The meaning of the symbols of dreams/ seen in a dream.


Excessive or prolonged menstruation... menorrhagia


Threatening life or tending to cause death... malignant


The several years, in the late forties or early fifties, when the great birth reservoir of potential ovarian follicles has been reduced to only a few, many with innately poor hormone-sensitivities (which is perhaps why they are still remaining...they never heard the clarion call of FSH). As fewer follicles are capable of fully- programmed function, corpus luteal fragilities start to show as diminished progesterone levels...later, even the pre-ovulatory estrogens start to diminish. The pituitary, sensing first the progesterone wobbles, then, maybe a year later, the erratic estrogens, tries to jump start the ovaries, sending increasing levels of Luteinizing Hormone (LH)...with diminishing results. Since the brain (hypothalamus) is actually controlling things, it is sending out higher levels of pituitary stimulating hormones, which the pituitary matches with its blood-carried trophic or gonadotropic this case, LH. What the pituitary hears from the hypothalamus is TYPE of brain chemical, MAGNITUDE, and, as much of this is being pulsed, FREQUENCY of chemical. At a certain point, the gonadotropic-releasing-hormone sent out by the hypothalamus is so loud and frequent that the pituitary starts sending out things like TSH (thyroid-stimulating hormone) and somatotropins (growth hormone) as well flashes, changes in food cravings, sleep cycles...whatever. Like old partners in an ancient dance whose music is ending, the hormonal imbalances are the reverse of those experienced years ago in menarche. As above, so below. When the dust settles, the metabolic hormones have found a new interaction, anabolic functions have been transferred from the ovaries to the adrenal cortex, and that reservoir of stored estradiol present in the “Womanly Flesh” of the breasts, thighs, hips and Page 31buttocks, started many years ago, maintains a low blood level, diminishing over the following years, easing some of the estrogen-binding tissue into the change.... menopause


Epidemic parotitis, an acute infectious disease caused by a virus... mumps


Muscular pain... myalgia


A protozoan disease of humans caused by blood parasites of the species, Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale or P. malariae and transmitted by anopheline mosquitoes. P. falciparum is most likely to cause death, if untreated,. and can also be a great mimicker in its presentation. Malaria should be suspected in anyone with a fever or who is otherwise unwell and has returned from a malarious area.... malaria


A form of mental disorder characterised by great excitement. (See MENTAL ILLNESS.)... mania


Calendula officinalis. N.O. Compositae.

Synonym: Calendula, Caltha officinalis, Marygold.

Habitat: Common in English gardens; native of South America.

Features ? Stem angular, hairy up to one foot high. Lower leaves stalked, spatulate, upper sessile, all hairy. Flower-heads yellow, the tubular florets sterile. Fruit semicircular, angular, rough, no pappus. Taste bitter, smell unpleasantly strong.

Part used ? Herb, flowers.

Action: Diaphoretic, stimulant, antispasmodic.

The infusion of 1 ounce of the flowers or herb to 1 pint boiling water is prescribed both for internal use in 1-2 tablespoonful doses, and externally as a lotion for chronic ulcers and varicose veins. The infusion is also given to children (in doses according to age) suffering from measles and other feverish and eruptive complaints. Sprained muscles gain relief from the hot fomentation. Marigold is frequently combined with Witch Hazel when a lotion is required.... marigold


The beginning of the reproductive phase of a woman’s life. It usually begins withy night sweats, continues a few months later with estrogen, followed by ovulation, then the full cycle and the growth of secondary sexual various order. Also called adolescence or puberty, it is mirrored in reverse at the end of the reproductive years as menopause.... menarche


The sum total of changes in an organism in order to achieve a balance (homeostasis). Catabolic burns up, anabolic stores and builds up; the sum of their work is metabolism.... metabolism


Uterine, bleeding, usually of normal amount occurring at completely irregular intervals, the period of flow sometimes being prolonged... metrorrhagia


The act of passing urine... micturition


Any departure, subjective or objective, from a state of physiological or psychological well-being. In this sense, sickness, illness and morbid conditions are similarly defined and synonymous.... morbidity


Myrrh is a gum-resin obtained from Commiphora molmol, an Arabian myrtle tree. It stimulates the function of MUCOUS MEMBRANE with which it is brought in contact or by which it is excreted. Tincture of myrrh is used for a gargle in sore throat, as a toothwash when the gums are in?amed, and as an ingredient of cough mixtures.... myrrh

Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes mellitus is a condition characterised by a raised concentration of glucose in the blood due to a de?ciency in the production and/or action of INSULIN, a pancreatic hormone made in special cells called the islet cells of Langerhans.

Insulin-dependent and non-insulindependent diabetes have a varied pathological pattern and are caused by the interaction of several genetic and environmental factors.

Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) (juvenile-onset diabetes, type 1 diabetes) describes subjects with a severe de?ciency or absence of insulin production. Insulin therapy is essential to prevent KETOSIS – a disturbance of the body’s acid/base balance and an accumulation of ketones in the tissues. The onset is most commonly during childhood, but can occur at any age. Symptoms are acute and weight loss is common.

Non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) (maturity-onset diabetes, type 2 diabetes) may be further sub-divided into obese and non-obese groups. This type usually occurs after the age of 40 years with an insidious onset. Subjects are often overweight and weight loss is uncommon. Ketosis rarely develops. Insulin production is reduced but not absent.

A new hormone has been identi?ed linking obesity to type 2 diabetes. Called resistin – because of its resistance to insulin – it was ?rst found in mice but has since been identi?ed in humans. Researchers in the United States believe that the hormone may, in part, explain how obesity predisposes people to diabetes. Their hypothesis is that a protein in the body’s fat cells triggers insulin resistance around the body. Other research suggests that type 2 diabetes may now be occurring in obese children; this could indicate that children should be eating a more-balanced diet and taking more exercise.

Diabetes associated with other conditions (a) Due to pancreatic disease – for example, chronic pancreatitis (see PANCREAS, DISORDERS OF); (b) secondary to drugs – for example, GLUCOCORTICOIDS (see PANCREAS, DISORDERS OF); (c) excess hormone production

– for example, growth hormone (ACROMEGALY); (d) insulin receptor abnormalities; (e) genetic syndromes (see GENETIC DISORDERS).

Gestational diabetes Diabetes occurring in pregnancy and resolving afterwards.

Aetiology Insulin-dependent diabetes occurs as a result of autoimmune destruction of beta cells within the PANCREAS. Genetic in?uences are important and individuals with certain HLA tissue types (HLA DR3 and HLA DR4) are more at risk; however, the risks associated with the HLA genes are small. If one parent has IDDM, the risk of a child developing IDDM by the age of 25 years is 1·5–2·5 per cent, and the risk of a sibling of an IDDM subject developing diabetes is about 3 per cent.

Non-insulin-dependent diabetes has no HLA association, but the genetic in?uences are much stronger. The risks of developing diabetes vary with di?erent races. Obesity, decreased exercise and ageing increase the risks of disease development. The risk of a sibling of a NIDDM subject developing NIDDM up to the age of 80 years is 30–40 per cent.

Diet Many NIDDM diabetics may be treated with diet alone. For those subjects who are overweight, weight loss is important, although often unsuccessful. A diet high in complex carbohydrate, high in ?bre, low in fat and aiming towards ideal body weight is prescribed. Subjects taking insulin need to eat at regular intervals in relation to their insulin regime and missing meals may result in hypoglycaemia, a lowering of the amount of glucose in the blood, which if untreated can be fatal (see below).

Oral hypoglycaemics are used in the treatment of non-insulin-dependent diabetes in addition to diet, when diet alone fails to control blood-sugar levels. (a) SULPHONYLUREAS act mainly by increasing the production of insulin;

(b) BIGUANIDES, of which only metformin is available, may be used alone or in addition to sulphonylureas. Metformin’s main actions are to lower the production of glucose by the liver and improve its uptake in the peripheral tissues.

Complications The risks of complications increase with duration of disease.

Diabetic hypoglycaemia occurs when amounts of glucose in the blood become low. This may occur in subjects taking sulphonylureas or insulin. Symptoms usually develop when the glucose concentration falls below 2·5 mmol/l. They may, however, occur at higher concentrations in subjects with persistent hyperglycaemia – an excess of glucose – and at lower levels in subjects with persistent hypo-glycaemia. Symptoms include confusion, hunger and sweating, with coma developing if blood-sugar concentrations remain low. Re?ned sugar followed by complex carbohydrate will return the glucose concentration to normal. If the subject is unable to swallow, glucagon may be given intramuscularly or glucose intravenously, followed by oral carbohydrate, once the subject is able to swallow.

Although it has been shown that careful control of the patient’s metabolism prevents late complications in the small blood vessels, the risk of hypoglycaemia is increased and patients need to be well motivated to keep to their dietary and treatment regime. This regime is also very expensive. All risk factors for the patient’s cardiovascular system – not simply controlling hyperglycaemia – may need to be reduced if late complications to the cardiovascular system are to be avoided.

Diabetes is one of the world’s most serious health problems. Recent projections suggest that the disorder will affect nearly 240 million individuals worldwide by 2010 – double its prevalence in 1994. The incidence of insulin-dependent diabetes is rising in young children; they will be liable to develop late complications.

Although there are complications associated with diabetes, many subjects live normal lives and survive to an old age. People with diabetes or their relatives can obtain advice from Diabetes UK (

Increased risks are present of (a) heart disease, (b) peripheral vascular disease, and (c) cerebrovascular disease.

Diabetic eye disease (a) retinopathy, (b) cataract. Regular examination of the fundus enables any abnormalities developing to be detected and treatment given when appropriate to preserve eyesight.

Nephropathy Subjects with diabetes may develop kidney damage which can result in renal failure.

Neuropathy (a) Symmetrical sensory polyneuropathy; damage to the sensory nerves that commonly presents with tingling, numbness of pain in the feet or hands. (b) Asymmetrical motor diabetic neuropathy, presenting as progressive weakness and wasting of the proximal muscles of legs. (c) Mononeuropathy; individual motor or sensory nerves may be affected. (d) Autonomic neuropathy, which affects the autonomic nervous system, has many presentations including IMPOTENCE, diarrhoea or constipation and postural HYPOTENSION.

Skin lesions There are several skin disorders associated with diabetes, including: (a) necrobiosis lipoidica diabeticorum, characterised by one or more yellow atrophic lesions on the legs;

(b) ulcers, which most commonly occur on the feet due to peripheral vascular disease, neuropathy and infection. Foot care is very important.

Diabetic ketoacidosis occurs when there is insu?cient insulin present to prevent KETONE production. This may occur before the diagnosis of IDDM or when insu?cient insulin is being given. The presence of large amounts of ketones in the urine indicates excess ketone production and treatment should be sought immediately. Coma and death may result if the condition is left untreated.

Symptoms Thirst, POLYURIA, GLYCOSURIA, weight loss despite eating, and recurrent infections (e.g. BALANITIS and infections of the VULVA) are the main symptoms.

However, subjects with non-insulindependent diabetes may have the disease for several years without symptoms, and diagnosis is often made incidentally or when presenting with a complication of the disease.

Treatment of diabetes aims to prevent symptoms, restore carbohydrate metabolism to as near normal as possible, and to minimise complications. Concentration of glucose, fructosamine and glycated haemoglobin in the blood are used to give an indication of blood-glucose control.

Insulin-dependent diabetes requires insulin for treatment. Non-insulin-dependent diabetes may be treated with diet, oral HYPOGLYCAEMIC AGENTS or insulin.

Insulin All insulin is injected – mainly by syringe but sometimes by insulin pump – because it is inactivated by gastrointestinal enzymes. There are three main types of insulin preparation: (a) short action (approximately six hours), with rapid onset; (b) intermediate action (approximately 12 hours); (c) long action, with slow onset and lasting for up to 36 hours. Human, porcine and bovine preparations are available. Much of the insulin now used is prepared by genetic engineering techniques from micro-organisms. There are many regimens of insulin treatment involving di?erent combinations of insulin; regimens vary depending on the requirements of the patients, most of whom administer the insulin themselves. Carbohydrate intake, energy expenditure and the presence of infection are important determinants of insulin requirements on a day-to-day basis.

A new treatment for diabetes, pioneered in Canada and entering its preliminary clinical trials in the UK, is the transplantation of islet cells of Langerhans from a healthy person into a patient with the disorder. If the transplantation is successful, the transplanted cells start producing insulin, thus reducing or eliminating the requirement for regular insulin injections. If successful the trials would be a signi?cant advance in the treatment of diabetes.

Scientists in Israel have developed a drug, Dia Pep 277, which stops the body’s immune system from destroying pancratic ? cells as happens in insulin-dependent diabetes. The drug, given by injection, o?ers the possibility of preventing type 1 diabetes in healthy people at genetic risk of developing the disorder, and of checking its progression in affected individuals whose ? cells are already perishing. Trials of the drug are in progress.... diabetes mellitus

German Measles

See RUBELLA.... german measles

Herbal Medicine

The use of herbs as medicines is probably as old as mankind; every culture has its own traditions. Herbalism was formally established in England by an Act of Parliament during Henry VIII’s reign. Di?erent parts of a variety of plants are used to treat symptoms and to restore functions.... herbal medicine


This is a mature form of what is released from the marrow as a monocyte. A macrophage lives long, can digest much detritus, and is able to wear particles of odd food on its outer membrane. This allows T-cell and B-cell Iymphocytes to taste the particle (an epitope) and form an antibody response. Further, these macrophages, traveling as monocytes, will take up permanent residence in many tissues, providing them with immunity. They line the spleen, form the cleansing Kupffer cells in the liver, make up the “dust cells” that protect the lungs, protect the synovial fluids of the joints, and form the microglial cells that provide protection to the brain and nerve tissues. On and on, the macrophages clean up messes and acting as the intermediates between innate and acquired immunity.... macrophage


Magnesium is a light metallic element; it is one of the essential mineral elements of the body, without which the body cannot function properly. The adult body contains around 25 grams of magnesium, the greater part of which is in the bones. More than two-thirds of our daily supply comes from cereals and vegetables; as most other foods also contain useful amounts, there is seldom any di?culty in maintaining an adequate amount in the body. Magnesium is also an essential constituent of several vital enzymes (see ENZYME). De?ciency leads to muscular weakness and interferes with the e?cient working of the heart. The salts of magnesium used as drugs are the hydroxide of magnesium, the oxide of magnesium – generally known as ‘magnesia’ – and the carbonate of magnesium, all of which have an antacid action; also the sulphate of magnesium known as ‘Epsom salts’, which acts as a purgative.

Uses Compounds of magnesia are used to correct hyperacidity of the stomach and as a laxative (see LAXATIVES).... magnesium


A fretful and low energy state, often considered an early sign of infection or low fever. Ask someone with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome or Multiple Chemical Sensitivities...they’ll tell you how it feels.... malaise


The condition arising from an inadequate or unbalanced DIET. The causes may be a lack of one or more essential nutrients, or inadequate absorption from the intestinal tracts. A diet that is de?cient in CARBOHYDRATE usually contains inadequate PROTEIN, and this type of malnutrition occurs widely in Africa and Asia as a result of poverty, famine or war.... malnutrition


The tube between the stomach and the mouth of a jellyfish - equivalent to the oesophagus in humans.... manubrium


Progressive wasting, especially in young children, when there is no ascertainable cause. It is generally associated with defective feeding. (See also ATROPHY; INFANT FEEDING.)... marasmus

Marburg Disease

A serious African viral haemorrhagic fever harboured by monkeys. Named after the city of Marburg in Germany where a serious outbreak occurred amongst laboratory workers handling the tissues of African Green (Vervet) monkeys.... marburg disease


A method of treatment in which the operator uses his or her hands, or occasionally other appliances, to rub the skin and deeper tissues of the person under treatment. It is often combined with (a) passive movements, in which the masseur/masseuse moves the limbs in various ways, the person treated making no e?ort; or

(b) active movements, which are performed with the combined assistance of masseur/masseuse and patient. Massage is also often combined with baths and gymnastics in order to strengthen various muscles. It helps to improve circulation, prevent adhesions in injured tissues, relax muscular spasm, improve muscle tone and reduce any oedema. (See also CARDIAC MASSAGE.)

Massage for medical conditions is best done by trained practitioners. A complete list of members of the Chartered Society of Physiotherapy can be obtained on application to the Secretary of the Society.... massage


A surgical operation to remove part or all of the breast (see BREASTS). It is usually done to treat cancer, when it is commonly followed by CHEMOTHERAPY or RADIOTHERAPY (see BREASTS, DISEASES OF). There are four types of mastectomy: lumpectomy, quandrantectomy, subcutaneous mastectomy and total mastectomy. The choice of operation depends upon several factors, including the site and nature of the tumour and the patient’s age and health. Traditionally, radical mastectomy was used to treat breast cancer; in the past three decades, however, surgeons and oncologists have become more selective in their treatment of the disease, bringing the patient into the decision-making on the best course of action. Lumpectomy is done where there is a discrete lump less than 2 cm in diameter with no evidence of glandular spread. A small lump (2–5 cm) with limited spread to the glands may be removed by quadrantectomy or subcutaneous mastectomy (which preserves the nipple and much of the skin, so producing a better cosmetic e?ect). Lumps bigger than 5 cm and ?xed to the underlying tissues require total mastectomy in which the breast tissue, skin and some fat are dissected down to the chest muscles and removed. In addition, the tail of the breast tissue and regional lymph glands are removed. In all types of mastectomy, surgeons endeavour to produce as good a cosmetic result as possible, subject to the adequate removal of suspect tissue and glands.

Breast reconstructive surgery (MAMMOPLASTY) may be done at the same time as the mastectomy – the preferred option – or, if that is not feasible, at a later date. Where the whole breast has been excised, some form of arti?cial breast (prosthesis) will be provided. This may be an external prosthesis ?tted into a specially made brassiere, or an internal implant – perhaps a silicone bag, though there has been controversy over the safety of this device. Reconstructive techniques involving the transfer of skin and muscle from nearby areas are also being developed. Post-operatively, patients can obtain advice from Breast Cancer Care.... mastectomy


The production of an ORGASM by self-manipulation of the PENIS or CLITORIS.... masturbation


Measles, formerly known as morbilli, is an acute infectious disease occurring mostly in children and caused by an RNA paramyxovirus.

Epidemiology There has been a dramatic fall in the number of sufferers from 1986, when more than 80,000 cases were reported. This is due to the introduction in 1988 of the measles, mumps and rubella vaccine (MMR VACCINE – see also IMMUNISATION); 1990, when the proportion of children immunised reached 90 per cent, was the ?rst year in which no deaths from measles were reported. Even so, fears of side-effects of the vaccine against measles – including scienti?cally unproven and discredited claims of a link with AUTISM – mean that some children in the UK are not being immunised, and since 2002 local outbreaks of measles have been reported in a few areas of the UK. Side-effects are, however, rare and the government is campaigning to raise the rate of immunisation, with GPs being set targets for their practices.

There are few diseases as infectious as measles, and its rapid spread in epidemics is no doubt due to the fact that this viral infection is most potent in the earlier stages. Hence the dif?culty of timely isolation, and the readiness with which the disease is spread, which is mostly by infected droplets. In developing countries measles results in the death of more than a million children annually.

Symptoms The incubation period, during which the child is well, lasts 7–21 days. Initial symptoms are CATARRH, conjunctivitis (see EYE, DISORDERS OF), fever and a feeling of wretchedness. Then Koplik spots – a classic sign of measles – appear on the roof of the mouth and lining of the cheeks. The macular body rash, typical of measles, appears 3–5 days later. Common complications include otitis media (see under EAR, DISEASES OF) and PNEUMONIA. Measles ENCEPHALITIS can cause permanent brain damage. A rare event is a gradual dementing disease (see DEMENTIA) called subacute sclerosing panenecephalitis (SSPE).

Treatment Isolation of the patient and treatment of any secondary bacterial infection, such as pneumonia or otitis, with antibiotics. Children usually run a high temperature which can be relieved with cool sponging and antipyretic drugs. Calamine lotion may alleviate any itching.... measles


An effective and safe benzamidazole anthelmintic with a wide spectrum of action against intestinal nematodes including hookworms, Ascaris, Enterobius and Trichuris.... mebendazole


(1) The skills and science used by trained practitioners to prevent, diagnose, treat and research disease and its related factors.

(2) A drug used to treat an individual with an illness or injury (see MEDICINES).

(3) The diagnosis and treatment of those diseases not normally requiring surgical intervention.

Defensive medicine Diagnostic or treatment procedures undertaken by practitioners in which they aim to reduce the likelihood of legal action by patients. This may result in requests for investigations that, arguably, are to provide legal cover for the doctor rather than more certain clinical diagnosis for the patient.... medicine


Blood in the FAECES in which dark, tarry masses are passed from the bowel. It is due to bleeding from the stomach or from the higher part of the bowel, the blood undergoing chemical changes under the action of the secretions, and being ?nally converted in large part into sulphide of iron. It is a serious symptom meriting medical investigation. It can indicate peptic ulcer or carcinoma of the stomach.... melaena


A mental illness in which the predominant symptom is melancholy, depression of spirits, unhappiness and misery... melancholia


Any tumour of melanin-pigmented cells. Usually has highly malignant properties.... melanoma


A periodic change occurring in (female) human beings and the higher apes, consisting chie?y in a ?ow of blood from the cavity of the womb (UTERUS) and associated with various slight constitutional disturbances. It begins between the ages of 12 and 15, as a rule – although its onset may be delayed until as late as 20, or it may begin as early as ten or 11. Along with its ?rst appearance, the body develops the secondary sex characteristics: for example, enlargement of the BREASTS, and characteristic hair distribution. The duration of each menstrual period varies in di?erent persons from 2– 8 days. It recurs in the great majority of cases with regularity, most commonly at intervals of 28 or 30 days, less often with intervals of 21 or 27 days, and ceasing only during pregnancy and lactation, until the age of 45 or 50 arrives, when it stops altogether – as a rule ceasing early if it has begun early, and vice versa. The ?nal stoppage is known as the MENOPAUSE or the CLIMACTERIC.

Menstruation depends upon a functioning ovary (see OVARIES) and this upon a healthy PITUITARY GLAND. The regular rhythm may depend upon a centre in the HYPOTHALAMUS, which is in close connection with the pituitary. After menstruation, the denuded uterine ENDOMETRIUM is regenerated under the in?uence of the follicular hormone, oestradiol. The epithelium of the endometrium proliferates, and about a fortnight after the beginning of menstruation great development of the endometrial glands takes place under the in?uence of progesterone, the hormone secreted by the CORPUS LUTEUM. These changes are made for the reception of the fertilised OVUM. In the absence of fertilisation the uterine endometrium breaks down in the subsequent menstrual discharge.

Disorders of menstruation In most healthy women, menstruation proceeds regularly for 30 years or more, with the exceptions connected with childbirth. In many women, however, menstruation may be absent, excessive or painful. The term amenorrhoea is applied to the condition of absent menstruation; the terms menorrhagia and metrorrhagia describe excessive menstrual loss – the former if the excess occurs at the regular periods, and the latter if it is irregular. Dysmenorrhoea is the name given to painful menstruation. AMENORRHOEA If menstruation has never occurred, the amenorrhoea is termed primary; if it ceases after having once become established it is known as secondary amenorrhoea. The only value of these terms is that some patients with either chromosomal abnormalities (see CHROMOSOMES) or malformations of the genital tract fall into the primary category. Otherwise, the age of onset of symptoms is more important.

The causes of amenorrhoea are numerous and treatment requires dealing with the primary cause. The commonest cause is pregnancy; psychological stress or eating disorders can cause amenorrhoea, as can poor nutrition or loss of weight by dieting, and any serious underlying disease such as TUBERCULOSIS or MALARIA. The excess secretion of PROLACTIN, whether this is the result of a micro-adenoma of the pituitary gland or whether it is drug induced, will cause amenorrhoea and possibly GALACTORRHOEA as well. Malfunction of the pituitary gland will result in a failure to produce the gonadotrophic hormones (see GONADOTROPHINS) with consequent amenorrhoea. Excessive production of cortisol, as in CUSHING’S SYNDROME, or of androgens (see ANDROGEN) – as in the adreno-genital syndrome or the polycystic ovary syndrome – will result in amenorrhoea. Amenorrhoea occasionally follows use of the oral contraceptive pill and may be associated with both hypothyroidism (see under THYROID GLAND, DISEASES OF) and OBESITY.

Patients should be reassured that amenorrhoea can often be successfully treated and does not necessarily affect their ability to have normal sexual relations and to conceive. When weight loss is the cause of amenorrhoea, restoration of body weight alone can result in spontaneous menstruation (see also EATING DISORDERS – Anorexia nervosa). Patients with raised concentration of serum gonadotrophin hormones have primary ovarian failure, and this is not amenable to treatment. Cyclical oestrogen/progestogen therapy will usually establish withdrawal bleeding. If the amenorrhoea is due to mild pituitary failure, menstruation may return after treatment with clomiphene, a nonsteroidal agent which competes for oestrogen receptors in the hypothalamus. The patients who are most likely to respond to clomiphene are those who have some evidence of endogenous oestrogen and gonadotrophin production. IRREGULAR MENSTRUATION This is a change from the normal monthly cycle of menstruation, the duration of bleeding or the amount of blood lost (see menorrhagia, below). Such changes may be the result of an upset in the balance of oestrogen and progesterone hormones which between them control the cycle. Cycles may be irregular after the MENARCHE and before the menopause. Unsuspected pregnancy may manifest itself as an ‘irregularity’, as can an early miscarriage (see ABORTION). Disorders of the uterus, ovaries or organs in the pelvic cavity can also cause irregular menstruation. Women with the condition should seek medical advice. MENORRHAGIA Abnormal bleeding from the uterus during menstruation. A woman loses on average about 60 ml of blood during her period; in menorrhagia this can rise to 100 ml. Some women have this problem occasionally, some quite frequently and others never. One cause is an imbalance of progesterone and oestrogen hormones which between them control menstruation: the result is an abnormal increase in the lining (endometrium) of the uterus, which increases the amount of ‘bleeding’ tissue. Other causes include ?broids, polyps, pelvic infection or an intrauterine contraceptive device (IUD – see under CONTRACEPTION). Sometimes no physical reason for menorrhagia can be identi?ed.

Treatment of the disorder will depend on how severe the loss of blood is (some women will become anaemic – see ANAEMIA – and require iron-replacement therapy); the woman’s age; the cause of heavy bleeding; and whether or not she wants children. An increase in menstrual bleeding may occur in the months before the menopause, in which case time may produce a cure. Medical or surgical treatments are available. Non-steroidal anti-in?ammatory drugs may help, as may tranexamic acid, which prevents the breakdown of blood clots in the circulation (FIBRINOLYSIS): this drug can be helpful if an IUD is causing bleeding. Hormones such as dydrogesterone (by mouth) may cure the condition, as may an IUD that releases small quantities of a PROGESTOGEN into the lining of the womb.

Traditionally, surgical intervention was either dilatation and curettage of the womb lining (D & C) or removal of the whole uterus (HYSTERECTOMY). Most surgery is now done using minimally invasive techniques. These do not require the abdomen to be cut open, as an ENDOSCOPE is passed via the vagina into the uterus. Using DIATHERMY or a laser, the surgeon then removes the whole lining of the womb. DYSMENORRHOEA This varies from discomfort to serious pain, and sometimes includes vomiting and general malaise. Anaemia is sometimes a cause of painful menstruation as well as of stoppage of this function.

In?ammation of the uterus, ovaries or FALLOPIAN TUBES is a common cause of dysmenorrhoea which comes on for the ?rst time late in life, especially when the trouble follows the birth of a child. In this case the pain exists more or less at all times, but is aggravated at the periods. Treatment with analgesics and remedying the underlying cause is called for.

Many cases of dysmenorrhoea appear with the beginning of menstrual life, and accompany every period. It has been estimated that 5–10 per cent of girls in their late teens or early 20s are severely incapacitated by dysmenorrhoea for several hours each month. Various causes have been suggested for the pain, one being an excessive production of PROSTAGLANDINS. There may be a psychological factor in some sufferers and, whether this is the result of inadequate sex instruction, fear, family, school or work problems, it is important to o?er advice and support, which in itself may resolve the dysmenorrhoea. Symptomatic relief is of value.... menstruation

Mental Illness

All forms of illness in which psychological, emotional or behavioural disturbances are the dominating feature. The term is relative and variable in different cultures, schools of thought and definitions. It includes a wide range of types and severities.... mental illness


In?ammation affecting the membranes of the BRAIN or SPINAL CORD, or usually both. Meningitis may be caused by BACTERIA, viruses (see VIRUS), fungi, malignant cells or blood (after SUBARACHNOID HAEMORRHAGE). The term is, however, usually restricted to in?ammation due to a bacterium or virus. Viral meningitis is normally a mild, self-limiting infection of a few days’ duration; it is the most common cause of meningitis but usually results in complete recovery and requires no speci?c treatment. Usually a less serious infection than the bacterial variety, it does, however, rarely cause associated ENCEPHALITIS, which is a potentially dangerous illness. A range of viruses can cause meningitis, including: ENTEROVIRUSES; those causing MUMPS, INFLUENZA and HERPES SIMPLEX; and HIV.

Bacterial meningitis is life-threatening: in the United Kingdom, 5–10 per cent of children who contract the disease may die. Most cases of acute bacterial meningitis in the UK are caused by two bacteria: Neisseria meningitidis (meningococcus), and Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus); other bacteria include Haemophilus in?uenzae (a common cause until virtually wiped out by immunisation), Escherichia coli, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (see TUBERCULOSIS), Treponema pallidum (see SYPHILIS) and Staphylococci spp. Of the bacterial infections, meningococcal group B is the type that causes a large number of cases in the UK, while group A is less common.

Bacterial meningitis may occur by spread from nearby infected foci such as the nasopharynx, middle ear, mastoid and sinuses (see EAR, DISEASES OF). Direct infection may be the result of penetrating injuries of the skull from accidents or gunshot wounds. Meningitis may also be a complication of neurosurgery despite careful aseptic precautions. Immuno-compromised patients – those with AIDS or on CYTOTOXIC drugs – are vulnerable to infections.

Spread to contacts may occur in schools and similar communities. Many people harbour the meningococcus without developing meningitis. In recent years small clusters of cases, mainly in schoolchildren and young people at college, have occurred in Britain.

Symptoms include malaise accompanied by fever, severe headache, PHOTOPHOBIA, vomiting, irritability, rigors, drowsiness and neurological disturbances. Neck sti?ness and a positive KERNIG’S SIGN appearing within a few hours of infection are key diagnostic signs. Meningococcal and pneumococcal meningitis may co-exist with SEPTICAEMIA, a much more serious condition in terms of death rate or organ damage and which constitutes a grave emergency demanding rapid treatment.

Diagnosis and treatment are urgent and, if bacterial meningitis is suspected, antibiotic treatment should be started even before laboratory con?rmation of the infection. Analysis of the CEREBROSPINAL FLUID (CSF) by means of a LUMBAR PUNCTURE is an essential step in diagnosis, except in patients for whom the test would be dangerous as they have signs of raised intracranial pressure. The CSF is clear or turbid in viral meningitis, turbid or viscous in tuberculous infection and turbulent or purulent when meningococci or staphylococci are the infective agents. Cell counts and biochemical make-up of the CSF are other diagnostic pointers. Serological tests are done to identify possible syphilitic infection, which is now rare in Britain.

Patients with suspected meningitis should be admitted to hospital quickly. General pracitioners are encouraged to give a dose of intramuscular penicillin before sending the child to hospital. Treatment in hospital is usually with a cephalosporin, such as ceftazidime or ceftriaxone. Once the sensitivity of the organism is known as a result of laboratory studies on CSF and blood, this may be changed to penicillin or, in the case of H. in?uenzae, to amoxicillin. Local infections such as SINUSITIS or middle-ear infection require treatment, and appropriate surgery for skull fractures or meningeal tears should be carried out as necessary. Tuberculous meningitis is treated for at least nine months with anti-tuberculous drugs (see TUBERCULOSIS). If bacterial meningitis causes CONVULSIONS, these can be controlled with diazepam (see TRANQUILLISERS; BENZODIAZEPINES) and ANALGESICS will be required for the severe headache.

Coexisting septicaemia may require full intensive care with close attention to intravenous ?uid and electrolyte balance, control of blood clotting and blood pressure.

Treatment of close contacts such as family, school friends, medical and nursing sta? is recommended if the patient has H. in?uenzae or N. meningitidis: RIFAMPICIN provides e?ective prophylaxis. Contacts of patients with pneumococcal infection do not need preventive treatment. Vaccines for meningococcal meningitis may be given to family members in small epidemics and to any contacts who are especially at risk such as infants, the elderly and immuno-compromised individuals.

The outlook for a patient with bacterial meningitis depends upon age – the young and old are vulnerable; speed of onset – sudden onset worsens the prognosis; and how quickly treatment is started – hence the urgency of diagnosis and admission to hospital. Recent research has shown that children who suffer meningitis in their ?rst year of life are ten times more likely to develop moderate or severe disability by the age of ?ve than contemporaries who have not been infected. (See British Medical Journal, 8 September 2001, page 523.)

Prevention One type of bacterial meningitis, that caused by Haemophilus, has been largely controlled by IMMUNISATION; meningococcal C vaccine has largely prevented this type of the disease in the UK. So far, no vaccine against group B has been developed, but research continues. Information on meningitis can be obtained from the Meningitis Trust and the Meningitis Research Foundation.... meningitis


Change of a mature type of cell in a tissue to another mature type of cell usually present in another tissue; e.g., development of squamous epithelium in the trachea among the normal respiratory epithelium = squamous metaplasia.... metaplasia


The spread of cancer cells through the blood, lymphatics or directly and establishment of these newgroups of cells at locations distant from the original cancer.... metastasis


An antibiotic used widely for anaerobic bacterial infections (including pseudomembranous colitis) and also for such protozoan infections as giardiasis, trichmoniasis and amoebiasis.... metronidazole




The word migraine derives from HEMICRANIA, the Greek for half a skull, and is a common condition characterised by recurring intense headaches. It is much more usual in women than in men and affects around 10 per cent of the population. It has been de?ned as ‘episodic headache accompanied by visual or gastrointestinal disturbances, or both, attacks lasting hours with total freedom between episodes’.

It usually begins at puberty – although young children can be affected – and tends to stop in middle age: in women, for example, attacks often cease after MENOPAUSE. It frequently disappears during pregnancy. The disorder tends to run in families. In susceptible individuals, attacks may be provoked by a wide variety of causes including: anxiety, emotion, depression, shock, and excitement; physical and mental fatigue; prolonged focusing on computer, television or cinema screens; noise, especially loud and high-pitched sounds; certain foods – such as chocolate, cheese, citrus fruits, pastry; alcohol; prolonged lack of food; irregular meals; menstruation and the pre-menstrual period.

Anything that can provoke a headache in the ordinary individual can probably precipitate an attack in a migrainous subject. It seems as if there is an inherited predispostion that triggers a mechanism whereby in the migrainous subject, the headache and the associated sickness persist for hours, a whole day or even longer.

The precise cause is not known, but the generally accepted view is that in susceptible individuals, one or other of these causes produces spasm or constriction of the blood vessels of the brain. This in turn is followed by dilatation of these blood vessels which also become more permeable and so allow ?uid to pass out into the surrounding tissues. This combination of dilatation and outpouring of ?uid is held to be responsible for the headache.

Two types of migraine have been recognised: classical and common. The former is relatively rare and the headache is preceded by a slowly extending area of blindness in one or both eyes, usually accompanied by intermittent ‘lights’. The phenomenon lasts for up to 30 minutes and is followed by a bad, often unilateral headache with nausea, sometimes vomiting and sensitivity to light. Occasionally, passing neurological symptoms such as weakness in a limb may accompany the attack. The common variety has similar but less severe symptoms. It consists of an intense headache, usually situated over one or other eye. The headache is usually preceded by a feeling of sickness and disturbance of sight. In 15–20 per cent of cases this disturbance of sight takes the form of bright lights: the so-called AURA of migraine. The majority of attacks are accompanied by vomiting. The duration of the headache varies, but in the more severe cases the victim is usually con?ned to bed for 24 hours.

Treatment consists, in the ?rst place, of trying to avoid any precipitating factor. Patients must ?nd out which drug, or drugs, give them most relief, and they must always carry these about with them wherever they go. This is because it is a not uncommon experience to be aware of an attack coming on and to ?nd that there is a critical quarter of an hour or so during which the tablets are e?ective. If not taken within this period, they may be ine?ective and the unfortunate victim ?nds him or herself prostrate with headache and vomiting. In addition, sufferers should immediately lie down; at this stage a few hours’ rest may prevent the development of a full attack.

When an attack is fully developed, rest in bed in a quiet, darkened room is essential; any loud noise or bright light intensi?es the headache or sickness. The less food that is taken during an attack the better, provided that the individual drinks as much ?uid as he or she wants. Group therapy, in which groups of around ten migrainous subjects learn how to relax, is often of help in more severe cases, whilst in others the injection of a local anaesthetic into tender spots in the scalp reduces the number of attacks. Drug treatment can be e?ective and those a?icted by migraine may ?nd a particular drug or combination of drugs more suitable than others. ANALGESICS such as PARACETAMOL, aspirin and CODEINE phosphate sometimes help. A combination of buclizine hydrochloride and analgesics, taken when the visual aura occurs, prevents or diminishes the severity of an attack in some people. A commonly used remedy for the condition is ergotamine tartrate, which causes the dilated blood vessels to contract, but this must only be taken under medical supervision. In many cases METOCLOPRAMIDE (an antiemetic), followed ten minutes later by three tablets of either aspirin or paracetamol, is e?ective if taken early in an attack. In milder attacks, aspirin, with or without codeine and paracetamol, may be of value. SUMATRIPTAN (5-hydroxytryptamine [5HT1] AGONIST – also known as a SEROTONIN agonist) is of value for acute attacks. It is used orally or by subcutaneous injection, but should not be used for patients with ischaemic heart disease. Naratriptan is another 5HT1 agonist that is an e?ective treatment for acute attacks; others are almotriptan, rizariptan and zolmitriptan. Some patients ?nd beta blockers such as propranolol a valuable prophylactic.

People with migraine and their relatives can obtain help and guidance from the Migraine Action Association.... migraine


The natural food of all mammalia for a considerable period following their birth. It is practically the only form of animal food in which protein, fat, carbohydrate and salt are all represented in su?cient amount, and it therefore contains all the constituents of a standard diet. Milk is important in human nutrition because it contains ?rst-class animal protein of high biological value; because it is exceptionally rich in calcium; and because it is a good source of vitamin A, thiamine and ribo?avine. It also contains a variable amount of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and of vitamin D – the amount of the latter being higher during the summer months than during the winter months. Raw milk yields 67 Calories (see CALORIE) per 100 millilitres, in which are present (in grams) 87·6 of water, 3·3 of protein, 3·6 of fat, 4·7 of carbohydrate, and 0·12 of calcium. Heat has no e?ect on the vitamin A or D content of milk, or on the ribo?avine content, but it causes a considerable reduction in the vitamin C and thiamine content.

Preparation of milk Milk may be prepared for food in various ways. Boiling destroys the bacteria, especially any Mycobacteria tuberculosis which the milk may contain. It also partly destroys vitamin C and thiamine, as does pasteurisation. Curdling of milk is e?ected by adding rennet, which carries out the initial stage of digestion and thus renders milk more suitable for people who could not otherwise tolerate it. Souring of milk is practised in many countries before milk is considered suitable for food; it is carried out by adding certain organisms such as the LACTIC ACID bacillus, the Bulgarian bacillus, and setting the milk in a warm place for several hours. Sterilisation, which prevents fermentation and decomposition, is usually carried out by raising the milk to boiling temperature (100 °C) for 15 minutes and then hermetically sealing it. Condensed, unsweetened milk – usually known as evaporated milk – is concentrated in vacuo at low temperature; the milk is then placed in tins, which are sealed, and is sterilised by heat at a temperature of 105 °C. This destroys 60 per cent of the vitamin C and 30–50 per cent of the thiamine. Sweetened condensed milk is not exposed to such a high temperature. The sugar, which prevents the growth of micro-organisms, is added before the condensing, and ?nally reaches a concentration of about 40 per cent.

Dried milk is prepared by evaporating all the ?uid so that the milk is reduced to the form of powder. Humanised milk is cow’s milk treated to render it closely similar to human milk.... milk


See ABORTION.... miscarriage


The classic four-phased cellular division of somatic cells, wherein (when the dust settles) two new daughter cells contain full chromosomal information of the parent, complete nuclei, and half the cytoplasm. This is distinct from cloning (as in the bone morrow) and the chromosome splitting of miosis (ovum and sperm).... mitosis


The infection caused by monilia, the genus of fungi now known as Candida albicans (see CANDIDA). The infection may occur in the mouth – where it is known as thrush – lungs, intestine, vagina, skin, or nails.... moniliasis


Death. Used to describe the relation of deaths to the population in which they occur.... mortality


This is prepared from acacia or tragacanth gum, and is used as an ingredient of mixtures containing solid particles in order to keep the latter from settling, and also as a demulcent.... mucilage


Artemisia vulgaris. N.O. Compositae.

Synonym: Felon Herb.

Habitat: Hedgerows and about walls.

Features ? Stem up to four feet, angular, longitudinal channels. Leaves alternate, five to seven lobes, silvery-white down beneath, nearly smooth above. Flowers (July and August) ovoid, purplish, in clusters. Odour aromatic, leaves slightly bitter.

Part used ? Leaves.

Action: Emmenagogue, diuretic, diaphoretic.

In menstrual obstruction, usually with Pennyroyal and Southernwood. Infusion of 1 ounce to 1 pint boiling water, wineglass doses.... mugwort

Multiple Sclerosis

A chronic, usually progressive disease of the central nervous system, with the gradual patchy disorganization of the protective myelin cells. It is almost certainly an auto-immune disorder, although viral infections sometimes seem to initiate the condition, and physical trauma is often seen to anomalously precede the first symptoms.... multiple sclerosis

Muscular Dystrophy

See MUSCLES, DISORDERS OF – Myopathy.... muscular dystrophy


A genus of cell wall defective bacteria which includes the cause of primary atypical pneumonia, Mycoplasma pneumoniae.... mycoplasma


Dilation of the pupil... mydriasis


Infection of mammals (including humans) by certain dipterous larvae (maggots). Various clinical forms recognised, including cutaneous myiasis, intestinal myiasis, ophthalmomyiasis, urinogenital myiasis and sanguinivorous myiasis.... myiasis


In?ammation of the muscular wall of the HEART.... myocarditis

Preventive Medicine

The branch of medicine dealing with the prevention of disease and the maintenance of good health practices.... preventive medicine

Alternative Medicine


Basal Metabolism

The basic rate of combustion by a person, usually measured after sleep and while resting.... basal metabolism

Body Mass Index

Body Mass Index (BMI) provides objective criteria of size to enable an estimation to be made of an individual’s level or risk of morbidity and mortality. The BMI, which is derived from the extensive data held by life-insurance companies, is calculated by dividing a person’s weight by the square of his or her height (kilograms/ metres2). Acceptable BMIs range from 20 to 25 and any ?gure above 30 characterises obesity. The Index may be used (with some modi?cation) to assess children and adolescents. (See OBESITY.)... body mass index

Contrast Medium

A material that is used to increase the visibility of the body’s tissues and organs during RADIOGRAPHY. A common example is the use of barium which is given by mouth or as an enema to show up the alimentary tract.... contrast medium

Forensic Medicine

That branch of medicine concerned with matters of law and the solving of crimes, for example, by determining the cause of a death in suspicious circumstances or identifying a criminal by examining tissue found at the scene of a crime. The use of DNA identi?cation to establish who was present at the ‘scene of the crime’ is now a widely used procedure in forensic medicine.... forensic medicine

Grey Matter

Those parts of the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD that comprise mainly the interconnected and tightly packed nuclei of neurons (nerve cells). The tissue is darker than that of the white matter, which is made of axons from the nerve cells. In the brain, grey matter is mainly found in the outer layers of the cerebrum, which is the zone responsible for advanced mental functions. The inner core of the spinal cord is made up of grey matter.... grey matter

Hand, Foot And Mouth Disease

A contagious disease due to infection with coxsackie A16 virus (see COXSACKIE VIRUSES). Most common in children, the incubation period is 3–5 days. It is characterised by an eruption of blisters on the palms and the feet (often the toes), and in the mouth. The disease

has no connection with foot and mouth disease in cattle, deer, pigs and sheep.... hand, foot and mouth disease

Hydatidiform Mole

A rare complication of pregnancy, in which there is tremendous proliferation of the epithelium of the chorion (the outer of the two fetal membranes). It seldom occurs during a ?rst pregnancy. Treatment consists of immediate evacuation of the womb.... hydatidiform mole

Iceland Moss

Cetraria islandica

Description: This moss grows only a few inches high. Its color may be gray, white, or even reddish.

Habitat and Distribution: Look for it in open areas. It is found only in the arctic.

Edible Parts: All parts of the Iceland moss are edible. During the winter or dry season, it is dry and crunchy but softens when soaked. Boil the moss to remove the bitterness. After boiling, eat by itself or add to milk or grains as a thickening agent. Dried plants store well.... iceland moss

Infectious Mononucleosis

See MONONUCLEOSIS.... infectious mononucleosis

Evidence-based Medicine

The process of systematically identifying, appraising and using the best available research ?ndings, integrated with clinical expertise, as the basis for clinical decisions about individual patients. The aim is to encourage clinicians, health-service managers and consumers of health care to make decisions, taking account of the best available evidence, on the likely consequences of alternative decisions and actions. Evidence-based medicine has been developing internationally for the past 25 years, but since around 1990 its development has accelerated. The International COCHRANE COLLABORATION ?nds and reviews relevant research. Several other centres have been set up to look at the clinical application of research results, including the Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine in Oxford.... evidence-based medicine

Larva Migrans

A self-limiting, intensely itching skin eruption caused by nematode (roundworm) larvae, usually of the dog and cat hookworm (see ANCYLOSTOMIASIS). The migrating larvae leave red, raised, irregular tracks in the skin, often on the foot and less frequently elsewhere. The disease is usually acquired by people who take their holidays on tropical beaches. It can be cured by a three-day course of oral ALBENDAZOLE.... larva migrans


Maceration is the softening of a solid by soaking in ?uid.... maceration


An abnormally large TONGUE.... macroglossia


A spot or area of tissue that is di?erent from the surrounding tissue. An example is the macula letea, the yellow spot in the retina of the EYE.... macula

Magnesium Trisilicate

A white powder with mild antacid properties (see ANTACIDS) and a prolonged action, it is used for treating peptic ulceration – commonly combined with quickly acting antacids. It has a mild laxative e?ect (see LAXATIVES).... magnesium trisilicate


Improper utilization of needed and available nutrients, either from impaired digestive function (such as B12 being unabsorbed because of gastritis), impaired absorption (poor Vitamin E absorption because of an inflamed ileum) or impaired transport (the diminished blood proteins of the advanced alcoholic). There are other causes as well, but you get the idea.... malabsorption


Malacia is a term applied to softening of a part or tissue in disease: for example, OSTEOMALACIA or softening of the bones.... malacia


Organophosphorus insecticide which is a preferred scabicide and pediculocide; applied externally; resistance is rare.... malathion


See DEFORMITIES.... malformation

Malignant Melanoma

See MELANOMA.... malignant melanoma


Malingering is a term applied to the feigning of illness. In the great majority of cases, a person who feigns illness has a certain amount of disability, but exaggerates the illness or discomfort for some ulterior motive – for example, to take time o? work or to obtain compensation.... malingering

Mallet Finger

Deformation of a ?nger due to sudden forced ?exion of the terminal joint, leading to rupture of the tendon. As a result the individual is unable to extend the terminal part of the ?nger, which remains bent forwards. The middle, ring and little ?ngers are most commonly involved. Treatment is by splinting the ?nger. The end result is satisfactory provided that the patient has su?cient patience.... mallet finger


The hammer-shaped lateral bone of the group of three that form the sound-transmitting ossicles in the middle ear. (See EAR.)... malleus


(Gaelic) Woman from the river; resembling the flowering plant Mallowe, Mallo, Malloe, Malow, Malowe, Maloe... mallow


Professional misconduct or failure to apply ordinary skill in the performance of a professional act.... malpractice


A situation during childbirth in which a baby is not in the customary head-?rst position before delivery. The result is usually a complicated labour in which a caesarean operation may be necessary to e?ect the birth. (See PREGNANCY AND LABOUR.)... malpresentation

Malta Fever

See BRUCELLOSIS.... malta fever

Mammary Gland

See BREASTS.... mammary gland


A surgical operation to reconstruct a breast (see BREASTS) after part or all of it has been removed to treat breast cancer; to enlarge small breasts; or to reduce the size of overlarge breasts. The routine method for breast enlargement used to be the insertion of silicone (see SILICONES) implants under the skin; controversy about the long-term safety of silicone, however, has restricted their use mainly to women needing reconstruction of their breasts after cancer surgery. Side-effects have included hardening of breast tissue, leaking of implants and development of scar tissue. (See also MASTECTOMY.)... mammoplasty


The special technique whereby X-rays are used to show the structure of the breast or any abnormalities in it (see BREASTS; BREASTS, DISEASES OF). It is an e?ective way of distinguishing benign from malignant tumours, and can detect tumours that are not palpable. In a multi-centre study in the USA, called the Breast Cancer Detection Demonstration Project and involving nearly 300,000 women in the 40–49 age group, 35 per cent of the tumours found were detected by mammography alone, 13 per cent by physical examination, and 50 per cent by both methods combined. The optimum frequency of screening is debatable: the American College of Radiologists recommends a baseline mammogram at the age of 40 years, with subsequent mammography at one- to two-year intervals up to the age of 50; thereafter, annual mammography is recommended. In the United Kingdom a less intensive screening programme is in place, with women over 50 being screened every three years. As breast cancer is the commonest malignancy in western women and is increasing in frequency, the importance of screening for this form of cancer is obvious.... mammography


The bone of the lower JAW.... mandible


A metal, oxides of which are found abundantly in nature. Permanganate of potassium is a well-known disinfectant. The body requires small amounts of the metal for normal growth and development. (See also TRACE ELEMENTS.)... manganese


An osmotic diuretic (see DIURETICS) given by a slow intravenous infusion to reduce OEDEMA of the BRAIN or raised intraocular pressure in GLAUCOMA.... mannitol


The passive movement (frequently forceful) of bones, joints, or soft tissues, carried out by orthopaedic surgeons, physiotherapists (see PHYSIOTHERAPY), osteopaths (see OSTEOPATHY) and chiropractors (see CHIROPRACTOR) as an important part of treatment – often highly e?ective. It may be used for three chief reasons: correction of deformity (mainly the reduction of fractures and dislocations, or to overcome deformities such as congenital club-foot – see TALIPES); treatment of joint sti?ness (particularly after an acute limb injury, or FROZEN SHOULDER); and relief of chronic pain (particularly when due to chronic strain, notably of the spinal joints – see PROLAPSED INTERVERTEBRAL DISC). Depending on the particular injury or deformity being treated, and the estimated force required, manipulation may be used with or without ANAESTHESIA. Careful clinical and radiological examination, together with other appropriate investigations, should always be carried out before starting treatment, to reduce the risk of harm, or disasters such as fractures or the massive displacement of an intervertebral disc.... manipulation

Mantoux Test

A test for TUBERCULOSIS. It consists in injecting into the super?cial layers of the skin (i.e. intradermally) a very small quantity of old TUBERCULIN which contains a protein ANTIGEN to TB. A positive reaction of the skin – swelling and redness – shows that the person so reacting has been infected at some time in the past with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, it does not mean that such a person is suffering from active tuberculosis.... mantoux test

March Fracture

A curious condition in which a fracture occurs of the second (rarely, the third) metatarsal bone in the foot without any obvious cause. The usual story is that a pain suddenly developed in the foot while walking or marching (hence the name), and that it has persisted ever since. The only treatment needed is immobilisation of the foot and rest, and the fracture heals satisfactorily. (For more information on fractures, see BONE, DISORDERS OF – Bone fractures.)... march fracture


Another term for CANNABIS, hemp, or hashish. (See also DEPENDENCE.)... marijuana


The term applied to pain in the breast (see BREASTS; BREASTS, DISEASES OF).... mastalgia


The act whereby, as a result of movements of the lower jaw, lips, tongue, and cheek, food is reduced to a condition in which it is ready to be acted on by the gastric juices in the process of DIGESTION. Adequate mastication before swallowing is an essential part of the digestive process.... mastication


The term applied to in?ammation of the breast (see BREASTS, DISEASES OF).... mastitis


A rare condition in which the primary abnormality is of MAST CELLS – a type of cell responsible for the storage and release of agents such as HISTAMINE, important in allergic states. Patients may present with an urticarial rash (urticaria pigmentosa) but may have symptoms referable to any part of the body, related to collections of active mast cells in these areas.... mastocytosis

Materia Medica

The branch of medical study which deals with the sources, preparations and uses of drugs. (See MEDICINES.)... materia medica


The name applied to the upper jawbones, which bear the teeth.... maxilla


Spiraea ulmaria. N.O. Rosaceae.

Synonym: Bridewort, Dolloft, Queen-of-the-Meadow.

Habitat: Low-lying meadows, sides of ditches.

Features ? Stem strong, woody, reddish hue, three or four feet high. Leaves in large and small pairs, alternate, serrate ; end leaf has three leaflets with longer one in middle ; dark green on top surface, white and downy underneath. Flowers small, creamy white, clustered in large, dense cymes.

Part used ? Herb.

Action: Astringent, diuretic, aromatic, tonic.

The 1 ounce to 1 pint infusion is taken in wineglassful doses for strangury

and dropsy. It is especially useful in infantile diarrhea.

Meadowsweet is included in recipes for many herb beers, its pleasantly aromatic, tonic and diuretic qualities making it particularly suitable for this purpose.... meadowsweet


A term applied to any passage or opening: for example, external auditory meatus – the passage from the surface to the drum of the EAR.... meatus


A direct relaxant of the smooth muscle in the INTESTINE, it may relieve pain in patients with IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME (IBS) or DIVERTICULAR DISEASE. Adverse effects are rare.... mebeverine


The brown, semi-?uid material which collects in the bowels of a FETUS before birth, and which should be discharged either at the time of birth or shortly afterwards. It consists partly of BILE secreted by the liver before birth; partly of debris from the mucous membrane of the intestines.... meconium


Near the middle of tissue, organ or body.... medial


A measure of central tendency. The median is found by arranging the values in order and then selecting the one in the middle. If the total number of values is even, then the median is the mean of the two middle numbers. The median is useful where the distribution has extreme values which otherwise skew the data.... median


Mediastinum is the space in the chest which lies between the two lungs. It contains the heart and great vessels, the gullet, the lower part of the windpipe, the thoracic duct and the phrenic nerves, as well as numerous structures of less importance.... mediastinum

Medical Audit

A detailed review and evaluation of selected clinical records by qualified professional personnel for the purpose of evaluating the quality of medical care.... medical audit


A PROGESTERONE (female sex hormone) preparation which is given intramuscularly in long-acting form as a PROGESTOGEN-only contraception; however, it should be given only with counselling and full details of its action. The drug is also used as second- or third-line treatment for patients with breast cancer and also in carcinoma of the kidney. Progestogens have been proposed for lessening premenstrual symptoms, but proof of their value in this role is not convincing.... medroxyprogesterone


The inside part of an organ or tissue that is distinct from the outer part – for example, the marrow in the centre of a long bone, or the inner portion of the kidneys or adrenal glands.... medulla

Medulla Oblongata

The hindmost part of the BRAIN, continuing into the SPINAL CORD. In it are situated several of the nerve centres which are most essential to life, such as those governing breathing, the action of the heart and swallowing.... medulla oblongata

Mefenamic Acid

One of the NON-STEROIDAL ANTIINFLAMMATORY DRUGS (NSAIDS) that is an analgesic (see ANALGESICS) for mild to moderate pain in RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS, OSTEOARTHRITIS and other musculoskeletal disorders. Also used for DYSMENNORRHOEA and MENORRHAGIA. It must be used with care as it has several side-effects, in particular diarrhoea and occasional haemolytic ANAEMIA. It must not be used in patients with INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE (IBD).... mefenamic acid


An antimalarial related to quinine, tetracycline and halofantrine used to suppress blood parasites, especially chloroquine resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum. There has been increasing resistance to mefloquine reported in malaria due to Plasmodium falciparum.... mefloquine


A greatly enlarged colon that may be present at birth or develop later. It can occur in all age groups and the condition is typi?ed by severe chronic constipation. Megacolon is caused by obstruction of the colon which may be due to faulty innervation, or to psychological factors. Other causes are HIRSCHSPRUNG’S DISEASE or ULCERATIVE COLITIS. In old people the persistent use of powerful laxative drugs may cause the condition.... megacolon


A delusion of grandeur or an insane belief in a person’s own extreme greatness, goodness, or power.... megalomania


A term that relates to the practice of medicine and law (see FORENSIC MEDICINE; MEDICAL LITIGATION; MEDICAL NEGLIGENCE).... medicolegal


Meiosis, or reduction division, is the form of cell division that only occurs in the gonads (see GONAD) – that is, the testis (see TESTICLE) and the ovary (see OVARIES) – giving rise to the germ cells (gametes) of the sperms (see SPERMATOZOON) and the ova (see OVUM).

Two types of sperm cells are produced: one contains 22 autosomes and a Y sex chromosome (see SEX CHROMOSOMES); the other, 22 autosomes and an X sex chromosome. All the ova, however, produced by normal meiosis have 22 autosomes and an X sex chromosome.

Two divisions of the NUCLEUS occur (see also CELLS) and only one division of the chromosomes, so that the number of chromosomes in the ova and sperms is half that of the somatic cells. Each chromosome pair divides so that the gametes receive only one member of each pair. The number of chromosomes is restored to full complement at fertilisation so that the zygote has a complete set, each chromosome from the nucleus of the sperm pairing up with its corresponding partner from the ovum.

The ?rst stage of meiosis involves the pairing of homologous chromosomes which join together and synapse lengthwise. The chromosomes then become doubled by splitting along their length and the chromatids so formed are held together by centromeres. As the homologous chromosomes – one of which has come from the mother, and the other from the father – are lying together, genetic interchange can take place between the chromatids and in this way new combinations of GENES arise. All four chromatids are closely interwoven and recombination may take place between any maternal or any paternal chromatids. This process is known as crossing over or recombination. After this period of interchange, homologous chromosomes move apart, one to each pole of the nucleus. The cell then divides and the nucleus of each new cell now contains 23 and not 46 chromosomes. The second meiotic division then occurs, the centromeres divide and the chromatids move apart to opposite poles of the nucleus so there are still 23 chromosomes in each of the daughter nuclei so formed. The cell divides again so that there are four gametes, each containing a half number (haploid) set of chromosomes. However, owing to the recombination or crossing over, the genetic material is not identical with either parent or with other spermatozoa.... meiosis


Pigment which confers colour on the SKIN, hair and EYE. It is produced by cells called melanocytes interspersed along the basal layer of the EPIDERMIS. The maturation of the epidermis into stratum corneum cells packed with melanin granules confers an ultraviolet light barrier which protects the skin against the harmful effects resulting from continued solar exposure. The races do not di?er in the number of melanocytes in their skin, only in the rate and quantity of melanin production. Exposure to bright sunlight stimulates melanin production and distribution causing ‘suntan’. A hormone from the PITUITARY GLAND may stimulate melanin production on the face in pregnancy (see CHLOASMA).... melanin


Clear branching cell in the epidermis of the SKIN that produces tyrosinase (an ENZYME) and MELANIN.... melanocyte


A hormone that plays a key role in the body’s diurnal (night and day) rhythms. Produced by the PINEAL GLAND and derived from SEROTONIN, it acts on receptors in an area of the brain above the OPTIC CHIASMA, synchronising them to the diurnal rhythm. Melatonin is under investigation as a possible agent to treat insomnia in the elderly, in shift workers and in those with severe learning disability (mental handicap). It may also help people with SEASONAL AFFECTIVE DISORDER SYNDROME (SADS) and those who suffer from jet lag.... melatonin


One of the ALKYLATING AGENTS, melphalan is used to treat certain forms of malignant disease including breast tumours (see BREASTS, DISEASES OF), MELANOMA and Hodgkin’s LYMPHOMA. It can be given orally or by injection. (See CYTOTOXIC.)... melphalan


The membranes surrounding the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD. The membranes include the DURA MATER, a tough, ?brous membrane closely applied to the inside of the skull; the ARACHNOID MEMBRANE, a more delicate membrane, enveloping the brain but separated from its irregular surface by spaces containing ?uid; and the pia mater, a delicate network of ?bres containing blood vessels and uniting the arachnoid to the brain. The latter two are sometimes referred to as the pia-arachnoid.

These membranes bear the blood vessels which nourish the surface of the brain and the interior of the skull. Meningeal haemorrhage from these vessels forms one of the chief dangers arising from fracture of the skull.... meninges

Mental Handicap

See LEARNING DISABILITY.... mental handicap


Meningocele is a protusion of the MENINGES of the brain through a defect in the skull. (See SPINA BIFIDA.)... meningocele


Neisseria meningitidis.... meningococcus


A protrusion of the MENINGES of the spinal cord through a defect in the spine. (See SPINA BIFIDA.)... meningomyelocele


A crescentic ?bro-cartilage in a joint, such as the cartilages in the knee-joint.... meniscus

Morning Sickness


MOTH REPELLENT. Sew into small linen bags any of the following: Cinnamon, Sandalwood chips, Camphor, Cloves. Add: sprinkle of Cedarwood for greater potency. MOTHER SEIGEL’S SYRUP. See: SHAKERS, The. ... morning sickness


The protective influence of a mouth rinse or gargle are well-known. Not only the patient, but those in close proximity may find a mouth wash limits the virulence of infection by seasonal fevers, measles, etc two or more times daily. 3 drops of any one tincture: Myrrh, Cinnamon, Goldenseal, Marigold, Blood root, Thyme, Peppermint, Echinacea. OR: 5 drops fresh juice of Marigold petals, Horseradish or Marshmallow after passing fresh plant through a juicer – in warm water. ... mouthwash


One of the antimetabolite group of drugs (see ANTIMETABOLITES), which includes methotrexate, ?uorouracil and thioguanine. These drugs are incorporated into new nuclear material in the cell or combine irreversibly with vital cellular enzymes, preventing normal cellular metabolism and division. Mercaptopurine is used mainly for the maintenance treatment of acute LEUKAEMIA, though it is increasingly proving valuable in the treatment of CROHN’S DISEASE. As with all CYTOTOXIC drugs, dosage must be carefully controlled; in particular it must be reduced if used concurrently with allopurinol. Side-effects include gastrointestinal upsets (including ulceration), and bone-marrow depression.... mercaptopurine


Mercury is a heavy ?uid metal which, with its salts, has been used in medicine for many centuries.

Uses In the past, mercuric salts were used as ANTISEPTICS, anti-parasitic agents and fungicides. Mercury has been widely used in dental amalgams for ?lling teeth. Because of their toxicity, mercury compounds must not be taken internally.

Mercury has traditionally been used in thermometers for recording body temperature, and in sphygmomanometers for measuring a person’s BLOOD PRESSURE. These instruments have been largely replaced in the UK by electronic devices that do not require mercury.... mercury


An aminosalicylate drug used for the treatment of mild to moderate ULCERATIVE COLITIS and the maintenance of remission. It should be used with caution by pregnant women.... mesalazine


Derived from the Mexican peyote cactus, Anhalonium lewinii, this is a hallucinogen used for many centuries by Indian tribes in Mexico as an intoxicant to produce ecstatic states for religious celebrations. In recent times its ability to produce temporary psychotic symptoms has been used to investigate the mechanism of PSYCHOSIS. Mescaline has similar effects to those of LSD: changes in mood and thought, illusions, self-absorption and an altered perception of time. Experience of the drug may subsequently provoke panic attacks, deliberate self-injury, real psychosis and sometimes addiction (see DEPENDENCE).... mescaline


Mesentery is the double layer of peritoneal membrane which supports the small INTESTINE. It is of a fan shape, and its shorter edge is attached to the back wall of the abdomen for a distance of about 15 cm (6 inches), while the small intestine lies within its longer edge, for a length of over 6 metres (20 feet). The terms mesocolon, mesorectum, etc., are applied to similar folds of PERITONEUM that support parts of the colon, rectum, etc.... mesentery


A malignant tumour of the PLEURA, the membrane lining the chest cavity. The condition is more common in people exposed to asbestos dust. It may be asymptomatic or cause pain, cough, and breathing troubles. Surgery or radiotherapy may be e?ective but often the disease has spread too far before it is discovered. Mesothelioma incurred as a result of contact with asbestos at work may attract industrial COMPENSATION.... mesothelioma


A statistical procedure to combine results from different studies on a similar topic. The combination of results from multiple studies may produce a stronger conclusion than can be provided by any singular study. Meta-analysis is generally most appropriate when there are no definitive studies on a topic and non-definitive studies are in some disagreement.... meta-analysis


Pain affecting the metatarsal region of the foot. It is common in adolescents, and associated with FLAT-FOOT; in adults it may be a manifestation of RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS. Morton’s metatarsalgia is a form associated usually with the nerve to the second toe cleft, often induced by the compression of tight shoes.... metatarsalgia


Also known as tympanites, this is a distension of the ABDOMEN from excess gas or air in the INTESTINE or peritoneal cavity. On percussion the abdomen sounds resonant, like a drum. Causes include obstruction of the intestines, aerophagy (the swallowing of air), and IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME (IBS). Treatment is of the underlying condition. (See also FLATULENCE.)... meteorism


One of the BIGUANIDES, metformin lowers the blood sugar by increasing cellular uptake of glucose. It is active when taken by mouth and is used to treat some patients with DIABETES MELLITUS, usually in addition to another hypoglycaemic drug.... metformin


A variety of ALCOHOL used as a solvent to remove paint or as a constituent of some antifreeze ?uids. It is poisonous: sometimes people drink it as a substitute for ethyl (ordinary) alcohol. Symptoms appear up to 24 hours after imbibing methanol and include nausea, vomiting, dizziness, headache and sometimes unconsciousness. Treatment is to induce vomiting (in conscious victims) and to do a stomach washout (see GASTRIC LAVAGE), but such steps must be taken within two hours of ingestion. Hospital treatment is usually required, when intravenous infusion of sodium bicarbonate (and sometimes ethanol, which slows up breakdown of methanol by the liver) is administered.... methanol


A COLLOID which absorbs water to swell to about 25 times its original volume. It is used in the treatment of CONSTIPATION and also in the management of OBESITY. The rationale for its use in obesity is that by swelling up in the stomach, it reduces the appetite.... methylcellulose


One of the ANTIMETABOLITES used to treat certain forms of malignant disease. Acting to inhibit the ENZYME dihydrofolate reductase, which is essential for purine and pyrimidine synthesis, it is given orally, intravenously, intramuscularly or intrathecally. Methotrexate is used as maintenance therapy for childhood acute lymphoblastic LEUKAEMIA, while other uses include CHORIOCARCINOMA, nonHodgkin’s LYMPHOMA, and various solid tumours. Intrathecally, it is used in the prophylaxis of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, and as treatment for established meningeal cancer or lymphoma.

Side-effects include suppression of myelocytes in bone marrow, in?ammation of mucous membranes, and, rarely, PNEUMONITIS. It should be avoided whenever signi?cant renal impairment is present, while signi?cant pleural e?usion or ascites is also a contraindication. Blood counts should be carefully monitored whenever intrathecal methotrexate is given. Oral or parenteral folinic acid helps to prevent, or to speed recovery from, myelosuppression or mucositis.

Methotrexate is used in dermatology, where it may be indicated for cases of severe uncontrolled PSORIASIS unresponsive to conventional therapy; it may also be indicated for severe active RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS. Because of its potentially severe haematological, pulmonary, gastrointestinal, and other toxicities it should be used only by specialists and appropriate renal and liver function tests carried out before and during treatment. It should be avoided in pregnancy, and conception should be avoided for at least six months after stopping, as should breast feeding. Concurrent administration of aspirin or other NONSTEROIDAL ANTI-INFLAMMATORY DRUGS (NSAIDS) reduces methotrexate excretion, increasing its toxicity, and should therefore be avoided whenever possible.... methotrexate


A centrally acting anti-hypertensive (see HYPERTENSION) drug often used in conjunction with a diuretic (see DIURETICS). It can be e?ective in controlling high blood pressure in pregnancy. The drug is also safe to use in patients with ASTHMA or heart failure.... methyldopa


A drug that stimulates the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Its action is similar to DEXAMPHETAMINE. A controlled drug, one of its trade names is Ritalin® and it is (controversially) used in the treatment of ATTENTION DEFICIT DISORDER (HYPERACTIVITY SYNDROME) in children, in conjunction with behavioural treatment and family support. Because of the potential for side-effects, its administration should be under specialist supervision.... methylphenidate


A mineralcorticoid drug (see CORTICOSTEROIDS) with an action comparable to that of PREDNISOLONE, but e?ective at a somewhat lower dose.... methylprednisolone


A thiazide-type diuretic (see THIAZIDES; DIURETICS) which is particularly e?ective when combined with a loop diuretic (see LOOP DIURETICS), when it produces profound diuresis. The drug is also useful for treating kidney stones (see under KIDNEYS, DISEASES OF).... metolazone


A beta-adrenergic-receptor blocking agent. (See ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS.)... metoprolol


This drug antagonises the actions of DOPAMINE. Given orally, intramuscularly, or intravenously, it is used to treat nausea and vomiting, particularly in gastrointestinal disorders, or when associated with cytotoxics or radiotherapy. It is useful in the early treatment of MIGRAINE.

Caution is indicated in prescribing metoclopramide for elderly and young patients, and whenever hepatic or renal impairment is present, and it should be avoided in pregnancy or cases of PORPHYRIAS. Adverse effects include extrapyramidal effects (see under EXTRAPYRAMIDAL SYSTEM) and HYPERPROLACTINAEMIA with occasional TARDIVE DYSKINESIA on prolonged administration. There have also been occasional reports of drowsiness, restlessness, diarrhoea, depression and neuroleptic malignant syndrome, with rare cardiac conduction abnormalities following intravenous administration.... metoclopramide


One of the IMIDAZOLES group of antifungals which includes clotrimazole and ketoconazole. Active against a wide range of fungi and yeasts, their main indications are vaginal candidiasis and dermatophyte skin infections. Miconazole is used as a cream or ointment; it may also be given orally (for oral or gastrointestinal infections), or parenterally (for systemic infections such as aspergillosis or candidiasis). (See MYCOSIS.)... miconazole


Disease of the CAPILLARIES.... microangiopathy


The study of all aspects of micro-organisms (microbes) – that is, organisms which individually are generally too small to be visible other than by microscopy. The term is applicable to viruses (see VIRUS), BACTERIA, and microscopic forms of fungi, algae, and PROTOZOA.

Among the smallest and simplest microorganisms are the viruses. First described as ?lterable agents, and ranging in size from 20–30 nm to 300 nm, they may be directly visualised only by electron microscopy. They consist of a core of deoxyribonucleic or ribonucleic acid (DNA or RNA) within a protective protein coat, or capsid, whose subunits confer a geometric symmetry. Thus viruses are usually cubical (icosahedral) or helical; the larger viruses (pox-, herpes-, myxo-viruses) may also have an outer envelope. Their minimal structure dictates that viruses are all obligate parasites, relying on living cells to provide essential components for their replication. Apart from animal and plant cells, viruses may infect and replicate in bacteria (bacteriophages) or fungi (mycophages), which are damaged in the process.

Bacteria are larger (0·01–5,000 µm) and more complex. They have a subcellular organisation which generally includes DNA and RNA, a cell membrane, organelles such as ribosomes, and a complex and chemically variable cell envelope – but, unlike EUKARYOTES, no nucleus. Rickettsiae, chlamydia, and mycoplasmas, once thought of as viruses because of their small size and absence of a cell wall (mycoplasma) or major wall component (chlamydia), are now acknowledged as bacteria; rickettsiae and chlamydia are intracellular parasites of medical importance. Bacteria may also possess additional surface structures, such as capsules and organs of locomotion (?agella) and attachment (?mbriae and stalks). Individual bacterial cells may be spheres (cocci); straight (bacilli), curved (vibrio), or ?exuous (spirilla) rods; or oval cells (coccobacilli). On examination by light microscopy, bacteria may be visible in characteristic con?gurations (as pairs of cocci [diplococci], or chains [streptococci], or clusters); actinomycete bacteria grow as ?laments with externally produced spores. Bacteria grow essentially by increasing in cell size and dividing by ?ssion, a process which in ideal laboratory conditions some bacteria may achieve about once every 20 minutes. Under natural conditions, growth is usually much slower.

Eukaryotic micro-organisms comprise fungi, algae, and protozoa. These organisms are larger, and they have in common a well-developed internal compartmentation into subcellular organelles; they also have a nucleus. Algae additionally have chloroplasts, which contain photosynthetic pigments; fungi lack chloroplasts; and protozoa lack both a cell wall and chloroplasts but may have a contractile vacuole to regulate water uptake and, in some, structures for capturing and ingesting food. Fungi grow either as discrete cells (yeasts), multiplying by budding, ?ssion, or conjugation, or as thin ?laments (hyphae) which bear spores, although some may show both morphological forms during their life-cycle. Algae and protozoa generally grow as individual cells or colonies of individuals and multiply by ?ssion.

Micro-organisms of medical importance include representatives of the ?ve major microbial groups that obtain their essential nutrients at the expense of their hosts. Many bacteria and most fungi, however, are saprophytes (see SAPROPHYTE), being major contributors to the natural cycling of carbon in the environment and to biodeterioration; others are of ecological and economic importance because of the diseases they cause in agricultural or horticultural crops or because of their bene?cial relationships with higher organisms. Additionally, they may be of industrial or biotechnological importance. Fungal diseases of humans tend to be most important in tropical environments and in immuno-compromised subjects.

Pathogenic (that is, disease-causing) microorganisms have special characteristics, or virulence factors, that enable them to colonise their hosts and overcome or evade physical, biochemical, and immunological host defences. For example, the presence of capsules, as in the bacteria that cause anthrax (Bacillus anthracis), one form of pneumonia (Streptococcus pneumoniae), scarlet fever (S. pyogenes), bacterial meningitis (Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus in?uenzae) is directly related to the ability to cause disease because of their antiphagocytic properties. Fimbriae are related to virulence, enabling tissue attachment – for example, in gonorrhoea (N. gonorrhoeae) and cholera (Vibrio cholerae). Many bacteria excrete extracellular virulence factors; these include enzymes and other agents that impair the host’s physiological and immunological functions. Some bacteria produce powerful toxins (excreted exotoxins or endogenous endotoxins), which may cause local tissue destruction and allow colonisation by the pathogen or whose speci?c action may explain the disease mechanism. In Staphylococcus aureus, exfoliative toxin produces the staphylococcal scalded-skin syndrome, TSS toxin-1 toxic-shock syndrome, and enterotoxin food poisoning. The pertussis exotoxin of Bordetella pertussis, the cause of whooping cough, blocks immunological defences and mediates attachment to tracheal cells, and the exotoxin produced by Corynebacterium diphtheriae causes local damage resulting in a pronounced exudate in the trachea.

Viruses cause disease by cellular destruction arising from their intracellular parasitic existence. Attachment to particular cells is often mediated by speci?c viral surface proteins; mechanisms for evading immunological defences include latency, change in viral antigenic structure, or incapacitation of the immune system – for example, destruction of CD 4 lymphocytes by the human immunode?ciency virus.... microbiology


Abnormal smallness of the head, usually associated with LEARNING DISABILITY. It may occur as a result of infection of the fetus by, for example, RUBELLA (German measles) or from hypoxic damage to the brain before or during birth.... microcephaly


An optical instrument comprising adjustable magnifying lenses that greatly enlarge a small object under study – for example, an insect, blood cells, or bacteria. Some microscopes use electron beams to magnify minute objects such as chromosomes, crystals, or even large molecules. Optical microscopes are also used for MICROSURGERY when the area being operated on is otherwise inaccessible: for example, in eye and inner ear surgery; for the removal of tumours from the brain or spinal cord; and for resuturing damaged blood vessels and nerves.... microscope


The conduct of very intricate surgical operations using specially re?ned operating microscopes (see MICROSCOPE) and miniaturised precision instruments – for example, forceps, scalpels, scissors, etc. Microsurgery is used in previously inaccessible areas of the brain, eye, inner ear and spinal cord, as well as in the suturing of severed nerves and small blood vessels following traumatic injuries to the limbs or ?ngers. The technique is also used to reverse VASECTOMY.... microsurgery

Middle Ear

That portion of the EAR lying between the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE and the INNER EAR. It contains the ossicles, the three small bones that transmit sound.... middle ear



Milk Teeth

The temporary teeth of children. (For the time of their appearance, see under TEETH.)... milk teeth


One of the tetracycline broad-spectrum antibiotic drugs (see TETRACYCLINES). Minocycline has a broader spectrum than the others and is e?ective against Neisseria meningitidis, which causes bacterial MENINGITIS. It should not be prescribed for patients with kidney disease.... minocycline


A vasodilator drug taken orally to treat people with serious HYPERTENSION. Minoxidil is also used as a lotion to treat male-pattern baldness (in both sexes). The drug can cause ?uid retention, weight gain and excessive growth of the hair.... minoxidil


Condition of constriction (reduction in size) of the pupil (see EYE). It may be the result of disease affecting the AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM. Bright light causes miosis and some drugs

– for example, PILOCARPINE or OPIUM – have the same e?ect.... miosis


A PROSTAGLANDIN analogue used to treat duodenal and gastric ulcers, and those induced by NON-STEROIDAL ANTI-INFLAMMATORY DRUGS (NSAIDS). It should not be taken by pregnant or breast-feeding women.... misoprostol


Viscum album. N.O. Loranthaceae.

Synonym: European Mistletoe, Birdlime Mistletoe.

Habitat: Parasitic on the Oak, Hawthorn, Apple and many other trees.

Features ? This familiar evergreen is a true parasite, receiving no nourishment from the soil, nor even from the decaying bark. The leaves are obtuse lance-shaped, broader towards the end, sessile, and grow from a smooth-jointed stem about a foot high. The flower-heads are yellowish and the berries white. The plant is tasteless and without odour.

Part used ? Leaves.

Action: Highly valued as a nervine and antispasmodic.

Mistletoe leaves are given in hysteria, epilepsy, chorea and other diseases of the nervous system. As an anti-spasmodic and tonic it is used in cardiac dropsy.

Culpeper is at his most "Culpeperish" in discussing this plant, as witness:

"The birdlime doth mollify hard knots, tumours and imposthumes, ripeneth and discuteth them; and draweth thick as well as thin humours from remote parts of the body, digesting and separating them. And being mixed with equal parts of resin and wax, doth mollify the hardness of the spleen, and healeth old ulcers and sores. Being mixed with Sandarack and Orpiment, it helpeth to draw off foul nails; and if quicklime and wine lees be added thereunto it worketh the stronger. Both the leaves and berries of Mistletoe do heat and dry, and are of subtle parts."

While some truth may be hidden behind all this quaint terminology, it is feared that the modern herbal consultant would encounter serious difficulties if he attempted to follow the Culpeperian procedure too literally—although certain people still believe, or affect to believe, that he does so!

The birdlime mentioned in the quotation and also in the synonyms is the resin viscin, from the Latin viscum, birdlime.


Linum cartharticum. N.O. Linaceae

Synonym: Purging Flax.

Habitat: Heaths, moorlands; occasionally meadows and pastures.

Features ? Stem simple, up to eight inches high. Leaves opposite, small, lower obovate, higher lanceolate, entire. Flowers small, white (June to September), five-parted with serrate sepals, pointed petals. Taste, bitter and acrid.

Part used ? Herb.

Action: Laxative, cathartic.

In constipation, action similar to Senna, and sometimes preferred to the latter; rarely gripes. Occasionally prescribed with diuretics, etc., for gravel and dropsy. Combined with tonics and stomachics such as Gentian and Calumba root, makes a first-rate family medicine. Dose, wineglass of the ounce to pint infusion.... mistletoe

Mitral Valve

The mitral valve, so-called because of its resemblance to a bishop’s mitre, is the valve which guards the opening between the ATRIUM and VENTRICLE on the left side of the HEART.... mitral valve


Abdominal pains that occur midway between menstrual periods and which are caused either by ovulation or the normal short pre-ovulatory surge of estrogen.... mittelschmerz


One of the functions in the financing of health systems which aims at identifying and acquiring the money required to meet the health needs of the people, individually and collectively, in a given health system.... mobilization


A reversible monoamine oxidase inhibitor (see MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITORS (MAOIS)), this drug is used as second-line treatment for patients with severe DEPRESSION. As with all MAOIs, those taking moclobemide should avoid too much tyramine-rich food – mature cheese, yeast extracts, fermented soya-bean products – and they should not take the drug with another antidepressant (see ANTIDEPRESSANT DRUGS).... moclobemide

Molluscum Contagiosum

Common papular eruption of the skin caused by a virus. Most common in children, it is highly contagious and often transmitted in swimming pools and sauna baths. Mollusca are often multiple and persistent in children with atopic eczema (see DERMATITIS), and epidemics may occur in boarding schools. The typical molluscum is 2–3 mm in diameter, skincoloured and translucent, with a dimpled centre. The armpits and adjacent chest, upper inner thighs and genital areas are common sites in young children. In adults the infection is usually transmitted sexually and affects the pubic area and lower belly. Mollusca eventually disappear spontaneously, but cure can be expedited by curettage (removal with a CURETTE) under surface anaesthesia.... molluscum contagiosum


See DOWN’S (DOWN) SYNDROME.... mongolism


A type of white blood cell which has a single kidney-shaped nucleus. Present in the tissues and lymphatic system as well as in the circulation, it ingests foreign particles such as tissue debris and bacteria. Monocytes are about 20 µm in diameter and 1 mm3 of blood contains around 7,500 of them, many times fewer than the ?ve million erythrocytes (red blood cells).... monocyte


Properly, infectious mononucleosis, a viral infection of the lymph pulp most frequently caused by the Epstein-Barr virus. The spleen, lymph nodes, and (sometimes) the liver are involved. The general symptoms are fever, sore throat, exhaustion, and abnormal white blood cells.... mononucleosis


The absence of one testis, usually the result of the failure of one TESTICLE to drop down into the SCROTUM before birth. Monorchism is sometimes used to describe the condition when one testicle has been destroyed by disease or injury, or has been surgically removed – when, for example, the man has developed cancer of the testicle.... monorchism


Another name for MEASLES.... morbilli


Morphine is the name of the chief alkaloid (see ALKALOIDS) upon which the action of OPIUM depends. A traditional and invaluable opioid analgesic (see ANALGESICS) used to control severe pain, it is the standard against which other opioid analgesics are measured. Used widely in patients with post-operative pain or those in PALLIATIVE care who have severe pain, it produces a sense of EUPHORIA. A serious side-e?ect is that morphine can cause nausea and vomiting. The drug may also cause DEPENDENCE. Morphine is a Class A controlled drug and is classifed in Schedule II of the Misuse of Drugs Regulations 1985 (see CONTROLLED DRUGS; MEDICINES; MISUSE OF DRUGS).... morphine


A form of circumscribed SCLERODERMA.... morphoea

Mortality Rate

See “death rate”.... mortality rate


If non-dysjunction occurs after the formation of a ZYGOTE – that is, during a mitotic cell division and not a meiotic cell division (see MITOSIS; MEIOSIS) – some of the cells will have one chromosome constitution and others another. The term mosaicism describes a condition in which a substantial minority of cells in an individual’s body di?er from the majority in their chromosome content. How substantial this minority is will depend upon how early during cleavage the zygote undergoes nondysjunction. Mosaicism can cause disorders such as DOWN’S (DOWN) SYNDROME and TURNER’S SYNDROME. The proportion and type of abnormal cells affect the physical appearance of the affected individual. This may range from normal to the features typical of people with a chromosomal-abnormality syndrome.... mosaicism

Mountain Sickness

See ALTITUDE SICKNESS.... mountain sickness


The term used to describe the property of destroying, or lessening the tenacity of, MUCUS. It is most commonly used to describe drugs which have this property and are therefore used in the treatment of BRONCHITIS. The inhalation of steam, for example, has a mucolytic action.... mucolytic


A term for MUCOUS MEMBRANE.... mucosa

Mucous Membrane

The general name given to the membrane which lines many of the hollow organs of the body. These membranes vary widely in structure in di?erent sites, but all have the common character of being lubricated by MUCUS – derived in some cases from isolated cells on the surface of the membrane, but more generally from de?nite glands placed beneath the membrane, and opening here and there through it by ducts. The air passages, the gastrointestinal tract and the ducts of glands which open into it, and also the urinary passages, are all lined by mucous membrane.... mucous membrane


See CYSTIC FIBROSIS.... mucoviscidosis


The general name for the slimy secretion derived from mucous membranes. It is mainly composed of a substance called mucin, which varies according to the particular mucous membrane from which it is derived, and it contains other substances, such as cells cast o? from the surface of the membrane, enzymes, and dust particles. Mucin has the following characteristics: it is viscid, clear and tenacious; when dissolved in water it can be precipitated by addition of acetic acid; and when not in solution already, it is dissolved by weak alkalis, such as lime-water.

Under normal conditions the surface of a mucous membrane is lubricated by only a small quantity of mucus; the appearance of large quantities is a sign of in?ammation.... mucus

Multidisciplinary Team

Consists of members of different disciplines, involved in the same task (assessing people, setting goals and making care recommendations) and working along side each other, but functioning independently. Each member undertakes his or her own tasks without explicit regard to the interaction. These teams are traditionally led by the highest ranking team member.... multidisciplinary team


Verbascum thapsus. N.O. Scrophulariaceae.

Synonym: Great Mullein, Blanket Herb, or Candle Flower.

Habitat: Flourishes in sandy and gravelly waste ground, and is sometimes noticed under garden cultivation.

Features ? Reaching a height of four feet, the thick, erect, un-branched stem is

heavily coated with hairs. The large, flannel-like leaves are lanceolate-oblong below, the upper ones becoming decurrent, smaller, and more ovate in shape. Characteristic of the plant, leaves narrow at the base into two wings which pass down the stem, this feature enabling the medicinal Mullein to be distinguished from Verbascum nigrum and various other Mulleins. The flowers, which bloom in July and August, are built of five golden-yellow, rounded petals, and are densely packed on a woolly spike some foot or more in length.

Part used ? Leaves and flowers.

Action: Demulcent, pectoral and astringent.

A medicine is made by infusing 1 ounce in 1 pint of boiling water, the usual dose being a wineglassful, taken frequently. This is recommended mainly for chest coughs and certain other pulmonary complaints. Mullein has been considered a pile cure for several hundred years, and is still used for this purpose both internally and as a fomentation.

Culpeper preferred the root to the leaves and flowers, and advised it to be taken in wine. He tells us that this "is commended by Dioscorides against lasks and fluxes of the belly."... mullein


The uneven, rustling sound heard by AUSCULTATION over the HEART and various blood vessels in abnormal conditons. For example, murmurs heard when the stethoscope is applied over the heart are highly characteristic of valvular disease of this organ.... murmur

Mushroom Poisoning

See FUNGUS POISONING.... mushroom poisoning


Muscular tissue is divided, according to its function, into three main groups: voluntary muscle, involuntary muscle, and skeletal muscle – of which the ?rst is under control of the will, whilst the latter two discharge their functions independently. The term ‘striped muscle’ is often given to voluntary muscle, because under the microscope all the voluntary muscles show a striped appearance, whilst involuntary muscle is, in the main, unstriped or plain. Heart muscle is partially striped, while certain muscles of the throat, and two small muscles inside the ear, not controllable by willpower, are also striped.

Structure of muscle Skeletal or voluntary muscle forms the bulk of the body’s musculature and contains more than 600 such muscles. They are classi?ed according to their methods of action. A ?exor muscle closes a joint, an extensor opens it; an abductor moves a body part outwards, an adductor moves it in; a depressor lowers a body part and an elevator raises it; while a constrictor (sphincter) muscle surrounds an ori?ce, closing and opening it. Each muscle is enclosed in a sheath of ?brous tissue, known as fascia or epimysium, and, from this, partitions of ?brous tissue, known as perimysium, run into the substance of the muscle, dividing it up into small bundles. Each of these bundles consists in turn of a collection of ?bres, which form the units of the muscle. Each ?bre is about 50 micrometres in thickness and ranges in length from a few millimetres to 300 millimetres. If the ?bre is cut across and examined under a high-powered microscope, it is seen to be further divided into ?brils. Each ?bre is enclosed in an elastic sheath of its own, which allows it to lengthen and shorten, and is known as the sarcolemma. Within the sarcolemma lie numerous nuclei belonging to the muscle ?bre, which was originally developed from a simple cell. To the sarcolemma, at either end, is attached a minute bundle of connective-tissue ?bres which unites the muscle ?bre to its neighbours, or to one of the connective-tissue partitions in the muscle, and by means of these connections the ?bre affects muscle contraction. Between the muscle ?bres, and enveloped in a sheath of connective tissue, lie here and there special structures known as muscle-spindles. Each of these contains thin muscle ?bres, numerous nuclei, and the endings of sensory nerves. (See TOUCH.) The heart muscle comprises short ?bres which communicate with their neighbours via short branches and have no sarcolemma.

Plain or unstriped muscle is found in the following positions: the inner and middle coats of the STOMACH and INTESTINE; the ureters (see URETER) and URINARY BLADDER; the TRACHEA and bronchial tubes; the ducts of glands; the GALL-BLADDER; the UTERUS and FALLOPIAN TUBES; the middle coat of the blood and lymph vessels; the iris and ciliary muscle of the EYE; the dartos muscle of the SCROTUM; and in association with the various glands and hairs in the SKIN. The ?bres are very much smaller than those of striped muscle, although they vary greatly in size. Each has one or more oval nuclei and a delicate sheath of sarcolemma enveloping it. The ?bres are grouped in bundles, much as are the striped ?bres, but they adhere to one another by cement material, not by the tendon bundles found in voluntary muscle.

Development of muscle All the muscles of the developing individual arise from the central layer (mesoderm) of the EMBRYO, each ?bre taking origin from a single cell. Later on in life, muscles have the power both of increasing in size – as the result of use, for example, in athletes – and also of healing, after parts of them have been destroyed by injury. An example of the great extent to which unstriped muscle can develop to meet the demands made on it is the uterus, whose muscular wall develops so much during pregnancy that the organ increases from the weight of 30–40 g (1–1••• oz.) to a weight of around 1 kg (2 lb.), decreasing again to its former small size in the course of a month after childbirth.

Physiology of contraction A muscle is an elaborate chemico-physical system for producing heat and mechanical work. The total energy liberated by a contracting muscle can be exactly measured. From 25–30 per cent of the total energy expended is used in mechanical work. The heat of contracting muscle makes an important contribution to the maintenance of the heat of the body. (See also MYOGLOBIN.)

The energy of muscular contraction is derived from a complicated series of chemical reactions. Complex substances are broken down and built up again, supplying each other with energy for this purpose. The ?rst reaction is the breakdown of adenyl-pyrophosphate into phosphoric acid and adenylic acid (derived from nucleic acid); this supplies the immediate energy for contraction. Next phosphocreatine breaks down into creatine and phosphoric acid, giving energy for the resynthesis of adenyl-pyrophosphate. Creatine is a normal nitrogenous constituent of muscle. Then glycogen through the intermediary stage of sugar bound to phosphate breaks down into lactic acid to supply energy for the resynthesis of phosphocreatine. Finally part of the lactic acid is oxidised to supply energy for building up the rest of the lactic acid into glycogen again. If there is not enough oxygen, lactic acid accumulates and fatigue results.

All of the chemical changes are mediated by the action of several enzymes (see ENZYME).

Involuntary muscle has several peculiarities of contraction. In the heart, rhythmicality is an important feature – one beat appearing to be, in a sense, the cause of the next beat. Tonus is a character of all muscle, but particularly of unstriped muscle in some localities, as in the walls of arteries.

Fatigue occurs when a muscle is made to act for some time and is due to the accumulation of waste products, especially sarcolactic acid (see LACTIC ACID). These substances affect the end-plates of the nerve controlling the muscle, and so prevent destructive overaction of the muscle. As they are rapidly swept away by the blood, the muscle, after a rest (and particularly if the rest is accompanied by massage or by gentle contractions to quicken the circulation) recovers rapidly from the fatigue. Muscular activity over the whole body causes prolonged fatigue which is remedied by rest to allow for metabolic balance to be re-established.... muscle


A chemical or physical agent that has the property of increasing the rate of MUTATION among CELLS. A mutagen does not usually increase the range of mutations. Chemicals, ionising radiation, and viruses may act as mutagens.... mutagen


See under VOICE AND SPEECH.... mutism


A change occurring in the genetic material (DNA) in the CHROMOSOMES of a cell. It is caused by a fault in the replication of a cell’s genetic material when it divides to form two daughter cells. Mutations may occur in somatic cells which may result in a local growth of the new type of cells. These may be destroyed by the body’s defence mechanism or they may develop into a tumour. If mutation occurs in a germ cell or gamete – the organism’s sex cells – the outcome may be a changed inherited characteristic in succeeding generations. Mutations occur rarely, but a small steady number are caused by background radiation in the environment. They are also caused by mutagens (see MUTAGEN). (See also GENETIC DISORDERS.)... mutation

Myasthenia Gravis

A serious disorder in which the chief symptoms are muscular weakness and a special tendency for fatigue to come on rapidly when e?orts are made. The prevalence is around 1 in 30,000. Two-thirds of the patients are women, in whom it develops in early adult life. In men it tends to develop later in life.

It is a classical example of an autoimmune disease (see AUTOIMMUNITY). The body develops ANTIBODIES which interfere with the working of the nerve endings in muscle that are acted on by ACETYLCHOLINE. It is acetylcholine that transmits the nerve impulses to muscles: if this transmission cannot be e?ected, as in myasthenia gravis, then the muscles are unable to contract. Not only the voluntary muscles, but those connected with the acts of swallowing, breathing, and the like, become progressively weaker. Rest and avoidance of undue exertion are necessary, and regular doses of neostigmine bromide, or pyridostigmine, at intervals enable the muscles to be used and in some cases have a curative e?ect. These drugs act by inhibiting the action of cholinesterase – an ENZYME produced in the body which destroys any excess of acetylcholine. In this way they increase the amount of available acetylcholine which compensates for the deleterious e?ect of antibodies on the nerve endings.

The THYMUS GLAND plays the major part in the cause of myasthenia gravis, possibly by being the source of the original acetylcholine receptors to which the antibodies are being formed. Thymectomy (removal of the thymus) is often used in the management of patients with myasthenia gravis. The incidence of remission following thymectomy increases with the number of years after the operation. Complete remission or substantial improvement can be expected in 80 per cent of patients.

The other important aspect in the management of patients with myasthenia gravis is IMMUNOSUPPRESSION. Drugs are now available that suppress antibody production and so reduce the concentration of antibodies to the acetylcholine receptor. The problem is that they not only suppress abnormal antibody production, but also suppress normal antibody production. The main groups of immunosuppressive drugs used in myasthenia gravis are the CORTICOSTEROIDS and AZATHIOPRINE. Improvement following steroids may take several weeks and an initial deterioration is often found during the ?rst week or ten days of treatment. Azathioprine is also e?ective in producing clinical improvement and reducing the antibodies to acetylcholine receptors. These effects occur more slowly than with steroids, and the mean time for an azathioprine remission is nine months.

The Myasthenia Gravis Association, which provides advice and help to sufferers, was created and is supported by myasthenics, their families and friends.... myasthenia gravis


The general term applied to diseases due to the growth of fungi in the body. Among some of the simplest and commonest mycoses are RINGWORM, FAVUS, and thrush (CANDIDA). The MADURA FOOT of India, ACTINOMYCOSIS, and occasional cases of PNEUMONIA and suppurative ear disease are also due to the growth of moulds in the bodily tissues. Other forms of mycosis include ASPERGILLOSIS, candidiasis (see CANDIDA), CRYPTOCOCCOSIS and HISTOPLASMOSIS.... mycosis

Mycosis Fungoides

An old term for a chronic eruption of the skin characterised by erythematous (see ERYTHEMA) itching plaques (raised patches on the skin resulting from the merging or enlargement of papules – see PAPULE), which, if left untreated, eventually form tumours and ulcers. The disease is now known to be a form of cancer of lymphocytes (see LYMPHOCYTE) called T-cell LYMPHOMA. It may be responsive to PHOTOCHEMOTHERAPY in its early stages and to RADIOTHERAPY when more advanced.... mycosis fungoides


Removal of all or part of a muscle by surgery. It may be used to correct a SQUINT (caused by unbalanced eye muscles) or to remove a FIBROID from the muscular wall of the UTERUS.... myectomy


A substance made up of protein and phospholipid that forms the sheath surrounding the axons of some neurons (see NEURON(E)). These are described as myelinated or medullated nerve ?bres, and electric impulses pass along them faster than along non-myelinated nerves. Myelin is produced by Schwann cells which occur at intervals along the nerve ?bre. (See MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS (MS).)... myelin


Myelitis is in?ammation of the SPINAL CORD.... myelitis


The injection of a radio-opaque substance into the central canal of the SPINAL CORD in order to assist in the diagnosis of diseases of the spinal cord or spine using X-ray examination. Because of the high risk of causing damage to the spinal cord (arachnoiditis), it has been largely superceded by MRI.... myelography


See MYELOMATOSIS.... myeloma

Myocardial Infarction

See HEART, DISEASES OF – Coronary thrombosis.... myocardial infarction


A MALIGNANT disorder of PLASMA cells, derived from B-lymphocytes (see LYMPHOCYTE). In most patients the BONE MARROW is heavily in?ltrated with atypical, monoclonal plasma cells, which gradually replace the normal cell lines, inducing ANAEMIA, LEUCOPENIA, and THROMBOCYTOPENIA. Bone absorption occurs, producing di?use osteoporosis (see under BONE, DISORDERS OF). In some cases only part of the immunoglobulin molecule is produced by the tumour cells, appearing in the urine as Bence Jones PROTEINURIA.

The disease is rare under the age of 30, frequency increasing with age to peak between 60 and 70 years. There may be a long preclinical phase, sometimes as long as 25 years. When symptoms do occur, they tend to re?ect bone involvement, reduced immune function, renal failure, anaemia or hyperviscosity of the blood. Vertebral collapse is common, with nerve root pressure and reduced stature. The disease is eventually fatal, infection being a common cause of death. Local skeletal problems should be treated with RADIOTHERAPY, and the general disease with CHEMOTHERAPY

– chie?y the ALKYLATING AGENTS melphalan or cyclophosphamide. Red-blood-cell TRANSFUSION is usually required, together with plasmapheresis (see PLASMA EXCHANGE), and orthopaedic surgery may be necessary following fractures.... myelomatosis


The middle, muscular layer of the heart.... myocardium


A brief, twitching muscular contraction which may involve only a single muscle or many muscles (see MUSCLE). It may be too slight to cause movement of the affected limb, or so violent as to throw the victim to the ?oor. The cause is not known, but in some cases may be a form of EPILEPSY. A single myoclonic jerk in the upper limbs occasionally occurs in minor motor epilepsy (petit mal). The myoclonic jerks which many people experience on falling asleep are a perfectly normal phenomenon.... myoclonus


The protein which gives MUSCLE its red colour. It has the property of combining loosely and reversibly with OXYGEN; this means that it is the vehicle whereby muscle extracts oxygen from the HAEMOGLOBIN in the blood circulating through it, and then releases the oxygen for use in muscle METABOLISM.... myoglobin


The term applied to a TUMOUR, almost invariably of a simple nature, which consists mainly of muscle ?bres (see MUSCLE – Structure of muscle). These muscle tumours often occur in the UTERUS.... myoma


Removal by surgery of ?broids (see FIBROID) from the muscular wall of the UTERUS.... myomectomy


See under MUSCLES, DISORDERS OF.... myopathy


Sort-sightedness (see under EYE, DISORDERS OF – Errors of refraction).... myopia


In?ammation of a muscle. (See also MUSCLES, DISORDERS OF – In?ammation (myositis)).... myositis


A condition in which the muscles (see MUSCLE), though possessed of normal power, contract only very slowly. The sti?ness disappears as the muscles are used.... myotonia


Inflation of the tympanic membrane... myringitis


The sealing by a surgical tissue-graft of a hole or perforation in the drum (tympanum) which separates the middle and outer sections of the EAR. It is aimed at improving the subject’s hearing (see DEAFNESS); sometimes the operation is done to stop persistent DISCHARGE.... myringoplasty


An operation to cut open the drum of the EAR to provide drainage for an infection of the middle ear. It is now done mainly in children with persistent glue ear (see under EAR, DISEASES OF – Diseases of the middle ear).... myringotomy


(Latin) Of the sacred evergreen shrub

Myrtilla, Myrtisa, Myrtis, Mertice, Mertis, Mertle, Mirtie, Myrta, Myrtia, Myrtice, Myrtie, Myrtiece, Myrteace, Myrtee... myrtle


See under THYROID GLAND, DISEASES OF – Hypothyroidism.... myxoedema


A benign TUMOUR comprising gelatinous CONNECTIVE TISSUE, most commonly occurring beneath the SKIN – although the condition may develop in the ABDOMEN, URINARY BLADDER, BONE and, rarely, the HEART. Treatment involves surgery, which is usually successful.... myxoma

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

... nuclear magnetic resonance

Nuclear Medicine

The branch of medicine concerned with the use of radioactive material in the diagnosis, investigation and treatment of disease.... nuclear medicine

Otitis Media

Inflammation, infectious or sterile, of the middle ear. In children this is often complicated by fluid buildup behind the eardrum. This raises the anxiety levels of conscious parents, debating the three-decade-old question, “Antibiotics?”. They may fear the realistic (and unrealistic) effects of the drug, weighed against the anguish of a center-of-attention complaining child and the knee-jerk agitation they feel (particularly the mother...see OXYTOCIN). Then, when three months of antibiotic therapy doesn’t work for some children (and they now show the brand-new signs of having become allergic...”No connection with the antibiotics at all” sez the pediatrician), the parents have descended to another level of Parent Bardo...”Tubes in his ears?!” You can guess my feelings. I am not, however, suggesting ignoring your pediatrician. There are presently strong, if minority, medical currents against these may have a Ped. that starts with antibiotics the first day and practically pre-schedules a three-month-away intubation visit...Let Your Fingers Do The Walking (see YELLOW PAGES). Another BabyDoc may not want to use antibiotics UNLESS other measures have failed and there is the extended presence of pus behind the eardrum. Turning away from such conservative an approach can hurt the kid...and is giving the careful physician a session in Negative Reinforcement Therapy. “Antibiotics Ÿber alles!” proclaims a banner in the waiting room next visit, and there may be a case displaying the newest line of Swatch Eartubes.... otitis media

Rhythm Method

A method of CONTRACEPTION which attempts to prevent conception by avoiding intercourse during the fertile part of the menstrual cycle. (See MENSTRUATION; SAFE PERIOD.)... rhythm method

Risk Management

The function of identifying and assessing problems that could occur and bring about losses legally, clinically or financially.... risk management

Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

A fever of the typhus group (see TYPHUS FEVER). It received its name from the fact that it was ?rst reported in the Rocky Mountain States of the United States; these are still the most heavily infected areas, but the fever is now found in all parts of the US. The causative organism is Rickettsia rickettsi, which is transmitted to humans by tics.... rocky mountain spotted fever

Tropical Medicine

In simple terms, tropical medicine is the medicine practised in the tropics. It arose as a discipline in the 19th century when physicians responsible for the health of colonists and soldiers from the dominant, European countries were faced with diseases not encountered in temperate climates. With extensive worldwide travel possible today, tropical diseases are now being widely seen in returning travellers and expatriates.... tropical medicine

Tympanic Membrane

The ear-drum, which separates the external and middle ear. (See EAR.)... tympanic membrane

Sports Medicine

The ?eld of medicine concerned with physical ?tness and the diagnosis and treatment of both acute and chronic sports injuries sustained during training and competition. Acute injuries are extremely common in contact sports, and their initial treatment is similar to that of those sustained in other ways, such as falls and road traf?c incidents. Tears of the muscles (see MUSCLES, DISORDERS OF), CONNECTIVE TISSUE and LIGAMENTS which are partial (sprains) are initially treated with rest, ice, compression, and elevation (RICE) of the affected part. Complete tears (rupture) of ligaments (see diagrams) or muscles, or fractures (see BONE, DISORDERS OF – Bone fractures) require more prolonged immobilisation, often in plaster, or surgical intervention may be considered. The rehabilitation of injured athletes requires special expertise

– an early graded return to activity gives the best long-term results, but doing too much too soon runs the risk of exacerbating the original injury.

Chronic (overuse) injuries affecting the bones (see BONE), tendons (see TENDON) or BURSAE of the JOINTS are common in many sports. Examples include chronic INFLAMMATION of the common extensor tendon where it

attaches to the later EPICONDYLE of the humerus – common in throwers and racquet sportspeople – and stress fractures of the TIBIA or METATARSAL BONES of the foot in runners. After an initial period of rest, management often involves coaching that enables the athlete to perform the repetitive movement in a less injury-susceptible manner.

Exercise physiology is the science of measuring athletic performance and physical ?tness for exercise. This knowledge is applied to devising and supervising training regimens based on scienti?c principles. Physical ?tness depends upon the rate at which the body can deliver oxygen to the muscles, known as the VO2max, which is technically di?cult to measure. The PULSE rate during and after a bout of exercise serves as a good proxy of this measurement.

Regulation of sport Sports medicine’s role is to minimise hazards for participants by, for example, framing rule-changes which forbid collapsing the scrum, which has reduced the risk of neck injury in rugby; and in the detection of the use of drugs taken to enhance athletic performance. Such attempts to gain an edge in competition undermine the sporting ideal and are banned by leading sports regulatory bodies. The Olympic Movement Anti-Doping Code lists prohibited substances and methods that could be used to enhance performance. These include some prohibited in certain circumstances as well as those completely banned. The latter include:

stimulants such as AMPHETAMINES, bromantan, ca?eine, carphedon, COCAINE, EPHEDRINE and certain beta-2 agonists.


ANABOLIC STEROIDS such as methandione, NANDROLONE, stanazol, TESTOSTERONE, clenbuterol, androstenedone and certain beta-2 agonists.

peptide HORMONES, mimetics and analogues such as GROWTH HORMONE, CORTICOTROPHIN, CHORIONIC GONADOTROPHIC HORMONE, pituitary and synthetic GONADOTROPHINS, ERYTHROPOIETIN and INSULIN. (The list produced above is not comprehen

sive: full details are available from the governing bodies of relevant sports.) Among banned methods are blood doping (pre-competition administration of an athlete’s own previously provided and stored blood), administration of arti?cial oxygen carriers or plasma expanders. Also forbidden is any pharmacological, chemical or physical manipulation to affect the results of authorised testing.

Drug use can be detected by analysis of the URINE, but testing only at the time of competition is unlikely to detect drug use designed to enhance early-season training; hence random testing of competitive athletes is also used.

The increasing professionalism and competitiveness (among amateurs and juveniles as well as professionals) in sports sometimes results in pressures on participants to get ?t quickly after injury or illness. This can lead to

players returning to their activity before they are properly ?t – sometimes by using physical or pharmaceutical aids. This practice can adversely affect their long-term physical capabilities and perhaps their general health.... sports medicine

Test Meal

(1) The name given to a gastric-function test, involving injection of HISTAMINE – a powerful stimulator of gastric juice, or pentagastin. After the stimulant has been injected, the digestive juices are withdrawn through a stomach tube (inserted through the nose and throat) and their volume and chemistry measured. A similar test is used to assess the working of the PANCREAS.

(2) The second meaning (also called test feed) applies to a diagnostic procedure for congenital PYLORIC STENOSIS, whereby a paediatrician feels over the baby’s abdomen while he or she is feeding. The pyloric mass can be felt as a ?rm swelling with the consistency of a squash ball, which comes and goes under the examiner’s ?ngers.... test meal

Marfan’s Syndrome

A collagen disease in infants (hereditary) with lax joints permitting easy dislocation and strain.

Features: long fingers and arm span, high palate, kyphosis, etc.

Symptoms. Backache, pain in joints, dislocations.

Alternatives. Alfalfa, Fenugreek, Irish Moss, Kelp, Horsetail, Marshmallow, Bamboo gum.

Teas. Alfalfa, Comfrey leaves, Horsetail, Plantain, Silverweed. Any one: 1 heaped teaspoon to each cup boiling water; infuse 10-15 minutes. 1 cup thrice daily.

Decoction. Fenugreek seeds 2; Horsetail 1; Bladderwrack 1; Liquorice half. Prepare: 3 heaped teaspoons to 1 pint (500ml) water gently simmered 10 to 20 minutes. 1 wineglass thrice daily. Fenugreek seeds decoction.

Diet. High protein, oily fish.

Supplements. Calcium, Dolomite, Zinc. ... marfan’s syndrome


An infection of the mastoid bone behind the ear, with possible destruction of bone. Usually due to extension of infection (streptococcal, etc) from the middle ear (otitis media) when that condition is wrongfully or neglectfully treated.

Symptoms: Mastoid bone behind the ear is tender to touch. Feverishness, red flush over mastoid area, deafness with throbbing earache, malaise, heavy discharge from the ear through perforated eardrum. Diagnostic sign: pinna (external ear) is displaced.

Treatment. Indicated: anti-microbials, anti-bacterials, alteratives with nervines as supportives. Yarrow tea.

Decoction. Combine: Echinacea 3; Wild Indigo 2; Poke root 1. 1 teaspoon to each cup water gently simmered 20 minutes. Half-1 cup every 2 hours with pinch of Cayenne.

Formula. Echinacea 2; Wild Indigo 1; Pulsatilla 1; few grains of Cayenne or Tincture Capsicum drops. Dose: Liquid Extracts: 30-60 drops (2-4ml). Tinctures: 4-8ml. Powders: 500mg (two 00 capsules or one- third teaspoon). Every 2 hours according to age. Children under 5 years – one-quarter dosage; under 12 years – half dosage.

Vitamin C. Copious fluids: fruit juices. Yarrow tea.

Topical. Goldenseal Ear Drops. Oil of Mullein, Sage or Lavender. Gentle massage with Tea Tree oil or Rosemary oil around the mastoid bone and in front of the ear 3/4 times daily.

Treatment by or in liaison with a general medical practitioner. ... mastoiditis

Meniere’s Disease

Inner ear disorder. Constriction of cerebral blood vessels (vasospasm) increases pressure of fluids in the balancing mechanism. Ages 40-60; more in men.

Etiology. Obscure; though cases may be traced to auto-toxaemia, Vitamin B deficiency, menstruation, malaria drugs (chloroquine).

Symptoms: dizziness, nausea, vomiting, tinnitus, sound distortions, heavy sweating, loss of hearing; usually in one ear only. Early diagnosis essential for effective treatment. This may mean reference to a department of otolaryngology or otoneurology.

Treatment. Antispasmodics. Nervines. Sometimes a timely diuretic reduces severity – Uva Ursi, Dandelion root, Wild Carrot.

Alternatives. Current European practice: Betony, German Chamomile, Passion flower, Hawthorn, Hops, Feverfew, White Willow.

Tea. Combine, equal parts: Valerian, Wild Carrot, Agrimony. 2 teaspoons to each cup boiling water; infuse 15 minutes. Half-1 cup every 2 hours during attack; thrice daily thereafter.

Decoction. Mistletoe: 2 teaspoons to each cup cold water steeped overnight. Bring to boil. Allow to cool. Half-1 cup, as above.

Tablets/capsules. Feverfew, Mistletoe, Prickly Ash.

Formula. Ginkgo 2; Dandelion 1; Black Cohosh 1. Dose: Liquid Extracts: 1 teaspoon. Tinctures: 2 teaspoons. Powders: 500mg (two 00 capsules or one-third teaspoon). Thrice daily.

Feverfew tincture. See: FEVERFEW.

Dr J. Christopher: inject into ears, at night, few drops oil of Garlic (or contents of Garlic capsule).

Cider vinegar. 2 teaspoons to glass water: as desired.

Aromatherapy. Inhalants: Eucalyptus or Rosemary oils.

Diet: gluten-free, low salt; good responses observed. High fibre. Avoid dairy products and chocolate. Vitamins: B-complex, B1; B2; B6; E; F. Brewer’s yeast, Niacin.

Minerals: Calcium. Magnesium. Phosphorus. Dolomite. ... meniere’s disease

Motion Sickness

Nausea and vomiting caused by lack of air and restricted vision upsetting the balance of the inner ear.

Cup of Chamomile, Balm, or Meadowsweet tea. Liquorice helpful, but most popular is Ginger taken in the form of Ginger wine, or powdered root (quarter to half a teaspoon). Chrystalised Ginger from sweetshop is one of the safest and cheapest: 2-3 pieces sucked or chewed half hour before journey and at intervals thereafter.

Avoid tobacco which reduces oxygen count. Potter’s Ginger root capsules.

Peppermint. Before travelling, glass water with 2 drops.

Aromatherapy. Inhalant. 2-3 drops Peppermint oil on tissue.

Diet. No alcohol or fatty foods. Accept Papaya fruit, Lemons or Lemon juice, Honey, Acidophilus. Supplements. Alternatives to the above. Seven days before journey: B-complex, magnesium 200mg, calcium 400mg. ... motion sickness

Bitter Melon

See Cundeamor.... bitter melon

Bone Marrow

Bone marrow is the soft substance occupying the interior of bones. It is the site of formation of ERYTHROCYTES, granular LEUCOCYTES and PLATELETS.... bone marrow

Cardiac Muscle

The muscle, unique to the heart, which comprises the walls of the atria and ventricles. It consists of long broadening cells (?bres) with special physiological characteristics which enable them to keep contracting and expanding inde?nitely.... cardiac muscle

Carneous Mole

An ovum which has died in the early months of pregnancy. It usually requires no treatment and evacuates itself.... carneous mole

Club Moss

Protection, Power... club moss

Community Medicine

The study of health and disease in the population of a defined community or group and the practice of medicine concerned with groups or populations rather than individual patients.... community medicine

Bone Marrow Transplant

The procedure by which malignant or defective bone marrow in a patient is replaced with normal bone marrow. Sometimes the patient’s own marrow is used (when the disease is in remission); after storage using tissue-freezing technique (cryopreservation) it is reinfused into the patient once the diseased marrow has been treated (autologous transplant). More commonly, a transplant uses marrow from a donor whose tissue has been matched for compatibility. The recipient’s marrow is destroyed with CYTOTOXIC drugs before transfusion. The recipient is initially nursed in an isolated environment to reduce the risk of infection.

Disorders that can be helped or even cured include certain types of LEUKAEMIA and many inherited disorders of the immune system (see IMMUNITY).... bone marrow transplant

Burr Marigold

Bidens tripartite. N.O. Compositae.

Synonym: Water Agrimony.

Habitat: Ditches, by waterways, and in wet places generally; also cultivated in gardens.

Features ? Erect, smooth, angular, brown-spotted stem, two to three feet high. Leaves opposite, stalked, smooth, serrate, usually in three or five segments. Flowers (July to September) in terminal heads, small, tawny. Numerous seeds, four-cornered, reflexed prickles. Root tapering, many-fibred.

Part used ? Whole plant.

Action: Astringent, diuretic, diaphoretic.

Dropsy, gout and bleeding of the urinary and respiratory organs, as well as uterine hemorrhage. 1 ounce to 1 pint infusion, in wineglass doses, three or four times daily. Ginger is usually added to this herb. Hool recommends 2 ounces Burr Marigold to 1 of crushed Ginger in 3 pints of water simmered down to 1 quart, given in the above quantity five times daily, or oftener if necessary.... burr marigold


See SLEEP.... dreams

Dura Mater

The outermost and strongest of the three membranes or meninges which envelop the brain and spinal cord. In it run vessels which nourish the inner surface of the skull. (See BRAIN.)... dura mater

Dystrophia Myotonica

A type of muscular dystrophy (see MUSCLES, DISORDERS OF) in which the affected person has weakness and wasting of the muscles, particularly those in the face and neck. Other effects are CATARACT, ptosis (see EYE, DISORDERS OF), baldness and malfunctioning of the endocrine system (see ENDOCRINE GLANDS). Both sexes may be affected by this inherited disorder.... dystrophia myotonica

Electron Microscope

See MICROSCOPE.... electron microscope

Cardiac Massage

The procedure used to restart the action of the heart if it is suddenly arrested. In many cases the arrested heart can be made to start beating again by rhythmic compression of the chest wall. This is done by placing the patient on a hard surface – a table or the ?oor – and then placing the heel of the hand over the lower part of the sternum and compressing the chest wall ?rmly, but not too forcibly, at the rate of 60–80 times a minute. At the same time arti?cial respiration must be started by the mouth-tomouth method. (See APPENDIX 1: BASIC FIRST AID.) Open heart massage is sometimes undertaken if an arrest occurs during a chest operation – the heart being directly handled by the resuscitator.... cardiac massage

Environmental Medicine

The study of the consequences for people’s health of the natural environment. This includes the effects of climate, geography, sunlight and natural vegetation.... environmental medicine

Fringe Medicine


Genito-urinary Medicine

The branch of medicine that deals with the effects of SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES (STDS) on the URINARY TRACT, REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM and other systems in the body. The specialty overlaps with GYNAECOLOGY (women’s urinary and reproductive systems) and UROLOGY (men’s urinary and reproductive system).... genito-urinary medicine

Geriatric Medicine

The branch of medicine specializing in the health and illnesses of old age and the appropriate care and services.... geriatric medicine

Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

An X-linked recessive disorder (that is, the abnormal gene is carried on the X chromosome). This means that the disease occurs almost exclusively in males, as its presence in a female is counteracted by the normal gene likely to be in her other X chromosome. The disorder is characterised by progressive muscular weakness and wasting. It is the most common form of muscular dystrophy, ocurring in 30 per 100,000 live male births, often – but not always – in families with other members having the disorder.

The disease usually appears within the ?rst three years of life, beginning in the pelvic girdle and lower limbs and later spreading to the shoulder girdle. The calf muscles become bulky (pseudohypertrophy). The weakness gives rise to a characteristic waddling gait and, when rising from the supine position, the child rolls on to his face and then uses his arms to push himself up. Death usually occurs by the middle of the second decade from respiratory infections. Prenatal screening of female carriers using gene probes is increasingly available. (See DYSTROPHY; MUSCLES, DISORDERS OF – Myopathy.)... duchenne muscular dystrophy

Internal Medicine

Generally, that branch of medicine concerned with diseases that do not require surgery, specifically the study and treatment of internal organs and body systems; it encompasses many subspecialties.... internal medicine

Involuntary Muscle

Muscle that does not operate under a person’s conscious control. Involuntary muscle – also called smooth muscle, because the cells do not contain the striations that occur in VOLUNTARY MUSCLE – is found in blood vessels, the heart, stomach, and intestines. (See PARASYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM.)... involuntary muscle

Irish Moss

Money, Luck, Protection... irish moss

Heart-lung Machine

A device that temporarily takes over the function of the heart and lungs. It is used in certain operations in the chest, giving the surgeon more time for operations such as open-heart surgery, heart transplants and heart-lung transplants. The machine also ensures an operating area largely free of blood, which helps the surgeon to work more quickly. A pump replaces the heart and an oxygenator replaces the lungs. When connected up, the machine in e?ect bypasses normal cardiopulmonary activity. It also contains a heat exchanger to warm or cool the patient’s blood according to the requirements of the operation. The patient is given an anticoagulant (HEPARIN) to counteract clotting which may occur when blood cells get damaged during the machine’s use. Patients are on the machine for a few hours only, because blood supply to vital organs begins to be reduced.... heart-lung machine


Psychic Powers, Mental Powers... mace

Hyaline Membrane Disease

A form of ACUTE RESPIRATORY DISTRESS SYNDROME (ARDS) found in premature infants and some of those born by CAESAREAN SECTION, characterised by the onset of di?culty in breathing a few hours after birth. Most require extra oxygen and many need mechanical ventilation for a few days or even weeks. Recovery is the rule, although the most severely affected may die or suffer damage from oxygen lack. In this condition the ALVEOLITIS and the ?ner BRONCHIOLES of the lungs are lined with a dense membrane. The cause of the condition is a de?ciency of SURFACTANT in the lung passages which adversely affects gas exchanges in the alveoli.

Treatment includes the full gamut of neonatal intensive care, as well as speci?c therapy with PULMONARY SURFACTANT.... hyaline membrane disease


Macrocyte is an unusually large red blood cell (see ERYTHROCYTES) especially characteristic of the blood in PERNICIOUS ANAEMIA.... macrocyte


This condition is particularly associated with PERNICIOUS ANAEMIA but can also be caused by a number of other things, such as alcohol, pregnancy, myxoedema (see THYROID GLAND, DISEASES OF – Hypothyroidism) and MYELOMATOSIS, and also by vitamin B12 de?ciency: this occurs sometimes in vegans (see VEGANISM) as well as in patients with CROHN’S DISEASE.... macrocytosis


Condition in which objects appear larger than normal. It can be due to disease of the MACULA

– see also EYE.... macropsia


A skin rash that is made up of macules (discoloration of the skin) and papules (raised abnormalities of the skin).... maculopapular

Madura Foot

Tropical infection of the foot by deeply invasive fungi which cause chronic swelling and suppuration with multiple discharging sinuses. Antibiotics are of limited value and advanced disease may require amputation of the affected foot.... madura foot


(French) Resembling the flowering tree

Magnoliya, Magnoliah, Magnolea, Magnoleah, Magnoliyah, Magnolya, Magnolyah... magnolia


Agave, tequila plant (Agave species).

Plant Part Used: Leaf, husk/bark, root.

Dominican Medicinal Uses: Leaf: tea, orally, for stomach ache, ulcers; fresh juice added to mixture for asthma, lung infection; applied externally for headache, sprains and muscle strain; alcohol tincture for sexually transmitted infections; decoction, douche for vaginal infection. Bark/husk: decoction, orally for arthritis, joint pain and to cleanse the blood; multi-herb internal mixture for cysts, fibroids, tumors.

Safety: Little data on toxicity; contact dermatitis reported due to oxalate crystals in leaves.

Contraindications: Pregnancy.

Laboratory & Preclinical Data: In vivo: anti-inflammatory (plant extract).

In vitro: inhibition of cell division and capillary permeability (plant extracts and constituents).

* See entry for Maguey in “Part 3: Dominican Medicinal Plant Profiles” of this book for more information, including references.... maguey

Malabsorption Syndrome

This term includes a multiplicity of diseases, all of which are characterised by faulty absorption from the INTESTINE of essential foodstu?s such as fat, vitamins and mineral salts. Among the conditions in this syndrome are COELIAC DISEASE, SPRUE, CYSTIC FIBROSIS and pancreatitis (see PANCREAS, DISORDERS OF). Surgical removal of the small intestine also causes the syndrome. Symptoms include ANAEMIA, diarrhoea, OEDEMA, vitamin de?ciencies, weight loss and, in severe cases, MALNUTRITION.... malabsorption syndrome

Male Fern

Luck, Love... male fern

Malignant Hypertension

Malignant hypertension has nothing to do with cancer; it derives its name from the fact that, if untreated, it runs a rapidly fatal course. (See HYPERTENSION.)... malignant hypertension


Name of either of the two bony prominences at the ANKLE.... malleolus

Managed Care

A health care delivery system which entails interventions to control the price, volume, delivery site and intensity of health services provided, the goal of which is to maximize the value of health benefits and the coordination of health care management for a covered population.... managed care

Mandrake, American

Podophyllum peltatum. N.O. Berberidaceae.

Synonym: May Apple, Racoonberry, Wild Lemon.

Habitat: A common plant in the United States and Canada, the root is imported into this country in large quantities for medicinal purposes.

Features ? The rhizome (as the part used should more strictly be termed) is reddish- brown in colour, fairly smooth, and has knotty joints at distances of about two inches. The fracture shows whitish and mealy.

American Mandrake is an entirely different plant from White Bryony or English Mandrake, dealt with elsewhere. Preparations of the rhizome of the American Mandrake are found in practice to be much more effective than those of the resin. This is one of the many confirmations of one of the basic postulates of herbal medicine—the nearer we can get to natural conditions the better the results. Therapeutic principles are never the same when taken from their proper environment.

Podophyllum is a very valuable hepatic, and a thorough but slow-acting purgative. Correctly compounded with other herbs it is wonderfully effective in congested conditions of the liver, and has a salutary influence on other parts of the system, the glands in particular being helped to normal functioning. Although apparently unrecognised in Coffin's day, the modern natural healer highly appreciates the virtues of this medicine and has many uses for it.

As American Mandrake is so powerful in certain of its actions, and needs such skillful combination with other herbs, it should not be used by the public without the advice of one experienced in prescribing it to

individual needs.... mandrake, american

Manic Depression

Manic depression, or CYCLOTHYMIA, is a form of MENTAL ILLNESS characterised by alternate attacks of mania and depression.... manic depression


An instrument for measuring the pressure or tension of liquids or gases. (See BLOOD PRESSURE.)... manometer

Marginal Benefit

The additional benefit (e.g. in units of health outcome) produced by an additional resource use (e.g. another health care intervention).... marginal benefit


Protection, Love, Happiness, Health, Money, Healing... marjoram

Marriage Guidance

See RELATE MARRIAGE GUIDANCE.... marriage guidance


See BONE MARROW.... marrow


Althea officinalis. N.O. Malvaceae.

Synonym: Guimauve, Mallards, Schloss Tea.

Habitat: Marshes near the sea.

Features ? This erect plant grows to a height of three feet, and is distinguishable from the Common Mallow by the velvety down covering the stem and leaves. Stems are round, the soft leaves being five-lobed below and three-lobed above. The pinkish- blue flowers appear in luxuriant axillar panicles between July and September. Roots are thick and fleshy, resembling those of the parsnip, and greyish-white outside, white and fibrous internally. The taste is mucilaginous and unpleasant, with only a very slight odour. The roots should be stored in a very dry place, or a yellowish matter of disagreeable smell will form.

Part used ? Root and leaves.

Action: The root is preferred, as the demulcent, emollient, diuretic and expectorant properties are present here in greater strength.

Marshmallow, usually in combination with other remedies, is taken

internally for coughs, colds and bronchitis. Its diuretic and emollient qualities adapt it to urinary complaints and, as there is no astringent action (indeed, there appears to be some relaxing effect) it is particularly suitable in the treatment of nephritis, cystitis and gravel.

The powdered or crushed fresh roots make a first-rate poultice, and the leaves also are used as a fomentation in inflammation. The addition of Slippery Elm powder improves the poultice, and the two remedies are frequently made up into an ointment for skin diseases, boils and ulcers.

The leaves are taken as an infusion of 1 ounce to 1 pint of boiling water frequently, in wineglass doses.

Culpeper relates a personal story about this herb:

"You may remember that not long since there was a raging disease called the bloody flux ; the College of Physicians not knowing what to make of it, called it The Plague in the Guts, for their wits were at ne plus ultra about it. My son was taken with the same disease ; myself being in the country, was sent for ; the only thing I gave him was Mallow bruised and boiled both in milk and drink ; in two days it cured him, and I have here to shew my thankfulness to God in communicating it to his creatures, leaving it to posterity."... marshmallow


A condition in which a person gets pleasure from physical or emotional pain in?icted by others or themselves. The term is often used in the context of achieving sexual excitement through in?icted pain. Masochism may be a conscious or subconscious activity.... masochism


An important muscle of MASTICATION that extends from the zygomatic arch in the cheek to the mandible or jawbone. It acts by closing the jaw.... masseter

Mast Cells

These are a group of cells that line the capillaries of tissues that come in contact with the outside, like skin, sinuses, and lung mucosa. They, like their first cousin basophils, are produced in the red bone marrow and migrate to the appropriate tissues, where they stay. They bind IgE, supply the histamine and heparin response that gives you a healing inflammation, and cause allergies.... mast cells


Psychic Powers, Manifestations, Lust ... mastic

Mastoid Process

The large process of the temporal bone of the SKULL which can be felt immediately behind the ear. It contains numerous cavities, one of which – the mastoid antrum – communicates with the middle ear, and is liable to suppurate when the middle ear is diseased. (See under EAR, DISEASES OF.)... mastoid process


The intercellular substance of a tissue. It forms the primary mass in some cartilage, bones, and the lens of the eye...where living cells are so separated they communicate with e-mail.... matrix

Meals On Wheels

A service which provides nutritious meals at a nominal fee to people in their homes who are homebound and/or disabled or would otherwise be unable to maintain their dietary needs.... meals on wheels


See PROTEIN.... meat


The middle layer of an organ or tissue, but more usually applied to the wall of an artery or vein, where the media comprises layers of elastic and smooth muscle ?bres.... media


A joint state and federal health insurance scheme in the United States that provides cover for poorer people in the population.... medicaid

Medical Record

A file kept for each patient, maintained by the hospital (medical practitioners also maintain medical records in their own practices), which documents the patient’s problems, diagnostic procedures, treatment and outcome. Related documents, such as written consent for surgery and other procedures, are also included in the record. In addition to facts about a patient’s illness, medical records nearly always contain other information such as clinical, demographic, sociocultural, sociological, economic, administrative and behavioural data. The record may be on paper or computerized.... medical record


A health insurance scheme in the United States, managed by the federal government, that provides cover for Americans over the age of 65 who have certain disabilities.... medicare


Description of a substance that contains a medicinal drug, commonly applied to items such as sweets and soaps.... medicated

Medical Negligence

Under the strict legal de?nition, negligence must involve proving a clearly established duty of care which has been breached in a way that has resulted in injury or harm to the recipient of care. There does not need to be any malicious intention. Whether or not a particular injury can be attributed to medical negligence, or must simply be accepted as a reasonable risk of the particular treatment, depends upon an assessment of whether the doctor has fallen below the standard expected of practitioners in the particular specialty. A defence to such a claim is that a respected body of practitioners would have acted in the same way (even though the majority might not) and in doing so would have acted logically.... medical negligence

Medical Research Council

A statutory body in the United Kingdom that promotes the balanced development of medical and related biological research and aims to advance knowledge that will lead to improved health care. It employs its own research sta? in more than 40 research establishments. These include the National Institute for Medical Research, the Laboratory of Molecular Biology, and the Clinical Sciences Centre. Grants are provided so that individual scientists can do research which complements the research activities of hospitals and universities. There are several medical charities and foundations – for example, the Imperial Cancer Research Fund, the British Heart Foundation, the Nu?eld Laboratories and the Wellcome Trust which fund and foster medical research.... medical research council


The adult, recognisable stage of a free-swimming jellyfish.... medusa

Meibomian Glands

Numerous glands within the tarsal plates of the eyelids. Their secretions form part of the tears. (See EYE.)... meibomian glands


Melilotus officinalis. N.O. Leguminosae.

Synonym: King's Clover.

Habitat: Waste places.

Features ? Stem erect, two or three feet high. Leaves in threes, ovate-truncate, serrate, two horns at base of leaf stalk. Flowers small, yellow, in one-sided clusters. Hay-like taste and scent.

Part used ? Herb.

Action: Carminative, emollient.

The 1 ounce to 1 pint infusion in wineglass doses as needed, to relieve flatulence. Sometimes used in fomentations and poultices.... melilot


An infectious disease caused by a soil bacterium, Burkholderia pseudomallei, seen in many areas of the tropics and is particularly prevalent during the wet season. The illness may present in a number of ways including life threatening acute septicaemia as well as pneumonia and chronic suppuration, which has a lower mortality.... melioidosis


(Greek) Resembling a honeybee; in mythology, a nymph Malissa, Mallissa, Mel, Melesa, Melessa, Melisa, Melise, Melisse, Melitta, Meliza, Mellie, Mellisa, Melly, Melosa, Milisa... melissa


The capacity to remember. It is a complex process and probably occurs in many areas of the BRAIN including the LIMBIC SYSTEM and the temporal lobes. There are three main steps: registration, storage, and recall.

During registration, information from the sense organs and the cerebral cortex is put into codes for storage in the short-term memory system. The codes are usually acoustic (based on the sounds and words that would be used to describe the information) but may use any of the ?ve senses. This system can take only a few chunks of information at a time: for example, only about seven longish numbers can be retained and recalled at once – the next new number displaces an earlier one that is then forgotten. And if a subject is asked to describe a person just met, he or she will recall only seven or so facts about that person. This depends on attention span and can be improved by concentration and rehearsal – for example, by reciting the list of things that must be remembered.

Material needing storage for several minutes stays in the short-term memory. More valuable information goes to the long-term memory where it can be kept for any period from a few minutes to a lifetime. Storage is more reliable if the information is in meaningful codes – it is much easier to remember people’s names if their faces and personalities are memorable too. Using techniques such as mnemonics takes this into account.

The ?nal stage is retrieval. Recognising and recalling the required information involves searching the memory. In the short-term memory, this takes about 40-thousandths of a second per item – a rate that is surprisingly consistent, even in people with disorders such as SCHIZOPHRENIA.

Most kinds of forgetting or AMNESIA occur during retrieval. Benign forgetfulness is usually caused by interference from similar items because the required information was not clearly coded and well organised. Retrieval can be improved by recreating the context in which the information was registered. This is why the police reconstruct scenes of crimes, and why revision for exams is more e?ective if facts are learnt in the form of answers to mock questions.

Loss of memory or amnesia mainly affects long-term memory (information which is stored inde?nitely) rather than short-term memory which is measured in minutes. Short-term memory may, however, be affected by unconsciousness caused by trauma. Drivers involved in an accident may be unable to recall the event or the period leading up to it. The cause of amnesia is disease of or damage to the parts of the brain responsible for memory. Degenerative disorders such as ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE, brain tumours, infections (for example, ENCEPHALITIS), STROKE, SUBARACHNOID HAEMORRHAGE and alcoholism all cause memory loss. Some psychiatric illnesses feature loss of memory and AGEING is usually accompanied by some memory loss, although the age of onset and severity vary greatly.... memory


The term applied to a law enunciated by G. J. Mendel that the o?spring is not intermediate in type between its parents, but that the type of one or other parent is predominant. Characteristics are classed as either dominant or recessive. The o?spring of the ?rst generation tend to inherit the dominant characteristics, whilst the recessive characteristics remain latent and appear in some of the o?spring of the second generation. If individuals possessing recessive characters unite, recessive characters then become dominant characters in succeeding generations. (See GENETICS.)... mendelism

Mendelson Syndrome

Inhalation of regurgitated stomach contents, usually as a complication of general ANAESTHESIA. It may cause death from ANOXIA or result in extensive lung damage.... mendelson syndrome


A condition with symptoms and signs closely resembling those of MENINGITIS. Most commonly occurring in children, it is usually a symptom of chest infection or of in?ammation in the upper respiratory tract. Given the serious implications of meningitis, medical advice should be sought. Examination of the CEREBROSPINAL FLUID may be necessary: in meningism the ?uid is normal.... meningism

Mental Impairment

A disorder characterized by the display of an intellectual defect, as manifested by diminished cognitive, interpersonal, social and vocational effectiveness and quantitatively evaluated by psychological examination and assessment.... mental impairment


Meningoencephalitis is the term applied to infection of the membranes, or MENINGES, of the brain and the underlying brain matter. In practically all cases of MENINGITIS there is some involvement of the underlying brain, and it is when this involvement is considerable that the term, meningoencephalitis, is used. One form that has attracted attention in recent years is that caused by amoebae (see AMOEBA), particularly that known as Naegleria fowleri, in which the infection is acquired through bathing in contaminated water. E?ective chlorination of swimming baths kills this micro-organism.... meningoencephalitis

Mercury Poisoning

The toxic effect of mercury has been known since days of the medieval alchemists. Charles II presented all the symptoms we now recognise as mercurial poisoning, presumably the result of medication received over many years. Its symptoms simulate multiple sclerosis, when chronic. They are: constant fatigue, pins and needles in the limbs, resting tremor, nausea, dizziness, ataxia, pains in the bones and joints, drooling (excessive salivation), blue line along the gums. In children they may include all kinds of vague aches and pains, chorea, hyperthyroidism and facial neuralgia. Weakness, walking difficulties, metallic taste in the mouth, thirst, mental deterioration. It is now known to cause a number of serious nerve dystrophies.

Mercury has an affinity for the central nervous system. Soon it concentrates in the kidney causing tubular damage. A common cause is the mercurial content (50 per cent) in the amalgam fillings in teeth which, under certain conditions, release a vapour. Fortunately, its use in dentistry is being superceded by an alternative composite filling.

A common cause of poisoning was demonstrated in 1972 when 6,000 people became seriously ill (600 died) from eating bread made from grain treated with a fungicide containing methylmercury. For every fungus in grain there is a mercuric compound to destroy it. The seed of all cereal grain is thus treated to protect its power of germination.

Those who are hypersensitive to the metal should as far as possible avoid button cells used in tape recorders, cassette players, watch and camera mechanisms. As the mercury cells corrode, the metal enters the environment and an unknown fraction is converted by micro organisms to alkylmercury compounds which seep into ground waters and eventually are borne to the sea. When cells are incinerated, the mercury volatilises and enters the atmosphere. (Pharmaceutical Journal, July 28/1984)

Mercury poisoning from inhalation of mercury fumes goes directly to the brain and pituitary gland. Autopsies carried out on dentists reveal high concentrations of mercury in the pituitary gland. (The Lancet, 5-27-89,1207 (letter))

Treatment. For years the common antidote was sulphur, and maybe not without reason. When brought into contact sulphur and mercury form an insoluble compound enabling the mercury to be more easily eliminated from the body. Sulphur can be provided by eggs or Garlic.

Old-time backwoods physicians of the North American Medical School used Asafoetida, Guaiacum and Echinacea. German pharmacists once used Bugleweed and Yellow Dock. Dr J. Clarke, USA physician recommends Sarsaparilla to facilitate breakdown and expulsion from the body.

Reconstructed formula. Echinacea 2; Sarsaparilla 1; Guaiacum quarter; Asafoetida quarter; Liquorice quarter. Dose: Liquid Extracts: 1 teaspoon. Tinctures: 2 teaspoons. Powders: 500mg (two 00 capsules or one-third teaspoon). Thrice daily.

Chelation therapy.

Formula. Tinctures. Skullcap 2-15 drops; Pleurisy root 20-45 drops; Horehound 5-40 drops. Mercurial salivation. Thrice daily. (Indian Herbology of North America, by Alma Hutchens) Dental fillings: replace amalgam with safe alternative – ceramic, etc. Evidence of a link between tooth fillings containing mercury and ME has caused the use of dental amalgam to be banned in Sweden. ... mercury poisoning

Meralgia Paraesthetica

A condition characterised by pain and PARAESTHESIA on the front and outer aspect of the thigh. It is more common in men than in women, and the victims are usually middle-aged, overweight and out of condition. It is due to compression of the lateral cutaneous nerve of the thigh, and exacerbated by an uncomfortable driving position when motoring long distances. Reduction in weight, improvement in general ?tness and correction of faulty posture usually bring relief. If these fail, surgical decompression of the nerve may help.... meralgia paraesthetica


(Spanish) From the flat-topped hill

Mesah, Messa, Messah... mesa


The small section of brain stem – excluding the pons and medulla – linking the hindbrain to the forebrain. (See BRAIN.)... mesencephalon


See HYPNOTISM.... mesmerism


The double fold of PERITONEUM by which the large INTESTINE is suspended from the back wall of the abdomen.... mesocolon


The middle layer of the three germ layers of the EMBRYO during its early development. It develops into cartilage, bone, blood, muscle, kidneys, testes and connective tissue.... mesoderm


A by-product, waste product, or endotoxin produced as the result of metabolism, both normal and defensive.... metabolites


An immature granulocyte (white blood cell) usually found in the bone marrow’s blood-making tissue. It can, however, appear in the blood in a range of diseases, including infection.... metamyelocyte


The extremity of a long bone where it joins the epiphysis (see BONE – Growth of bones).... metaphysis


Metatarsus is the group name of the ?ve metatarsal bones in the foot. Metatarsus varus is the condition characterised by deviation of the forefoot towards the other foot. It is a common condition in newborn babes and almost always corrects itself spontaneously. Only in the rare cases in which it is due to some deformity of the bones or muscles of the foot is any treatment required.... metatarsus

Metabolic Disorders

A collection of disorders in which some part of the body’s internal chemistry (see METABOLISM; CATABOLISM) is disrupted. Some of these disorders arise from inherited de?ciencies in which a speci?c ENZYME is absent or abnormal, or does not function properly. Other metabolic disorders occur because of malfunctions in the endocrine system (see ENDOCRINE GLANDS). There may be over- or underproduction of a hormone involved in the control of metabolic activities: a prime example is DIABETES MELLITUS – a disorder of sugar metabolism; others include CUSHING’S SYNDROME; hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism (see THYROID GLAND, DISEASES OF); and insulinoma (an insulin-producing tumour of the pancreas). The bones can be affected by metabolic disorders such as osteoporosis, osteomalacia (rickets) and Paget’s disease (see under BONE, DISORDERS OF). PORPHYRIAS, HYPERLIPIDAEMIA, HYPERCALCAEMIA and gout are other examples of disordered metabolism.

There are also more than 200 identi?ed disorders described as inborn errors of metabolism. Some cause few problems; others are serious threats to an individual’s life. Individual disorders are, fortunately, rare – probably one child in 10,000 or 100,000; overall these inborn errors affect around one child in 1,000. Examples include GALACTOSAEMIA, PHENYLKETONURIA, porphyrias, TAY SACHS DISEASE and varieties of mucopolysaccharidosis, HOMOCYSTINURIA and hereditary fructose (a type of sugar) intolerance.... metabolic disorders


A derivative of HAEMOGLOBIN in which the iron has been oxidised from ferrous to ferric form. It does not combine with oxygen and therefore plays no part in oxygen transport. Normal concentration of methaemoglobin in red blood cells is less than 1 per cent of the total haemoglobin. When a large concentration of the haemoglobin is in the form of methaemoglobin, the patient will suffer from HYPOXIA and will be cyanosed (see CYANOSIS). Most cases of METHAEMOGLOBINAEMIA are due to chemical agents.... methaemoglobin


An odourless, colourless, highly ?ammable gas. It occurs naturally in gas from coal mines and oil wells, where it is a hazard because of its explosive properties. ‘Natural’ gas supplied to homes and industries is almost 100 per cent methane. Unlike coal gas, it is not poisonous unless present in large amounts, when it may displace oxygen and thus asphyxiate (su?ocate) anyone exposed to it. Decomposition of organic matter produces methane.... methane


Methionine is an essential amino acid (see AMINO ACIDS; INDISPENSABLE AMINO ACIDS) that contains sulphur; it is necessary for normal growth in infants and to maintain nitrogen balance in adults.... methionine

Methyl Salicylate

Also called oil of Wintergreen, the liquid has analgesic (see ANALGESICS) and counter-irritant properties. Rubbed into the skin, the oil helps to relieve pain in LUMBAGO, SCIATICA and ‘rheumatic conditions’.... methyl salicylate

Methylene Blue

Methylene blue, or methylthionin chloride, is used in a dose of 75–100 mg, as a 1-per-cent intravenous injection, in the treatment of METHAEMOGLOBINAEMIA, which may occur following high doses of local anaesthetics such as prilocaine.... methylene blue


A drug used to prevent attacks of MIGRAINE. The drug requires hospital supervision, as it has to be used with care because of the toxic effects it sometimes produces – for example, nausea, drowsiness and retroperitoneal FIBROSIS.... methysergide


The basic unit of length in the modern version of the metric system, known as the International System of Units (SI). It is equivalent to 39·37 inches.... metre


In?ammation of the uterus (see UTERUS, DISEASES OF).... metritis


Metyrapone is a drug that inhibits the production of CORTISOL in the adrenal cortex, which results in an increase in ACTH production and (completing the feedback control cycle) thus greater synthesis of the chemical precursors of cortisol. Metyrapone is used to treat patients with CUSHING’S SYNDROME (a condition caused by excess amounts of corticosteroid hormones in the body) where surgery is not possible.... metyrapone


A small red blood cell.... microcyte


The technique of dissecting very small structures under a microscope. Miniature surgical instruments are manipulated via geared connections that convert the coarse movements of the surgeon’s ?ngers into miniscule movements, making it possible to dissect and separate even individual CHROMOSOMES.... microdissection


A spherical gram-positive bacterium (see BACTERIA; GRAM’S STAIN). It occurs in colonies and is usually harmless in humans. However, micrococcus can become pathogenic and cause abscesses (see ABSCESS), ARTHRITIS, ENDOCARDITIS or MENINGITIS.... micrococcus


Microgram is the 1/1,000th part of a milligram. The abreviation for it is µg. (See APPENDIX 6: MEASUREMENTS IN MEDICINE.)... microgram


A unit of measurement. 1 um = 1 thousandth of a mm.... micrometer


The 1/1,000th part of a millimetre. The abbreviation for it is µm. (See APPENDIX 6: MEASUREMENTS IN MEDICINE.)... micrometre


Condition in which objects appear smaller than normal. It can be due to disease of the macula of the EYE.... micropsia


One of the three genera of dermatophytes (fungi) which cause tinea (see RINGWORM). Microsporum of human or animal origin is an important cause of tinea capitis, or ringworm of the scalp.... microsporum


A laboratory instrument for cutting sections of biological tissues for study under a MICROSCOPE. It is widely used in biological and PATHOLOGY laboratories.... microtome


These are small keratin cysts appearing as white papules on the cheek and eyelids.... milia


Also known as prickly heat. An intensely itchy vesicular and erythematous rash induced by intense heat and humidity. It is caused by a disturbance of sweat-gland function.... miliaria


A term, expressing size, applied to various disease products which are about the size of millet seeds: for example, miliary aneurysms, miliary tuberculosis.... miliary


Milium is a pinhead white cyst of the skin of the face containing corneal cells. It can be removed on the point of a sterile needle.... milium

Milk Thistle

When consumed as a tea, milk thistle herb, (not as in dairy milk) is a gentle liver cleanser. It contains properties that help the liver to regenerate and function at a higher capacity. “Milk Thistle can also assist in the production of bile, which can help with our digestive process.... milk thistle


Millilitre is the 1,000th part of 1 litre. It is practically the equivalent of a cubic centimetre (1 cm3 = 0·999973 ml); ml is the usual abbreviation.... millilitre


Protection, Love, Prophetic Dreams, Purification... mimosa


(1) The seat of consciousness of the human BRAIN. The mind understands, reasons and initiates action and is also the source of emotions. This is a simplistic de?nition for a concept that has been and continues to be the subject of vigorous debate among theologians, philosophers, biologists, psychologists, psychiatrists and other doctors, their arguments being too complex for inclusion in a dictionary’s de?nition.

(2) MIND: The National Association for Mental Health, a voluntary charitable body that works in the interests of those with MENTAL ILLNESS, advising, educating and campaigning for and supporting them.... mind


A ‘pre-metric’ unit of measurement of volume. It is about one-60th part of a ?uid drachm and is used in pharmacy.... minim

Minimum Standard

A level of quality that all health plans and providers are required to meet in order to offer services to clients/consumers.... minimum standard


See Hierbabuena.... mint


The rod-like bodies in the CELLS of the body which contain the enzymes (see ENZYME) necessary for the activity of the cell. They have been described as the ‘power plant of the cell’... mitochondria

Mitral Incompetence

A defect in the MITRAL VALVE of the HEART which allows blood to leak from the left VENTRICLE into the left ATRIUM. It is also known as mitral regurgitation; incompetence may occur along with MITRAL STENOSIS. The left ventricle has to work harder to compensate for the faulty valve, so it enlarges, but eventually the ventricle cannot cope with the extra load and left-sided heart failure may develop. A common cause of mitral incompetence is RHEUMATIC FEVER or damage following a heart attack. The condition is treated with drugs to help the heart, but in severe cases heart surgery may be required.... mitral incompetence

Mitral Stenosis

Narrowing of the opening between the left ATRIUM and left VENTRICLE of the HEART as a result of rigidity of, and adhesion between, the cusps of the MITRAL VALVE. It is due, almost invariably, to the infection RHEUMATIC FEVER. The atrium has to work harder to force blood through the narrowed channel. The effects are similar to those of MITRAL INCOMPETENCE. Shortness of breath and palpitations and irregular beating (?brillation) of the atrium are common consequences in adults. Drug treatment with DIGOXIN and DIURETICS helps, but surgery to dilate or replace the faulty valve may be necessary.... mitral stenosis


A measure of central tendency. The most frequently occurring value in a set of observations.... mode


(1) A term used to describe the common pigmented spots which occur on human SKIN. It arises from a collection of abnormal melanocytes (see MELANOCYTE) in the dermis adjacent to the epidermodermal junction. Moles are usually not present at birth, and appear in childhood or adolescence. Most moles are less than 5 mm in diameter and are macular at ?rst, becoming raised later. Rarely, moles are present at birth and may occasionally be massive. There is a substantial risk of future malignancy (see MALIGNANT) in massive congenital moles and prophylactic surgical removal is advised if feasible. All humans have moles, but their number varies from ten or fewer to 100 or more. The members of some families are genetically predisposed to large numbers of moles, some of which may be large and irregular in shape and colour. This ‘atypical mole syndrome’ is associated with an increased risk of future malignant MELANOMA.

(2) An internationally agreed unit (see SI UNITS) for measuring the quantity of a substance at molecular level.... mole

Molecular Biology

The study of molecules (see MOLECULE) that are part of the structure of living organisms.... molecular biology


The smallest possible amount of a substance comprising two or more linked atoms which retains the chemical characteristics of that substance. Molecules vary greatly in their size and complexity, ranging from oxygen (two linked oxygen atoms) and water (two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen) to large complex molecules such as deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) comprising thousands of atoms of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and phosphorus that form the double-helix structure which helps to form GENES, the basic building blocks of the hereditary material of living things.... molecule


(Gaelic) One who is born into the nobility

Moina, Monah, Monalisa, Monalissa, Monna, Moyna, Monalysa, Monalyssa... mona

Mongolian Blue Spots

Irregularly shaped areas of bluish-black pigmentation found occasionally on the buttocks, lower back or upper arms in newborn infants of African, Chinese and Japanese parentage, and sometimes in the babies of black-haired Europeans. They measure from one to several centimetres in diameter, and usually disappear in a few months. They are commonly mistaken for bruises.... mongolian blue spots


PARALYSIS of a single limb or part.... monoplegia


A sugar having six carbon atoms in the molecule, such as glucose, galactose, and laevulose.... monosaccharide

Monozygotic Twins

Twins who develop from a single OVUM fertilised by a single SPERMATOZOON. Also known as identical or uniovular twins (see MULTIPLE BIRTHS).... monozygotic twins


Relating to disease... morbid

Morbid Anatomy

The study of the structural changes that diseases cause in the body, in particular those which can be seen with the naked eye at POST-MORTEM EXAMINATION.... morbid anatomy


Morbus, the Latin word for disease, is used in such terms as morbus cordis (heart disease), morbus coxae (hip-joint disease).... morbus


In a state of dying.... moribund

Morning-after Pill

See CONTRACEPTION.... morning-after pill


The type of form or structure of a plant or animal.... morphology


Motilin is a hormone (see HORMONES) formed in the DUODENUM and the JEJUNUM which plays a part in controlling the movements of the stomach and the gut.... motilin


A term usually applied to nerves, used to describe anything that results in movement. Motor nerves stimulate muscles to contract, producing movement. (See also SENSORY.)... motor

Motor Neurone Disease (mnd)

A group of disorders of unknown origin. Certain cells in the neurological system’s MOTOR nerves degenerate and die. Upper and lower motor neurones may be affected but sensory cells retain their normal functions. Three types of MND are identi?ed: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (AML – 50 per cent of patients); progressive muscular atrophy (25 per cent), in which the prognosis is better than for AML; and bulbar palsy (25 per cent). Men are affected more than women, and the disorder affects about seven people in every 100,000. Those affected develop progressive weakness and wasting of their muscles. The diagnosis is con?rmed with various tests including the measurement of electrical activity in muscles, electromyography, muscle BIOPSY, blood tests and X-ray examination of the spine. There is no medical treatment: patients need physical and psychological support with aids to help them overcome disabilities. The Motor Neurone Disease Association provides excellent advice and help for sufferers and their relatives. (See APPENDIX 2: ADDRESSES: SOURCES OF INFORMATION, ADVICE, SUPPORT AND SELF-HELP.)... motor neurone disease (mnd)


A discharge of mixed mucus and pus, usually from congested and moderately infected membranes.... mucopurulent




An abnormally dilated cavity in the body due to the accumulation of MUCUS; such a ‘cyst’ may therefore form wherever there is mucous membrane.... mucocoele


Morus species

Description: This tree has alternate, simple, often lobed leaves with rough surfaces. Its fruits are blue or black and many seeded.

Habitat and Distribution: Mulberry trees are found in forests, along roadsides, and in abandoned fields in Temperate and Tropical Zones of North America, South America, Europe, Asia, and Africa.

Edible Parts: The fruit is edible raw or cooked. It can be dried for eating later.


When eaten in quantity, mulberry fruit acts as a laxative. Green, unripe fruit can be hallucinogenic and cause extreme nausea and cramps.

Other Uses: You can shred the inner bark of the tree and use it to make twine or cord.... mulberry


A pregnant woman who has had more than one pregnancy.... multigravida


A woman who has borne several children.... multipara

Multiple Personality Disorder

The individual with this psychiatric disorder has two or more di?erent personalities, often contrasting. The dominant personality at the time determines the behaviour and attitude of the individual, who customarily seems not to know about the other personality – or personalities. The switch from one personality to another is abrupt and the mental condition of the di?ering personalities is usually normal. It is possible that child abuse is a factor in the disorder, which is treated by psychotherapy. The classic multiple personality was the ?ctional form of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde.... multiple personality disorder

Muira Puama

Muira puama is one of the most popular and widely consumed herbs. It grows in the northern Amazon river basin. This herb has been used to enhance libido for a long time, making the harvest and sale of the herb a large business throughout Brazil.... muira puama

Multivariate Analysis

A set of techniques used when the variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, any analytic method that allows the simultaneous study of two or more independent variables.... multivariate analysis


An adjective that relates to muscle and/or bone. The musculoskeletal system comprises the bones of the skeleton and all the muscles attached to them.... musculoskeletal


Fertility, Protection, Mental Powers ... mustard

Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (me)

A syndrome in which various combinations of extreme fatiguability, muscle pain, lack of concentration, panic attacks, memory loss and depression occur. Its existence and causes have been the subject of controversy re?ected in the variety of names given to the syndrome: CHRONIC FATIGUE SYNDROME (CFS), post-viral fatigue syndrome, Royal Free disease, epidemic neuromyasthenia and Icelandic disease. ME often follows virus infections of the upper respiratory tract or gut, but it is not clear whether this is an association or cause-ande?ect. It may occur in epidemics or as individual cases. Physical examination shows no evidence of diagnosable disease and there is no diagnostic test – diagnosis usually being made by excluding other possible disorders. The sufferer usually recovers in time, although sometimes recovery may take many months or even years. The most severely affected may be bedridden and may need tube-feeding. There is no speci?c curative treatment, but symptomatic treatment such as resting in the early stages may help. Some experts believe that the illness has a psychological element, and sufferers have been treated with COGNITIVE BEHAVIOUR THERAPY. In 1998 the Chief Medical O?cer set up a multidisciplinary working group, including patients, to consider possible cures and treatments for ME/CFS. The report (2002) concluded that the disorder should be recognised as chronic and treatable, but there was no clear agreement on cause(s) and treatment(s). Meanwhile research continues, including a programme by the Centre of Disease Control in Atlanta, USA. Su?erers may ?nd it helpful to consult the ME Association.... myalgic encephalomyelitis (me)


A gram-positive (see GRAM’S STAIN) rod-like genus of aerobic BACTERIA, some species of which are harmful to humans and animals. For example, M. tuberculosis (Koch’s bacillus) and

M. leprae cause, respectively, TUBERCULOSIS and LEPROSY.... mycobacterium


A drug that dilates the pupil... mydriatic


Present in the blood-producing tissue in the BONE MARROW, this is a cell with a large nucleus and scanty cytoplasm. It is the precursor cell of a granulocyte (see GRANULOCYTES). Myeloblasts sometimes appear in the blood of patients with various diseases including acute myeloblastic LEUKAEMIA.... myeloblast


The name given to one of the cells of BONE MARROW from which the granular white cells of the blood are produced. They are found in the blood in certain forms of LEUKAEMIA.... myelocyte


An adjective that relates to the granulocyte (see GRANULOCYTES) precursor cell in the BONE MARROW. For example, myeloid LEUKAEMIA, which arises from abnormal growth in the blood-forming tissue of the bone marrow.... myeloid


A fall in the production of blood cells in the BONE MARROW. This fall often occurs after CHEMOTHERAPY for cancer. ANAEMIA, infection and abnormal bleeding are symptomatic of myelosuppression.... myelosuppression


The occurrence of MYOGLOBIN in the URINE. This is the oxygen-binding pigment in muscle and mild myoglobinuria may occur during exercise. Severe myoglobinuria will result from serious injuries, particularly crushing injuries, to muscles.... myoglobinuria


The muscular coat of the UTERUS.... myometrium

Operating Microscope

A binocular MICROSCOPE used for MICROSURGERY on, for example, the EYE and middle EAR; this microscope is also used for suturing nerves and blood vessels damaged or severed by trauma and for rejoining obstructed FALLOPIAN TUBES in the treatment of INFERTILITY in women.... operating microscope

Passive Movement

A movement induced by someone other than the patient. Physiotherapists (see PHYSIOTHERAPY) manipulate joints by passive movement in order to retain and encourage function of a nerve or muscle that is not working normally because of injury or disease.... passive movement

Peak Flow Meter

A device that measures the rate at which an individual can expel air from the LUNGS. This is an indication of the reserve in the capacity of the lungs. Narrowed airways (bronchospasm) slow the rate at which air can be expelled; the peak ?ow meter can assess the severity of the condition. ASTHMA causes bronchospasm and the device can measure the e?ectiveness of treatment with BRONCHODILATOR drugs; this should be done regularly to monitor the progress of the disease.... peak flow meter

Periodontal Membrane

See TEETH.... periodontal membrane

Physical Medicine

A medical specialty founded in 1931 and recognised by the Royal College of Physicians of London in 1972. Physical-medicine specialists started by treating rheumatic diseases; subsequently their work developed to include the diagnosis and rehabilitation of people with physical handicaps. The specialty has now been combined with that of RHEUMATOLOGY. (See also PHYSIOTHERAPY.)... physical medicine

Pia Mater

The membrane closely investing the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD, in which run blood vessels for the nourishment of these organs.... pia mater

Rosa Macrophylla


Ayurvedic: Taruni-Kantaka (non- classical). (Flowers—crimson or pink.)

Unani: Chini Gulaab.

Folk: Kaantaa-Gulaab.

Action: Hips—applied to wounds, injuries, sprains and foul ulcers.

R. chinensis Jacq. and R. borboni- ana Desp. are synonyms of Rosa indica, found and cultivated throughout India. This variety is also known as Edward Rose or Kat Gulaab.... rosa macrophylla

Serous Membranes

Membranes that line many internal organs and cavities, secreting a thin, lymph-like fluid, that lubricates and slowly circulates.... serous membranes

Skeletal Muscle

Muscle under a person’s voluntary control (see MUSCLE; VOLUNTARY MUSCLE).... skeletal muscle

Smooth Muscle

Muscle under the ‘involuntary’ control of the autonomic nervous system (see MUSCLE; NERVOUS SYSTEM).... smooth muscle

Social Medicine

See PUBLIC HEALTH.... social medicine

Space Medicine

A medical specialty dealing with the physiological, PSYCHOLOGICAL and pathological consequences of space ?ight in which the body has to cope with unusual variations in gravitational forces, including weightlessness, a constricted environment, prolonged close contact with work colleagues in very demanding technical circumstances, and sustained periods of emotional pressure including fear. Enormous progress has been made in providing astronauts with as normal an environment as possible, and they have to undergo prolonged physical and mental training before embarking on space travel.... space medicine

Synovial Membrane

This forms the lining of the soft parts that enclose the cavity of a joint. (See JOINTS.)... synovial membrane

Travel Medicine

That aspect of public health which seeks to prevent illnesses and injuries occurring to travellers, especially those going abroad, and manages problems arising in travellers coming back or from abroad. It is also concerned about the impact of tourism on health and the provision of health and safetyservices for tourists.... travel medicine

Voluntary Muscle

Also known as skeletal muscle, this forms the muscles which are under a person’s conscious control. Muscles that control walking, talking and swallowing are examples of those under such control (see INVOLUNTARY MUSCLE; MUSCLE; NERVOUS SYSTEM).... voluntary muscle

Tropical Medicinal Plants

Tropical countries are a treasure house of a wide variety of medicinal plants. Some species are found wild, while a number of species have been domesticated by the farmers. Many species have been grown in homesteads and become part of traditional home remedies. A limited number of species are commercially cultivated though a few more have potential for large-scale production. The important tropical and subtropical medicinal plants are discussed here highlighting the importance, medicinal and other uses, distribution, botany, agrotechnology, chemical constituents and activity. For practical convenience of the discussion in this book, they are classified under the following four broad groups.

a) Medicinal herbs

b) Medicinal shrubs

c) Medicinal climbers

d)Medicinal trees... tropical medicinal plants


Essential oils are used in prayer, zen, yoga or meditation to induce rest and reflection. Bergamot, Balm (Melissa), Sage, Lavender, Orange Blossom. Any one used as an inhalant or to anoint the forehead with a smear. ... meditation

Mediterranean Fever

An intermittent fever related to brucellosis. Colchicum. (Martindale 27th Ed. p.370)

See: BRUCELLOSIS. ... mediterranean fever


Suppression of. See: AMENORRHOEA. ... menses


Rich vegetable source of Vitamin B12, protein, fats, carbohydrates and minerals. After the atom bomb was dropped in Japan during World War II it was discovered that those who included Miso in the diet did not suffer from radiation trauma. ... miso

Carbon Monoxide

(CO) A colourless, odourless, poisonous gas present in motor exhaust fumes and produced by inefficient burning of coal, gas, or oil.

Carbon monoxide binds with haemoglobin and prevents the transportation of oxygen to body tissues.

The initial symptoms of acute high-level carbon monoxide poisoning are dizziness, headache, nausea, and faintness.

Continued inhalation of the gas may lead to loss of consciousness, permanent brain damage, and even death.

Low-level exposure to carbon monoxide over a period of time may cause fatigue, nausea, diarrhoea, abdominal pain, and general malaise.... carbon monoxide

Complementary Medicine

A group of therapies, often described as “alternative”, which are now increasingly used to complement or to act as an alternative to conventional medicine. They fall into 3 broad categories: touch and movement (as in acupuncture, massage, and reflexology); medicinal (as in naturopathy, homeopathy. and Chinese medicine); and psychological (as in biofeedback, hypnotherapy, and meditation).... complementary medicine

Chinese Medicine

Modern Chinese medicine has rejected entirely the conception of disease due to evil spirits and treated by exorcism. Great advances in scientific knowledge in China have been made since 1949, removing much of the superstitious aspect from herbal medicine and placing it on a sound scientific basis. Advances in the field of Chinese Herbal Medicine are highlighted in an authoritative work: Chinese Clinical Medicine, by C.P. Li MD (Pub: Fogarty International Centre, Bethseda, USA).

Since the barefoot doctors (paramedics) have been grafted into the public Health Service, mass preventative campaigns with public participation of barefoot doctors have led to a reduction in the mortality of infectious disease.

Chinese doctors were using Ephedra 5000 years ago for asthma. For an equal length of time they used Quinghaosu effectively for malaria. The Chinese first recorded goose-grease as the perfect base for ointments, its penetrating power endorsed by modern scientific research.

While Western medicine appears to have a limited capacity to cure eczema, a modern Chinese treatment evolved from the ancient past is changing the lives of many who take it. The treatment was brought to London by Dr Ding-Hui Luo and she practised it with crowded surgeries in London’s Chinatown.

Chinese herbalism now has an appeal to general practitioners looking for alternative and traditional therapies for various diseases where conventional treatment has proved to be ineffective.


Address. Hu Shilin, Institute of Chinese Materia Medica, China Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Beijing, China. ... chinese medicine

Heimlich Manoeuvre

A first-aid treatment for choking. The sole aim of the Heimlich manoeuvre is to dislodge the material that is causing the blockage by placing one fist, covered by the other, just below the victim’s rib cage, and pulling sharply inwards and upwards to give an abdominal thrust.... heimlich manoeuvre

Methyl Alcohol

An alternative name for methanol.... methyl alcohol


An antidepressant drug used to treat severe depression, especially that accompanied by anxiety or insomnia. Mianserin usually takes several weeks to become fully effective. Possible adverse effects include dry mouth, blurred vision, constipation, dizziness, and drowsiness. Rarely, prolonged use may reduce blood cell production; regular blood counts are therefore carried out during treatment.... mianserin


Surgery to relieve pressure on the spinal cord, or a nerve root emerging from it, that is caused by protrusion of the soft core of an intervertebral disc (see disc prolapse). The procedure is performed under general anaesthesia and involves removing the protruding tissue via a small incision in the outer coat of the disc.... microdiscectomy


A tiny, single-celled living organism.

Most microorganisms are too small to be seen by the naked eye.... microorganism


A rare congenital disorder of the eye. Affected children are born with an abnormally small eye on one or both sides.... microphthalmos


A benzodiazepine drug used as premedication.

Adverse effects include confusion, drowsiness, and dizziness.

If benzodiazepines are taken for a long period, dependence may result.... midazolam


The top part of the brainstem, situated above the pons.

The midbrain is also called the mesencephalon.... midbrain


A sex hormone drug used to induce medical termination of a pregnancy (see abortion, induced). Possible adverse effects include malaise, faintness, nausea, rash, and, rarely, uterine bleeding. Women over 35 who smoke should not be given the drug.... mifepristone

Minamata Disease

The name given to a severe form of mercury poisoning that occurred in the mid-1950s, in people who had eaten polluted fish from Minamata Bay, Japan.

Many people suffered severe nerve damage and some died.... minamata disease

Minimally Invasive Surgery

Surgery using a rigid endoscope passed into the body through a small incision. Further small openings are made for surgical instruments so that the operation can be performed without a long surgical incision. Minimally invasive surgery may be used for many operations in the abdomen (see laparoscopy), including appendicectomy, cholecystectomy, hernia repair, and many gynaecological procedures. Knee operations (see arthroscopy) are also often performed by minimally invasive surgery.... minimally invasive surgery

Macular Degeneration

A progressive, painless disorder affecting the macula. The result is a roughly circular area of blindness that increases in size until it is large enough to obscure 2 or 3 words at reading distance. Macular degeneration does not cause total blindness as vision is retained around the edges of the visual fields. This condition is a common disorder in elderly people.

Of the 2 types of macular degeneration that may occur, one type is usually remedied by laser treatment.

There is no treatment for the other form, although the affected person may benefit from aids such as magnifying instruments.... macular degeneration


A spot that is level with the skin’s surface and discernible only by difference in colour or texture.... macule

Magnesium Sulphate

A magnesium compound used as a laxative drug and an anticonvulsant drug.... magnesium sulphate

Magnetic Resonance Imaging

See MRI.... magnetic resonance imaging


An abnormal relationship between the upper and lower sets of teeth when they are closed, affecting the bite (see occlusion) or appearance.

Malocclusion usually develops during childhood. It is inherited, or is caused by thumb-sucking or a mismatch betweenthe teeth and jaws – for example, the combination of large teeth and a small mouth (see overcrowding, dental).

Orthodontic appliances (braces) may be used to move teeth into the proper position, and if there is dental overcrowding, some teeth may be extracted. Orthognathic surgery is used to treat severe recession or protrusion of the lower jaw. Treatment is best carried out in childhood or adolescence.... malocclusion


The measuring of pressure (of either a liquid or a gas) by means of an instrument called a manometer. Manometry is used to measure blood pressure using an instrument called a sphygmomanometer.... manometry

Marble Bone Disease

See osteopetrosis.... marble bone disease


A surgical procedure used to drain some types of abscess or cyst and to prevent further abscesses.

Marsupialization is used to treat certain types of cysts affecting the pancreas and liver, and cysts affecting the Bartholin’s glands at the entrance to the vagina.... marsupialization


See virilization.... masculinization

Mast Cell

A type of cell that plays an important part in allergy.

In an allergic response, mast cells release histamine.... mast cell

Mcardle’s Disease

A rare genetic disorder characterized by muscle stiffness and painful cramps that increase during exertion and afterwards. The cause is a deficiency of an enzyme in muscle cells that stimulates breakdown of the carbohydrate glycogen into the simple sugar glucose. The result is a build-up of glycogen and low levels of glucose in the muscles. Damage to the muscles occurs, causing myoglobinuria (muscle-cell pigment in the urine), which may lead to kidney failure. There is no treatment, but symptoms may be relieved by eating glucose or fructose before exercise.... mcardle’s disease

Meckel’s Diverticulum

A common problem, present at birth, in which a small, hollow, wide-mouthed sac protrudes from the ileum. Symptoms only occur when the diverticulum becomes infected, obstructed, or ulcerated. The most common symptom is painless bleeding, which may be sudden and severe, making immediate blood transfusion necessary. Inflammation may cause symptoms very similar to those of acute appendicitis. Meckel’s diverticulum occasionally causes intussusception or volvulus of the small intestine. Diagnosis of Meckel’s diverticulum may be made by using technetium radionuclide scanning. If complications occur, they are treated by surgical removal of the diverticulum.... meckel’s diverticulum


Investigation of the mediastinum by means of an endoscope inserted through an incision in the neck. Mediastinoscopy is used mainly to perform a biopsy of a lymph node. The sample is removed by tiny blades on the endoscope.... mediastinoscopy


Any substance prescribed to treat disease. (See also drug; medicine.)... medication


A type of cancerous brain tumour that occurs mainly in children.

The tumour usually arises from the cerebellum, which is concerned with posture, balance, and coordination.

It grows rapidly and may spread to other parts of the brain and to the spinal cord.

A morning headache, repeated vomiting, and a clumsy gait develop.

There are also frequent falls.

The tumour is diagnosed by CT scanning or MRI and often responds to radiotherapy.

Surgery and anticancer drugs may also be needed.... medulloblastoma


A prefix meaning very large, as in megacolon, a condition in which the colon is greatly enlarged.

The prefix megalo- has the same meaning.... mega-


A suffix meaning enlargement, as in acromegaly, a condition in which there is enlargement of the skull, jaw, hands, and feet due to excess production of growth hormone.... megaly


A progestogen drug used to treat certain types of breast cancer and uterine cancer (see uterus, cancer of). It may be prescribed when a tumour cannot be removed by surgery, if a tumour has recurred after surgery, or when other anticancer drugs or radiotherapy prove ineffective.

Possible adverse effects of megestrol include swollen ankles, weight gain, nausea, dizziness, headache, rash, and, rarely, raised blood calcium level. ... megestrol

Meibomian Cyst

See chalazion.... meibomian cyst


See chloasma.... melasma


A layer of tissue that covers or lines a body surface or forms a barrier.... membrane


A rare, noncancerous tumour of the meninges of the brain that arises from the arachnoid mater (middle layer) and usually becomes attached to the dura mater (outer layer). The tumour slowly expands and may become very large before any symptoms appear. Symptoms can include headache, vomiting, and impaired mental function.

There may also be speech loss or visual disturbance. If the tumour invades the skull bone, there may be thickening and bulging of the skull.

Meningiomas can be detected by X-ray or CT scanning, and MRI of the skull, and can often be completely removed by surgery. Otherwise, treatment is by radiotherapy.... meningioma

Mental Age

A measurement of the intellectual development of a person, with regard to the normal age at which that level of achievement is attained.

For example, a 13 year-old child with learning difficulties may have a mental age of 5.... mental age

Mental Health Act

The Mental Health

Act (1983) details the rights of patients with mental illness and the grounds for detaining mentally ill people against their will. It also outlines forms of legal guardianship for such patients.

When a person is endangering his or her own or other people’s health or safety (for example, threatening harm or suicide) because of a recognized mental illness, he or she may be compulsorily taken into hospital to be given treatment.

If a person breaks the law because of a mental disorder, the courts may remand him or her to hospital.... mental health act


A surgical procedure in which all or part of a damaged meniscus (cartilage disc) is removed from a joint, almost always from the knee. Meniscectomy may be carried out when damage to the meniscus causes the knee to lock or to give way repeatedly. The procedure cures these symptoms and reduces the likelihood of premature osteoarthritis in the joint.

Arthroscopy may be carried out to confirm and locate the damage, and the damaged area removed by instruments passed through the arthroscope.

Alternatively, the meniscus may be removed through an incision at the side of the patella (kneecap).

In either case, there may be an increased risk of osteoarthritis in later life, but this is less than if the damaged meniscus had been left in place.... meniscectomy

Mental Retardation

See Learning difficulties.... mental retardation


A type of epithelium covering the peritoneum, the pleura, and the pericardium.... mesothelium


An oestrogen drug used in some oral contraceptives.... mestranol


Any substance involved in a metabolic reaction (a biochemical reaction in the body). The term metabolite is sometimes used to refer only to the products of a metabolic reaction. (See also metabolism.)... metabolite


A synthetic opioid analgesic drug that resembles morphine.

Methadone is used under supervision to relieve withdrawal symptoms in people undergoing a heroin or morphine detoxification programme.

Side effects may include nausea, vomiting, constipation, dizziness, and dry mouth.... methadone


See teeth.... molar


To maintain a constant watch on the condition of a patient. Also, any device used to carry out monitoring.... monitor


Inflammation of a single joint, causing pain and stiffness. Common causes of monoarthritis include osteoarthritis, gout, and infection.... monoarthritis

Monoclonal Antibody

See antibody, monoclonal.... monoclonal antibody


A specific leukotriene receptor antagonist drug that is used in the management of asthma. It is not used to treat acute attacks.... montelukast

Moon Face

Rounded facial appearance that is a feature of Cushing’s syndrome.... moon face


A stage in the development of an embryo after fertilization. The fertilized egg divides repeatedly as it travels down the fallopian tube. When it forms a ball of cells, it is called a morula.... morula

Motor Neuron Disease

A group of disorders in which there is degeneration of the nerves in the central nervous system that control muscular activity. This causes weakness and wasting of the muscles. The cause is unknown.

The most common type of motor neuron disease is amyotrophic lateral sclerosis ( or Lou Gehrig’s disease). It usually affects people over the age of 50 and is more common in men. Some cases run in families. Usually, symptoms start with weakness in the hands and arms or legs, and muscle wasting. There may be irregular muscle contractions, and muscle cramps or stiffness. All four extremities are soon affected.

Progressive muscular atrophy and progressive bulbar palsy both start with patterns of muscle weakness different from but usually develop into.There are 2 types of motor neuron disease that first appear in childhood or adolescence. In most cases, these conditions are inherited. Werdnig–Hoffman disease affects infants at birth or soon afterwards. In almost all cases, progressive muscle weakness leads to death within several years. Chronic spinal muscular atrophy begins in childhood or adolescence, causing progressive weakness but not always serious disability.

There are no specific tests for motor neuron disease. Diagnosis is based on careful clinical examination by a neurologist. Tests including EMG, muscle biopsy, blood tests, myelography, CT scanning, or MRI may be performed.

The disease typically goes on to affect the muscles involved in breathing and swallowing, leading to death within 2–4 years. However, about 10 per cent of sufferers survive for 10 years.

Nerve degeneration cannot be slowed down, but physiotherapy and the use of various aids may help to reduce disability. The drug riluzole is used to extend life (or the time until mechanical ventilation is required).... motor neuron disease


Any of a large group of fungi that exist as many-celled, filamentous colonies. Some moulds are the source of antibiotic drugs. Others can cause diseases such as aspergillosis.... mould

Mouth-to-mouth Resuscitation

See artificial respiration.... mouth-to-mouth resuscitation


A form of treatment, often used in conjunction with acupuncture, in which a cone of wormwood leaves (moxa) or certain other plant materials is burned just above the skin to relieve internal pain.... moxibustion


A group of rare inherited metabolic disorders (see metabolism, inborn errors of) of which Hurler’s syndrome is the best known. All mucopolysaccharidoses are genetic disorders in which there is an abnormality of a specific enzyme. This leads to the accumulation within body cells of substances called mucopolysaccharides.

Features may include abnormalities of the skeleton and/or the central nervous system, with learning difficulties and, in some cases, a characteristic facial appearance. There may also be clouding of the cornea, liver enlargement, and joint stiffness. No specific treatment is available. However, a bone marrow transplant may successfully be used to treat Hurler’s syndrome.

Mild forms of mucopolysaccharidoses allow a child to have a relatively normal life.

More severe types usually cause death during childhood or adolescence.... mucopolysaccharidosis

Munchausen’s Syndrome

A chronic factitious disorder in which the sufferer complains of physical symptoms that are pretended or self-induced in order to play the role of patient. Most afflicted people are repeatedly hospitalized.

The usual complaints are abdominal pain, bleeding, neurological symptoms, rashes, and fever. Sufferers typically invent dramatic histories and behave disruptively in hospital. Many have detailed medical knowledge and scars from self-injury or previous treatment. In Munchausen’s syndrome by proxy, parents cause factitious disorders in their children.

Treatment consists of protecting sufferers from unnecessary operations and drug treatments.... munchausen’s syndrome

Myalgic Encephalomyelitis

Also known as (see chronic fatigue syndrome).... myalgic encephalomyelitis


An uncommon tropical infection affecting skin and bone and caused by fungi or by actinomycetes (bacteria that form long chain-like colonies).

It usually occurs on one limb, producing a hard swelling and a discharge of pus.

Infections caused by actinomycetes are treated with antibiotic drugs.

Surgical removal of diseased tissue may be necessary for a fungal infection.... mycetoma


The study of fungi.... mycology


Another name for myelomeningocele (see neural tube defect).... myelocele


An alternative term for myelosclerosis.... myelofibrosis


A protrusion of the spinal cord and its meninges (protective membranes) under the skin due to a congenital defect (see neural tube defect).... myelomeningocele


A major protein component of muscle fibres. Together with actin, it provides the mechanism for muscles to contract. The myosin molecules slide along the actin filaments to make the muscle fibres shorter.... myosin

Myositis Ossificans

A congenital or acquired condition in which bone is deposited in muscles. The congenital form is rare. The first symptoms are painful swellings in the muscles, which gradually harden and extend until the affected child is encased in a rigid sheet. There is no treatment, and death results.

The acquired form may develop after a bony injury, especially around the elbow; it causes severe pain and a swelling, which hardens. Treatment with diathermy, coupled with gentle, active movements, may be helpful.... myositis ossificans


A surgical procedure that involves cutting into a muscle.... myotomy

Occupational Mortality

Death due to work-related disease or injuries.

Annual death rates (deaths per million at risk) vary widely between occupations, ranging from 5 in clothing and footwear manufacture to about 1,650 in offshore oil and gas industries.

More than 1,000 per year are due to work-related diseases, mainly pneumoconiosis and cancers.... occupational mortality

Rigor Mortis

The stiffening of muscles that starts 3–4 hours after death.

It is usually complete after about 12 hours; the stiffness then disappears over the next 48–60 hours.

Physical exertion before death makes rigor mortis begin sooner.

The sooner rigor mortis begins, the quicker it passes.

These facts are used to help assess the time of death.... rigor mortis

Valsalva’s Manoeuvre

A forcible attempt to breathe out when the airway is closed.

The manoeuvre occurs naturally when an attempt is made to breathe out while holding the vocal cords tightly together.

This happens, for example, at the beginning of a sneeze.

When performed deliberately by pinching the nose and holding the mouth closed, the manoeuvre can prevent pressure damage to the eardrums (see barotrauma).... valsalva’s manoeuvre

White Matter

Tissue in the nervous system composed of nerve fibres (axons). White matter makes up the bulk of the cerebrum (the 2 large hemispheres of the brain) and continues down into the spinal cord; its main role is to transmit nerve impulses. (See also grey matter.)... white matter


n. a mixture of carbohydrates, predominantly maltose, produced by the breakdown of starch contained in barley or wheat grains. As well as its use in brewing and distilling, malt has been used as a source of nutrients in wasting diseases.... malt

Accident And Emergency Medicine

Accident and Emergency Medicine is the specialty responsible for assessing the immediate needs of acutely ill and injured people. Urgent treatment is provided where necessary; if required, the patient’s admission to an appropriate hospital bed is organised. Every part of the UK has nominated key hospitals with the appropriately trained sta? and necessary facilities to deal with acutely ill or injured patients. It is well-recognised that prompt treatment in the ?rst hour or so after an accident or after the onset of an acute illness – the so-called ‘golden hour’ – can make the di?erence between the patient’s recovery and serious disability or death.

A&E Medicine is a relatively new specialty in the UK and there are still inadequate numbers of consultants and trainees, despite an inexorable rise in the number of patients attending A&E departments. With a similar rise in hospital admissions there is often no bed available immediately for casualties, resulting in backlogs of patients waiting for treatment. A major debate in the specialty is about the likely need to centralise services by downgrading or closing smaller units, in order to make the most e?cient use of sta?.

See accident and emergency medicine

Achillea Millefolium


Synonym: A. lanulosa Nutt.

Family: Compositae; Asteraceae.

Habitat: The western Himalayas from Kashmir to Kumaon.

English: Milfoil, Yarrow, Thousand Leaf.

Unani: Biranjaasif. National Formulary of Unani Medicine also equates Leonurus cardica Linn. (Labiatae) with Biranjaasif.

Folk: Gandana, Rojmari.

Action: Anti-inflammatory, anti- spasmodic (used in cold, flatulent colic, heartburn), emmenagogue, cicatrizant, antidysenteric, anti- haemorrhagic, antipyretic, diaphoretic, diuretic, urinary antiseptic.

Key application: In dyspeptic ailments, such as mild, spastic discomforts of the gastrointestinal tract. As astringent, antispasmodic, choleretic, antibacterial. (German Commission E.) As diaphoretic. (The British Herbal Pharmacopoeia.) Internally for feverish conditions, common cold and digestive complaints; topically for slow-healing wounds and skin inflammations. (The British Herbal Compendium.)

The plant contains flavonoids, alkaloids (achilleine), polyacetylenes, triterpenes, coumarins, tannins, salicylic acid, a volatile oil containing linalool, camphor, sabinene, chamazu- lene and other azulenes.

Sesquiterpene lactones are bitter and tonic. Achilleine helps arrest internal and external bleeding. Flavonoids contribute to the antispasmodic action.

The flavonoid apigenin is anti-inflammatory, antiplatelet and spasmolytic. Alkaloids and bases are anti- inflammatory. Alkaloid betoncine is haemostatic. Salicylic acid is anti- inflammatory. Chamazulene is anti- inflammatory and antiallergenic. (Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, 2007.)

An extract of the plant was found to be rich in luteolin or luteolin 7- glucoside and can be used for the treatment of hyperpigmentation of skin.... achillea millefolium

Adenitis Means Inflammation Of A Gland.

... adenitis means inflammation of a gland.

Adrenal Medulla

The inner part of the adrenals, derived embryonically from spinal nerve precursors, they secrete epinephrine, norepinephrine and dopamine; used locally as neurotransmitters, sensitive receptors can be mobilized totally by the adrenal medullas.... adrenal medulla

Adult Mosquito

The adult (imago) is a slender, delicate insect with six comparatively long, thin legs. The outer covering of the body is composed of a tough substance called chitin. The body is divided into three distinct parts: head, thorax and abdomen.... adult mosquito

Advance Statements About Medical Treatment

See LIVING WILL.... advance statements about medical treatment

Aegle Marmelos

(L.) Correa ex Roxb.

Family: Rutaceae.

Habitat: The plains and submountain regions of India, ascending to an altitude of 1,200 m in the western Himalayas; cultivated all over India.

English: Bael tree, Bengal Quince.

Ayurvedic: Bilva, Shriphala, Shaandilya, Shailuusha, Shalya, Sadaaphala, Mahaakapitha (Kapitha is equated with Feronia limonia), Maaluura, Rudrajataa, Rudranir- maalya, Shivajataakhya.

Unani: Bael.

Siddha/Tamil: Vilvam, Koovilam.

Action: Stomachic, antimicrobial (specific for diarrhoea, colitis, dysentery and enteric infections), digestive, astringent, spasmolytic, hypoglycaemic.

Key application: As antidiarrhoeal. (Indian Herbal Pharmacopoeia.) Along with other therapeutic applications, The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India indicates the use of root in dysuria; stembark in diabetes and lipid disorders.

A number of coumarins (including xanthotoxol and alloimperatorin methyl ether), flavonoids (including rutin and marmesin), alkaloids (including alpha-fagarine), sterols and essential oils have been isolated from plant parts. Pectin is an important constituent of the fruit.

Alkaloid aegeline, present in the leaves, is efficacious in asthma. The active principle in aqueous extract of leaf shows hypoglycaemic activity similar to insulin. Leaves are also given in jaundice. Alcoholic extract of seeds shows antiallergic activity.

Marmin, a coumarin isolated from the roots, shows anti-inflammatory effects experimentally. Marmin also inhibited gastric haemorrhagic lesions in rats and exhibited antiulcer effects. Seed oil showed beneficial effects in regeneration of tumour cells.

Aurapten is found to be the most potent inhibitor of heart rate. Rootbark is used for palpitation of the heart.

Dosage: Pulp of unripe or half ripe fruit—3 g powder. Root—6 g powder. (API Vols. I, III.)... aegle marmelos

Allium Macleanii


Family: Liliaceae, Alliaceae.

Habitat: Native to Afghanistan. (A bulbous plant related to onion.)

English: Oriental Royal Salep.

Unani: Baadshaahi Saalab.

Action: Anabolic and gastrointestinal tonic.... allium macleanii

Aframomum Melegueta

(Rosc.) K. Schum.

Synonym: Amomum melegueta Rosc.

Family: Zingiberaceae.

Habitat: Native to tropical Africa; cultivated in Indian gardens.

English: Grains of Paradise, Alligator pepper, Meleguetta pepper.

Unani: Heel Habshi.

Action: Roots possess cardamomlike tasteand aregivenasadecoction for constipation; also as a vermifuge for tapeworms. Juice of young leaves—styptic. The seeds contain an alkaloid, piperine; also gingerol, paradol, shogaol and zingerone.

Gingerol and shogaol suppress gastric contractions; also have sedative and analgesic actions. Pungency of the grains is due to paradol.

A decoction of the whole plant is taken internally as a febrifuge.

High oxalic acid content in the fruit may cause reduced function of the heart.

Aframomum korarima K. Schum., native to tropical Africa, known as... aframomum melegueta

Agaricus Tea: A Mushroom Tea

Agaricus tea is the beverage resulting from brewing the dried Agaricus mushrooms. Cultivated for culinary purposes, this tea has healing properties which enable it to be an important ingredient in the pharmaceutical industries. About Agaricus Tea Agaricus is a species of mushroom, growing locally in Asia, Europe and South America. It is also known as the “mushroom of life” or “God’s mushroom” and is appreciated for its health properties. The Agaricus mushroom is bulbous at the base, its flesh has a nut-like taste while its scent is akin to almonds. It is regularly added to salads, stir fries, pastas, sauces, soups, pies and breakfasts. Agaricus Tea is obtained by brewing the above mentioned mushroom. Brewing Agaricus Tea When brewing Agaricus Tea, it is recommended to use a non aluminum pot or teapot. 750ml is enough for 3 cups taken throughout the day: 1 cup in the morning, 1 cup in the afternoon and 1 cup in the evening.
  • place about 5 grams of mushrooms in 1 liter of cold water
  •  let the mushrooms soak in 1 liter of water until they are re-hydrated
  • when the mushrooms are dry and you start to boil the water, they will just float on top and will not extract as quickly
  • bring the mixture to a boil
  • once it starts to boil, reduce the flame and let it simmer at low flame for about 20 to 30 minutes until the mixture has been reduced about 1/4 or when you have about 750ml of liquid left
  • let the mixture cool
Agaricus Tea could be served cold or hot. Agaricus Tea benefits Agaricus Tea is a great source of nutrition, providing a full range of vitamins, minerals, carbohydrates and proteins, important for human health. It has been acknowledged that Agaricus tea may reduce the risk of tumors and cancer due to the antioxidant action which enhance the immune system. Agaricus tea is part of the anti-cancer treatment regimen in both Brazil and Japan. This tea is successfully used as a helping tool in:
  • lowering the diabetes risk
  • lowering the risk of cardiovascular ailments
  • mitigating stomach ulcers and ulcerative colitis
  • fighting against osteoporosis
  • reducing digestive ailments
  • fighting against diseases affecting the bloodstream
Agaricus tea is believed to help in reducing radiation damage. Agaricus Tea side effects Agaricus tea is considered safe, non-toxic and well tolerated by the majority of the population. Further studies should be conducted in order to establish if Agaricus tea can actually cause liver damage when taken in clinical doses. Agaricus tea is an important immune enhancer and energy booster. It provides the needed help in weight management and could be successfully included in diets through tasty salads or sauces.... agaricus tea: a mushroom tea

Ailanthus Malabarica


Synonym: A. triphysa (Dennst.) Alston.

Family: Simaroubaceae.

Habitat: The evergreen forests of western Ghats from Konkan southwards.

Siddha: Perumaram.

Folk: Guggul-dhuupa. (Maharashtra.)

Action: Bark—febrifuge, carminative (given in typhoid, dyspepsia and constipation). Oleo resin— used for dysentery and bronchitis.

The bark and roots give a number of beta-carboline alkaloids. The resin- uous exudates from trunk give several triterpenoids, including malabaricol and malabaricanediol.... ailanthus malabarica

Alpinia Malaccensis


Family: Zingiberaceae.

Habitat: Eastern Himalayas, Assam, Khasi Hills, Meghalaya, up to 1,500 m, and western Ghats of Kerala.

Folk: Saliyeridumpa (Tamil).

Action: Rhizome—employed to cure sores. Fruits—emetic (used with salt).

The rhizomes yield essential oil consisting of methyl cinnamate as chief constituent.... alpinia malaccensis

Alternative And Complementary Health Care / Medicine / Therapies

Health care practices that are not currently an integral part of conventional medicine. The list of these practices changes over time as the practices and therapies are proven safe and effective and become accepted as mainstream health care practices. These unorthodox approaches to health care are not based on biomedical explanations for their effectiveness. Examples include homeopathy, herbal formulas, and use of other natural products as preventive and treatment agents.... alternative and complementary health care / medicine / therapies

Alternative Medical System

A complete system of theory and practices that has evolved independently of, and often prior to, the conventional biological approach. Many are traditional systems of medicine that are practised by individual cultures throughout the world. Traditional Oriental medicine and Ayurveda, India’s traditional system of medicine, are two examples.... alternative medical system

Aleurities Moluccana

(Linn.) willd.

Synonym: A. triloba J. R. and G. Forst.

Family: Euphorbiaceae.

Habitat: Native to China; now mostly grown on the tea estates of Kangra Valley in Himachal Pradesh, and also in Assam and Bengal to provide shade for tea bushes.

English: Candlenut tree.

Ayurvedic: Akshota, Jangali Akharot.

Siddha/Tamil: Naatuakrottu.

Action: Oil from seeds—purgative; employed externally in rheumatism; ulcers; also as a hair tonic. Leaves— applied in acute rheumatism. Fruit—carminative and expectorant. Bark and flowers—used for asthma.

Aleurites fordii Hemsl., Tung Oil tree, native to China, is also equated with Jangali Akharot.

The tree was introduced on the tea estates of Assam, Bengal, Bihar, Coorg and Mysore.... aleurities moluccana

Amanita Muscaria


Family: Agaricaceae; Amanitaceae.

English: Fly Agaric (mushroom), Aga, Soma.

Ayurvedic: Identified as Soma of Rigveda (controversial). (Sushruta described 24 varieties of Soma and 18 other drugs as its substitutes.) Intensely poisonous; used for intoxication.

The fungus has been used in Russia for preparing an intoxicating drink.

Toxic principles arecholine, mus- carine and mycetoatropine (muscari- dine). Muscarine stimulates postgan- glionic, cholinergic and neuroeffector junctions. The isoxazole constituents are psychoactive.

2-4 Fly Agaric (more than 10 g fresh) are toxic; 20 (more than 100 g fresh) are lethal. (Francis Brinker.)

A. pantherina is used in Japan for intoxication.

Aga is not a true hallucinogen. The illusions are a misinterpretation of sensory stimuli due to isoxazole, ibotenic acid, muscimol, muscazone and traces of muscarine. (Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, 2007.)... amanita muscaria

Ammi Majus


Family: Umbelliferae; Apiaceae.

Habitat: Cultivated in Jammu and Himachal Pradesh.

English: Biship's Weed-Amee, Greater Ammi.

Unani: Itarilaal, Khalah.

Action: Source of xanthotoxin, a drug employed in the treatment of leucoderma. Dried fruit powder or extract of the plant is used topically in vitiligo.

The fruits contain ammoidin (xan- thotoxin), ammidin (imperatorin) and majudin (bergapten). All the three compounds are used in leucoderma. Maximum xanthotoxin content (1%) is found in green fruits from Jammu.

The 8-MOP, methoxypsoralen constituent of the weed is one of the first agents used along with UVA radiation to treat psoriasis. (Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, 2007.)... ammi majus

Andropogon Muricatus


Synonym: Vetiveria zizanioides (Linn.) Nash.

Family: Poaceae.

Habitat: All over India.

English: Vetiver, Cuscus.

Ayurvedic: Ushira.

Unani: Khas.

Siddha: Vettiveru.

Action: Roots—refrigerant, febrifuge, diaphoretic, stimulant, stomachic and emmenagogue; used in strangury, colic, flatulence, obstinate vomiting; paste used as a cooling application in fevers.

Major constituents of the essential oil are vetiselinenol and khusimol. Several sesquiterpenoids, including vetid- iol, are also present. The two types of oils, laevorotatory and dextrorotatory, from northern India and southern India, respectively, are biochemically different.

Andropogon sp.: see Cymbopogon sp.... andropogon muricatus

Arachnoid Membrane

One of the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord (see BRAIN). Arachnoiditis is the name applied to in?ammation of this membrane.... arachnoid membrane

Ashdown’s Medium

A differential selective culture medium for Burkholderia pseudomallei, devised by Dr LesleyRichard Ashdown (1943-93), Townsville, Australia. B. pseudomallei grows as distinctive purple rugose colonies on this medium.... ashdown’s medium

Atypical Mycobacteria

A group of mycobacteria which differ in their growth characteristics from Mycobacterium tuberculosis but which they resemble in being acid-fas t. The atypical mycobacteria are also known as the PotentiallyPathogenic Environmental Mycobacteria (P.P.E.M.). They can cause a spectrum of human disease which in some cases can resemble tuberculosis. Mostly they cause disease in immunologically compromi sed humans such as those suffering from AIDS.... atypical mycobacteria

Bacterial Meningitis

See MENINGITIS.... bacterial meningitis

Birth Marks

Birth marks are of various kinds; the most common are port-wine marks (see NAEVUS). Pigment spots are found, very often raised above the skin surface and more or less hairy, being then called moles (see MOLE).... birth marks

Blue Mallow

Malva sylvestyis. N.O. Malvaceae.

Synonym: Cheese Flower, Common Mallow, Mauls.

Habitat: Around ledges and roadsides.

Features ? Several erect, hairy stems, two to three feet high. Leaf and flower stalks also hairy. Roundish leaf has five to seven lobes, middle one longest. Numerous flowers (June-September), large reddish-purple, clustered four or five together on axillary stalk.

Part used ? Flowers, herb.

Action: Demulcent, mucilaginous, pectoral.

1 ounce to 1 pint infusion makes a popular cough and cold remedy.... blue mallow

Anisomeles Malabarica

(Linn.) R. Br. ex Sims

Family: Labiatae; Lamiaceae.

Habitat: The western Ghats from Maharashtra to Karnataka; Andhra Pradesh, Kerala and Tamil Nadu.

English: Malabar Catmint.

Ayurvedic: Sprikkaa.

Siddha/Tamil: Irattaipeyameratti.

Action: Antispasmodic (used in dyspepsia, colic), antipyretic, diaphoretic, antiperiodic, emme- nagogue, antirheumatic. The oil is used externally as an embrocation in rheumatic arthritis.

The plant contains beta-sitosterol, letulinic acid, ovatodiolide and ani- somelic acid. The essential oil from tops and flowers yield a terpene hydrocarbon, citral and geranic acid.... anisomeles malabarica

Approved Names For Medicines

The term used for names devised or selected by the British Pharmacopoeia Commission for new drugs. European Union law (1992) requires the use of a Recommended International Non-proprietary Name (rINN) for medicinal substances. In most cases the British Approved Name (BAN) and rINN were the same when the legislation was introduced; where there were di?erences, the BAN was modi?ed to meet the new requirements.

Pharmaceutical manufacturers usually give proprietary (brand) names to the drugs they develop, though doctors in the NHS are expected to prescribe using approved – nonproprietary or generic – titles. Most nonproprietary titles are those in the European Pharmacopoeia, British Pharmacopoeia Commission or the British Pharmaceutical Codex. The USA has its own legislation and arrangements covering the naming and prescribing of medicines. (See PROPRIETARY NAME; GENERIC DRUG; PATENT.)... approved names for medicines

Argemone Mexicana


Family: Papaveraceae.

Habitat: Native to America; naturalized throughout India.

English: Prickly Poppy, Mexican Poppy.

Ayurvedic: Katuparni, Svarnkshiri, Kaanchan-kshiri, Pitadugdhaa. Hemaahvaa, Himaavati, Hemavati. (Not to be equated with Brah- madandi—Tricholepis glaberrima.)

Unani: Satyaanaashi.

Siddha/Tamil: Piramathandu, Kudiyotti.

Action: Seed—responsible for epidemic dropsy. Causes diarrhoea and induces toxicity. Oil, leaf juice and root—used externally for indolent ulcers and skin diseases.

The herb contains isoquinoline alkaloids. The fresh latex contains protein- dissolving constituents and is used externally to treat warts, tumours and cancer. Latex contains alkaloid berberine (0.74%), protopine (0.36%) and free amino acids. Sanguinarine is the toxic factor in seeds.... argemone mexicana

Artemisia Maritima


Family: Compositae; Asteraceae.

Habitat: The western Himalayas from Kashmir to Kumaon.

English: Wormseed, Santonica.

Ayurvedic: Chauhaara, Kirmaani Yavaani, Chuhaari Ajawaayin; not related to Ajawaayin.

Unani: Dirmanah, Kirmaalaa, Afsanteen-ul-bahar. (Dirmanah Turki is equated with A. stechmani- ana Besser.)

Folk: Kirmaani Ajawaayin, Kirmaani-owaa, Kirmaani-ajmo.

Action: Deobstructant, stomachic, anthelmintic (effective against roundworms), antifungal.

A decoction of the fresh plant is given in cases of intermittent and remittent fever.

A. maritima var. thomsoniana C. B. Clarke is a santonin-yielding var.; A. maritima var. fragrans (Willd.) Ledeb. is a non-santonin var.

Immature flowerheads and leaves contain santonin. Roots, stems and twigs are devoid of santonin. Santonin, a sesquiterpene lactone, is used for the treatment of ascaris and oxyuris infections. Large doses (0.3 g is adults and 0.06 in children) are toxic.

Beta-santonin is less anthelmintic in action than santonin; pseudosantonin is devoid of anthelmintic property.

Studies is albino mice revealed that santonin had no androgenic, estro- genic, antiestrogenic, progestational and antiprogestational effects.

Santonin is toxic at 60 mg in children; 200 mg in adults. (Francis Brinker.)

Dosage: Whole plant—3-6 g powder. (CCRAS.)... artemisia maritima

British Medical Association (bma)


British National Formulary (BNF)

A pocket-book for those concerned with the prescribing, dispensing and administration of medicines in Britain. It is produced jointly by the Royal Pharmaceutical Society and the British Medical Association, is revised twice yearly and is distributed to NHS doctors by the Health Departments. The BNF is also available in electronic form.... british medical association (bma)

Bruit And Murmur

Abnormal sounds heard in connection with the heart, arteries and veins on AUSCULTATION.... bruit and murmur

Caput Medusae (medusa’s Head)

The term describing the abnormally dilated veins that form around the umbilicus in CIRRHOSIS of the liver.... caput medusae (medusa’s head)

Atalantia Monophylla

(L.) Correa.

Synonym: A. floribunda Wt.

Family: Rutaceae.

Habitat: Throughout India, especially in Assam, Meghalaya and Andaman Islands.

English: Wild Lime.

Siddha/Tamil: Kattu Narangam, Kattu Elumichai.

Folk: Jungli Nimbu.

Action: Oil from leaves and berry— antibacterial, antifungal. Leaves— a decoction is applied to cutaneous affections. Fruit—juice, antibilious.... atalantia monophylla

Bacopa Monnieri

(Linn.) Penn.

Synonym: Herpestis monnieria (Linn.) H. B. & K. Moniera cuneifolia Michx.

Family: Scrophulariaceae.

Habitat: Throughout the plains of India in damp marshy areas.

English: Thyme-leaved Gratiola.

Ayurvedic: Braahmi, Aindri, Nir- braahmi, Kapotavankaa, Bhaarati, Darduradalaa, Matsyaakshaka, Shaaluraparni, Mandukaparni (also equated with Centella asiatica Linn., synonym Hydrocotyle asiatica Linn. Umbelliferae, Apiaceae).

Unani: Brahmi.

Siddha/Tamil: Piramivazhukkai, Neerbrami.

Folk: Jalaneem, Safed-Chammi.

Action: Adaptogenic, astringent, diuretic, sedative, potent nervine tonic, anti-anxiety agent (improves mental functions, used in insanity, epilepsy), antispasmodic (used in bronchitis, asthma and diarrhoea).

Key application: In psychic disorders and as a brain tonic. (The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India; Indian Herbal Pharmacopoeia.)

B. monnieri has been shown to cause prolonged elevated level of cerebral glutamic acid and a transient increase in GABA level. It is assumed that endogenous increase in brain glutamine maybe helpful in the process oflearn- ing.

The herb contains the alkaloids brahmine, herpestine, and a mixture of three bases. Brahmine is highly toxic; in therapeutic doses it resembles strychnine. The herb also contains the saponins, monnierin, hersaponin, bacosides A and B. Bacosides A and B possess haemolytic activity. Her- saponin is reported to possess car- diotonic and sedative properties. It was found, as in case of reserpene, to deplete nor-adrenaline and 5-HT content of the rat brain.

An alcoholic extract of the plant in a dose of 50 mg/kg produced tranquil- izing effect on albino rats and dogs, but the action was weaker than that produced by chlorpromazine.

Dosage: Whole plant—1-3 g powder. (API Vol. II.)... bacopa monnieri

Baliospermum Montanum

(Willd.) Muell.-Arg.

Synonym: B. axillare Bl. B. polyandrum Wt. Croton polyandrus Roxb.

Family: Euphorbiaceae.

Habitat: The Himalayas, Assam, Khasi Hills, Bengal, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar and Peninsular India, ascending to 1,800 m.

Ayurvedic: Danti, Nikumbha, Udumbarparni, Erandphalaa, Shighraa, Pratyak-shreni, Vishaalya. Baliospermum calycinum Muell- Arg. is considered as Naagadanti.

Siddha/Tamil: Neeradimuthu, Danti.

Folk: Jangli Jamaalgotaa.

Action: Seed—purgative. Leaves— purgative (also used in dropsy), antiasthmatic (decoction is given in asthma). Latex—used for body ache and pain of joints. Root and seed oil—cathartic, antidropsical.

Along with other therapeutic applications, The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India indicated the use of dried root in jaundice, abdominal lump and splenomegaly.

The presence of steroids, terpenoids and flavonoids is reported in the leaves. The root contains phorbol derivatives. EtOH extract of roots showed in vivo activity in P-388 lymphocytic leukaemia.

Dosage: Root—103 g powder. (API Vol. III.)... baliospermum montanum

Care Management

See “case management”.... care management

Case Management

A continuous process of planning, arranging and coordinating multiple health care services across time, place and discipline for persons with high-risk conditions or complex needs in order to ensure appropriate care and optimum quality, as well as to contain costs.... case management

Cell-mediated Immunity

A defence mechanism involving the coordinated activity of two subpopulations of TLymphocytes, helper T-Cells and killer T-Cells. Helper T-Cells produce a variety of substances that stimulate and regulate other participants in the immune response. Killer T-Lymphocytes destroy cells in the body that bear foreign antigens (e.g. cells that are infected with viruses or other microorganisms).... cell-mediated immunity

Clinical Performance Measure

An instrument that estimates the extent to which a health care provider delivers clinical services that are appropriate for each patient’s condition; provides them safely, competently and in an appropriate time-frame; and achieves desired outcomes in terms of those aspects of patient health and patient satisfaction that can be affected by clinical services.... clinical performance measure

Balsamodendron Mukul

Hook. ex Stocks

Synonym: Commiphora mukul (Hook. ex Stocks) Engl. C. wightii (Arn.) Bhandari.

Family: Burseraceae.

Habitat: Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Assam, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka.

English: Indian Bdellium, Gum Guggul.

Ayurvedic: Guggul, Devadhoop, Kaushika, Pur, Mahishaaksha, Palankash, Kumbha, Uluukhala.

Unani: Muqallal yahood, Muql, Bu-e-Jahudaan

Siddha/Tamil: Erumaikan Kungiliyam.

Action: Oleo-gum-resin—used for reducing obesity and in rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, sciatica.

Key application: In the treatment of hyperlipidemia, hypercholestero- laemia and obesity. (WHO.)

Guggulipid is hypocholesteremic. Guggul resin contains steroids—gug- glsterones Z and E, guggulsterols IV, diterpenoids; volatile oil, including other constituents, contains a terpene hydrocarbon cembrene A. E- and Z- guggulsterones are characteristic constituents, which distinguish C. mukul from other Commiphore sp.

Guggul resin increases catechola- mine biosynthesis and activity in cholesterol-fed rabbits, inhibits platelet aggregation, exhibits anti-inflammatory activity and appears to activate the thyroid gland in rats and chicken. Z- guggulsterone may increase uptake of iodine by thyroid gland and increase oxygen uptake in liver and bicep tissues. (Planta Med 1984,1, 78-80.)

The gum is also used in hemiplegia and atherosclerotic disorders; as a gargle in pyrrhoea aveolaris, chronic tonsilitis and pharyngitis. Fumes are recommended in hay fever, chronic bronchitis and nasal catarrh.

Oleo-gum resin of Balsamodendron caudatum is also equated with Guggul in Siddha medicine.

Dosage: Oleo-gum-resin—2-4 g (API Vol. I.) 500 mg to 1 g (CCRAS.)... balsamodendron mukul

Balsamodendron Myrrha


Synonym: Commiphora molmol Engl.

C. abyssinica (Berg.) Engl.

Family: Burseraceae.

Habitat: Arabia, Somaliland.

Ayurvedic: Bola, Hiraabola, Surasa, Barbara, Gandharasa.

Unani: Murmakki, Bol.

Siddha/Tamil: Vellaibolam.

Action: Oleo-gum-resin—em- menagogue (used for irregular menstruation and painful periods), anti-inflammatory (on pharyngitis and gingivitis), antiseptic, bacteriostatic, antiviral, astringent, stimulant, expectorant, stomachic, carminative (in dyspepsia), a leuco- cytogenic agent (increases number of white cells in the blood). Used externally for treating acne, boils and pressure sores, internally as a blood purifier.

Key application: In topical treatment of mild inflammations of the oral and pharyngeal mucosa. (German Commission E.) As a gargle or mouth rinse for the treatment of aphthous ulcers, tonsillitis, common cold and gingivitis. (The British Herbal Pharmacopoeia, ESCOP.)

The gum (30-60%) contains acidic polysaccharides, volatile oil (2-10%) including other constituents, heer- abolene, eugenol, furanosequiterpenes and monoterpenes.

Myrrh is taken as a powder or a tincture, rather than as an infusion; used generally externally or as a gargle.

Aqueous suspension of the gum resin decreased ethanol-induced and indomethacin-induced ulcer in rats. (JEthnopharmacol, 1997, Jan 55(2), 141150.)

Dosage: Gum-resin—3-5 g (CCRAS.)... balsamodendron myrrha

Bauhinia Malabarica


Family: Caesalpiniaceae.

Habitat: South India, Assam and Bengal.

English: Malabar Mountain Ebony.

Ayurvedic: Ashmantaka var., Kaanchanaara var. (in the South).

Siddha/Tamil: Malaiyatti.

Folk: Aapataa (Maharashtra), Amli, Amlosaa.

Action: Antidysenteric.

The plant contains flavonoid gly- cosides—quercitroside, iso-quercitro- side, rutoside, taxifoline rhamnoside, kaempferol glycosides and quercetol glycoside.... bauhinia malabarica

Co-morbid Condition

Conditions that exist at the same time as the primary condition in the same patient (e.g. hypertension is a co-morbidity of many conditions, such as diabetes, ischemic heart disease, end-stage renal disease, etc.). Two or more conditions may interact in such a way as to prolong a stay in hospital or hinder successful rehabilitation.... co-morbid condition

Committee On Safety Of Medicines (csm)

An independent advisory committee – launched in 1971 in the United Kingdom – composed of doctors, pharmacists and other specialists. It advises the MEDICINES CONTROL AGENCY in the UK on the safety, e?cacy and pharmaceutical quality of MEDICINES for which licences are sought and also reviews reports of ADVERSE REACTIONS TO DRUGS, including spontaneous ‘Yellow Card’ reports from doctors or pharmacists who suspect that a patient has suffered an adverse reaction from a medicine. Its predecessor, the Committee for Safety of Drugs, was set up in 1963 in response to the THALIDOMIDE disaster.... committee on safety of medicines (csm)

Community Mental Health Centre

An entity which provides comprehensive mental health services (principally ambulatory), primarily to individuals residing or employed in a defined catchment area.... community mental health centre

Congregate Meals Programme

Delivery of meals and socialization activities to older adults in a designated location.... congregate meals programme

Benefits Of Meadowsweet Tea

Meadowsweet tea is one of the many herbal teas with plenty of health benefits. It is made from the meadowsweet herb, which can be found in Europe and Western Asia. The plant, as well as the tea, helps you stay healthy. Find out more information about meadowsweet tea! About Meadowsweet Tea Meadowsweet tea’s main ingredient is meadowsweet, a perennial herb that grows in moist meadows. It is found in Europe and Western Asia; it has also been introduced and naturalized in North America. The stems are 1-2m tall, with dark-green leaves and delicate, white flowers called cymes, which grow in clusters. The flowers bloom from June to early September, and have a strong, sweet smell. The plant has a rich history. The flowers of the plant were found in a Bronze Age cairn in Carmarthenshire, along with the cremated remains of three people. They were also found inside a Beaker from Ashgrove, Fife, and a vessel from North Mains, Strathallan. In Chaucer’s “The Knight’s tale”, it is called Meadwort, representing one of the ingredients for a drink called “save”. Also, during the 16th century, it was Queen Elizabeth I’s favorite herb for strewing the floors in her chambers. The plant can be used as a strewing herb, thanks to its strong, pleasant aroma, as well as to flavor wine, beer, and other vinegars. The flowers are used with jams, to give them a subtle almond flavor. How to prepare Meadowsweet Tea It isn’t difficult to make a cup of meadowsweet tea. Just add one teaspoon of dried meadowsweet herbs (usually the leaves of the plant) to a cup of boiling water and let it steep for about 10 minutes. Once the steeping time is done, strain to remove the herbs. You can add lemon and/or honey, based on your taste. Health Benefits of Meadowsweet Tea The meadowsweet tea comes with many health benefits, thanks to its main ingredient, the meadowsweet herb. The herb is known to include, among other substances, salicylic acid, essential oils, and tannins. The plant also contains the chemicals necessary to make aspirin, and from its roots you can obtain a natural black dye. The health benefits of the meadowsweet tea are just as important. First of all, it helps you with digestion. It protects the mucous membranes of the digestive tract by reducing excess acidity and easing nausea. It also helps with diarrhea. Meadowsweet teais often recommended when dealing with colds and the flu. It helps reduce the fever, as well as with headaches; it also treats coughs. Meadowsweet tea is used to treat heartburn, gastritis, peptic ulceration, and hyperacidity. It also helps relieve rheumatism-induced pain in muscles and joints. Side-effects of Meadowsweet Tea If you know that aspirin is not good for your health, be careful when drinking meadowsweet tea. As meadowsweet is one of the ingredients of aspirin, it might affect you to some extent. For example, in the case of about one out of five persons suffering from asthma, aspirin induced asthma symptoms. Those suffering from asthma need to keep in mind the fact that meadowsweet teamay induce asthma symptoms, as well. Meadowsweet tea might not be good for you if you’ve got internal bleeding problems. The herb might cancel the effects of prescribed blood thinners, therefore causing more harm than helping you. Also, don’t drink meadowsweet tea if you’re pregnant, as it might cause miscarriages. If you drink too much meadowsweet tea, you might get the following symptoms: blood in the stool, vomiting, or ringing in the ears; it might even lead to kidney problems. Plus, it is not recommended to drink more than six cups of tea a day, no matter the tea. If you drink too much, you’ll get headaches, dizziness, insomnia, irregular heartbeats, vomiting, diarrhea and loss of appetite. Meadowsweet tea is definitely good for your body! Having all these health benefits, you won’t regret including it in your daily diet. If you’re sure you won’t get any side effects, then you’re free to enjoy a cup of aromatic tea!... benefits of meadowsweet tea

Bitter Mellon Tea Against Diabetes

Bitter Melon tea is a bitter beverage, very useful in treating a large array of diseases such as diabetes, but not only. Bitter Melon Tea description Bitter Melon is an herbaceous tendril-bearing vine that grows in parts of East Africa, Asia, the Caribbean islands, and parts of South America. It has dainty yellow flowers, bearing an oblong-shaped fruit that has a pockmarked and warty exterior which turns yellow when ripe. Its flesh is crunchy and watery in texture whereas its skin is tender and edible. The taste of the fruit is very bitter. Bitter Melon tea is the resulting beverage from brewing the abovementioned plant, best known for its efficiency against diabetes. The plant is also added to several types of food, as a culinary ingredient. Bitter Melon Tea brewing To prepare Bitter Melon tea:
  • Place a handful of leaves in a pot of boiling water
  • Boil the mix until the water turns green
  • Let the mix steep for about 5 minutes
The taste is quite bitter. Also, the Bitter Melon fruit can also be made into a tea. The majority of cultures prefer to use the leaves for making tea while the fruit is consumed as an addition to dishes. Bitter Melon Tea benefits Bitter Melon tea has proved its efficiency in treating:
  • abdominal gas and colic
  • liver problems
  • ulcers in different parts of the body
  • digestion (It may also help ease symptoms of dyspepsia and constipation)
Bitter Melon tea is said to help in regulating blood sugar levels, being widely used as a herbal remedy by diabetes patients. Bitter Melon tea can be used in the treatment of HIV. Bitter Melon Tea side effects Bitter Melon tea should never be taken in conjuncture with any form of diabetes medication. Pregnant and nursing women should also avoid this tea. Bitter Melon Tea is a natural remedy against type 1 and type 2 of diabetes. It is also consumed for its healing properties when dealing with abdominal gas and colic.... bitter mellon tea against diabetes

Continence Management

The practice of promoting and maintaining continence and the assessment, evaluation and action taken to support this.... continence management

Benefits Of Mistletoe Tea

For a healthy beverage, try the mistletoe tea! You should already know the plant thanks to its association with the Christmas traditions. However, there’s more to mistletoe than just being a decorative plant. Find out about the health benefits ofmistletoe tea! About the Mistletoe Tea The main ingredient of the mistletoe tea is the hemi-parasitic plant, the mistletoe. It is an evergreen plant that usually grows on the branches of various trees, such as elms, pines or oak. The mistletoe can be found in Europe, Australia, North America, and some parts of North Asia. The woody stem has oval, evergreen leaves, and waxy, white berries. The berries are poisonous; the leaves are the ones used to produce themistletoe tea. Mistletoe is often used as a Christmas decoration. It is hung somewhere in the house, and remains so during next Christmas, when it gets replaced. It is said that it protects the house from lightning or fire. Also, legends say that a man and a woman who meet under a hanging of mistletoe are obliged to kiss. The origin of this custom may be Scandinavian, and the first documented case of a couple kissing under the mistletoe dates from 16th century England. There are two types of mistletoe that matter: the European mistletoe and the American mistletoe. Regarding their appearance, they look pretty similar. The difference is that the American mistletoe has shorter leaves, and longer clusters of 10 or more berries. Other differences between the two are related to health benefits. How to prepare Mistletoe Tea Properly preparing a cup of mistletoe tea takes some time. First, you add a teaspoon of the dried mistletoe herb to a cup of cold water. Let the cup stay overnight at room temperature. On the next day, heat the mix before drinking. To enjoy its rich flavor, don’t skip any of these steps! Benefits of Mistletoe Tea The mistletoe tea has many health benefits thanks to its main ingredient, the mistletoe. The herb includes various active constituents, such as amines, caffeic and myristic acids, mucilage, terpenoids, and tannins. Mistletoe is also an essential ingredient of the European anti-cancer extract called Iscador, which helps stimulate the immune system and kill cancer cells. Therefore, it’s said that mistletoe teahelps you fight against cancer. Another health benefit of the mistletoe tea is that it reduces symptoms associated with high blood pressure, such as irritability, dizziness, headaches, and loss of energy. This, however, applies to the mistletoe tea made leaves of European mistletoe. The leaves of the American mistletoe is said to raise blood pressure. Another health-related difference between the European and the American mistletoe is related to uterine and intestinal contractions. The European mistletoe acts as an antispasmodic and calming agent, while the American mistletoe increases uterine and intestinal contractions. Be careful with the type of mistletoe tealeavesyou use. Mistletoe tea can also help with relieving panic attacks, nervousness, and headaches. It is a useful treatment against hysteria, epilepsy, and tinnitus. It is also recommended in the treatment of type 1 and 2 diabetes, breast cancer, and to support HIV patients. Drinking mistletoe teahelps with diarrhea, as well. It is useful when it comes to menopause and pre-menstrual syndrome. It is also useful when dealing with respiratory ailments such as coughs and asthma. Side effects of Mistletoe Tea First of it, it is recommended not to have children drink mistletoe tea. Also, if you are pregnant or breast feeding, it is best that you stop drinking mistletoe tea. If you have hepatitis, you need to stay away from mistletoe tea. Consumption of mistletoe tea will only cause more damage to the liver. Also, despite being useful when treating diabetes, mistletoe tea mayinterfere with the action of anti-diabetic medications. It is best that you check with your doctor, to make sure it doesn’t cancel the effects of the medication. Cancer patients should also consult with their doctors first, before adding mistletoe tea to their daily diet. Other side effects that you might experience because of mistletoe tea are flu-like symptoms, including fever, nausea, abdominal pain, and various allergy-type symptoms. Lastly, don’t drink more than 6 cups of mistletoe tea a day. If you do, it might cause you more harm than good. You might get some of the following symptoms: headaches, dizziness, insomnia, irregular heartbeats, vomiting, diarrhea and loss of appetite. If you get any of these symptoms, reduce the amount of mistletoe tea you drink. Also, this can apply to all types of tea, not only mistletoe tea.   Don’t just think of Christmas when you hear someone talking about mistletoe. Remember the many health benefits of mistletoe tea. Check for side effects and if it’s all safe, feel free to include mistletoe teain your daily diet. It will definitely help you stay healthy!... benefits of mistletoe tea

Conventional Medicine

Medicine as practised by holders of a medical degree and their allied health professionals, some of whom may also practise complementary and alternative medicine. See “alternative and complementary health care”.... conventional medicine

Cost Minimization Analysis

A determination of the least costly among alternative interventions that are assumed to produce equivalent outcomes.... cost minimization analysis

Council For Nursing And Midwifery

See APPENDIX 7: STATUTORY ORGANISATIONS.... council for nursing and midwifery

Cutaneous Larva Migrans

A cutaneous eruption resulting from exposure of the skin the infective filariform larva of non-human hookworms, Ancylostoma braziliense, A. caninum and some Strongyloides spp (especially S. procyormis of the raccoon and S. myopotami of the nutria).... cutaneous larva migrans

Cutaneous Means Belonging To The Skin.

... cutaneous means belonging to the skin.

De Morgan’s Spots

De Morgan’s spots are a type of small HAEMANGIOMA occuring in the skin of middle-aged people. No more than 3 mm in diameter, they are rarely widespread and are not malignant.... de morgan’s spots

Delivered Meals

See “meals on wheels”.... delivered meals

Benefits Of Muira Puama Tea

For a sweet tea, try the muira puama tea. As an herbal tea, it has many health benefits, especially for men. Read the article and find out more about the muira puama tea! About Muira Puama Tea The main ingredient of the muira puama tea is, of course, the muira puama herbal plant. It is a flowering plant with two species (Benth and Anselmino). Its origin can be found in the Amazonian rainforests, although at present it is grown in Europe, as well. The trees grow up to 4 meters, sometimes even taller. They have short-petioled leaves which are light green on upper surface and dark brown on lower surface. It has small, white flowers that have a similar scent to those of jasmine. How to prepare Muira Puama Tea In order to drink a cup of muira puama tea, pour boiling water in a cup that contains one teabag or a teaspoon of dried herbs. Cover the cup and let it steep for 2-4 minutes. Next, remove the teabag or tea herbs. If you want, you can add milk and honey to your cup of tea, to sweeten the taste. Muira Puama Iced Tea You can also enjoy muira puama tea during summertime, by preparing it as an iced tea. For 1 liter, you mainly need 5 teabags, 2 cups of boiling water, and a similar amount of cold water. Place the teabags into a teapot or a heat resistant pitcher, then pour the boiling water. Let it steep for about 5 minutes, while you fill a serving pitcher with cold water. Remove the tea bags and pour the tea into the serving pitcher. Add ice and more cold water to the serving pitcher. Sweeten it with honey, sugar or anything else that comes to your mind. Components of Muira Puama Tea Muira Puama tea’s components come from the herb with the same name. There are two medically active ones: long-chain fatty acids and alkaloid chemicals. Also, the bark and roots of the plant (which are used to make the tea) contain some of the following constituentsg: alpha-pinene, alpha-terpinene, beta-sitosterol, camphor, eugenol, imonene, linalool, stigmasterols, and various acids and essential oils. Muira Puama Tea Benefits The most important benefit of the muira puama tea is for men. After all, the muira puama herb is also known as the “Viagra of the Amazon”. That is because it helps with sexual impotence, by increasing the blood flow to the genital areas. It also helps in the treatment of male pattern baldness. Muira puama tea can be used as a tonic for nervous conditions and depressions. It is useful when it comes to improving one’s memory, especially among elders. The tea also increases your energy level, and improves mental focus and clarity. It is often used in the treatment for rheumatism and indigestion. It also helps women with treating the discomforts of menopause, as well as lessening the pain that comes with menstrual cramps. Muira Puama Tea side effects It is considered best to avoid drinking muira puama tea during pregnancy or when you are breast feeding. In both cases, it can affect the baby.The teaalsoincludes some enzymes which are harmful if you’re suffering from peptic ulcers. In this case, it is recommended that you not consume this type of tea. Consumption of muira puama tea can also lead to an increase in the blood pressure levels. For most people, it is only temporary, but it can be harmful for people with existing complications of blood pressure levels. If this is your case, it’s best that you consult your doctor first before you start drinking this tea. As muira puama acts as a stimulant, drinking too much muira puama tea may lead to anxiety and insomnia. It is generally advised that you not drink more than six cups of tea a day, no matter the type of tea. Other symptoms that you might get are headaches, loss of appetite, vomiting, diarrhea, dizziness, and irregular heartbeats.   Muira puama tea is clearly full of health benefits, especially for men. It is good for women, as well, as long as it is not consumed during pregnancy or breast feeding periods. Be careful not to get any side effects and you can enjoy this type of tea with no worries.... benefits of muira puama tea

Black Cohosh Tea: Benefic In Menopause

Black Cohosh tea is recommended to people who want to prevent bone ailments or just to enhance their immune system. Black Cohosh Tea description Black Cohosh is a woodland plant, found in the New England region of the United States, as well as eastern Canada. Its roots and rhizomes are used for medicinal properties, particularly for female hormonal balance and arthritis. It also has acknowledged anti-inflammatory and antispasmodic properties. Black cohosh can be consumed as a fresh or dry root or as a supplement in liquid or tablet forms. The daily dosage should not exceed 80 mg Black cohosh in tablet form or 2 to 4 ml Black Cohosh tincture two to three times a day. Black Cohosh tea is the resulting beverage from brewing the abovementioned plant. Black Cohosh Tea brewing To make Black Cohosh tea, use the roots of the plant. Black Cohosh roots should be boiled for about 20 to 30 minutes in water. Strain it and drink it slowly. Black Cohosh Tea benefits Studies revealed Black Cohosh tea to be efficient in treating:
  • the symptoms of menopause and menstrual discomfort (hot flashes, mood swings and vaginal dryness)
  • infertility
  • rheumatism
  • cough
  • high cholesterol levels, as well as hardening of the arteries
  • osteoporosis
  • muscle aches
Black Cohosh side effects Black Cohosh tea is not recommended during pregnancy, as large doses may induce a miscarriage. An overdose can cause dizziness, nausea and increased perspiration. Also, Black Cohosh tea may cause gastrointestinal pain, diarrhea, vomiting and nausea. People intaking  this type of tea may experience dizziness, headaches, tremors and a slow heart rate. Individuals with an allergy to buttercup or crowfoot should avoid Black Cohosh tea because they are from the same plant family. People who are allergic to aspirin should not consume the tea because it contains small amounts of salicylic acid, the active ingredient in aspirin. Also people with a history of blood clots, seizures and high blood pressure should avoid Black Cohosh tea. Black Cohosh tea is known for its anti-inflammatory and antispasmodic action, being successfully used to treat women health issues such as menopause and menstrual discomfort.... black cohosh tea: benefic in menopause

Disease Management

The process of identifying and delivering, within selected populations (e.g. people with asthma or diabetes), the most efficient, effective combination of resources, interventions or pharmaceuticals for the treatment or prevention of a disease. Disease management could include team-based care, where medical practitioners and/or other health professionals participate in the delivery and management of care. It also includes the appropriate use of pharmaceuticals.... disease management

Bridelia Montana


Family: Euphorbiaceae.

Habitat: The sub-Himalayan tract from Kashmir eastwards to Assam, and in Bihar, Orissa and Andhra Pradesh.

Ayurvedic: Ekaviraa.

Siddha/Tamil: Venge-maram.

Folk: Gondni, Asaanaa (Maharashtra).

Action: Bark and Root—astringent, anthelmintic. Used in the treatment of bone fracture.

The root contains 5.7% tannins.

The leaves contain beta-sitosterol, its beta-D-glucoside and a triterpe- noid. Fructose, glucose and sucrose were identified as the components of the glycoside.... bridelia montana

Butea Monosperma

(Lam.) Taub.

Synonym: B. frondosa Koenig ex Roxb.

Family: Papilionaceae; Fabaceae.

Habitat: Throughout India, up to 1,200 m except in very arid regions.

English: Flame of the Forest, Butea Gum, Bengal Kino.

Ayurvedic: Paalasha, Kimshuka, Raktapushpaka, Kshaarshreshtha, Brahmavriksha, Samidvar.

Unani: Dhaak, Samagh Dhaak, Kamarkas.

Siddha/Tamil: Palasam, Purasus.

Folk: Tesu.

Action: Bark—astringent, styptic (prescribed in bleeding piles, ulcers, haemorrhages, menstrual disorders), anthelmintic. Flowers— astringent, diuretic, emmenagogue (also given for leucorrhoea). A decoction of flowers is given in diarrhoea and haematuria, also to puerperal women. Seeds—clinical use of seeds as an anthelmintic drug is not considered safe in humans.

Leaves—antibacterial. Stem bark— antifungal.

An aqueous extract of flowers has shown hepatoprotective activity against CCl4-induced liver injury in albino rats.

Extracts of flowers have exhibited significant anti-oestrogenic activity in mice. The seed suspension, on oral administration to albino rats (175 and 350 mg/kg body weight), showed 38.46 and 68.75% cases, respectively, where pregnancy was not interrupted but foetus was malformed.

Alcoholic extract of the whole plant produced persistent vasodepression in cats.

The plant contains flavonoids and glucosides—butin, butrin, isobutrin and palastrin. Flowers contain butrin, coreopsin, monospermoside and their derivatives and sulphurein; also chal- cones.

Dosage: Stem bark—5-10 g powder (API Vol. II); flower—3-6 g powder; seed—3 g powder; gum—0.5-1.5 g (API Vol. IV.)... butea monosperma

Dracunculus Medinensis

The Guineaworm of parts of Africa, the Middle East and Asia. A nematode wormcausing painful subcutaneous lesions.... dracunculus medinensis

Drug Metabolism

A process by which the body destroys and excretes drugs, so limiting their duration of action. Phase 1 metabolism consists of transformation by oxidation, reduction, or hydrolysis. In phase 2 this transformed product is conjugated (joined up) with another molecule to produce a water-soluble product which is easier to excrete.... drug metabolism


(Hebrew) A servant in the king’s house... ebed-melech

Carbon Monoxide (co)

This is a colourless, odourless, tasteless, nonirritating gas formed on incomplete combustion of organic fuels. Exposure to CO is frequently due to defective gas, oil or solid-fuel heating appliances. CO is a component of car exhaust fumes and deliberate exposure to these is a common method of suicide. Victims of ?res often suffer from CO poisoning. CO combines reversibly with oxygen-carrying sites of HAEMOGLOBIN (Hb) molecules with an a?nity 200 to 300 times greater than oxygen itself. The carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb) formed becomes unavailable for oxygen transportation. In addition the partial saturation of the Hb molecule results in tighter oxygen binding, impairing delivery to the tissues. CO also binds to MYOGLOBIN and respiratory cytochrome enzymes. Exposure to CO at levels of 500 parts per million (ppm) would be expected to cause mild symptoms only and exposure to levels of 4,000 ppm would be rapidly fatal.

Each year around 50 people in the United Kingdom are reported as dying from carbon monoxide poisoning, and experts have suggested that as many as 25,000 people a year are exposed to its effects within the home, but most cases are unrecognised, unreported and untreated, even though victims may suffer from long-term effects. This is regrettable, given that Napoleon’s surgeon, Larrey, recognised in the 18th century that soldiers were being poisoned by carbon monoxide when billeted in huts heated by woodburning stoves. In the USA it is estimated that 40,000 people a year attend emergency departments suffering from carbon monoxide poisoning. So prevention is clearly an important element in dealing with what is sometimes termed the ‘silent killer’. Safer designs of houses and heating systems, as well as wider public education on the dangers of carbon monoxide and its sources, are important.

Clinical effects of acute exposure resemble those of atmospheric HYPOXIA. Tissues and organs with high oxygen consumption are affected to a great extent. Common effects include headaches, weakness, fatigue, ?ushing, nausea, vomiting, irritability, dizziness, drowsiness, disorientation, incoordination, visual disturbances, TACHYCARDIA and HYPERVENTILATION. In severe cases drowsiness may progress rapidly to COMA. There may also be metabolic ACIDOSIS, HYPOKALAEMIA, CONVULSIONS, HYPOTENSION, respiratory depression, ECG changes and cardiovascular collapse. Cerebral OEDEMA is common and will lead to severe brain damage and focal neurological signs. Signi?cant abnormalities on physical examination include impaired short-term memory, abnormal Rhomberg’s test (standing unsupported with eyes closed) and unsteadiness of gait including heel-toe walking. Any one of these signs would classify the episode as severe. Victims’ skin may be coloured pink, though this is very rarely seen even in severe incidents. The venous blood may look ‘arterial’. Patients recovering from acute CO poisoning may suffer neurological sequelae including TREMOR, personality changes, memory impairment, visual loss, inability to concentrate and PARKINSONISM. Chronic low-level exposures may result in nausea, fatigue, headache, confusion, VOMITING, DIARRHOEA, abdominal pain and general malaise. They are often misdiagnosed as in?uenza or food poisoning.

First-aid treatment is to remove the victim from the source of exposure, ensure an e?ective airway and give 100-per-cent oxygen by tight-?tting mask. In hospital, management is largely suppportive, with oxygen administration. A blood sample for COHb level determination should be taken as soon as practicable and, if possible, before oxygen is given. Ideally, oxygen therapy should continue until the COHb level falls below 5 per cent. Patients with any history of unconsciousness, a COHb level greater than 20 per cent on arrival, any neurological signs, any cardiac arrhythmias or anyone who is pregnant should be referred for an expert opinion about possible treatment with hyperbaric oxygen, though this remains a controversial therapy. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy shortens the half-life of COHb, increases plasma oxygen transport and reverses the clinical effects resulting from acute exposures. Carbon monoxide is also an environmental poison and a component of cigarette smoke. Normal body COHb levels due to ENDOGENOUS CO production are 0.4 to

0.7 per cent. Non-smokers in urban areas may have level of 1–2 per cent as a result of environmental exposure. Smokers may have a COHb level of 5 to 6 per cent.... carbon monoxide (co)

Electronic Monitoring Devices

Electronically driven equipment that will constantly monitor the physiological status of patients and the effects of medical intervention on that status. Such devices should relieve hospital sta? of time-consuming ‘human monitoring’ procedures and in some instances will enable patients to carry monitoring devices during their daily living activities. An example would be the regular assessment of blood-sugar concentration in subjects with DIABETES MELLITUS or the routine checking on the blood or tissue concentrations of administered drugs.... electronic monitoring devices

Empirical Methods

Research based on critical evaluation through observation or experimentation, not opinion or speculation.... empirical methods

Environmental Manipulation

Making temporary changes to the environment with the objective of reducing vector abundance.... environmental manipulation

Environmental Modification

Making permanent changes to the environment with the objective of reducing vector abundance.... environmental modification

Eva Marie

(American) A gracious giver of life

Eva Maria, Eva Mary, Eva Mariah... eva marie

Chonemorpha Macrophylla

(Roxb.) G. Don.

Synonym: C. fragrans (Moon) Alston.

Family: Apocynaceae.

Habitat: Dense moist forests throughout India up to 1,500 m altitude.

English: Wood Vine.

Ayurvedic: Used in the Southern states as Muurvaa.

Action: Powdered root and stems— laxative, antibilious.

A lignan derivative has been isolated from the stem. It accelerated uptake of low density lipoprotein by Hep G2 cell by 67.0%.

The root bark contains 3.03% of total alkaloids consisting mainly of chonemorphine. Chonemorphine di- hydrochloride is an anti-amoebic principle. It showed in vitro activity against Entamoeba histolytica and trichomo- nas vaginalis. It proved efficacious against hepatic amoebiasis in golden hamsters and intestinal amoebiasis in Wister rats.... chonemorpha macrophylla

Citrus Maxima

(Burm.) Merrill.

Synonym: C. decumana Watt. C. grandis (L.) Osbeck

Family: Rutaceae.

Habitat: North-eastern region up to 1,500 m in Assam and Tripura.

English: Pummelo, Shaddock.

Ayurvedic: Madhukarkatikaa.

Unani: Chakotra.

Siddha/Tamil: Pambalimasu.

Folk: Mahaa-nibu, Sadaaphal.

Action: Fruit—cardiotonic. Leaves, flowers and rind—used as a sedative in nervous affections. Leaves— used in convulsive cough, chorea, epilepsy, also in the treatment of haemorrhagic diseases. A lotion of boiled leaves used hot in painful swellings. The essential oil from fresh leaves exhibits dermatophytic, and fungistatic activity.

The root-bark contains beta-sitos- terol and acridone alkaloids. It also contains several coumarins. The alkaloids and coumarins show antimicrobial acitivity.

The essential oil from the leaves and unripe fruits contain 20% limonin, 30% nerolol, 40% nerolyl acetate and 3% geraniol. diosmin, beta-sitosterol and beta-D- glucoside. The roots contain campes- terol, stigmasterol, sitosterol and cholesterol.

Aqueous extract of the peel showed hypotensive action in dogs.

The fruits and seeds are a cardioton- ic; found useful in palpitation.

Dosage: Fruit—10-20 ml juice. (API Vol. III.) Leaf, flower, fruit, root— 50-100 ml decoction. (CCRAS.)... citrus maxima

Clinical Risk Management

Initially driven by anxiety about the possibility of medical negligence cases, clinical risk management has evolved into the study of IATROGENIC DISEASE. The ?rst priority of risk managers is to ensure that all therapies in medicine are as safe as possible. Allied to this is a recognition that errors may occur even when error-prevention strategies are in place. Lastly, any accidents that occur are analysed, allowing a broader understanding of their cause. Risk management is generally centred on single adverse events. The threat of litigation is taken as an opportunity to expose unsafe conditions of practice and to put pressure on those with the authority to implement change. These might include senior clinicians, hospital management, the purchasing authorities, and even the Secretary of State for Health. Attention is focused on organisational factors rather than on the individuals involved in a speci?c case.... clinical risk management

Club Moss Tea

The benefits of Club Moss tea are known for centuries. It was used by the ancient Druids and Chinese people as a homeopath remedy for various conditions. About Club Moss tea Botanically called Lycopodium clavatum, Club Moss is also found under the name of Wolf’s Claw. It is an evergreen plant that looks similar to a pine tree with small needles creeping along the forest floor and can be found in almost every continent in the world. It contains radium, alkaloids, polyphenolic acids, flavonoids and minerals. Some studies conducted in China have showed that “huperzine”, one of Club Moss tea’s constituents may improve the cognitive function raising its popularity as a memory enhancement supplement. It may also have a significant impact on amnesia and the effects of Alzheimer’s disease. Brew Club Moss tea Club Moss tea is prepared from one teaspoon of small cut pieces added to half a liter of boiled water. It is left like that for about 5 minutes. Never boil the plant, just pour the water over it. It is recommended to consume a cup per day, slowly, in the morning, on an empty stomach, half an hour before breakfast. Club Moss tea Benefits Club Moss tea has many health benefits. Find below a short list. Club Moss tea is a tonic for the liver, kidneys, bladder, urinary tract, and reproductive organs. According to the traditional Chinese medicine, Club Moss tea has been used for centuries to treat fever and inflammation. It has diuretic, anti-alcoholic, anti-tobacco, anti-cirrhotic, and purgative properties. If you also have a stomach that is easily irritated or chronic diarrhea, Club Moss tea can also help you feel relief. Club Moss Tea is said to help cleanse the kidney and may alleviate urinary tract infections like cystitis. When applied topically, this tea may help in the healing of wounds or other skin conditions and it can help stop the bleeding. Club Moss tea Side Effects Club Moss tea is mostly safe in the right amounts; do not drink more than 2 cups a day as it is not recommended for a long term-use. Overuse may cause griping or grumbling pains in the intestinal tract. Pregnant women should avoid drinking it. Also, people who suffer from diarrhea should use the tea only with the greatest caution as cramps in the intestines could develop. Club Moss tea is mostly safe and you can drink it without any problem as long as you keep in mind its precautions and you do not take more than 2 cups a day for a long period of time. So use it only when you need it.... club moss tea

Evidence-based Decision-making

In a policy context, evidence-based decision-making is the application of the best available scientific evidence to policy decisions about specific treatments or care, as well as changes in the delivery system.... evidence-based decision-making

Community Mental Health Teams

Intended as a key part of the NHS’s local comprehensive mental health services serving populations of around 50,000, these multidisciplinary, multi-agency teams have been less e?ective than expected, in part due to varying modes of operation in di?erent districts. Some experts argue that the services they provide – for example, crisis intervention, liaison with primary care services and continuing care for long-term clients – could be delivered more e?ectively by several specialist teams rather than a single, large generic one comprising psychiatrists, psychologists, community mental health nurses, occupational therapists, support and (sometimes) social workers.... community mental health teams

Complementary And Alternative Medicine (cam)

This is the title used for a diverse group of health-related therapies and disciplines which are not considered to be a part of mainstream medical care. Other terms sometimes used to describe them include ‘natural medicine’, ‘nonconventional medicine’ and ‘holistic medicine’. CAM embraces those therapies which may either be provided alongside conventional medicine (complementary) or which may, in the view of their practitioners, act as a substitute for it. Alternative disciplines purport to provide diagnostic information as well as o?ering therapy. However, there is a move now to integrate CAM with orthodox medicine and this view is supported by the Foundation for Integrated Medicine in the UK in its report, A way forward for the next ?ve years? – A discussion paper (1997).

The University of Exeter Centre for Complementary Health Studies report, published in 2000, estimated that there are probably more than 60,000 practitioners of complementary and alternative medicine in the UK. In addition there are about 9,300 therapist members of organisations representing practitioners who have statutory quali?cations, including doctors, nurses (see NURSING), midwives, osteopaths and physiotherapists; chiropractors became fully regulated by statute in June 2001. There are likely to be many thousands more health sta? with an active interest or involvement in the practice of complementary medicine – for example, the 10,000 members of the Royal College of Nursing’s Complementary Therapy Forum. It is possible that up to 20,000 statutory health professionals regularly practise some form of complementary medicine including half of all general practices providing access to CAMs – most commonly manipulation therapies. The report from the Centre at Exeter University estimates that up to 5 million patients consulted a practitioner specialising in complementary and alternative medicine in 1999. Surveys of users of complementary and alternative practitioners show a relatively high satisfaction rating and it is likely that many patients will go on to use such therapists over an extended period. The Exeter Centre estimates that, with the increments of the last two years, up to 15–20 million people, possibly 33 per cent of the population of the country, have now sought such treatment.

The 1998 meeting of the British Medical Association (BMA) agreed to ‘investigate the scienti?c basis and e?cacy of acupuncture and the quality of training and standards of con?dence in its practitioners’. In the resulting report (July 2000) the BMA recommended that guidelines on CAM use for general practitioners, complementary medicine practitioners and patients were urgently needed, and that the Department of Health should select key CAM therapies, including acupuncture, for appraisal by the National Institute for Clinical Medicine (NICE). The BMA also reiterated its earlier recommendation that the main CAM therapies, including acupuncture, should be included in familiarisation courses on CAM provided within medical schools, and that accredited postgraduate education should be provided to inform GPs and other clinicians about the possible bene?ts of CAM for patients.... complementary and alternative medicine (cam)

Conium Maculatum


Family: Umbelliferae; Apiaceae.

Habitat: North temperate regions.

English: Spotted Hemlock, Poison Hemlock.

Unani: Khardmaanaa, Shuk.

Action: Sedative, anodyne, antispasmodic. Used for relief in whooping cough, asthma; paralysis; epilepsy. Antidote to strichnine poisoning and other poisons of the same class. Highly toxic. Mother tincture of Hemlock is used in homoeopathy for prevention of immature cataract.

All parts of the plant contain alkaloids—highest in aerial parts (1.77%) and lowest in stems. Gamma-conice- ine is the principal alkaloid in the leaves, whereas N-methylconiine is the major alkaloid in mature fruits. Beside the alkaloids, a flavone glycoside, dios- min and chlorogenic acid have been reported in the leaves and inflorescence. Ripe seeds yield coumarins, bergapten and xanthotoxin. Experimentally, the plant exhibited teratogenic properties. (Rarely used today.)

Berries are toxic at 10 g, leaves at 30 g and coniine at 150 mg. (Francis Brinker.)... conium maculatum

Extracto De Malta

Malt extract; contains alcohol; sometimes added to herbal preparations.... extracto de malta

False-memory Syndrome

See REPRESSED MEMORY THERAPY.... false-memory syndrome

Feedback Mechanism

Many glands which produce HORMONES are in?uenced by other hormones, particularly those secreted by the HYPOTHALAMUS (a controlling centre in the brain) and the PITUITARY GLAND. If the amount of hormone produced by a gland rises, negative feedback mechanisms operate by instructing the pituitary gland, via the hypothalamus, to produce less of the stimulating hormones. This cuts activity in the target gland. Should the amount of hormone produced fall, the feedback mechanism weakens with the result that the output of stimulating hormones increases.... feedback mechanism

Female Genital Mutilation (fgm)

See CIRCUMCISION.... female genital mutilation (fgm)

Cordia Myxa

Roxb. noncLinn.

Synonym: C. dichotoma Forst. f. C. obliqua Willd.

Family: Boraginaceae.

Habitat: Throughout India, wild and often planted.

English: Sabestan Plum.

Ayurvedic: Shleshmaataka, Shelu, Bahuvaara, Bahuvaaraka, Bhutvrk- shak, Uddaalaka Shita, Picchila, Lisodaa.

Unani: Sapistaan, Lasodaa.

Siddha/Tamil: Naruvili.

Action: Fruit—astringent, demulcent, expectorant, diuretic, anthelmintic, mucilaginous. Used in the diseases of the chest and urinary passage. Bark—used in dyspepsia and fevers. Kernels— externally applied to ringworm. Leaf—decoction used in cough and cold.

The fruits contain Ca 55, P 275, Zn 2, Fe 6, Mn 2, Cr 0.2 and Cu 1.6 mg/100 g (Chromium is of therapeutic value in diabetes).

Antinutritional factors are—phytic acid 355, phytate phosphorus 100 and oxalic acid 250 mg/100 g.

The seeds contain alpha-amyrin and taxifolin-3, 5-dirhamnoside, which showed significant anti-inflammatory activity. EtOH (50%) of leaves and stems—antimicrobial; aerial parts— diuretic and hypothermic.... cordia myxa

Cucumis Melo

Linn. var. utilissimus Duth. & Fuller.

Synonym: C. utilissimus Roxb.

Family: Cucurbitaceae.

Habitat: Cultivated in Punjab and Uttar Pradesh.

English: Snake Cucumber.

Ayurvedic: Ervaaru, Ervaaruka, Urvaaru, Bahukanda, Karkati.

Unani: Kakari.

Siddha/Tamil: Kakkarikkay, Vellarikkai.

Action: Seeds—cooling, diuretic; used in painful micturition and suppression of urine.

The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India recommends the seed in dysuria and lithiasis.

Dosage: Seed—3-6 g. (API Vol. II.)... cucumis melo

Cucurbita Maxima


Habitat: Cultivated throughout India.

English: Red Gourd, Red Pumpkin.

Ayurvedic: Peeta Kuushmaanda, Kuushmaandaka, Kuusmaandi, Karkaaruka, Seetaaphal.

Unani: Kaddu-e-Sheerin, Aqteen.

Siddha/Tamil: Parangikayi.

Action: Fruit pulp—sedative, emollient and refrigerant; used as poultice, applied to burns, inflammations, boils, and burns. Seeds—diuretic, anthelmintic (for tapeworm). Because of their zinc content and antimitotic effect, seeds are used to arrest enlargement of prostate gland. Also used in cystitis and minor kidney dyfunction.

Pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima and C. pepo) seeds contain B vitamins, Vitamin A; minerals—calcium, iron, phosphorus, zinc; cucurbitacins; linonelic acid. An infusion of seeds (2-3 teaspoons) is taken as a diuretic and in hypertrophy of prostate.

Seeds of C. maxima contain sterol glycosides and sterol fatty acid esters which showed antitumour activity in mice.

The leaves contain calcium 36.38; magnesium 38.80; iron 2.04; zinc 0.76; and copper 0.42 (mg/100 g).

The seed oil contains sterols and tri- terpenoids. The oil is used in migraine and neuralgia.... cucurbita maxima

Cucurbita Moschata

Duch. ex Poir.

Habitat: Native to Central America. Cultivated in warmer climate than that required for C. maxima.

English: Squash.

Ayurvedic: Kumshmaanda.

Action: Fruit—used in headache, bronchitis, asthma; as diuretic in genitourinary disorders; as anthelmintic against tapeworms. Dried pulp is administered in haemptysis.

The lipids isolated from the seeds included glycerides, sterol esters, phos- phatidylcholine and phosphatidylinos- itol. The aqueous extract of seeds showed potent gastroprotective activity against ethanol-induced gastric lesions in rats.

In Chinese medicine, Cucurbita mo- schata flower is used in jaundice, dysentery and cough; the root in jaundice, strangury, galactostasis and dysentery; the stem in irregular menstruation and scalds.... cucurbita moschata

Game Meat

(Bison, rabbit, venison)

Nutritional Profile Energy value (calories per serving): Moderate Protein: High Fat: Low Saturated fat: High Cholesterol: Moderate Carbohydrates: None Fiber: None Sodium: Low Major vitamin contribution: B vitamins Major mineral contribution: Iron, zinc

About the Nutrients in This Food Like other animal foods, game meat has high-quality proteins with suf- ficient amounts of all the essential amino acids. Some game meat has less fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol than beef. All game meat is an excellent source of B vitamins, plus heme iron, the form of iron most easily absorbed by your body, and zinc. For example, one four-ounce serving of roast bison has 28 g protein, 2.7 g fat (1.04 g saturated fat), 93.7 mg cholesterol, 3.88 mg iron (25.8 percent of the R DA for a woman of childbearing age), and 4.1 mg zinc (27 percent of the R DA for a man). The Nutrients in Roasted Game Meat (4-ounce serving)

The Most Nutritious Way to Serve This Food With a food rich in vitamin C. Vitamin C increases the absorption of iron.

Diets That May Restrict or Exclude This Food Low-protein diet (for kidney disease)

Buying This Food In American markets, game meats are usually sold frozen. Choose a package with no leaks or stains to suggest previous defrosting.

Storing This Food Keep frozen game meat well wrapped in the freezer until you are ready to use it. The packaging protects the meat from oxygen that can change its pigments from reddish to brown. Freezing prolongs the freshness of the meat by slowing the natural multiplication of bacteria that digest proteins and other substances on the surface, converting them to a slimy film. The bacteria also change the meat’s sulfur-containing amino acids methionine and cystine into smelly chemicals called mercaptans. When the mercaptans combine with myoglobin, they produce the greenish pigment that gives spoiled meat its characteristic unpleasant appearance. Large cuts of game meat can be safely frozen, at 0°F, for six months to a year.

Preparing This Food Defrost the meat in the refrigerator to protect it from spoilage. Trim the meat to dispose of all visible fat, thus reducing the amount of fat and cholesterol in each serving. When you are done, clean all utensils thoroughly with hot soap and hot water. Wash your cutting board, wood or plastic, with hot water, soap, and a bleach-and-water solution. For ultimate safety in preventing the transfer of microorganisms from the raw meat to other foods, keep one cutting board exclusively for raw meats, fish, and poultry, and a second one for everything else. Finally, don’t forget to wash your hands.

What Happens When You Cook This Food Cooking changes the way meat looks and tastes, alters its nutritional value, makes it safer, and extends its shelf life. Browning meat before you cook it does not “seal in the juices,” but it does change the flavor by caramelizing proteins and sugars on the surface. Because meat’s only sugars are the Game Meat  

63 small amounts of glycogen in muscle tissue, we add sugars in marinades or basting liquids that may also contain acids (vinegar, lemon juice, wine) to break down muscle fibers and tenderize the meat. (NOTE : Browning has one minor nutritional drawback. It breaks amino acids on the surface of the meat into smaller compounds that are no longer useful proteins.) When meat is heated, it loses water and shrinks. Its pigments, which combine with oxygen, are denatured (broken into fragments) by the heat. They turn brown, the natural color of well-done meat. At the same time, the fats in the meat are oxidized, a reaction that produces a characteristic warmed-over flavor when the cooked meat is refrigerated and then reheated. Cooking and storing the meat under a blanket of antioxidants—catsup or a gravy made of tomatoes, peppers and other vitamin-C rich vegetables—reduces fat oxidation and lessens the warmed-over flavor. Meat reheated in a microwave oven is also less likely to taste warmed-over.

How Other Kinds of Processing Affect This Food Aging. Hanging fresh meat exposed to air in a cold room evaporates moisture and shrinks the meat slightly. At the same time, bacterial action on the surface of the meat breaks down proteins, producing an “aged” flavor. (See below, Food/drug interactions.) Curing. Salt-curing preserves meat through osmosis, the physical reaction in which liquids flow across a membrane, such as the wall of a cell, from a less dense to a more dense solu- tion. The salt or sugar used in curing dissolve in the liquid on the surface of the meat to make a solution that is more dense than the liquid inside the cells of the meat. Water flows out of the meat and out of the cells of any microorganisms living on the meat, killing the micro-organisms and protecting the meat from bacterial damage. Salt-cured meat is higher in sodium than fresh meat. Smoking. Hanging fresh meat over an open fire slowly dries the meat, kills microorgan- isms on its surface, and gives the meat a rich, smoky flavor. The flavor varies with the wood used in the fire. Meats smoked over an open fire are exposed to carcinogenic chemicals in the smoke, including a-benzopyrene. Artificial smoke flavoring is commercially treated to remove tar and a-benzopyrene.

Medical Uses and/or Benefits Treating and/or preventing iron deficiency. Without meat in the diet, it is virtually impossible for an adult woman to meet her iron requirement without supplements.

Adverse Effects Associated with This Food Increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Like all foods from animals, game meats are a source of cholesterol. To reduce the risk of heart disease, the National Cholesterol Education Project recommends following the Step I and Step II diets. The Step I diet provides no more than 30 percent of total daily calories from fat, no more than 10 percent of total daily calories from saturated fat, and no more than 300 mg of cholesterol per day. It is designed for healthy people whose cholesterol is in the range of 200 –239 mg/dL. The Step II diet provides 25– 35 percent of total calories from fat, less than 7 percent of total calories from saturated fat, up to 10 percent of total calories from polyunsaturated fat, up to 20 percent of total calories from monounsaturated fat, and less than 300 mg cho- lesterol per day. This stricter regimen is designed for people who have one or more of the following conditions: •  Existing cardiovascular disease •  High levels of low-density lipoproteins (LDLs, or “bad” cholesterol) or low levels of high-density lipoproteins (HDLs, or “good” cholesterol) •  Obesity •  Type 1 diabetes (insulin-dependent diabetes, or diabetes mellitus) •  Metabolic syndrome, a.k.a. insulin resistance syndrome, a cluster of risk fac- tors that includes type 2 diabetes (non-insulin-dependent diabetes) Food-borne illness. Improperly cooked meat contaminated with E. coli O157:H7 has been linked to a number of fatalities in several parts of the United States. In addition, meat con- taminated with other bacteria, viruses, or parasites poses special problems for people with a weakened immune system: the very young, the very old, cancer chemotherapy patients, and people with HIV. Cooking meat to an internal temperature of 140°F should destroy Salmo- nella and Campylobacter jejuni; to 165°F, E. coli, and to 212°F, Listeria monocytogenes. Decline in kidney function. Proteins are nitrogen compounds. When metabolized, they yield ammonia that is excreted through the kidneys. In laboratory animals, a sustained high-pro- tein diet increases the flow of blood through the kidneys, accelerating the natural age-related decline in kidney function. Some experts suggest that this may also occur in human beings.

Food/Drug Interactions Monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors. Meat “tenderized” with papaya or a papain powder can interact with the class of antidepressant drugs known as monoamine oxidase inhibi- tors. Papain meat tenderizers work by breaking up the long chains of protein molecules. One by-product of this process is tyramine, a substance that constructs blood vessels and raises blood pressure. M AO inhibitors inactivate naturally occurring enzymes in your body that metabolize tyramine. If you eat a food such as papain-tenderized meat, which is high in tyramine, while you are taking an M AO inhibitor, you cannot effectively eliminate the tyramine from your body. The result may be a hypertensive crisis.... game meat

Good Medical Practice

Guidelines for doctors on the provision of good medical care laid down by the GENERAL MEDICAL COUNCIL (GMC).... good medical practice

Haemic Murmur

Unusual sounds heard over the heart and large blood vessels in severe cases of ANAEMIA. They disappear as the condition improves.... haemic murmur

Cymbopogon Martinii

(Roxb.) Wats.

Andropogon martinii

Family: Poaceae.

Habitat: In drier parts of India; in Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh. The most important centers of Rosha Grass oil production are Betul and Mimar in Madhya Pradesh and Nasik in Maharashtra.

English: Rosha Grass, Palmarosa.

Ayurvedic: Rohisha-trn, Dhyaama- ka.

Siddha/Tamil: Kavathampillu.

Action: Essential oil is used externally for stiff joints and lumbago, skin diseases, and in the treatment of baldness. Given internally in small doses in bilious complaints.

The essential oil obtained from mo- tia var. is rich in geraniol (79-95%).

The oil is known as Palmarosa, also

Rusa. Sofia var. yields an oil with lesser geraniol. It is known as Gingergrass Oil.... cymbopogon martinii

Datura Metel


Synonym: D. fastuosa Linn.

Family: Solanaceae.

Habitat: Throughout India, particularly in waste place.

English: Thornapple, Downy Datura.

Ayurvedic: Dhattuura, Dhuurta, Dhastura, Unmatta, Shivapriya, Harapriya, Hema, Haatta, Dhustuu- ra, Dhustuuraka, Kanaka, Maatula. Also equated with Raaj-dhatuura. (white var.)

Unani: Dhaturaa.

Siddha/Tamil: Oomatthai, Karu- voomatthai.

Action: Various plant parts are used in headache, hemiplegia, epilepsy, delirium, convulsions, cramps, rigid thigh muscles, rheumatism. Leaf— antitumour, antirheumatic. Leaf and corolla—anti-inflammatory. Flower—antiasthmatic. Seed, leaf and root—anticatarrhal, febrifuge, antidiarrhoeal, antidermatosis; also used in cerebral complications. Seeds—used in asthma. Limited use in kinetosis (excessive salivation, nausea and vomiting).

Along with other therapeutic applications, The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia ofIndia indicated the use of the whole plant in dysuria and alopecia.

The plant accumulates more hyos- cine than hyoscyamine. Hyoscine content of dried leaves and flowering tops—between 0.02-0.55%. Alkaloid content of leaves—0.55%; stem—0.4%; seeds—0.19%; pericarps—0.8%; root at flowering of the plant—0.77%.

Hyoscine in large doses causes delirium and coma.

Dosage: Seed—30-60 mg. (API Vol. III.)... datura metel

Digera Muricata

(Linn.) Mart.

Synonym: D. arvensis Forsk. Desmochaeta muricata (L.) DC.

Family: Amaranthaceae.

Habitat: Throughout the plains of India, as a weed in cultivated fields.

Ayurvedic: Katthinjara, Kunanjara.

Siddha/Tamil: Thoyya-keerai.

Folk: Lat-mahuriaa, Lahsuvaa.

Action: Astringent, antibilious. Laxative in large doses. Flowers and seeds—diuretic; given for urinary discharges.

The plant contains alpha-and beta- spinasterol.... digera muricata

Diospyros Melanoxylon


Synonym: D. dubia Wall. ex A. DC.

Family: Ebenaceae.

Habitat: Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh and West Peninsula.

English: Coromandel Ebony, Persimmon.

Ayurvedic: Tinduka (var.), Dirgha- patrakaa.

Siddha/Tamil: Karum Dumbi, Thumbi, Beedi-elai.

Action: Leaves—carminative, laxative, diuretic, styptic. Bark— astringent. Used in dyspepsia and diarrhoea. Unripe fruit— carminative and astringent. Ripe fruit—antibilious. Dried flowers— used in anaemia, inflammation of spleen, also in leucorrhoea. Leaf and dried flower—used in dyspepsia and diarrhoea, topically in scabies. Aerial parts—hypotensive.

Half-ripe fruit contains 23, ripe fruit 15 and bark 19% tannin.

The bark and sapwood extracts yield beta-sitosterol, lupeol, betulin and be- tulinic acid. Leaves contain hentria- contane, hentriacontanol, alpha-amy- rin, baurenol, ursolic, oleanolic and be- tulinic acids.... diospyros melanoxylon

Health Maintenance Organization (hmo)

An organized system providing health care in a geographic area to an enrolled group of persons who pay a predetermined fixed, periodic prepayment made by, or on behalf of, each person or family unit enrolled, irrespective of actual service use.... health maintenance organization (hmo)

Health-related Quality-of-life (hrql) Measure

Individual outcome measure that extends beyond traditional measures of mortality and morbidity to include such dimensions as physiology, function, social activity, cognition, emotion, sleep and rest, energy and vitality, health perception and general life satisfaction (some of these are also known as health status, functional status or quality-of-life measures).... health-related quality-of-life (hrql) measure

Herbal Manual

Herbal Manual

[catlist id=8 numberposts=100 pagination=yes instance=2 orderby=title order=asc]

... herbal manual

Diet - Macrobiotic

A plant-based diet with small amounts of poultry, fish or meat for non- vegetarians. A return to the traditional diet of local natural foods as found in some primitive communities and which is believed to increase immunity against degenerative diseases of the civilised world.

The average macrobiotic diet is made up approximately of the proportions: whole grains 45 per cent; vegetables 25 per cent; beans, legumes and seeds 10 per cent; nuts 5 per cent; fruit 5 per cent; seaweeds 5 per cent; poultry 2.5 per cent; fish 2.5 per cent.

Whole grains: wheat, barley, rye, oats, brown rice, buckwheat, millet, corn. Vegetables: green leaves and roots – grown organically. Beans, legumes and seeds: all beans, aduki, lentils, chickpeas. Seeds: sesame, sunflower, etc. Seaweeds: hiziki, wakama, dulse, Carragheen moss, kelp. Very low sugar. Moderate fats and oils. ... diet - macrobiotic

Eclectic Medicine

The eclectics were a group of North American physicians who selected from various systems of medicine such principles as they judged to be rational. Their materia medica was based almost entirely on herbal medicine. Part of their knowledge was acquired from the native Indian population and they enjoyed an extraordinary degree of success in the treatment of some of the deeper disturbances of the human race. However, their work was eclipsed by the advance of science and the medical revolution with its brilliant discoveries that have long since been adopted by the orthodox profession. Impressive results were reported in their professional magazine, Ellingwood’s Therapeutist, which continued in publication from the turn of the century until 1920. The recorded experiences of those early pioneers awaken renewed interest today. ... eclectic medicine

Eyes  - Macular Degeneration

Zinc and selenium, supported by doses of Vitamin E and amino acid taurine produced dramatic results in some cases; effect said to be due to antioxidant activity mopping up free radicals associated with degenerative diseases (Journal of Nutritional Medicine)

A preliminary therapeutic trial in patients with ageing macular degeneration or diabetic retinopathy showed that supplementation with Beta-carotene, Vitamin C, Vitamin E and Selenium halted the progression of degenerative changes and in some cases even brought some improvement. (Age and Ageing 1991, 20(1) 60-9). Bilberries.

Referral to a consultant ophthalmologist. ... eyes  - macular degeneration

Heavy Metal Toxicity

Pollution of the blood and tissues by environmental poisons and traces of chemicals is a source of chronic disease. The most common toxic metals are lead, aluminium, cadmium, mercury and arsenic in that order. Copper is also toxic but is essential in small amounts.

Lead disrupts neurotransmitters in the brain and disposes to nervous excitability, aggression and hyperactivity. Aluminium is associated with senile dementia and Alzheimer’s disease, accumulating in the brain. Cadmium induces changes in behaviour with reduced mental ability. Mercury is present in the amalgam used in dental surgery as part-filling for teeth. Arsenical poisoning may occur in food contamination or paints.

An internal chelating or cleansing of tissues of the lungs, urinary system, blood and lymph may be assisted by a combination of relative expectorants, diuretics, hepatics and adaptogens among which are: Barberry, Blue Flag root, Chaparral, Burdock, Echinacea, Red Clover, Yellow Dock. To bind with metals and assist their passage through the intestinal canal to the outside of the body: Irish Moss, Iceland Moss or Slippery Elm. Garlic.

The Medicines Control Agency of the Ministry of Health (UK) has given consideration to the content of heavy metal impurities and rules that a limit of 75 micrograms of total heavy metals shall be the acceptable maximum daily intake.

Licence-holders are required to carry out tests on all incoming material. Some seaweeds may be heavily polluted with mercury, arsenic and radioactive particles as a result of micro-biological contamination. The MCA requires Bladderwrack and other seaweeds to contain minimum levels. ... heavy metal toxicity

Lady’s Mantle

Lion’s foot. Alchemilla vulgaris L. Dried herb (oral), root (topical). Keynote: bleeding.

Constituents: tannins.

Action: powerful styptic and astringent because of its high tannin content. Haemostatic. Alterative. Drying and binding. Menstrual regulator.

Uses: Excessive menstruation. Non-menstrual bleeding of the womb between periods. Children’s summer diarrhoea, colitis with bleeding. Gastric and duodenal ulcer. Children’s convulsions. (Swedish traditional)

Not used in pregnancy.

Combinations. (1) with Avens for gastritis and mucous colitis. (2) with Agnus Castus for menstrual disorders.

Preparations: Average dose: 2-4g. Thrice daily. Tea: 1-2 teaspoons to each cup boiling water; infuse 15 minutes. One cup.

Liquid extract BHP (1983) 1:1 in 25 per cent alcohol. Dose: 2-4ml.

Powdered root. Dose, 2-4g.

Vaginal douche: 2oz to 2 pints (60g to 1 litre) boiling water. Infuse 30 minutes. Inject warm for leucorrhoea, Candida, inflammation; or as a lotion for pruritus.

Decoction (roots) offer a powerful deterrant to passive bleeding. ... lady’s mantle


Rubia tinctorum, L.

Of historic interest only, as a cholagogue, emmenagogue and diuretic. No longer used in medicine.

Used in the dyeing industry as Turkey Red. ... madder

Maidenhair Tree

See: GINKGO TREE. ... maidenhair tree

Manager’s Stress

All in charge of other people are subject to a wide range of environmental stress, working conditions, conflict with superiors. Some are more predisposed to stress than others. Alternatives. Ginseng, Valerian, Skullcap, Oats, Gotu Kola.

Tea. Skullcap 1; Oats 2; Valerian half. Mix. 1 teaspoon to each cup boiling water. 1 cup as desired.

Life Drops. Few drops in tea.

Lime flower tea, at night.

Ginkgo. For brain fatigue.

Diet. Avoid strong tea, coffee, alcohol. ... manager’s stress

Mango Leaves

Part used: leaves. Contains Mangiferin. Action: anti-viral.

Uses: Herpes simplex virus (HSV-1). ... mango leaves

Diospyros Montana

Roxb. var. cordifolia Hiem.

Habitat: Throughout the greater part of India.

English: Mountain persimmon.

Ayurvedic: Visha-tinduka, Kaaka- tinduka.

Siddha/Tamil: Vakkanai, Vakkanatan.

Folk: Timru.

Action: Various plant parts are used in fever, puerperal fever, neuralgia, pleurisy, pneumonia, menorrhagia, dysurea. Fruits are applied externally to boils.

Bark extract—anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and analgesic. Leaves and seeds—antibacterial.

Diospyrin occurs in the bark and wood. Leaves contain hentriacon- tane, hentriacontanol, beta-sitosterol, alpha-and beta-amyrin, lupeol, taraxe- rol and ursolic acid.

Alcoholic extract of the plant showed CNS depressant and spasmolytic activity and also produced bradycardia and hypertension.... diospyros montana

Discover Marjoram Tea

Marjoram tea has been known for a very long time for its diuretic and antispasmodic actions. Marjoram is a perennial herb that grows in North Africa, the Middle East and India. Its leaves are small, roundish and fuzzy-haired, having a sweet and spicy flavor in the same time. It is believed that marjoram plant was cultivated by Aphrodite, the Greek goddess of love. The herb is still placed in hope chests and under women’s pillow to ensure a happy marriage. The constituents of marjoram tea are oleic acids, essential oils, tannins, ursolic acid, vitamin C and zinc. How To Make Marjoram Tea To brew marjoram tea, you will need to place 1 teaspoon of marjoram herb in 8 ounces of cold water. Bring the mix to a boil and just when the water reaches the boiling point, reduce the heat and let it steep for 15-20 minutes. Strain the tea into your cup and enjoy! Marjoram Tea Benefits
  • Helps relieve dry cough.
  • May help in the treatment of epilepsy and rheumatism.
  • Can be used as a remedy for asthma.
  • Relieves indigestion and flatulence.
  • Prevents spasm in the digestive tract.
Marjoram Tea Side Effects So far, no side effects have been noticed when consuming marjoram tea. However, pregnant women should not consume large amounts of marjoram because it can cause uterine contractions. Infants and children should not drink marjoram tea. If you are experiencing nausea, diarrhea or vomiting, reduce your dose of marjoram tea or stop drinking it! If these symptoms last more than a few days, consult your doctor. Marjoram tea may interfere with the action of certain drugs, so make sure you consult your doctor before drinking any herbal tea. Marjoram tea is a healthy choice, having many health benefits. Do not drink more than 3 cups per day in order not to experience any of the side effects listed above!... discover marjoram tea

Dracocephalum Moldavica


Family: Lamiaceae.

Habitat: The temperate Western Himalaya in Kashmir from 2,1002,400 m.

Ayurvedic: Raam Tulasi.

Unani: Feranjmushk

Action: Seeds—Febrifuge, carminative, astringent, demulcent, vulnerary. Used is cephalalgia, neurological disorders, as a cardiac tonic, brain tonic and deobstruent in Unani medicine.

Citral and geranyl acetate are major constituents of the essential oil. Others include alpha-pinene, nerol, cit- ronellol, linalool, geraniol, limonene and caproic acid. Flavonoids, including moldavoside, have been isolated from the plant.... dracocephalum moldavica

Herbal Medical

Herbal Medical

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... herbal medical

Home Medical Equipment

Equipment, such as hospital beds, wheelchairs and prosthetics, provided by an agency and used at home.... home medical equipment

Hugonia Mystax


Family: Linaceae.

Habitat: Konkan and North Kanara, throughout dry forests of Tamil Nadu.

Folk: Kaakibeeraa, Kansamaara.

Siddha/Tamil: Agori. Motirakkanni.

Action: Root—anti-inflammatory, febrifuge; disperses swellings.... hugonia mystax

Discover Mullein Tea

One type of herbal tea is the mullein tea. Despite its slightly bitter taste, it has plenty of health benefits, and it is quite easy to prepare, too. Read this article to find out more about mullein tea’s health benefits and side effects. About Mullein Tea The main ingredient of the mullein tea is the mullein plant. It includes about 250 species of flowering plants that grow in Europe (especially in the Mediterranean region) and Asia. Recently, various species were introduced and even naturalized in America, Australia and Hawaii. The shorter stems of the plant grow up to half a meter, while the tallest can reach 3 meters. There are spirally arranged and often densely hairy leaves in the lower half, while the upper half has five-petal flowers of various colors: yellow, orange, red-brown, purple, blue, or white; the yellow ones are most common. The fruit is a small capsule which contains numerous minute seeds. How to prepare Mullein Tea It only takes a few minutes to prepare a cup of mullein tea. Boil some water, then pour it in a cup, over the mullein dried herbs. Let it steep for about 5 minutes before removing the herbs. If you think the taste is too bitter for you, you can sweeten it with honey, sugar or lemon. Components of Mullein Tea Dried leaves and flowers of the plant are used to make the mullein tea. This way, many components of the plant are transferred to the mullein tea. The components include mucilage, rotenone, flavonoids, iridoids, sterols, and sugars. Mullein Tea Benefits Mullein tea is quite useful when it comes to treating chronic bronchitis, coughs, asthma, pneumonia, congestion, and other respiratory problems. It relaxes the muscles within the chest, loosens the mucus, and helps with expectoration. Also, when you’ve dealing with a sore throat, it helps soothe the throat and chest. Drinking mullein tea helps treat diarrhea and works to expel intestinal parasites, such as worms. It is useful when treating bladder and urinary tract infections, for example hematuria (bloody urine). Also, consumption of mullein tea lessens the pain from hemorrhoids. Mullein tea can also help you if you’re suffering from insomnia, or when you’re dealing with anxiety or high levels of stress. It is good for cleansing the blood, and it can treat various forms of allergies. Also, mullein tea is useful when treating earaches, eczema, inflammations, acne and minor wounds. Mullein Tea Side Effects If you’re preparing the mullein tea on your own, using the leaves of the plant, be careful with the little hairs found on the leaves. When they come in contact with your skin, they can lead to red, itchy or inflamed skin. Despite the fact that it’s used to treat respiratory problems, mullein tea can lead to breathing problems. Although rare, the symptoms in this case include chest wall inflammation, difficulty in inhaling, tightness in the chest, and tightness of the throat. If you experience any of these symptoms, stop drinking mullein tea and go visit your doctor. Also, mullein seeds contain rotenone, which is a potentially toxic substance that, if ingested, may cause severe side effects. Make sure you check to see if the mullein tea you drink is made from mullein seeds. It is generally recommended that you not drink mullein tea if you are pregnant or breast feeding, as it might affect the baby. Don’t drink more than six cups of mullein tea a day. If you do, it won’t be that good for your health anymore. You might experience some of the following symptoms: headaches, loss of appetite, vomiting, diarrhea, insomnia, dizziness, and irregular heartbeats. Although bitter, mullein tea is still a delicious type of herbal tea. It comes with many health benefits, as well. Just make sure you won’t experience any side effects. Once it’s all safe, you’re free to enjoy your daily cup of this type of tea.... discover mullein tea

Erythroxylum Monogynum


Synonym: E. indicum (DC.) Bedd.

Family: Erythroxylaceae.

Habitat: South India, up to 1,000 m.

English: Bastard Sandal, Red Cedar.

Ayurvedic: Kattuchandanam (Kerala).

Siddha/Tamil: Devadaram.

Folk: Gandh-giri (Maharashtra).

Action: Leaf—diaphoretic, stimulant, diuretic, stomachic. A decoction is used for malarial fever. Bark and wood—febrifuge.

The wood yields diterpenes, including monogynol, OH-ogynol, devada- rool; d-hibaene, its epoxide and an olefinic hydrocarbon.

Biological activity of the plant is hypothermic and CNS active.... erythroxylum monogynum

Incidence Monitoring And Reporting

The reporting and tracking of adverse incidents by care providers.... incidence monitoring and reporting

Index Medicus

A monthly publication produced by the National Library of Medicine in the USA. The publication indexes leading biomedical literature from throughout the world. Indexing is by author and by subject.... index medicus

Indian Medicinal Plants

Indian Medicinal Plants

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... indian medicinal plants

Information Management

Decision processes oriented towards the creation or acquisition of information and knowledge, the design of information storage and flow, and the allocation and utilization of information in organizational work processes. See also “health information system”.... information management

Discover The Milk Thistle Tea

Milk Thistle tea is a type of herbal tea made from the plant with the same name: milk thistle. The plant has many health benefits, therefore making the tea good for your body. Find out more about the milk thistle tea in this article. About Milk Thistle Tea The main ingredient of the milk thistle tea is, of course, the milk thistle; it is made from the seeds of the plant. The milk thistle is a flowering plant of the daisy family, an annual or biennial herb which grows in the Mediterranean regions of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East. The stem is tall, branched but with no spines, and has large, alternate leaves. At the end of the stem, there are large flower heads, disk-shaped and pink-purple in color. The fruit of the plants consists of a black achene with a white pappus. The name of the plant comes from the way its leaves look. The edges of the leaves are streaked with milky-white veins. How to prepare Milk Thistle Tea You can easily prepare a cup of milk thistle tea in no more than 10 minutes. First, boil the water necessary for a cup of milk thistle tea. Add one teaspoon of milk thistle tea seeds and then, add the hot water. Let it steep for 4-7 minutes, depending on how strong you want the flavor of the tea to be. During summer, you can also try the iced tea version of the milk thistle tea. Place 6 teaspoons into a teapot or a heat resistant pitcher and then pour one and a half cups of boiled water. Let it steep for 5 minutes. Meanwhile, get a serving pitcher and fill it with cold water. Once the steeping time is done, pour the tea over the cold water, add ice, and then pour more cold water. Add sugar, honey or anything else you want to sweeten the taste. Benefits of Milk Thistle Tea The main health benefit of the milk thistle tea is related to its effectiveness in protecting the liver, thanks to one of its components, Silymarin. Silymarin is the main active ingredient of the milk thistle tea, working both as an anti-inflammatory and as an antioxidant. It helps with cirrhosis, jaundice, hepatitis, and gallbladder disorders. It also detoxifies the liver, as well as helping it by cleansing the blood. If you’ve got type 2 diabetes, drinkingmilk thistle tea might help you a lot, as well. Some of the benefits of milk thistle tea, related to diabetes, are:decrease in blood sugar levels, improvement in cholesterol and improvement in insulin resistance.  Also, by lowering the LDL “bad” cholesterol levels, milk thistle tea can help lower the chances of developing heart diseases. Other health benefits of milk thistle tea involve increasing the secretion of the bile in order to enhance the flow in the intestinal tract, helping to ease kidney and bladder irritations, and helping to remove obstructions in the spleen. Milk Thistle Tea side effects Despite its important health benefits, don’t forget that there are also a few side effects you might experience when drinking milk thistle tea. If you regularly drink milk thistle teafor a long period of time, it might end up having laxative effects. That can easily lead to diarrhea and, in some rare cases, it can also lead to nausea, gases, and an upset and bloating stomach. You should avoid drinking milk thistle tea if you know that you have a ragweed allergy. In this case, it can cause a rash or lead to more severe allergic reactions. Milk thistle tea also isn’t recommended to women who are pregnant or breast feeding. The main ingredient of milk thistle tea, the milk thistle herb, may mimic the effects of estrogen. Because of this, some women should avoid drinking milk thistle tea. This refers to women who have fibroid tumors or endometriosis, as well as women who are suffering from breast, uterine, and/or ovarian cancer. Also, don’t drink more than six cups of milk thistle tea (or any other type of tea) a day. Otherwise, it won’t be as helpful as it should be. The symptoms you might get are headaches, dizziness, insomnia, irregular heartbeats, vomiting, diarrhea and loss of appetite. Try the milk thistle tea! As an herbal tea, it helps you stay healthy, especially by protecting your liver. Still, don’t forget about the few side effects.... discover the milk thistle tea

Information Technology In Medicine

The advent of computing has had widespread effects in all areas of society, with medicine no exception. Computer systems are vital – as they are in any modern enterprise – for the administration of hospitals, general practices and health authorities, supporting payroll, ?nance, stock ordering and billing, resource and bed management, word-processing correspondence, laboratory-result reporting, appointment and record systems, and management audit.

The imaging systems of COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (see MRI) have powerful computer techniques underlying them.

Computerised statistical analysis of study data, population databases and disease registries is now routine, leading to enhanced understanding of the interplay between diseases and the population. And the results of research, available on computerised indexes such as MEDLINE, can be obtained in searches that take only seconds, compared with the hours or days necessary to accomplish the same task with its paper incarnation, Index Medicus.

Medical informatics The direct computerisation of those activities which are uniquely medical – history-taking, examination, diagnosis and treatment – has proved an elusive goal, although one hotly pursued by doctors, engineers and scientists working in the discipline of medical informatics. Computer techniques have scored some successes: patients are, for example, more willing to be honest about taboo areas, such as their drug or alcohol consumption, or their sexual proclivities, with a computer than face to face with a clinician; however, the practice of taking a history remains the cornerstone of clinical practice. The examination of the patient is unlikely to be supplanted by technological means in the foreseeable future; visual and tactile recognition systems are still in their infancy. Skilled interpretation of the result by machine rather than the human mind seems equally as remote. Working its way slowly outwards from its starting point in mathematical logic, ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE that in any way mimics its natural counterpart seems a distant prospect. Although there have been successes in computer-supported diagnosis in some specialised areas, such as the diagnosis of abdominal pain, workable systems that could supplant the mind of the generalist are still the dream of the many developers pursuing this goal, rather than a reality available to doctors in their consulting rooms now.

In therapeutics, computerised prescribing systems still require the doctor to make the decision about treatment, but facilitate the process of writing, issuing, and recording the prescription. In so doing, the system can provide automated checks, warning if necessary about allergies, potential drug interactions, or dosing errors. The built-in safety that this process o?ers is enhanced by the superior legibility of the script that ensues, reducing the potential for error when the medicine is dispensed by the nurse or the pharmacist.

Success in these individual applications continues to drive development, although the process has its critics, who are not slow to point to the lengthier consultations that arise when a computer is present in the consulting room and its distracting e?ect on communication with the patient.

Underlying these many software applications lies the ubiquitous personal computer – more powerful today than its mainframe predecessor of only 20 years ago – combined with networking technology that enables interconnection and the sharing of data. As in essence the doctor’s role involves the acquisition, manipulation and application of information – from the individual patient, and from the body of medical knowledge – great excitement surrounds the development of open systems that allow di?erent software and hardware platforms to interact. Many problems remain to be solved, not least the fact that for such systems to work, the whole organisation, and not just a few specialised individuals, must become computer literate. Such systems must be easy to learn to use, which requires an intuitive interface between user(s) and system(s) that is predictable and logical in its ordering and presentation of information.

Many other issues stand in the way of the development towards computerisation: standard systems of nomenclature for medical concepts have proved surprisingly di?cult to develop, but are crucial for successful information-sharing between users. Sharing information between existing legacy systems is a major challenge, often requiring customised software and extensive human intervention to enable the previous investments that an organisation has made in individual systems (e.g. laboratory-result reporting) to be integrated with newer technology. The beginnings of a global solution to this substantial obstacle to networking progress is in sight: the technology that enables the Internet – an international network of telephonically linked personal computers – also enables the establishment of intranets, in which individual servers (computers dedicated to serving information to other computers) act as repositories of ‘published’ data, which other users on the network may ‘browse’ as necessary in a client-server environment.

Systems that support this process are still in early stages of development, but the key conceptualisations are in place. Developments over the next 5–10 years will centre on the electronic patient record available to the clinician on an integrated clinical workstation. The clinical workstation – in essence a personal computer networked to the hospital or practice system – will enable the clinician to record clinical data and diagnoses, automate the ordering of investigations and the collection of the results, and facilitate referral and communication between the many professionals and departments involved in any individual patient’s care.

Once data is digitised – and that includes text, statistical tables, graphs, illustrations and radiological images, etc. – it may be as freely networked globally as locally. Consultations in which live video and sound transmissions are the bonds of the doctor-patient relationship (the techniques of telemedicine) are already reality, and have proved particularly convenient and cost-e?ective in linking the patient and the generalist to specialists in remote areas with low population density.

As with written personal medical records, con?dentiality of personal medical information on computers is essential. Computerised data are covered by the Data Protection Act 1984. This stipulates that data must:

be obtained and processed fairly and lawfully.

be held only for speci?ed lawful purposes.

•not be used in a manner incompatible with those purposes.

•only be recorded where necessary for these purposes.

be accurate and up to date.

not be stored longer than necessary.

be made available to the patient on request.

be protected by appropriate security and backup procedures. As these problems are solved, concerns about

privacy and con?dentiality arise. While paper records were often only con?dential by default, the potential for breaches of security in computerised networks is much graver. External breaches of the system by hackers are one serious concern, but internal breaches by authorised users making unauthorised use of the data are a much greater risk in practice. Governing network security so that clinical users have access on a need-to-know basis is a di?cult business: the software tools to enable this – encryption, and anonymisation (ensuring that clinical information about patients is anonymous to prevent con?dential information about them leaking out) of data collected for management and research processes – exist in the technical domain but remain a complex conundrum for solution in the real world.

The mushroom growth of websites covering myriad subjects has, of course, included health information. This ranges from clinical details on individual diseases to facts about medical organisations and institutes, patient support groups, etc. Some of this information contains comments and advice from orthodox and unorthodox practitioners. This open access to health information has been of great bene?t to patients and health professionals. But web browsers should be aware that not all the medical information, including suggested treatments, has been subject to PEER REVIEW, as is the case with most medical articles in recognised medical journals.... information technology in medicine

Intersectoral Action / Multisectoral Action

A recognized relationship between part or parts of different sectors of society which has been formed to take action on an issue to achieve health outcomes or intermediate health outcomes in a way which is more effective, efficient or sustainable than might be achieved by the health sector acting alone. For practical purposes, intersectoral action and multisectoral action are synonymous terms, the former perhaps emphasizing the element of coordination, the latter the contribution of a number of sectors.... intersectoral action / multisectoral action

Jasminum Malabaricum


Family: Oleaceae.

Habitat: Deccan, West Coast, Western Ghats and in the Nilgiris.

Ayurvedic: Mudgara.

Folk: Mogaraa (var.), Ran-mogaraa.

Action: See Jasminum sambac.... jasminum malabaricum

Discover The Myrtle Tea!

If you’re a fan of herbal teas, you have to try myrtle tea. It has a refreshing taste, slightly fruity and sweet. It also brings plenty of health benefits in just a cup of tea. Read to find out more about the myrtle tea. About Myrtle Tea The main ingredient of the myrtle tea is myrtle, the herbal plant. It is a type of flowering plant belonging to the Myrtaceae family, with one or two species. It can be found in the Mediterranean regions of both Europe and Africa. The plant is an evergreen shrub or small tree, which can grow up to 5 meters tall. The leaves are 3-5cm long, with a fragrant essential oil. It also has a star-like flower with five white petals and sepals, and numerous stamens. The fruit of the plant is a round berry, most commonly blue-black in color; it contains several seeds. The plant has been known since ancient times. It is found in the Greek mythology, where it is known to be sacred to Aphrodite and Demeter. Also, many Greek writers have mentioned it in their works; some of them are Hippocrates, Pliny and Dioscorides. How to prepare Myrtle Tea It doesn’t take long to prepare a cup of myrtle tea. While you wait for the water to boil, add a few leaves to your cup. Pour the water in the cup and let it steep for 3-5 minutes. After you remove the leaves, you can enjoy your cup of myrtle tea. Benefits of Myrtle Tea Just like many herbal teas, the myrtle tea is also good for your health. Read to find out more about its health benefits. Drinking myrtle tea can help you if you’ve got throat problems. It is quite useful in the treatment of dry coughing. Myrtle tea is also helpful if you’re suffering from bronchial congestion, sinusitis, or other respiratory problems. Myrtle tea is well-known for promoting a good digestion, by helping you combat various digestive problems and disorders. It is used in the treatment of urinary tract disorders, and may also help in the treatment for cerebral infections and epilepsy. Also, you can use myrtle tea topically. It can be applied on fresh wounds and bruises in order to prevent infections. Side effects of Myrtle Tea Check if myrtle tea contains myrtle oil. The oil contains a chemical that might do you harm, by causing asthma-like attacks and lung failure. You should avoid drinking myrtle tea if you’re pregnant or breast feeding. In both cases, it can be harmful to the baby. It is also recommended that you not give myrtle tea to small children, as it might lead to breathing problems. Also, don’t drink too much myrtle tea. Generally, it is recommended that you not drink more than six cups of tea a day, no matter what type of tea. Otherwise, you might get some of the following symptoms: headaches, dizziness, insomnia, irregular heartbeats, vomiting, diarrhea and loss of appetite. Myrtle tea is a delicious, slightly sweet herbal tea which can easily be included in your daily diet. Thanks to its many health benefits, it is even recommended that you drink it daily. As long as you’re not pregnant, it will only do you good.... discover the myrtle tea!

Ficus Microcarpa

Linn. f.

Synonym: F. retusa auct. non Linn.

Family: Moraceae.

Habitat: West Bengal, Bihar, Central and Peninsular India and Andaman Islands. Grown in gardens, and as an avenue tree. Quite common in New Delhi.

Ayurvedic: Plaksha (related sp.).

Siddha/Tamil: Kal Ichi.

Folk: Itti.

Action: Bark—antibilious. Leaf— antispasmodic. Root bark and leaf— used in preparations of oils and ointments for ulcers, skin diseases, oedema and inflammations.... ficus microcarpa

Futile Medical Treatment

Treatment that is usually considered unable to produce the desired benefit either because it cannot achieve its physiological aim or because the burdens of the treatment are considered to outweigh the benefits for the particular individual. There are necessary value judgements involved in coming to an assessment of futility. These judgements must consider the individual’s, or proxy’s, assessment of worthwhile outcome. They should also take into account the medical practitioner or other provider’s perception of intent in treatment. They may also take into account community and institutional standards, which in turn may have used physiological or functional outcome measures.... futile medical treatment


A popular term for a loose body in a joint. It is found especially in the knee. (See JOINTS, DISEASES OF.)... joint-mouse

Ladys Mantle

Love ... ladys mantle

Lamprachaenium Microcephalum


Family: Compositae; Asteraceae.

Habitat: Deccan, Konkan and Karnataka.

Unani: Brahmdandi. (Tricholepis angustifolia DC. of the same family has also been equated with Brahmdandi in National Formulary of Unani Medicine.)

Folk: Brahmdandi (Maharashtra), Ajadandi.

Action: Antiseptic, bitter tonic.... lamprachaenium microcephalum

Launaea Mucronata

(Forsk.) Muschler.

Synonym: L. chondrilloides Hook. f.

Family: Compositae; Asteraceae.

Habitat: Western India, Punjab and Sind.

Folk: Dudh-phad (Rajasthan).

Action: Plant—galactagogue. A decoction is administered in constipation.... launaea mucronata

Garcinia Mangostana


Family: Guttiferae; Clusiaceae.

Habitat: Native to Malaysia. Now cultivated mainly on lower slopes of the Nilgiris.

English: Mangosteen, Dodol.

Siddha/Tamil: Sulambuli, Mangusta.

Folk: Mangustaan.

Action: Fruit—antileucorrhoeic, astringent, antifungal, antibacterial; used in cystitis, diseases of the genitourinary tract, diarrhoea, tropical dysentery and fevers. Pericarp—used externally for eczema and other skin diseases. Leaves—anti-inflammatory, anti- immunosuppressive, antiprotozoal, antimicrobial.

The plant contains anthocyanin gly- cosides, a benzophenone, maclurin and several prenylated and related xan- thones. The leaves contain terpenoids, xanthones and long chain hydrocarbons.

The pericarp (fruit hull) contains the xanthone derivatives, mangostin, nor- mangostin, beta-mangostin, gamma- mangostin, isomangostin as major constituents.

Mangostin, isolated from the rind of fruit, inhibited primary and secondary responses to adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats. Mangostin, isoman- gostin and mangostin triacetate exhibited pronounced anti-inflammatory activity in rats both by i.p. and oral routes.

Mangostin also produced antiulcer activity in rats.

Mangostin and some of its derivatives produced CNS depression, characterized by ptosis, sedation and decreased motor activity.

Gamma-mangostin showed more potent radical scavenging and antioxi- dant activity than BHA.... garcinia mangostana

Garcinia Morella

(Gaertn) Desv.

Synonym: G. pictoria Roxb.

Family: Guttiferae; Clusiaceae.

Habitat: Throughout southern India, also in Assam and West Bengal, up to 1,000 m

English: Indian Gamboge.

Ayurvedic: Kankushtha, Tamaal, Taapichha, Ushaare-revand.

Siddha/Tamil: Iravakhinni.

Action: Gum-resin—hydragogue, cathartic, anthelmintic. Used in dropy and amenorrhoea. Causes nausea, vomiting and griping in large doses.

The gum contains morellin, neo- morellin, beta-guttiferin and alpha- guttiferin and their derivatives. The heartwood gave morelloflavone. Seed coat gave morellin, isomorellin and their neo derivatives which exhibited antibacterial and antiprotozoal activity.

Dosage: Gum-resin—50-125 mg. (CCRAS.)... garcinia morella

General Medical Council (gmc)

A statutory body of elected and appointed medical practitioners and appointed lay members with the responsibility of protecting patients and guiding doctors in their professional practice. Set up by parliament in 1858 – at the request of the medical profession, which was concerned by the large numbers of untrained people practising as doctors – the GMC is responsible for setting educational and professional standards; maintaining a register of quali?ed practitioners; and disciplining doctors who fail to maintain appropriate professional standards, cautioning them or temporarily or permanently removing them from the Medical Register if they are judged un?t to practise.

The Council is funded by doctors’ annual fees and is responsible to the Privy Council. Substantial reforms of the GMC’s structure and functions have been and are still being undertaken to ensure that it operates e?ectively in today’s rapidly evolving medical and social environment. In particular, the Council has strengthened its supervisory and disciplinary functions, and among many changes has proposed the regular revalidation of doctors’ professional abilities on a periodic basis. The Medical Register, maintained by the GMC, is intended to enable the public to identify whom it is safe to approach to obtain medical services. Entry on the Register shows that the doctor holds a recognised primary medical quali?cation and is committed to upholding the profession’s values. Under revalidation requirements being ?nalised, in addition to holding an initial quali?cation, doctors wishing to stay on the Register will have to show their continuing ?tness to practise according to the professional attributes laid down by the GMC.

Once revalidation is fully established, there will be four categories of doctor:

Those on the Register who successfully show their ?tness to practise on a regular basis.

Those whose registration is limited, suspended or removed as a result of the Council’s disciplinary procedures.

Those who do not wish to stay on the Register or retain any links with the GMC.

Those, placed on a supplementary list, who do not wish to stay on the main Register but who want to retain a formal link with the medical profession through the Council. Such doctors will not be able to practise or prescribe.... general medical council (gmc)

Leea Macrophylla


Family: Vitaceae.

Habitat: Throughout hotter parts of India.

Ayurvedic: Hastikanda, Hasti-karna Palaasha; Kekidandaa.

Folk: Hatkan, Dholsamudra, Haath, Kaan.

Action: Astringent, anodyne, styptic, antiseptic. Root tubers— astringent, mucilaginous; applied to wounds and sores; used for ringworm and guineaworm.... leea macrophylla

Leucas Martinicensis

R. Br.

Family: Labiatae; Lamiaceae.

Habitat: Bihar and South India.

Folk: Guumaa (var.). Sugandhak is a doubtful synonym.

Action: Plant—an infusion is given for colds and gastrointestinal troubles.... leucas martinicensis

Lifestyle Medicines

Drugs used for non-health problems or for disorders that are in the grey area between a genuine health need and a desire to change a ‘lifestyle failing’ by the use of medication. Examples are: SILDENAFIL CITRATE, which is prescribed for men unable to achieve penile erection (erectile dysfunction); and ORLISTAT, a drug used to combat OBESITY.... lifestyle medicines

Gnetum Montanum


Synonym: G. scandens Roxb. in part.

Family: Gnetaceae.

Habitat: Tropical Himalayas from Nepal to Bhutan, Assam and Meghalaya.

English: Joint Fir.

Siddha/Tamil: Anapendu, Peiodal (G. ula.)

Action: Seed oil—antirheumatic. Plant— antiperiodic. Leaves— piscic.

The stem-wood yielded bergenin, acetophenone and stilbene derivatives.

G. ula Brongn. non-Karst is found in evergreen forests of Western and Eastern Ghats up to 1,800 m.... gnetum montanum

Golden Monkey Tea

Golden Monkey tea is a rare and savourless type of black tea, benefic in treating diseases and maintaining a good physical and mental shape. Golden Monkey Tea description Golden Monkey tea is a type of black tea, originating from the Chinese provinces Fujian and Yunnan. It is considered to be the finest black tea from the abovementioned provinces, due to its chocolate flavor, and honey peach notes. According to the legend, its name is related to its appearance: the leaves resemble monkey paws. In ancient times, Golden Monkey tea was consumed by local overlords and Taipans. This tea was rare and the Taipans drank every ounce of tea claiming that it provided them “the agility and sexual prowess of the patriarch of a golden monkey troop”. Golden Monkey Tea brewing Golden Monkey tea could be brewed in two ways: hot or cold. Hot tea brewing method:
  • Bring cold water to a rolling boil.
  • Place 1 teaspoon of tea for each cup into the teapot.
  • Pour the boiling water into the teapot.
  • Cover the teapot and let it steep between 3 and 7 minutes according to taste (the longer the soaking time the stronger the tea). Milk and sugar could be added.
Cold tea brewing method  (to prepare 1 liter/quart):
  • Place 6 teaspoons of tea into a teapot or heat resistant pitcher.
  • Pour 1 1/4 cups of boiled water over the tea. Steep it for about 5 minutes.
  • Quarter fill a serving pitcher with cold water.
  • Pour the tea into the serving pitcher straining the leaves.
  • Add ice and top up the pitcher with cold water.
  • Sugar could be added.
Golden Monkey Tea benefits Like any type of black tea, Golden Monkey tea contains a high content of antioxidants, benefic in fighting free radicals which are responsible for tumors growth and cancer spreading. But also, Golden Monkey tea has a good proven action over:
  • digestive system
  • stressful moods
  • senses
  • metabolic processes
Golden Monkey Tea side effects Golden Monkey tea has few acknowledged side effects. The majority are related to its content of caffeine, which may rarely cause diarrhea or the syndrome of upset stomach. In case of medication intaking, it is advisable to speak with the physician regarding the safety usage and recommended daily allowance of this tea. It is indicated that pregnant women drink Golden Monkey tea in small quantities, so as not to consume more than 300 mg of caffeine per day. Golden Monkey tea, part of the black teas family, is successfully preserving their health benefits and could be easily included in the daily health ritual to gain an impressive stamina.... golden monkey tea

Grangea Maderaspatana


Synonym: Artemisia maderaspatana Linn.

Family: Compositae; Asteraceae.

Habitat: Throughout the greater part of India.

Ayurvedic: Aakaarakarabha substitute (doubtful).

Siddha/Tamil: Maasipathri.

Folk: Mastaru, Mukhatari, Maachipatri (Maharashtra).

Action: Leaf—stomachic, antispas- modic, sedative, emmenagogue, deobstruent, antiseptic. Used in amenorrhoea.

Aerial parts of the plant afforded clerodane derivatives. Presence of phytol, lupeol, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, a phenylalanine derivative, hardwicki- ic acid, strictic acid and butenolides, is reported. Aura amide was also isolated from the aerial parts.

A mixture of flavonoids extracted from the aerial parts exhibited oestro- genicity and anti-implantation activity in mice. A crude extract of the plant exhibited strong cytotoxic activity.... grangea maderaspatana

Lion’s Mane

A colloquial term for Cyanea - used in many countries other than Australia.... lion’s mane

Little Mauve Stinger

Colloquial term for Pelagia noctiluca.... little mauve stinger


(Arabic) One who is innocent Maa’sma... ma’sma


(Hebrew) One who has been oppressed; in the Bible, one of David’s wives Maacha... maachah


(Hebrew) From the desolate land Maaratha, Marath, Marathe, Maratha, Maarathe... maarath


(German) Resembling a dragonfly... maarii


(Hebrew) One who does God’s work Masiai, Maasai, Masai... maasiai


(Egyptian) In mythology, the goddess of truth, order, and justice... maat


(Australian) A highborn lady... maata


(Hebrew) A petite woman; small Maathe, Maatha... maath


(English) One who is lovable Mabelle, Mable, Maible, Maybel, Maybell, Maybelle, Mayble, Mablean, Mabelean, Mabeleen, Moibeal... mabel

Gymnema Montanum

Hook. f.

Guizotia abyssinica Cass.

Family: Compositae; Asteraceae.

Habitat: Native to tropical Africa. Cultivated in Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Orissa.

English: Nigerseed.

Family: Asclepidaceae.

Habitat: Western Ghats from Konkan southwards.

Folk: Gurmaar (related species).

Action: See G. sylvertre.

The leaves contain gymnemic acid.... gymnema montanum

Health-service Management

The administrative machinery for planning, delivering and monitoring health care provided by health professionals and their supporting sta?. This may range from running a small primary-care centre to organising a large hospital or being responsible for meeting the health needs of a region or a nation. Whether the overall structure for proving care is state-funded, insurance-based, private-practice or a mixture of these, health-service management is essential in an era of rapidly evolving and expensive scienti?c medicine. Health-service managers are administrators with special training and skills in managing health care; sometimes they are doctors, nurses or other health professionals, but many have been trained in management in commercial, civil service or industrial environments.... health-service management

Hibiscus Mutabilis


Family: Malvaceae.

Habitat: Native to China; planted in the hedges of gardens.

English: Cotton-Rose, ChineseRose, Confederate Rose.

Ayurvedic: Sthala-Padam, Sthal- Kamal.

Siddha/Tamil: Irratai-vellaichemba- rattam, Sembarattai.

Action: Flower—used in pectoral and pulmonary affections. Leaf and flower—expectorant, bechic, anodyne. Used in menorrhagia, dysuria, swellings, fistulae, wounds and burns.

The flowers contain quercetin, kaempferol, betulinic acid, hexyl stearate, tetratriacontanol, nonacosane, stigmasta-3, 7-dione, stigmasta-4-ene- one and beta-sitosterol. Flowers collected in the morning gave no an- thocyanin; maximum anthocyanin is found in the afternoon.... hibiscus mutabilis

Hierba Mora

Black nightshade (Solanum americanum; also, Solanum nigrescens).

Plant Part Used: Leaf.

Dominican Medicinal Uses: Leaf: decoction, orally, for allergies, vaginal infections, cysts, fibroids, cancer (early stages), blood-cleansing, childbirth and postpartum recovery.

Safety: Leaf extracts in moderate amounts have shown relatively low toxicity; in excess, can cause adverse reactions; fruits contain toxic alkaloids.

Clinical Data: Human clinical trials: treatment of vaginal candidiasis (plant extract).

Laboratory & Preclinical Data: In vivo: immunomodulatory (leaf extract).

In vitro: antidermatophytic, antifungal (plant extract); antimicrobial (leaf extract); antitrypanosomal (plant extract).

* See entry for Hierba mora in “Part 3: Dominican Medicinal Plant Profiles” of this book for more information, including references.... hierba mora


(Celtic) One who is nimble Mabbina, Mabene, Mabine, Mabena, Mabyna, Mabinah, Maeveen, Maevina, Maeveena, Maevine, Mabeana, Mabeena... mabina


(Welsh) The beautiful one Mablie, Mably, Mabley, Mablee, Mableigh, Mablea... mabli


(Welsh) One who is forever young Mabyne, Mabin, Maben, Maban, Mabon... mabyn


(Gaelic) A kind and gentle woman Macan, Macantia, Macantea, Macantah... macanta


(Spanish) One who is blessed Macarisa, Macarria, Maccaria, Makaria, Makarria, Macarea, Macareah... macaria


(Native American / Irish / Scottish) Aurora / goddess of war / woman from the plains

Machara, Macharia, Macharea... macha


(Taiwanese) A good friend Machie, Machy, Machey, Machee, Machea... machi


(Japanese) A beautiful child; one who is taught the truth Machika, Machyko, Machyka... machiko


(Hebrew) From the double


Machpela, Machpellah, Machpella... machpelah


(Gaelic) Daughter of the handsome man

Mackendra, Mackennah, McKenna, McKendra, Makenna, Makennah... mackenna


(Gaelic) Daughter of a wise ° leader; a fiery woman; one who is fair Mackenzey, Makensie, Makenzie, M’Kenzie, McKenzie, Meckenzie, Mackenzee, Mackenzy, Mackenzi, Mackenzea... mackenzie

Hyoscyamus Muticus


Family: Solanaceae.

Habitat: North-western Himalayas. Cultivated on limited scale in North Indian plains.

English: Egyptian Henbane.

Ayurvedic: Paarsika-yavaani (related species), Turushkaa.

Unani: Ajwaayin Khuraasaani, Shuukraan, Tukhm-bang.

Folk: Vajra-bhang.

Action: Sedative.

The leaves and flowering tops contain higher concentration of tropane alkaloids than other species of Hyoscy- amus, used as a source of hyoscine.... hyoscyamus muticus

Iceland Moss Tea

Iceland Moss Tea is known by the people from Iceland, Finland, Norway, Russia and Sweden as being a remedy for disorders of the respiratory system. The Iceland moss grows mainly in the tree barks of Iceland and most Scandinavian countries and reaches a height of almost 4 inches. You can distinguish the plant by its curled leaves and unique spiny margins. The constituent of Iceland Moss Tea is the lichenin, a type of starch. It also contains polysaccharides that strengthen your immune system. How To Make Iceland Moss Tea To make Iceland Moss Tea you will need to place a teaspoon of dried Iceland moss herbs in a kettle of boiling water. Let it boil for about 3 minutes and after that let the mix stand for 10 minutes. It is advised to drink 2 cups of Iceland Moss Tea per day, one in the morning and one in the afternoon. Iceland Moss Tea Benefits
  • Helps treating bronchitis.
  • Cough remedy.
  • Helps combat irritable bowel infections, gastritis and dysentery.
  • Prevents congestion.
  • Fights infestation of intestinal worms.
Iceland Moss Tea Side Effects
  • Over consumption can be unsafe, because the dried Iceland moss plant can be contaminated with lead.
  • Pregnant and breastfeeding women should avoid drinking Iceland Moss Tea. During pregnancy, it can be harmful to the mother and to the unborn child.
  • It can cause ulcers in the stomach or small intestine.
  • Iceland Moss Tea may interact with the effects of some medications, so make sure you always consult your doctor before drinking Iceland Moss Tea or any kind of herbal tea.
  • It can cause nausea and liver problems.
Iceland Moss Tea is a healthy herbal tea known for its medicinal properties. Try not to drink more than 1-2 cups per day of Iceland Moss Tea in order not to experience its side effects!... iceland moss tea

Infant Mortality Rate (imr)

The number of deaths of infants under one year of age. The IMR in any given year is calculated as the number of deaths in the ?rst year of life in proportion to every 1,000 registered live births in that year. Along with PERINATAL MORTALITY, it is accepted as one of the most important criteria for assessing the health of the community and the standard of the social conditions of a country.

The improvement in the infant mortality rate has occurred mainly in the period from the second month of life. There has been much less improvement in the neonatal mortality rate – that is, the number of infants dying during the ?rst four weeks of life, expressed as a proportion of every 1,000 live births. During the ?rst week of life the main causes of death are asphyxia, prematurity, birth injuries and congenital abnormalities. After the ?rst week the main cause of death is infection.

Social conditions also play an important role in infant mortality. In England and Wales the infant mortality rate in 1930–32 was: Social Class I (professional), 32·7; Social Class III (skilled workers), 57·6; Social Class V (unskilled workers), 77·1. Many factors come into play in producing these social variations, but overcrowding is undoubtedly one of the most important.

1838–9 146 1950–52 30 1851–60 154 1960–62 22 1900–02 142 1970–72 18 1910–12 110 1980–82 12 1920–22 82 1990–92 7 1930–32 67 1996 6·2 1940–42 59 1999 5.8 2000 5.6

It is thus evident that for a reduction of the infant mortality rate to the minimum ?gure, the following conditions must be met. Mothers and potential mothers must be housed adequately in healthy surroundings, particularly with regard to safe water supplies and sewage disposal. The pregnant and nursing mother must be ensured an adequate diet. E?ective antenatal supervision must be available to every mother, as well as skilled supervision during labour (see PREGNANCY AND LABOUR). The newborn infant must be adequately nursed and fed and mothers encouraged to breast feed. Environmental and public-health measures must be taken to ensure adequate housing, a clean milk supply and full availability of medical care including such protective measures as IMMUNISATION against diphtheria, measles, poliomyelitis and whooping-cough. (See also PERINATAL MORTALITY.)... infant mortality rate (imr)


Pre?x denoting large-sized cell – for example, a MACROPHAGE is a large PHAGOCYTE.... macr-/macro

Intensive Care Medicine

The origin of this important branch of medicine lies in the e?ective use of positive-pressure VENTILATION of the lungs to treat respiratory breathing failure in patients affected by POLIOMYELITIS in an outbreak of this potentially fatal disease in Denmark in 1952. Doctors reduced to 40 per cent, the 90 per cent mortality in patients receiving respiratory support with the traditional cuirass ventilator by using the new technique. They achieved this with a combination of manual positive-pressure ventilation provided through a TRACHEOSTOMY by medical students, and by looking after the patients in a speci?c area of the hospital, allowing the necessary sta?ng and equipment resources to be concentrated in one place.

The principle of one-to-one, 24-hours-a-day care for seriously ill patients has been widely adopted and developed for the initial treatment of many patients with life-threatening conditions. Thus, severely injured patients – those with serious medical conditions such as coronary thrombosis or who have undergone major surgery, and individuals suffering from potentially lethal toxic affects of poisons – are treated in an INTENSIVE THERAPY UNIT (ITU). Patients whose respiratory or circulatory systems have failed bene?t especially by being intensively treated. Most patients, especially post-operative ones, leave intensive care when their condition has been stabilised, usually after 24 or 48 hours. Some, however, need support for several weeks or even months. Since 1952, intensive medicine has become a valued specialty and a demanding one because of the range of skills needed by the doctors and nurses manning the ITUs.... intensive care medicine

Ipomoea Marginata

(Desr.) Verdc.

Family: Convolvulaceae.

Habitat: Throughout India in the plains, especially on the bank of stream and rivers.

Ayurvedic: Lakshmanaa (Also equated with Ipomoea obscura (Linn.) Ker-Gawler.), Putradaa, Putrajanani.

Folk: Tirutaalli (Kerala).

Action: Used as a single drug for curing sterility in women, and for promoting fertility and virility.

The seeds of Ipomoea obscura contain non-ergolin type indole alkaloids, ipobscurine A and B and serotonin also alkaloid ipobscurine C.... ipomoea marginata

Ipomoea Muricata

(Linn.) Jacq., non-Cav.

Synonym: I. turbinata Lag. Convolvulus muricatus Linn.

Family: Convolvulaceae.

Habitat: The Himalayas, West Bengal, Bihar, Orissa, Maharashtra and South India.

English: Traveller’s Midnight Lilies.

Ayurvedic: Krishnabija (related species). (Sold as Kaalaadaanaa, seeds of Ipomoea nil.)

Siddha/Tamil: Kattu Talai.

Folk: Michaai.

Action: Purgative, febrifuge. Seeds—cardiac depressant, spasmolytic, hypotensive, antibacterial, antifungal. Plant juice destroys bedbugs.

The seeds contain resin glycosides which are laxative. Lysergol is also present in the seeds. It exhibits hypotensive, psychotropic, analgesic, and uterus and intestine-stimulating properties. The presence of indole alkaloids is reported in the seed.... ipomoea muricata

Jasminum Multiflorum

(Burm. f.) Andr.

Synonym: J. pubescens Willd. J. hirsutum Willd. J. bracteatum Roxb.

Family: Oleaceae.

Habitat: Sub-Himalayan tract and in moist forests of Western Ghats.

English: Downy Jasmine.

Ayurvedic: Kunda, Kasturi Mogaraa.

Siddha/Tamil: Magarandam, Malli.

Folk: Kasturi Mogaraa.

Action: Diuretic, emetic. Boiled bark—applied on burns.

Ethanolic extract of fresh leaves and flowers contain the secoiridoid lactones, jasmolactone A, B, C and D; and secoiridoid glycosides. Jas- molactone B and D and the secoiri- doid glycosides (multifloroside and 10-hydroxyoleuropein) exhibited va- sodilatory and cardiotropic activities.... jasminum multiflorum


Areas of small, ?at or slightly raised skin discoloration which may occur in a wide range of conditions such as many viral infections, eczema (DERMATITIS), PSORIASIS, SYPHILIS and after burns (see BURNS AND SCALDS), as well as in pregnancy.... macules


(French) One who wields a weapon Macee, Macey, Maci, Macie, Maicey, Maicy, Macea, Maicea, Maecy, Maecey, Maeci, Maecie, Maecee, Maecea, Maici, Maicie, Maicee... macy


(Arabic) One who has reached the end of the path Madah... mada


(Ethiopian) One who heals others Madayna, Madaina, Madania, Madaynia, Madainia... madana


(English) Born into wealth and prosperity

Madox, Madoxx, Maddoxx... maddox


(Spanish) From the place of sweet wine

Madiera, Madera, Madira, Madyra, Madeera, Madeara... madeira

Jatropha Multifida


Family: Euphorbiaceae.

Habitat: Native to South America. Naturalized in various parts of India.

English: Coral plant, Physic Nut.

Ayurvedic: Brihat-Danti (bigger var. of Danti, also equated with Baliospermum montanum).

Folk: Danti (var.).

Action: Seeds—purgative, emetic. Fruits—poisonous. Leaves—used for scabies. Latex—applied to wounds and ulcers.

The latex from the plant showed antibacterial activity against Staphylococ- cus aureus. It contains immunologi- cally active acylphloroglucinols, mul- tifidol, phloroglucinol and multifidol beta-D-glucopyranoside. The latex also contains an immunologically active, cyclic decapeptide, labaditin.

J. panduraefolia Andr. (native to America), widely grown in Indian gardens, is known as Fiddle-leaved Jat- ropha. The latex from the plant shows fungitoxic activity against ringworm fungus, Microsporum gypseum.... jatropha multifida

Jurinea Macrocephala


Synonym: J. dolomiacea Boiss.

Family: Compositae; Asteraceae.

Habitat: The Himalayas from Kashmir to Kumaon.

Ayurvedic: Jaatukanda, Gugguluka.

Folk: Guugal, Dhuup.

Action: Roots—used as incense. Stimulant, given in colic, also in fever after child birth. Bruised roots are applied to eruptions.

The alcoholic extract of the root inhibits about 50% growth of NK65 strain of Plasmodium berghei at a dose of 2 g/kg per day in 4 days.... jurinea macrocephala

Ladies' Mantle

Alchemilla vulgaris. N.O. Rosaceae.

Synonym: Lion's Foot.

Habitat: Hedgerows and waysides.

Features ? Whole plant covered with silky hairs. Leaves rounded, about two inches across, nine blunt, serrate lobes, on long stalks. Greenish flowers, without petals, bloom in small clusters from forked stem. Astringent, saliva-drying taste.

Part used ? Herb.

Action: Astringent, nervine, antispasmodic.

In excessive menstruation and flooding, as well as spasmodic nervous complaints. Decoction of 1 ounce to 1 1/2 pints water simmered to 1 pint is used as an injection in the menstrual disorders. The 1 ounce to 1 pint infusion may be taken internally in teacupful doses as required.... ladies' mantle

Lady`s Mantle Tea

Lady’s Mantle Tea is a popular tea known especially for its astringent properties. Lady’s Mantle, also known as alchemilla vulgaris, is a perennial herb that grows in North America, Europe and Asia. It has pleated leaves that look like the cloak ladies used to wear during the medieval era. The constituents of lady’s mantle herb are tannins and various flavonoids such as quercetin. How to Make Lady’s Mantle Tea To make Lady’s Mantle Tea you have to infuse 3-4 grams of dried lady’s mantle stems, leaves and flowers, in about 5 ounces of boiling water. Reduce the heat and let the mix stand for 10 minutes. After that, strain and pour the tea into your cup. Lady’s Mantle Tea Benefits
  • Relieves menstrual cramps and discomfort during menopause.
  • When applied on skin, it can heal wounds, cuts, burns or other skin conditions.
  • Helps relieving nausea.
  • Effective in treating diarrhea and gastroenteritis.
  • May heal bleeding gums.
Lady’s Mantle Side Effects
  • Do not drink Lady’s Mantle Tea if you are pregnant or breastfeeding.
  • Stop drinking Lady’s Mantle tea if you experience weakness or fatigue.
  • It may interact with the effects of some medications, so always consult your doctor before drinking any herbal tea, including Lady’s Mantle Tea.
Lady’s Mantle Tea is a wonderful tea with many benefits for your body and general well-being. Just try not to drink too much of this tea in order to not experience any of its side effects.... lady`s mantle tea


(German) A counselor to the troops

Madelharie, Madelhary, Madelharey, Madelharee, Madelharea... madelhari


(Hebrew) Woman from Magdala Mada, Madalaina, Madaleine, Madalena, Madalene, Madalyn, Madalynn, Maddelena, Maddie, Maddy, Madel, Madelaine, Madelayne, Madeleine, Madelena, Madelene, Madelina, Madella, Madelle, Madelon, Madelyn, Madelyne, Madelynn, Madelynne, Madena, Madilyn, Madina, Madlen, Madlin, Madlyn, Mady, Madzia, Magda, Magdala, Magdalen, Magdalena, Magdalene, Magdalina, Magdaline, Magdalini, Magdeleine, Magdelina, Magdolna, Maidel, Maighdlin, Madalen, Madelia, Magdiel, Maialen, Makda, Malena, Malene, Malin, Matxalen, Modlen... madeline


(English) Form of Margaret, meaning “resembling a pearl / the child of light”... madge


(Indian) Feminine form of Madhav; born in the springtime Madhavie, Madhavee, Madhavey, Madhavy, Madhavea... madhavi


(Indian) As sweet as honey Madhul, Madhula, Madhulika, Madhulia, Madhulea... madhu


(Indian) One who is gentle and kind Madhuri, Madhurie, Madhura, Madhuria, Madhurea... madhur


(Arabic) One who is praiseworthy Madeeha, Madiha, Madyha, Madyhah, Madeehah, Madeaha, Madieha, Madeiha... madihah


(Swahili) As precious as a gemstone Madinie, Madiny, Madiney, Madinee, Madyny, Madyni, Madinea, Madynie, Madyney, Madynee, Madynea... madini


(English) Daughter of a mighty warrior

Maddison, Madisen, Madisson, Madisyn, Madyson... madison

Litsea Monopetala

(Roxb.) Pers.

Synonym: L. polyantha Juss.

Family: Lauraceae.

Habitat: Assam and Eastern Himalayas, also Tamil Nadu.

Ayurvedic: Maidaa-lakdi (var.).

Siddha/Tamil: Maidalagadil, Picin- pattai.

Action: Bark—stimulant, astringent, spasmolytic, stomachic, antidiarrhoeal. Root—applied externally for pains, bruises and contusions.

The bark contains beta-sitosterol and an aporphine alkaloid, actino- daphnine.... litsea monopetala

Lodoicea Maldivica

(Poir.) Pers.

Family: Arecaceae; Palmae.

Habitat: A dioecious palm, cultivated in gardens as an ornamental.

English: Double Coconut Palm, Sea Coconut Palm.

Ayurvedic: Samudra-naarikela, Dariyaayee Naariyal.

Unani: Naarjeel-e-Daryaayee, Naarjeel-e-Bahari.

Siddha/Tamil: Kadalthengai, Aklaari.

Action: The water of the green fruit and its soft kernel—antacid and antibilious.

A decoction of the fibrous husk is reported to bring down urinary sugar level in diabetic patients (the effect is temporary).

The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia ofln- dia recommends dried endosperm in gastroenteritis.

Dosage: Dried endosperm—5-10 g powder. (API, Vol.IV.)... lodoicea maldivica

Maba Nigrescens

Dalz. & Gibs.

Family: Ebenaceae.

Habitat: Gujarat.

Folk: Ragat-Rohido (Gujarat), Rakta-Rohido.

Action: Used for diseases of liver and spleen. In folk medicine, as a substitute for Rakta-Rohitaka. (Rohitaka is equated with Tecomel- lia undulata Seem., synonym Tecoma undulata G. Don, Bignoni- aceae.)

In Gujarat, Polygonum glabrum Willd. (Polygonaceae) and Myristica attenuta Wall., synonym Knema atten- uata (Wall.) Warb. (Myristicaceae) are also known as Rakta Rohido, and are used for diseases of liver and spleen.

In Mumbai, Rhamnus wightii Wight & Arn. (Rhamnaceae) is known as Rakta-Rohidaa. The bark is used as astringent and deobstruent.

Folk: Phulwaaraa, Maakhaniaa Mahuaa.

Action: Fat used as ointment in rheumatism, for chapped hands and feet during winter.

The flowers contain beta-amyrin acetate, friedelin, erythrodiol monopal- mitate, beta—sitosterol and apha-spi- nasterol. The seeds contain triterpe- noid saponins, butyroside C and buty- roside D. A triterpenoidal sapogenin, butyraceol, has been isolated from the seed. The leaves contain butyracic acid. Defatted seed flour contains 10.4% saponins.

Administration of acute dose of saponins to albino rats caused severe diarrhoea and histopathological changes in liver and kidney and altered, particularly in female rats, levels of serum alkaline phosphatase, cholesterol and proteins.... maba nigrescens

Maca (lepidium Meyenii)

Maca is a native plant of Peru and is used to increase libido, strength, stamina, and energy (I know, right? It’s like the perfect herb. Time to bake it into some cookies and deliver them to that co-worker/friend/neighbor you’ve had your eye on…). Further, maca can normalize all the sex hormones: testosterone, progesterone, and estrogen (i.e. a great option for combating the natural hormonal downslide that occurs with aging). If fertility issues are on your radar, maca is a great herb to include, as it regulates menstrual cycles and eases cycle pain. For menopause? Again, spotlight on hormones. Maca can ease this transition as well. It also decreases stress which, as we know, is a major downer to any sexual liaison. How to take maca? Well, you can buy it in supplement form, but you’re going to need a lot of it. I don’t care what the bottle says, you want to aim for 6-10 500mg capsules per day (at least!). Or, you can buy the powdered herb and blend a tablespoon into a smoothie or juice every day. The more you take? The better. There are no toxic side effects to this herb.... maca (lepidium meyenii)


(English) One who is accomplished with the stringed instrument Mandalin, Mandalyn, Mandalynn, Mandelin, Mandellin, Mandellyn, Mandolin, Mandolyn, Mandolynne... madoline


(Italian) My lady; refers to the Virgin Mary

Madonnah, Madona, Madonah... madonna


(Greek) A great ruler Madorah, Madorra, Madorrah... madora


(Spanish) One who is motherly Madre, Madrina, Madrena, Madrona, Madryna... madra


(Indian) In mythology, the second wife of Pandu

Madrie, Madry, Madrey, Madree, Madrea... madri


(Japanese) A truthful child Maekiko, Maekiyo, Masako, Maseko... maeko


(Japanese) Having a truthful smile Maemie, Maemee, Maemy, Maemey, Maemea... maemi


(Greek) In mythology, the daughter of Atlas... maera


(English) One who is well-known... maertisa


(Irish) An intoxicating woman Mave, Meave, Medb, Meabh... maeve

Maca Tea - A Libido Enhancer

Maca tea has been recognized for its nutritional properties and for being a libido enhancer. Maca plant, also known as the “Peruvian ginseng”, is an herb that grows in the high Andes of Bolivia and Peru for thousands of years. It is related to the turnip and the radish, having green and fragrant tops that lie along the ground. Maca has been used in Peru as a remedy to enhance energy and sexual function. The constituents of maca root are basically minerals such as calcium, potassium, magnesium, zinc, phosphorus and iron; sterols, lipids, carbohydrates, fiber, proteins and amino acids. How To Make Maca Tea Maca tea has a sweet taste, similar to butterscotch. To brew maca tea you will need an herbal tea of your choice to combine it with the maca powder. Prepare the herbal tea and after 1-2 minutes, add a teaspoon of maca powder and stir the mixture. To really enhance the flavor, you can add milk or honey. Tea connoisseurs recommend Soya milk. Maca Tea Benefits
  • Helps providing energy without over-stimulating the body’s systems.
  • Enhances libido and helps in the treatment of erectile dysfunction.
  • Increases the production of sperm.
  • Helps relieving the symptoms of menopause.
  • Strengthens your immune system.
  • Balances and stabilizes the body’s cardiovascular, nervous, muscular and lymphatic systems.
Maca Tea Side Effects In toxicity studies, maca tea showed no adverse pharmacological effects. However, maca root contains iodine, which can lead to side effects such as thyroid disease. Maca root is also high in glucosinolates and in case of over consumption, combined with low-iodine diet, can cause goiter. It can also cause hives and fatigue to people that are allergic to the constituents of maca tea. Maca Tea is a wonderful tea with many health benefits. It is ideal for incresing your libido and boosting your immune system! Try to avoid over consumption in order not to experience any of its side effects!... maca tea - a libido enhancer


A group of ANTIBIOTICS. The original macrolide, ERYTHROMYCIN, was discovered in the early 1950s and used successfully as an alternative to PENICILLIN. The name ‘macrolide’ derives from the molecular structure of this group, three others of which are clarithromycin, azithromycin and spiramycin. Macrolides check PROTEIN synthesis in BACTERIA and the latest ones are, like erythromycin, active against several bacterial species including gram-positive COCCI and rods. In addition, they act against Haemophilus in?uenzae. Clarithromycin is potent against Helicobacter pylori; azithromycin is e?ective against infections caused by Legionella spp. (see LEGIONNAIRE’S DISEASE) and GONOCOCCI. Spiramycin is a restricted-use macrolide prescribed for pregnant patients with TOXOPLASMOSIS.... macrolides

Madhuca Indica

J. F. Gmel.

Madhuca butyracea Macr.

Synonym: Aisandra butyracea (Roxb.) Baehni.

Family: Sapotaceae.

Habitat: Found in sub-Himalayan tract from Kumaon to Bhutan.

Ayurvedic: Madhuuka (related species).

Synonym: M. longifolia (Koen.) Macb. var. latifolia (Roxb.) Cheval. Bassia latifolia Roxb.

Family: Sapotaceae.

Habitat: A large tree, cultivated mainly in Uttar Pradesh, Bihar.

English: Mahua tree, Moha.

Ayurvedic: Madhuuka, Madhu- pushpa, Madhusrav, Gudapushpa.

Unani: Mahuaa.

Siddha/Tamil: Ieluppai.

Action: Flowers—stimulant, demulcent, laxative, anthelmintic, bechic. Seed oil—galactogenic, anticephalgic, emetic. Used in pneumonia, skin diseases, piles. Bark—astringent, emollient. Used for tonsilitis, gum troubles, diabetes, ulcers. Bark, seed oil and gum— antirheumatic.

The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India recommends the flower without stalk or calyx in asthma and pthisis.

The fruit pulp yielded a number of triterpenoids (including alpha- and beta-amyrin acetate); also n-hexaco- sanol, beta-D-glucoside of beta-sitos- terol and free sitosterol.

Nut shell gave beta-sitosterol gluco- side, quercetin and dihydroquercetin.

The carollas are rich source of sugars, vitamins, phosphorus, calcium and iron; magnesium and copper are also present. The sugars identified are sucrose, maltose, glucose, fructose, ara- binose and rhamnose.

The seeds yielded saponins—2,3- di-O-glucopyranoside of bassic acid (saponin A and saponin B). Mixture of saponins from seeds exhibits spermi- cidal activity.

Trunkbarkcontainedlupeol acetate, beta-amyrin acetate, alpha-spinasterol, erythrodiol monocaprylate, betulinic acid and oleanolic acid caprylates.

Dosage: Flower—10-15 g (API, Vol. II.); flower-juice—10-20 ml; bark— 50-100 ml decoction. (CCRAS.)... madhuca indica


(Egyptian) Daughter of the earth Mafuann, Mafuanne, Mafuana, Mafuanna... mafuane


(English) Form of Margaret, meaning “resembling a pearl / the child of light” Magaley, Magalie, Maggali, Magaly, Magalee, Magaleigh, Maggalie, Maggalee, Magalea, Maggalea... magali


(Rhodesian) A child who cries often Magarah, Magarra, Magaria... magara

Madhuca Longifolia

(Koen.) Macb.

Synonym: Bassia longifolia Koenig.

Family: Sapotaceae.

Habitat: Cultivated in Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Andhara Pradesh, Karnataka, Bengal and Maharas- tra.

English: South Indian Mahua.

Siddha/Tamil: Illupei, Elupa, Naatu Iluppai, Iruppai.

Folk: Madhuulaka, Jala-Madhuuka, Jala-Mahuaa.

Action: Same as that of Madhuca indica.

Seed kernel gave protobassic acid (a sapogenol) and two major sapo- nins named Mi-saponins A and B and a minor one Mi-saponin C—all bis- desmosides of protobassic acid. Mi- saponins exhibit anti-inflammatory and antiulcerogenic activities.

Mahua oil causes total but reversible sterility in male rats as it shows testicu- lar atrophy with degeneration of seminiferous tubules.

A related species, Madhuca neri- ifolia (Moon) H. J. Lam., synonym Bassia neriifolia Moon, Bassia mal- abarica Bedd. (known as Atta Illuppei in Tamil), is found in Western Ghats and coastal region of South India.

The flowers are used in renal diseases; fruits in rheumatism, cough, asthma and consumption; seed oil is used in rheumatism.... madhuca longifolia

Maerua Arenaria

Hook. f. & Thoms.

Synonym: M. oblongifolia (Forsk.) A. Rich.

Family: Capparidaceae.

Habitat: Punjab, Sind, Gujarat, Central and Southern India.

Ayurvedic: Morata, Piluparni, Madhusravaa.

Siddha/Tamil: Bhumichakkarai.

Folk: Murhari.

Action: Root—used for bleeding piles, as alterative in fevers; as a tonic in muscular debility.

(The root resembles liquorice root in appearance and taste.)... maerua arenaria


(Native American, Hebrew) One who is protected... magena


(American) One who is full of wonder and surprise Majic, Magyc, Magik, Magick, Majik, Majick ... magic


(Latin) Having great strength... magna

Magnetic Resonance Imaging(mri)

See MRI.... magnetic resonance imaging(mri)


(German) A strong battle- maiden

Magnild, Magnilda, Magnilde, Magnhild, Magnhilde, Maganhildi, Maganhildie, Maganhilde, Maganhilda... magnhilda


(African) A woman with beautiful

eyes Mahah... maha


(Hindi) In Hinduism, a mother goddess

Mahadevie, Mahadevy, Mahadevey, Mahadevee, Mahadevea... mahadevi


(Native American) A tender and loving woman

Mahall, Mahale, Mahalle... mahal


(Arabic) One who is powerful yet gentle

Mahalia, Mahalah, Mahlah, Mahla, Mahalea, Mahaliah, Mahaleah... mahala


(Hebrew) One who praises God Maleleel, Malaleel, Mahaleel, Maheleel... mahalaleel


(Hebrew) One who is tender Mahala, Mahalah, Mahalath, Mahali, Mahalee, Mahaliah, Mahalla, Mahelia, Mahaleigh, Mahalie, Mehalia, Mahalea... mahalia


(Hebrew) Of the place of two camps

Mahanaime, Mahanaima, Mahanayme, Mahanaym, Mahanayma, Mahanaem, Mahanaema... mahanaim


(African) One who offers forgiveness Maharie, Mahary, Maharey, Maharee, Maharai, Maharae, Maharea... mahari


(Hebrew) The act of grasping Mahathe, Mahatha, Mahathia... mahath


(Arabic) One who is dearly loved; a sweetheart

Mabubi, Mahbubee, Mahbubie, Mabubie, Mabubee, Mahbubey, Mabubey... mahbubi


(African) The expected daughter Mahdie, Mahdy, Mahdey, Mahdee, Mahdea... mahdi


(Persian) A moonlike woman Mahdiss, Mahdise, Mahdisse, Mahdys, Mahdyss, Mahdysse... mahdis

Magnolia Grandiflora


Family: Magnoliaceae.

Habitat: Native to North America; found in the Himalayas and the Nilgiri hills up to 2,100 m.

English: Bull Bay, Great Laurel Magnolia, Southern Magnolia.

Ayurvedic: Him-Champaa.

Action: Bark—anti-inflammatory, stimulant, diaphoretic. Wood— toxic. Plant is used against cold, headache and stomach-ache. Leaf extract—fungitoxic.

The leaves gave germacanolide lactones, a guaianolide (magnograndio- lide, melampomagnolide A and B); the wood, quaternary aporphine alkaloids; bark, cyclocolorenone; root bark, eudesmanolides; seeds, phenolic constituents.

The sesquiterpene ketone, cyclocol- orenone, also found in leaves, shows antifungal activity.

Magnolia pterocarpa Roxb., synonym M. sphenocarpa Roxb. (Vana- Champaa), Dhulichampaa) bark contains sesamin, eudesmin, fargesin, imperatorin, dimethyl-terephthalate and beta-sitosterol. Powdered bark is used for fevers and cough.... magnolia grandiflora


(Sanskrit) From the mountains Mahindra, Mahendria, Mahindria, Mahendrea, Mahindrea, Mahyndra, Mahyndria, Mahyndrea... mahendra


(Native American) A medicine woman

Maheo, Maheonia, Maheonea... maheona


(Indian) A powerful and great lady Maheshvari... mahesa


(Hawaiian) Daughter of the moonlight

Maheena, Mahyna, Maheana, Maheyna, Mahiena, Maheina... mahina


(Arabic) A clever and adroit woman Mahirah, Mahir, Mahire, Mahiria, Mahirea, Maheera, Mahyra, Mahiera, Maheira, Maheara... mahira


(Arabic) Having a high forehead Maahjahbeen, Mahjabeen, Mahjabine, Mahjabyne, Maahjabyne... mahjabin


(Hebrew) A diseased woman; one to be pitied Mahli, Mahlon... mahlah


(Arabic) One who is given praise

Mahmude, Mahmudee, Mahmoude, Mamoudee... mahmoode


(English) Resembling the rich, dark wood

Mahogani, Mahoganey, Mahoganie, Mahogane, Mahogonee, Mahogonea... mahogany

Mahogany, Mountain

Anti-Lightning... mahogany, mountain


(Hebrew) One who enjoys dancing Maholah, Maholla, Mahollah... mahola

Mahonia Napalensis


Synonym: Berberis nepalensis Spreng (in part).

Family: Berberidaceae.

Habitat: Temperate Himalayas from Garhwal to Bhutan at 1,3502,700 m. and in Khasi Hills.

English: Holly Leaved Berberry.

Folk: Chhatri (Nepal), Haldia (Garhwal).

Action: Used as Berberis. Anti- prolific, antipsoriatic, alterative, demulcent, diuretic, antidysenteric.

The plant gave tertiary aporphines, berberine and jatrorrhizine.... mahonia napalensis


(Persian) Resembling the moon Mahsah... mahsa


(Arabic) Born beneath the moon... mahteab


(Sioux) A sacred she-bear Mahtowah, Matowa... mahtowa


(Latin / Maori) The great one; in mythology, the goddess of spring / a brave warrior

Maaja, Maiah, Maja, Moia, Moja, Moya... maia


(Egyptian) A dignified and serious lady... maibe


(English) A maiden; a virgin Maidel, Maidie, Mayda, Maydena, Maydey, Mady, Maegth, Magd, Maidel, Maeda... maida


Beauty, Love... maidenhair


(Japanese) Resembling the dancing flower

Maikie, Maikei, Maikki, Maikee... maiki


(Hawaian) From the sweet-smelling vine... maile


(Gaelic) Form of Molly, meaning “star of the sea / from the sea of bitterness” Mailsi, Mailsea, Mailsie, Mailsy, Mailsey, Mailsee... maille


(Arabic) One who is lucky; fortunate

Maimoon, Maimoun... maimun


(Arabic) One who is trustworthy Maimoona, Maimouna... maimuna


(Indian) Resembling a bird... maina


(French) From the mainland; from the state of Maine... maine

Mainstream Housing / General Needs Housing

Housing not specifically designed for a particular user group.... mainstream housing / general needs housing

Maintenance Rehabilitation

See “rehabilitation”.... maintenance rehabilitation


(French) As delicate as a flower Maiolainie, Maiolani, Maiolaney, Maiolany, Maiolanee, Maiolayne, Maiolanea... maiolaine


(Welsh) One who is fair; form of Mary, meaning “star of the sea / from the sea of bitterness”

Mairwenn, Mairwenne, Mairwyn, Mairwynn, Mairwynne, Mairwin, Mairwinn, Mairwinne... mairwen


(Arabic) One who lives an effortless life

Maisarah, Maisarra, Maisarrah... maisara


(Gaelic) An adorned beauty Mayse, Maisa, Maysa, Maese, Maesa... maise


(African) Giver of life Maysha, Maishah, Mayshah, Maesha, Maeshah... maisha


(Scottish) Form of Margaret, meaning “resembling a pearl / the child of light” Maisee, Maisey, Maisy, Maizie, Mazey, Mazie, Maisi, Maizi, Maizee, Maizea, Maisea... maisie


(English) One who is dearly loved Maite, Maitena, Maitayne, Maitaine, Maitana, Maita, Maitea, Maitaene... maitane


(English) From the meadow Maitlanda, Maytland, Maetland, Maytlanda, Maetlanda, Maitlande, Maytlande, Maetlande... maitland


(Sanskrit) A beloved friend Maitri, Maitrie, Maitry, Maitrey, Maitree, Maitria, Maitrea... maitra


(Sanskrit) The little loving one Maitrakah, Maitracka, Maytraka, Maytracka, Maetraka, Maetracka... maitraka


(Sanskrit) One who offers love to all

Maitreyah, Maetreya, Maitraya, Maetraya... maitreya


(Sanskrit) A benevolent woman Matriya, Mitravan, Maitryi, Maitryie... maitrya


(Japanese) Of the rice valley Maiyah... maiya


(African) One who has good judgment and keen insight Maiza, Mayzah, Mayzah, Maeza, Maezah... maizah


(Swahili) Filled with God’s grace Majaliwah, Majalewa, Majalywa, Majalewah, Majalywah... majaliwa


(Indian) A victorious woman Majayah... majaya


(Arabic) A glorious woman Majdah... majda


(Latin) One who has a royal bearing Majestas, Majesty, Majesti, Majestie, Majestee, Majestey, Majestea, Majestic... majesta


(Arabic) Feminine form of Majid; noble glory

Majeeda, Majeedah, Majidah, Maji, Maajida... majida


(Japanese) An earnest woman... majime


(Hawaiian) A gift from God... makaio


(Hawaiian) Resembling myrtle Makalah, Makalla, Makallah... makala


(Hawaiian) Of the wind Makanie, Makaney, Makany, Makanee, Makanea... makani


(Australian) The seven stars that make up the Pleiades Makarah, Makarra, Makarrah... makara


(Maori) Form of Margaret, meaning “resembling a pearl / the child of light” Makaretah, Makarita, Makaryta... makareta


(Arabic) An honorable woman Makarime, Makarym, Makaryme, Makarima, Makaryma... makarim


(Native American) Of the blue earth Maka, Makata... makato


(Celtic / Hebrew / English) Form of Michaela, meaning “who is like God?” Macaela, MacKayla, Mak, Mechaela, Meeskaela, Mekea, Mekelle... makayla


(Finnish) One who is sweet Makeah, Makia, Makiah... makea


(African) A queenly woman; greatness Makedah... makeda


(Hawaiian) Form of Madeline, meaning “woman from Magdala” Makelinah, Makeleena, Makelyna, Makeleana, Makeline, Makelyne, Makeleane, Makeleene... makelina


(African) One who is filled with happiness

Makenah, Makeena, Makeenah, Makeana, Makeanah, Makyna, Makynah, Mackena, Mackenah... makena


(Hebrew) Woman of the congregation

Makhelothe, Makhelotha, Makhelothia... makheloth


(Arabic) An able-bodied woman Makina, Makine, Makinya... makin


(Japanese) From the tree of truth Makiko... makiyo


(Hebrew) From the herdsman’s camp Makkeda, Makedah, Makeda ... makkedah


(Japanese) A thankful woman... makoto


(Native American) A huntress of eagles

Makyah, Makiya, Makiyah... makya

Mala Madre

Palm beach-bells (Kalanchoe gastonis-bonnieri).

Plant Part Used: Leaf.

Dominican Medicinal Uses: Leaf: decoction, orally, for pain, infection, inflammation; as a douche, for vaginal infection; added to multi-herb preparations for menstrual disorders, uterine fibroids, ovarian cysts, menopausal symptoms and tumors.

Safety: Animal studies have shown moderate- to low toxicity when administered orally.

Laboratory & Preclinical Data: In vivo: antifertility and contraceptive effects on sperm (leaf juice).

* See entry for Mala madre in “Part 3: Dominican Medicinal Plant Profiles” of this book for more information, including references.... mala madre

Malabar Nut

Adhatoda beddomei


San:Vasaka, Vasa;

Hin:Adusa; Mal:Chittadalotakam;

Tam:Adutota; Tel:Addasaramu

Importance: Malabar nut or Adhatoda is a large evergreen glabrous perennial shrub, 1.2m in height. It is cultivated for medicinal uses, fencing, manure and as an ornamental plant in pots also. The shrub is the source of the drug vasaka well known in the indigenous systems of medicines for bronchitis. Vasaka leaves, flowers, fruits and roots are extensively used for treating common cold, cough, whooping cough, chronic bronchitis and asthma. It has sedative, expectorant, antispasmodic and anthelmintic actions. The juice of the leaves cures vomiting, thirst, fever, dermatosis, jaundice, phthisis, haematenesis and diseases due to the morbidity of kapha and pitta. The leaf juice is especially used in anaemia and haemorrhage, in traditional medicine. Flowers and leaves are considered efficacious against rheumatic painful swellings and form a good application to scabies and other skin complaints. Many ayurvedic medicines are traditionally prepared out of vasaka like vasarishtam, vasakasavam and vasahareethaki which are effective in various ailments of respiratory system. The drug VASA prepared from this plant forms an ingredient of preparations like Valiya rasnadi kasayam, Chyavanaprasam, Gulgulutiktakam ghrtam, etc. The alkaloid vasicinone isolated from the plant is an ingredient in certain allopathic cough syrups also.

Distribution: Vasaka is distributed all over India upto an altitude of 2000m. This plant grows on wasteland and sometimes it is cultivated also.

Botany: Adhatoda beddomei C.B.Clarke Syn. Justicia beddomei (Clark) Bennet belongs to the family Acanthaceae. This is a large glabrous shrub. Leaves are opposite, ovate, lanceolate and short petioled upto 15cm long, 3.75cm broad, main nerves about 8 pairs. Flowers are white with large bracts, flower heads short, dense or condensed spikes. Fruits are capsules with a long solid base.

Another plant Adhatoda zeylanica Medicus, syn. Adhatoda vasica Nees, Justicia adhatoda Linn. of the same genus is a very closely related plant which is most commonly equated with the drug VASA. This is seen growing wild almost throughout India while A. beddomei is seen more under cultivation. The latter is called Chittadalodakam because of its smaller stature, smaller leaves and flowers.

Agrotechnology: Vasaka is seen almost in all types of climate. It prefers loamy soils with good drainage and high organic content. It can be grown well both in hilly and plain lands. Commercial propagation is by using 15-20cm long terminal cuttings. This is either grown in polybags first, then in the field or planted directly. The plant is cultivated as a pure crop or mixed with plantation crops. The land is ploughed repeatedly to a good tilth and the surface soil is broken upto a depth of 15cm and mixed with fertilizers. The beds are prepared with 1m breadth and 3-4m length. The cuttings are planted during April-May into the beds at a spacing of 30x30cm. FYM is given at 5-10t/ha in the first year. Regular irrigation and weeding are necessary. Harvesting is at the end of second or third year. Roots are collected by digging the seedbeds. Stems are cut 15cm above the root. Stems and roots are usually dried and stored.

Properties and activity: Leaves yield essential oil and an alkaloid vasicine. Roots contain vasicinol and vasicinone. Roots also contain vasicoline, adhatodine, anisotine and vasicolinone. Several alkaloids like quinazoline and valicine are present in this plant.

The plant is bitter, astringent, refrigerant, expectorant, diuretic, antispasmodic, febrifuge, depurative, styptic and tonic. Vasicine is bronchodilator, respiratory stimulant and hypotensive in action, uterine stimulant, uterotonic, abortifacient comparable with oxytocin and methyligin. Uterotonic action of vasicine is mediated through the release of prostaglandins.... malabar nut


(Arabic) A heavenly messenger; an angel

Malaka, Malaika, Malayka, Malaeka, Malake, Malayk, Malaek, Malakia... malak


(Hawaiian) A lighthearted woman Malanah, Malanna, Malannah... malana


Xanthosoma caracu

Description: This plant has soft, arrow-shaped leaves, up to 60 centimeters long. The leaves have no aboveground stems.

Habitat and Distribution: This plant grows widely in the Caribbean region. Look for it in open, sunny fields.

Edible Parts: The tubers are rich in starch. Cook them before eating to destroy a poison contained in all parts of the plant.... malanga


Allspice (Pimenta dioica).

Plant Part Used: Unripe, dried fruit (“seeds”).

Dominican Medicinal Uses: Seeds: tea (decoction), orally for diabetes, depression, lack of energy, menstrual disorders, internal cleansing, post-partum depression, gastro-intestinal ailments, nausea, stress, anxiety, sinus infection, allergy and respiratory infection.

Safety: Widely used as a culinary spice, generally considered safe; low toxicity shown in animal studies.

Contraindications: No information available on use in children or during pregnancy or lactation.

Laboratory & Preclinical Data: In vivo: anti-hemorrhage due to snake venom (organic plant extract).

In vitro: antioxidant (seed/berry constituents).

* See entry for Malagueta in “Part 3: Dominican Medicinal Plant Profiles” of this book for more information, including references.... malagueta


(Hebrew) A great ruler Malanne, Mallann, Mallanne... malann


Anything relating to the cheek. For example, the malar (zygomatic) bone is also known as the cheek bone, and a malar ?ush is reddening of the cheeks.... malar

Malaria Prophylaxis

Measures taken for protection against malaria, e.g. administration of a drug and personal protective measures that prevent a person from becoming infected with the disease.... malaria prophylaxis


(Indian) Resembling a fragrant flower

Malatie, Malaty, Malatey, Malatee, Malatea... malati


(Spanish) An independent woman; one who is free Malayah... malaya


(Scottish) Feminine form of Malcolm; devotee of St. Columba Malcomeena, Malcomyna, Malcominia, Malcominea, Malcomena, Malcomeina, Malcomiena, Malcomeana... malcomina


(Hungarian) An industrious woman Malcsie, Malcsee, Malcsey, Malcsy, Malksi, Malksie, Malksy, Malksee, Malksey, Malcsea, Malksea... malcsi

Maldescended Testis

See under TESTICLE, DISEASES OF.... maldescended testis


Refers to either a surplus or a shortage of the type of health providers (typically medical practitioners) needed to maintain the health status of a given population at an optimum level. Maldistribution can occur both geographically and by specialty.... maldistribution


(Ethiopian) Born with the rising sun

Maledah... maleda


(Thai / Welsh) Resembling a flower / form of Molly, meaning “star of the sea / from the sea of bitterness” Malie, Malee, Maleigh, Maly, Maley... mali


(Hawaiian) Form of Mary, meaning “star of the sea / from the sea of bitterness” Maliah, Malea, Maleah, Maleia, Maliyah, Maliya, Malya, Malyah... malia

Malignant Hyperpyrexia

See MALIGNANT HYPERTHERMIA.... malignant hyperpyrexia

Malignant Lymphoma

See LYMPHOMA.... malignant lymphoma


(Indian) A beautiful woman of great strength

Malihah, Malyha, Maleeha, Maleiha, Maleaha... maliha


(Arabic) Destined to be queen Malikah, Malyka, Maleeka, Maleika, Malieka, Maliika, Maleaka... malika


(Native American) Resembling the salmon

Malilah, Maleela, Maleila, Maliela, Malyla, Maleala... malila


(Hawaiian) A peaceful woman Malinah, Maleena, Maleenah, Malyna, Malynah, Maleina, Maliena, Maleana... malina


(Indian) A gardener Malinie, Maliny, Malinee, Maliney, Malinea... malini


(Russian) As sweet as a little berry Malinkah, Malynka, Maleenka, Malienka, Maleinka, Maleanka... malinka


(Gaelic) A dark beauty Malyse, Malese, Melusina... malise

Malignant Hyperthermia

This disorder is a rare complication of general ANAESTHESIA caused, it is believed, by a combination of an inhalation anaesthetic (usually HALOTHANE) and a muscle-relaxant drug (usually succinycholine). A life-endangering rise in temperature occurs, with muscular rigidity the ?rst sign. TACHYCARDIA, ACIDOSIS and SHOCK usually ensue. About 1:20,000 patients having general anaesthesia suffer from this disorder, which progresses rapidly and is often fatal. Surgery and anaesthesia must be stopped immediately and appropriate corrective measures taken, including the intravenous administration of DANTROLENE. It is a dominantly inherited genetic condition; therefore, when a case is identi?ed it is most important that relatives are screened.... malignant hyperthermia


(Swahili) An accomplished woman Malizah, Maleeza, Malyza, Malieza, Maleaza... maliza


(Hebrew) A queenly woman Malcah, Malkah, Malke, Malkia, Malkie, Milcah, Milka, Milke, Milca, Malha, Malhah... malka

Mallet Toe

The condition in which it is not possible to extend the terminal part of the toe. It is usually due to muscular imbalance but may be caused by congenital absence of the extensor muscle. A callosity (see CALLOSITIES) often forms on the toe, which may be painful. Should this be troublesome, treatment consists of removal of the terminal phalanx.... mallet toe


(Indian) Resembling jasmine Mallikah, Malleeka, Malleika, Mallieka, Mallyka, Malleaka... mallika


(French) An unlucky young woman; ill-fated

Mallary, Mallerey, Mallery, Malloreigh, Mallorey, Mallori, Mallorie, Malorey, Malori, Malorie, Malory, Malloren, Mallorea, Malorea, Maloree... mallory

Mallotus Philippensis


Family: Euphorbiaceae.

Habitat: Throughout tropical regions of India.

English: Kamala tree, Monkey Face tree.

Ayurvedic: Kampillaka, Kampilla, Karkash, Raktaanga, Rechan, Chandra.

Unani: Kamilla, Kambilaa.

Siddha/Tamil: Kapli, Kalupatti.

Action: Gland and hair of fruit— purgative, anthelmintic, styptic. Used for the treatment of tapeworm infestation; in scabies, ringworm, herpes. Fruit—hypoglycaemic, spasmolytic, antibacterial.

Capsule hair and glands gave phlo- roglucinol derivatives; rottlerin, isorot- tlerin, iso-allorottlerin (the "red compound") and methylene-b¿s-methyl- phloroacetophenone (the "yellow compound"). The red powder, obtained from capsules, containing largely resinous matter, had lithotropic effect in rats, comparable to drugs used commonly against urinary calculi. Two more compounds designated as kama- lins 1 and 2 have been isolated.

The stem bark contains kamaladiol- 3-acetate and friedelin.

Dosage: Glands and hairs of the fruit—0.5-1.0 g powder. (API, Vol.I.)... mallotus philippensis


(Scottish) A dark-skinned beauty Malmurie, Malmuria, Malmura, Malmuri... malmuira


(Lithuanian) By the grace of God Malona, Malonne, Maloni, Malonie, Malonia, Malony, Maloney, Malonee, Malonea... malone


A combination of PYRIMETHAMINE and DAPSONE which is used for the prevention of MALARIA in limited circumstances. It has the advantage of only needing to be taken once weekly. It should not be taken by anyone hypersensitive to sulphonamides, and should not be used for the treatment of an acute attack.... maloprim

Malpighia Glabra


Family: Malpighiaceae.

Habitat: Native to tropical America; cultivated in gardens as hedge.

English: Barbados Cherry, Acerola.

Action: Fruits—used in dysentery, diarrhoea and liver disorders. Fruits are rich in ascorbic acid (1,000-4,000 mg/100 g of edible pulp). The bark contains about 26% tannin. Fruits of Brazilian plant gave alpha-carotene, beta-carotene and beta-cryptoxanthine.... malpighia glabra

Malpighia Punicifolia


Family: Malpighiaceae.

Habitat: Cultivated in Tamil Nadu and Karnataka.

English: West Indian Cherry.

Folk: Vallari (Telugu), Simeyaranelli (Kannada).

Action: See Malpighia glabra.

Fruits contain ascorbic acid in high concentration (green fruits contain up to 3,000 mg/100 g). 3-methyl-3- buten-1-ol has been identified as major volatile constituent of the fruit.... malpighia punicifolia


Malt beverage; malt beverage; used as a remedy by itself or combined with other ingredients; two main brands: Malta India and Malta Morena; often added to botellas or bebedizos.... malta

Malta Alemana

German malt beverage; strong, bitter taste; used as a remedy by itself or combined with other ingredients; often added to botellas or bebedizos.... malta alemana


(Hawaiian) A peaceful woman... malu


(Hawaiian) One who rises above Maloona, Malunia, Malunai, Maloonia, Maloonai, Malouna, Malounia, Malounai... maluna

Malus Pumila


Synonym: M. domestica Borkh. M. sylvestris Hort. non-Mill. Pyrus malus Linn. in part.

Family: Rosaceae.

Habitat: Native to Europe and West Asia; now cultivated in Himachal Pradesh., Kashmir, Kulu, Kumaon, Assam and in the Nilgiris.

English: Cultivated Apple.

Ayurvedic: Sinchitikaa.

Folk: Seb, Sev.

Action: Bark—anthelmintic, refrigerant, hypnotic, given in intermittent, remittent and bilious fevers. Leaves—inhibit the growth of a number of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.

The fruit contains malic (90-95% of the total acids), citric, lactic and succinic acids; (unripe fruit contains quinic acid, citric acid, succinic acid, lactic acid); caffeic acid derivatives, pectins, minerals and vitamins.

Edible portion of fresh apple contains thiamine 0.12, riboflavin 0.03, niacin 0.2 and ascorbic acid 2 mg/100 g. The ascorbic acid content varies widely and values up to 40 mg/100 g. Sugars constitute about 80% of the total carbohydrates of ripe fruits—fructose (60), glucose (25) and sucrose (15%). The pectin content of the edible portion varies from 0.14 to 0.96% (as calcium pectate). The uronic acid content of apple pectin varies from 0.5 to 15%.

The astringent principles of apple include tannins, tannin derivatives and colouring materials (flavones). The browning of apple slices on exposure to air is due to enzymic oxidation of tannin compounds.

Fresh juice contains 0.20-0.80 malic acid, 11.6 total sugars and 0.02100.080% tannin.

The seeds contain cyanogenic gly- coside, amygdalin (0.62-1.38%, HCN equivalent, 0.037-00.087%).... malus pumila


(Greek) One who is soft and slender Malvah, Malvia, Malvea... malva

Malva Rotundifolia


Synonym: M. neglecta Wall.

Family: Malvaceae.

Habitat: Simla, Kumaon and plains of North India.

English: Round-leaved Mallow, Drawf Mallow, Cheese Cake Flower.

Ayurvedic: Suvarchalaa.

Unani: Khubhaazi, Gul-Khair.

Action: Leaves—demulcent, emollient; used in glycosuria, stomach disorders and as emmenagogue; used as poultice for maturing abscesses. Seeds—demulcent; prescribed in bronchitis, cough, inflammation of the bladder and haemorrhoids.

Marshmallow (Althaea officinalis) is a different herb.... malva rotundifolia


(English) Having a smooth brow Malvinah, Malveena, Malveenah, Malviena, Malveina, Malveana, Malvyna, Malvine, Malvyne... malvina


(Latin) A beloved friend Malvenia, Malvinea, Malvenea, Malvynia, Malvynea, Malviniya... malvinia


(Sanskrit) Darling little mother Mamakie, Mamaky, Mamakey, Mamakee, Mamakea... mamaki


(Incan) Resembling a falcon Mamanie, Mamanee, Mamaney, Mamany, Mamanea... mamani


Highly venomous African elapid snakes. Include the green mamba and the black mamba.... mamba


(English) Form of Mary, meaning “star of the sea / from the sea of bitterness”; form of Margaret, meaning “resembling a pearl / the child of light” Maime, Mame, Maymie, Mayme, Maimie, Mamia, Mamee, Mamea, Mami... mamie


(Japanese) Daughter of the sea Mameeko, Mamyko... mamiko


Inflammation of the nipple... mammillitis

Malva Sylvestris


Family: Malvaceae.

Habitat: Temperate Himalayas from Punjab to Kumaon, up to 2,400 m; Maharashtra, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu.

English: Common Mallow, Blue Mallow, High Mallow.

Ayurvedic: Suvarchalaa (var.).

Unani: Khubbaazi, Bhubhaazi Bustaani, Gul-Khair.

Action: Mucilaginous, emollient, laxative, antitussive, pectoral, antibacterial. Infusion is used for coughs and colds, irritation of the bronchi. Phagocyte stimulant.

Key application: In irritation of the mucosa and throat and dry, irritative cough. (German Commission E.)

The herb contains sulphated flavo- nol glycosides, mucilage and tannins.

Flowers contain malvin (an antho- cyanin), malvidin diglucoside, tannins, carotene and ascorbic acid.

Malva coromandeliana Linn. (also malvastrum) is anti-inflammatory, pectoral, antidysenteric and diaphoretic.... malva sylvestris


(Polynesian) A charismatic and prestigious woman Manah... mana

Managed Care Plan

A health plan that uses managed care arrangements and has a defined system of selected providers who contract with the plan. Those enrolled have a financial incentive to use participating providers who agree to furnish a broad range of services to them. Providers may be paid on a pre-negotiated basis.... managed care plan

Managed Health Care

This process aims to reduce the costs of health care while maintaining its quality. The concept originated in the United States but has attracted interest in the United Kingdom and Europe, where the spiralling costs of health care have been causing widespread concern. Managed care works through changing clinical practice, but it is not a discrete entity: the American I. J. Iglehart has de?ned it as ‘a variety of methods of ?nancing and organising the delivery of comprehensive health care in which an attempt is made to control costs by controlling the provision of services’. Managed care has three facets: health policy; how that policy is managed; and how individuals needing health care are dealt with. The process and its applications are still evolving and it is likely that di?erent health-care systems will adapt it to suit their own particular circumstances.... managed health care


The sum of the measures taken to plan, organize, operate and evaluate all the many interrelated elements of a system. Such measures are required to translate policies into strategies and strategies into plans of action for determining the action required to define and operate health programmes and ensure that the health system infrastructure is built up to deliver them efficiently and effectively.... management

Management Information System

A system of databases designed to process and exchange information to support decision-making as well as implementation, monitoring and evaluation of programmes, activities and projects. See also “health information system”.... management information system


(Arabic) An accomplished woman Manala, Manall, Manalle, Manalla, Manali... manal


(Japanese) Having a love of the ocean

Manamie, Manamy, Manamey, Manamee, Manamea... manami


(Arabic) Woman of the light Manara, Manaria, Manarr, Manarre, Manarra, Manari, Manarri, Mannara, Mannarra... manar


(Indian) Having great strength of mind

Maanasa, Manassa, Manasah... manasa


(Persian) Beauty everlasting Mandanah, Mandanna, Mandannah... mandana

Mandatory Reporting

A system under which medical practitioners or other health professionals are required by law to inform health authorities when a specified event occurs (i.e. a medical error or the diagnosis of a certain disease). See also “incidence monitoring and reporting”.... mandatory reporting


(Indian) Having a bright mind Mandeepe, Mandyp, Mandype, Mandeepa, Mandypa... mandeep

Mandelic Acid

Also known as mandelamine, a non-toxic keto-acid used in the treatment of infections of the urinary tract, especially those due to the Escherichia coli and the Streptococcus faecalis or Enterococcus. It is administered in doses of 3 grams several times daily. As it is only e?ective in an acid urine, ammonium chloride must be taken at the same time.... mandelic acid


(African) A sweet woman Mandisah, Mandysa, Mandysah... mandisa

Mandragora Autumnalis


Synonym: M. microcarpa Bertol. M. officinarum Linn.

Family: Solanaceae.

Habitat: Mediterranean region.

English: Mandrake.

Ayurvedic: Wrongly equated with Lakshmanaa, a fertility promoting herb. (In Indian medicine, Panax quinquefolium Linn. and Panax schinseng Nees have been equated with Lakshmanaa.)

Action: Anaesthetic, narcotic, poisonous. Alkaloid pattern similar to Atropa belladona. A sample of roots from Morocco contained atropine (0.2% at flowering stage).

In India, Panax sp. are perceived as fertility and vitality promoting herbs, which have been attributed to Laksh- manaa. Mandrake exhibits anticholinergic effects.

English Mandrake and American Mandrake are equated with Bryonia alba and Podophyllum hexandrum respectively.... mandragora autumnalis


Protection, Love, Money, Fertility, Health... mandrake


(Sanskrit) An honorable woman Mandray, Mandrayia, Mandraye... mandraya


(English) Form of Amanda, meaning “one who is much loved” Mandi, Mandie, Mandee, Mandey, Manda, Mandalyn, Mandalynn, Mandelina, Mandeline, Mandalyna, Mandea... mandy


(Hebrew) As sweet as a melody Mangenah, Mangenna, Mangennah... mangena

Mangifera Indica


Family: Anacardiaceae.

Habitat: Uttar Pradesh., Punjab, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, West Bengal and Tamil Nadu.

English: Mango.

Ayurvedic: Aamra, Amb, Rasaal, Sa- hakaar, Pikavallabha, Madhudoot, Atisaurabha, Maakanda.

Unani: Aam, Ambaj.

Siddha/Tamil: Manga, Mau, Mamaram (bark), Mangottai Paruppu (seed).

Action: Unripe fruit—astringent, antiscorbutic. Ripe fruit—invigorating and refrigerant in heat apoplexy. Leaves—anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, chloretic, diuretic. Used in diabetes, externally in burns and scalds. Kernel—astringent, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal, anthelmintic, antispas- modic, antiscorbutic; given in diarrhoea, diabetes and menstrual disorders. Stem bark—astringent; used for haemorrhages, diarrhoea, rheumatism.

The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia ofIn- dia recommends the dried seed in diarrhoea and dysentery; and the dried stem bark in genitourinary disorders.

Ripe mango contains sugars (9.518.6%), citric acid (0.12-0.34%), ascorbic acid (10.8-225.0 mg/100 g), carote- noids as beta-carotene (2,00017,000 mcg/100 g). The fruit gave phenolic compounds (m-digallic acid, gal- lotannin, phloroglucinol, protocate- chuic acid); flavonoids (1,2,3,4-tetrahy- droxy benzene, kaempferol and myri- cetin).

The seed kernel contains alpha-and beta-amyrins, gallotannin, glucogallin and several sterols.

The leaves contain a pentacyclic tri- terpene alcohol, indicol, besides tarax- one, taraxerol, friedelin, lupeol and beta-sitosterol. Leaves contain several sugars, free malic and citric acids and amino acids. Some esters of ben- zophenone C-glucosides and kinic and shikmic acids have also been reported. Mangiferin is present predominantly in the leaves and twigs.

The bark contains phenolic compounds (gallocatechin, protocatechuic acid), xanthones (homomangiferin), several triterpenoids and sterols.

All parts gave phenolic acids (el- lagic acid, gallic acid, ethyl gallate); flavonoids (catechin), and xanthones (mangiferin).

Dosage: Dried seed—1-2 g powder (API, Vol. I); stem bark—3-6 g powder, 25-50 g for decoction. (API, Vol. III.)... mangifera indica


(English) From the whiskey town

Manhatton, Manhatan, Manhaton... manhattan


Mangifera indica

Description: This tree may reach 30 meters in height. It has alternate, simple, shiny, dark green leaves. Its flowers are small and inconspicuous. Its fruits have a large single seed. There are many cultivated varieties of mango. Some have red flesh, others yellow or orange, often with many fibers and a kerosene taste.

Habitat and Distribution: This tree grows in warm, moist regions. It is native to northern India, Burma, and western Malaysia. It is now grown throughout the tropics.

Edible Parts: The fruits area nutritious food source. The unripe fruit can be peeled and its flesh eaten by shredding it and eating it like a salad. The ripe fruit can be peeled and eaten raw. Roasted seed kernels are edible.


If you are sensitive to poison ivy, avoid eating mangoes, as they cause a severe reaction in sensitive individuals.... mango

Mango Tea And Its Healthy Freshness

Mango tea is a complex type of tea, due to its ingredients: green tea, black tea and mango pieces. It is considered to be ideal both for tea consumers and fruit lovers worldwide. About Mango Tea Mango, originally coming fromsouth Asia, was brought to the United States in 1880. It symbolizes love and apparently, its leaves are a good choice to be gifted at weddings. It is a delicious and juicy fruit, that can be eaten fresh or cooked, sliced, pureed or, as part of several beverages. Mango tea is a type of tea resulting from mixing green tea, black tea and whole mango pieces. It gathers the freshness of mangoes and the strong flavor of the two teas mentioned above. How to make Mango Tea?
  • infuse 1 tablespoon per cup
  • use boiling water
  • infuse it for 3 minutes
Mango tea can be also consumed cold. In this case, ice is recommended to be added. To boost its freshness, connoisseurs indicate the use of fresh mint leaves use. Mango Tea benefits Owing to the high quantity of contained antioxidants, Mango tea is effectively used in treating cancer and helping cells to recover from this disease. This type of tea has proven its efficiency in dealing with:
  •  Anemia
  •  Stress
  • Muscle cramps
  • Digestion
  • Weight Control
  • Bone Growth
  • Immune Functions
  • Vision
  • Wound Healing
  • Protein Synthesis
  • Dehydration
Mango Tea side effects Mango tea side effects are generallyassociated to overconsumption or, citrus intolerance. It is indicated that individuals suffering from cardiac problems or hypertension to consume it moderately. Pregnant and breast-feeding women are advised to reduce the amount of Mango tea consumed (less than 2 cups per day), in order not to cause agitation to the baby. Mango teacould be successfully introduced in a daily diet, providing energy and enhancing mood for consumers of all ages and thus, carefully strengthening the immune system.... mango tea and its healthy freshness

Manihot Esculenta


Family: Euphorbiaceae.

Habitat: Native to Brazil. Major crop in Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh.

English: Manioc, Tapioca, Cassava.

Siddha/Tamil: Maravalli kizhangu, Ezhalai kizhangu.

Folk: Tapioca.

Action: Staple food for poorer section of the population in many tropical countries. The starch is used for the manufacture of dextose, liquid glucose. The bitter variety is used for treating scabies and weeping skin.

The tuber is a good source of provitamin A carotenoids. It contains 0.1-3.0 mg/kg (fresh weight) of beta- carotene and 0.05-00.6 mg/kg (fresh weight) of lutein. The bitterness of the tuber is related to the cyanoglu- coside content which ranges from 320 to 1,100 mcg cyanide/g in very bitter tubers and from 27.5 to 77.5 mcg is non-bitter tubers. Boiling, crushing and sun-drying reduce bitterness and also cyanoglucoside content. The tannin equivalent content in the clones varies from 0.31 to 0.34% and saponin equivalent varies from 0.18 to 0.29%.

Feeding tapioca significantly reduced the plasma cholesterol profile experimentally in cats and rats.... manihot esculenta


(Sanskrit) Her mind is a jewel Maanika, Manicka, Manyka, Manycka, Manicca, Manica, Maniya, Manikya, Maneka... manika


(Polish) A warring woman Maninah, Maneena, Maneina, Manyna, Maneana, Maniena... manina


(Native American) One who travels on foot

Manisah, Manysa, Manysah... manisa


(Indian) Having great intelligence; a genius

Maneesha, Manishah, Manysha, Maniesha, Maneisha, Maneasha... manisha


(Indian) Of the sacred blossom Manjarie, Manjary, Manjarey, Manjaree, Manjarea... manjari


(Indian) A sweet young woman Manjulah, Manjulia, Manjulie, Manjule, Manjuli... manjula


(Sanskrit) As treasured as a box of gems

Manjushah, Manjushia, Manjousha, Manjoushia... manjusha


(English) Daughter of Man Maning, Mannyng, Manyng... manning

Manilkara Kauki

(L.) Dubard.

Synonym: Minusops Kauki L.

Family: Sapotaceae.

Habitat: A native of Malaya; occasionally grown in gardens, especially in North India, Andhra Pradesh and Kerala.

English: Kauki.

Ayurvedic: Khirni.

Siddha: Palai.

Action: Root and bark—astringent. Given in infantile diarrhoea. Seed— febrifuge, anthelmintic, antileprotic. Leaf—used as poultice for tumours.

Seeds contain about 16% of fatty oil and 1% saponin.

Manilkara hexandra (Roxb.) Du- bard, synonym Mimusops hexandra Roxb., found in central India and Dec- can Peninsula, and cultivated throughout the greater part of India, is also equated with Khirni.

All parts gave taraxerol, a triterpene ketone, alpha-and beta-amyrin, cin- namates, alpha-sipnasterol, beta-sitos- terol, its beta-D-glucoside, quercitol, quercetin and its dihydroderivatives, ursolic acid.

The bark contains 10% tannin.... manilkara kauki


Manihot utillissima

Description: Manioc is a perennial shrubby plant, 1 to 3 meters tall, with jointed stems and deep green, fingerlike leaves. It has large, fleshy rootstocks.

Habitat and Distribution: Manioc is widespread in all tropical climates, particularly in moist areas. Although cultivated extensively, it maybe found in abandoned gardens and growing wild in many areas.

Edible Parts: The rootstocks are full of starch and high in food value. Two kinds of manioc are known: bitter and sweet. Both are edible. The bitter type contains poisonous hydrocyanic acid. To prepare manioc, first grind the fresh manioc root into a pulp, then cook it for at least 1 hour to remove the bitter poison from the roots. Then flatten the pulp into cakes and bake as bread. Manioc cakes or flour will keep almost indefinitely if protected against insects and dampness. Wrap them in banana leaves for protection.


For safety, always cook the roots of either type.... manioc


(Persian) Born under the sweet sun Manoushe, Manousha, Manoushai, Manoushia, Manoushea... manoush


(African) The third-born child Mansah, Mansia... mansa


(Native American) Resembling a picked flower

Mansie, Mansy, Mansey, Mansee, Mansea, Mausi, Mausie, Mausee, Mausy, Mausey, Mausea... mansi


A genus of filarial nematode worms which can infect humans in Africa and South America. Transmitted by biting midges belonging to the genus Culicoides. Important species infecting humans include M. ozzardi, M. perstans and M. streptocerca.... mansonella


A genus of mosquitoes, some species of which can be involved in the transmission of human filariasis due to Brugia malayi and Wuchereria bancrofti.... mansonia


Butter; can be butter from cow’s milk or the semi-solid fat of certain animals, such as snake butter (manteca de culebra) or iguana butter (manteca de iguana).... manteca


(Greek) A prophetess; in mythology, mother of Mopsus

Mantia, Mantika, Manteia, Mantea, Mantai, Mantae... manto


(Sanskrit) One who counsels others

Mantrini, Mantrania, Mantranna, Mantrani, Mantrinie, Mantranie... mantrana


(Persian) One who is pure; chaste Mantre... mantreh


(Spanish) Feminine form of Emmanuel; God is with us Manuella, Manuelita, Manuelyta, Manueleeta, Manoela, Manuel, Manuelle, Manuele... manuela


(Hawaiian) Resembling a bird in the heavens

Manulanie, Manulane, Manulaney, Manulanee, Manulanea... manulani


(African) A humble woman Manyarah... manyara




Apple (Malus pumila).

Plant Part Used: Leaf, root, flower, fruit, bulb, bark, whole plant.

Dominican Medicinal Uses: Fruit: raw, ingested, for treatment or prevention of high blood pressure, high cholesterol, heart disease and nutrition; tea, orally, for common cold, flu-like symptoms, menopausal hot flashes and relaxation.

Safety: Fruit is widely consumed and generally considered safe.

Clinical Data: Human clinical trials: alleviation of gastro-intestinal enteritis (fruit).

Laboratory & Preclinical Data: In vivo: anti-inflammatory, antirheumatic (ethanol extract).

In vitro: antioxidant (phenols).

* See entry for Manzana in “Part 3: Dominican Medicinal Plant Profiles” of this book for more information, including references.... manzana


Chamomile (Matricaria recutita & Chamaemelum nobile).

Plant Part Used: Flower.

Dominican Medicinal Uses: Flowers: decoction/infusion, orally, for anxiety, nervousness, stress, insomnia (adults and children), menstrual cramps, post-partum recovery, childbirth and regulating blood pressure.

Safety: Considered safe for internal use; slight potential for hypersensitivity, especially in patients with a history of allergic reaction to Aster species.

Contraindications: Pregnancy: oral administration of whole plant extract at high doses may have emmenagogue effects; however, flower extracts have not shown this effect.

Clinical Data: Clinical case report: mouthwash for oral mucositis (plant extract).

Laboratory & Preclinical Data: In vivo: antipruritic, antiulcerogenic (plant extract); anxiolytic (constituents); hypoglycemic (aerial parts of Chamaemelum nobile).

In vitro: antifungal (plant extracts).

* See entry for Manzanilla in “Part 3: Dominican Medicinal Plant Profiles” of this book for more information, including references.... manzanilla


(Irish) A handmaiden Maoli, Maole, Maolie, Maolia, Maoly, Maoley, Maolee, Maolea... maola


(Gaelic) A woman holding rank as chief

Maolmine, Maolmina, Maolminia, Maolmyn, Maolmyna, Maolmyne... maolmin


(Hebrew) Woman of the home... maon


(African) One who is dearly loved Mpenzi, Mapenzie, Mapenze, Mapenzy, Mapenzee, Mapenzea... mapenzi


Love, Longevity, Money ... maple


(Hebrew) A grieving woman; one who is sorrowful

Marra, Mahra, Marah, Maralina, Maralinda, Maraline... mara


(Hebrew) Born during the earth’s trembling

Marala, Marallah, Maralla... maralah


(Arabic) One who is wished for Marame, Marama, Marami, Maramie, Maramee, Maramy, Maramey, Maramea... maram

Maranta Arundinacea


Family: Marantaceae.

Habitat: Native to tropical America; cultivated throughout the country for its edible starch.

English: Arrowroot.

Siddha: Koovaikizhangu, Kookaineer.

Action: Nutritive, demulcent (especially for infants and convalescence). Used as a dietary aid in acute diarrhoea and gastroenteritis. Used as a substitute for Bamboo-manna.

The rhizome contains about 25-27% neutral starch.... maranta arundinacea


(Spanish) One who is marveled at; a miracle child

Marivella, Marivilla, Marevilla, Marevella, Maravella, Maraville, Marivel, Marivelle... maravilla


(Scottish) Form of Margaret, meaning “resembling a pearl / the child of light” Marcaila, Marcaile, Marcayl, Marcayle, Marcayla, Marcael, Marcaele, Marcaela... marcail


(Latin) Feminine form of Marcellus; dedicated to Mars, the god of war Marcela, Marcele, Marcelina, Marcelinda, Marceline, Marcelle, Marcellina, Marcelline, Marcelyn, Marchella, Marchelle, Marcile, Marcilee, Marcille, Marquita, Marsalina, Marsella, Marselle, Marsellonia, Marshella, Marsiella, Marcila, Marsil, Marsille, Marsilla, Marsila, Marsali... marcella


(Latin) Born during the month of March Marche... march

March Haemoglobinuria

A complication of walking and running over long distances. It is due to damage to red blood cells in the blood vessels of the soles of the feet. This results in HAEMOGLOBIN being released into the bloodstream, which is then voided in the URINE – the condition known as HAEMOGLOBINURIA. No treatment is required.... march haemoglobinuria


(Latin) Feminine form of Marcus; dedicated to Mars, the god of war Marcena, Marcene, Marchita, Marciana, Marciane, Marcianne, Marcilyn, Marcilynn, Marcina, Marcine, Marcita, Marseea, Marsia, Martia, Marsha, Marek, Marcsa... marcia


(Latin) Form of Marcella or Marcia, meaning “dedicated to Mars, the god of war”

Marcey, Marci, Marcie, Marcee, Marsee, Marsey, Marsy, Marsie, Marsi, Marcea, Marsea... marcy


(Latin) A woman warrior Mardane, Mardayne... marde


(African) The last-born child Mardeah... mardea


(French) Born on a Tuesday Mardie, Mardy, Mardey, Mardee, Mardea... mardi


(German) A famous woman warrior Marelde, Mareldah, Marrelda, Marilda, Marilde, Mareld, Marild... marelda


(Latin) An admirable woman Marendah... marenda

Marfan’s Syndrome

An inherited disorder affecting about one person in 50,000 in which the CONNECTIVE TISSUE is abnormal. The result is defects of the heart valves, the arteries arising from the heart, the skeleton and the eyes. The victims are unusually tall and thin with a particular facial appearance (the US President Abraham Lincoln was said to have Marfan’s) and deformities of the chest and spine. They have spider-like ?ngers and toes and their joints and ligaments are weak. Orthopaedic intervention may help, as will drugs to control the heart problems. As affected individuals have a 50 per cent chance of passing on the disease to their children, they should receive genetic counselling.... marfan’s syndrome


(Sanskrit) One who seeks the truth

Marganah, Marganna, Margannah... margana


(Greek / Persian) Resembling a pearl / the child of light Maighread, Mairead, Mag, Maggi, Maggie, Maggy, Maiga, Malgorzata, Marcheta, Marchieta, Marga, Margalit, Margalo, Margareta, Margarete, Margarethe, Margaretta, Margarette, Margarida, Margarit, Margarita, Margarite, Margaruite, Marge, Marged, Margeen, Margeret, Margeretta, Margerie, Margerita, Marget, Margette, Margey, Marghanita, Margharita, Margherita, Marghretta, Margies, Margisia, Margit, Margita, Margize, Margred, Margret, Margrete, Margreth, Margrett, Margrit, Margrid, Marguarette, Marguarita, Marguerita, Marguerite, Marguita, Maarit, Marjeta, Margosha, Marjeta, Marared, Margaid, Marenka, Maret, Mererid... margaret


(Welsh) Form of Margaret, meaning “resembling a pearl / the child of light” Margred, Margeda, Margreda... marged

Marginal Cost

See “cost”.... marginal cost


(French) Form of Margaret, meaning “resembling a pearl / the child of light” Margeaux, Margaux, Margolo, Margot... margo


(German) A famous battlemaiden Marhildi, Marhilde, Marhild, Marhildie, Marhildy, Marhildey, Marhildee, Marildi, Marildie... marhilda


(Hebrew) A wished-for daughter... mari


(Spanish) Form of Mary, meaning “star of the sea / from the sea of bitterness” Marialena, Marialinda, Marialisa, Maaria, Mayria, Maeria, Mariabella, Mariabelle, Mariabell, Mariasha, Marea... maria


(Latin) Form of Mary, meaning “star of the sea”... mariah


(African) A gift from God Mariamah, Mariamma, Mariame... mariama


(Hebrew) A rebellious woman Mamre, Meria... mariamne


(French) A combination of Mary and Ann, meaning “star of the sea / from the sea of bitterness” and “a woman graced with God’s favor”

Mariam, Mariana, Marian, Marion, Maryann, Maryanne, Maryanna, Maryane, Maryana, Marianne, Marianna, Mariann, Maryam, Marianda, Marien... mariane


(African) One who is pure; innocent... mariatu


(Spanish) Form of Mary, meaning “star of the sea / from the sea of bitterness”; the beautiful Mary Maribell, Maribelle, Maribella, Maribele, Maribela, Marabel, Marabelle, Marabela, Marabella, Marybel, Marybell, Marybella, Marybelle, Marybele, Marybela... maribel


(Latin) In mythology, a nymph and mother of Latinus... marica


(Spanish) Form of Marcella, meaning “dedicated to Mars, the god of war”

Maricel, Maricella, Marisela, Maresella, Marisella, Maryzela, Marecela, Marecella... maricela


(Swahili) One who is content Maridha, Maridhea, Maridhe, Marydhia, Marydhiya... maridhia


(French) Form of Mary, meaning “star of the sea / from the sea of bitterness” Maree, Marea... marie


(Danish) Form of Mary, meaning “star of the sea / from the sea of bitterness” Mariela, Mariele, Mariella, Marielle, Mariell, Mariola... mariel


(French) Form of Mary, meaning “star of the sea / from the sea of bitterness” Mariette, Maretta, Mariet, Maryetta, Maryette, Marieta... marietta


(Arabic) Having great knowledge Marifah, Maryfa, Maryfah, Maripha, Marypha... marifa


(Danish) Form of Mary, meaning “star of the sea / from the sea of bitterness” Marieke, Marijke, Marike, Maryk, Maryka... marika


(Japanese) Daughter of Mari; a ball or sphere

Maryko, Mareeko, Marieko, Mareiko... mariko


(English) Of the shining sea Marillah, Marila, Marillis, Marilis, Marella, Marela, Marelle... marilla


(English) Form of Mary, meaning “star of the sea / from the sea of bitterness” Maralin, Maralyn, Maralynn, Marelyn, Marilee, Marilin, Marillyn, Marilynn, Marilynne, Marlyn, Marralynn, Marrilin, Marrilyn, Marylin, Marylyn, Marylynn, Marilena, Mariline... marilyn


(Latin) Woman of the sea Mareen, Mareena, Mareina, Marena, Marine, Marinda, Marinell, Marinella, Marinelle, Marinna, Maryn, Marin, Marinochka... marina


(Spanish) Resembling a butterfly Maryposa, Marriposa, Marryposa, Mareposa, Maraposa... mariposa


(Slavic) Form of Mary, meaning “star of the sea / from the sea of bitterness” Maryska, Mariske, Maryske, Maruska, Maruske, Martuska... mariska


(Latin) Woman of the sea Maressa, Maricia, Marisabel, Marisha, Marisse, Maritza, Mariza, Marrissa, Maryssa, Meris, Merissa, Meryssa, Marisa, Mareesa, Mareisa, Marysa, Marysia, Maris, Marris, Marys, Maryse, Marisol, Merise... marissa


(Sanskrit) One who is hopeful... marjah


(Slavic) One who is merry Marjama, Marjamah, Marjami, Marjamie, Marjamy, Marjamey, Marjamee, Marjamea... marjam


(Polish) Form of Mary, meaning “star of the sea / from the sea of bitterness” Marjann, Marjanne, Marjana, Marjanna, Marjon, Marjonn, Marjonne... marjan


(African) Of the coral reef Marjanie, Marjany, Marjaney, Marjanee, Marjean, Marjeani, Marjeanie, Marijani, Marijanie... marjani


(French) Resembling the sweet flower

Marjolaine, Marjolayn, Marjolayne, Marjolayna, Marjolaene, Marjolaen, Marjolaena... marjolaina


(English) Form of Margaret, meaning “resembling a pearl / the child of light” Marcharie, Marge, Margeree, Margery, Margerie, Margery, Margey, Margi, Margie, Margy, Marja, Marje, Marjerie, Marjery, Marji, Marjie, Marjorey, Marjory, Marjy, Majori, Majorie, Majory, Majorey, Majoree, Marjo... marjorie


(African) Born during a steady rain Markah... marka


(American) Form of Keisha, meaning “the favorite child” Markeishla, Markeishah, Markecia, Markesha, Markeysha, Markeesha, Markiesha, Markeshia, Markeishia, Markeasha... markeisha


(Slavic) Form of Margaret, meaning “resembling a pearl / the child of light” Markeda, Markee, Markeeta, Markia, Markie, Markita, Marqueta, Marquetta... marketa


(Scandinavian) A rebellious woman... markku


(English) Of the marshy meadow Marley, Marleigh, Marli, Marlie, Marly, Marlea... marlee


(German) A combination of Mary and Magdalene, meaning “star of the sea / from the sea of bitterness” and “woman from Magdala”

Marlaina, Marlana, Marlane, Marlayna, Marlayne, Marleen, Marleena, Marleene, Marleina, Marlen, Marlena, Marleni, Marna, Marlin, Marlina, Marline, Marlyn, Marlynne, Marla, Marlette... marlene


(German) Form of Mary, meaning “star of the sea / from the sea of bitterness” Marlisa, Marliss, Marlise, Marlisse, Marlissa, Marlys, Marlyss, Marlysa, Marlyssa, Marlysse... marlis


(English) One who resembles driftwood

Marloe, Marlow, Marlowe, Marlon... marlo


(Greek) From the sparkling sea Marmarra, Marmarah, Marmarrah

... marmara


(Arabic) Resembling marble Marmareen, Marmarine, Marmareene, Marmarina, Marmareena... marmarin


(American) Form of Marina, meaning “woman of the sea” Marna, Marne, Marnee, Marnell, Marney, Marnie, Marnina, Marnisha, Marnja, Marnya, Marnette, Marnetta, Marnia, Marnea... marni


(Hebrew) Woman of sorrow; perfect grief

Marothe, Marotha, Marothia, Marothea, Marothiya... maroth


(Greek) In mythology, the granddaughter of Ares

Marpesa, Marpessah, Marpesah, Marpe, Marpes... marpessa


(French) Feminine form of the title marquis; born to royalty Marchesa, Marchessa, Markaisa, Markessa, Marquesa, Marquessa, Marqui, Marquisa, Marquisha... marquise

Marrubium Vulgare


Family: Labiatae; Lamiacea.

Habitat: Native to Europe and Central Asia; also found in Kashmir

English: Horehound.

Unani: Faraasiyun (wrongly equated with Valerian in National Formulary of Unani Medicine).

Action: Expectorant, cholagogue; bitter tonic for stomach and liver, antispasmodic. Used for bronchitis, asthma, whooping cough, hard cough with little phlegm; also for ca