused on the affected areas, is based on a number of chemical substances that lower or increase your antibodies level. Usually, when choosing a Tea for a Sore Throat, make sure you’re buying the one that contains a high amount of vitamins, such as vitamin C or D, in order to fight parasites. Also, choose the safest teas and don’t go for a rare and dangerous decoction in order to avoid other health complications. Efficient Tea for Sore Throat In order to function properly, a Tea for a Sore Throat needs to be safe and have a pleasant taste, mostly, since the importance of these teas consists in their ability to warm up your throat. If the tea you picked is also rich in vitamins, you’ve got yourself a winner! Here are some teas you might find useful in case you’re suffering from a sore throat: - Chamomile Tea – also used to treat headaches and migraines, Chamomile Tea is a very popular Tea for Sore Throat as well. If you suffer from colds of flu and you’re experiencing a wide range of symptoms, such as sore throat, fever and respiratory distress, Chamomile may come in hand. - Honey and Lemon – although this is not particularly a tea, but more a decoction, it’s the ultimate organic treatment when it comes to sore throats. Aside from its elevated vitamin C level, this tea has also a huge impact on your immune system, thanks to the special ingredients contained by honey. Not only that honey contributes to a better health system, but it also provides strength and an energy boost. - Black Tea – a very important Tea for Sore Throat, Black Tea not only that energizes your coronary system and improves your blood circulation, but it also has antiseptic and detoxifying properties. But, be careful if you’re thinking about starting a treatment based on Black Tea: it is not recommended for abdominal pain, such as menstrual or menopause pain. If you have a sore throat and you’re also on your period, it’s best to go for a safer tea, such as Chamomile Tea. - Mint Tea – thanks to its volatile oils and its active substances, Mint Tea can treat sore throats in no time, as well as a series of respiratory problems. It’s also one hundred percent safe and it can successfully replace your morning coffee. Teas you should avoid Sore throat is a mild affection of your system, caused by minor infections and it’s best to keep that in mind when choosing a Tea for a Sore Throat. Go for the most popular and the safest teas that could not trigger other problems. Tansy Tea is also a good remedy for a sore throat, but since it’s very dangerous, it’s best to avoid it. Tea for Sore Throat Side Effects When taken according to specifications, these teas are perfectly safe. However, high dosages may lead to a series of affections of the digestive tract, such as diarrhea and upset stomach. In order to avoid that, don’t drink more than 6 cups of Tea for Sore Throat per day.When in doubt, ask a specialist for guidance. If you suffer from a sore throat and you’re feeling too sick to go to the pharmacy or you just want to give natural remedies a chance, try one of these teas and enjoy their health benefits!... tea for sore throat


The process whereby a group of people work together (often by dividing tasks among members, based on relative skills) to reach a common goal, to solve a particular problem, or to achieve a specified set of results.... teamwork


(Hungarian) Form of Theresa, meaning “a harvester”... teca


An ISOTOPE of the arti?cial element technetium. It emits gamma rays and is used as a tracer in building up a scintigraphic radioactive image of organs such as the brain.... technetium-99


The application of science to health care.... technology

Technology Assessment

A comprehensive form of policy research that examines the technical, economic and social consequences of technological applications.... technology assessment


(Greek) A supreme gift Tedrah, Tedre, Tedreh... tedra


(American) The small one Tynie, Teynie, Teeny, Teeney, Teenee, Teenye, Teeni, Teenea... teenie


See also BRUXISM. Teeth-grinding occurs in children during sleep and is of no signi?cance unless really persistent. During the day it may be an attention-seeking device. There is no treatment for it.

In adults it is usually associated with stress or anxiety, but may be due to some local condition in the mouth such as an unsatisfactory ?lling. It may also be caused by certain drugs, including fen?uramine and LEVODOPA. If not controlled, it produces excessive wear of the enamel covering of the teeth. Treatment consists of alleviation of any condition in the mouth and any anxiety and stress.... teeth-grinding


A primaquine analogue discovered by the US Army with activity against liver parasites of malaria and able to suppress blood parasites and kill gametocytes. See also Etaquine.... tefanoquine

Teas Causing Abortion

Abortion is a medical procedure of ending a pregnancy during its first 24 weeks. There are several reasons why this medical process is carried out: a fetus’ or woman’s health issue or, most frequent, there are personal considerations which impede the woman to keep the baby. No matter the reasons of an abortion, it should be made by a physician. Also, the woman’s post-abortion state requires medical observation, because there have been acknowledged physical and psychological effects after this medical condition. Like any other medical procedure, abortion implies risks, like losing a large amount of blood (haemorrhage) or inflammation of the pelvis. Studies revealed that further miscarriages can be associated with earlier abortions, as the surgery may lead to the damage of the womb. A pregnancy can be ended by a medical procedure or, by a traditional method, like drinking teas causing abortion. How Tea for Abortion works There are two categories of tea which lead to ending a pregnancy: emmenagogue and abortifacient teas. The first type of tea induces woman’s period to start, whereas the second one causes painful contractions of the uterus, followed by abortion. Teas leading to Abortion Please read the list of some of the teas you should not drink if you are pregnant or, you try to become pregnant. Blue Cohosh is a wood plant, growing in New England (United States) and also in Canada. It has anti-inflammatory and antispasmodic properties. It is generally used to treat rheumatism and to prevent osteoporosis. Muscles aches caused by physical effort are relieved by taking Blue Cohosh as tea, tincture or decoction. It cannot stimulate the estrogen production thus, the body is not able to provide the endometrial and uterine growth, leading to contractions of the uterine and, finally, to a painful abortion. Unfortunately, Blue Cohosh tea has been used for a long period of time as a medicinal and home-made beverage for abortion. Pennyroyal is a plant from the mint family, whose essential oil is toxic if taken internally. In the past, women were poisoning themselves in the attempt of ending the pregnancy. Taken as an infusion, the plant is efficient in mitigating the unpleasant feelings of the upset stomach, abdominal cramps , as well as colds. Pennyroyal tea should not be drunk by pregnant women or by those who want to become pregnant, because it irritates the uterus, causing contractions and, of course, abortion. Tansy is a herbaceous plant, originating from Europe, but also cultivated in the United States. It is best known for its action as an insect repellant, being used as treatment against worms. It is a digestion adjuvant as well as a migraine reliever. Tansy tea provides contractions of the uterus and abortion, which can be so violent that causes death, just like the above mentioned teas causing abortion. Uterine bleeding, nausea and loss of consciousness are some of the signs displayed by people who had ingested a large dose of the beverage. Women should bear in mind that these three types of tea are scientifically proven to cause abortion. So, they should not consume them! Furthermore, women should ask their doctor for a list of the edible products while pregnancy, in order to avoid unpleasant situations of any kind.  ... teas causing abortion

Tecoma Stans

(Linn.) H. B. & K.

Synonym: Stenolobium stans (L.) D. Don.

Bignonia stans Linn.

Family: Bignoniaceae.

Habitat: Cultivated in gardens.

English: Yellow Elder, Yellow Bells.

Siddha/Tamil: Sonapaati, Thanga Arali, Naga Sambagam.

Action: Leaves—hypoglycaemic (tecomine and tecostanine are hypoglycaemic alkaloids).

Root—diuretic, vermifuge. The flowers contain beta-carotene and zeaxanthin. The plant gave phenolic acids, beta-sitosterol and triterpe- noids—ursolic acid, oleanolic acid and alpha-amarine. An indole-metaboli- zing enzyme, indole-oxygenase, has been isolated from the leaves. Antidiabetic activity of the plant was tested on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.... tecoma stans

Tecomella Undulata

(G. Don) Seem.

Synonym: Tecoma undulata G. Don.

Bignonia undulata Sm.

Family: Bignoniaceae.

Habitat: North-West and Western India, and in the outer Himalayas.

English: Rohida tree.

Ayurvedic: Rohitaka, Rohi, Daadimpushpaka, Daadimchhada, Plihaghna. (Amoora rohituka is also known as Rohitaka.)

Action: Bark—relaxant, cardiotonic, choleretic. (Heartwood toxic due to lapachol.) Used for the treatment of leucorrhoea, diseases of the liver and spleen, leucoderma, syphilis and other skin diseases.

The bark contains tecomin (veratryl beta-D-glucoside), alkanes, alkanols and beta-sitosterols. The bark also yielded chromone glycosides—undu- latosides A and B, and iridoid glu- cosides—tecomelloside and tecoside.

A quinonoid—lapachol, veratric acid and dehydrotectol are also reported from the bark.

Water soluble portion of the alcoholic as well as chloroform extracts of the bark shows smooth muscle relaxant, mild cardiotonic and chloretic activities.

Dosage: Flower, bark—50-100 ml decoction. (CCRAS.)... tecomella undulata


(Egyptian) In mythology, the goddess of water and fertility Tefnutte, Tephnut, Tephnutte... tefnut


(Native American) One who is precious

Tehyah, Tehiya, Tehiyah... tehya


A glycopeptide antibiotic (see ANTIBIOTICS) which acts against aerobic and anaerobic gram-positive (see GRAM’S STAIN) bacteria. Like the similar drug, VANCOMYCIN, it is given in the prophylaxis and treatment of ENDOCARDITIS and other serious infections caused by gram-positive cocci, including STAPHYLOCOCCUS, which have developed resistance to other antibiotics. Its long duration of action means that it need be given only once a day. Teicoplanin can be given intramuscularly or intravenously. Its use should be carefully monitored as there is a range of adverse effects.... teicoplanin

Teas For Children

Drinking tea is considered to be good for every adult, thanks to the many health benefits various types of tea have. However, this isn’t the case when it comes to children, babies included. Find out more about the types of tea for children, as well as the ones they shouldn’t drink. Be careful with teas for children Teas have plenty of health benefits when it comes to children, as well. You just have to be careful with the type of tea you give your child to drink. Some can help a lot, especially when it comes to colds or stomach problems, but other types of tea might lead to unpleasant side effects. The biggest problem revolves around the caffeine content found in teas; these include the teas made from the Camellia sinensis plant: green tea, black tea, white tea, and oolong tea. If your child drinks one of these teas that contain caffeine, it might give him an upset stomach, sleeping problems, or it might make him easily irritable. Teas for children Considering the fact that children like sweet things, fruit-flavored teas should tempt them. Not only is the aromatic taste pleasant, but drinking fruit-flavored teas should definitely be healthier for children than drinking soda. The fruit-flavored teas for children include apple, banana, raspberry, strawberry, cherry, passion fruit, or mango. The children are bound to enjoy it both hot during winter, and cold during summer (either prepared as iced tea, or simply left to cool at room temperature). Herbal teas are also recommended, especially thanks to the health benefits they have. Benefits of teas for children You can prepare tea for your child if he has small health problems, such as coughing, nausea, colic, or even anxiety. Generally, it is recommended to prepare only half a cup of tea for children, not a full cup. Also, steeping time shouldn’t be as long as usual, as the tea shouldn’t be too strong; steeping time can be half the usual time. Use honey, stevia or fruit juice to sweeten it. With this, the result will be a pleasant-tasting tea for children. For colic, you can prepare a cup of chamomile tea or peppermint tea for your child. To treat nausea, as well as motion sickness, prepare ginger tea. Also, if your child is constipated, prepare oatmeal with flaxseed tea instead of water. The tea you should use for coughs depends on the type of cough. If your child has a mild cough, you can give him peppermint tea. If the child’s coughing is caused by a sore throat, prepare marshmallow root tea or slippery elm tea . Meanwhile, for coughs with congestion, licorice or coltsfoot tea is better. If your child has a fever, you can give him half a cup of the following types of tea: lemon balm, chamomile, peppermint, licorice or elder flower. Also, if your child has anxiety problems, try chamomile or oat straw tea; you can also prepare passionflower tea for children aged over 4, or skullcap tea for children aged over 6. Herbal tea can be good for children. You just have to pick the right one, in order to make sure it won’t end up harming your children.... teas for children

Tectona Grandis

Linn. f.

Family: Verbenaceae.

Habitat: A tree occurring in Western Peninsula, Central India and Bihar.

English: Teak tree.

Ayurvedic: Shaaka, Bhuumisaha, Dwaaradaaru, Varadaaru, Kharach- hada, Saagawaan, Saagauna.

Siddha/Tamil: Thekku.

Action: Flower—used in bronchitis, biliousness and urinary discharges. Flower and seed—diuretic.

Wood—expectorant, anti-inflammatory, antibilious, anthelmintic. Used for inflammatory swellings.

Bark—astringent. Used in bronchitis. Root—used for anuria and retention of urine. Nut oil—used in the treatment of scabies and other skin diseases; also for promoting hair growth.

The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India recommends the heartwood in lipid disorders, also for treating threatened abortion.

The wood is rich in anthraquinones, naphthalene compounds and triter- penic and hemi-terpenic compounds.

The Leaves contain tectoleafqui- none. The bark contains 7.14% tannin. The seed oil contains linoleic acid (about 53%), along with lauric, myris- tic, palmitic, stearic, oleic, linolenic and arachidic acids. The kernels yield 44.5% of a fatty oil.

Dosage: Heartwood—3-6 g powder. (API, Vol. III.)... tectona grandis


(American) A poet; one who is good- looking... teige


(Greek) Resembling a tiger Teigre... teigra


(Greek) Glory of God Teklah, Tekli, Teckla, Tecla, Thecla, Theckla, Thekla, Theclah, Theccla... tekla


A cuticular thickening of the ventral wall of the spicular pouch in nematodes. Both gubernaculum and telamon are for guiding the spicules out of the body. Shape and size and number of the spicules, gubernaculum and telamon are also used for identification of the nematodes.... telamon

Telemedicine / Telehealth

The employment of communication technology to provide assistance in the diagnosis, treatment, care and management of health conditions in remote areas.... telemedicine / telehealth


(Latin) In mythology, the queen of Tyre

Telephasa, Telefassa, Telefasa... telephassa

Telephone Assurance

A voluntary daily phone call to an older person in the community who lives alone.... telephone assurance


(English) In Tolkien’s works, those who came last; an elf clan Telerie, Telery, Telerey, Teleree, Telleri, Telerea, Tellerie... teleri


(Latin) In mythology, the mother earth Telus... tellus

Teas For Menopause

Aside from its social meaning, menopause brings changes to your body which need to be embraced with both maturity and responsibility. First of all, pay attention to how your body reacts and use the treatment that fits you best. If you’re tired of all the traditional drugs, give Teas for Menopause a try. Not only that they don’t have the side effects that a regular drug has, but they also contain the right amount of active ingredients. If that is the case, the most recommended treatments involve the use of: - raspberry leaf tea - ginseng tea - chasteberry tea. However, choose one tea and don’t use a mixture of teas. Their main property is that they can bring relief to your pain and also normalize your hormone level when taken individualy. How Teas for Menopause Work These Teas for Menopause have almost the same effects that Teas for Menstrual Pain have on your body. The only exception is that when it comes to menopause, we’re talking about a series of symptoms and not just one localized pain . In order to be able to treat that, you need to search for a tea that is rich in natural enzymes and has an elevated level of tannis and volatile oils.The action of these Teas for Menopause involve shutting down all pain triggers and bringing relief to your affected areas by helping your body produce the necessary amount of hormones and antibodies. Efficient Teas for Menopause If you have reached your menopause or you’re just experiencing some pre-menopausal symptoms, you may want to give these Teas for Menopause a try: - Raspberry Leaf Tea – also a great help when it comes to menstrual pain, Raspberry Leaf Tea is one of the most common fruity teas, with a good vitamin C level which can increase your immune system action. - Sage Tea – in Latin, sage means “to heal”. Well, that’s a good resume that this tea has. Its main purpose is to heal the affected areas, by increasing the estrogen level and reducing the sweat glands’ secretion. - Valerian Tea – also used as a powerful sedative in cases of insomnia, this tea has gained its popularity since ancient times, when Romans used it for a good night sleep and anxiety issues. - St. John’s Wort Tea – not only that this tea has great benefits concerning menopause, but it’s also a great help when it comes to depression. Teas for Menopause have the ability to treat both the physical and the mental problems that menopause brings. Teas you should avoid during Menopause When choosing Teas for Menopause, you may want to avoid those teas that have a high level of acidity and could upset your stomach, such as green tea or black tea. Teas for Menopause Side Effects When taken properly, these teas are generally safe. However, high dosages may lead to a series of complications, such as nausea, digestive tract ailments, nervous system affections. If you’ve been taking one of these Teas for Menopause and you’re experiencing some negative reactions, talk to your doctor as soon as possible. But if your general health is good and you have your doctor’s approval, give these Teas for Menopause a try and enjoy their benefits wisely!... teas for menopause


(French) One who is stormy; turbulent

Tempeste, Tempist, Tempiste, Tempesta, Tempress, Tempestt, Tempestta, Tempany, Tempani, Tempanie, Tempaney, Tempanee, Tempanea... tempest

Teas For Menstrual Pain

Menstrual pain is known for its acute and localized action on the abdominal area. However, not all women suffer from this affection.The good thing about menstrual pain, however, is that this is not a chronic disease and that it can go away as quickly as it came to you. All you have to do is treat it properly and wait for your body to respond. If the pain is very powerful and you need to put a stop to it, you may want to try taking an herbal treatment, in which case Raspberry leaf tea, Corn silk tea and Wild yam tea could be the answer. How Teas for Menstrual Pain Work Most of these Teas for Menstrual Pain involve helping your body release the right amount of endorphins in order to fight localized pain. Although menstrual pain is probably the most popular cause of distress for women around the world, alternative medicine found new ways to fight it alongside with traditional medicine. However, choosing one of these Teas for Menstrual Pain will only make your system healthier, without having to worry for possible side effects. The main characteristic of these Teas for Menstrual Pains is that they have a pleasant taste and fragrance and that they are generally safe, unlike traditional medicines. A cup of raspberry leaf tea brings relief to your abdominal area, by calming the muscles and increasing the uterus action. Efficient Teas for Menstrual Pain If you have a heavy menstrual flow or a severe pain crisis during periods, you may find out that the following Teas for Menstrual Pain could be the right answer to your problems: - Cramp Bark Tea – thanks to its antispasmodic and anti-inflammatory properties, Cramp Bark Tea is one of the best Teas for Menstrual Pain there is! Unfortunately, it’s rather inaccessible to the European public. However, if you find a shop that specializes in Cramp Bark products, hold on to it! Cramp Bark Tea can also be used as a detoxifier and a good face cleanser; when used topically, it may bring relief to your skin sores. - Raspberry Leaf Tea – this is a tea that may also come in hand in case you want to perform natural cosmetic procedures at home. Just soak a compress in Raspberry Leaf Tea and apply it on your face for 5 minutes to open and clean your pores. However, a cup of Raspberry Tea per day will improve your general health, bringing relief to those of you who are suffering from severe menstrual pain. - Corn Silk Tea – on this Teas for Menstrual Pain list, Corn silk Tea use needs extra caution. It is true that it can calm your menstrual pain, but you also need to measure the amount of tea you drink in order to avoid other complications: Corn Silk Tea is a very powerful urinary stimulant. - Wild Yam Tea – one of the most dangerous Teas for Menstrual Pain, Wild Yam Tea can bring relief to all kinds of pain, starting with menstrual pain, stomach pain and ending with migraines and severe headaches. However, don’t take this tea if you have protein S deficiency or a hormone-sensitive condition, such as breast cancer, uterine fibroids or endometriosis. Teas you should avoid During menstruation, you may want to avoid all teas based on a high level of acids, such as green or black teas . They will only make your pain insufferable, by increasing your stomach acidity and also your heart beat. Teas for Menstrual Pain Side Effects When taken according to specifications, these Teas for Menstrual Pain are rarely dangerous. However, if you’ve been taking one of them for a while and you’re experiencing some unusual reactions from your body, talk to a doctor as soon as possible. In high dosages, these teas may cause urinary dysfunctions, nausea, headaches and vomiting. First, make sure you’re not allergic to the tea you’re about to take in order to avoid other health complications. Once you have the green light from your doctor, give these Teas for Menstrual Pain a try and enjoy their wonderful benefits wisely!... teas for menstrual pain

Temporal Trend

See “secular trend”.... temporal trend


(African) Thankful to God Tenday, Tendae, Tendaa, Tendaye... tendai


(American) One who is sensitive; young and vulnerable Tendere, Tendera, Tenderia, Tenderre, Tenderiya... tender

Teas For Migraines

Migraines are described as strong headaches associated with a certain discomfort of the nervous system. Although practitioners around the world tried to find the ultimate cure for this ailment, they are still far from finding the miraculous cure. Since ancient times, herbalists used a wide range of alternative remedies to induce a state of relaxation and bring relief to those suffering from migraines. However, modern medicine found new ways to treat this condition, even if no definitive cure has been provided yet. Drink Teas for Migraines Alternative medicine, however, gives you a hand. There are a lot of teas for migraines and headaches which can successfully be used in order to treat the affected areas and calm the localized pain. If you are suffering from this condition, you may want to try one of the following teas: - Black Tea - when it comes to Teas for Migraines, Black Tea turns out to be quite a helper. Thanks to its anti-oxidant and alkaline properties, this natural remedy can calm your pain and release the necessary amount of active constituents. - Catnip Tea - another name on the Teas for Migraines list is Catnip Tea, a powerful treatment with anesthetic, sedative and relaxing properties which can be found in almost any teashop. Just make sure that you’re buying the product from a trusted provider in order to avoid unnecessary complications. - Chamomile Tea - used in both the cosmetic and the pharmaceutical industries, Chamomile Tea is probably one of the world’s greatest panaceas. When choosing Teas for Migraines, you need to make sure that the herb you’re about to use has no side effects and that its action is rapid and very effective. If that is the case, Chamomile Tea, with its calming and nourishing properties may be a good alternative to traditional medication. Also, if you suffer from sleeping disorders, Chamomile Tea might bring relief and a good night sleep. - Lavender Tea - used mostly for its memorable scent, Lavender is used by both the cosmetic industry and the cleaning products factories. However, when choosing Teas for Migraines, Lavender Tea may be just as important as the other too teas mentioned above. Thanks to a good level of tannis and volatile oils, Lavender Tea makes migraines go away within minutes. Other Effective Teas for Migraines - Tansy Tea - although it is yet unknown to the European public, Tansy Tea is one of the most efficient Teas for Migraines in the alternative medicine. Tansy Tea contains tanacetin, volatile oil, tannic acid, parthenolides, which are toxic for your body in high dosages. Although its action is very quickly, you need to be careful when taking a treatment based on Tansy Tea. Exceeding the recommended dosage may lead to death! - Thyme Tea – known mostly for its ability to treat menstrual pain, Thyme Tea is also one of the Teas for Migraines we strongly recommend. Its active ingredient is a substance called thymol, which is responsible for the calming effect that this tea has on you and your health. Also, applied topically, Thyme Tea is a good remedy for cuts and opened wounds. - White Peony Root Tea – used especially for its anti-inflammatory properties, White Peony Root Tea is probably the most effective and also the rarest of these Teas for Migraines. It contains a substance called paeoniflorin, which has a high anti-spastic action, so it can calm not only your migraines, but almost any type of localized pain. The other ingredients, flavonoids, proanthocyanidins, tannins and polysaccharides make this particular herbal treatment work more efficient. By its own, paeniflorin is not as effective as used in combination with these other substances. - Yucca Tea – familiar to the South American populations and almost unknown for the Europeans, Yucca Tea is one of the teas that could probably treat almost any kind of affection. When you look in the Teas for Migraines section, you’ll notice that Yucca Tea has its own place. Thanks to a series of curative properties generated by the amount of saponins contained, Yucca Tea can treat other conditions of your body as well. If you suffer from arthritis or you just want a natural remedy for your hair, Yucca Tea is the answer! - Yerba Mate Tea – drank from special reservoirs, Yerba Mate Tea is commonly known as “the Argentine coffee”. Although it might be a little difficult to find it if you live in Europe, in case you’re looking for Teas for Migraines and you run into a teashop specialized in Yerba Mate products, hold on to it! It is said that this miraculous tea has all the ingredients necessary to sustain life. Specialists even call it “the new green tea”, thanks to its many curative properties. If you suffer from severe migraines, there’s no point in spending a lot of money on traditional pain killers. Just give one of these teas a try and enjoy its wonderful benefits!... teas for migraines


(Welsh) Resembling a harp Telynn, Telin, Telynne, Telinn, Telinne... telyn


(Hebrew) One who is righteous; palm tree

Temah, Temma, Temmah... tema


(Hebrew) A tall woman Temirah, Temeera, Temyra, Temiera, Temeira, Temeara... temira


(English) Having self-restraint Temperence, Temperince, Temperancia, Temperanse, Temperense, Temperinse... temperance


(Latin) Of the temple; sanctuary Templah, Temple, Tempa, Tempy, Tempey, Tempi, Tempie, Tempee, Tempea... templa

Teas For Relaxing

Relaxation is the word we use when we want to describe the need to loosen up from all body tensions which accumulate during the day. Since relaxation is a big subject which involves not only the headaches, but also ailments of the entire nervous system, it is best to drink a tea which specializes in nourishing the central system