Withholding / withdrawing medical treatment Health Dictionary

Withholding / Withdrawing Medical Treatment: From 1 Different Sources

See “futile medical treatment”; “advanced directive”.
Health Source: Community Health
Author: Health Dictionary

Medical Audit

A detailed review and evaluation of selected clinical records by qualified professional personnel for the purpose of evaluating the quality of medical care.... medical audit

Conservative Treatment

Medical treatment which involves the minimum of active interference by the practitioner. For example, a disc lesion in the back might be treated by bed rest in contrast to surgical intervention to remove the damaged disc.... conservative treatment

Medical Record

A file kept for each patient, maintained by the hospital (medical practitioners also maintain medical records in their own practices), which documents the patient’s problems, diagnostic procedures, treatment and outcome. Related documents, such as written consent for surgery and other procedures, are also included in the record. In addition to facts about a patient’s illness, medical records nearly always contain other information such as clinical, demographic, sociocultural, sociological, economic, administrative and behavioural data. The record may be on paper or computerized.... medical record

Medical Negligence

Under the strict legal de?nition, negligence must involve proving a clearly established duty of care which has been breached in a way that has resulted in injury or harm to the recipient of care. There does not need to be any malicious intention. Whether or not a particular injury can be attributed to medical negligence, or must simply be accepted as a reasonable risk of the particular treatment, depends upon an assessment of whether the doctor has fallen below the standard expected of practitioners in the particular specialty. A defence to such a claim is that a respected body of practitioners would have acted in the same way (even though the majority might not) and in doing so would have acted logically.... medical negligence

Medical Research Council

A statutory body in the United Kingdom that promotes the balanced development of medical and related biological research and aims to advance knowledge that will lead to improved health care. It employs its own research sta? in more than 40 research establishments. These include the National Institute for Medical Research, the Laboratory of Molecular Biology, and the Clinical Sciences Centre. Grants are provided so that individual scientists can do research which complements the research activities of hospitals and universities. There are several medical charities and foundations – for example, the Imperial Cancer Research Fund, the British Heart Foundation, the Nu?eld Laboratories and the Wellcome Trust which fund and foster medical research.... medical research council


A process designed to achieve a desired health status for a patient or client.... treatment

Root-canal Treatment

A dental procedure performed to save a tooth in which the pulp (see pulp, dental) has died or become untreatably diseased, usually as the result of extensive dental caries.

The pulp is removed through a hole drilled in the crown. An antibiotic paste and a temporary filling are packed in. A few days later, the filling is removed and the canals are checked for infection. When no infection is detected the cavity is filled and the roots are sealed with cement. If the cavity is not filled completely, periodontitis may occur.

Treated teeth may turn grey but their appearance can be restored by bonding (see bonding, dental), fitting an artificial crown (see crown, dental), or by bleaching (see bleaching, dental).... root-canal treatment

Advance Statements About Medical Treatment

See LIVING WILL.... advance statements about medical treatment

Alternative Medical System

A complete system of theory and practices that has evolved independently of, and often prior to, the conventional biological approach. Many are traditional systems of medicine that are practised by individual cultures throughout the world. Traditional Oriental medicine and Ayurveda, India’s traditional system of medicine, are two examples.... alternative medical system

Antidiarrhoeal Treatments

Initial treatment of acute DIARRHOEA is to prevent or correct the loss of ?uid and ELECTROLYTES from the body. This is a priority especially in infants and elderly people. Rehydration can be achieved orally or, in severe cases, by urgent admission to hospital for the replacement of ?uid and electrolytes.

For adults with acute diarrhoea, short-term symptomatic treatment can be achieved with antimotility drugs such as codeine phosphate, co-phenotrope or loperamide hydrochloride. Adsorbent drugs, for example, KAOLIN, should not be used in acute diarrhoea, but bulk-forming drugs – ispaghula or methylcellulose

– can help to control the consistency of faeces in patients with ileostomies and colostomies (see ILEOSTOMY; COLOSTOMY), or those with diarrhoea caused by DIVERTICULAR DISEASE.

Irritable bowel syndrome, malabsorption syndrom, ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease and diverticular disease are often accompanied by diarrhoea; for more information on these conditions, see under separate entries.

ANTIBIOTICS may sometimes cause diarrhoea and this side-e?ect should be borne in mind when the cause of the condition is being investigated.... antidiarrhoeal treatments

British Medical Association (bma)


British National Formulary (BNF)

A pocket-book for those concerned with the prescribing, dispensing and administration of medicines in Britain. It is produced jointly by the Royal Pharmaceutical Society and the British Medical Association, is revised twice yearly and is distributed to NHS doctors by the Health Departments. The BNF is also available in electronic form.... british medical association (bma)

Cobalt Treatment

Radiation that uses gamma rays generated by cobalt-60, a radioactive isotope of the element cobalt.... cobalt treatment

Futile Medical Treatment

Treatment that is usually considered unable to produce the desired benefit either because it cannot achieve its physiological aim or because the burdens of the treatment are considered to outweigh the benefits for the particular individual. There are necessary value judgements involved in coming to an assessment of futility. These judgements must consider the individual’s, or proxy’s, assessment of worthwhile outcome. They should also take into account the medical practitioner or other provider’s perception of intent in treatment. They may also take into account community and institutional standards, which in turn may have used physiological or functional outcome measures.... futile medical treatment

General Medical Council (gmc)

A statutory body of elected and appointed medical practitioners and appointed lay members with the responsibility of protecting patients and guiding doctors in their professional practice. Set up by parliament in 1858 – at the request of the medical profession, which was concerned by the large numbers of untrained people practising as doctors – the GMC is responsible for setting educational and professional standards; maintaining a register of quali?ed practitioners; and disciplining doctors who fail to maintain appropriate professional standards, cautioning them or temporarily or permanently removing them from the Medical Register if they are judged un?t to practise.

The Council is funded by doctors’ annual fees and is responsible to the Privy Council. Substantial reforms of the GMC’s structure and functions have been and are still being undertaken to ensure that it operates e?ectively in today’s rapidly evolving medical and social environment. In particular, the Council has strengthened its supervisory and disciplinary functions, and among many changes has proposed the regular revalidation of doctors’ professional abilities on a periodic basis. The Medical Register, maintained by the GMC, is intended to enable the public to identify whom it is safe to approach to obtain medical services. Entry on the Register shows that the doctor holds a recognised primary medical quali?cation and is committed to upholding the profession’s values. Under revalidation requirements being ?nalised, in addition to holding an initial quali?cation, doctors wishing to stay on the Register will have to show their continuing ?tness to practise according to the professional attributes laid down by the GMC.

Once revalidation is fully established, there will be four categories of doctor:

Those on the Register who successfully show their ?tness to practise on a regular basis.

Those whose registration is limited, suspended or removed as a result of the Council’s disciplinary procedures.

Those who do not wish to stay on the Register or retain any links with the GMC.

Those, placed on a supplementary list, who do not wish to stay on the main Register but who want to retain a formal link with the medical profession through the Council. Such doctors will not be able to practise or prescribe.... general medical council (gmc)

Good Medical Practice

Guidelines for doctors on the provision of good medical care laid down by the GENERAL MEDICAL COUNCIL (GMC).... good medical practice

Herbal Medical

Herbal Medical

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... herbal medical

Home Medical Equipment

Equipment, such as hospital beds, wheelchairs and prosthetics, provided by an agency and used at home.... home medical equipment

Life-sustaining Treatment

Drugs, medical devices, or procedures that can keep alive a person who would otherwise die within a foreseeable, though usually uncertain, time. Examples include cardiopulmonary resuscitation, mechanical ventilation, renal dialysis, nutritional support (i.e. tube or intravenous feeding) and provision of antibiotics to fight life-threatening infections.... life-sustaining treatment

Centaury Tea - Diabetes Treatment

Centaury Tea has been known for centuries as a great medicinal remedy. It is said that Centaury plant is a very powerful diaphoretic, digestive, emetic, febrifuge, hepatic, homeopathic, poultice, stomachic, tonic and liver stimulator. Centaury is a plant from the gentian family which grows mainly in regions like Europe, Northern Africa and Eastern Australia. Also known as centaurium erythraea, this plant can easily be recognized by its triangular pale green leaves, pink flowers and yellowish anthers bloom. The fruit has the shape of a small oval capsule and it can only be harvested in the fall. Centaury Tea Properties Centaury has a bitter taste, which makes it a great ingredient for vermouth. Centaury Tea, however, is used by the alternative medicine for its great curative properties. The active constituents of Centaury Tea are: secoiridoids, alkaloids, phenolic acids, triterpenes, xanthone derivatives and triterpenes, which can only be released in the presence of hot water or other heating sources. Xanthone derivatives are also used by the alcohol producers in order to obtain a variety of liquors (especially the bitter ones). Centaury Tea Benefits Aside from its use as a vermouth ingredient, Centaury Tea has other health benefits, being prescribed by practitioners around the world since ancient times. Centaury Tea may be helpful in case you’re suffering from one of the following conditions: - Blood poisoning, by eliminating the toxins and increasing the blood flow. - A number of digestive ailments, such as constipation and gastritis. - Anemia, by nourishing the nervous system and increasing the coronary system function. - Diabetes and liver failure, by reconstructing the liver cells and lowering your blood sugar. - Kidney failure, by treating nephritis and other ailments of the urinary system. - Centaury Tea may also be used to induce appetite when taken before meals. How to make Centaury Tea Infusion Preparing Centaury Tea infusion is very easy. Use a teaspoon of freshly-picked or dried Centaury herbs for every cup of tea you want to make, add boiling water and wait 10 minutes for the health benefits to be released. Strain the decoction and drink it hot or cold. However, don’t drink more than 2 or 3 cups per day in order to avoid other health complications. Centaury Tea Side Effects When taken properly, Centaury Tea has no effects for adults. However, high dosages may lad to a number of ailments, such as nausea, diarrhea and vomiting. If you’ve been taking Centaury Tea for a while and you’re experiencing some unusual reactions, talk to your doctor as soon as possible! Centaury Tea Contraindications Don’t take Centaury Tea if you’re pregnant or breastfeeding. Also, children and patients suffering from severe diseases that require blood thinners and anti-coagulants ingestion should avoid taking Centaury Tea at all costs! The same advice if you’re preparing for a major surgery (Centaury Tea may interfere with the anesthetic). In order to gather more information, talk to an herbalist or to your doctor. Once he gives you the green light, add Centaury Tea to your shopping cart and enjoy the wonderful benefits of this tea responsibly!... centaury tea - diabetes treatment

Medical Defence Organisations

These are UK bodies that provide doctors with advice and, where appropriate, ?nancial support in defending claims for medical negligence in their clinical practice. They also advise doctors on all legal aspects of their work, including patients’ complaints, and provide representation for members called to account by the GENERAL MEDICAL COUNCIL (GMC) or other regulatory body. The sharp rise in claims for medical negligence in the NHS in the 1980s persuaded the UK Health Departments to introduce a risk-pooling system called the Clinical Negligence Scheme for Trusts, and the defence societies liaise with this scheme when advising their doctor members on responding to claims of negligence (see MEDICAL LITIGATION; MEDICAL NEGLIGENCE).... medical defence organisations

Medical Devices Agency

An executive agency of the Department of Health in the UK. Set up in 1994, it is responsible for regulating and advising on the sale or use of any product, other than a medicine, used in the health-care environment for the diagnosis, prevention, monitoring or treatment of illness or disease. Equipment ranges from pacemakers (see CARDIAC PACEMAKER) to prostheses (see PROSTHESIS), and from syringes to magnetic resonance imaging (see (MRI).... medical devices agency

Medical Dictionary

Medical Dictionary

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... medical dictionary

Medical Error

An error or omission in the medical care provided to an individual. Medical errors can occur in diagnosis, treatment, preventive monitoring or in the failure of a piece of medical equipment or another component of the medical system. Often, but not always, medical errors result in adverse events such as injury or death. See also “malpractice”; and “incidence monitoring and reporting”.... medical error

Medical Informatics


Medical Oncology

See ONCOLOGY.... medical oncology

Orthoptic Treatment

The examination and treatment by exercises of squints and their sequelae (see EYE, DISORDERS OF).... orthoptic treatment

Medical Education

This term is used to de?ne the process of learning and knowledge-acquisition in the study of medicine. It also encompasses the expertise required to develop education and training for students and learners in all aspects of medical health care. Studies for undergraduate students, postgraduate students and individual health-care practitioners, from the initial stages to the ongoing development of a career in medicine or associated health ?elds, are also included in medical education. The word ‘pedagogy’ is sometimes applied to this process.

A range of research investigations has developed within medical education. These apply to course monitoring, audit, development and validation, assessment methodologies and the application of educationally appropriate principles at undergraduate and postgraduate levels. Research is undertaken by medical educationalists whose backgrounds include teaching, social sciences and medicine and related health-care specialties, and who will hold a medical or general educational diploma, degree or other appropriate postgraduate quali?cation.

Development and validation for all courses are an important part of continuing accreditation processes. The relatively conservative courses at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels, including diplomas and postgraduate quali?cations awarded by the specialist medical royal colleges (responsible for standards of specialist education) and universities, have undergone a range of reassessment and rede?nition driven by the changing needs of the individual practitioner in the last decade. The stimuli to change aspects of medical training have come from the government through the former Chief Medical O?cer, Sir Kenneth Calman, and the introduction of new approaches to specialist training (the Calman programme), from the GENERAL MEDICAL COUNCIL (GMC) and its document Tomorrow’s Doctors, as well as from the profession itself through the activities of the British Medical Association and the medical royal colleges. The evolving expectations of the public in their perception of the requirements of a doctor, and changes in education of other groups of health professionals, have also led to pressures for changes.

Consequently, many new departments and units devoted to medical education within university medical schools, royal colleges and elsewhere within higher education have been established. These developments have built upon practice developed elsewhere in the world, particularly in North America, Australia and some European countries. Undergraduate education has seen application of new educational methods, including Problem-Based Learning (PBL) in Liverpool, Glasgow and Manchester; clinical and communications skills teaching; early patient contact; and the extensive adoption of Internet (World Wide Web) support and Computer-Aided Learning (CAL). In postgraduate education – driven by European directives and practices, changes in specialist training and the needs of community medicine – new courses have developed around the membership and fellowship examinations for the royal colleges. Examples of these changes driven by medical education expertise include the STEP course for the Royal College of Surgeons of England, and distance-learning courses for diplomas in primary care and rheumatology, as well as examples of good practice as adopted by the Royal College of General Practitioners.

Continuing Professional Development (CPD) and Continuing Medical Education (CME) are also important aspects of medical education now being developed in the United Kingdom, and are evolving to meet the needs of individuals at all stages of their careers.

Bodies closely involved in medical educational developments and their review include the General Medical Council, SCOPME (the Standing Committee on Postgraduate Medical Education), all the medical royal colleges and medical schools, and the British Medical Association through its Board of Medical Education. The National Health Service (NHS) is also involved in education and is a key to facilitation of CPD/CME as the major employer of doctors within the United Kingdom.

Several learned societies embrace medical education at all levels. These include ASME (the Association for the Study of Medical Education), MADEN (the Medical and Dental Education Network) and AMEE (the Association for Medical Education in Europe). Specialist journals are devoted to research reports relating to medical educational developments

(e.g. Academic Medicine, Health Care Education, Medical Education). The more general medical journals (e.g. British Medical Journal, New England Journal of Medicine, The Lancet, Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons) also carry articles on educational matters. Finally, the World Wide Web (WWW) is a valuable source of information relating to courses and course development and other aspects of modern medical education.

The UK government, which controls the number of students entering medical training, has recently increased the quota to take account of increasing demands for trained sta? from the NHS. More than 5,700 students – 3,300 women and 2,400 men – are now entering UK medical schools annually with nearly 28,600 at medical school in any one year, and an attrition rate of about 8–10 per cent. This loss may in part be due to the changes in university-funding arrangements. Students now pay all or part of their tuition fees, and this can result in medical graduates owing several thousand pounds when they qualify at the end of their ?ve-year basic quali?cation course. Doctors wishing to specialise need to do up to ?ve years (sometimes more) of salaried ‘hands-on’ training in house or registrar (intern) posts.

Though it may be a commonly held belief that most students enter medicine for humanitarian reasons rather than for the ?nancial rewards of a successful medical career, in developed nations the prospect of status and rewards is probably one incentive. However, the cost to students of medical education along with the widespread publicity in Britain about an under-resourced, seriously overstretched health service, with sta? working long hours and dealing with a rising number of disgruntled patients, may be affecting recruitment, since the number of applicants for medical school has dropped in the past year or so. Although there is still competition for places, planners need to bear this falling trend in mind.

Another factor to be considered for the future is the nature of the medical curriculum. In Britain and western Europe, the age structure of a probably declining population will become top-heavy with senior citizens. In the ?nancial interests of the countries affected, and in the personal interests of an ageing population, it would seem sensible to raise the pro?le of preventive medicine – traditionally rather a Cinderella subject – in medical education, thus enabling people to live healthier as well as longer lives. While learning about treatments is essential, the increasing specialisation and subspecialisation of medicine in order to provide expensive, high-technology care to a population, many of whom are suffering from preventable illnesses originating in part from self-indulgent lifestyles, seems insupportable economically, unsatisfactory for patients awaiting treatment, and not necessarily professionally ful?lling for health-care sta?. To change the mix of medical education would be a di?cult long-term task but should be worthwhile for providers and recipients of medical care.... medical education

Medical Litigation

Legal action taken by an individual or group of individuals, usually patients, against hospitals, health-service providers or health professionals in respect of alleged inadequacies in the provision of health care.

In the hospital service, claims for clinical negligence have risen enormously since the 1970s. In 1975 the NHS spent about £1m a year on legal claims; by 2004 the NHS faced over £2 billion in outstanding claims. In 1995 a risk-pooling Clinical Negligence Scheme for Trusts (CNST) was set up in England, and is administered by the NHS Litigation Authority. NHS trusts are expected to follow a set of risk-management standards, the ?rst being that each trust should have a written risk-management strategy with an explicit commitment to managing clinical risk (see RISK MANAGEMENT).... medical litigation

Treatment Effect

The effect of a treatment (intervention) on outcomes, i.e. attributable only to the effect of the intervention. Investigators seek to estimate the true treatment effect using the difference between the observed outcomes of a treatment group and a control group.... treatment effect

Treatment Episode

The period of treatment between admission and discharge from a facility, such as inpatient, residential, partial hospitalization and outpatient, or the period of time between the first procedure and last procedure on an outpatient basis for a given diagnosis. Many health care statistics and profiles use this unit as a base for comparisons.... treatment episode

Turmeric Tea Acne Treatment

Turmeric Tea has been known for centuries thanks to its popularization done by the Ayurvedic medicine. The main field where this tea has the greatest effects is the anti-inflammatory one. Turmeric is a perennial plant originally from India, but which can be found almost everywhere around the globe, where it’s used as a health adjuvant. Turmeric grows up to 1 meter tall (3 feet) and it has green lance-shaped leaves that hide the stamina in, during the hot season. The roots of this herb resemble to a rhizome and can easily be confused with ginger. Turmeric Tea Properties The anti-inflammatory property of Turmeric Tea is due to an active ingredient called curcumin, which is actually a group of very strong antioxidants. Also, curcumin is the substance that makes Indian food and the tea, as well, look yellow. It is important to know that this group of antioxidants prevents and treats inflammations by inhibiting all infection triggers and by cleansing the affected areas. Turmeric Tea Benefits Aside from its anti-inflammatory properties, Turmeric Tea is a great remedy in case you are suffering from one of the following conditions: - Joint and bone pains (in order to treat these affections, you can either drink the tea or topically apply the smashed Turmeric leaves). - Skin conditions, such as acne. Turmeric Tea (applied on the spot or drank) can also heal the scars of bad acne. - Arthritis, tendonitis or bursitis, by calming the pain and making your coronary walls much more elastic. - Cholesterol, gallstones and other digestive track problem. - Alzheimer, gingivitis, upset stomach, bad breath and other conditions that may weaken your general well-being. How to make Turmeric Tea Infusion In order to make Turmeric Tea infusion, you need to follow these steps: properly wash the parts that you are about to use (leaves or rhizome), put them in a teapot and add water. Boil for 8 or 10 minutes and let it infuse for another 5 minutes. You can add a small amount of ginger or honey if you feel that the taste is too strong. Don’t drink more than 3 cups per day. Turmeric Tea Side Effects When taken properly, Turmeric Tea has no side effects at all. However, a high dosage may cause irritations of the stomach and hallucinations. It’s best to ask for specialized help before starting a treatment based on Turmeric Tea. Turmeric Tea Contraindications Do not take Turmeric Tea if you are pregnant or breastfeeding. It may cause uterine contractions and irritated stomach. The same advice if you are on blood thinners. If you have already taken it and were not aware of this, talk to a doctor immediately! It’s better to be safe than sorry. If your doctor gives you his approval, buy Turmeric Tea from a trusted provider and enjoy the wonderful benefits of this well-known Ayurvedic herb!... turmeric tea acne treatment

World Medical Association

See ETHICS.... world medical association

Australian Journal Of Medical Herbalism

Quarterly publication of the National Herbalists Association of Australia. Australian medicinal plants, Government reports, case studies, books, plant abstracts. For subscription details and complimentary copy of the Journal contact: NHAA, PO Box 65, Kingsgrove NSW 2208, Australia. Tel: +61(02) 502 2938. Annual subscription (Aus) $40 (overseas applicants include $15 for air mail, otherwise sent by sea mail). ... australian journal of medical herbalism

Tarragon Tea - Insomnia Treatment

Tarragon Tea is best known for its ability to cure some forms of insomnia and other conditions of the nervous system, thanks to its strong aromatic flavor and substances. Although its use involves mainly the international cuisine, being added as an important ingredient to a variety of recipes, Tarragon is also good for health. Tarragon is a green perennial shrub with narrow leaves and lacking in hairs. It grows especially in the Northern hemisphere, in places like the United States, Asia and Siberia. It can easily be recognized by its small, yellow flowers. Tarragon Tea Properties Tarragon is the main ingredient in French salads and sauces that contain vinegar or as an old remedy for insomnia. The good thing about Tarragon Tea is that you can make it from the aerial parts of the plant as well as from its roots. This tea is very strong, containing tannis, coumarins and flavonoids, and up to 0.8% volatile oil, consisting of up to 70% methyl chervicol (estragole). The last substance is toxic and possibly carcinogenic, so pay attention to the amount of Tarragon you’re drinking or eating. Tarragon Tea Benefits Tarragon Tea is a great help if you’re suffering from arthritis, gout or rheumatism, experience flatulence and colic. In case you have worms, Tarragon Tea will flush them out of your system while calming your toothache and other localized pain. Actually, Tarragon Tea works as any other painkiller on the market and it’s natural! For menstrual problems, digestive track conditions and insomnia, this tea may come in hand: some say that half a cup of Tarragon Tea will make you sleep like a baby. However, don’t use a large amount of plants when preparing your tea or there’s a chance you’ll never wake up again! How to prepare Tarragon Tea Preparing Tarragon Tea couldn’t be any easier. Just turn boiling water over the dry or freshly picked Tarragon leaves and wait for about 5 minutes. You can drink it hot or cold, just make sure you don’t forget that this is a treatment used for your health and not an ordinary tea that could replace your morning coffee. Tarragon Tea Side Effects A long-term use of Tarragon Tea may cause cancer or even death because it contains a substance called estragole. If you’ve been drinking Tarragon Tea for a while and you’re experiencing dizziness or other nervous system problems, talk to your doctor right away! Tarragon Tea Contraindications Do not take Tarragon Tea if you’re pregnant or breastfeeding. Also, if you’ve suffered from cancer in the past, it is best to consult your doctor before drinking Tarragon Tea or simply avoid taking it. Very important: if you’re allergic to ragweed and related plants, you’ll have an allergic reaction to Tarragon Tea as well. Make sure you’re well informed before starting a Tarragon Tea cure so you won’t get any problems. If you’are having trouble sleeping or need something to bring relief in case of menstrual pains, Tarragon Tea may be the right answer. However, if you’re not completely sure about it, talk to your doctor first and see which treatment fits you best. When he gives you the green light, add Tarragon Tea to your shopping cart and enjoy the wonderful benefits of this tea!... tarragon tea - insomnia treatment

White Oak Tea - Gingivitis Treatment

For thousands of years, White Oak Tea has been a great homeopathic remedy. White Oak is a tree found mostly in Northern America, from Quebec to Texas. It usually reaches 100 feet height, it has a grey trunk and deep green wavy leaves. White Oak Tea’s main use involves general heath and treating localized pain, such as inflammations and sore throat. White Oak Tea Properties White Oak Tea is well known for both its external and internal use. The active ingredients of this tea are tannins, resins, calcium oxalate, quillaic acid and starch. Some of these substances can also be found in the trunk and branches, but extracting them from these parts is not an easy job. Thanks to its endurance and its unique wood color, White Oak has also a good reputation among craftsmen. White Oak Tea Benefits Aside from improving your general health, White Oak Tea can also come in hand in case of many other diseases. The most popular uses of this tea are: - White Oak can successfully be used to treat kidney stones - Thanks to its active ingredients, White Oak Tea is a great remedy for inflammation - White Oak Tea can treat diarrhea and flush hemorrhoids out of your systems - If you suffer from gout or dysentery, White Oak Tea can bring relief to your body - White Oak Tea treats gingivitis, stops hemorrhages and prevents your gums from swelling. How to make White Oak Tea Infusion When preparing White Oak Tea, you can either use dry powder from the specialized shops or the freshly picked leaves. The only difference is that the powder may have a stronger taste thanks to its higher acids concentration. Use a teaspoon of powder or leaves for every cup of tea you want to make, add boiling water and wait 10 minutes, if you’re using powder, or 15 minutes, if you’re using leaves. You can drink it hot or cold. If you’re keeping it in the refrigerator, make a new bottle of tea every 3 or 4 days. White Oak Tea Side Effects Taken properly, White Oak Tea has no side effects. A high dosage may cause deviations of the nervous system and other conditions. If you’ve taken it for a while and are experiencing some unusual episodes, talk to a doctor as soon as possible. White Oak Tea Contraindications White Oak Tea may interfere with birth control pills and cause internal bleedings. Also, if you’re pregnant or breastfeeding, you should not take White Oak Tea. The same advice if you’re suffering from severe kidney problems or chronic heart diseases. However, if you’re suffering from one of these conditions and are still determined to start a White Oak Tea treatment, talk to your doctor and find out what is the best solution for you and your health. If you feel confident and your doctor gives you the green light, add White Oak Tea to your medicine cabinet and enjoy responsibly the wonderful benefits of this tea!... white oak tea - gingivitis treatment

Medical Accidents

Legal guidance sought by the sufferer when making claims against a doctor or health authority is available from: Action for Victims of Medical Accidents (AVMA), Bank Chambers, 1 London Road, Forest Hill, London SE23 3TP. ... medical accidents

Olive Oil And Lemon Treatment

See: GALL-STONES. ... olive oil and lemon treatment

Usnea Tea Infection Treatment

Usnea Tea has been known for centuries as a great remedy in case of infection, bacteria and microbes. Usnea is a plant also known as old man’s beard that grows in many varieties in regions from America and Europe. You can recognize it by its fuzzy strings that actually resemble to a grey beard. These strings are the leaves and they tend to extend to the entire territory that’s to their disposal, being able to invade forests thanks to its parasitic nature. However, Usnea tree is very useful in alternative medicine and not only to treat infection and bacteria. Usnea Tea has also a couple of aces up his sleeves. Usnea Tea Properties The main property of Usnea Tea is that thanks to its active ingredients it allows your health system to recover very fast and fight all kinds of invaders, such as parasites and bacteria. Its action involves bringing strength to your immune system and fighting diseases. The most important substances of this tea are: acid, essential fatty acids, mucilage and sterol. These ingredients turn Usnea Tea into an organic anti-bacterial treatment. Usnea Tea Benefits Aside from its ability to fight bacteria and microbes, Usnea Tea’s benefits also involve bringing relief in case you’re suffering from one of the following problems: - Infections of your digestive track (fungal infections in the mouth, stomach or intestines). - Disorders of your lungs, such as pneumonia, pleurisy, colds or flu. - Bacterial infections, irritated stomach or skin rash. - You can use Usnea smashed leaves to make a antibacterial dressing for the affected areas (in case you want to treat external infections. How to make Usnea Tea Infusion Preparing Usnea Tea infusion is very easy. All you need to do is infuse the usnea lichen in hot water and wait for 8 or 10 minutes. After that, take out the herb and drink the decoction hot or cold. You can take ¼ cups of Usnea Tea every hour, just remember to take some time off from the treatment every now and then. Usnea Tea Side Effects Don’t forget that Usnea Tea is a treatment and should only be taken as long as you are sick and by paying attention to the amount of liquid ingested. Although it has many benefits, this tea cannot replace coffee, so don’t turn it into a daily habit. If you’re unsure concerning this tea, it’s best to ask a specialist in order to find out more about the ups and downs that could interfere with your general well-being. If taken properly, Usnea Tea has no side effects at all. However, high dosages may lead to internal bleedings, nausea and vomiting. If you notice anything unusual when taking this treatment, talk to a doctor as soon as possible! Usnea Tea Contraindications If you are pregnant or breastfeeding, it’s best to avoid taking Usnea Tea. The same advice if you suffer from a serious condition and you’re on blood thinners. This way, you’ll prevent your coronary walls from erupting. If you’ve got the green light from the specialist, ask more about Usnea Tea next time you’re in a teashop and give it a try!... usnea tea infection treatment

Emetic Treatment

As practised by members of the Thomsonian medical fraternity.

An emetic treatment may be administered with good effect when the body is powerless to throw off toxic matter in a healing crisis (acute disease). Uneliminated by-products of carbohydrate and protein metabolism may obstruct the abdominal circulation and congest the tissues. A few days fast followed by emesis has resolved many an acute gastro-intestinal problem.

Requirements: towel, large bowl, strainer, and a bowl of cold water in which a container may be cooled should infusions be too hot.

Before emesis the bowels should be evacuated. A full bowel inhibits the emetic effect and absorbs fluid.

Prepare three one-pint infusions, in separate vessels; cover to prevent escape of essential oils. Infuse 15 minutes.

1. Catnep. 1oz to 1 pint boiling water.

2. Bayberry (or Composition). 1 heaped teaspoon, powder, to 1 pint boiling water.

3. Lobelia. Half an ounce to 1 pint boiling water. Proceed: (a) Drink a cup of Catnep tea (b) follow with a cup of Bayberry (or Composition) tea (c) drink a second cup of Catnep (d) drink a second cup of Bayberry (or Composition). Four cups will be taken at this point, all of which will stimulate mucous surfaces. (e) Follow with a cup of Lobelia tea (a relaxant). (f) Repeat the procedure. Vomiting usually occurs before 8 cups. Repeat the sequence as long as can be borne. About half the intake will be returned. Vomit will be found to be exceedingly viscous and ropy and a healthy sense of well-being can follow its exit from the body. After vomiting three times, or as much as tolerated, discontinue treatment and rest. ... emetic treatment

They Generally Heal Without Treatment Child Abuse

The maltreatment of children.

Child abuse may take the form of physical injury, sexual abuse, emotional mistreatment, and/or neglect; it occurs at all levels of society.

Being deprived or ill-treated in childhood may predispose people to repeat the pattern of abuse with their own children.

Children who are abused or at risk of abuse may be placed in care while the health and social services decide on the best course of action.... they generally heal without treatment child abuse

Electric Shock Treatment

See ECT.... electric shock treatment

Empirical Treatment

Treatment given because its effectiveness has been observed in previous, similar cases rather than because there is an understanding of the nature of the disorder and the way the treatment works.... empirical treatment

Heat Treatment

The use of heat to treat disease, aid recovery from injury, or to relieve pain. Heat treatment is useful for certain conditions, such as ligament sprains, as it stimulates blood flow and promotes healing of tissues.

Moist heat may be administered by soaking the affected area in a warm bath, or applying a hot compress or poultice. Dry heat may be administered by a heating pad, hot-water bottle, or by a heat lamp that produces infra-red rays. More precise methods of administering heat to tissues deeper in the body include ultrasound treatment and short-wave diathermy.... heat treatment

Hyperbaric Oxygen Treatment

A method of increasing the amount of oxygen in the tissues.

This is achieved by placing a person in a special chamber and exposing him or her to oxygen at a much higher atmospheric pressure than normal.

Hyperbaric oxygen treatment is used to treat poisoning from carbon monoxide and in cases of gas gangrene.... hyperbaric oxygen treatment

Uva Ursi Tea - Bronchitis Treatment

Uva Ursi Tea has been known to practitioners around the globe for many centuries thanks to its active constituents that bring relief in case of liver malfunction. Uva Ursi, also known as bearberry (because the bears seem to be very fond of these berries), is a shrub with wide branches, pale green leaves and pink flowers. The fruits are usually round and red, with black seeds. It’s not very tall: usually, it doesn’t grow taller than 3 to 6 inches and you can find it mainly in the rocky areas. Uva Ursi Tea Properties Uva Ursi Tea is a well known treatment for internal conditions of both the digestive and the respiratory system. The parts used to make tea are the leaves and sometimes the stem fragments which contain phenolic glycoside or arbutin, a strong astringent with antiseptic effects. The pharmaceutical companies used the Uva Ursi extract to facial cleansers and acne treatments. Thanks to its other important ingredients, hydroquinone, tannins, hyperoside, monotropein and triterpenes, Uva Ursi Tea became more popular every year, being used many times as a panacea. Uva Ursi Tea Benefits Aside from its antimicrobial and antibacterial properties, Uva Ursi Tea is a great remedy in case you are suffering from one of the following conditions: - Urinary tract infections or vaginitis, by disinfecting the affected area and enhancing the alkaline level. - Kidney infections caused by accumulations of uric acid that may also lead to kidney stones and other related problems. - Bronchitis and nephritis, by calming the inflammations and inhibiting the mucus and phlegm production. - Back pains, thanks to its elevated vitamin C level that refreshes the entire system and helps you maintain a good general health. - Lithuria, cystitis, dysuria, pyelitis and other internal problems. How to make Uva Ursi Tea Infusion When you are preparing Uva Ursi Tea, there’s one thing you need to keep in mind: Uva Ursi leaves are slightly impervious to water, so what you want to do is soak them in hot water first. Use one teaspoon of leaves for every cup of tea you want to make. Put the herbs in a teapot, add water and let it boil for 15 or 20 minutes. Uva Ursi leaves are quite woody so you need to wait a little longer for the active ingredients to be released. Drink it hot or cold, but not more than 2 cups per day. Uva Ursi Tea has a gentle, aromatic and citric flavor. Uva Ursi Tea Side Effects When taken properly, Uva Ursi Tea is safe. However, high dosages may lead to a number of allergic reactions or problems, such as nausea, vomiting, discoloration of the urine, liver damage, convulsions and even death. If you are experiencing an unusual episode after taking Uva Ursi Tea, ask a specialist and don’t try to treat it yourself at home! Uva Ursi Tea Contraindications Pregnant and breastfeeding women should avoid taking Uva Ursi Tea. Also, if you are allergic to vitamin C, don’t start a treatment based on Uva Ursi Tea under no circumstances! It may cause you irreparable damages. Before taking any kind of herbal treatment, talk to a herbalist or just ask your doctor. If he says it’s ok, add Uva Ursi Tea to your shopping list and give it a try! Enjoy the wonderful benefits of this tea responsibly!... uva ursi tea - bronchitis treatment

Forbidden Treatment

No remedies may be offered for treatment of sexually transmitted diseases, diabetes, tuberculosis, cancer, epilepsy, fits, locomotor ataxia, Bright’s disease, any kidney disease, cataract, paralysis, glaucoma. No claims must be made by letter, telephone or otherwise that a vendor or practitioner can ‘cure’ or favourably affect the course of any of such conditions. A practitioner has the right to exercise his own judgement should, in the course of his duties, he diagnose one of these conditions except for sexually transmitted diseases for which specialised treatment is given at approved official veneral diseases centres. ... forbidden treatment

National Institute Of Medical Herbalists

Est. 1864. The oldest and only body of professional medical herbalists, now known as phytotherapists, in Europe. Membership by examination after completion of course of training. A stipulated period of clinical practice must be completed before the final examination is taken.

Members are directly involved with patient-care, carrying full responsibility for their recommendations, prescribing medication suitable to the individual biological requirements of each patient. Their role includes patient-counselling, health education and research.

Official recognition of the Institute, indicating its growing importance in the field of medicine came with the historic Grant of Arms by Her Majesty’s College of Heralds. Members regard this as evidence that the Royal Charter of King Henry VIII still stands and that there is no monopoly in healing the sick. See: HENRY VIII, HERBALISTS’ CHARTER.

The Institute played a major role in winning vital concessions for the survival of the herbalist in the passage through Parliament of the Medicine’s Bill. See: MEDICINE’S ACT, 1968.

In connection with the NIMH degree courses in herbal medicine are available at a London University, and Exeter University.

The Institute provides professional indemnity cover for its members, and is engaged in a series of clinical trials to evaluate traditional remedies.

All members are required to adhere to a strict professional Code of Ethics and are entitled to carry after their names the letters of qualification: MNIMH or FNIMH.

Members have a key role in preventative medicine and health promotion in their contribution to improvement of the nation’s health.

Address: 56 Longbrook Street, Exeter EX4 6AH, from which a list of members is obtainable. ... national institute of medical herbalists

Inpatient Treatment

Care or therapy in hospital following admission.... inpatient treatment

Laser Treatment

Use of a laser beam in a variety of medical procedures. Highintensity laser beams cut through tissue and cause blood clotting. They can be used in surgery and to destroy abnormal blood vessels. Lasers are frequently used in ophthalmology to treat eye disorders, in gynaecology (for example, to unblock fallopian tubes), and to remove birthmarks and tattoos.... laser treatment

Outpatient Treatment

Medical care on a same-day basis in a hospital or clinic.... outpatient treatment

Valerian Tea - Insomnia Treatment

Valerian Tea has been known for centuries as a very good remedy when it comes to calming and tranquilizing the affected areas of the human body. Although the first ones to use its wonderful benefits were the Chinese, Valerian Tea became soon popular around the globe. Many painkillers found today in drug stores contain Valerian extract. Valerian is a plant with green pin-like leaves and pink flowers that grows mainly in Asia and Northern Europe. Although the entire plant can be used for medical purposes, the alternative medicine has a cult for its roots that can be used freshly picked, dried or turned into powder. Valerian Tea Properties The best thing about Valerian Tea is that it contains a lot of active ingredients that are able to treat external damages, such as localized pains. Also, a treatment based on Valerian Tea can bring relief in case of internal problems as well. Valerian Tea has a peculiar taste that is both spicy and sweet, so you can add honey and lemon in order to make it more adequate. However, if you can handle the taste, you’ll have to deal with the smell. There have been many complaints about the strong and rather unpleasant smell. Valerian Tea Benefits Valerian Tea may come in hand in many health problems, thanks to a great alkaline level and to the ability to treat affections in almost no time. Unlike other teas, Valerian Tea has a very rapid effect on your health system. This tea could be a great help if you are suffering from one of the following conditions: - Chronic insomnia and sleeplessness, by allowing endomorphins in your body to be released easier. - Affections of the nervous system such as hysteria and restlessness. - Menstrual pains, by calming the affected areas and increasing the blood flow. Also, Valerian Tea can bring relief to abdominal muscles - Irritable bowel movement, by soothing the intestine pains and preventing stomach cramps. - Convulsions and muscle spasms, by lowering the blood pressure and enhancing the muscular elasticity. - Valerian Tea is a good tumor growth inhibitor. How to make Valerian Tea Infusion When preparing Valerian Tea you need to make sure that the roots you are using are from a trusted provider. There are many roots of unknown provenience sold as Valerian on the market, so pay attention to that. If you have the good ingredients, use about a teaspoon of herbs for every cup of tea you want to make. Add boiling water and wait for 10 or 15 minutes. If the roots are dried, wait another 5 minutes for the health benefits to be released. Drink it hot or cold, but don’t drink more than 2 cups per day. Remember this is a medical treatment and Valerian Tea cannot replace coffee! Valerian Tea Side Effects When taken properly, Valerian Tea has almost no side effects at all. However, high dosages may lead to a number of complications such as severe headaches or upset stomach. Also, if you’ve been taking a treatment based on Valerian Tea and you’re experiencing vomiting episodes, talk to your doctor as soon as possible! Valerian Tea Contraindications Do not take Valerian Tea if you are pregnant or breastfeeding. The same advice if you are suffering from a severe disease and need to take blood thinners. In this case, Valerian Tea may lead to coronary problems due to cell walls damaging. Also, if you have a decreased liver function or preparing for a major surgery, avoid this tea at all costs! If you have a doubt concerning Valerian Tea, talk to a specialist before making any move. Other than that, there’s no reason not to try Valerian Tea and enjoy its wonderful health benefits responsibly! Follow our instructions and give it a try next time you’re in a teashop.... valerian tea - insomnia treatment

Palliative Treatment

Treatment that relieves the symptoms of a disorder but does not cure it.... palliative treatment

Statistics, Medical

The collection and analysis of numerical data relating to medicine.

Information on the incidence and prevalence of various conditions is an important aspect of medical statistics.... statistics, medical

Ultrasound Treatment

The use of ultrasound to treat soft-tissue injuries (such as injuries to ligaments, muscles, and tendons). Ultrasound treatment reduces inflammation and speeds up healing. It is thought to work by improving blood flow in tissues under the skin.... ultrasound treatment

American Medical Association

(AMA) a professional organization for US physicians. Its purposes include dissemination of scientific information through journals, a weekly newspaper, and a website; representation of the profession to Congress and state legislatures; keeping members informed of pending health and medical legislation; evaluating prescription and non-prescription drugs; and cooperating with other organizations in setting standards for hospitals and medical schools. The AMA maintains a comprehensive directory of licensed physicians in the US.... american medical association

British Medical Association

(BMA) a professional body for doctors and also an independent trade union dedicated to protecting individual members and the collective interests of doctors. It has a complex structure that allows representation both by geographical area of work and through various committees, including the General Practice Committee (GPC), Central Consultants and Specialists Committee, Junior Doctors Committee, and the Medical Students Committee.... british medical association

Burden Of Treatment

the extra work or worry imposed on a patient by a treatment regime. This might include e.g. arranging and attending hospital appointments, collecting and managing medication, learning about a condition, and making lifestyle changes. For those with chronic conditions, these tasks can impose a significant toll on energy and wellbeing as well as disrupting their family and working life.... burden of treatment

Walnut Bark Tea Diarrhea Treatment

Walnut Bark Tea has been known for years thanks to its curative properties. This tea is astringent, purgative, laxative, a good vermifuge and it has many other styptic properties. This tea can be from the leaves of the Walnut Bark tree, also known as juglans regia, that grows almost everywhere, from the south of China to the Balkans. The tree grows up to 25-30 meters long (75-90 feet) and it has a rather short trunk, with a 2 meters diameter (6 feet). It has big green leaves (about 30- 40 cm/ 1-1.3 feet) and yellow flowers that turn into fruits in the fall. The fruits are also green, with a thin brown layer covering the hard seeds. Walnut Bark Tea Properties The main properties of Walnut Bark Tea involve the ability to treat many health conditions, such as gingivitis, mouth infections, bad breath, constipation, cough, inflammation and impotency. Also, the Walnut bark leaves, applied topically, are a great remedy for damaged hair. The entire tree is used in many areas of interest: the wood is considered as being reliable and long lasting, thanks to its vermifuge property, the fruits are a great nutritional source, offering support in almost any type of diet and the seeds are used to treat some affections of the digestive track. Walnut Bark Tea Benefits Aside from its digestive system benefits, Walnut Bark Tea proves to be a good choice when it comes to: - Detoxification and bowel movements, thanks to its acids and amino-acids - Flushing out worms and other parasites out of your system - Diarrhea and dysentery (as an adjuvant to your traditional treatment) - Treating your sore throat, an inflammation in your tonsils or other conditions of the respiratory system - Treating mouth soreness, herpes or some skin conditions, such as eczema or irritation. How to make Walnut Bark Tea Infusion If you want to make Walnut Bark Tea, you’ll need Walnut Bark leaves. You can also use the fruits, but the tea will have a very unpleasant taste (the amino-acids are much more concentrated in the fruits). Use a teaspoon of freshly picked or dried leaves for every cup of tea you want to make, put it in a teapot and add boiling water. Wait for 15-20 minutes (the leaves are quite woody, so they need more time to release their natural benefits), take out the leaves and drink it hot or cold. If you’re thinking about keeping it in your refrigerator, don’t let it stay there for too long. Make a new bottle of tea every 3 or 4 days. Walnut Bark Tea Side Effects When taken properly, Walnut Bark Tea has no side effects. However, taking too much tea can cause rashes, irritated skin and hives. If you’ve been drinking Walnut Bark Tea for a while and are experiencing some of the symptoms mentioned above, see a doctor as soon as possible and don’t try to cure it yourself! Walnut Bark Tea Contraindications If you’re pregnant or breastfeeding, it’s better to avoid taking Walnut Bark Tea. There isn’t enough information that could lead you in the right direction when it comes to these situations. However, keep in mind that Walnut Bark Tea has purgative and laxative properties and these may interfere with your pregnancy. If you still want to start a treatment based on Walnut Bark Tea, talk to your doctor first. If your general health is good, there’s no reason to avoid Walnut Bark Tea. Save yourself a lot of money by treating your bad breath or your mouth soreness at home. Natural remedies, natural health. Try Walnut Bark Tea and enjoy the wonderful benefits of this tea!... walnut bark tea diarrhea treatment

Tests, Medical

Tests may be performed to investigate the cause of symptoms and establish a diagnosis, to monitor the course of a disease, or to assess response to treatment. A medical testing programme carried out on apparently healthy people to find disease at an early stage is known as screening.

The accuracy of a test is based on its sensitivity (ability to correctly identify diseased subjects), specificity (ability to correctly identify healthy subjects), and predictive value.

The predictive value is determined by a mathematical formula that involves the number of accurate test results and the total number of tests performed.

The best tests have both high specificity and high sensitivity, and therefore high predictive value.... tests, medical

Chief Medical Officer

(CMO) the most senior medical adviser to the UK government, who is responsible for providing expert advice on health issues (including health-related emergencies). The CMO is responsible to the Secretary of State for Health and acts as leader of profession for Directors of Public Health. There are separate CMOs appointed to advise the devolved governments in Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland.... chief medical officer

Clinical Medical Officer

see community health.... clinical medical officer

Community Treatment Order

see Mental Health Act.... community treatment order

Crisis Resolution And Home Treatment Team

(CRHT) (in psychiatry) a multidisciplinary team in psychiatric services specialized in the treatment of severely mentally ill patients in their home environment. An additional remit of CRHTs is to try and avoid acute hospital admissions.... crisis resolution and home treatment team

Endovenous Laser Treatment

(EVLT) a minimally invasive procedure to treat *varicose veins. A laser fibre (usually an 810-nm *diode laser) contained within a sheath is fed into the vein by ultrasound guidance and slowly withdrawn as it is fired, thereby delivering laser energy that causes irreversible destruction and eventual ablation of the vein.... endovenous laser treatment

First-line Treatment

therapy that is the first choice for treating a particular condition; other (second-line) treatments are used only if first-line therapy has failed.... first-line treatment

Helicopter-based Emergency Medical Services

see HEMS.... helicopter-based emergency medical services

General Medical Council

(GMC) the regulatory body of the medical profession in the UK, which was established in 1858 by the Medical Act and has statutory powers. It licenses doctors to practise medicine and has the power to revoke licences or place restrictions on practice. The governing body of the GMC, its Council, comprises 12 members, 6 of which are medically qualified and 6 of which are not. Its purpose is to protect, promote, and maintain the health and safety of the public by ensuring proper standards in the practice of medicine and medical education and training. Following various high-profile cases involving malpractice, there has been a shift in the role of the GMC from one of simple registration to that of *revalidation of doctors.

GMC website: includes the Council’s guide to Good Medical Practice... general medical council

Local Medical Committee

(LMC) a group of representatives of the general practitioners working in a defined geographical area. There are separate LMCs for each area, and the members speak on behalf of the local practitioners by whom they are elected. Similar arrangements and responsibilities apply for dentists, pharmacists, and optometrists practising in the NHS outside hospitals.... local medical committee


adj. 1. of or relating to medicine, the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of disease. 2. of or relating to conditions that require the attention of a physician rather than a surgeon. For example, a medical ward of a hospital accommodates patients with such conditions.... medical

Medical Assistant

1. a health service worker who is not a registered medical practitioner (often in the armed forces) working in association with a doctor to undertake minor treatments and preliminary assessments. In poorer countries, particularly in rural areas where qualified resources are short (e.g. China), agricultural workers receive limited training in health care and continue in a dual role as barefoot doctors; elsewhere, limited training concentrates more on environmental issues: the workers so trained are known as sanitarians. 2. in the USA, a person – licensed or unlicensed, certified or uncertified – who provides administrative and/or clinical assistance in a physician’s office or other health-care facility. Administrative duties typically include filling out insurance forms, billing, and bookkeeping, while clinical duties may include taking medical histories, preparing patients to be examined, and preparing blood and urine specimens.... medical assistant

Medical Certificate

a certificate stating a doctor’s diagnosis of a patient’s medical condition, disability, or fitness to work (see statement of fitness for work). It is known informally as a ‘fit note’ (formerly a ‘sick note’). See Appendix 8.... medical certificate

Medical Committee

see local medical committee.... medical committee

Medical Emergency Team

(MET) a team, usually consisting of a group of physicians, anaesthetists, and senior nurses, that can be summoned urgently to attend to patients with deteriorating medical conditions. The aim is to prevent further deterioration and to decide if enhanced levels of care are appropriate (e.g. on the high-dependency or intensive care units). The team will also assume the role of the *cardiac-arrest team.... medical emergency team

Medical Ethics

the standards of conduct required of medical professionals and also the academic study of ethical issues arising from the practice of medicine. From the *Hippocratic oath onwards, standards are designed to reassure that professionals subscribing to them will act in the *best interests of, and will avoid harming, their patients. Today they lay greater emphasis on patient *autonomy, while the contemporary study of medical ethics is concerned with a great variety of complex societal and social issues related to medical practice and research. Medical ethics is now taught in all medical schools in the UK as an essential part of a professional training, and the wider field of *bioethics is becoming a recognized academic specialty. See also clinical ethics; feminist ethics; public health ethics; publication ethics; virtue ethics.

Guidance on good medical practice from the website of the General Medical Council... medical ethics

Medical Jurisprudence

the study or practice of the legal aspects of medicine. See forensic medicine.... medical jurisprudence

Medical Tourism

travelling internationally to undergo surgery or otherwise be treated for an illness or condition. This may be done to save money, to avoid having to wait for treatment, or to receive a treatment not available in the home country.... medical tourism

Radical Treatment

vigorous treatment that aims at the complete cure of a disease rather than the mere relief of symptoms. Compare conservative treatment.... radical treatment

Retrograde Root Canal Treatment

see apicectomy.... retrograde root canal treatment

Treatment Bias

the making of decisions by a health-care provider based on (sometimes unconscious) nonmedical criteria. Examples include assuming that a woman’s physical complaints are ‘all in her head’ and neglecting to consider depression as a possible diagnosis in a man.... treatment bias

Treatment Field

n. (in radiotherapy) an area of the body selected for treatment with radiotherapy. For example, a mantle field comprises the neck, armpits, and central chest, for the radiotherapy of Hodgkin’s disease. Radiation is administered to the defined area by focusing the beam of particles emitted by the radiotherapy machine and shielding the surrounding area of the body.... treatment field

Urgent Treatment Centre

see NHS walk-in centre.... urgent treatment centre

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