The meaning of the symbols of dreams/ seen in a dream.


Hypotension

A fall in blood pressure below the normal level... hypotension

Hypertension

High arterial blood pressure... hypertension

Haematuria

The presence of blood in the urine... haematuria

Halitosis

Offensive odour of the breath... halitosis

Heart

A hollow muscular pump with four cavities, each provided at its outlet with a valve, whose function is to maintain the circulation of the blood. The two upper cavities are known as atria; the two lower ones as ventricles. The term auricle is applied to the ear-shaped tip of the atrium on each side.

Shape and size In adults the heart is about the size and shape of a clenched ?st. One end of the heart is pointed (apex); the other is broad (base) and is deeply cleft at the division between the two atria. One groove running down the front and up the back shows the division between the two ventricles; a circular, deeper groove marks o? the atria above from the ventricles below. The capacity of each cavity is somewhere between 90 and 180 millilitres.

Structure The heart lies within a strong ?brous bag, known as the pericardium. Since the inner surface of this bag and the outer surface of the heart are both covered with a smooth, glistening membrane faced with ?at cells and lubricated by a little serous ?uid (around 20 ml), the movements of the heart are accomplished almost without friction. The main thickness of the heart wall consists of bundles of muscle ?bres, some of which run in circles right around the heart, and others in loops, ?rst round one cavity, then round the corresponding cavity of the other side. Within all the cavities is a smooth lining membrane, continuous with that lining the vessels which open into the heart. The investing smooth membrane is known as epicardium; the muscular substance as myocardium; and the smooth lining membrane as endocardium.

Important nerves regulate the heart’s action, especially via the vagus nerve and with the sympathetic system (see NERVOUS SYSTEM). In the near part of the atria lies a collection of nerve cells and connecting ?bres, known as the sinuatrial node or pacemaker, which forms the starting-point for the impulses that initiate the beats of the heart. In the groove between the ventricles and the atria lies another collection of similar nerve tissue, known as the atrioventricular node. Running down from there into the septum between the two ventricles is a band of special muscle ?bres, known as the atrioventricular bundle, or the bundle of His. This splits up into a right and a left branch for the two ventricles, and the ?bres of these distribute themselves throughout the muscular wall of the ventricles and control their contraction.

Openings There is no direct communication between the cavities on the right side and those on the left; but the right atrium opens into the right ventricle by a large circular opening, and similarly the left atrium into the left ventricle. Into the right atrium open two large veins, the superior and inferior venae cavae, with some smaller veins from the wall of the heart itself, and into the left atrium open two pulmonary veins from each lung. One opening leads out of each ventricle – to the aorta in the case of the left ventricle, to the pulmonary artery from the right.

Before birth, the FETUS’s heart has an opening (foramen ovale) from the right into the left atrium through which the blood passes; but when the child ?rst draws air into his or her lungs this opening closes and is represented in the adult only by a depression (fossa ovalis).

Valves The heart contains four valves. The mitral valve consists of two triangular cusps; the tricuspid valve of three smaller cusps. The aortic and pulmonary valves each consist of three semilunar-shaped segments. Two valves are placed at the openings leading from atrium into ventricle, the tricuspid valve on the right side, the mitral valve on the left, so as completely to prevent blood from running back into the atrium when the ventricle contracts. Two more, the pulmonary valve and the aortic valve, are at the entrance to these arteries, and prevent regurgitation into the ventricles of blood which has been driven from them into the arteries. The noises made by these valves in closing constitute the greater part of what are known as the heart sounds, and can be heard by anyone who applies his or her ear to the front of a person’s chest. Murmurs heard accompanying these sounds indicate defects in the valves, and may be a sign of heart disease (although many murmurs, especially in children, are ‘innocent’).

Action At each heartbeat the two atria contract and expel their contents into the ventricles, which at the same time they stimulate to contract together, so that the blood is driven into the arteries, to be returned again to the atria after having completed a circuit in about 15 seconds through the body or lungs as the case may be. The heart beats from 60 to 90 times a minute, the rate in any given healthy person being about four times that of the respirations. The heart is to some extent regulated by a nerve centre in the MEDULLA, closely connected with those centres which govern the lungs and stomach, and nerve ?bres pass to it in the vagus nerve. The heart rate and force can be diminished by some of these ?bres, by others increased, according to the needs of the various organs of the body. If this nerve centre is injured or poisoned – for example, by lack of oxygen – the heart stops beating in human beings; although in some of the lower animals (e.g. frogs, ?shes and reptiles) the heart may under favourable conditions go on beating for hours even after its entire removal from the body.... heart

Hepatic

Having to do with the liver... hepatic

Hepatitis

Inflammation of the liver; jaundice... hepatitis

Hysteria

A neurotic disorder with varying symptoms... hysteria

Haem

An iron-containing porphyrin (see PORPHYRINS) compound that combines with the protein GLOBULIN to make HAEMOGLOBIN, a constituent of erythrocytes (red blood cells).... haem

Haemoptysis

Spitting of blood... haemoptysis

Haemorrhage

Bleeding; blood loss.... haemorrhage

Haemorrhoids

Haemorrhoids, or piles, are varicose (swollen) veins in the lining of the ANUS. They are very common, affecting nearly half of the UK population at some time in their lives, with men having them more often and for a longer time.

Varieties Haemorrhoids are classi?ed into ?rst-, second- and third-degree, depending on how far they prolapse through the anal canal. First-degree ones do not protrude; second-degree piles protrude during defaecation; third-degree ones are trapped outside the anal margin, although they can be pushed back. Most haemorrhoids can be described as internal, since they are covered with glandular mucosa, but some large, long-term ones develop a covering of skin. Piles are usually found at the three, seven and eleven o’clock sites when viewed with the patient on his or her back.

Causes The veins in the anus tend to become distended because they have no valves; because they form the lowest part of the PORTAL SYSTEM and are apt to become over?lled when there is the least interference with the circulation through the portal vein; and partly because the muscular arrangements for keeping the rectum closed interfere with the circulation through the haemorrhoidal veins. An absence of ?bre from western diets is probably the most important cause. The result is that people often strain to defaecate hard stools, thus raising intra-abdominal pressure which slows the rate of venous return and engorges the network of veins in the anal mucosa. Pregnancy is an important contributory factor in women developing haemorrhoids. In some people, haemorrhoids are a symptom of disease higher up in the portal system, causing interference with the circulation. They are common in heart disease, liver complaints such as cirrhosis or congestion, and any disease affecting the bowels.

Symptoms Piles cause itching, pain and often bleeding, which may occur whenever the patient defaecates or only sometimes. The piles may prolapse permanently or intermittently. The patient may complain of aching discomfort which, with the pain, may be worsened.

Treatment Prevention is important; a high-?bre diet will help in this, and is also necessary after piles have developed. Patients should not spend a long time straining on the lavatory. Itching can be lessened if the PERINEUM is properly washed, dried and powdered. Prolapsed piles can be replaced with the ?nger. Local anaesthetic and steroid ointments can help to relieve symptoms when they are relatively mild, but do not remedy the underlying disorder. If conservative measures fail, then surgery may be required. Piles may be injected, stretched or excised according to the patient’s particular circumstances.

Where haemorrhoids are secondary to another disorder, such as cancer of the rectum or colon, the underlying condition must be treated – hence the importance of medical advice if piles persist.... haemorrhoids

Hemiplegia

Paralysis of one side of the body... hemiplegia

Hepatomegaly

Enlargement of the liver... hepatomegaly

Hernia

The protrusion of an internal organ through a defect in the wall of the anatomical cavity in which it lies.... hernia

Herpes

Inflammation of the skin or mucous membrane with clusters of deep seated vesicles... herpes

Hiatus Hernia

An upwards protrusion of the stomach through the diaphragm wall. It is particularly common in women in their fourth and fifth decades.... hiatus hernia

Homeopathy

Almost two centuries old, it is a system of medicine in which the treatment of disease (symptom pictures) depends on the administration of minute doses (attenuations) of substances that would, in larger doses, produce the same symptoms as the disease being treated. Homeopaths don’t like that “disease” word, preferring to match symptoms, not diagnostic labels. Although by no means harmless, homeopathic doses are devoid of drug toxicity. Many practitioners these days prefer high, almost mythic potencies, sometimes resorting to a virtual “laying on of hands” to attain the alleged remedy. When M.D.s used homeopathy frequently (turn of the century), there were violent battles between low potency advocates and the high potency charismatics. Some preferred low potencies or even mother tinctures (herbs!), which I find quite reasonable (naturally), such as Boericke. Others sought ever higher and higher potencies, tantamount to dropping an Arnica petal in Lake Superior in September and extracting a drop of water at the mouth of the St. Lawrence River the following April. Kent and Clarke were such homeopaths. Philosophically, to me, we are all surrounded in a subtle tide of unimaginably complex pollutants and organochemical recombinants...all low and middle potency homeopathic attenuations...our milieu itself is Mother Nosode...how can we be expected to respond to elegant but unimaginably subtle influences when our very bones radiate a low-potency gray noise. If you have no idea what I am talking about, just consider it a family argument.

... homeopathy

Hormone

A chemical produced in the body by endocrine glands and carried in the blood to other organs where the hormone causes processes to change in the target organ. A chemical messenger.... hormone

Hydrophobia

Exaggerated fear of water as in rabies... hydrophobia

Hypoglycaemia

A de?ciency of glucose in the blood – the normal range being 3·5–7·5 mmol/l (see DIABETES MELLITUS). It most commonly occurs in diabetic patients – for example, after an excessive dose of INSULIN and heavy exercise, particularly with inadequate or delayed meals. It may also occur in non-diabetic people, however: for example, in very cold situations or after periods of starvation. Hypoglycaemia is normally indicated by characteristic warning signs and symptoms, particularly if the blood glucose concentration is falling rapidly. These include anxiety, tremor, sweating, breathlessness, raised pulse rate, blurred vision and reduced concentration, leading – in severe cases – to unconsciousness. Symptoms may be relieved by taking some sugar, some sweet biscuits or a sweetened drink. In emergencies, such as when the patient is comatose (see COMA), an intramuscular injection of GLUCAGON or intravenous glucose should be given. Early treatment is vital, since prolonged hypoglycaemia, by starving the brain cells of glucose, may lead to irreversible brain damage.... hypoglycaemia

Hypothermia

Greatly decreased temperature... hypothermia

Hypoxia

Lack of sufficient oxygen, such as occurs at high altitudes.... hypoxia

Haematemesis

Vomiting of blood... haematemesis

Haematoma

Haematoma means a collection of blood forming a de?nite swelling. It is found often upon the head of newborn children after a protracted and di?cult labour (cephalhaematoma). It may occur as the result of any injury or operation.... haematoma

Haemoglobin

The colouring compound which produces the red colour of blood. Haemoglobin is a chromoprotein, made up of a protein called globin and the iron-containing pigment, haemin. When separated from the red blood corpuscles – each of which contains about 600 million haemoglobin molecules – it is crystalline in form.

Haemoglobin exists in two forms: simple haemoglobin, found in venous blood; and oxy-haemoglobin, which is a loose compound with oxygen, found in arterial blood after the blood has come into contact with the air in the lungs. This oxyhaemoglobin is again broken down as the blood passes through the tissues, which take up the oxygen for their own use. This is the main function of haemoglobin: to act as a carrier of oxygen from the lungs to all the tissues of the body. When the haemoglobin leaves the lungs, it is 97 per cent saturated with oxygen; when it comes back to the lungs in the venous blood, it is 70 per cent saturated. The oxygen content of 100 millilitres of blood leaving the lungs is 19·5 millilitres, and that of venous blood returning to the lungs, 14·5 millilitres. Thus, each 100 millilitres of blood delivers 5 millilitres of oxygen to the tissues of the body. Human male blood contains 13–18 grams of haemoglobin per 100 millilitres; in women, there are 12–16 grams per 100 millilitres. A man weighing 70 kilograms (154 pounds) has around 770 grams of haemoglobin circulating in his red blood corpuscles.... haemoglobin

Haemophilia

An inherited disorder of blood COAGULATION which results in prolonged bleeding even after minor injury. There is a de?ciency of factor VIII, an essential clotting factor in the coagulation cascade – the complex series of biochemical events that leads from injury of the wall of a blood vessel to the formation of a blood clot that checks bleeding. Haemophilia is a sex-linked recessive disorder (though a small number of cases arise by spontaneous mutation), so that, if females carry the disease, one-half of their sons will be affected and one-half of their daughters will be carriers. The sons of haemophiliacs are unaffected but one-half of their daughters will be carriers.

Haemophilia affects approximately 1:4,000 of the UK population but only 1:20,000 is severely affected. Severity of the disease depends upon the percentage, compared with normal, of factor VIII activity present. Less than 1 per cent and there will be spontaneous bleeding into joints and muscles; 1–5 per cent and there will be occasional spontaneous bleeding and severe bleeding after minor injury; 5–25 per cent and there will only be severe bleeding after major injury. Before treatment was available, severe haemophiliacs suffered from acute pain and deformity from bleeds into joints and muscles. Bleeding also occurred into the gut, kidneys and brain, and few survived past adolescence.

Freeze-dried factor VIII may be kept in domestic refrigerators. Haemophiliacs can use it to abort minor bleeds by reconstituting it and injecting it intravenously. More major bleeding or preparation for surgery involves raising factor VIII levels to 30–100 per cent by giving cryoprecipitate.

With treatment, most haemophiliacs lead normal lives, although obviously dangerous or contact sports should be avoided. Before donors of blood were screened for HEPATITIS B and C or for HIV infection (see AIDS/HIV), some individuals with haemophilia receiving factor VIII were unwittingly infected with those diseases. Today’s screening procedures make such infections very unlikely.

There is a National Haemophilia Register and each registered sufferer carries a card with details about his or her condition. Information may also be obtained from NHS haemophilia centres and the Haemophilia Society.... haemophilia

Hallux Rigidus

Sti?ness of the joint between the great toe and the foot, which induces pain on walking. It is usually due to a crush injury or stubbing of the toe. Such stubbing is liable to occur in adolescents with a congenitally long toe. If trouble-some, the condition is treated by an operation to create a false joint.... hallux rigidus

Handicap

A disadvantage for a given individual, resulting from an impairment or a disability that limits or prevents the fulfilment of a role that is normal (depending on age, sex and social and cultural practice) for that individual. The term handicap thus reflects interaction with, and adaptation to, the individual’s surroundings. See also “disability”; “impairment”.... handicap

Hand

In structure, the hand has a bony basis of eight small carpal bones in the wrist, ?ve metacarpal bones in the ?eshy part of the hand, and three phalanges in each ?nger – two only in the thumb. From the muscles of the forearm, 12 strong tendons run in front of the wrist. Of these, nine go to the ?ngers and thumb and are bound down by a strong band, the ?exor retinaculum, in front of the wrist. They are enclosed in a complicated synovial sheath, and pass through the palm and down the ?ngers. Behind the wrist, 12 tendons likewise cross from forearm to hand.

Forming the ball of the thumb and that of the little ?nger, and ?lling up the gaps between the metacarpal bones, are other muscles, which act to separate and bring together the ?ngers, and to bend them at their ?rst joints (knuckles).... hand

Hantavirus

Also known as Four Corners virus. A rodent virus from the white-footed deer mouse of the USA. Causes severe respiratory disease of humans.... hantavirus

Health

The state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. Health has many dimensions (anatomical, physiological and mental) and is largely culturally defined.... health

Health Centre

A centre that may carry out promotive, protective, preventive, diagnostic, curative and rehabilitative health care activities for ambulant people.... health centre

Heartburn

A burning sensation experienced in the region of the heart and up the back to the throat. It is caused by an excessive acidity of the gastric juice – often aggravated by dietary indiscretions – and is relieved temporarily by taking alkaline substances, such as 1·2 grams of bicarbonate of soda, or commercial preparations such as aluminium-containing antacid tablets (e.g. Aluminium Hydroxide Tablets) or prescribed drugs such as lansoprazole. The frequency of heartburn attacks can be lessened by eating a sensible diet, avoiding fatty or indigestible foods and restricting alcohol consumption.

Persistent heartburn may be a sign of more serious oesophageal disease and medical advice should be sought.... heartburn

Herbal Medicine

The use of herbs as medicines is probably as old as mankind; every culture has its own traditions. Herbalism was formally established in England by an Act of Parliament during Henry VIII’s reign. Di?erent parts of a variety of plants are used to treat symptoms and to restore functions.... herbal medicine

Herpes Zoster

See SHINGLES... herpes zoster

Hirsutism

The growth of hair of the male type and distribution in women. It is due either to the excess production of androgens (see ANDROGEN), or to undue sensitivity of the hair follicle to normal female levels of circulating androgens. The latter is called idiopathic hirsutism, because the cause is unknown. The increased production of androgens in the female may come from the ovary (see OVARIES) and be due to POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME or an ovarian tumour, or the excess androgen may come from the adrenal cortex (see ADRENAL GLANDS) and be the result of congenital adrenal HYPERPLASIA, an adrenal tumour or CUSHING’S SYNDROME. However, there is a wide range of normality in the distribution of female body hair. It varies with di?erent racial groups: the Mediterranean races have more body hair than Nordic women, and the Chinese and Japanese have little body hair. It is not abnormal for many women, especially those with dark hair, to have hair apparent on the upper lip, and a few coarse hairs on the chin and around the nipples are not uncommon. Extension of the pubic hair towards the umbilicus is also frequently found. Dark hair is much more apparent than fair hair, and this is why bleaching is of considerable bene?t in the management of hirsutism.

The treatment of hirsutism is that of the primary cause. Idiopathic hirsutism must be managed by simple measures such as bleaching the hair and the use of depilatory waxes and creams. Coarse facial hairs can be removed by electrolysis, although this is time-consuming. Shaving is often the most e?ective remedy and neither increases the rate of hair growth nor causes the hairs to become coarser.... hirsutism

Histamine

The defense substance responsible for most inflammation. It is synthesized from the amino acid histidine and is secreted by mast cells, basophils, and blood platelets. It stimulates vasodilation, capillary permeability, muscle contraction of the bronchioles, secretions of a number of glands, and attracts eosinophils, the white blood cells that are capable of moderating the inflammation. Mast cell histamine release is what usually causes allergies.... histamine

Histoplasmosis

A mycotic disease caused by the dimorphic fungi Histoplasma capsulatum and H. duboisei. The former primarily affects the lungs and is acquired by inhalation of spores in bat droppings (often in caves) and the latter affects the skin and is restricted to West Africa.... histoplasmosis

Hives

A popular term applied to eruptions of URTICARIA.... hives

Hookworm

A parasitic nematode found in the intestines of humans and animals. They are usually transmitted byinfection with the third stage filariform larva orally or through the skin. Examples include Ancyclostoma duodenale and Necator americanus. See also associated diseases such as eosinophilic enteritis and cutaneous larva migrans.... hookworm

Hops

Humulus lupulus. N.O. Urticaceae.

Habitat: Extensively farmed for the brewing industry, and is found growing wild in hedges and open woods.

Features ? Stem rough, very long, will twist round any adjacent support. Leaves in pairs, stalked, rough, serrate, cordate, three- or five-lobed. Flowers or catkins (more correctly called strobiles) consist of membranous scales, yellowish-green, roundish, reticulate-veined, nearly half-inch long, curving over each other. These are the fertile flowers which are used medicinally and industrially.

Action: Tonic, diuretic.

As a tonic in prescriptions for debility, nervous dyspepsia, and general atony. Although usually given in combination with other herbs, the ounce

to pint infusion of hops taken thrice daily makes quite a good tonic medicine for those feeling "run-down." Lying on a pillow stuffed with hops is an old-fashioned way of dealing with insomnia.... hops

Hospice

A hospital that cares only for the terminally ill and dying. The emphasis is on providing quality of life, and special care is taken in providing pain relief by whichever methods are deemed best suited to the person’s needs. Hospice care in the United Kingdom has been greatly developed, in particular with the leadership of Dr (Dame) Cicely Saunders. Many hospices are funded by charitable funds and their activities supported by voluntary workers.... hospice

Host

A person or other living animal that affords subsistence or lodgement to an infectious agent under natural conditions; in an epidemiologic context, the host may be the population or group, or biological, social and behavioural characteristics of the group.... host

Hydrocele

A circumscribed collection of fluid in the tunica vaginalis testis... hydrocele

Hydrochloric Acid

A colourless, pungent, fuming liquid. Secreted by the parietal cells in the lining of the stomach, it aids in the digestion of the food.... hydrochloric acid

Hydrocephalus

An abnormal accumulation of CEREBROSPINAL FLUID, or CSF, within the skull, as a result of one or more of three main causes: (i) excessive CSF production; (ii) defective CSF absorption;

(iii) blockage of the circulation of CSF. Such disturbances in the circulation of the ?uid may be due to congenital reasons (most commonly associated with SPINA BIFIDA), to MENINGITIS, or to a tumour.

Symptoms In children, the chief symptoms observed are the gradual increase in size of the upper part of the head, out of all proportion to the face or the rest of the body. The head is globular, with a wide anterior FONTANELLE and separation of the bones at the sutures. The veins in the scalp are prominent, and there is a ‘crackpot’ note on percussion. The normal infant’s head should not grow more than 2·5 cm (1 inch) in each of the ?rst two months of life, and much more slowly subsequently; growth beyond this rate should arouse suspicions of hydrocephalus, so medical professionals caring for infants use centile charts for this purpose.

The cerebral ventricles are widely distended, and the convolutions of the brain ?attened, while occasionally the ?uid escapes into the cavity of the cranium, which it ?lls, pressing down the brain to the base of the skull. As a consequence of such changes, the functions of the brain are interfered with, and in general the mental condition of the patient is impaired. Untreated, the child is dull and listless, irritable and sometimes suffers from severe mental subnormality. The special senses become affected as the disease advances, especially vision, and sight is often lost, as is also hearing. Towards the end, paralysis is apt to occur.

Treatment Numerous ingenious operations have been devised for the treatment of hydrocephalus. The most satisfactory of these utilise unidirectional valves and shunts (tubes), whereby the cerebrospinal ?uid is bypassed from the brain into the right atrium of the heart or the peritoneal cavity. The shunt may have to be left in position inde?nitely.... hydrocephalus

Hydronephrosis

See KIDNEYS, DISEASES OF.... hydronephrosis

Hydrotherapy

Treatment using water in the form of baths, douches, etc.... hydrotherapy

Hypercalcaemia

A state in which the PLASMA calcium concentration is signi?cantly raised. The most important causes are HYPERPARATHYROIDISM, malignant bone disease and other (non-metastatic) cancers, and chronic renal failure. Less common causes include SARCOIDOSIS, MYELOMATOSIS, vitamin D overdosage (see APPENDIX 5: VITAMINS), hyperthyroidism (see THYROID GLAND, DISEASES OF), and immobilisation.

Signs and symptoms A general malaise and depression are common, with generalised muscular weakness, anorexia and vomiting. Disturbed renal function causes increased urine output and thirst, with calcium deposits eventually leading to renal stones. Primary bone disease may cause pain and weakness, with an increased incidence of fractures, and there may be gritty deposits of calcium in the eyes. Severe hypercalcaemia produces ANURIA, with confusion and COMA leading to death.

Treatment The patient should be rehydrated and a diuretic (see DIURETICS) given. Attention should then be focused on the underlying cause – usually a parathyroid adenoma or bone tumour – and surgical removal should produce complete clinical cure, provided that advanced renal disease is not already present.... hypercalcaemia

Hyperparathyroidism

Increased activity of the PARATHYROID gland. Parathyroid hormone increases SERUM calcium. Hyperparathyroidism may be primary (due to an ADENOMA or HYPERPLASIA of the gland), secondary (in response to HYPOCALCAEMIA) or tertiary (when secondary hyperparathyroidism causes the development of an autonomous adenoma).... hyperparathyroidism

Hypersensitivity

Extreme sensitivity to any protein, over and above its normal effect. It usually occurs in certain sensitive people after more than one exposure to the offending protein.... hypersensitivity

Hyperthermia

A very high body temperature... hyperthermia

Hypocalcaemia

A SERUM concentration of calcium below the normal range (between 2.33 and 3.05 mmol of calcium per 100 ml of serum). This may cause TETANY, acutely; chronically it may give rise to RICKETS, OSTEOMALACIA or osteoporosis (see BONE, DISORDERS OF). It may be caused by hypoparathyroidism (see THYROID GLAND, DISEASES OF), vitamin D de?ciency (see APPENDIX 5: VITAMINS), malabsorption, renal failure or acute pancreatitis (see PANCREAS, DISORDERS OF).... hypocalcaemia

Hypochondriasis

Obsession with the body’s functions and a DELUSION of ill health, often severe, such that patients may believe they have a brain tumour or incurable insanity. Furthermore, patients may believe that they have infected others, or that their children have inherited the condition. It is a characteristic feature of DEPRESSION, but may also occur in SCHIZOPHRENIA, when the delusions may be secondary to bodily HALLUCINATIONS, and a sense of subjective change. Chronic hypochondriasis may be the result of an abnormal personality development: for example, the insecure, bodily-conscious person. Delusional preoccupations with the body – usually the face – may occur, such that the patient is convinced that his or her face is twisted, or dis?gured with acne.

Treatment Hypochondriacal patients may also develop physical illness, and any new symptoms must always be carefully evaluated. In most patients the condition is secondary, and treatment should be directed to the underlying depression or schizophrenia. In the rare cases of primary hypochondriasis, supportive measures are the mainstay of treatment.... hypochondriasis

Hypokalaemia

An abnormally low concentration of potassium in the blood.... hypokalaemia

Hypoparathyroidism

Underactivity of the parathyroid glands (see under ENDOCRINE GLANDS). Thus there is a lack of parathyroid hormone resulting in HYPOCALCAEMIA. It may be caused by inadvertent removal of the glands when the thyroid gland is surgically removed, or by failure of the glands because of autoimmune disease.... hypoparathyroidism

Hypopituitarism

Underactivity of the PITUITARY GLAND. It can cause dwar?sm, delayed puberty, impotence, infertility, AMENORRHOEA, hypothyroidism (see THYROID GLAND, DISEASES OF), and hypoadrenalism. Causes include tumours, irradiation of the gland, SARCOIDOSIS, and necrosis associated with post-partum haemorrhage (Sheehan’s syndrome).... hypopituitarism

Hypothalamus

A part of the diencephalon of the brain, it is a major actor in the limbic system. This is a functional, not anatomic, system in the brain that influences and is influenced by emotions. Call the limbic system an ad hoc committee that decides how things are going today, based on past, present, potential, and myriad informational inputs from the somatic body. The hypothalamus gathers the data and sets the levels of the pituitary thermostat. The pituitary does what the hypothalamus tells it to do, and our whole chemical nervous system responds to the pituitary, which responds to the hypothalamus, which, along with the rest of the limbic system, decides the kind of day we need to get ready for. And to think that some doctors used to (and still) scoff at a “psychosomatic disorder.”... hypothalamus

Hyssop

Hyssopus officinalis. N.O. Labiateae,

Habitat: Cultivated in gardens.

Features ? Stem woody, to a height of about two feet. Leaves opposite, small, nearly sessile, lanceolate, hairy at margins. Flowers bluish-purple, in small axillary clusters on one side. Camphor-like odour.

Part used ? Herb.

Action: Stimulant, pectoral, carminative, diaphoretic, febrifuge.

In cough and cold prescriptions, particularly for whooping cough, and in other troubles of infancy. The 1 ounce to 1 pint infusion is given in wineglass doses, or according to age.... hyssop

Hysterectomy

Surgical removal of the UTERUS. Hysterooophorectomy is the term applied to removal of the uterus and OVARIES. (See also UTERUS, DISEASES OF.)... hysterectomy

Witch Hazel

Hamamelis virginiana. N.O. Hamamelidaceae.

Synonym: Spotted Alder and Snapping Hazel.

Habitat: This shrub, like the Alders and the Hazel, grows in bunches as high as eight or ten feet, and is found on high lands and the stony banks of streams.

Features ? The branches are flexuous and knotty, the bark smooth and grey with brown spots. The leaves are four to five inches long and about two inches broad, obovate; feather-veined, irregularly notched at the edges, smooth above and downy underneath. Yellow flowers appear in autumn, when the leaves are falling. Taste is astringent, and smell slight and agreeable.

Part used ? Bark and leaves.

Action: Astringent and tonic.

A decoction of the bark, which is more astringent than the leaves, checks external and internal hemorrhages, and this astringency, when in combination with the more specific principles of Pilewort, makes one of the most effective pile medicines known. The compound can be obtained in the form of both ointment and suppositories for external application. For varicose veins an extract of the fresh leaves and young twigs of Witch Hazel is applied on a lint bandage kept constantly moist.

Both decoctions of the bark and infusions of the leaves are made in the proportion of 1 ounce to 1 pint boiling water (after simmering for ten minutes in the case of the bark decoction) and taken in wineglassful doses.... witch hazel

Claw-hand

A (contraction) deformity of the hand and ?ngers, especially of the ring and little ?ngers. The condition is generally due to paralysis of the ULNAR NERVE. A somewhat similar condition is produced by contraction of the ?brous tissues in the palm of the hand, partly due to rheumatic changes and partly to injury caused by the constant pressure of a tool against the palm of the hand. (See DUPUYTREN’S CONTRACTURE.)... claw-hand

Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

See ADRENOGENITAL SYNDROME and GENETIC DISORDERS.... congenital adrenal hyperplasia

Community Health

The combination of sciences, skills and beliefs directed towards the maintenance and improvement of the health of all the people through collective or social actions. The programmes, services and institutions involved emphasize the prevention of disease and the health needs of the population as a whole. Community health activities change with changing technology and social values, but the goals remain the same.... community health

Follicle-stimulating Hormone

A hormone produced by the anterior PITUITARY GLAND which stimulates the formation of follicles in the ovary each menstrual cycle (see OVARIES; MENSTRUATION) and of spermatocytes in the testis (see TESTICLE). It is under hypothalamic control (see HYPOTHALAMUS) and in the female there is feedback inhibition by oestrogens from the developing follicle.... follicle-stimulating hormone

Genital Herpes

See HERPES GENITALIS.... genital herpes

Growth Hormone

A product of the anterior part of the PITUITARY GLAND that promotes normal growth and development in the body by changing the chemical activity in the cells. The hormone activates protein production in the muscle cells as well as the release of energy from the metabolism of fats. Its release is controlled by the contrasting actions of growth-hormone releasing factor and somatostatin. If the body produces too much growth hormone before puberty GIGANTISM results; in adulthood the result is ACROMEGALY. Lack of growth hormone in children retards growth.

For many years growth hormone was extracted from human corpses and very rarely this caused CREUTZFELDT-JAKOB DISEASE (CJD) in the recipients. The hormone is now genetically engineered, so safe.... growth hormone

Haemangioma

These can be acquired or congenital. The acquired type presents as a red PAPULE which bleeds easily; treatment is normally by cautery. A ‘strawberry NAEVUS’ is a ‘capillarycavernous’ haemangioma appearing at or soon after birth, which may grow to a large size. Treatment is not usually required, as most of them fade – although this may take a few years. Where a haemangioma is dis?guring or interfering with vision or breathing, treatment is necessary: this may be by laser, by using CORTICOSTEROIDS or INTERFERON treatment, or by surgery.... haemangioma

Haemarthrosis

Haemarthrosis is the process of bleeding into, or the presence of blood in, a joint. It may occur as a result of major trauma (for example, fracture of the patella may lead to bleeding into the knee-joint), or, more commonly, following minor trauma. It may even occur spontaneously, in cases of HAEMOPHILIA or other disorders of blood clotting. If repeated several times, haemarthrosis may lead to FIBROSIS of the joint-lining and in?ammation of the cartilage, causing marked sti?ness and deformity.... haemarthrosis

Haematology

The study of diseases of the blood.... haematology

Haemochromatosis

A disease in which cirrhosis of the liver (see LIVER, DISEASES OF), enlargement of the SPLEEN, pigmentation of the skin, and DIABETES MELLITUS are associated with the abnormal and excessive deposit in the organs of the body of the iron-containing pigment, haemosiderin. It is caused by an increase in the amount of iron absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract.... haemochromatosis

Haemodialysis

A method of removing waste products or poisons from the circulating blood using the principle of DIALYSIS. The procedure is used on patients with malfunctioning or non-functioning KIDNEYS. It is done using an arti?cial kidney or dialyser which restores blood to its normal state. The process has to be repeated, sometimes for many months, until a donor kidney is available for transplantation to replace the patient’s failing one.... haemodialysis

Haemoglobinuria

The presence of blood pigment in the URINE caused by the destruction of blood corpuscles in the blood vessels or in the urinary passages. It turns urine a dark red or brown colour. In some people this condition, known as intermittent haemoglobinuria, occurs from time to time, especially on exposure to cold. It is also produced by various poisonous substances taken in the food. It occurs in malarious districts in the form of one of the most fatal forms of MALARIA: BLACKWATER FEVER. (See also MARCH HAEMOGLOBINURIA.)... haemoglobinuria

Haemolysis

The destruction of red blood corpuscles by the action of poisonous substances, usually of a protein nature, circulating in the blood, or by certain chemicals. It occurs, for example, gradually in some forms of ANAEMIA and rapidly in poisoning by snake venom.... haemolysis

Haemolytic Disease Of The Newborn

A potentially serious disease of the newborn, characterised by haemolytic ANAEMIA (excessive destruction of red blood cells) and JAUNDICE. If severe, it may be obvious before birth because the baby becomes very oedematous (see OEDEMA) and develops heart failure – so-called hydrops fetalis. It may ?rst present on the ?rst day of life as jaundice and anaemia. The disease is due to blood-group incompatibility between the mother and baby, the commoneset being rhesus incompatibility (see BLOOD GROUPS). In this condition a rhesus-negative mother has been previously sensitised to produce rhesus antibodies, either by the delivery of a rhesus-positive baby, a miscarriage or a mismatched blood transfusion. These antibodies cross over into the fetal circulation and attack red blood cells which cause HAEMOLYSIS.

Treatment In severely affected fetuses, a fetal blood transfusion may be required and/or the baby may be delivered early for further treatment. Mild cases may need observation only, or the reduction of jaundice by phototherapy alone (treatment with light, involving the use of sunlight, non-visible ULTRAVIOLET light, visible blue light, or LASER).

Whatever the case, the infant’s serum BILIRUBIN – the bilirubin present in the blood – and its HAEMOGLOBIN concentration are plotted regularly so that treatment can be given before levels likely to cause brain damage occur. Safe bilirubin concentrations depend on the maturity and age of the baby, so reference charts are used.

High bilirubin concentrations may be treated with phototherapy; extra ?uid is given to prevent dehydration and to improve bilirubin excretion by shortening the gut transit time. Severe jaundice and anaemia may require exchange TRANSFUSION by removing the baby’s blood (usually 10 millilitres at a time) and replacing it with rhesus-negative fresh bank blood. Haemolytic disease of the newborn secondary to rhesus incompatibility has become less common since the introduction of anti-D (Rho) immunoglobulin. This antibody should be given to all rhesus-negative women at any risk of a fetomaternal transfusion, to prevent them from mounting an antibody response. Anti-D is given routinely to rhesus-negative mothers after the birth of a rhesus-positive baby, but doctors should also give it after threatened abortions, antepartum haemorrhages, miscarriages, and terminations of pregnancy.

Occasionally haemolytic disease is caused by ABO incompatibility or that of rarer blood groups.... haemolytic disease of the newborn

Haemosiderosis

An increase in the amount of iron stored in the body. Rarely, it may be due to ingestion of too much iron, but a more likely cause is repeated blood transfusions. The extra iron may affect the function of the heart and liver.... haemosiderosis

Haemostasis

The process by which bleeding stops. It involves constriction of blood vessels, the formation of a platelet plug, and blood clotting. The term is also used for surgical interventions to stop bleeding – for example, the use of diathermy. (See COAGULATION; HAEMORRHAGE.)... haemostasis

Haemostatic

Having the power to arrest bleeding... haemostatic

Haemothorax

An e?usion of blood into the PLEURAL CAVITY.... haemothorax

Hair

See SKIN; WHITE HAIR.... hair

Hallux

The anatomical name of the great toe.... hallux

Hallux Valgus

Outward displacement of the great toe – always associated with a bunion (see CORNS AND BUNIONS). It is due to the pressure of footwear on an unduly broad foot. In adolescents, this broad foot is inherited; in adults it is due to splaying of the foot as a result of loss of muscle tone. The bunion is produced by pressure of the footwear on the protruding base of the toe. In mild cases the wearing of comfortable shoes may be all that is needed. In more severe cases the bunion may need to be removed, while in the most severe the operation of ARTHROPLASTY may be needed.... hallux valgus

Haloperidol

One of the butyrophenone group of drugs used to treat patients with psychoses (see PSYCHOSIS). Its action is similar to that of the PHENOTHIAZINES. It is also used in depot form, being administered by deep intramuscular injection for maintenance control of SCHIZOPHRENIA and other psychoses. The drug may help to control tics and intractable hiccups.... haloperidol

Hamartoma

These are benign tumours, usually in the lung, containing normal components of pulmonary tissue such as smooth muscle and connective tissue.... hamartoma

Hammer-toe

The deformity in which there is permanent ?exion, or bending, of the middle joint of the toe. The condition may affect all the toes, as in CLAW-FOOT; more commonly it affects one toe, usually the second. It is due to a relatively long toe and the pressure on it of the footwear. A painful bunion usually develops on it (see CORNS AND BUNIONS). In mild cases, relief is obtained by protecting the toe with adhesive pads. If this does not su?ce then an operation is necessary.... hammer-toe

Hand, Foot And Mouth Disease

A contagious disease due to infection with coxsackie A16 virus (see COXSACKIE VIRUSES). Most common in children, the incubation period is 3–5 days. It is characterised by an eruption of blisters on the palms and the feet (often the toes), and in the mouth. The disease

has no connection with foot and mouth disease in cattle, deer, pigs and sheep.... hand, foot and mouth disease

Hawthorn

Fertility, Chastity, Fishing Magic, Happiness ... hawthorn

Head Injury

Any injury to the head, whether associated with a skull fracture (see BONE, DISORDERS OF – Bone fractures) or not. Patients with head injuries should be assessed for signs of neurological damage, which may not develop at once. Patients who after a head injury are or have been UNCONSCIOUS or who are drowsy, vomiting, confused or have any focal neurological signs – for example, blurred vision or a motor or sensory malfunction – should be seen by a doctor. Particular care should be taken with individuals who have consumed alcohol and sustained a head injury in a ?ght, fall or vehicle accident. Symptoms indicative of a severe head injury may be attributed (wrongly) to the effects of alcohol, and crucial time thus lost in treating the injury.

In hospital the possible need for urgent action is monitored by use of the GLASGOW COMA SCALE.

People suffering the results of such injuries and their relatives can obtain help and advice from Headway – the brain injury association.... head injury

Heaf Test

A skin test to ?nd out if a person is immune to TUBERCULOSIS. TUBERCULIN (a preparation derived from the TUBERCLE bacillus) is injected via punctures in the skin of the forearm, using a spring-loaded gunlike instrument with six very short needles set in circular form. A positive test is indicated by a red raised reaction of the skin: this means that the subject is immune. If the result is negative, the subject can be given BCG VACCINE.... heaf test

Healing

See WOUNDS.... healing

Headache

A very common condition which may vary considerably in severity, type, signi?cance and cause. At one extreme, headache may indicate the presence of a tumour or MENINGITIS, while at the other it may merely indicate a common cold or tiredness. Even so, persistent or recurrent headaches should always be taken seriously. Although the brain itself is insensitive to pain, the surrounding membranes – meninges – are very sensitive, and changes in intracranial arteries, or spasm of the neck or scalp muscles, which may occur for various reasons, may cause considerable pain. In most cases a clinical diagnosis should be possible; further investigations should only be necessary following head injury, if headaches recur, or if neurological signs such as drowsiness, vomiting, confusion, seizures or focal signs develop.

Stress and anxiety are probably the most common causes of headache and, where possible, the reasons – overwork, family problems, unemployment, ?nancial diffculties, etc. – should be tackled. An unpleasant environment such as tra?c pollution or badly ventilated or overcrowded working conditions may provoke headaches in some people, as may excessive smoking or ca?eine intake. MIGRAINE is a characteristic and often disabling type of headache; high blood pressure may cause the condition (see HYPERTENSION); and, occasionally, refractive errors of the eyes (see EYE, DISORDERS OF) are associated with headaches. SINUS infections are often characterised by frontal headaches. Rheumatism in the muscles of the neck and scalp produce headaches; fever is commonly accompanied by a headache; and sunstroke and HEAT STROKE customarily result in headaches. Finally, diseases in the brain such as meningitis, tumours and HAEMORRHAGE may ?rst manifest themselves as persistent or recurrent headaches.

Treatment Obtaining a reliable diagnosis – with the help of further investigations, including CT (see COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY) or MRI scanning when indicated – should always be the initial aim; treatment in most cases should then be aimed at the underlying condition. Particular concerns include headache that worsens at night or in the early morning; ever-increasing headaches; those associated with abnormal neurological signs on examination; or those associated with ?ts (see FIT).

Whether the cause is physical or stress-induced, used sensibly and for a limited period a low dose of aspirin or paracetamol may be helpful. In many cases of stress-induced headache, however, the most e?ective treatment is relaxation. There are many speci?c treatments for migraine and hypertension. Sinusitis is treated with antibiotics and sometimes by surgery.... headache

Health Education

Constructed communication of knowledge to improve health literacy and improve skills in order to advance individual and community health.... health education

Health Promotion

Any combination of health education and related organizational, political and economic interventions designed to facilitate behavioural and environmental adaptations that will improve or protect health.... health promotion

Heel

The heel is the hind part of the foot, formed by the CALCANEUS and the especially thick skin covering it. It is not subject to many diseases. Severe pain in the heel is sometimes a sign of gout or rheumatism.... heel

Heliotherapy

Sunbathing; the exposure of the body to sunlight to promote healing.... heliotherapy

Hemianopia

A term meaning loss of half the usual area of vision. The affected person may see everything clearly to the left or to the right, the ?eld of vision stopping abruptly at the middle line; they may see things only when straight ahead of them; or, thirdly, they may see objects far out on both sides, although there is a wide area straight in front for which they are quite blind. The position of the blind area is important in localising the position in the brain of the disease responsible for the condition.... hemianopia

Hemiballismus

Involuntary movements similar to choreiform (see CHOREA) movements, but of much greater amplitude and force. The violent, throwing movements of the limbs are usually unilateral, and tend to occur acutely as a result of vascular damage to the mid-brain.... hemiballismus

Hemicolectomy

An operation to remove the right or left half of the COLON, usually with end-to-end ANASTOMOSIS of the remaining portion of the intestine. This is often used for the treatment of malignant or in?ammatory diseases of the colon.... hemicolectomy

Hemicrania

Headache confined to one side... hemicrania

Hemiparesis

Paralysis affecting the muscles of one side of the body. This most commonly follows a STROKE and occurs when parts of the brain serving motor function on the opposite side of the body are damaged.... hemiparesis

Hemlock

Destroy Sexual Drive ***TOXIC***... hemlock

Hemp

See CANNABIS.... hemp

Heparin

Heparin is one of the naturally produced ANTICOAGULANTS with a rapid e?ect, which is thought to act by neutralising thrombin (see COAGULATION). Inactive when taken orally, it is normally given intravenously – it may be given for a few days, combined with an oral anticoagulant such as warfarin, to initiate anticoagulation. Low-dose heparin may be given by subcutaneous injection for longer periods, for the prophylaxis of DEEP VEIN THROMBOSIS (DVT) or PULMONARY EMBOLISM in ‘high-risk’ patients, such as those with obesity or a history of thrombosis, or post-operatively. If haemorrhage occurs, withdrawal of heparin is usually su?cient, but protamine sulphate is a rapidly active and speci?c antidote. Prolonged treatment with heparin may cause osteoporosis (see under BONE, DISORDERS OF).... heparin

Hepatoma

A primary malignant tumour of LIVER cells. It has marked geographical variation, being most common in parts of Africa and the Far East. It is more common in men and with those who have pre-existing CIRRHOSIS.... hepatoma

Heredity

The principle on which various peculiarities of bodily form or structure, or of physical or mental activity, are transmitted from parents to o?spring. (See also GENES.)... heredity

Heroin

Also known as diacetyl morphine or diamorphine, this Class A controlled drug is an opiate

– a group which includes morphine, codeine, pethidine and methadone. It is a powerful analgesic and cough suppressant, but its capacity to produce euphoria rapidly induces DEPENDENCE. Popular with addicts, its mostly pleasant effects soon produce TOLERANCE; the need to inject the drug, with associated risks of HIV infection, has affected its use by addicts. Withdrawal symptoms include restlessness, insomnia, muscle cramps, vomiting and diarrhoea; signs include dilated pupils, raised pulse rate, and disturbed temperature control. Although rarely life-threatening, the effects of withdrawal may cause great distress, and for this reason methadone, which has a slower and less severe withdrawal syndrome, is commonly used when weaning addicts o? heroin. Legally still available to doctors in the UK, heroin is normally only used in patients with severe pain, or to comfort the dying.... heroin

Herpangina

Herpangina is a short febrile illness in which minute vesicles or punched-out ulcers develop in the posterior parts of the mouth. It is due to infection with the group A COXSACKIE VIRUSES.... herpangina

Herpes Simplex

An acute infectious disease, characterised by the development of groups of super?cial vesicles, or blebs, in the skin and mucous membrane. It is due to either simplex type 1 or 2 virus, and infection can occur at any time from birth onwards; however the usual time for primary infection with type 1 is between the second and 15th year. Once an individual is infected, the virus persists in the body for the rest of their life. It is one of the causes of scrum-pox. Type 2 causes HERPES GENITALIS.

Symptoms Symptoms vary with the age of infection. In young infants, herpes simplex may cause a generalised infection which is sometimes fatal. In young children the infection is usually in the mouth, and this may be associated with enlargement of the glands in the neck, general irritability and fever. The condition usually settles in 7–10 days. In adults the vesicles may occur anywhere in the skin or mucous membranes: the more common sites are the lips, mouth and face, where they are known as cold sores. The vesicles may also appear on the genitalia (herpes genitalis) or in the conjunctiva or cornea of the EYE, and the brain may be infected, causing ENCEPHALITIS or MENINGITIS. The ?rst sign is the appearance of small painful swellings; these quickly develop into vesicles which contain clear ?uid and are surrounded by a reddened area of skin. Some people are particularly liable to recurrent attacks, and these often tend to be associated with some debilitating condition or infection, such as pneumonia.

Except in the case of herpes of the cornea, the eruption clears completely unless it becomes contaminated with some other organism. In the case of the cornea, there may be residual scarring, which may impair vision.

Treatment Aciclovir is e?ective both topically as cream or eye drops or orally. In severe systemic infections it can be given intravenously.... herpes simplex

Hiccup

An involuntary spasmodic contraction of the DIAPHRAGM which produces an indrawing of breath during which there is a sudden closure of the vocal cords. This results in the well-known sound and sensation. It is usually of benign cause (e.g. indigestion) but may be a symptom of medullary brain damage, URAEMIA, typhoid fever (see ENTERIC FEVER) or ENCEPHALITIS lethargica. There are many folk remedies for hiccups, but most cases subside spontaneously. Prolonged hiccups due to disease may respond to treatment with CHLORPROMAZINE or HALOPERIDOL.... hiccup

Hippocratic Oath

An oath once (but no longer) taken by doctors on quali?cation, setting out the moral precepts of their profession and binding them to a code of behaviour and practice aimed at protecting the interests of their patients. The oath is named after HIPPOCRATES (460–377 BC), the Greek ‘father of medicine’. Almost half of British medical students and 98 per cent of American ones make a ceremonial commitment to assume the responsibilities and obligations of the medical profession, but not by reciting this oath.... hippocratic oath

Histology

The study of the minute structure of the tissues using special staining processes which are combined with electron and light microscopy. The specialty is sta?ed by medically quali?ed pathologists (histologists) and scienti?cally quali?ed technicians.... histology

Homeostasis

The normal physiological process which ensures that the body’s internal systems, such as its metabolism, blood pressure and body temperature, maintain an equilibrium whatever the conditions of the outside environment. For example, the body temperature remains at around 37 °C (98.4 °F) in a cold or a hot climate.... homeostasis

Homocystinuria

Homocystinuria is a congenital disease due to the inability of the affected individual to metabolise, or to utilise properly, one of the essential AMINO ACIDS known as methionine. The main features of the condition are abnormality of the lens of the EYE, learning disability, and a tendency to thromboses (blood clots).... homocystinuria

Horseshoe Kidney

See KIDNEYS, DISEASES OF.... horseshoe kidney

Horseradish

Cochlearia armoracia. N.O. Cruciferae.

Habitat: Indigenous to England and Eastern Europe.

Features ? Root whitish, cylindrical, about one foot long by three-quarters of an inch through. Taste and odour pungent, irritant, mustard-like.

Part used ? Root.

Action: Stimulant, diaphoretic, diuretic, emetic.

Used as a digestive. Its stimulant and diuretic properties are said to be of value in the treatment of dropsy, but it is rarely prescribed by modern herbalists.

Coffin recommends:

"Fresh Horseradish root, sliced 1 oz.

Mustard seeds, bruised 1/2 oz. Boiling water 1 pint

"Let it stand in a covered vessel for four hours, then strain. Dose, three tablespoonfuls three times a day. Diuretic and stimulant. Useful in dropsies, especially those occurring after scarlet fevers and

intermittents."... horseradish

Horsetail

See Cola de caballo.... horsetail

Hospital

An institution the primary function of which is to provide inpatient diagnostic and therapeutic services for a variety of medical conditions, both surgical and nonsurgical. Most hospitals provide some outpatient services, particularly emergency care.... hospital

Human Chorionic Gonadotrophin

A glycoprotein hormone secreted by the PLACENTA in early pregnancy, and stimulating the CORPUS LUTEUM within the ovary (see OVARIES) to secrete OESTROGENS, PROGESTERONE, and relaxin. The hormone is essential for the maintenance of pregnancy up to about 6–8 weeks of gestation. A RADIOIMMUNOASSAY can be used to detect its presence, and pregnancy can be diagnosed as early as six days after conception by testing for it in the urine. Some tumours also secrete human chorionic gonadotrophin, particularly HYDATIDIFORM MOLE, which produces large amounts.... human chorionic gonadotrophin

Humerus

The bone of the upper arm. It has a rounded head, which helps to form the shoulder-joint, and at its lower end presents a wide pulley-like surface for union with the radius and ulna. Its epicondyles form the prominences at the sides of the elbow.... humerus

Hyacinth

(Greek) Resembling the colorful fragrant flower

Hyacintha, Hyacinthe, Hycinth, Hycynth, Hyacinthia, Hyacinthea, Hyacinthie, Hyacynth, Hyacyntha... hyacinth

Hyaluronidase

An enzyme made by traumatized cartilage (to soften and regenerate itself when injured) sperm cells (to dissolve the protective layer around an ovum), the spleen (to speed up hydrolysis), added to an IM injection (so it doesn’t get surrounded by connective tissue and never disperse) and produced by some really nasty bacteria so they can dissolve connective tissue and get deep into the body. Hyaluronic acid is the target, and it is a basic mucopolysacharide rivet, keeping large masses of polymerized compounds in the state of constant colloid jello (or more technically, a hydrogel facilitant)... hyaluronidase

Hybrid

This is produced by a cross-fertilization between two species. This happens a lot more often than botanists would like, since a species is presumed to have distinct genetic characteristics and shouldn’t do this hybridizing thing as often as it does. Most of the dozen or so species of Silk Tassel are really genetically the same, and the three hundred species of Aconite worldwide are all capable of hybridizing as well.... hybrid

Hydatid

Larval stage of Echinococcus, generally containing daughter cysts with a large number of protoscolices.... hydatid

Hydatidiform Mole

A rare complication of pregnancy, in which there is tremendous proliferation of the epithelium of the chorion (the outer of the two fetal membranes). It seldom occurs during a ?rst pregnancy. Treatment consists of immediate evacuation of the womb.... hydatidiform mole

Hydramnios

A condition characterised by excess of ?uid in the amniotic cavity (see AMNION).... hydramnios

Hydrochlorothiazide

See THIAZIDES.... hydrochlorothiazide

Hydrogen Peroxide

A thick colourless liquid with the formula H2O2 (water is H2O, possessing only one oxygen atom in its molecule). Available in solution with water and as a cream, it is readily reduced to water – giving up oxygen in the process, which causes the characteristic frothing seen when used. H2O2 has antiseptic and deodorising properties; thus it is used as a mouthwash, to clean wounds and ulcers, and occasionally to disinfect body cavities at operation. It is also a bleach.... hydrogen peroxide

Hydrocortisone

Hydrocortisone has the chemical formula, 17hydroxycorticosterone. It is closely allied to CORTISONE both in its structure (cortisone is an oxidation product of hydrocortisone) and in its action. Available in tablet, topical or injection form, hydrocortisone is used in adrenocortical insu?ciency, for the suppression of local and systemic in?ammatory and allergic disorders, and in the treatment of shock. Its mineralocorticoid effects – control of salt and water balance – mean that the drug should not be used long term except as replacement therapy in the treatment of ADDISON’S DISEASE or following adrenalectomy when hydrocortisone should be given with the mineral corticoid

?udrocortisone (see ADRENAL GLANDS; CORTICOSTEROIDS).... hydrocortisone

Hydrops Fetalis

See HAEMOLYTIC DISEASE OF THE NEWBORN.... hydrops fetalis

Hydrothorax

A collection of ?uid in the pleural cavities of the lungs.... hydrothorax

Hydroxocobalamin

Hydroxocobalamin, or vitamin B12, has now replaced CYANOCOBALAMIN in the treatment of pernicious ANAEMIA. It has the practical advantage that fewer injections are required than in the case of cyanocobalamin. Like cyanocobalamin, it belongs to the group of substances known as cobalamins which have an ENZYME action in practically every metabolic system in the body and are essential for normal growth and nutrition. (See APPENDIX 5: VITAMINS.)... hydroxocobalamin

Hygiene

The science of health and the study of ways of its preservation, particularly by widespread education and promotion of cleanliness. Especially valuable in developing countries, where it plays a vital role in helping to limit the spread of infectious diseases.... hygiene

Hymen

The thin membranous fold partially closing the lower end of the virginal VAGINA. If the opening is small, the hymen will tear at the time of ?rst intercourse, usually with a little bleeding.... hymen

Hyoscine

Also called scopalamine, this is an alkaloid (see ALKALOIDS) obtained from the plant henbane (hyoscyamus). It is an ANTICHOLINERGIC drug sometimes used as a premedicant in patients undergoing ANAESTHESIA for its sedative and antiemetic effects and for its ability to reduce saliva production. It may cause confusion in the elderly.... hyoscine

Hyper

Pre?x denoting abnormally increased or excessive.... hyper

Hyperactivity

A pattern of behaviour, usually in children, characterised by inability to concentrate, accompanied by overactivity. (See also ATTENTION DEFICIT DISORDER (HYPERACTIVITY SYNDROME).)... hyperactivity

Hyperacusis

Hyperacusis means an abnormally acute sense of hearing.... hyperacusis

Hypercapnia

An abnormal increase in the amount of carbon dioxide in the blood or in the lungs (see BLOOD GASES). It may be caused by a reduced respiratory rate or e?ort, diseases of the chest wall and lung (affecting breathing), and cyanotic heart disease.... hypercapnia

Hypercholesterolaemia

See CHOLESTEROL; HYPERLIPIDAEMIA.... hypercholesterolaemia

Hyperemesis

Excessive vomiting... hyperemesis

Hyperglycaemia

An excess of sugar in the blood that may occur in various diseases, typically in DIABETES MELLITUS. The normal blood glucose level in the fasting state is between 3.5 and 5.5 mmol/1 blood (see APPENDIX 6: MEASUREMENTS IN MEDICINE); four or ?ve times that amount is found in diabetes, owing to insu?cient insulin in the blood, possibly accompanied by an excessive carbohydrate intake. Untreated, it may lead to diabetic coma.... hyperglycaemia

Hyperkalaemia

A concentration of POTASSIUM in the PLASMA that is above the normal range. It is often caused by renal failure or by excessive intake of potassium – perhaps in a drug – and may cause cardiac dysrhythmia (abnormal rhythm of the heart).... hyperkalaemia

Hyperkeratosis

Thickening of the horny (outer) layer of skin, affecting the palms of the hands and soles of the feet. The disorder may be inherited.... hyperkeratosis

Hypermetropia

Hypermetropia, or hyperopia, is a term applied to long-sightedness, in which the eye is too ?at from front to back and rays of light are brought to a focus behind the retina. (See EYE; VISION.)... hypermetropia

Hypernephroma

Now named renal cell carcinoma, this is a malignant tumour resembling the tissue of the suprarenal gland and occurring in the KIDNEYS. Fever, loin pain, HAEMATURIA and swelling are among the presenting symptoms, but the tumour may be symptomless for many years. Surgical removal is the initial treatment; hypernephromas are fairly insensitive to CYTOTOXIC drugs and RADIOTHERAPY – although hormone treatment may help – and are prone to spread via the bloodstream, for example, to the lungs.... hypernephroma

Hyperlipidaemia

An excess of fat in the blood, characterising a group of metabolic disorders. The two most important fats circulating in the blood are CHOLESTEROL and TRIGLYCERIDE. Raised blood levels of cholesterol predispose to ATHEROMA and coronary artery disease (see HEART, DISEASES OF); raised triglycerides predispose to pancreatitis (see PANCREAS, DISORDERS OF). Six types of hyperlipidaemia have been identi?ed, and diagnosis of the di?erent types depends upon blood tests to discover lipid levels. Some of the hyperlipidaemias are familial, and some are secondary to other diseases such as hypothyroidism (see THYROID GLAND, DISEASES OF), DIABETES MELLITUS, nephrotic syndrome and alcoholism.

Treatment There is evidence that therapy which lowers the lipid concentration reduces the progression of premature atheroma, particularly in those who suffer from the familial disorder. Treatment should include appropriate diets, usually food that is low in cholesterol and saturated fats. There are a number of drugs available for lowering the lipid content of the plasma, but these should be reserved for patients in whom severe hyperlipidaemia is inadequately controlled by weight reduction. Anion-exchange resins – clo?brate, beza?brate and gem?brozil, for example – and statins such as atorvastatin and simvastatin, as well as nicotinic acid, all lower plasma cholesterol and plasma triglyceride concentration through their e?ect on reducing the hepatic production of lipoproteins. Cholestyramine and colestipol, both of which are anion-exchange resins, bind bile salts in the gut and so decrease the absorption of the cholesterol that these bile salts contain – hence lowering plasma cholesterol concentrations. Probucol lowers plasma cholesterol concentrations by increasing the metabolism of low-density lipoproteins.

The statins (atorvastatin, cerivastatin, ?uvastatin, pravastatin and simvastatin) inhibit an enzyme involved in synthesising cholesterol, especially in the liver. They are more e?ective than anion-exchange resins in lowering LDL (low-density lipoprotein) cholesterol – a form of low-density cholesterol carried in the bloodstream, high levels of which are believed to be the main cause of atheroma. Statins are, however, less e?ective than the clo?brate group in reducing triglycerides and raising HDL (highdensity lipoprotein) cholesterol (high-density cholesterol).... hyperlipidaemia

Hyperplasia

Hyperplasia means an abnormal increase in the number of cells in a tissue.... hyperplasia

Hyperpyrexia

High FEVER. (See also TEMPERATURE.)... hyperpyrexia

Hypertensive

Tending to rise the blood pressure... hypertensive

Hyperthyroidism

Excessive activity of the thyroid gland. (See THYROID GLAND, DISEASES OF.)... hyperthyroidism

Hyperventilation

An abnormally rapid resting respiratory rate (see RESPIRATION). If voluntarily induced, it causes lightheadedness and then unconsciousness by lowering the blood tension of carbon dioxide.

Hyperventilation is a manifestation of chest and heart diseases which raise carbon dioxide tension or cause HYPOXIA (e.g. severe CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE (COPD) or PULMONARY OEDEMA). Mechanically ventilated patients may be hyperventilated to lower carbon dioxide tension in order to reduce INTRACRANIAL PRESSURE. (See also HYPOCAPNIA.)... hyperventilation

Hypnotic

Inducing sleep or a state resembling sleep... hypnotic

Hypo

A pre?x meaning below, under, or less than normal: for example, hypotension (low blood pressure) and hypodermic (under the skin).... hypo

Hypochlorhydria

An insu?cient secretion of HYDROCHLORIC ACID from the digestive cells of the stomach lining.... hypochlorhydria

Hypochondrium

The regions of the belly below the ribcage and to the sides, as in left or right hypochondrium.... hypochondrium

Hypoglossal Nerve

The 12th cranial nerve, which supplies the muscles of the tongue, together with some others lying near it. This nerve is responsible for movements required for swallowing and talking. (See also NERVOUS SYSTEM.)... hypoglossal nerve

Hypogonadism

A condition characterised by underactivity of the testes (see TESTICLE) or OVARIES – the gonads. The condition may be caused by a genetically based disorder resulting in an abnormally functioning gonad (primary hypogonadism) or by a malfunctioning PITUITARY GLAND that fails to produce an adequate amount of gonadotrophin hormone (see GONADOTROPHINS) – secondary hypogonadism. Those affected may fail to develop adequately the secondary characteristics of their sex: males will have delayed puberty, erectile impotence and infertility and also develop GYNAECOMASTIA; females also have delayed puberty, infertility, and sometimes HIRSUTISM.... hypogonadism

Hypomania

Hypomania is a modest manifestation of mania (see under MENTAL ILLNESS). The individual is elated to an extent that he or she may make unwise decisions, and social behaviour may become animated and uninhibited. To the casual observer individuals may, however, seem normal. Treatment is advisable to prevent them from harming their own or their family’s interests. Treatment is as for mania.... hypomania

Hypophysectomy

Surgical excision of the PITUITARY GLAND. This can be done by opening the skull, by inserting very low-temperature needles (CRYOSURGERY) into the gland, or by inserting needles of radioactive YTTRIUM-90.... hypophysectomy

Hypoplasia

Excessive smallness of an organ or part, arising from imperfect development.... hypoplasia

Hypospadias

A developmental abnormality in the male, in which the URETHRA opens on the undersurface of the penis or in the PERINEUM. The condition is treatable with surgery, but several operations over a period of years may be required to ensure normal urinary and sexual functions.... hypospadias

Hypotensive

Tending to lower blood pressure... hypotensive

Hypothyroidism

Underactivity of the thyroid gland (see THYROID GLAND, DISEASES OF).... hypothyroidism

Hypovolaemia

A reduced circulating blood volume. Acutely, it is caused by unreplaced losses from bleeding, sweating, diarrhoea, vomiting or diuresis. Chronically it may be caused by inadequate ?uid intake.... hypovolaemia

Hysteroscopy

Hysteroscopy is the direct visualisation of the interior of the UTERUS using FIBREOPTIC ENDOSCOPY. The technique, which allows minor surgical procedures to be carried out at the same time, has transformed the management of uterine disorders.... hysteroscopy

Inguinal Hernia

An extrusion of the abdominal PERITONEUM, sometimes containing a loop of bowel, through natural openings in the region of either groin (see HERNIA).... inguinal hernia

Luteinizing Hormone

(LH) This is a sugar-bearing protein manufactured by the anterior pituitary. Like a lot of the pituitary hormones, it surges on and off, since constant secretion would overload and deaden receptors. In women, it builds up after menses, stimulating the release of estrogen from the ovaries. Estrogen in turn stimulates the hypothalamus to increase its stimulation of LH from the pituitary, until, a day or two before ovulation, they produce a guitar-amp feedback, and the cells that produce LH start to surge follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). The egg pops, being replaced by the corpus luteum, which produces progesterone for the next eleven to twelve days. Progesterone inhibits and lowers LH levels, as well as inhibiting levels of estrogen already being produced by the young follicles that will produce next month’s egg. In men, LH is responsible for stimulation of testosterone, although FSH and the testes hormone inhibin are responsible for both the production of sperm and controlling testosterone.... luteinizing hormone

Mental Handicap

See LEARNING DISABILITY.... mental handicap

Prickly Heat

See MILIARIA.... prickly heat

Portal Hypertension

Raised blood pressure in the PORTAL VEIN entering the LIVER. This results in increased pressure in the veins of the oesophagus and upper stomach and these grow in size to form varices – dilated tortuous veins. Sometimes these varices rupture, causing bleeding into the oesophagus. The raised pressure also causes ?uid to collect in the abdomen and form ASCITES. The commonest reason for portal hypertension is cirrhosis (?brosis) of the liver (see LIVER, DISEASES OF). THROMBOSIS in the portal vein may also be a cause. Treatment requires the cause to be tackled, but bleeding from ruptured vessels may be stopped by injecting a sclerosant or hardening solution into and around the veins. Sometimes a surgical shunt may be done to divert blood from the portal vein to another blood vessel.... portal hypertension

Public Health

The approach to health that is concerned with the health of the community as a whole. The three core public health functions are: the assessment and monitoring of the health of communities and populations at risk to identify health problems and priorities; the formulation of public policies designed to solve identified local and national health problems and priorities; and ensuring that all populations have access to appropriate and cost-effective care, including health promotion and disease prevention services, and evaluation of the effectiveness of that care. See “community health”.... public health

Pulmonary Hypertension

In this condition, increased resistance to the blood ?ow through the LUNGS occurs. This is usually the result of lung disease, and the consequence is an increase in pulmonary artery pressure and in the pressure in the right side of the heart and in the veins bringing blood to the heart. Chronic BRONCHITIS or EMPHYSEMA commonly constrict the small arteries in the lungs, thus causing pulmonary HYPERTENSION. (See also EISENMENGER SYNDROME.)... pulmonary hypertension

Sheltered Housing

Purpose-built or adapted accommodation for older people with a warden and an emergency alarm system. Different kinds of sheltered housing provide different levels of care. See “extra care sheltered housing”.... sheltered housing

Subarachnoid Haemorrhage

A haemorrhage into the subarachnoid space in the BRAIN. It is usually the result of rupture of an ANEURYSM on the CIRCLE OF WILLIS. Head injury or intense physical exercise occasionally cause subarachnoid haemorrhage; the diagnosis is con?rmed by CT scan or by identifying blood in the CEREBROSPINAL FLUID at LUMBAR PUNCTURE. Cerebral ANGIOGRAPHY will usually pinpoint the site of bleeding. Treatment is bed rest, life-support measures and procedures to reduce blood pressure; sometimes surgery is carried out but not usually until several weeks after the acute episode. About 30 per cent of patients recover fully, whilst some have residual disabilities such as EPILEPSY, mental deterioration or paralysis. About 50 per cent of those affected die.... subarachnoid haemorrhage

Globus Hystericus

Sensation of a ‘lump in the throat’ causing a choking under stress of emotion. Related to hysteria with spasm of the pharynx.

Indicated: German Chamomile, St John’s Wort, Balm, Valerian or Lobelia. In the form of tincture, tea, liquid extract or tablets. ... globus hystericus

Hansen’s Disease

Leprosy. Progressive infection by Mycobacterium leprae. Two forms: (1) tuberculoid; infection of the nerve endings and membranes of the nose, with loss of feeling and pale patches on the body. (2) Lepromatous; with inflamed thickened painful red skin exacerbated by ulceration, fever, neuritis and orchitis. Distorted lips and loss of nasal bone as infection progresses.

Symptoms: numbness, nerves may swell like iron rods. Infected nerves kill all sensation. In endemic areas, pins and needles in hands may call attention to it. A disease of nerves rather than skin. NOTIFIABLE DISEASE.

Many laymen and practitioners will never have seen a case. In the absence of modern medicine some good can be achieved by traditional remedies. Ancient Hindu and Chinese records refer to the use of Gotu Kola (internally and externally). Dr C.D. de Granpre? (1888) refers. (Martindale 27; p.441)

Oil of Chaulmoogra was used up to one hundred years ago before introduction of modern drugs. It fell into dis-use until discovered by a Director of Health in the Philippine Islands during World War I when he used it successfully in combination with camphor. In South America, where the disease is still active, Sarsaparilla has a long traditional reputation. Walnut oil is used as a dressing, in China. An anti- staphylococcal fraction has been isolated from the seeds of Psoralea corylifolia for use in leprosy. (Indian Journal of Pharmacy 26: 141, 1964)

Tea. Gotu Kola. Half a teaspoon to each cup boiling water; infuse 15 minutes. Drink freely. Stronger infusions may be used externally to cleanse ulceration.

Decoction. Combine: Sarsaparilla 1; Gotu Kola 1; Echinacea 2. Half an ounce to 1 pint water gently simmered 20 minutes. Dose: Half a cup 3 times daily.

Formula. Echinacea 2; Sarsaparilla 1; Gotu Kola 2. Dose. Powders 500mg. Liquid Extracts 3-5ml. Tinctures 5-10ml. Thrice daily.

Note: Antibody-positive cases of AIDS are vulnerable to leprosy, both diseases being caused by a similar bacterium.

To be treated by infectious diseases specialist. ... hansen’s disease

Hearing Loss

Otosclerosis: a common cause of deafness in healthy adults. Gradual progressive hearing loss with troublesome tinnitus. The stapes may be fixed and the cochlea damaged. Bones may become spongy and demineralised. While deafness is a matter for the professional specialist, herbal treatment may prove useful. Examine ear for wax.

Internal. Elderflower and Peppermint tea (catarrhal). Ginkgo tea.

Tablets/capsules. Ginkgo. Improvement reported in moderate loss.

Topical. Garlic oil. Injection of 3-4 drops at night.

Wax in the ear. Mixture: 30 drops oil Eucalyptus, 1 drop Tincture Capsicum (or 3 of Ginger), 1oz (30ml) Olive oil. Inject 4-5 drops, warm.

Black Cohosh Drops. It is claimed that John Christopher (USA) improved many cases of moderate hearing loss with topical use of 5-10 drops Liquid Extract in 1oz oil of Mullein (or Olive oil).

Pulsatilla Drops. Tincture Pulsatilla and glycerol 50/50. 2-3 drops injected at bedtime. Assists auditory nerve function. (Arthur Hyde)

Nerve deafness due to fibroma of the 8th cranial nerve, or after surgery – oral: Mistletoe tea for temporary relief. ... hearing loss

Heart Block

A disorder that occurs in the transmission of impulses between the atria (upper chambers) and ventricles (lower chambers) of the heart. A blocking of the normal route of electrical conduction through the ventricles not responding to initiation of the beat by the atria. Beats are missed with possible blackouts.

Causes: myocardial infarction, atherosclerosis, coronary thrombosis or other heart disorder.

Symptoms: slow feeble heart beats down to 36 beats per minute with fainting and collapse, breathlessness, Stoke Adams syndrome.

Treatment. Intensive care. Until the doctor comes: 1-5 drops Oil of Camphor in honey on the tongue or taken in a liquid if patient is able to drink. Freely inhale the oil. On recovery: Motherwort tea, freely. OR, Formula of tinctures: Lily of the Valley 2; Cactus 1; Motherwort 2. Mix. Dose – 30-60 drops in water thrice daily. A fitted pace-maker may be necessary.

Spartiol. 20 drops thrice daily. (Klein) ... heart block

Heat Exhaustion

Collapse of the circulation from exposure to excessive heat. Possible in the presence of diarrhoea, vomiting or excessive sweating (dehydration) or alcohol consumption.

Symptoms: heavy sweating, failure of surface circulation, low blood pressure, weakness, cramps, rapid heartbeat, face is pale, cool and moist. Collapse. Recovery after treatment is rapid.

Alternatives. Cayenne pepper, or Tincture Capsicum, to promote peripheral circulation and sustain the heart. Prickly Ash bark restores vascular tone and stimulates capillary circulation. Bayberry offers a diffusive stimulant to promote blood flow, and Cayenne to increase arterial force.

Decoction. Combine equal parts Prickly Ash and Bayberry. 1 teaspoon to each cup water gently simmered 20 minutes. Half a cup (to which 3 drops Tincture Capsicum, or few grains red pepper is added). Dose: every 2 hours.

Tablets/capsules. Prickly Ash. Bayberry. Motherwort. Cayenne.

Tinctures. Formula. Prickly Ash 2; Horseradish 1; Bayberry 1. 15-30 drops in water every 2 hours. Traditional. Horseradish juice or grated root, in honey.

Life Drops. ... heat exhaustion

Heatstroke

Sunstroke. Should not be confused with heat exhaustion.

Symptoms: skin hot, dry and flushed. High temperature and high humidity dispose. Sweating mechanism disorganised. Delirium, headache, shock, dizziness, possible coma, nausea, profuse sweating followed by absence of sweat causing skin to become hot and dry; rapid rise in body temperature, muscle twitching, tachycardia, dehydration.

Treatment. Hospital emergency. Reduce temperature by immersion of victim in bath of cold water. Wrap in a cold wet sheet. Lobelia, to equalise the circulation. Feverfew to regulate sweating mechanism. Yarrow to reduce temperature. Give singly or in combination as available.

Alternatives. Tea. Lobelia 1; Feverfew 2; Yarrow 2. Mix. 2 teaspoons to each cup boiling water; infuse 15 minutes. Half-1 cup freely. Vomiting to be regarded as favourable.

Tinctures. Combine: Lobelia 1; Pleurisy root 2; Valerian 1. Dose: 1-2 teaspoons in water every 2 hours. Decoction. Irish Moss; drink freely.

Practitioner. Tincture Gelsemium BPC (1973). Dose: 0.3ml (5 drops).

Alternate hot and cold compress to back of neck and forehead. Hot Chamomile footbath.

Diet. Irish Moss products. High salt. Abundant drinks of spring water.

Supplements. Kelp tablets, 2 thrice daily. Vitamin C (1g after meals thrice daily). Vitamin E (one 500iu capsule morning and evening).

Vitamin C for skin protection. Increasing Vitamin C after exposure to the sun should help protect against the sun’s ultra violet rays, as skin Vitamin C levels were shown to be severely depleted after exposure. (British Journal of Dermatology 127, 247-253) ... heatstroke

Hodgkin’s Disease

(Lymphadenoma. Lymphogranulomatosis). Chronic enlargement of the lymph nodes often together with that of the liver, spleen and bone marrow. Affects more males than females, 30- 40 years. High white blood cell count. Cancer of the lymph vessels. Follows a typical clinical course with anaemia until necrosis supervenes. The disease is suspected by a combination of enlargement of lymph nodes (especially the neck), severe itching and unexplained fever. Symptoms vary according to part of the body affected.

Symptoms. Hard rubbery glands are general, chiefly detected under the arm and groin. Enlarged nodes may compress nearby structures to produce nerve pains. Weight loss. Accumulation of fluid in lungs and abdomen. Obstruction of bile duct leads to jaundice. Patient may be prone to shingles. High fever heralds approaching fatality. Blood count, bone marrow aspiration and node biopsy confirm. Tubercula glands may simulate Hodgkin’s disease.

Some success reported by the use of the Periwinkle plant. (vinca rosea – Vinchristine) Wm Boericke, M.D. refers to Figwort as a powerful agent in Hodgkin’s disease.

Alternatives. Although there is no known cure, emphasis on the cortex of the adrenal gland may reduce skin irritation and pain in the later stages (Gotu Kola, Liquorice, Sarsaparilla). To arrest wasting and constitutional weakness: Echinacea. Anti-pruritics, alteratives and lymphatics are indicated.

Tea. Formula. Equal parts, Nettles, Gotu Kola, Red Clover. 1 heaped teaspoon to each cup boiling water; infuse 15 minutes. 1 cup 3 or more times daily.

Decoction. Formula. Equal parts – Yellow Dock, Queen’s Delight, Echinacea. 1 teaspoon to each cup water gently simmered 20 minutes. Half-1 cup 3 or more times daily.

Tablets/capsules. Poke root. Blue Flag root. Echinacea. Mistletoe.

Powders. Formula. Echinacea 2; Poke root 1; Bladderwrack 1. Dose: 500mg (two 00 capsules or one- third teaspoon) 3 or more times daily.

Tinctures. Mixture. Parts: Echinacea 2; Goldenseal quarter; Thuja quarter; Poke root half; Periwinkle 1. Dose: 1-2 teaspoons, 3 or more times daily. Where active inflammation is present – add Wild Yam 1. External. Castor oil packs to abdomen.

Treatment by a general medical practitioner or hospital specialist.

HOLISTIC MEDICINE. A school of thought which regards disease as a manifestation of an inner disturbance of the vital force, and not merely abnormality of certain groups of nerves, muscles, veins, or even the mind itself. Article 43 of Dr Samuel Hahnemann’s Organon of the Healing Art describes it:

“No organ, no tissue, no cell, no molecule is independent of the activities of the others but the life of each one of these elements is merged into the life of the whole. The unit of human life cannot be the organ, the tissue, the cell, the molecule, the atom, but the whole organism, the whole man.”

Holistic medicine relates disease to a patient’s personality, posture, diet, emotional life, and lifestyle. Treatment will be related to body, mind and spirit. It encourages a positive psychological response to the disease from which a patient suffers. For instance, its gentle approach to cancer embraces stress control, meditation, forms of visualisation and other life-enhancing skills.

Diet may be vegetarian, even vegan.... hodgkin’s disease

Hormone Replacement Therapy (hrt)

Within a few years medical scientists have introduced into the domestic scene a steroid which has changed the whole course of female history. HRT has solved some basic medical problems by making good the loss of oestrogen in a woman’s body when menstruation is finished and her body learns to adjust.

A lack of oestrogen induces hot flushes, night sweats, thinning of the bones (osteoporosis) with possible fractures, and a wide range of physical and emotional disorders.

HRT also prevents the increased frequency of coronary disease which may follow the menopause. With oestrogen only, HRT appears to increase the incidence of cancer of the uterine body. Use of oestrogen and progestogen avoids this.

HRT is available as a tablet, transdermal patch, implant or topical cream. Most women notice temporary improvement in their appearance and hot flushes as long as treatment is continued. HRT is not prescribed by the herbal practitioner. Soya and Hops are a mild alternative.

Side-effects of such treatment include blood pressure rise, weight gain and periods probably continue with a monthly bleed. Elderly women taking HRT for osteoporosis may develop bleeding problems, the risk of blood clot and gall bladder diseases.

Helonias has proved a useful alternative, effective in eliminating excess fluids, reducing hot flushes, and relieving that bloated feeling, thus helping the older woman to live a normal life.

Damiana. 1 heaped teaspoon leaves to each cup boiling water; infuse 5-10 minutes; strain. 1 cup 2-3 times daily for 3-6 weeks.

Sarsaparilla. 1oz (30g) root in 1 pint (500ml) water; simmer gently 20 minutes; strain. 1 cup 2-3 times daily for 3-6 weeks.

Supplementation. Daily. Vitamin E, 400iu. Vitamin B-complex (high potency). Evening Primrose oil capsules, 500mg morning and evening. Dolomite, for Calcium and Magnesium, 2 tablets morning and evening.

Note: An extensive study of breast cancer risks with HRT revealed a positive link between the risk of cancer and length of use. Risk of the disease increased with all types of women using HRT with every year of use. Pre-menstrual women were more than twice at risk. It would appear that oestrogens cannot be taken without risk. (Centre for Disease Control, Atlanta, USA) See: OESTROGENS. ... hormone replacement therapy (hrt)

Hydatid Disease

An infection caused by a tapeworm Echinococcus granulosis, which infests cattle, foxes, sheep and especially dogs from which it finds its way into humans by contaminated food. Eggs pass through the wall of the gut to develop in body tissue as a hydatid cyst. Many years may pass before symptoms reveal its presence. Surgical operation is the only effective cure although certain vermifuges, taken from time to time, create in the intestine an inhospitable environment for the parasite: Wormwood, Malefern, Fennel, Pumpkin seeds; given in capsule or powder form. Such worms deplete reserves of Vitamin B12 and may cause megaloblastic anaemia.

Supplementation. Vitamin B12.

HYDRAGOGUE. A herbal cathartic that causes watery evacuation and drastic purgation. White Bryony, American Mandrake. (Practitioner use only) ... hydatid disease

Chapped Hands

Chapped hands occur in cold weather, when reduced sweat and sebaceous activity leads to decreased natural protection of the skin. Prolonged immersion in soapy water, followed by exposure to cold air, results in cracking of the skin.

Prevention consists of minimising exposure to detergents and soapy water, and wearing rubber gloves for all routine household duties.... chapped hands

Chloral Hydrate

This drug is now rarely used but chloral betaine (Welldorm) is occasionally used in the elderly and in newborns with ?ts or cerebral irritation after a di?cult delivery.... chloral hydrate

Cluster Headaches

A type of MIGRAINE occurring in clusters – that is, a patient may have an attack daily for several days and then none for weeks or months. The pain is on one side of the head, often centred over the eye. The pain is excruciatingly severe and often associated with tearing, nasal discharge and production of thick saliva from the same side of the mouth. It is treated either with drugs such as SUMATRIPTAN or by breathing 100 per cent oxygen.... cluster headaches

Day Hospital

A facility, which may be attached to an acute hospital, geriatric centre or nursing home, providing non-residential care, such as medical care, nursing care, physiotherapy, occupational therapy, podiatry, speech therapy and counselling services, usually during the day.... day hospital

Dreams

See SLEEP.... dreams

Faith Healing

The facility, claimed by some people, to cure disease by a healing force present in their make-up. The healer ‘transmits’ the force by direct contact with the person seeking treatment. Strong religious beliefs are usually the characteristics of the healer and his or her subject. The force is inexplicable to science but some medically quali?ed doctors have been convinced of its bene?cial e?ect in certain individuals.... faith healing

Habit

A behavioural response or practice that is established by the individual frequently repeating the same act. The process is called habituation, and the more a person is exposed to a particular stimulus, the less is he or she aroused by it. People may also become habituated to certain drugs, requiring more and more of a substance to produce the same e?ect – a process known as TOLERANCE.... habit

Habituation

See HABIT.... habituation

Haematinic

A drug that raises the quantity of HAEMOGLOBIN in the blood. Ferrous sulphate is a common example of iron-containing compounds given to anaemic (see ANAEMIA) patients whose condition is due to iron de?ciency. Traditionally, haematinics have been used to prevent anaemia in pregnant women, but nowadays a maternal diet containing iron-rich foods and regular antenatal checks of haemoglobin concentrations in the blood should make the routine use of haematinics unnecessary.... haematinic

Haematocoele

A cavity containing blood. Generally as the result of an injury which ruptures blood vessels, blood is e?used into one of the natural cavities of the body, or among loose cellular tissue, producing a haematocoele.... haematocoele

Haematocolpos

The condition in which menstrual blood cannot drain from the VAGINA because of an imperforate HYMEN.... haematocolpos

Haematocrit

Also known as packed cell volume, this is an expression of the fraction of blood volume occupied by the ERYTHROCYTES. It is determined by centrifuging a sample of blood in a capillary tube and measuring the height of the resulting packed cells as a percentage of the total sample height. Normal values: males 42–53 per cent or 0.42–0.53 mL/dL females 32–48 per cent or 0.36–0.48 mL/dL... haematocrit

Haematogenous

An adjective applied to a biological process which produces blood, or to an agent produced in or coming from blood. For example, a haematogenous infection is one resulting from contact with blood that contains a virus or bacterium responsible for the infection.... haematogenous

Haemolytic Uraemic Syndrome

A disease of children resulting in acute RENAL failure. A febrile illness of the gastrointestinal or respiratory tracts is followed by intravascular COAGULATION of blood which results in HAEMOLYSIS, ANAEMIA, THROMBOCYTOPAENIA and renal failure (resulting from ?brin deposition in renal arterioles and glomerular capillaries).

The death rate is 2–10 per cent and the majority of patients survive without renal failure. The longer the period of OLIGURIA, the greater the risk of chronic renal failure.

Treatment is supportive, with replacement of blood and clotting factors, control of HYPERTENSION, and careful observation of ?uid balance.... haemolytic uraemic syndrome

Haemopericardium

The presence of blood in the PERICARDIUM, the membranous sac which surrounds the heart. The condition may result from a myocardial infarction (see HEART, DISEASES OF), leaking ANEURYSM, injury, or tumour. Because the pericardial blood compresses the heart, the latter’s pumping action is impeded, reducing the blood pressure and causing cardiac failure. Urgent surgical drainage of the blood may be required.... haemopericardium

Haemopoiesis

The formation of blood cells and PLATELETS – a continuous process throughout life. As ageing cells are removed from the circulation, new ones, generated in the BONE MARROW, replace them.... haemopoiesis

Haemopoietic Stem Cell

This is the basic cell from which all types of blood cells originate. Its appearance is believed to be similar to that of a LYMPHOCYTE.... haemopoietic stem cell

Haemophilus

Gram-negative (see GRAM’S STAIN), rod-like, aerobic, non-sporing and non-motile parasitic bacteria. Mostly found in the respiratory tract, they may be part of the normal ?ora, but may also be responsible for several diseases. The main pathogenic species of haemophilus is H. in?uenzae, which may cause severe exacerbations of chronic BRONCHITIS, as well as MENINGITIS, EPIGLOTTITIS, SINUSITIS, and otitis media (see EAR, DISEASES OF). Other species may cause conjunctivitis (see EYE, DISORDERS OF) or CHANCROID. Haemophilus species are sensitive to a wide range of antibiotics, though generally resistant to penicillin. Infants are routinely immunised with Haemophilus B vaccine to prevent meningitis, septicaemia and epiglottitis

– all potentially fatal disesases.... haemophilus

Haemostatics

A group of drugs used to treat bleeding disorders such as HAEMOPHILIA. Factor VIII is one of the clotting factors available for treatment: preparations of it are injected after abnormal bleeding or before surgery. Vitamin K preparations are another haemostatic group used to treat an overdose of ANTICOAGULANTS.

Haemostatic preparations of gelatine and cellulose are used to stem bleeding from the skin and gums, or as a result of tooth extractions.... haemostatics

Half Life

The time taken for the PLASMA concentration of an administered drug to decline by half as a result of redistribution, METABOLISM and EXCRETION.... half life

Halfway House

A residential home for mentally ill individuals where they can live under supervision after discharge from hospital. They may be ?t to work but cannot manage an independent life.... halfway house

Hallucinogenic

Producing hallucinations... hallucinogenic

Hallucinogens

Compounds characterised by their ability to produce distortions of perception, emotional changes, depersonalisation, and a variety of effects on memory and learned behaviour. They include CANNABIS, LYSERGIC ACID DIETHYLAMIDE (LSD) and MESCALINE. (See also DEPENDENCE.)... hallucinogens

Halo

A coloured circle seen around a bright light in some eye conditions. When accompanied by headache, it is especially likely to be caused by GLAUCOMA.... halo

Halothane

A volatile liquid anaesthetic, used for many years as a potent inhalant anaesthetic. It provides smooth induction of ANAESTHESIA and is non-irritant and pleasant to inhale. A few patients have an idiosyncracy to halothane, putting them at risk if it is used frequently, so a careful history is essential before it is administered to a patient (see HALOTHANE HEPATITIS).... halothane

Haploid

An adjective describing organisms, cells or nuclei that have a single set of unpaired CHROMOSOMES. Human beings have haploid gametes (see GAMETE) following MEIOSIS.... haploid

Hapten

See ANTIGEN.... hapten

Hare-lip

See PALATE, MALFORMATIONS OF.... hare-lip

Hazel

(English) From the hazel tree Hazell, Hazelle, Haesel, Hazle, Hazal, Hayzel, Haezel, Haizel... hazel

Head

See BRAIN; FACE; SCALP; SKULL.... head

Health Care

Services provided to individuals or communities by health service providers for the purpose of promoting, maintaining, monitoring or restoring health.... health care

Health Impact Assessment

This is a structured, multi-disciplinary process for assessing and improving the health consequences of projects and policies in the non-health sector. It combines a range of qualitative and quantitative evidence in preparing conclusions. Applications of the assessments include appraisal of national policies, local urban planning, and the progress of transport, water and agricultural projects.... health impact assessment

Health Needs Assessment

A systematic procedure for determining the nature and extent of problems experienced by a specified population that affect their health, either directly or indirectly. Needs assessment makes use of epidemiological, sociodemographic and qualitative methods to describe health problems and their environmental, social, economic and behavioural determinants. See also “geriatric assessment”.... health needs assessment

Hearing

See DEAFNESS; EAR.... hearing

Hearing Aids

Nearly two-thirds of people aged over 70 have some degree of hearing impairment (see DEAFNESS). Hearing aids are no substitute for de?nitive treatment of the underlying cause of poor hearing, so examination by an ear, nose and throat surgeon and an audiologist is sensible before a hearing aid is issued (and is essential before one can be given through the NHS). The choice of aid depends on the age, manipulative skills, and degree of hearing impairment of the patient and the underlying cause of the deafness. The choice of hearing aid for a deaf child is particularly important, as impaired hearing can hinder speech development.

Electronic aids consist, essentially, of a microphone, an ampli?er, and an earphone. In postaural aids the microphone and ampli?er are contained in a small box worn behind the ear or attached to spectacles. The earphone is on a specially moulded earpiece. Some patients ?nd it di?cult to manipulate the controls of an aid worn behind the ear, and they may be better o? with a device worn on the body. Some hearing aids are worn entirely within the ear and are very discreet. They are particularly useful for people who have to wear protective headgear such as helmets.

The most sophisticated aids sit entirely within the ear canal so are virtually invisible. They may be tuned so that only the frequencies the wearer cannot hear are ampli?ed.

Many have a volume control and a special setting for use with telephone and in rooms ?tted with an inductive coupler that screens out background noise.

In making a choice therefore from the large range of e?ective hearing aids now available, the expert advice of an ear specialist must be obtained. The RNID (Royal National Institute for Deaf People) provides a list of clinics where such a specialist can be consulted. It also gives reliable advice concerning the purchase and use of hearing aids – a worthwhile function, as some aids are very expensive.... hearing aids

Heat Cramps

Painful cramps in the muscles occurring in workers, such as stokers, who labour in hot conditions. The cramps are the result of loss of salt in the sweat, and can be cured by giving the sufferer salty water to drink. (See also HEAT STROKE.)... heat cramps

Heather

(English) Resembling the evergreen flowering plant Hether, Heatha, Heath, Heathe... heather

Hebephrenia

A form of SCHIZOPHRENIA that comes on in youth and is marked by depression and gradual failure of mental faculties with egotistic and self-centred delusions.... hebephrenia

Heart Surgery

Open-heart surgery permits the treatment of many previously inoperable conditions that were potentially fatal, or which made the patient chronically disabled. CORONARY ARTERY VEIN BYPASS GRAFTING (CAVBG), used to remedy obstruction of the arteries supplying the heart muscle, was ?rst carried out in the mid1960s and is now widely practised. Constricted heart valves today are routinely dilated by techniques of MINIMALLY INVASIVE SURGERY (MIS), such as ANGIOPLASTY and laser treatment, and faulty valves can be replaced with mechanical alternatives (see VALVULOPLASTY).

Heart transplant Replacement of a person’s unhealthy heart with a normal heart from a healthy donor. The donor’s heart needs to be removed immediately after death and kept chilled in saline before rapid transport to the recipient. Heart transplants are technically demanding operations used to treat patients with progressive untreatable heart disease but whose other body systems are in good shape. They usually have advanced coronary artery disease and damaged heart muscle (CARDIOMYOPATHY). Apart from the technical diffculties of the operation, preventing rejection of the transplanted heart by the recipient’s immune system requires complex drug treatment. But once the patient has passed the immediate postoperative phase, the chances of ?ve-year survival is as high as 80 per cent in some cardiac centres. A key di?culty in doing heart transplants is a serious shortage of donor organs.... heart surgery

Heart-lung Machine

A device that temporarily takes over the function of the heart and lungs. It is used in certain operations in the chest, giving the surgeon more time for operations such as open-heart surgery, heart transplants and heart-lung transplants. The machine also ensures an operating area largely free of blood, which helps the surgeon to work more quickly. A pump replaces the heart and an oxygenator replaces the lungs. When connected up, the machine in e?ect bypasses normal cardiopulmonary activity. It also contains a heat exchanger to warm or cool the patient’s blood according to the requirements of the operation. The patient is given an anticoagulant (HEPARIN) to counteract clotting which may occur when blood cells get damaged during the machine’s use. Patients are on the machine for a few hours only, because blood supply to vital organs begins to be reduced.... heart-lung machine

Heartsease

Viola tricolor. N.O. Violaceae.

Synonym: Wild Pansy.

Habitat: Cultivated fields.

Features ? Stem short, square, smooth, branched. Leaves ovate-lanceolate, crenate. Flowers in June, petals of differing sizes, usually wholly yellow but occasionally purple upper petals with dark stripes on lower; single, violet-like flower to each flower stalk. Three carpel fruit.

Part used ? Herb.

Action: Diaphoretic, diuretic.

The mildness of action makes it applicable in infantile skin eruptions, for which the ounce to pint infusion is given in doses according to age.

It has been said that the medicine will ward off asthmatic and epileptic convulsions, but there would appear to be no reliable confirmation of this. The claim may have originated with Culpeper, who writes, concerning Heartsease ? "The spirit of it is excellently good for the convulsions in children, as also for falling sickness, and a gallant remedy for the inflammations of the lungs and breast, pleurisy, scabs, itch, etc."... heartsease

Helicobacter Pylori

A bacterium which colonises the stomach. While it may cause no disease, it has a tendency to produce in?ammation – gastritis. This may progress in some people to peptic ulceration (see PEPTIC ULCER), and even to gastric cancer. The bacterium can be identi?ed on blood testing or, more accurately, by obtaining a biopsy of the stomach wall by ENDOSCOPY. It can be eradicated by treatment with PROTON-PUMP INHIBITORS and antibiotics.... helicobacter pylori

Hellp Syndrome

A type of severe PRE-ECLAMPSIA (a disorder affecting some pregnant women) that affects various systems in the body. HAEMOLYSIS, raised concentration of the enzymes in the LIVER, and a low blood platelet count are among the characteristics (and explain the name HELLP); patients are acutely ill and immediate termination of pregnancy is necessary. (See also PREGNANCY AND LABOUR.)... hellp syndrome

Helminthiasis

Morbid state due to infestation with worms... helminthiasis

Helminths

Round worms, tapeworms and flukes.... helminths

Hemimelia

This consists of defects in the distal part of the extremities: for example, the absence of a forearm or hand. Hemimelia is a congenital defect; large numbers of cases resulted from the administration of THALIDOMIDE during pregnancy (see also PHOCOMELIA; TERATOGENESIS).... hemimelia

Hemolytic

Destructive to red blood cells... hemolytic

Henna

Healing... henna

Hepatectomy

The operation for removal of the LIVER, or part of it.... hepatectomy

Hepatocyte

The main cell type present in the LIVER. A large cell, it has several important metabolic functions: these include synthesis and storage of biochemical products; detoxi?cation of poisons and unwanted substances; and the manufacture of BILE, the liver secretion that passes through the bile ducts to the small intestine and helps in the digestion of fat.... hepatocyte

Hepatic Encephalopathy

A neuropsychiatric syndrome caused by disease of the LIVER, and occurring most often in patients with CIRRHOSIS – see also LIVER, DISEASES OF; it also occurs in acute form in acute failure of liver function. The disorder is believed to be the result of biochemical disturbance of brain function, because the condition is reversible and pathological changes in brain tissue are rarely found. The patient’s intellect, personality, emotions and consciousness are altered but neurological signs may or may not be identi?ed. Apathy, confusion, drowsiness, sometimes CONVULSIONS, speech disturbance and eventually COMA mark the progress of the condition. The principles of treatment are to remove the precipitating causes. These include: URAEMIA; sedative, antidepressant and hypnotic drugs; gastrointestinal bleeding; too much protein in the diet; infection; and trauma (including surgical operations).... hepatic encephalopathy

Herd Immunity

A level of immunity found in a community of animals/humans and related to a particular infection to which the community has been exposed.... herd immunity

Hermaphrodite

An individual in whom both ovarian (see OVARIES) and testicular (see TESTICLE) tissue is present. Hermaphrodites may have a testis on one side and an ovary on the other; or an ovotestis on one side and an ovary or testis on the other; or there may be an ovotestis on both sides. Both gonads are usually intra-abdominal. The true hermaphrodite usually has a UTERUS and at least one Fallopian tube (see FALLOPIAN TUBES) on the side of the ovary, and on the side of the testis there is usually a VAS DEFERENS. Most true hermaphrodites are raised as males, but external virilisation is not usually complete. Even when signi?cant phallic development is present, HYPOSPADIAS and CRYPTORCHIDISM are common. At puberty, GYNAECOMASTIA develops and MENSTRUATION is common, as ovarian function is usually more nearly normal than testicular function. The condition is rare. A more common condition is pseudohermaphroditism: these are individuals who possess the gonads of only one sex but whose external genitalia may be ambiguous. The cause is a hormonal imbalance and can usually be corrected by hormone treatment.... hermaphrodite

Hernioplasty

... hernioplasty

Herniotomy

The surgical removal of the sac of connective tissue surrounding a HERNIA. In children or healthy young adults with an inguinal hernia, a herniotomy is usually su?cient to cure the condition.... herniotomy

Hertz

The SI (International System of Units) unit of frequency. It indicates the number of cycles per second (c/s). The abbreviation for hertz is Hz.... hertz

Heterograft

A transplant from one animal to another of a di?erent species. It is also known as a xenograft.... heterograft

Heterozygous

An individual having dissimilar members of the pair of genes coding for a given characteristic (see GENES).... heterozygous

Hexacanth

A larval stage of the tapeworm having six hooks.... hexacanth

Hexamine

A substance which, when excreted by the kidneys, releases formaldehyde which has an antiseptic action. It is given to patients with recurrent CYSTITIS. It acts only in urine with an acid reaction, and, if the urine is alkaline, ascorbic acid may acidify it. Hexamine is used prophylactically and for long-term treatment of recurrent urinary-tract infections.... hexamine

Hibiscus

(Latin) Resembling the showy flower

Hibiskus, Hibyscus, Hibyskus, Hybiscus, Hybiskus, Hybyscus, Hybyskus... hibiscus

High Dependency Unit

A hospital unit equipped and sta?ed to nurse patients who require a high level of technically supported care. Patients are usually moved to such units when they have made satisfactory progress in an INTENSIVE THERAPY UNIT (ITU) and do not require the one-to-one nursing necessary in ITUs. Patients who have undergone major surgery are often transferred from the recovery ward to a high dependency unit until they are well enough to be cared for in a standard ward.... high dependency unit

Hilum

A term applied to the depression on organs such as the lung, kidney, and spleen, at which the vessels and nerves enter it and around which the lymphatic glands cluster. The hilum of the lung is also known as its root.... hilum

Hindbrain

That part of the BRAIN comprising the cerebellum, pons and medulla oblongata.... hindbrain

Hippocrates

A famous Greek physician who lived from

c.460 to 377 BC and who taught students at the medical school in Cos. Often called the ‘father of medicine’, he is renowned for drawing up the HIPPOCRATIC OATH, some of which may have been derived from the ancient oath of the Aesclepiads. Apart from his oath, Hippocrates has about 60 other medical works attributed to him, forming a corpus which was collected around 250 BC in the famous library of Alexandria in Egypt. Hippocratic medicine appealed ‘to reason rather than to rules or to supernatural forces’ is how the late Roy Porter, the English social historian, summed up its ethos in his medical history, The Greatest Bene?t to Mankind (Harper Collins, 1997). Porter also commended Hippocrates as being patient-centred rather than disease-orientated in his practice of medicine.... hippocrates

Hippus

Hippus is a tremor of the iris which produces alternating contraction and dilatation of the pupil (see EYE).... hippus

Histidine

An amino acid from which HISTAMINE is derived.... histidine

Histiocytoma

See DERMATOFIBROMA.... histiocytoma

Histogram

A graphic representation of the frequency distribution of a variable. Rectangles are drawn in such a way that their bases lie on a linear scale, representing different intervals, and their heights are proportional to the frequencies of the values within each of the intervals.... histogram

Holistic

A term used for a method of medical care in which patients are treated as a whole, and which takes into account their physical and mental state as well as social background rather than just treating the disease alone.... holistic

Holly

(English) Of the holly tree Holli, Hollie, Hollee, Holley, Hollye, Hollyanne, Holle, Hollea, Hollei, Holleigh, Hollianne, Holleah, Hollyn, Holeena... holly

Holostemma

Holostemma ada-kodien

Asclepiadaceae

San: Jivanti;

Hin: Chirvel, Charivel;

Mal: Atapathiyan, Atapotiyan, Atakotiyan;

Tam: Palaikkirai;

Tel: Palagurugu; Mar: Dudurli, Shidodi;

Guj: Kharner, Khiravel

Importance: Holostemma is a twining shrub with large flowers. The roots of Holostemma are useful in ophthalmopathy, orchitis, cough, burning sensation, stomachalgia, constipation, fever and tridoshas. The leaves, flowers and fruits are eaten as vegetable. The root is also used in spermatorrhoea. It is used in preparations of Vidaryadiganam, Dhanwandharam thaila, Manasamithravatakam, Balarishta and Anuthaila. It is also useful in eye diseases and it imparts resistance to diseases.

Distribution: The plant occurs in tropical countries. In India, it is found in Himalayas, Dehradun, Konkan, Bombay, Deccan, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamilnadu. It grows over hedges and in open forests especially on the lower slopes of the hills. It is also distributed in Sri Lanka, Burma and W. China.

Botany: Holostemma ada-kodien Schult. syn. Holostemma annulare (Roxb.) K. Schum.

Holostemma rheedii Wall. belongs to the family Asclepiadaceae. It is a laticiferous twining shrub with large conspicuous flowers. Leaves are simple, opposite and cordate. Flowers are purple, arranged in axillary umbellate cymes. Fruits are thick follicles, 9 cm long, cylindrical and bluntly pointed. The roots are long upto 1 m or more, irregularly twisted, thick and cylindrical. When dry it is yellowish brown to brown black in colour with nearly smooth surface bearing white scars and small depressions. A mature root is about 1-2 cm thick when extracted for use (Warrier et al, 1995).

Agrotechnology: Holostemma prefers a tropical climate. The plant is propagated vegetatively by stem cuttings, but mainly by seeds. The seeds are collected from the plant in Novemb er-December before being dispersed. Seeds are cleaned, dried and stored for sowing. The stored seeds after soaking in water for 4-5 hours are sown in the seedbeds. About one month old seedlings are then planted in polybags of size 14x10cm which are filled with soil, sand and dried cowdung in 1:1:1 ratio, respectively. Polybags should be kept in shade and irrigated. About 1-1.5 month old seedlings are ready for transplanting. Pits of 30cm cube size are taken at 1-1.2m distance and filled with 10kg dried cowdung and sand. This is covered with surface soil and formed into a mound. Seedlings are transplanted on to the mounds from the polybags carefully. Regular irrigation is to be given till flowering. To aid in trailing, staking is given one month after planting. Flowering and fruiting occurs in November-December. Harvesting can be done at the end of second year when the vines start drying up. Harvesting is done by digging up the tubers. The tubers are cut into pieces of 10cm length and dried in sun before sale (Prasad et al, 1997).

Properties and activity: Holostemma tubers give -amyrin, lupeol and -sitosterol. Alanine, aspartic acid, glycine, serine, threonine and valine were detected chromatographically (Hussain et al, 1992). The root is antidiabetic, antigonorrhoeic, bechic, alterative, tonic, lactative, ophthalmic, emollient, stimulant, aphrodisiac, expectorant and galactagogue.... holostemma

Holy Thistle

Carbenia benedicta. N.O. Compositae.

Synonym: Carduus benedictus, Blessed Thistle.

Features ? Thomas Johnson, in his edition of Gerard's Herbal, published in 1636, gives us the following description of this member of the familiar thistle family ? "The stalks of Carduus benedictus are round, rough and pliable, and being parted into diverse branches, do lie flat on the ground ; the leaves are jagged round about and full of

harmless prickles in the edges; the heads on the top of the stalks are set with and environed with sharp prickling leaves, out of which standeth a yellow flower; the seed is long and set with hairs at the top like a beard; the root is white and parted into strings; the whole herb, leaves and stalks, and also the heads, are covered with a thin down."

Action: Although more popular among the old herbalists than among those of to-day. Holy Thistle is still valued for its tonic, stimulant and diaphoretic properties.

Mainly used in digestive troubles, the 1 ounce to 1 pint infusion, given warm in wineglass doses several times daily, is also found capable of breaking up obstinate colds. As it is held to stimulate the mammary glands, the infusion has been given with the object of promoting the secretion of milk.

Tilke is enthusiastic in his praise of the herb ? "I have found it such a clarifier of the blood, that by drinking an infusion once or twice a day, sweeted with honey, instead of tea, it would be a perfect cure for the headache, or what is commonly called the meagrims." The same writer recommends it as a salad "instead of watercresses."

The medicinal use of Holy Thistle goes back far beyond the days of Tilke, or even Johnson. William Turner, Domestic Physician to the Lord Protector Somerset in the reign of King Edward VI, in his Herbal published 1568, agrees with Tilke that the herb is "very good for the headache and the megram."... holy thistle

Home Help

A person or a service providing practical help in the home, such as household chores, to support an older person with disabilities to remain living in his/her own home.... home help

Homocysteine

An intermediate product in the body’s synthesis of the amino acid CYSTEINE.... homocysteine

Homograft

A piece of tissue or an organ, such as a kidney, transplanted from one animal to another of the same species: for example, from person to person. It is also known as an allograft.... homograft

Homozygous

An individual having identical members of the pair of genes coding for a given characteristic (see GENES).... homozygous

Honesty

(American) One who is truthful and trustworthy

Honestey, Honesti, Honestie, Honestee, Honestea... honesty

Honey

(American) A very sweet woman Hony, Honie, Honi, Honee, Honye, Hunig, Honbria, Honbrie, Honbree, Honea... honey

Homosexuality

Sexual activity with a member of the same sex. There has been considerable debate among psychiatrists as to whether homosexuality should be regarded as a normal sexual variant or as a psycho-pathological development or deviation. Although homosexuality is found in virtually every society and culture, there is no society in which it is the predominant or preferred mode of sexual activity. Various attempts have been made to link homosexuality to hormonal factors, particularly lowered TESTOSTERONE levels, or to ?nd a genetic explanation, but there is no evidence for either. Psychoanalytic theories link homosexuality to early child-rearing in?uences, in particular the close-binding and intimate mother.

The number of homosexual men and women in the UK is unknown. Re-analysis of the Kinsey report suggests that only 3 per cent of adult men have exclusively homosexual leanings and a further 3 per cent have extensive homosexual and heterosexual experience. Homosexuality among women (lesbianism) seems to be less common. Some homosexual men have high rates of sexual activity and multiple partners and, as with heterosexual men and women, this increases the risk of acquiring sexually transmitted diseases, unless appropriate precautionary measures are taken – for example, the use of condoms for penetrative sex, whether vaginal or anal. It was in homosexual males that the virus responsible for AIDS (see AIDS/HIV) was ?rst identi?ed, but the infection now occurs in both sexes.... homosexuality

Horehound

Marrubium vulgare. N.O. Labiateae.

Synonym: Hoarhound.

Habitat: Horehound flourishes in dry, and particularly chalky waste ground.

Features ? It grows to a height of one and a half to two feet. The bluntly four-cornered stem sends out spreading branches covered with white, woolly hair. The leaves, also spread with the soft hair, are egg-shaped and deeply toothed, the lower ones stalked, those above sessile. The small, white flowers appear during July in thick rings just above the upper leaves.

Part used ? The whole plant.

Action: Aromatic and bitter, having expectorant and slight diuretic action.

Horehound is probably the best known of all herbal pectoral remedies, and is undoubtedly effective in coughs, colds and pulmonary complaints. The whole herb is infused in 1 ounce quantities to 1 pint of water, and taken frequently in wineglass doses.

The refreshing and healthy Horehound Beer or Ale is brewed from this herb, and a Horehound candy is made which, when properly prepared, is one of the best of "cough sweets."

Coffin speaks highly of the tonic and expectorant qualities of Horehound, and its latter virtue has certainly been known for nearly three hundred years, as Culpeper tells us that "it helpeth to expectorate tough phlegm from the chest."... horehound

Horse Chestnut

Money, Healing ... horse chestnut

Horehound, Black

Ballota nigra. N.O. Labiateae.

Synonym: Crantz, Marrubium nigrum.

Habitat: Hedgerows, waste ground.

Features ? Stem stiff, erect, freely branched, up to four feet high. Leaves greyish-

green, upper ovate, lower cordate, in pairs, each pair pointing in opposite direction to next pair, crenate, hairy, stalked. Flowers (July and August) purplish, labiate, in rings just above leaves. Disagreeable odour.

Part used ? Herb.

Action: Stimulant, expectorant, diaphoretic, antispasmodic.

Coughs, colds and bronchial complaints generally. Hool prefers this herb to the white Horehound (Marrubium vulgare), and makes wide claims on its behalf. He recommends it in the treatment of consumption, various menstrual troubles, and parturition—in the last-named instance combined with Motherwort. "In chronic coughs, accompanied by spitting of blood," he tells us, "it will be found most excellent, either of itself or combined with other reliable remedies such as Lobelia, Marshmallow, Hyssop, etc."... horehound, black

Hormones

These are ‘chemical messengers’ that are dispersed by the blood and act on target organs to produce effects distant from their point of release. The main organs involved in hormone production are the PITUITARY GLAND, PANCREAS, ovary (see OVARIES), testis (see TESTICLE), THYROID GLAND, and ADRENAL GLANDS. The release of many hormones is, ultimately, under the control of the central nervous system via a series of inhibiting and releasing factors from the HYPOTHALAMUS. Hormones are involved in maintaining homeostasis: for example, insulin regulates the concentration of glucose in the blood. They also participate in growth and maturation: for example, growth hormone promotes growth and helps to regulate fat, carbohydrate, and protein metabolism; and the sex hormones promote sexual maturation and reproduction. (See also ENDOCRINE GLANDS.)... hormones

Houndstongue

Tying Dog’s Tongues ... houndstongue

Houseleek

Luck, Protection, Love... houseleek

Human Genome

In simple terms, this is the genetic recipe for making a human being. GENOME is a combination of the words gene and chromosome, and a genome is de?ned as all the genetic material – known as deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA – in a cell. Most genes encode sequences of AMINO ACIDS, the constituents of proteins, thus initiating and controlling the replication of an organism. The identi?cation and characterisation of the human genetic puzzle have been a key bioscience research target. The Human Genome Project was launched in 1990 (and completed in 2003) to produce a full sequence of the three million base pairs that make up the human genome.

Carried out as two separate exercises – one by a privately funded American team; another by an international joint venture between tax-funded American laboratories, a charitably funded British one and several other smaller research teams from around the world – the ?rst results were announced on 26 June 2000. In February 2001 the privately funded American group, known as Celera Genomics, announced that it had identi?ed 26,558 genes. At the same time the Human Genome Project consortium reported that it had identi?ed 31,000. Allowing for margins of error, this gives a ?gure much lower than the 100,000 or more human genes previously forecast by scientists. Interestingly, genes were found to make up only 3 per cent of the human genome. The remaining 97 per cent of the genome comprises non-coding DNA which, though not involved in producing the protein-initiating genetic activity, does have signi?cant roles in the structure, function and evolution of the genome.

One surprise from the Project so far is that the genetic di?erences between humans and other species seem much smaller than previously expected. For example, the Celera team found that people have only 300 genes that mice do not have; yet, the common ancestor of mice and men probably lived 100 million years or more in the past. Mice and humans, however, have around twice as many genes as the humble fruit ?y.

Cells die out when they become redundant during embryonic development: genes also die out during evolution, according to evidence from the Genome Project – a ?nding that supports the constant evolutionary changes apparent in living things; the Darwinian concept of survival of the ?ttest.

Apart from expanding our scienti?c knowledge, the new information – and promise of much more as the Genome Project continues – should enhance and expand the use of genetic engineering in the prevention and cure of disease. Studies are in progress on the gene for a receptor protein in the brain which will shed light on how the important neurotransmitter SEROTONIN in the brain works, and this, for example, should help the development of better drugs for the treatment of DEPRESSION. Another gene has been found that is relevant to the development of ASTHMA and yet another that is involved in the production of amyloid, a complex protein which is deposited in excessive amounts in both DOWN’S (DOWN) SYNDROME and ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE.... human genome

Humour

An archaic term once used for a theory regarding the causation of disease as due to an improper mixture in the body of blood, bile, phlegm and black bile. The term remains in describing some body ?uids, such as the aqueous and vitreous humours of the EYE.... humour

Hunger

A craving for food or other substance necessary to bodily activity. Hunger for food is supposed to be directly produced by strong contractions of the stomach which occur when it is empty, or nearly so. (See also THIRST.)

Air hunger is an instinctive craving for oxygen resulting in breathlessness, either when a person ascends to great heights where the pressure of air is low, or in some diseases such as pneumonia and DIABETES MELLITUS which affect the body’s METABOLISM and therefore its need for oxygen – an essential constituent in this process.... hunger

Hyaline Membrane Disease

A form of ACUTE RESPIRATORY DISTRESS SYNDROME (ARDS) found in premature infants and some of those born by CAESAREAN SECTION, characterised by the onset of di?culty in breathing a few hours after birth. Most require extra oxygen and many need mechanical ventilation for a few days or even weeks. Recovery is the rule, although the most severely affected may die or suffer damage from oxygen lack. In this condition the ALVEOLITIS and the ?ner BRONCHIOLES of the lungs are lined with a dense membrane. The cause of the condition is a de?ciency of SURFACTANT in the lung passages which adversely affects gas exchanges in the alveoli.

Treatment includes the full gamut of neonatal intensive care, as well as speci?c therapy with PULMONARY SURFACTANT.... hyaline membrane disease

Hydrangea

Hex Breaking... hydrangea

Hyoid

A U-shaped bone at the root of the tongue. The hyoid can be felt from the front of the neck, lying about 2·5 cm above the prominence of the thyroid cartilage.... hyoid

Hyperaemia

Congestion or presence of an excessive amount of blood in a body part.... hyperaemia

Hyperaesthesia

Oversensitivity of a part of the body – as found, for example, in certain neurological diseases such as HERPES ZOSTER or shingles. (See also TOUCH.)... hyperaesthesia

Hyperalgesia

Excessive sensitivity to PAIN; see also TOUCH.... hyperalgesia

Hyperbaric

A pressure that is greater than that of the standard atmosphere at sea level (1,013 millibars). Hyperbaric oxygenation is a procedure in which the patient is exposed to high-pressure oxygen. The technique is used for the treatment of people suffering from CARBON MONOXIDE (CO) poisoning, compressed-air illness, gas GANGRENE and serious breathing disorders. Occasionally it is used for patients undergoing cardiac surgery.... hyperbaric

Hyperchlorhydria

Excessive production of hydrochloric acid in the stomach. It is a characteristic ?nding in certain forms of DYSPEPSIA, particularly that associated with a duodenal ulcer, and causes HEARTBURN and WATERBRASH. (See also DUODENAL ULCER; STOMACH, DISEASES OF.)... hyperchlorhydria

Hyperemesis Gravidarum

A rare condition (less than 0·2 per cent) of pregnancy, in which there is severe vomiting. If untreated it can result in severe dehydration, ketoacidosis (an excess of KETONE acids) and liver damage. More common in multiple pregnancy, it may recur in subsequent pregnancies.... hyperemesis gravidarum

Hypernatraemia

A SERUM sodium concentration that is above normal. The condition is usually caused by dehydration (either from inadequate intake or excessive loss of water); occasionally it may be caused by excessive sodium intake, and rarely by a raised level of ALDOSTERONE hormone.... hypernatraemia

Hyperpraxia

Abnormal activity; restlessness... hyperpraxia

Hyperprolactinaemia

Overproduction of the hormone PROLACTIN, usually as a result of a tumour of the PITUITARY GLAND (prolactinoma).... hyperprolactinaemia

Hypertonic

(1) Referring to one solution which has a greater osmotic pressure (see OSMOSIS) than another. Physiologically it is used to describe solutions which have a greater osmotic pressure than body ?uids.

(2) Muscles with abnormally increased tone

(e.g. following a STROKE).... hypertonic

Hypertrophy

The increase in size which takes place in an organ as the result of an increased amount of work demanded of it by the bodily economy. For example, when valvular disease of the heart is present, compensation occurs by an increase in thickness of the heart muscle, and the organ, by beating more powerfully, is able to overtake the strain thrown upon it. Similarly, if one kidney is removed, the other hypertrophies or grows larger to take over the double workload.... hypertrophy

Hypervolaemia

An increase in the volume of circulating blood above the normal range.... hypervolaemia

Hypnotics

These are drugs that induce SLEEP. Before a hypnotic is prescribed, it is vital to establish – and, where possible, treat – the cause of the insomnia (see under SLEEP, DISORDERS OF). Hypnotics are most often needed to help an acutely distressed patient (for example, following bereavement), or in cases of jet lag, or in shift workers.

If required in states of chronic distress, whether induced by disease or environment, it is especially important to limit the drugs to a short time to prevent undue reliance on them, and to prevent the use of hypnotics and sedatives from becoming a means of avoiding the patient’s real problem. In many cases, such as chronic depression, overwork, and alcohol abuse, hypnotics are quite inappropriate; some form of counselling and relaxation therapy is preferable.

Hypnotics should always be chosen and prescribed with care, bearing in mind the patient’s full circumstances. They are generally best avoided in the elderly (confusion is a common problem), and in children – apart from special cases. Barbiturates should not now be used as they tend to be addictive. The most commonly used hypnotics are the BENZODIAZEPINES such as nitrazepam and temazepam; chloral derivatives, while safer for the few children who merit them, are generally second choice and should be used in the lowest possible dose for the minimum period.

Side-effects include daytime drowsiness – which may interfere with driving and other skilled tasks – and insomnia following withdrawal, especially after prolonged use, is a hazard. Occasionally benzodiazepines will trigger hostility and aggression. Zolpidem and zopiclone are two drugs similar to the benzodiazepines, indicated for short-term treatment of insomnia in the elderly. Adverse effects include confusion, incoordination and unsteadiness, and falls have been reported.

FLUNITRAZEPAM is a tranquilliser/hypnotic that has been misused as a recreational drug.... hypnotics

Hypnotism

The process of producing a state of mind known as hypnosis. Although recognised for hundreds of years, the precise nature of this process is still poorly understood. One modern writer has de?ned hypnosis as ‘a temporary condition of altered attention, the most striking feature of which is greatly increased suggestibility’. There is no evidence, as has been claimed, that women can be more easily hypnotised than men; in fact, children and young adults are the more easily hypnotised, with middle-aged people being more resistant.

Hypnosis is induced by various methods, but the basis of all is some rhythmic stimulus accompanied by the repetition of carefully worded suggestions. The most commonly used method is to ask the patient to ?x his or her eye on a given spot, or light, and then to keep on repeating, in a quiet and soothing voice, that the patient’s eyes will gradually become tired and that he or she will want to close them.

There are various levels of hypnosis, usually classi?ed as light, medium, and deep, and it has been estimated that 10 per cent of people cannot be hypnotised; 35 per cent can be taken into light hypnosis; 35 per cent into medium hypnosis; and 20 per cent into deep hypnosis.

Hypnosis can be used as a treatment for some psychiatric patients and in some people with psychosomatic conditions in which emotional or psychological disturbances precipitate physical disorders such as skin lesions or headaches. Hypnosis may help to relieve pain in childbirth; asthma may also respond to it. Some people may ?nd hypnosis to be of help in overcoming addictions to smoking, alcohol or gambling. The process has associated risks, and its use in treatment should be by doctors trained in the technique.... hypnotism

Hypocapnia

A blood tension of carbon dioxide below normal. It is produced by HYPERVENTILATION which may be voluntary, mechanical (if the patient is on a ventilator) or in response to a physiological insult such as metabolic acidosis or brain injury.... hypocapnia

Hypodermic

A term pertaining to the region immediately under the skin. Thus, a hypodermic injection means an injection given underneath the skin. A hypodermic syringe is a small syringe which, ?tted with a ?ne needle, is used to give such injections.... hypodermic

Hypogammaglobulinaemia

A lower-than-normal amount of the protein GAMMA-GLOBULIN in the blood. The origin may be genetic – several types are inherited – or an acquired defect (for instance, some lymphomas cause the condition). Gamma-globulin largely comprises antibodies (IMMUNOGLOBULINS) so de?ciency of the protein reduces an individual’s natural resistance to infection (see IMMUNOLOGY).... hypogammaglobulinaemia

Hyponatraemia

A SERUM concentration of sodium below the normal range. It may be produced by dilution of blood (giving large volumes of salt-poor solutions intravenously), excessive water retention (inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone), excessive sodium loss, and, rarely, by inadequate salt intake.... hyponatraemia

Hypophysis

Another name for the PITUITARY GLAND.... hypophysis

Hypopiesis

The condition, or state, characterised by HYPOTENSION, or abnormally low blood pressure.... hypopiesis

Hypoproteinaemia

A fall in the amount of PROTEIN in the blood. This may be caused by malnutrition, loss of protein from kidney disorders, or faulty production of protein which occurs in some liver disorders. Hypoproteinaemia causes OEDEMA because ?uid accumulates in the tissues as a consequence of the metabolic abnormalities. Patients’ resistance to infections is also impaired.... hypoproteinaemia

Hypoprothrombinaemia

A de?ciency of PROTHROMBIN (clotting factor) in the blood. As a result the affected individual tends to bleed more easily. The defect may be inherited or be the consequence of liver disease or a de?ciency in vitamin K.

Anticoagulant therapy will also cause a fall in prothrombin levels.... hypoprothrombinaemia

Hypostasis

The term applied to the condition in which blood accumulates in a dependent part of the body as a result of poor circulation. Congestion of the base of the lungs in old people from this cause, and infection, is called hypostatic PNEUMONIA.... hypostasis

Hypotonic

(1) Referring to a solution which has a lower osmotic pressure (see OSMOSIS) than another. Physiologically it describes a solution with a lower osmotic pressure than body ?uids.

(2) Muscles with abnormally reduced tone.... hypotonic

Hypoventilation

Shallow and/or slow breathing, often caused by the effects of injury or drugs on the respiratory centre. It causes HYPERCAPNIA and HYPOXIA.... hypoventilation

Hypoxaemia

A fall in the concentration of OXYGEN in the arterial blood. Symptoms are those of CYANOSIS and, if severe, the affected individual will show signs of respiratory failure.... hypoxaemia

Hysterotomy

An operation in which the UTERUS is opened to remove a FETUS before 28 weeks’ gestation. After 28 weeks it would be called a CAESAREAN SECTION. It is now seldom used as a means of abortion.... hysterotomy

Luteinizing-hormone Releasing Hormone

(LH-RH) The same substance as Follicle-Stimulating-Hormone Releasing Hormone (FSH-RH), both of which are actually Gonadotrophin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH or GRH). Confused? Imagine being an endocrinologist 20 years ago. These (This) are (is) a peptide secreted into the little portal system that drains from the hypothalamus to the pituitary. If it is surged hourly and not too strongly, the pituitary secretes LH and the ovaries secrete estrogen. If it is surged hourly and strongly, the estrogens rise drastically, the pituitary secretes FSH, you pop an egg, start the corpus luteum and begin progesterone secretion. The surge is now slowed to every four or five hours, not too strongly, and the pituitary secretes LH every four or five hours...and the ovaries make progesterone. The same hypothalamic hormone triggers different pituitary responses based on AMPLITUDE and FREQUENCY.... luteinizing-hormone releasing hormone

Malignant Hypertension

Malignant hypertension has nothing to do with cancer; it derives its name from the fact that, if untreated, it runs a rapidly fatal course. (See HYPERTENSION.)... malignant hypertension

Null Hypothesis

The statistical hypothesis that one variable has no association with another variable or set of variables, or that two or more population distributions do not differ from one another. In simplest terms, the null hypothesis states that the results observed in a study, experiment or test are no different from what might have occurred by chance alone.... null hypothesis

Nursing Home

See “high dependency care facility”.... nursing home

Sex Hormones

These HORMONES control the development of primary and secondary sexual characteristics. They also regulate sex-related functions – for example, menstruation and the production of sperm and eggs. The three main types of sex hormone are androgens, or male sex hormones (see ANDROGEN); OESTROGENS, or female sex hormones; and progesterones, which are involved in pregnancy (see PROGESTERONE).... sex hormones

Sodium Hypochlorite

A disinfectant by virtue of the fact that it gives o? chlorine. For domestic use – as, for example, for sterilising baby feeding bottles – it is available in a variety of proprietary preparations.... sodium hypochlorite

Viral Haemorrhagic Fever

Also called EBOLA VIRUS DISEASE. A usually fatal infection caused by a virus related to that of MARBURG DISEASE. Two large outbreaks of it were recorded in 1976 (one in the Sudan and one in Zaïre), with a mortality, respectively, of 50 and 80 per cent, and the disease reappeared in the Sudan in 1979. After an incubation period of 7–14 days, the onset is with headache of increasing severity, and fever. This is followed by diarrhoea, extensive internal bleeding and vomiting. Death usually occurs on the eighth to ninth day. Infection is by person-to-person contact. Serum from patients convalescent from the disease is a useful source of ANTIBODIES to the virus.... viral haemorrhagic fever

Ulcer Healing Drugs

A variety of drugs with di?ering actions are available for the treatment of peptic ulcer, the composite title covering gastric ulcer (see STOMACH, DISEASES OF) and DUODENAL ULCER. Peptic ulceration may also involve the lower OESOPHAGUS, and after stomach surgery the junction of the stomach and small intestine.

The drugs used in combination are:

The receptor antagonists, which reduce the output of gastric acid by histamine H2receptor blockade; they include CIMETIDINE, FAMOTIDINE and RANITIDINE.

ANTIBIOTICS to eradicate Helicobacter pylori infection, a major cause of peptic ulceration. They are usually used in combination with one of the PROTON-PUMP INHIBITORS and include clarithomycin, amoxacillin and metronidazole.

BISMUTH chelates.

The prostaglandin analogue misoprostol has antisecretory and protective properties.

Proton-pump inhibitors omeprazole, lansoprazole, pantaprazole and rabeprazole, all of which inhibit gastric-acid secretion by blocking the proton pump enzyme system.... ulcer healing drugs

Haemolytic

A herb that lyses red blood cells by causing them to rupture. Soapwort. ... haemolytic

Coronary Heart Disease

The cause of: coronary occlusion, coronary blockage, coronary thrombosis. A heart attack occurs when a coronary artery becomes blocked by swellings composed, among other things, of cholesterol. Such swellings may obstruct the flow of blood leading to a blood clot (thrombus). Cholesterol is a major cause of CHD.

Coronary thrombosis is more common in the West because of its preference for animal fats; whereas in the East fats usually take the form of vegetable oils – corn, sunflower seed, sesame, etc. Fatty deposits (atheroma) form in the wall of the coronary artery, obstructing blood-flow. Vessels narrowed by atheroma and by contact with calcium and other salts become hard and brittle (arterio-sclerosis) and are easily blocked. Robbed of oxygen and nutrients heart muscle dies and is replaced by inelastic fibrous (scar) tissue which robs the heart of its maximum performance.

Severe pain and collapse follow a blockage. Where only a small branch of the coronary arterial tree is affected recovery is possible. Cause of the pain is lack of oxygen (Vitamin E). Incidence is highest among women over 40 who smoke excessively and who take The Pill.

The first warning sign is breathlessness and anginal pain behind the breastbone which radiates to arms and neck. Sensation as if the chest is held in a vice. First-line agent to improve flow of blood – Cactus.

For cholesterol control target the liver. Coffee is a minor risk factor.

Measuring hair calcium levels is said to predict those at risk of coronary heart disease. Low hair concentrations may be linked with poor calcium metabolism, high aortic calcium build-up and the formation of plagues. (Dr Allan MacPherson, nutritionist, Scottish Agricultural College, Ayr, Scotland)

Evidence has been advanced that a diagonal ear lobe crease may be a predictor for coronary heart disease. (American Journal of Cardiology, Dec. 1992)

Tooth decay is linked to an increased risk of coronary heart disease and mortality, particularly in young men. (Dr Frank De Stefano, Marshfield Medical Research Foundation, Wisconsin, USA) Treatment. Urgency. Send for doctor or suitably qualified practitioner. Absolute bedrest for 3 weeks followed by 3 months convalescence. Thereafter: adapt lifestyle to slower tempo and avoid undue exertion. Stop smoking. Adequate exercise. Watch weight.

Cardiotonics: Motherwort, Hawthorn, Mistletoe, Rosemary. Ephedra, Lily of the Valley, Broom.

Cardiac vasodilators relax tension on the vessels by increasing capacity of the arteries to carry more blood. Others contain complex glycosides that stimulate or relax the heart at its work. Garlic is strongly recommended as a preventative of CHD.

Hawthorn, vasodilator and anti-hypertensive, is reputed to dissolve deposits in thickened and sclerotic arteries BHP (1983). It is believed to regulate the balance of lipids (body fats) one of which is cholesterol.

Serenity tea. Equal parts: Motherwort, Lemon Balm, Hawthorn leaves or flowers. 1 heaped teaspoon to each cup boiling water; infuse 5-15 minutes; 1 cup freely.

Decoction. Combine equal parts: Broom, Lily of the Valley, Hawthorn. 1-2 teaspoons to each cup water gently simmered 20 minutes. Half-1 cup freely.

Tablets/capsules. Hawthorn, Motherwort, Cactus, Mistletoe, Garlic.

Practitioner. Formula. Hawthorn 20ml; Lily of the Valley 10ml; Pulsatilla 5ml; Stone root 5ml; Barberry 5ml. Tincture Capsicum 1ml. Dose: Powders: 500mg (two 00 capsules or one-third teaspoon). Liquid extracts: 1 teaspoon. Tinctures: 2 teaspoons. Thrice daily in water or honey.

Prevention: Vitamin E – 400iu daily.

Diet. See: DIET – HEART AND CIRCULATION.

Supplements. Daily. Vitamin C, 2g. Vitamin E possesses anti-clotting properties, 400iu. Broad spectrum multivitamin and mineral including chromium, magnesium selenium, zinc, copper.

Acute condition. Strict bed-rest; regulate bowels; avoid excessive physical and mental exertion. Meditation and relaxation techniques dramatically reduce coronary risk. ... coronary heart disease

Hangover

After-effects of excessive alcohol consumption.

Symptoms. Dry mouth, thirst, increased output of urine, fatigue, irritability. Alcohol increases REM (rapid eye movement) during sleep. Brain cell excitability is followed by depression.

Potassium loss may be severe, as also loss of Vitamins B, B6 and C. Bananas are rich in potassium. Alternatives. Tea. 1-2 cups Chamomile tea. Ginger. Gin-and-tonic with juice of lemon, plus teaspoon honey.

Morning-after tea. Meadowsweet (antacid) 1; Centuary (bitter) 1; Black Horehound (antiemetic) 1; Gentian (tonic) quarter; Ginger (stomach settler) quarter. Mix. 2 teaspoons to each cup boiling water; infuse 10 minutes. Drink freely.

Diet. Honey for energy. Slippery Elm gruel. Avoid coffee.

Supplements. B-complex, C, E. Essential fatty acids. Potassium, Magnesium, Selenium, Zinc.

Note: Alcohol is a strong diuretic which drains the body and brain cells of vital fluids. Alcohol also contains congeners, the chemical by-products of fermentation which have a poisonous effect upon the body. The most important treatment is water – long drinks to rehydrate the body and brain. Water also helps the kidneys and liver to wash out the poisons. ... hangover

Hashimoto’s Disease

Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. Inflammation of the Thyroid gland with increase of fibrous tissue and intrusion of excess white blood cells. Forerunner of myxoedema. It is an auto-immune disorder resulting in thyroid damage. Middle-aged women prone. Painless swelling.

Alternatives. Treatment. Echinacea is the key remedy.

Others indicated: Red Clover flower, Blue Flag root, Horsetail, Poke root, Bladderwrack. May be taken singly, as available.

Tea: Combine Bladderwrack 2; Echinacea 2; Horsetail 1. 1-2 teaspoons to each cup boiling water; infuse 15 minutes. Half-1 cup thrice daily.

Tinctures. Combine: Bladderwrack 2; Echinacea 2; Horsetail 1. Dose: one to two 5ml teaspoons in water thrice daily.

Diet. Iodised salt. Avoid cabbage which contains a factor which depresses the thyroid gland. Supplementation. Vitamin A. B-complex. Kelp. ... hashimoto’s disease

Heart Disease – Congenital

Heart disease arising from abnormal development. Some cases are hereditary, others due to drugs taken during pregnancy. Many owe their origin to illnesses of the mother such as German measles. Structural abnormalities of the heart take different forms but whatever the case, when under abnormal pressure and stress, all may derive some small benefit from the sustaining properties of Hawthorn berry and other phytomedicines.

Alternatives. To sustain.

Teas. Lime flowers, Motherwort, Buckwheat, Hawthorn.

Tablets/capsules. Hawthorn, Mistletoe, Motherwort.

Formula. Hawthorn 2; Lily of the Valley 1; Selenicereus grandiflorus 1. Powders: 500mg (two 00 capsules or one-third teaspoon). Liquid extracts: 1 teaspoon. Tinctures: 2 teaspoons. In water morning and evening. ... heart disease – congenital

Adrenocorticotrophic Hormone

See ACTH.... adrenocorticotrophic hormone

Antepartum Haemorrhage

Bleeding from the vagina after the 28th week of pregnancy. Antepartum haemorrhage is most commonly due to a problem with the placenta, such as placenta praevia or placental abruption. Bleeding can also be caused by cervical erosion or other disorders of the cervix or vagina.

Admission to hospital is necessary for investigation and treatment.

Ultrasound scanning is used to diagnose problems with the placenta.

If the bleeding is severe, the woman is given a blood transfusion, and the baby is delivered immediately by caesarean section.... antepartum haemorrhage

Herpes, Genital

 Venereal disease. Caused by Herpes simplex virus, type 2, (HSV2) which infects the skin and mucosa of the genital organs and anus. The strain is more virulent than HSV1 which attacks face and lips. Contagious. STD. Blisters appear 4-7 days after coitus. May be transmitted by mother to baby at delivery. The condition is often misdiagnosed as thrush. To dispel doubts, refer to urological department of nearest hospital. Evidence exists between genital herpes and cancer of the cervix. Clinical diagnosis should be confirmed by virus culture. Attacks are recurrent and self-infective.

Symptoms: redness, soreness, itching followed by blisters on the penis or vulva. Blisters ulcerate before crusting over. Lesions on anus of homosexual men.

Treatment by general medical practitioner or hospital specialist.

Alternatives. Sarsaparilla, Echinacea, Chaparral and St John’s Wort often give dramatic relief to itching rash. See entry: ECHINACEA.

Tea. Formula. Equal parts: Clivers, Gotu Kola, Valerian. One heaped teaspoon to each cup boiling water; infuse 5-10 minutes. Dose: 1 cup thrice daily.

Decoction. Combine: Echinacea 2; Valerian 1; Jamaican Dogwood 1. One heaped teaspoon to each cup water gently simmered 20 minutes. Half-1 cup thrice daily.

Tablets/capsules. Poke root. Valerian. Passion flower. St John’s Wort. Echinacea. Chaparral. Pulsatilla. Red Clover.

Powders. Formula. Echinacea 2; Valerian 1; Jamaica Dogwood 1. Dose: 500mg (two 00 capsules or one- third teaspoon) thrice daily.

Tinctures. Formula. Echinacea 2; Sarsaparilla 1; Thuja quarter; Liquorice quarter. Dose: 1-2 teaspoons thrice daily.

Topical. Apply any of the following 3, 4 or more times daily. Pulp or gel of Aloe Vera, Houseleek, Echinacea lotion. Garlic – apply slice of fresh corm as an antihistamine. Yoghurt compresses (improved by pinch of Goldenseal powder). Zinc and Castor oil (impressive record). Apply direct or on tampons. Diet. Porridge oats, or muesli oats.

Supplementation: same as for Shingles.

Prevention. Women should be advised to submit for an annual cytosmear. Information. Herpes Association, 41 North Road, London N7 9DP, UK. Send SAE. ... herpes, genital

Antidiuretic Hormone

See ADH.... antidiuretic hormone

Aqueous Humour

A watery fluid that fills the front chamber of the eye, behind the cornea.... aqueous humour

Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

(BPH) A medical term for enlargement of the prostate gland (see prostate, enlarged).... benign prostatic hyperplasia

Breath-holding Attacks

Periods during which a toddler holds his or her breath, usually as an expression of pain, frustration, or anger.

The child usually becomes red or even blue in the face after a few seconds, and may faint.

Breathing quickly resumes as a natural reflex, ending the attack.

Attacks cause no damage and are usually outgrown.... breath-holding attacks

Cerebral Haemorrhage

Bleeding within the brain due to a ruptured blood vessel (see intracerebral haemorrhage; stroke).... cerebral haemorrhage

Homoeopathy

A medical doctrine teaching that drugs capable of producing disease symptoms in a healthy person can, in infinitesimal doses, cure the same group of symptoms met in a particular disease.

Hippocrates was aware of the universal law similia similibus curentur (like cures like). He taught that some diseases were cured by similars, and others by contraries. Stahl (1738) was also aware of this law of healing: “diseases will yield to and be cured by remedies that produce a similar affection”. But it was Samuel Hahnemann (1755-1843) who proved to the world this doctrine held the key to the selection of specifically acting medicines. His early experiments with nux vomica, arnica, ignatia and veratrum showed how the medicine which cured produced a similar condition in healthy people.

While no one has yet discovered the ‘modus operandi’ of the science, it has grown up largely through empiric experience, especially during certain historical epidemics in different parts of the world. For example, in 1836 cholera raged through most of the cities of Austria. Orthodox medicine could do little.

Out of desperation, the Government commissioned the aid of homoeopathy. A crude hospital was hastily prepared and patients admitted. Results convinced the most hardened sceptics. Physician-in-charge, Dr Fleischman, lost only 33 per cent, whereas other treatments showed a death rate of over 70 per cent.

It is said that reduction of inflammatory fevers by homoeopathic Aconite, Gelsemium, Baptisia and Belladonna played no small part in reducing the practice of blood-letting in the early 19th century.

Since Hahneman, homoeopathy has been the object of intense professional bitterness by its opponents but since the 1968 Medicines Act (UK) provision has been made for homoeopathic treatment on the “National Health Service”. Conversion of medical opinion has been gradual and today many registered medical practitioners also use the therapy.

“It is the general theory that the process of dilution and succussion (a vigorous shaking by the hand or by a machine) “potentises” a remedy.

“To prepare. A remedy is first prepared in solution as a “mother tincture”. In the decimal system of dilution a small quantity is then diluted ten times by the addition of nine parts by volume of diluent – either alcohol or water and then shaken vigorously by hand or machine (succussion). A small quantity of this is then diluted to one tenth and succussed a second time; this process is repeated again and again, producing solutions identified as 3x, 6x, 30x according to the number of times diluted. It may even be continued a thousand times (1 M). The resulting solutions are adsorbed on to an inert tablet or granules, usually of lactose, and in this form it is claimed that they remain therapeutically active indefinitely.

“For higher dilutions the centesimal system is used, when each dilution is by 1 in 100. The resulting solutions or tablets are referred to as 3C, 6C, 12C etc according to the number of times diluted.

“When dealing with a remedy which is insoluble, e.g. Carbo Veg, the first three dilutions and succussions are done in powder form, i.e. to “3x” beyond which the remedy is sufficiently soluble for further dilutions to proceed in liquid form.

“In homoeopathy a remedy may in some cases be given in a dilution so great that no single molecule of the original substance remains. The concept of “memory laden” water implies that the effect lies in a pattern impressed on the water molecules and that this is carried over from one dilution to the next.” (John Cosh MD., FRCP)

Homoeopathic medicines can stand most tests for safety, since it is widely held that they are completely safe and non-addictive, with no side-effects. ... homoeopathy

Glycosylated Haemoglobin

A form of haemoglobin that is bound to the sugar glucose. In most people, 3–8 per cent of haemoglobin is glycosylated. In people with diabetes mellitus, the level of glycosylated haemoglobin may be raised if treatment has not kept the blood glucose level within the normal range. Glycosylated haemoglobin levels indicate blood glucose levels over the preceding 3 months.... glycosylated haemoglobin

Graft-versus-host Disease

A complication of a bone marrow transplant in which immune system cells in the transplanted marrow attack the recipient’s tissues. Graft-versus-host (GVH) disease may occur soon after transplantation or appear some months later. The first sign is usually a skin rash. This may be followed by diarrhoea, abdominal pain, jaundice, inflammation of the eyes and mouth, and breathlessness.

GVH disease can usually be prevented by administration of immunosuppressant drugs. If the disease develops, it can be treated with corticosteroid drugs and immunosuppressant drugs such as ciclosporin In some cases, however, it can be difficult to control.... graft-versus-host disease

Haemangioblastoma

A rare type of brain tumour consisting of blood-vessel cells. Haemangioblastomas develop slowly as cysts, often in the cerebellum, and are mostly noncancerous. Symptoms include headache, vomiting, nystagmus and, if the tumour is in the cerebellum, ataxia. Most can be removed surgically.... haemangioblastoma

Haemoglobinopathy

A term used to describe the genetic disorders in which there is a fault in the production of the globin chains of haemoglobin.

Examples of haemoglobinopathies include sickle cell anaemia and the thalassaemias.... haemoglobinopathy

Haemorrhoidectomy

The surgical removal of haemorrhoids. The procedure is used to treat large, prolapsing, or bleeding haemorrhoids.... haemorrhoidectomy

Hairball

A ball of hair in the stomach, found in people who nervously suck or chew their hair (see bezoar).... hairball

Handedness

Preference for using the right or left hand. Some 90 per cent of adults use the right hand for writing; two thirds prefer the right hand for most activities requiring coordination and skill. The others are either lefthanded or ambidextrous (able to use both hands equally well).

Handedness is related to the division of the brain into 2 hemispheres, each of which controls movement and sensation on the opposite side of the body.

In most right-handed people the speech centre is in the left brain hemisphere.

Inheritance is probably the most important factor in determining handedness.... handedness

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

(ADHD) A behavioural disorder in which a child has a consistently high level of activity and/or difficulty in attending to tasks. Attention deficit hyperactivity, or hyperkinetic, disorder affects up to 1 in 20 children in the. The disorder, which is more common in boys, should not be confused with the normal boisterous conduct of a healthy child. Children with consistently show abnormal patterns of behaviour over a period of time. An affected child is likely to be restless, unable to sit still for more than a few moments, inattentive, and impulsive.

The causes of are not fully understood, but the disorder often runs in families, which suggests that genetic factors may be involved. is not, as popularly believed, a result of poor parenting or abuse.

Symptoms develop in early childhood, usually between the ages of 3 and 7, and may include inability to finish tasks; short attention span; inability to concentrate in class; difficulty in following instructions; a tendency to talk excessively, frequently interrupting other people; difficulty in waiting or taking turns; inability to play quietly alone; and physical impulsiveness. Children with may have difficulty in forming friendships. Self-esteem is often low because an affected child is frequently scolded and criticized.

Treatment includes behaviour modification techniques, both at home and at school. In some children, avoidance of certain foods or food additives seems to reduce symptoms. In severe cases, stimulant drugs, usually methylphenidate, may be prescribed. Paradoxically, the use of stimulants in reduces hyperactivity and improves concentration. In general, the condition improves by adolescence but may be followed by antisocial behaviour and drug abuse or substance abuse.... attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

Hashish

Another name for marijuana.... hashish

Hallucination

A perception that occurs when there is no external stimulus. Auditory hallucinations (the hearing of voices) are a major symptom of schizophrenia but may also be caused by manic–depressive illness and certain brain disorders. Visual hallucinations are most often found in states of delirium brought on by a physical illness (such as pneumonia) or alcohol withdrawal (delirium tremens). Hallucinogenic drugs are another common cause of visual hallucinations. Hallucinations of smell are associated with temporal lobe epilepsy. Those of touch and taste are rare, however, and occur mainly in people with schizophrenia. People subjected to sensory deprivation or overwhelming physical stress sometimes suffer from temporary hallucinations.... hallucination

Heart Attack

See myocardial infarction.... heart attack

Heart Failure

Inability of the heart to cope with its workload of pumping blood to the lungs and to the rest of the body. Heart failure can primarily affect the right or the left side of the heart, although it most commonly affects both sides, in which case it is known as congestive, or chronic, heart failure.

Left-sided heart failure may be caused by hypertension, anaemia, hyperthyroidism, a heart valve defect (such as aortic stenosis, aortic incompetence, or mitral incompetence), or a congenital heart defect (see heart disease, congenital). Other causes of left-sided heart failure include coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction, cardiac arrhythmias, and cardiomyopathy.

The left side of the heart fails to empty completely with each contraction, or has difficulty in accepting blood that has been returned from the lungs. The retained blood creates a back pressure that causes the lungs to become congested with blood. This condition leads to pulmonary oedema.

Right-sided heart failure most often results from pulmonary hypertension, which is itself caused by left-sided failure or by lung disease (such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (see pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive). Right-sided failure can also be due to a valve defect, such as tricuspid incompetence, or a congenital heart defect.

There is back pressure in the circulation from the heart into the venous system, causing swollen neck veins, enlargement of the liver, and oedema, especially of the legs and ankles. The intestines may become congested, causing discomfort.

Immediate treatment consists of bed rest, with the patient sitting up. Diuretic drugs are given, and digitalis drugs and vasodilators, especially ACE inhibitors, may also be administered. Morphine and oxygen may be given as emergency treatment in acute left-sided failure.... heart failure

Heimlich Manoeuvre

A first-aid treatment for choking. The sole aim of the Heimlich manoeuvre is to dislodge the material that is causing the blockage by placing one fist, covered by the other, just below the victim’s rib cage, and pulling sharply inwards and upwards to give an abdominal thrust.... heimlich manoeuvre

Herniorrhaphy

Surgical correction of a hernia. (See hernia repair.)... herniorrhaphy

Hickman Catheter

A flexible plastic tube, also known as a skin-tunnelled catheter, that is passed through the chest and inserted into the subclavian vein, which leads to the heart. It is often used in people who have leukaemia or other cancers and need regular chemotherapy and blood tests. The catheter allows drugs to be injected directly into the bloodstream and blood samples to be obtained easily. The catheter is inserted, under local anaesthesia. It can remain in position for months; the external end is plugged when not in use.... hickman catheter

Hidradenitis Suppurativa

Inflammation of the sweat glands in the armpits and groin due to a bacterial infection.

Abscesses develop beneath the skin, which becomes reddened and painful and may ooze pus.

The condition tends to be recurrent and can eventually cause scarring in the affected areas.

Antibiotic drugs may help to reduce the severity of an outbreak.... hidradenitis suppurativa

High Density Lipoprotein

One of a group of proteins that transport lipids in the blood. High levels of high density lipoprotein can help protect against atherosclerosis. (See also fats and oils; low density lipoprotein.)... high density lipoprotein

Hippocampus

A structure in the limbic system of the brain. The hippocampus, consisting of a band of grey matter, is involved with some learning processes and long-term memory storage.... hippocampus

Hole In The Heart

The common name for a septal defect.... hole in the heart

Hirschsprung’s Disease

A congenital disorder in which the rectum, and sometimes the lower part of the colon, lack the ganglion cells that control the intestine’s rhythmic contractions. The affected area becomes narrowed and blocks the movement of faecal material.

The disease is rare and tends to run in families. It occurs about 4 times more often in boys. Symptoms, which include constipation and bloating, usually develop in the first few weeks of life, but may become evident in infancy or early childhood. The child usually has a poor appetite and may fail to grow properly.

A barium X-ray examination can show the narrowed segment of the intestine.

A biopsy may be taken.

Treatment of Hirschsprung’s disease involves removing the narrowed segment and rejoining the normal intestine to the anus.... hirschsprung’s disease

Hordeolum

The medical name for a stye.... hordeolum

Horner’s Syndrome

A group of physical signs (narrowing of the eye pupil, drooping of the eyelid, and absence of sweating) affecting 1 side of the face that indicates damage to part of the sympathetic nervous system (see autonomic nervous system).... horner’s syndrome

Human Papillomavirus

A type of virus that is responsible for warts and genital warts.

There are over 50 strains of human papillomavirus.

Infection with some of these strains is thought to be a causative factor in cervical cancer and anal cancer.... human papillomavirus

Huntington’s Disease

An uncommon disease in which degeneration of the basal ganglia results in chorea and dementia. Symptoms of Huntington’s disease do not usually appear until age 35–50. The disease is due to a defective gene and is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner (see genetic disorders).

The chorea usually affects the face, arms, and trunk, resulting in random grimaces and twitches, and clumsiness. Dementia takes the form of irritability, personality and behavioural changes, memory loss, and apathy.

At present, there is no cure for Huntington’s disease, and treatment is aimed at reducing symptoms with drugs.... huntington’s disease

Hurler’s Syndrome

A rare, inherited condition caused by an enzyme defect. The syndrome is a type of inborn error of metabolism (see metabolism, inborn errors of) in which there is an abnormal accumulation of substances known as mucopolysaccharides in the tissues.

Affected children may appear normal at birth but, at 6–12 months of age, they develop cardiac abnormalities, umbilical hernia, skeletal deformities, and enlargement of the tongue, liver, and spleen.

Growth is limited and mental development slows.

If the condition is diagnosed in early infancy, a bone marrow transplant may be curative.... hurler’s syndrome

Hydralazine

An antihypertensive drug used principally as an emergency treatment for hypertension.

Hydralazine may cause nausea, headache, dizziness, irregular heartbeat, loss of appetite, rash, and joint pain.

Taken long term in high doses it may cause lupus erythematosus.... hydralazine

Hydrops

An abnormal accumulation of fluid in body tissues or in a sac.... hydrops

Hyperaldosteronism

A metabolic disorder caused by an overproduction of the hormone aldosterone by the adrenal glands (see aldosteronism).... hyperaldosteronism

Hyperbilirubinaemia

A raised blood level of bilirubin. It may be undetectable except by a blood test, but jaundice occurs if the blood bilirubin rises to twice the normal level.... hyperbilirubinaemia

Hyperhidrosis

Excessive sweating, which may be localized (affecting only the armpits, feet, palms, or face) or affect all body areas supplied by sweat glands.

Excessive sweating may be caused by hot weather, exercise, or anxiety. In some cases it is due to an infection, thyrotoxicosis, hypoglycaemia, or a nervous system disorder. Usually, the disorder has no known cause, and begins at puberty, disappearing by the mid-20s or early 30s.

If hyperhidrosis is persistent and cannot be controlled by antiperspirants, surgery may be considered to destroy the nerve centres that control sweating.... hyperhidrosis

Hypersplenism

An overactivity of the spleen resulting in, and associated with, blood disease. One of the functions of the spleen is to break down blood cells as they age and wear out. An overactive spleen may begin to destroy cells indiscriminately, causing a deficiency of any of the types of blood cell. In most cases, the spleen will also be enlarged. Hypersplenism may be primary, occurring for no known reason, but more commonly it is secondary to another disorder in which the spleen has become enlarged, such as Hodgkin’s disease or malaria.

Hypersplenism causes anaemia and thrombocytopenia, and there may be a decrease in resistance to infection.

Primary hypersplenism is treated with splenectomy.

Treatment of secondary hypersplenism aims to control the cause.... hypersplenism

Hypertonia

Increased rigidity in a muscle, which may be caused by damage to its nerve supply or changes within the muscle.

Hypertonia causes episodes of continuous muscle spasm.

Persistent hypertonia in limb muscles following a stroke or head injury leads to spasticity.... hypertonia

Hypertrichosis

Growth of excessive hair, often in places that are not normally hairy. Hypertrichosis often occurs as a result of taking certain drugs (including ciclosporin and minoxidil). The term hypertrichosis is also used to describe hair growth in a mole. Hypertrichosis isnot the same as hirsutism, which is due to abnormal levels of male hormones. hypertrophy Enlargement of an organ or tissue due to an increase in the size, rather than number, of its constituent cells. For example, skeletal muscles enlarge in response to increased physical demands. (See also hyperplasia..

hyperuricaemia An abnormally high level of uric acid in the blood. Hyperuricaemia may lead to gout due to the deposition of uric acid crystals in the joints; it may also cause kidney stones (see calculus, urinary tract) and tophus.

Hyperuricaemia may be caused by an inborn error of metabolism (see metabolism, inborn errors of), by the rapid destruction of cells in a disease such as leukaemia, or by medication that reduces the excretion of uric acid by the kidneys, such as diuretic drugs. Large amounts of purine in the diet may also cause hyperuricaemia.

Drugs such as allopurinol or sulfinpyrazone are prescribed for the duration of the patient’s life. Purine-rich foods should be avoided.... hypertrichosis

Hyphaema

Blood in the front chamber of the eye, usually caused by an injury that ruptures a small blood vessel in the iris or ciliary body.

Initially, there may be blurred vision, but the blood usually disappears completely within a few days and vision is restored.... hyphaema

Hypnosis

A trance-like state of altered awareness characterized by extreme suggestibility.

Some psychoanalysts induce a hypnotic state as a means of helping patients remember and come to terms with disturbing events.

More often, hypnosis is used to help patients to relax.

It may be useful in people suffering from anxiety, panic attacks, or phobias, or in those wishing to correct addictive habits.... hypnosis

Hypohidrosis

Reduced activity of the sweat glands.

Hypohidrosis is a feature of hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia, a rare, inherited, incurable condition that is characterized by reduced sweating and is accompanied by dry, wrinkled skin, sparse hair, small, brittle nails, and conical teeth.

Other causes of hypohidrosis include exfoliative dermatitis and some anticholinergic drugs.... hypohidrosis

Hyposensitization

A preventive treatment of allergy to specific substances, such as grass pollens and insect venom. Hyposensitization involves giving gradually increasing doses of the allergen so that the immune system becomes less sensitive to that substance. The treatment, which may need to be repeated annually for a few years, carries the risk of anaphylactic shock.... hyposensitization

Hypotonia

Abnormal muscle slackness.

Normally, a muscle that is not being used has a certain inbuilt tension, but in a number of disorders affecting the nervous system (such as Huntington’s disease) this natural tension is reduced.... hypotonia

Hypovitaminosis

Any condition that results from insufficiency of 1 or more vitamins.

Hypovitaminosis may be due to an inadequate dietary intake or a digestive disorder that causes malabsorption.... hypovitaminosis

Hysterosalpingography

An X-ray procedure in which a dye (radiopaque contrast medium) is introduced into the cavity of the uterus via the cervix to make the uterus and fallopian tubes visible on X-rays. Hysterosalpingography is used to investigate infertility.... hysterosalpingography

Incisional Hernia

A type of hernia in which the intestine bulges through a scarred area of the abdominal wall because the muscle has been weakened by a previous surgical incision.... incisional hernia

Mental Health Act

The Mental Health

Act (1983) details the rights of patients with mental illness and the grounds for detaining mentally ill people against their will. It also outlines forms of legal guardianship for such patients.

When a person is endangering his or her own or other people’s health or safety (for example, threatening harm or suicide) because of a recognized mental illness, he or she may be compulsorily taken into hospital to be given treatment.

If a person breaks the law because of a mental disorder, the courts may remand him or her to hospital.... mental health act

Perianal Haematoma

A haematoma under the skin around the anus.... perianal haematoma

Postpartum Haemorrhage

Excessive blood loss after childbirth. It is more common after a long labour or after a multiple birth. The haemorrhage is usually due to excessive bleeding from the site where the placenta was attached to the uterus.... postpartum haemorrhage

Postural Hypotension

See hypotension.... postural hypotension

Hereditary

An inherited disorder in which there are a large number of unusually small, round red blood cells (spherocytes) in the circulation.

These abnormal red cells are readily broken up when blood passes through the spleen.

At times, the rate of red cell destruction exceeds the rate at which new cells can be made in the bone marrow, leading to symptoms of anaemia.

Other symptoms include jaundice and enlargement of the spleen.

Occasionally, crises occur (usually triggered by infection) in which all symptoms worsen.

Gallstones are a frequent complication.

Splenectomy usually leads to permanent improvement.... hereditary

Splinter Haemorrhage

Bleeding under the fingernails visible as tiny splinterlike marks.

Usually due to trauma, it can also be a sign of infective endocarditis.... splinter haemorrhage

Umbilical Hernia

A soft swelling at the umbilicus due to protrusion of the abdominal contents through a weak area of abdominal wall. Umbilical hernias are quite common in newborn babies and occur twice as often in boys as in girls. The swelling increases in size when the baby cries, and it may cause discomfort. Umbilical hernias usually disappear without treatment by age 2. If a hernia is still present at age 4, surgery may be needed.

Umbilical hernias sometimes develop in adults, especially in women after childbirth. Surgery may be necessary for a large, persistent, or disfiguring hernia.... umbilical hernia

Vitreous Humour

The transparent, gellike body that fills the rear compartment of the eye between the crystalline lens and the retina.

The vitreous humour consists almost entirely of water.... vitreous humour

World Health Organization

(WHO)

An international organization established in 1948 as an agency of the United Nations with responsibilities for international health matters and public health. The headquarters are in Geneva, Switzerland.

The has campaigned effectively against some infectious diseases, most

notably smallpox, tuberculosis, and malaria.

Other functions include sponsoring medical research programmes, organizing a network of collaborating national laboratories, and providing expert advice and specific targets to its 160 member states with regard to health matters.... world health organization

Abuta Tea: Healing Effects

Abuta tea is a complex type of tea, used at first only by midwives to treat different childbirth issues. Now, it is widely-appreciated due to its therapeutic value. About Abuta Tea Abuta is a high-climbing vine, originating from South Africa and being widely known for its efficiency in treating women’s ailments. The plant has woody stems and extremely long roots. Its leaves are heart-shaped and have a waxy texture. The seeds are flat, the flowers grow in panicles, whereas its fruits are bright red, turning black when they are ripened. Practitioners of nowadays medicine have been acknowledged using derivatives of some of the constituents of abuta to block neuromuscular activity during surgery. Extracts of the same plant are included in pharmaceutical products for medical applications. Abuta tea gained its reputation as the brew used by midwives, especially in South America. It is thought to help fighting hemorrhage that may threaten a miscarriage. In Indian Ayurvedic medicine, Abuta tea is believed to have anti-fertility properties. Brewing Abuta Tea Abuta tea can be intaken in the form of capsules or tincture. It can be brewed in the following way:
  • boil the dried roots of the plant ( 20 to 25 minutes)
  • allow the mix to steep (5 minutes)
  • drink it slowly
Abuta Tea benefits Abuta Teais successfully used to:
  • fight kidney stones and bladder infections
  • alleviate fever
  • counter jaundice
  • ease symptoms of arthritis and rheumatism
  • fight gonorrhea
  • treat anemia
Abuta tea is given to women to help ease childbirth. It is also efficient in alleviating the unpleasant menstrual problems. Abuta Tea side effects High doses ofAbuta teacombined with other medications, may lead to respiratory problems. It is not recommended to pregnant or breastfeeding women. Abuta tea is benefic to treat a large array of diseases, being also recommended as an excellent blood depurative.... abuta tea: healing effects

Aconitum Heterophyllum

Wall. ex Royle.

Family: Ranunculaceae.

Family: Ranunculaceae.

Habitat: The alpine Himalayas from Sikkim to Garhwal and Assam.

English: Indian Aconite, Wolfsbane, Monkshood.

Ayurvedic: Vatsanaabha, Visha, Amrita, Vajraanga, Sthaavaravisha, Vatsanaagaka, Shrangikavisha, Garala.

Unani: Bish, Bishnaag.

Siddha/Tamil: Vasanaavi, Karunaab- hi.

Folk: Bacchanaag, Bish, Mithaa Zahar, Telia Visha.

Action: Narcotic, sedative, antilepro- tic, anti-inflammatory. Extremely poisonous. (Roots possess depressant activity, but after mitigation in cow's milk for 2-3 days, they exhibit stimulant activity.)

Key application: In neuralgia. (Aconitum napellus L. has been listed by German Commission E among unapproved herbs.)

The root contains diterpenoid alkaloids, which act as a powerful poison that affects the heart and central nervous system. Aconitine has a shortlived cardiotonic action followed by

Habitat: Cultivated at Manali and Rahla in Himachal Pradesh. Also found in northwestern Himalayas at altitudes ranging from 2,000 to 4,000 m.

English: Atis Root, Aconite.

Ayurvedic: Ativishaa, Arunaa, Vishaa, Shuklakandaa, Bhanguraa, Ghunapriyaa, Ghunavallabhaa, Kaashmiraa, Shishubhaishajyaa (indicating its use in paediatrics), Vishwaa.

Unani: Atees.

Siddha/Tamil: Athividayam.

Folk: Patis.

Action: Often regarded as non- poisosnous, antiperiodic, anti- inflammatory, astringent (used in cough, diarrhoea, dyspepsia), tonic (used after fevers), febrifuge, antispasmodic (used in irritability of stomach and abdominal pains).

Along with other therapeutic applications, The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India indicates the use of the dried, tuberous root in emesis and helminthi- asis.

The roots yield 0.79% of total alkaloids, of which atisin is 0.4%. Atisine is much less toxic than aconitine and pseudoaconitine. (The inert character of the plant is well known to the hill people, who often use it as a vegetable.) The plant possesses potent immuno- stimulant properties.

Dosage: Root—0.6-2.08 g. (API Vol. I.)... aconitum heterophyllum

Acth (adrenocorticotrophic Hormone)

ACTH is the commonly used abbreviation for CORTICOTROPIN.... acth (adrenocorticotrophic hormone)

Action On Smoking And Health

See ASH.... action on smoking and health

Acute Care / Acute Health Care

Care that is generally provided for a short period of time to treat a new illness or a flare-up of an existing condition. This type of care may include treatment at home, short-term hospital stays, professional care, surgery, X-rays and scans, as well as emergency medical services.... acute care / acute health care

Adapted Living Facility / Housing

Housing that has been specially built for, or changed to a certain standard to accommodate people with disabilities.... adapted living facility / housing

Adrenocorticotrophic Hormone (acth)

See also CORTICOTROPIN. A hormone which is released into the body during stress. Made and stored in the anterior PITUITARY GLAND, ACTH regulates the production of corticosteroid hormones from the ADRENAL GLANDS, and is vital for the growth and maintenance of the adrenal cortical cells. Its production is in part controlled by the amount of HYDROCORTISONE in the blood and also by the HYPOTHALAMUS. ACTH participates in the FEEDBACK MECHANISM of hormone production and actions involving particularly the hypothalamus and pituitary gland. The hormone is used to test adrenal function and treat conditions such as ASTHMA. (See also CUSHING’S SYNDROME.)... adrenocorticotrophic hormone (acth)

Actinodaphne Hookeri

Meissn.

Synonym: A. angustifolia Nees.

Family: Lauraceae.

Habitat: The western Ghats, Orissa and Sikkim up to 1,500 m.

Siddha/Tamil: Thali, Paratathali.

Folk: Pisaa (Maharashtra).

Action: Infusion of leaves—urinary tract disinfectant, antidiabetic, spasmolytic.

The leaves contain a very small amount of an amorphous alkaloid. They also contain beta-sitosterol, hen- triacontanone, hentriacontanol and quercetin-3-rhamnoside and hydrocarbons.

The bark gives an alkaloid, actino- daphnine.

The roots contain a flavanone glycoside.... actinodaphne hookeri

Adult Care Home / Residential Facility

A residence which offers housing and personal care services to a number of residents. Services (such as meals, supervision and transportation) are usually provided by the owner or manager. Usually 24-hour professional health care is not provided on site. See also “assisted living facility”.... adult care home / residential facility

Advocacy For Health

A combination of individual and social actions designed to gain political commitment, policy support, social acceptance and systems support for a particular health goal or programme. Advocacy also has a role in creating awareness in the minds of the community regarding the rights of older persons.... advocacy for health

Aesculus Hippocastanum

Linn.

Family: Hippocastanaceae; Sapinda- ceae.

Habitat: Endemic to the mountains of Balkan Peninsula and western Asia. Introduced into India; occasionally grown as an ornamental tree.

English: Horse Chestnut tree.

Unani: Baloot. (Quercus incana and Q. infectoria have also been equated with Baloot in National Formulary in Unani Medicine.)

Folk: Pu.

Action: Anti-inflammatory, vasodilator, astringent (used for rheumatism, venous congestion, haemorrhoids), febrifuge. Leaf— used in whooping cough.

Key application: In chronic venous insufficiency, varicosis, nocturnal systremma (cramps in the calves) and swelling of the legs. (Non- invasive treatment measures should also be followed.) (German Commission E, ESCOP, The British Herbal Pharmacopoeia.)

Horse Chestnut contains triterpe- noid saponins (especially aescin, a complex mixture composed of acylat- ed glycosides of protoaesigenin and barringtogenol-C, including hippo- caesculin), coumarins and flavonoids. Aescin has been shown to eliminate oedema and reduce exudation. It antagonizes the effect of bradykinin, although it is not a direct bradykinin antagonist. It causes an increase in plasma levels of ACTH, corticosterone and glucose in rats. Hippocaescu- lin and barringtogenol-C-21-angelate show antitumour activity in vitro.

The hydroxycoumarin aesculin leads to increased bleeding time. (Roasting seems to destroy the toxins.) A few fruits can cause severe toxic symptoms. (Francis Brinker.) In some countries, an intravenous mixture containing aescin is used after surgery. (Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, 2007.)... aesculus hippocastanum

Ailanthus Tea: A Healing Tea

Ailanthus tea was at first used only in Asia, but nowadays, due to its healthy properties, it is consumed worldwide. It can be a natural option in treating diarrhea or diphtheria, but not only. Ailanthus Tea description Ailanthus, or “the tree of life”, is native to Asia and has a long history, being first mentioned in ancient Chinese literature. This tree is said to be an intrusive plant, known for breaking into gardens and cracking walls in the process. It has been used as an ornamental plant, but also as an herbal remedy for a variety of ailments and diseases. Studies revealed that ailanthus bark has bitter, astringent and cooling properties. In traditional Chinese medicine, the bark is associated with the governing meridians of the large intestines, the stomach and the liver. Ailanthus tea is a beverage used mainly in Chinese traditional medicine.  It can either be made of the bark or the flowers of the plant. The bark is acknowledged to “clear heat” and stop bleeding while the flowers are considered to help in the treatment of infectious diseases. Ailanthus Tea brewing To brew Ailanthus tea:
  • put the granules into a cup
  • put 50-100ml boiling water into the cup and stir it with a spoon
  • drink it when it is lukewarm
The dosage is for adults, one sachet each time, twice a day. For children, the dosage should be reduced according to the weight. Ailanthus Tea benefits Ailanthus tea is successfully used in treatingglandular fever. The brew has proved its efficiency in:
  • treating diarrhea
  • fighting malaria
  • fighting asthma
  • helping in the treatment of uterine bleeding or menorrhagia
  • fighting scarlet fever
  • fighting diphtheria
  • fighting typhoid fever
  • fighting palpitations, asthma and epilepsy
Ailanthus Tea side effects There have been no side effects associated with intaking Ailanthus tea. However, consumers should consult a licensed health care provider before drinking it. Ailanthus tea is benefic in treating a large array of diseases, being an important ingredient in the pharmaceutical industry.... ailanthus tea: a healing tea

Allied Health Personnel

Specially trained and licensed (when necessary) people in occupations that support and supplement the functions of health professionals. For the older population, such health personnel may include home health workers and nursing assistants. See also “auxiliary worker”.... allied health personnel

Alternative And Complementary Health Care / Medicine / Therapies

Health care practices that are not currently an integral part of conventional medicine. The list of these practices changes over time as the practices and therapies are proven safe and effective and become accepted as mainstream health care practices. These unorthodox approaches to health care are not based on biomedical explanations for their effectiveness. Examples include homeopathy, herbal formulas, and use of other natural products as preventive and treatment agents.... alternative and complementary health care / medicine / therapies

Amazing Health Benefits Of Carrots

1. Beta carotene: Carrots are a rich source of this powerful antioxidant, which, among other vital uses, can be converted into vitamin A in the body to help maintain healthy skin. 2. Digestion: Carrots increase saliva and supply essential minerals, vitamins and enzymes that aid in digestion. Eating carrots regularly may help prevent gastric ulcers and other digestive disorders. 3. Alkaline elements: Carrots are rich in alkaline elements, which purify and revitalize the blood while balancing the acid/alkaline ratio of the body. 4. Potassium: Carrots are a good source of potassium, which can help maintain healthy sodium levels in the body, thereby helping to reduce elevated blood pressure levels. 5. Dental Health: Carrots kill harmful germs in the mouth and help prevent tooth decay. 6. Wounds: Raw or grated carrots can be used to help heal wounds, cuts and inflammation. 7. Phytonutrients: Among the many beneficial phytochemicals that carrots contain is a phytonutrient called falcarinol, which may reduce the risk of colon cancer and help promote overall colon health. 8. Carotenoids: Carrots are rich in carotenoids, which our bodies can use to help regulate blood sugar. 9. Fiber: Carrots are high in soluble fiber, which may reduce cholesterol by binding the LDL form (the kind we don’t want) and increasing the HDL form (the kind our body needs) to help reduce blood clots and prevent heart disease. 10. Eyes, hair, nails and more! The nutrients in carrots can improve the health of your eyes, skin, hair, nails and more through helping to detoxify your system and build new cells! 11. Improves vision There’s some truth in the old wisdom that carrots are good for your eyes. Carrots are rich in beta-carotene, which is converted into vitamin A in the liver. Vitamin A is transformed in the retina, to rhodopsin, a purple pigment necessary for night vision. Beta-carotene has also been shown to protect against macular degeneration and senile cataracts. A study found that people who eat large amounts of beta-carotene had a 40 percent lower risk of macular degeneration than those who consumed little. 12. Helps prevent cancer Studies have shown carrots reduce the risk of lung cancer, breast cancer and colon cancer. Falcarinol is a natural pesticide produced by the carrot that protects its roots from fungal diseases. Carrots are one of the only common sources of this compound. A study showed 1/3 lower cancer risk by carrot-eating rats. 13. Slows down aging The high level of beta-carotene in carrots acts as an antioxidant to cell damage done to the body through regular metabolism. It help slows down the aging of cells. 14. Promotes healthier skin Vitamin A and antioxidants protect the skin from sun damage. Deficiencies of vitamin A cause dryness to the skin, hair and nails. Vitamin A prevents premature wrinkling, acne, dry skin, pigmentation, blemishes and uneven skin tone. 15. Helps prevent infection Carrots are known by herbalists to prevent infection. They can be used on cuts—shredded raw or boiled and mashed. 16. Promotes healthier skin (from the outside) Carrots are used as an inexpensive and very convenient facial mask. Just mix grated carrot with a bit of honey. See the full recipe here: carrot face mask. 17. Prevents heart disease Studies show that diets high in carotenoids are associated with a lower risk of heart disease. Carrots have not only beta-carotene but also alpha-carotene and lutein. The regular consumption of carrots also reduces cholesterol levels because the soluble fibers in carrots bind with bile acids. 18. Cleanses the body Vitamin A assists the liver in flushing out the toxins from the body. It reduces the bile and fat in the liver. The fiber present in carrots helps clean out the colon and hasten waste movement. 19. Protects teeth and gums It’s all in the crunch! Carrots clean your teeth and mouth. They scrape off plaque and food particles just like toothbrushes or toothpaste. Carrots stimulate gums and trigger a lot of saliva, which, being alkaline, balances out the acid-forming, cavity-forming bacteria. The minerals in carrots prevent tooth damage. 20. Prevents stroke From all the above benefits it’s no surprise that in a Harvard University study, people who ate five or more carrots a week were less likely to suffer a stroke than those who ate only one carrot a month or less.... amazing health benefits of carrots

Anastatica Hierochuntica

Linn.

Family: Cruciferae.

Habitat: Arabia, Palestine, Syria.

English: Jericho Rose.

Unani: Kafemariyam, Kafe-aaishaa.

Folk: Garbha-phool.

Action: Used in difficult labour.... anastatica hierochuntica

Antidiuretic Hormone (adh)

See VASOPRESSIN.... antidiuretic hormone (adh)

Appropriate Health Technology

Methods, procedures, techniques and equipment that are scientifically valid, adapted to local needs and acceptable to those who use them and to those for whom they are used, and that can be maintained and utilized with resources the community or country can afford.... appropriate health technology

Avoidable Hospital Condition / Admission

A medical condition for which hospitalization could have been avoided if ambulatory care had been provided in a timely and efficient manner.... avoidable hospital condition / admission

Basic Health Service

A network of health units providing essential health care to a population. Basic health services include communicable disease control, environmental sanitation, maintenance of records for statistical purposes, health education of the public, public health nursing and medical care.... basic health service

Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy, Or Hyperplasia

(BPH) The benign buildup in the prostate of “warts” or epithelial neoplasias that can block or interrupt urination, and which are usually concurrent with moderate prostate enlargement. They cause a dull ache on urination, ejaculation, and/or defecation. The diagnosis is medical, since the same subjective conditions can result from cancer of the prostate. BPH is common in men over fifty and can be the result either of diminished production of complete testosterone or poor pelvic circulation. Alcohol, coffee, speed, and antihistamines can all aggravate the problem.... benign prostatic hypertrophy, or hyperplasia

Andrographis Tea: A Drop Of Health

Andrographis Tea is well known for its bitter taste, as well as for its healthy benefits. It has proven to be an adjuvant in treating severe illness such as hepatitis, due to its high content of antioxidants. Andrographis Tea description Andrographis is originating from Asia, being used for centuries in Ayurvedic medicine. The plant is easy to grow: its propagation is by seeds, planted during spring and summer. Andrographis grows both in full sun or shade, developing vigorously in moist conditions. The herb has been proved to treat infectious diseases. This fact was discovered during the global flu epidemic of 1919, known as one of the most destructive infectious to outbreak in history, which killed millions worldwide, in many countries. Andrographis Tea is the resulting beverage from brewing the andrographis plant. It is widely known for its bitter taste as well as for its adjuvant properties against flu, depression, digestion complaints, but not only. Andrographis Tea brewing To brew Andrographis tea:
  • place 1 teaspoon of dried andrographis in a tea infuser (10 grams of fresh leaves)
  • place the infuser in a tea cup
  • cover it with 1 cup of boiling water
  • steep the tea for 10 minutes
  • drink it slowly
The resulting tea has an extreme bitter taste. Another possibility of enjoying the benefits of Andrographis tea is to intake capsules containing the plant. Andrographis Tea benefits Andrographis Tea has many proven benefits, such as:
  • Treating gastrointestinal complains
  • Treating throat infections
  • Dispelling toxins
  • Increasing biliary flow
  • Treating coughs, headaches, edema
  • Treating pain conditions, inflammation
  • Treating arthritis, rheumatism
  • Treating constipation
  • Treating pneumonia, tuberculosis, leprosy, hepatitis, herpes, diabetes, bronchitis
Andrographis Tea side effects It has been showed that Andrographis Tea should not be used by pregnant and nursing women or by children. It has been also noticed that large doses of Andrographis Tea may lead to infertility. Andrographis Tea is a healthy beverage which has the ability to strengthen the immune system, stop cancer cells from multiplying, and also render a good physical state. It can be consumed as tea or medicinal pills.... andrographis tea: a drop of health

Arachis Hypogaea

Linn.

Family: Papilionaceae; Fabaceae

Habitat: Native to Brazil, but widely grown for its pods in southern India, Maharashtra and Gujarat.

English: Groundnut, Peanut, Monkeynut.

Ayurvedic: Mandapi, Tailamudga, Bhuumimudga.

Unani: Moongphali.

Siddha/Tamil: Nelakadalai, Verkadalai.

Action: Kernels—contain protease inhibitors. Peanut skin— haemostatic.

There is a haemostatic principle in the peanut flour, which is said to improve the condition of haemophiliacs. The protease inhibitor acts on the fib- rinolytic system, primarily as an an- tiplasmin. It is reported to form complexes not only with the enzymes, but also with the corresponding zymogens.

The peanut (red) skin contains bio- flavonoids, which possess vitamin- P activity; tannins; a lipoxidase and a protease inhibitor. Capric acid, obtained from the (red) skin, showed antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger.... arachis hypogaea

Artabotrys Hexapetalus

(Linn. f.) Bhandari.

Synonym: A. odoratissimus R. Br.

Family: Annonaceae.

Habitat: Southern India, largely grown in gardens.

Ayurvedic: Panasagandhi, (Harit) Champaka.

Siddha/Tamil: Manoranjidam.

Folk: Haraa champaa (north), Kathari champaa; Hirvaa champaa (Maharashtra).

Action: Cardiac stimulant, uterine stimulant, muscle relaxant.

The extract of the pericarp showed a positive ionotropic and chronotropic effect on all types of experimental animals. The cardiac stimulant and uterine stimulant activity is attributed to the glycosides, whereas the relaxant action on plain muscles and hypotensive effect, which could be partly choliner- gic and partly resulting from vasodila- tory action, are probably due to the presence of the volatile oil.

The leaves are found to contain an antifertility principle. The root contains an antimalarial agent.... artabotrys hexapetalus

Bleeding Heart

Love... bleeding heart

Blueberry And Huckleberry

Vaccinium and Gaylussacia species

Description: These shrubs vary in size from 30 centimeters to 3.7 meters tall. All have alternate, simple leaves. Their fruits may be dark blue, black, or red and have many small seeds.

Habitat and Distribution: These plants prefer open, sunny areas. They are found throughout much of the north temperate regions and at higher elevations in Central America.

Edible Parts: Their fruits are edible raw.... blueberry and huckleberry

Board And Care Home

See “adult care home”.... board and care home

Caput Medusae (medusa’s Head)

The term describing the abnormally dilated veins that form around the umbilicus in CIRRHOSIS of the liver.... caput medusae (medusa’s head)

Care Home

A residential facility that provides accommodation and offers a range of care and support services. Care homes may provide a limited number of services to support low dependency or may provide a wide range of services to cater for the continuum from low to high dependency care. See “assisted living facility”; “high dependency care facility”.... care home

Catastrophic Health Insurance

Health insurance which provides protection against the high cost of treating severe or lengthy illnesses or disabilities. Generally such policies cover all, or a specified percentage of medical expenses above an amount that is the responsibility of another insurance policy, up to a maximum limit of liability.... catastrophic health insurance

Astragalus Hamosus

Linn.

Family: Fabaceae; Papilionaceae.

Habitat: Found in the plains of Punjab.

English: Tonkin bean, Melilot, King's crown, King's clover.

Unani: Naakhunaa, Ikil-ul-Malik. (It is also equated with Melilotus alba Desv. and Trigonela uncata Boiss. in National Formulary of Unani Medicine.)

Action: Nervine tonic (used in nervous and catarrhal affections), antirheumatic, anti-inflammatory, emollient, diuretic, galactogenic.

The callus of the plant contains amino acids; roots contain saponins and sterols. The leaves yield 3-nitro- propionic acid.... astragalus hamosus

Attention Deficit Disorder (hyperactivity Syndrome)

A lifelong disorder characterised by overactive behaviour, short attention span and poor concentration. It is thought to be caused by a minor abnormality that affects the part of the brain that allows us to concentrate and focus on tasks. Some scientists have suggested that it may be caused by particular foods, particularly processed foods containing arti?cial additives, and recommend special diets. In some countries, attention de?cit disorder is diagnosed in up to a tenth of all children; this may re?ect di?erences in paediatric practice and diagnosis rather than a real variation in prevalence of the disorder. Behaviour therapy is the main treatment. Those children with very severe symptoms of restlessness, short attention span and disturbed behaviour may respond to additional treatment with methylphenidate (Ritalin®). This is an amphetamine-like drug that is thought to stimulate the part of the brain that is not working properly. Use of this drug has, however, been controversial.... attention deficit disorder (hyperactivity syndrome)

Barberry Tea For Body Health

Barberry tea is well known inAsia, Europe, Africa and America due to its medicinal properties. Nowadays, it is consumed worldwide as tincture, fluid extract or capsules. Barberry tea description Barberry is a shrub growing in gray-colored and tight thorny hedges, producing yellow flowers during spring and red berries in autumn. Its roots, bark and berries have been used for more than 2,500 years for a variety of health-promoting purposes. In ancient Egypt, barberry was mixed with fennel to fight plague. Nowadays, Barberry is available in the form of capsules, fluid extract and tincture. Barberry Tea is made of the dried roots and berries of barberry. Barberry tea brewing To prepare Barberry tea: steep 1 to 2 teaspoons of dried barberry root or 1 to 2 teaspoons of whole (or crushed berries) in about 2/3 of a cup of hot water for 10 to 15 minutes. Barberry Tea can be consumed three times, daily. Barberry tea benefits Barberry tea has proven its efficiency in treating:
  • inflammation due to bacterial ear, nose and throat infection
  • bacterial and viral forms of diarrhea
  • psoriasis
  • the function of the gallbladder
  • urinary tract infection
  • heartburn
  • candida
  • epilepsy
Barberry Tea may help stabilize blood pressure and normalize heart rhythm. Also, it has been claimed that Barberry Tea may help strengthen the immune system. Barberry tea side effects Studies conducted so far showed that Barberry tea should not be used beyond seven consecutive days, in order to avoid complications on excessive use of barberry. There have been cases when Barberry tea interacted with anti-coagulants, blood pressure medication and antibiotics, causing side effects. Pregnant, nursing women, and nursing infants also should avoid drinking this tea. Barberry tea is a medicinal beverage, effective in treating respiratory and urinary tract infections, as well as hypertension, diarrhea and gallbladder disease.... barberry tea for body health

Benincasa Hispida

(Thunb.) Cogn.

Synonym: B. cerifera Savi. Cucurbita hispada Thunb.

Family: Cucurbitaceae.

Habitat: Cultivated largely in Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Rajasthan and Bihar.

English: Ash Gourd, White Gourd, Wax Gourd, White Pumpkin.

Ayurvedic: Kuushmaanda, Kuush- maandaka, Kuushmaandanaadi.

Unani: Pethaa, Mahdabaa, Kaddu- e-Roomi.

Siddha/Tamil: Ven-poosani, Saambalpushani.

Action: Leaves—cooling, juice rubbed on bruises. Fruit decoction—laxative, diuretic, nutritious, styptic (given for internal haemorrhages and diseases of the respiratory tract.) Juice of fruit— used for treating epilepsy, insanity and other nervous diseases. The ash of fruit rind—applied on painful swellings. Seeds—anthelmintic.

The fruits contain lupeol, beta-sitos- terol, their acetates and several amino acids. The fruit juice produces tran- quilizing activity and mild CNS depressant effect in mice.

The roots of mature plant contain a pentacyclic triterpene, which exhibits antiallergic activity against both homologous passive cutaneous ana- phylaxis and delayed hypersensitivity in mice. The fruit beverage contains pyrazine compounds.

Isomultiflorenol acetate, a penta- cyclic triterpene, has been isolated as the major constituent of wax coating of fruits.

Dosage: Dried pieces of the fruit— 5-10 g (API Vol. IV.) Fruit juice— 10-20 m (CCRAS.)... benincasa hispida

Cervico-occipital Headache

A headache of the neck and side of the head...a tension headache.... cervico-occipital headache

Biota Tea Health Benefits

Biota tea is a Chinese beverage, used nowadays to heal hemorrhages and other types of ailments, such as headaches, but not only. Biota tea description Biota is a slow-growing shrub or tree from the cypress family, originating from China. It is considered as one of the 50 fundamental herbs in the annals of Chinese herbalism. Biota has a central stem, scale-like leaves and little inconspicuous flowers. The biota leaves are small, and triangular-shaped, with a grayish-green color and a fragrant odor. The seeds are the eatable parts of this plant. Both the leaves and the seeds are used for medicinal purposes. Biota trees and shrubs have ornamental uses as they make beautiful natural fences and hedges. Also, they are good as wind breakers and as a good ground cover for a variety of wildlife. Parts from these plants make useful additions as culinary ingredients and medicinal herbs. These vegetative substances became part of the cosmetic industry, being added to lotions, shampoos and conditioners. Biota tea is the beverage resulting from brewing the abovementioned plant. Biota tea brewing To prepare Biota tea, add the dried leaves in the boiling water and stir the mixture. Strain it and drink it slowly. Biota tea benefits Biota tea has been successfully used to:
  • fight headaches
  • fight asthma, cough and bronchitis
  • fight fever
  • fight bacteria and viruses
  • heal wounds, treat burns, as well as improve the growth of hair, when applied topically
  • help in the treatment of excessive menstruation
  • fight hemorrhages
  • ease arthritic pain
  • help in the treatment of premature baldness
  • soothe and calm the nerves
  • fight constipation among the elderly
Biota tea side effects Pregnant or nursing women should not intake Biota tea. Biota tea is a healthy beverage able to fight against bacteria, viruses or even prevent baldness, if applied topically. It also proved its efficiency in dealing with arthritic pains.... biota tea health benefits

Blessed Thistle Tea Is Good For Health

Blessed Thistle tea is a medicinal beverage useful in treating a large array of ailments such as constipation, but not only. Blessed Thistle Tea description Blessed thistle was at first used in Ayurvedic medicine in India and Bhutan. It was introduced in Europe in the 1500s where it gained the title “blessed” for its use in treating plague. The blessed thistle is a weed with prickly leaves and yellow flowers surrounded by purple spikes, found mostly in North Africa, Western Asia and Southern Europe. The leaves, the flowers and the stem are used to prepare Blessed thistle tea. Blessed Thistle Tea brewing Blessed thistle tea can be prepared in the following way: douse about 1 to 3 dried blessed thistle herb in a cup of boiled water for 5 to 15 minutes. It can then be drunk three times a day before meals. Blessed Thistle Tea benefits Blessed Thistle tea has been successfully used to:
  • treat digestive problems, like gas, constipation and stomach upset
  • improve appetite
  • detoxify the body
  • support liver and gallbladder
  • stimulate menstrual flow
Blessed Thistle Tea side effects High doses of Blessed thistle tea can cause:
  • stomach irritation and vomiting
  • liver disease
  • gastrointestinal and liver problems and esophageal or nasal cancer
Blessed Thistle tea is a natural remedy to detoxify the body and thus, to enhance the immunity and support the normal functioning of the human organs.... blessed thistle tea is good for health

Blue Flag Tea For A Healthy Liver

Blue Flag tea has a long history in treating liver ailments: Native American tribes used to consume it for its hepatic properties. Blue Flag Tea description Blue flag is a perennial herb also known as the liver lily and the fleur-de-lis, native to North America. It has smooth spear-shaped leaves topped with a light bluish-purple flower. Blue flag plants grow in bunches and bloom during late June and early July. Blue Flag tea is the resulting beverage from brewing the abovementioned plant. Blue Flag Tea brewing To prepare Blue Flag tea, place 1 teaspoon of the dried roots in a cup of boiling water. Let it steep for 10 minutes. The tea can be consumed three times a day. Blue Flag Tea benefits Blue Flag has been successfully used to:
  • stimulate the liver and thus, it is helpful in the treatment of jaundice and hepatitis
  • fight impurities of the blood
  • fight against skin problems like acne and psoriasis
  • detoxify the body by increasing the production of bile, as well as frequency of urination
  • help treat indigestion
  • treat rheumatism
  • help in weight loss
Blue Flag tea can be an effective laxative, diuretic and as an emetic. It is also effective in reducing inflammation of the skin, decreasing the symptoms of skin infections. It is also good in treating burns, bruises and wounds. Blue Flag Tea side effects Until further studies are conducted, pregnant and nursing women should avoid intaking this type of tea. Blue Flag tea has proven its efficiency in dealing with severe liver-related diseases. Also, applied topically, it can treat skin problems, but not only.... blue flag tea for a healthy liver

Chronic Hospital

A facility that serves patients who do not need acute care or care in another kind of specialty hospital and whose needs for frequency of monitoring by a medical practitioner and for frequency and duration of nursing care exceed the requirements for care in a comprehensive care or extended care facility.... chronic hospital

Cleft Hand

A rare congenital abnormality characterised by the absence of one or more ?ngers and a deep central cleft that divides the hand into two. It is sometimes known as lobster hand. It may be accompanied by other congenital defects, such as CLEFT FOOT, absent permanent teeth, CLEFT PALATE (and/or lip), absence of the nails and defects of the eye.... cleft hand

Breath-holding

Breath-holding attacks are not uncommon in infants and toddlers. They are characterised by the child suddenly stopping breathing in the midst of a bout of crying evoked by pain, some emotional upset, or loss of temper. The breath may be held so long that the child goes blue in the face. The attack is never fatal and the condition disappears spontaneously after the age of 3–5 years, but once a child has acquired the habit it may recur quite often.

It is important for a paediatrician to determine that such events are not epileptic (see EPILEPSY). Generally they require no treatment other than reassurance, as recovery is spontaneous and rapid – although a small number of severely affected children have been helped by a PACEMAKER. Parents should avoid dramatising the attacks.... breath-holding

Burdock Tea: A Health Remedy

Nowadays, burdock tea is largely consumed all over the world. It is successfully used to improve appetite and digestion, but not only. Burdock Tea description Burdock is a plant from the same family as the sunflower, which can grow up to five feet high. In the summer, the seeds are cropped and the roots are dug up. In traditional Chinese medicine, but not only, it is combined with other herbs to treat upper-respiratory tract infections. Burdock root is known to be a blood purifier, clearing several problems from the body’s systems. Burdock can be taken as infusion, decoction, extract, tincture and ointment. Burdock tea is the resulting beverage from brewing the abovementioned plant. Burdock Tea brewing To prepare Burdock tea:
  • Pour boiling water over the desired amount of herbs.
  • Cover and let them steep 10 to 20 minutes.
  • Strain off the herbs using a tea strainer or coffee filter.
It is essential to use good quality water and it is recommended to drink it slowly. Burdock Tea benefits Burdock tea has been successfully used to:
  • soothe the skin and gastrointestinal tract
  • improve appetite and digestion
  • reduce liver damage
  • mildly lower blood sugar (hypoglycemic effect)
  • purify the blood
  • fight the effects of rheumatism
  • treat some kidney disorders
  • counter bronchial cough and other irritations of the pulmonary tract
Burdock Tea side effects Burdock tea is not advised to be consumed by pregnant or nursing women. Burdock tea is a medicinal remedy for a large array of diseases. Studies have revealed its efficiency in dealing with liver and kidney ailments, as well as its soothing effects for the skin.... burdock tea: a health remedy

Burr (bur) Hole

A circular hole made in the SKULL using a special surgical drill with a rounded tip, called the burr. The operation is done to relieve pressure on the BRAIN. This pressure – raised intracranial tension – is commonly the result of blood collecting between the skull and the brain after a head injury. The presence of PUS or an increase in the amount of CEREBROSPINAL FLUID as a result of infection or tumours in the brain can also cause a potentially fatal rise in intracranial pressure which can be relieved by drilling a burr hole. A neurosurgeon may make several burr holes when doing a CRANIOTOMY, a procedure in which a section of the skull is removed to provide access to the brain and surrounding tissues. Archaeological evidence suggests that modern man’s ancestors used burr holes probably to treat physical ailments and mental illness.... burr (bur) hole

Cardiospermum Halicacabum

Linn.

Family: Sapindaceae.

Habitat: Throughout the plains of India, as a wild climber.

English: Ballon Vine, Winter Cherry, Heartseed.

Ayurvedic: Kaakatiktaa, Kaakaadani, Karnsphotaa, Shatakratulataa.

Unani: Habb-e-Qilqil.

Siddha/Tamil: Mudukottan, Kottavan.

Folk: Kanphotaa, Kanphuti, Lataaphatakari. Used as Jyotishmati in Bengal.

Action: Used in rheumatism, lumbago, skeletal fractures, nervous diseases, amenorrhoea, haemorrhoids, erysipelas. The herb is used in hairoils for treating dandruff, alopecia and for darkening hair.

The plant extract showed significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity and sedative effect on CNS. The drug also showed (transient) vasode- pressant activity.

The leaves contain beta-sitosterol and its D-glucoside, an alkaloid, oxalic acid and amino acids. The presence of a saponin and quebrachitol is reported in the plant.

The leaves and stem are used in preparations used against common cold. Alcoholic extract of the plant exhibits antisickling and antiarthritic activity. Seeds have positive anabolic activity and increase body weight by inducing a positive nitrogen balance.

The alkaloid fraction from the seeds showed hypotensive activities and cardiac inhibition in anaesthetized dogs; blocked spasmogenic effects of acetyl- choline, histamine and 5-HT on guinea pig ileum, biphasic effort on frog rec- tus abdominis muscle. The seeds also showed antibacterial activity.

Dosage: Whole plant—50-100 ml decoction. (CCRAS.)... cardiospermum halicacabum

Co-housing

A form of planned community in which people live together, each with his or her own dwelling or living space, but there are also some common areas and joint activities may be arranged.... co-housing

Commission For Health Improvement

See HEALTHCARE COMMISSION.... commission for health improvement

Community Action For Health

Collective efforts by communities which are directed towards increasing community control over the determinants of health and thereby improving health.... community action for health

Cherry Tea - Ingredients And Health Benefits

Cherry Tea is a dark red beverage with an intense fruity flavour whose colour resembles ripe cherries and it can be enjoyed hot or cold. The delightful cherry scent is often blended with other aromas which results in savory and exotic mixtures. Cherry Tea Brewing Regarding cherry tea, the brewing time can vary, but the standard procedure entails a five-minute steeping process. Consequently, you will rejoice in the lovely cherry aroma of your amazingly enticing and enjoyable beverage. Health Benefits of Cherry Tea Cherry Tea is a beneficial fruity beverage with numerous health benefits. Cherry fruits are renowned for their delightfully refreshing flavour and delicious sweet taste, but they are also packed with nutrients, vitamins and minerals that essentially contribute to our wellbeing. These fruits are rich in antioxidants which protect our body from free radicals and thus lower the risk of cancer and various neurological diseases, but they also delay the aging process. Cherries also contain melatonin, an antioxidant with calming effects on the brain, which helps releave irritability, insomnia and headaches, thus improving the quality of sleep. The countless health benefits of cherry tea also include anti-inflammatory properties and could potentially prove effective against pain caused by diseases or injuries. Cherry fruits are low in calories, but they contain vitamin C which unfortunately entices you to consume approximately 180 calories more a day. This could possibly result in the accumulation of some extra weight if consumed for large periods of time. Therefore, adjust your dietary plan accordingly. Side effects of Cherry Tea Cherry Tea contains extracts from the cherries which can induce an allergic reaction to people sensitive to these fruits, but it is generally side-effect-free. You can enjoy a savory cup of cherry tea at any given time of the day in order to boost your overall energy level and metabolism. The full flavour of succulent fresh cherries along with a delectable and lingering aftertaste will enchant you. Cherry tea is without doubt a delightful juicy drink with an exotic character.... cherry tea - ingredients and health benefits

Cocculus Hirsutus

(Linn.) Diels.

Synonym: C. villosus (Lam.) DC.

Family: Menispermaceae.

Habitat: Throughout tropical and sub-tropical tracts of India.

English: Broom-Creeper, Ink-Berry.

Ayurvedic: Chhilihinta, Paataala- garuda, Mahaamuulaa, Dirghavalli, Jalajamani.

Siddha/Tamil: Kattukodi.

Action: Root—laxative, sudorific, alterative, antirheumatic. Leaf— used externally for eczema, prurigo and inpetigo. A decoction of leaves is taken in eczema, leucorrhoea and gonorrhoea.

Aqueous extract of stem and root— sedative, anticonvulsant, hypotensive, bradycardiac, cardiotonic and sapas- molytic. Roots are used as a substitute for Sarsaparilla in chronic rheumatism gout, and syphilitic cachexia.

The stem contains cyclopeptide alkaloids. The plant contains coclaurine, magnoflorine, beta-sitosterol, ginnol and a monomethyl ether of inositol.

C.pendulus (Forsk.) Diels, synonym C. leaeba (Del.) DC. (Punjab, Gujarat and South India) is known as Parwati (Gujarat, Sindh) and Ullar-billar (Punjab).

Ethanolic extract of the leaves and stem showed anticancer and hypoten- sive activities associated with the al- kaloidal fraction which contains bis- benzylisoquinoline alkaloids (including pendulin and cocsulin). Presence of quercitol is reported from non- alkaloidal fraction.

Dosage: Root—50-100 ml decoction. (CCRAS.)... cocculus hirsutus

Community Health Worker

A trained health worker who works with other health and development workers as a team. The community health worker provides the first contact between the individual and the health system. The types of community health worker vary between countries and communities according to their needs and the resources available to meet them. In many societies, these workers come from and are chosen by the community in which they work. In some countries they work as volunteers; normally those who work part-time or full-time are rewarded, in cash or in kind, by the community and the formal health services.... community health worker

Community Mental Health Centre

An entity which provides comprehensive mental health services (principally ambulatory), primarily to individuals residing or employed in a defined catchment area.... community mental health centre

Comprehensive Health Care

Provision of a complete range of health services, from diagnosis to rehabilitation.... comprehensive health care

Comprehensive Health System

A health system that includes all the elements required to meet all the health needs of the population.... comprehensive health system

Congo-crimean Haemorrhagic Fever

A tick-borne arboviral infection extending in distribution from Eastern Europe and Asia through to Southern Africa.... congo-crimean haemorrhagic fever

Congregate Housing

Individual apartments in which residents may receive some services, such as a daily meal with other tenants. Buildings usually have some communal areas, such as a dining room and lounge, as well as additional safety measures such as an emergency call system.... congregate housing

Coordination Within The Health Sector

Organized collaboration, as necessary, among those providing the services at the same and different levels of the health system in order to make the most efficient use of resources, as well as within and among the various categories of health workers following agreement on the division of labour. It also means coordination of programmes or services to avoid duplication or inconsistency.... coordination within the health sector

Child Health

Paediatrics is the branch of medicine which deals with diseases of children, but many paediatricians have a wider role, being employed largely outside acute hospitals and dealing with child health in general.

History Child health services were originally designed, before the NHS came into being, to ?nd or prevent physical illness by regular inspections. In the UK these were carried out by clinical medical o?cers (CMOs) working in infant welfare clinics (later, child health clinics) set up to ?ll the gap between general practice and hospital care. The services expanded greatly from the mid 1970s; ‘inspections’ have evolved into a regular screening and surveillance system by general practitioners and health visitors, while CMOs have mostly been replaced by consultant paediatricians in community child health (CPCCH).

Screening Screening begins at birth, when every baby is examined for congenital conditions such as dislocated hips, heart malformations, cataract and undescended testicles. Blood is taken to ?nd those babies with potentially brain-damaging conditions such as HYPOTHYROIDISM and PHENYLKETONURIA. Some NHS trusts screen for the life-threatening disease CYSTIC FIBROSIS, although in future it is more likely that ?nding this disease will be part of prenatal screening, along with DOWN’S (DOWN) SYNDROME and SPINA BIFIDA. A programme to detect hearing impairment in newborn babies has been piloted from 2001 in selected districts to ?nd out whether it would be a useful addition to the national screening programme. Children from ethnic groups at risk of inherited abnormalities of HAEMOGLOBIN (sickle cell disease; thalassaemia – see under ANAEMIA) have blood tested at some time between birth and six months of age.

Illness prevention At two months, GPs screen babies again for these abnormalities and start the process of primary IMMUNISATION. The routine immunisation programme has been dramatically successful in preventing illness, handicap and deaths: as such it is the cornerstone of the public health aspect of child health, with more potential vaccines being made available every year. Currently, infants are immunised against pertussis (see WHOOPING COUGH), DIPHTHERIA, TETANUS, POLIOMYELITIS, haemophilus (a cause of MENINGITIS, SEPTICAEMIA, ARTHRITIS and epiglottitis) and meningococcus C (SEPTICAEMIA and meningitis – see NEISSERIACEAE) at two, three and four months. Selected children from high-risk groups are o?ered BCG VACCINE against tuberculosis and hepatitis vaccine. At about 13 months all are o?ered MMR VACCINE (measles, mumps and rubella) and there are pre-school entry ‘boosters’ of diphtheria, tetanus, polio, meningococcus C and MMR. Pneumococcal vaccine is available for particular cases but is not yet part of the routine schedule.

Health promotion and education Throughout the UK, parents are given their child’s personal health record to keep with them. It contains advice on health promotion, including immunisation, developmental milestones (when did he or she ?rst smile, sit up, walk and so on), and graphs – called centile charts – on which to record height, weight and head circumference. There is space for midwives, doctors, practice nurses, health visitors and parents to make notes about the child.

Throughout at least the ?rst year of life, both parents and health-care providers set great store by regular weighing, designed to pick up children who are ‘failing to thrive’. Measuring length is not quite so easy, but height measurements are recommended from about two or three years of age in order to detect children with disorders such as growth-hormone de?ciency, malabsorption (e.g. COELIAC DISEASE) and psychosocial dwar?sm (see below).

All babies have their head circumference measured at birth, and again at the eight-week check. A too rapidly growing head implies that the infant might have HYDROCEPHALUS – excess ?uid in the hollow spaces within the brain. A too slowly growing head may mean failure of brain growth, which may go hand in hand with physically or intellectually delayed development.

At about eight months, babies receive a surveillance examination, usually by a health visitor. Parents are asked if they have any concerns about their child’s hearing, vision or physical ability. The examiner conducts a screening test for hearing impairment – the so-called distraction test; he or she stands behind the infant, who is on the mother’s lap, and activates a standardised sound at a set distance from each ear, noting whether or not the child turns his or her head or eyes towards the sound. If the child shows no reaction, the test is repeated a few weeks later; if still negative then referral is made to an audiologist for more formal testing.

The doctor or health visitor will also go through the child’s developmental progress (see above) noting any signi?cant deviation from normal which merits more detailed examination. Doctors are also recommended to examine infants developmentally at some time between 18 and 24 months. At this time they will be looking particularly for late walking or failure to develop appropriate language skills.... child health

Community Health Care

Includes health services and integrates social care. It promotes self care, independence and family support networks.... community health care

Community Health Centre

An ambulatory health care programme, usually serving a catchment area which has scarce or non-existent health services or a population with special health needs. These centres attempt to coordinate federal, state and local resources in a single organization capable of delivering both health and related social services to a defined population.... community health centre

Community Health Information Network (chin)

An integrated collection of computer and telecommunication capabilities that permit multiple providers, payers, employers and related health care entities within a geographic area to share and communicate client, clinical and payment information.... community health information network (chin)

Community Health Needs Assessment

The ongoing process of evaluating the health needs of a community. Usually facilitates prioritization of needs and a strategy to address them.... community health needs assessment

Community Health Services

Usually managed by NHS trusts, these are a complex variety of services provided to people outside hospital settings. The key parts are the services delivered by district nurses, health visitors and therapists – for example, physiotherapists and speech therapists.... community health services

Community Mental Health Teams

Intended as a key part of the NHS’s local comprehensive mental health services serving populations of around 50,000, these multidisciplinary, multi-agency teams have been less e?ective than expected, in part due to varying modes of operation in di?erent districts. Some experts argue that the services they provide – for example, crisis intervention, liaison with primary care services and continuing care for long-term clients – could be delivered more e?ectively by several specialist teams rather than a single, large generic one comprising psychiatrists, psychologists, community mental health nurses, occupational therapists, support and (sometimes) social workers.... community mental health teams

Cough, Hectic

The dry and unproductive coughing in early bronchitis, when the mucosa is irritated but still too infected to secrete mucus... cough, hectic

Council For Healthcare Regulatory Excellence

In 2002 the UK government set up this new statutory council with the aim of improving consistency of action across the eight existing regulatory bodies for professional sta? involved in the provision of various aspects of health care. These bodies are: General Medical Council; General Dental Council; General Optical Council; Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain; General Chiropractic Council; General Osteopathic Council; Health Professions Council; and Nursing and Midwifery Council.

The new Council for Healthcare Regulatory Excellence will help to promote the interests of patients and to improve co-operation between the existing regulatory bodies – providing, in e?ect, a quality-control mechanism for their activities. The government and relevant professions will nominate individuals for this overarching council. The new council will not have the authority to intervene in the determination by the eight regulatory bodies of individual ?tness-to-practise cases unless these concern complaints about maladministration.... council for healthcare regulatory excellence

Country Health Programming

A managerial process dealing directly with the selection of priority health problems, specification of operational objectives and translation of these into activities, resource needs and organization.... country health programming

Cyclizine Hydrochloride

One of the ANTIHISTAMINE DRUGS which is mainly used for the prevention of sickness, including sea-sickness.... cyclizine hydrochloride

Decalepis Hamiltonii

Wight & Arn.

Family: Asclepiadaceae.

Habitat: Deccan Peninsula; common in the forest areas of Western Ghats.

Unani: Desi Ushbaa.

Siddha/Tamil: Mahali kizhangu.

Action: Root—appetizer, blood purifier, bacteriostatic. Used as a substitute for Shveta Saarivaa (Hemidesmus indicus). Sold as Saarivaa in Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka. The root powder is given to diabetics.

The root contains quercetin, kaempferol, coumarin and rutin. It has a sweet sarsaparilla-like taste; contains 92% fleshy matter and 8% woody core.

The root can be stored for longer periods and remains unaffected by microorganisms and insects, apparently due to the presence of the volatile principle which possesses bacteriostat- ic and toxic properties.

The root, on steam distillation, gave 4-O-methyl-resorcylaldehyde in a concentration of 0.8%. (The growth of E. coli was arrested by the aldehyde in 0.041% concentration; fish died within 4 min in 0.02% solution.) The sterols consists mainly of stagma and brassica sterols. Alpha-amyrin and lupeol, both free and as esters are also present in the root.

The plant contains lupeol, beta- amyrin 2-hydroxy, 4-methoxy benzaldehyde, and ferulic acid.... decalepis hamiltonii

Definitive Or Final Host

An animal wherein the adult stage of the parasite resides.... definitive or final host

Demand (for Health Services)

Willingness and/or ability to seek, use and, in some settings, pay for services. Sometimes further subdivided into expressed demand (equated with use) and potential demand or need.... demand (for health services)

Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever

Usually a second infection with a different serotype of the dengue virus (see dengue fever). A primary infection at a young age is common finding. Age of patient with DHF is often less than 5 years, but young adults may be affected. Severe illness with abnormal vascular permeability, hypovolaemia and abnormal clotting mechanisms. Bleeding into skin or internally. Dengue shock syndrome may also be a complication.... dengue haemorrhagic fever

Dental Hygienist

A person quali?ed to carry out the scaling (removal of calculus [deposits]) from the teeth and to advise patients on how to keep their teeth and gums healthy. Hygienists usually work in a quali?ed dentist’s surgery.... dental hygienist

Dioscorea Hamiltonii

Hook. f.

Family: Dioscoreaceae.

Habitat: The Western Ghats, Sikkim, Assam, Orissa and Bengal.

Ayurvedic: Vaaraahi (var.).

Folk: Naagar-kanda (Bihar).

Action: Tubers contain 85.50% carbohydrates, 8.30% albuminoids.... dioscorea hamiltonii

Doronicum Hookeri

Hook. f.

Family: Compositae; Asteraceae.

Habitat: The Himalayas at Lachen and Tungu, and Sikkim.

English: Leopard's Bane. (Arnica montana Linn. is also known as Leopard's Bane.)

Unani: Daarunaj Aqrabi.

Action: Root—used as a constituent of cardiac and nervine tonics. Used as exhilarant. Acts as a stomachic and dissolves trapped gases.... doronicum hookeri

Discover Heather Tea

Heather tea has been used in Swedish herbal medicine for a very long time and has been recognized for its medicinal properties by the German Commission E. Heather (calluna vulgaris) is a woody and bushy plant with multiple branching stems, that grows mainly in Scotland, Ireland, the Scandinavian countries, Russia and North America. The parts of the heather plant have different usage. For example: the branches are used as straw for brooms and the leaves are used as flavoring agent for beer and teas. The constituents of heather plant are various types of quercetin, tannin and flavonoids. How To Make Heather Tea To make your own heather tea, you will need a handful of chopped heather, both flowers and leaves. Boil the water, add the heather and let the mix steep for about 10-15 minutes. After that, pour the tea into your cup using a strainer to catch the heather leaves and flowers. Depending on your preferences, you can sweeten it by adding sugar or honey. Heather Tea Benefits Heather tea has a lot of health benefits:
  • Helps in the treatment of kidney and bladder problems.
  • Prevents and treats rheumatism, arthritis and gout.
  • It is a remedy for cold and cough.
  • Helps disinfecting the urinary tract.
  • It is a strong allied in the treatment of cystitis.
  • Tears various gastrointestinal problems.
Heather Tea Side Effects The things that you should keep in mind when you consider drinking heather tea are:
  • You shouldn’t drink too much heather tea because it can cause liver damage.
  • Heather tea can alter the effects of some medications, especially the ones related to the urinary and gastro intestinal tract, so make sure you consult your doctor before drinking it.
  • Pregnant and breastfeeding women should avoid drinking heather tea.
All in all, try not to drink more than 2 cups of heather tea. Enjoy all its benefits and make sure you won’t experience any of its side effects!... discover heather tea

Discover More About Horsetail Tea

Horsetail tea is made from the horsetail herb also named Equisetum arvense. Horsetail was used by ancient Romans and Greeks in medicine as an herbal remedy to stop bleeding, heal wounds and treat tuberculosis or kidney problems. This plant is actually a non-flowering weed that is found in some parts of Europe, Asia, the Middle East and North America. How to brew Horsetail Tea To brew a cup of horsetail tea, place 1-2 teaspoons of dried horsetail in a cup of boiled water. Then cover it and let it steep for about 10-15 minutes. When the time is up, strain thehorsetail tea into another cup and, depending on your taste preferences, sweeten it with some honey or sugar. Horsetail Tea benefits Horsetail tea has a lot of health benefits due to its high silica content that may help straighten bones, hair and nails, relieve bloating and fight fungal infections.  Also, horsetail tea:
  • It is most commonly used as a diuretic since washes away the toxins, having a cleansing effect to the kidneys.
  • Strengthens your lungs thanks to its main component - silica acid helps strengthen the walls of the air sacs in the lungs.
  • Promotes healthy hair. You can add 4 oz. of cooled horsetail tea into your shampoo or you can use the tea as a hair rinse.
  • Reduces swellings and gets rid of water retention.
  • Treats urinary infections.
  • Helps healing and treating burns and wounds thanks to its anti-inflammatory properties.
Horsetail Tea side effects Even though this tea has a lot of benefits, over consumption may lead to certain side effects. Try not to drink more than 2 cups of horsetail tea a day.
  • Pregnant or breastfeeding women are advised not to drink horsetail tea.
  • If you have kidney stones, try to stay away from this tea.
  • You can experience nausea, muscle weakness, fever or certain skin problems if you drink too much horsetail tea.
  • Before you start drinking horsetail tea, make sure you don’t have theamine deficiency or weak heart. In case you do, do not drink this tea.
Horsetail tea makes an excellent choice of drink since it has a lot of medical properties and therefore many benefits. Avoid over consumption and enjoy a healthy cup of tea!... discover more about horsetail tea

Discover Self-heal Tea

When it comes to self-heal tea, the title should say enough. This herbal tea is known for its many health benefits, which should make it a must-drink for many people. Find out more about self-heal tea! About Self-Heal Tea Self-heal tea is made from Prunella vulgaris, which is commonly called self-heal or heal-all. It is an herbaceous plant which can be found in places with temperate climate throughout Europe, Asia and North America. Self-heal is a low-growing perennial weed, part of the mint family. It has a height between 5 and 30cm. It has lance shaped and serrated leaves, pretty reddish at the tip. The flowers during summer, are tubular, and grow in a whirled cluster. They are also two lipped; the top lip is purple, while the bottom lip is usually white. How to prepare Self-Heal Tea To enjoy some self-heal tea, add two teaspoonfuls of dehydrated self heal leaves or flowers to a cup of freshly boiled water. Let it steep for about 10 minutes. Then, strain to remove the leaves or flowers, and sweeten if necessary with honey or fruit juice. Self-Heal Tea Constituents Self-heal tea uses the leaves and flowers of the self-heal plant. These have important active constituents which are transferred to the tea, as well. Some of them include betulinic-acid, D-camphor, delphinidin, hyperoside, oleanolic-acid, rosmarinic-acid, rutin, ursolic-acid, and tannins. Also, self-heal tea has lots of vitamins. One cup of tea includes vitamin A, vitamin B, vitamin C, and vitamin K. Self-Heal Tea Benefits Self-heal tea has various health benefits. It can be used to treat diarrhea or eye infections, such as stye and conjunctivitis. When it comes to diseases, self-heal tea is often included in the treatment for Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, gynecological disorders, and even AIDS/HIV. It also lowers blood pressure and helps with an upset stomach or internal bleeding. Self-heal tea can be used topically, as well. It can be applied on cuts, bruises and wounds in order to disinfect them and hasten the healing process. Also, it is used to treat boils. You can also use self-heal tea to gargle, or as mouth wash. Like this, it can treat sore throats, or mouth and throat ulcers. Self-Heal Tea Side Effects There aren’t any known side effects to self-heal tea. It is still generally recommended that pregnant and breastfeeding women shouldn’t drink this herbal tea, because it might affect the baby in some way. It is considered best not to drink more than 2-3 cups of self-heal tea a day. If you drink too much, you might get headaches, diarrhea, loss of appetite, or feel dizzy or nauseous.   Just like its name promises, self-heal tea has plenty of important health benefits. Meanwhile, it has very few side effects. Knowing this, you should give it a try!... discover self-heal tea

Dural Headaches

The most common type, resulting from autotoxicity or an excess of blood metabolites, such as from liver dysfunction or hangovers.... dural headaches

E-health

An emerging field in the intersection of medical informatics, public health and business, referring to health services and information delivered or enhanced through the Internet and related technologies.... e-health

Empowerment For Health

A process through which people gain greater control over decisions and actions affecting their lives. It is the process by which disadvantaged individuals or groups acquire the knowledge and skills needed to assert their rights.... empowerment for health

En-hakkore

(Hebrew) From the fountain of the crier... en-hakkore

Environment And Health

Environment and Health concerns those aspects of human health, including quality of life, that are determined by physical, biological, social and psychosocial factors in the environment. The promotion of good health requires not only public policies which support health, but also the creation of supportive environments in which living and working conditions are safe, stimulating and enjoyable.

Health has driven much of environmental policy since the work of Edwin Chadwick in the early 1840s. The ?rst British public-health act was introduced in 1848 to improve housing and sanitation with subsequent provision of puri?ed water, clean milk, food hygiene regulations, vaccinations and antibiotics. In the 21st century there are now many additional environmental factors that must be monitored, researched and controlled if risks to human health are to be well managed and the impact on human morbidity and mortality reduced.

Environmental impacts on health include:

noise

air pollution

water pollution

dust •odours

contaminated ground

loss of amenities

vermin

vibration

animal diseases

Environmental risk factors Many of the major determinants of health, disease and death are environmental risk factors. Some are natural hazards; others are generated by human activities. They may be directly harmful, as in the examples of exposure to toxic chemicals at work, pesticides, or air pollution from road transport, or to radon gas penetrating domestic properties. Environmental factors may also alter people’s susceptibility to disease: for example, the availability of su?cient food. In addition, they may operate by making unhealthy choices more likely, such as the availability and a?ord-ability of junk foods, alcohol, illegal drugs or tobacco.

Populations at risk Children are among the populations most sensitive to environmental health hazards. Their routine exposure to toxic chemicals in homes and communities can put their health at risk. Central to the ability to protect communities and families is the right of people to know about toxic substances. For many, the only source of environmental information is media reporting, which often leaves the public confused and frustrated. To bene?t from public access to information, increasingly via the Internet, people need basic environmental and health information, resources for interpreting, understanding and evaluating health risks, and familiarity with strategies for prevention or reduction of risk.

Risk assessment Environmental health experts rely on the principles of environmental toxicology and risk assessment to evaluate the environment and the potential effects on individual and community health. Key actions include:

identifying sources and routes of environmental exposure and recommending methods of reducing environmental health risks, such as exposure to heavy metals, solvents, pesticides, dioxins, etc.

assessing the risks of exposure-related health hazards.

alerting health professionals, the public, and the media to the levels of risk for particular potential hazards and the reasons for interventions.

ensuring that doctors and scientists explain the results of environmental monitoring studies – for example, the results of water ?uoridation in the UK to improve dental health.

National policies In the United Kingdom in 1996, an important step in linking environment and health was taken by a government-initiated joint consultation by the Departments of Health and Environment about adding ‘environment’ as a key area within the Health of the Nation strategy. The ?rst UK Minister of State for Public Health was appointed in 1997 with responsibilities for health promotion and public-health issues, both generally and within the NHS. These responsibilities include the implementation of the Health of the Nation strategy and its successor, Our Healthy Nation. The aim is to raise the priority given to human health throughout government departments, and to make health and environmental impact assessment a routine part of the making, implementing and assessing the impact of policies.

Global environmental risks The scope of many environmental threats to human health are international and cannot be regulated e?ectively on a local, regional or even national basis. One example is the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident, which led to a major release of radiation, the effects of which were felt in many countries. Some international action has already been taken to tackle global environmental problems, but governments should routinely measure the overall impacts of development on people and their environments and link with industry to reduce damage to the environment. For instance, the effects of global warming and pollution on health should be assessed within an ecological framework if communities are to respond e?ectively to potential new global threats to the environment.... environment and health

Environmental Health Officer

A local-authority health o?cial specially quali?ed in aspects of environmental health such as clean air, food hygiene, housing, pollution, sanitation and water supplies. He or she is responsible for running the authority’s environmental health department and, when epidemiological advice is needed, the relevant public-health physician acts in a consultative capacity (see EPIDEMIOLOGY; PUBLIC HEALTH).... environmental health officer

Essential (benign) Hypertension

See HYPERTENSION.... essential (benign) hypertension

Eulophia Herbacea

Lindl.

Family: Orchidaceae.

Habitat: Western Himalayas, Bengal and Western parts of Deccan Peninsula.

English: Salep (var.).

Ayurvedic: Munjaataka (substitute), Saalam-misri (substitute).

Action: Tubers—used as a substitute for Salep.... eulophia herbacea

Euphorbia Hirta

Linn.

Synonym: E. pilulifera auct. non Linn.

Family: Euphorbiaceae.

Habitat: Throughout warmer regions of India.

English: Euphorbia, Australian Asthma Weed, Pill-bearing Spurge.

Ayurvedic: Dudhi, Dudhikaa, Naagaarjuni, Vikshirini.

Unani: Dudhi Khurd.

Siddha/Tamil: Amman pachharisi.

Action: Pectoral, antiasthmatic, antispasmodic. Used for asthma, laryngitis, chronic nasal and bronchial catarrh; diarrhoea, dysentery, intestinal parasitosis Also used in postnatal complaints, failure of lactation. Latex— vermifuge. Used in diseases of urinogenitory tract.

The herb contains several terpenes, anthocyanins, alcohols and steroids. Aerial parts also gave shikimic acid, choline, L-inositol and free sugars.

Antiasthmatic activity is attributed to choline and shikimic acid. Shikimic acid and choline showed relaxant and contracting properties on guinea-pig ileum.

The aqueous extract of the herb exhibited sedative, anxiolytic, analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory activities; exerted an inhibitory effect on platelet aggregation.

Quercitrin is reported to be responsible for antidiarrhoeal activity.

Methanolic extract of the leaves exhibits antibacterial and antifungal activities.

Dimeric hydrolysable tannins, eu- phorbains, have been isolated from the plant.... euphorbia hirta

Euphorbia Hypericifolia

Auct. Non Linn.

Synonym: E. indica Lam.

Family: Euphorbiaceae.

Habitat: Throughout warmer regions of India, up to 1,500 m in the Himalaya.

Ayurvedic: Dugdhikaa.

Action: Plant—used in colic, diarrhoea and dysentery. Leaf— astringent, antidysenteric, antileuc- orrhoeic (also used in menorrhagia).

The plant contains taraxerol, oc- tacosanol, campesterol, stigmasterol, beta-sitosterol, quercetin, quercitrin, ellagic acid, rhamnetin-3-galactoside, rhmnetin-3-rhamnoside and kaempferol.... euphorbia hypericifolia

Extra Care Sheltered Housing

Housing where there is additional support (such as the provision of meals and extra communal facilities) to that usually found in sheltered housing. Sometimes called ‘very sheltered housing’.... extra care sheltered housing

False Hookworm

Ternidens deminuus, an intestinal nematode of monkeys in the Old World tropics and recorded from humans in Southern Africa and Mauritius. One of the nodular worms.... false hookworm

Farsetia Hamiltonii

Royle.

Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.

Family: Polygonaceae.

Habitat: Cultivated in the Himalayas, especially in the colder parts of Ladakh, Zaskar and Western Tibet.

English: Tatary Duckwheat.

Ayurvedic: Ukhal.

Folk: Kutu (var.).

Action: See F. esculentum. Duck- wheat is a better source of rutin than the common Buckwheat. It contains 45-80% more rutin than the latter, and maintains its high rutin content for a longer period.

Family: Cruciferae; Brassicaceae.

Habitat: Mediterranean region, eastwards to India and southwards to tropical Africa.

Folk: Farid-booti (Punjab).

Action: Antirheumatic.

Farsetia species contain a volatile oil which gave glucosinolates. Allylglu- cosinolate is the major constituent.... farsetia hamiltonii

Fasciola Hepatica

The common liver fluke. In tropical regions this species is replaced by F. gigantica. Like all trematodes, their intermediate hosts are aquatic snails. Infection occurs when the infective metacercariae are ingested on vegetation in swampy areas. Normal final (definitive) hosts are sheep, cattle and various wild animal species. Humans can acquire fascioliasis if they eat contamiated water cress etc.... fasciola hepatica

Feeding Habits

Habits determining the times and places of feeding and the sources of blood meals for mosquitoes.... feeding habits

Follicular Hormone

See OESTRADIOL.... follicular hormone

Gamma Benzene Hexachloride

A drug that is used in the treatment of PEDICULOSIS and SCABIES.... gamma benzene hexachloride

General Hospital

A hospital providing a variety of services, including medicine and surgery, to meet the general medical needs of the community it serves.... general hospital

Ficus Heterophylla

Linn. f.

Synonym: F. semicordata Buch.- Ham. ex Sm. F. conglomerata Roxb.

Family: Moraceae.

Habitat: Sub-Himalayan tract from Chenab eastward to Bhutan and in Assam, Bengal and Orissa.

English: Indian Fig.

Ayurvedic: Malayu, Choraka- patra, Laakshaa-vrksha, Laghu- udumbara.

Siddha: Taragadu (Tamil).

Action: See F. carica. Fruits— spasmolytic; used in aphthous complaints. Root—used for bladder and visceral troubles. Bark-decoction—used for washing ulcers; juice and powdered bark— applied to wounds and bruises. Syconium—used for ulcers of mucous membrane. Syconium and bark—antileprotic.

The tree is one of the recorded hosts of the Indian lac insect.... ficus heterophylla

Ficus Hispida

Linn. f.

Synonym: F. daemona Koen. ex Vahl. F. Oppositifolia Roxb.

Family: Moraceae.

Habitat: Outer Himalaya from Chenab eastwards to West Bengal Assam, Central and South India and the Andaman Islands.

Ayurvedic: Kaakodumbara, Kaashtodumbara, Phalgu, Malayu, Malapu.

Unani: Anjir Dashti.

Siddha/Tamil: Peyatti, Chona Atthi.

Action: Syconium—galactagogue. Bark and seed—purgative, emetic.

The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia ofIn- dia recommends the fruit in jaundice, oedema and anaemia; fruit and root in leucoderma, vitiligo.

The fruits, seeds and bark contain beta-sitosterol, beta-amyrin, n- triacontanyl acetate, gluacol acetate, hispidin, a phenanthraindolizidine alkaloid, bergapten and psoralen. A leu- cocyanin has been isolated from the root; oleanolic acid from the leaves.

Dosage: Fruit—10-20 g; root—1- 3 g powder. (API Vol. III.)... ficus hispida

Garcinia Hanburyi

Hook. f.

Family: Guttiferae; Clusiaceae.

Habitat: Evergreen forests of Assam and Khasi Hills.

English: Siam Gamboge.

Ayurvedic: Kankushtha; Kaalakushtha, Tamaala.

Unani: Usaar-e-revand.

Action: Gum-resin—drastic hydragogue, cathartic; used for dropsical conditions. Toxic. The gum-resin contains 70-75% resins consisting mainly of alpha- and beta-garcinolic acids with gambogic acids; about 20-25% gum.

Gambogic acid, morellic acid and isomorellic acid are toxic constituents of the gum-resin.... garcinia hanburyi

Girardinia Heterophylla

Decne.

Synonym: G. diversifolia (Link) Eriss.

Family: Urticaceae.

Habitat: Temperate and sub-tropical Himalayas from Kashmir to Sikkim, and in Assam and Khasi hills.

English: Himalayan Nettle.

Ayurvedic: Vrishchikaa.

Folk: Bichhuu-booti, Awaa, Chikri.

Action: Leaves—decoction is given in fevers; applied externally to swollen joints, also as a paste for headache. (Due to stringing hair, the plant causes dermatitis and is known as Bichhuu.)

The leaves contain 5-OH-trypta- mine and histamine, also AC-choline.

The plant gave beta-sitosterol.... girardinia heterophylla

Glycosylated Haemoglobin (hba1c)

This forms a small proportion of the total HAEMOGLOBIN in the blood. It di?ers from the major component, HbA, in that it has a glucose group attached. The rate of synthesis of HbA1c is a function of the blood-glucose concentration, and since it accumulates throughout the life span of the red blood cell – normally 120 days – the concentration of HbA1c is related to the mean blood-glucose concentration over the past 3–4 months. It is thus a useful indicator of medium-term diabetic control (see DIABETES MELLITUS) – a good target range would be a concentration of 5–8 per cent. When interpreting the HbA1c level, however, it is important to remember that wide ?uctuations in blood-glucose concentration, together with ANAEMIA or a reduced ERYTHROCYTES life span, may give misleading results.... glycosylated haemoglobin (hba1c)

Graft Versus Host Disease (gvhd)

A condition that is a common complication of BONE MARROW transplant (see TRANSPLANTATION). It results from certain LYMPHOCYTES in the transplanted marrow attacking the transplant recipient’s tissues, which they identify as ‘foreign’. GVHD may appear soon after a transplant or develop several months later. The condition, which is fatal in about a third of victims, may be prevented by immunosuppressant drugs such as ciclosporin.... graft versus host disease (gvhd)

Group Home

A house in which people have their own rooms but there are communal facilities. Staff may live in to offer support.... group home

Group Senior Assisted Housing

See “assisted living facility”.... group senior assisted housing

Gymnema Hirsutum

Wight & Arn.

Family: Asclepiadaceae.

Habitat: Southern parts of Uttar Pradesh adjoining Madhya Pradesh, also in Bihar and Western Ghats.

Folk: Gurmaar (related species).

Action: Leaf—when chewed, temporarily paralyses the sense of taste for sweet and bitter substances. Plant—used as stomachic, bechic, expectorant, and in male impotency, poor lactation.

The leaves contain gymnemic acid.... gymnema hirsutum

Gossypium Herbaceum

Linn.

Family: Malvaceae.

Habitat: Cultivated mainly in Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka.

English: Asiatic Cotton, Levant Cotton, Uppam Cotton.

Ayurvedic: Kaarpaasa, Kaarpaasi, Kaarpaasaka, Rakta-Kaarpaasa, Shona-Kaarpaasa, Samudraantaa, Tuula, Pichu, Bhaaradwaaji, Tundikeri.

Unani: Pambahdaanaa. (Seed.)

Siddha/Tamil: Paruttikkootam

Action: Root bark—diuretic, oxytocic. Bark—emmenagogue, haemostatic. Seed—demulcent, laxative, expectorant, abortifacient, galactagogue, nervine, anticepha- lalgic.

The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia ofIn- dia recommends the seed oil for toning up the breast.

The seed contains 21.3-25.2% protein, free gossypol 0.82-1.96%.

Dosage: Seeds, devoid of lint—3- 6 g powder. (API Vol. I.)... gossypium herbaceum

Grewia Hirsuta

Vahl.

Synonym: G. polygama Mast.

Family: Tiliaceae.

Habitat: Sub-Himalayan tract from the Indus to Nepal up to 1,500 m, also in hills of Bihar, Orissa and Tamil Nadu.

Ayurvedic: Naagabalaa, Gud- sharkaraa.

Siddha/Tamil: Tavadu.

Folk: Gulshakari.

Action: Fruit and root—diuretic, antidiarrhoeal. Roots and leaves, crushed with sugar candy, are prescribed for spermatorrhoea.

Dosage: Root—50-100 ml decoction. (CCRAS.)... grewia hirsuta

Haafizah

(Arabic) One who loves literature Hafizah, Hafiza, Hafyzah, Hafeeza, Hafeezah, Hafeazah, Hafeaza... haafizah

Haarisah

(Hindi) Daughter of the sun Harisah, Haarysah, Harisa, Harysah, Harysa, Haaresah, Haresah, Haresa... haarisah

Haarithah

(Arabic) A heavenly messenger Harithah, Haarithe, Haaritheh, Harithe... haarithah

Habbai

(Arabic) One who is much loved Habbae, Habbay, Habbaye... habbai

Habenaria Acuminata

Thw., H. goodyeroides D. Don., H. griffithii HK. are also equated with Riddhi, Vriddhi.

Dosage: Tuber—3-6 g powder. (CCRAS.)... habenaria acuminata

Habenaria Edgeworthii

Hook. f. ex Collett.

Family: Orchidaceae.

Habitat: Outer range of Western Himalayas from Punjab to Kumaon.

Ayurvedic: Riddhi. (Tubers of Eulophia nuda Lindl. and Dioscorea bulbifera are also used as Riddhi.)

Action: Nervine and cardiac tonic.... habenaria edgeworthii

Habenaria Intermedia

D. Don.

Family: Orchidaceae.

Habitat: The Himalayan region. Found in Ranikhet.

Ayurvedic: Riddhi, Vriddhi. (Substitute: Dioscorea bulbifera.)

Action: Nervine and cardiac tonic.... habenaria intermedia

Habiba

(Arabic) Feminine form of Habib; one who is dearly loved; sweetheart Habibah, Habeeba, Habyba, Habieba, Habeiba, Habika, Habyka, Habicka, Habycka, Habeabah, Habeaba, Habeebah, Habybah, Habiebah, Habeibah... habiba

Hachi

(Native American / Japanese) From the river / having good fortune Hachie, Hachee, Hachiko, Hachiyo, Hachy, Hachey, Hachikka... hachi

Hachilah

(Hebrew) From the dark hill Hachila, Hachyla, Hachylah, Hacheela, Hacheelah, Hachiela, Hachielah, Hacheilah, Hacheila, Hacheala, Hachealah... hachilah

Hackberry

Celtis species

Description: Hackberry trees have smooth, gray bark that often has corky warts or ridges. The tree may reach 39 meters in height. Hackberry trees have long-pointed leaves that grow in two rows. This tree bears small, round berries that can be eaten when they are ripe and fall from the tree. The wood of the hackberry is yellowish.

Habitat and Distribution: This plant is widespread in the United States, especially in and near ponds.

Edible Parts: Its berries are edible when they are ripe and fall from the tree.... hackberry

Gyokuro Tea Health Benefits

Gyokuro tea is said to be the finest type of green tea. It is largely consumed for its health properties, but also for its unique taste. Its ingredients balance the diet in a harmonious way. Gyokuro tea description Gyokuro tea, or in translation “Jewel Dew”, is a fine type of green tea. It has a deep green colour and a rich seaweed and mellow taste flavor. Itscomponentsare theanine, caffeine, tannin and vitamin C. Theanine provides the tea’s flavor, caffeine its bitterness, and tannin its astringency. Gyokuro tea’s high quality and price are related to the unusual growing techniques. The tea is made only with the earliest leaf buds of the April/May harvest. The aforementioned tea is grown under shade cover for 20 days before harvesting begins. It is considered the best of the Japanese teas and offers consumers a refreshing experience. How to prepare Gyokuro tea Gyokuro tea is advisable to be drunk alone, without mixing it with milk or sugar. Occasionally, one can only serve it with a piece of dark chocolate. It seems that its leaves can be eaten, being soft and healthy.
  • Use good quality water to prepare a good Gyokuro tea
  • The optimal brewing temperature is between 122 F and 140 F degrees.
  • First, preheat the cups or the teapot, because pouring the moderately warm tea into a cold cup changes its temperature.
  • Pour some of the boiled water into the tea kettle and wait one or two minutes.
  • Add the leaves and the remaining water.
  • Use 2 table spoons of tea to approx. 4-5 ounces of water.
  • Brewing time is between two and three minutes. While brewing, don’t mix, stir or shake the tea. Try to leave enough room for the leaves to expand.
Gyokuro tea benefits Due to its high content of antioxidants, Gyokuro tea reduces the risk of cancer. It can fight the free radicals responsible for the growth of tumors. This type of tea has a large contribution in making cells less likely to be affected by mutations. There have been instances in which it helped to cell recovery. Gyokuro tea can be successfully used to:
  • stimulate the metabolism
  • burn off  calories
  • lower cholesterol
  • protect against various cardiovascular diseases
  • soothe and relax the mind
  • enhance cognition and alertness
  • improve concentration
  • keep one energetic
  • prevent dental plaque, bacterial infections and dental decay
  • freshen your breathe
  • protect against bacteria
Gyokuro tea side effects In case of large intakes of Gyokuro tea, insomnia may appear, especially to consumers already suffering from a sleep pattern disorder. Agitation and anxiety are other side effects caused by the content of caffeine. Children, people with heart medical problems and pregnant women are normally told to avoid Gyokuro tea or to drink it in limited quantities. Gyokuro tea contains a great quantity of antioxidants and caffeine that better people’s daily activities by enhancing their state of mind and well-being.  ... gyokuro tea health benefits

Hada

(African) From the salty place Hadah, Hadda, Haddah... hada

Hadara

(Hebrew) A spectacular ornament; adorned with beauty Hadarah, Hadarit, Haduraq, Hadarra, Hadarrah... hadara

Hadassah

(Hebrew) From the myrtle tree Hadassa, Hadasah, Hadasa... hadassah

Hadeel

(Arabic) Resembling a dove Hadil, Hadyl, Hadeil, Hadiel, Hadeal... hadeel

Hadenna

(English) From the meadow of flowers

Hadennah, Hadena, Hadynna, Hadinna, Hadyna, Hadina... hadenna

Hadiya

(Arabic) A gift from God; a righteous woman

Hadiyah, Hadiyyah, Haadiyah, Haadiya, Hadeeya, Hadeeyah, Hadieya, Hadieyah, Hadeiya, Hadeiyah, Hadeaya, Hadeayah... hadiya

Hadlai

(Hebrew) In a resting state; one who hinders

Hadlae, Hadlay, Hadlaye... hadlai

Hadley

(English) From the field of heather Hadlea, Hadleigh, Hadly, Hedlea, Hedleigh, Hedley, Hedlie, Hadlee, Hadlie, Hadli, Hedly, Hedlee, Hedleah, Hedli... hadley

Hadria

(Latin) From the town in northern Italy

Hadrea, Hadriana, Hadriane, Hadrianna, Hadrien, Hadrienne, Hadriah, Hadreah... hadria

Hady

(Greek) One who is soulful Hadey, Hadi, Hadie, Hadee, Hadea... hady

Hadya

(Arabic) Feminine form of Hadi; serving as a religious guide Hadyah, Hadiya, Hadiyah... hadya

Haematologist

A doctor or scientist who specialises in the study and treatment of blood and blood disorders.... haematologist

Haematoxylon Campechianum

Linn.

Family: Caesalpiniaceae, Mi- mosaceae

Habitat: Native to tropical America and the West Indies. Grown in Indian gardens.

English: Logwood, Peachwood, Compeachy tree.

Ayurvedic: Pattanga, Patraanga, Bakam (substitute). (Caesalpinia sappan is also equated with Pattanga.)

Unani: Buqqam, Bakam-Hindi.

Action: Astringent. Used for atonic dyspepsia, diarrhoea, summer diarrhoea, dysentery, internal haemorrhages, menorrhagia, leucorrhoea. (It imparts red colour to urine and stool. Incompatible with chalk or lime-water.)

The wood contains about 10% hae- matoxylon, a red-brown phenolic dye, tannins, resin and volatile oil.

Haematoxylin exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity in the carra- geenan-induced oedema test.

The seed contains crude protein 29.1, pentosan 6.6, and water-soluble gum 3.2%.... haematoxylon campechianum

Haemic Murmur

Unusual sounds heard over the heart and large blood vessels in severe cases of ANAEMIA. They disappear as the condition improves.... haemic murmur

Haemofiltration

A technique similar to HAEMODIALYSIS. Blood is dialysed using ultra?ltration through a membrane permeable to water and small molecules (molecular weight <12,000). Physiological saline solution is simultaneously reinfused.... haemofiltration

Haemoglobinopathies

Abnormal HAEMOGLOBIN formation occurs in the haemoglobinopathies, which are hereditary haemolytic anaemias, genetically determined and related to race. The haemoglobin may be abnormal because: (1) there is a defect in the synthesis of normal adult haemoglobin as in THALASSAEMIA, when there may be an absence of one or both of the polypeptide chains characteristic of normal adult haemoglobin; or (2) there is an abnormal form of haemoglobin such as haemoglobin S which results in sickle-cell disease (see ANAEMIA). This abnormality may involve as little as one amino acid of the 300 in the haemoglobin molecule. In sickle-cell haemoglobin, one single amino-acid molecule – that of glutamic acid – is replaced by another – that of valine; this results in such a de?cient end product that the ensuing disease is frequently severe.... haemoglobinopathies

Haemorrhoid

A bleeding pile... haemorrhoid

Hafsa

(Arabic) Resembling a young lioness; a wife of Muhammad Hafza, Hafsah, Hafzah, Haphsa, Haphza... hafsa

Hafthah

(Arabic) One who is protected by God Haftha... hafthah

Hafwen

(Welsh) Possessing the beauty of summer

Hafwenne, Hafwin, Hafwyn, Hafwinne, Hafwynne, Hafwenn, Hafwinn, Hafwynn... hafwen

Hagab

(Hebrew) Resembling a grasshopper Hagabah, Hagaba, Hagabe... hagab

Hagai

(Hebrew) One who has been abandoned

Hagae, Hagay, Hagaye, Haggai, Haggae, Hagie, Haggie, Hagi, Haggi, Hagee, Haggee, Hagea, Haggea, Hagy, Haggy, Hagey, Haggey... hagai

Hagar

(Hebrew) One who is forsaken; taking flight; a stranger Haggar, Hagir, Hajar, Hagyr, Hagarr... hagar

Hagen

(Irish) A youthful woman Hagan, Haggen, Haggan... hagen

Haggith

(Hebrew) One who rejoices; the dancer

Haggithe, Haggyth, Haggythe, Hagith, Hagithe, Hagyth, Hagythe... haggith

Hagne

(Greek) One who is pure; chaste Hagna, Hagni, Hagnie, Hagnee, Hagnea, Hagneah, Hagny, Hagney... hagne

Haiba

(African) A charming woman Hayba, Haibah, Haybah, Haeba, Haebah... haiba

Haidee

(Greek) A modest woman; one who is well-behaved

Hadee, Haydee, Haydy, Haidi, Haidie, Haydi, Haydie, Haidy, Haedee, Haedi, Haedie, Haedy, Haedey, Haedea, Haidea, Haydea... haidee

Haimati

(Indian) A queen of the snow-covered mountains

Haimatie, Haimaty, Haimatey, Haimatee, Haymati, Haymatie, Haymatee, Haimatea, Haymatea... haimati

Haimi

(Hawaiian) One who searches for the truth

Haimie, Haimy, Haimey, Haimee, Haymi, Haymie, Haymee, Haimea, Haymea... haimi

Hair Jellyfish

The Australian colloquial term for Cyanea - also known as Lion’s Mane in many other countries.... hair jellyfish

Hair, Removal Of

See DEPILATION.... hair, removal of

Haiwee

(Native American) Resembling the dove; bird of peace

Haiwea, Haiwie, Haiwi, Haiwy, Haiwey... haiwee

Hajna

(Hungarian) Form of Ann, meaning “a woman graced with God’s favor” Hajne... hajna

Hajnal

(Hungarian) Born with the morning’s first light

Hajnale, Hajnala, Hajnalla, Hajnalka... hajnal

Hakana

(Turkish) Feminine form of Hakan; ruler of the people; an empress Hakanah, Hakanna, Hakane, Hakann, Hakanne... hakana

Hakidonmuya

(Native American) Born during a period of expectation... hakidonmuya

Hakkoz

(Hebrew) One who has the qualities of a thorn

Hakoz, Hakkoze, Hakoze, Hakkoza, Hakoza... hakkoz

Hala

(Arabic) Possessing a lunar halo Halah, Haala, Hila, Hilah... hala

Halag

(German) A religious woman; one who is pious... halag

Halak

(Hebrew) One who is bald; smooth... halak

Halcyone

(Greek) Resembling a kingfisher; born during a time of peace and calm Halcyon, Halcyona, Halcyonia, Halcyonea... halcyone

Halda

(Scandinavian) One who is half Danish

Haldah, Haldane, Haldayn, Haldayne, Haldain, Haldaine, Haldaen, Haldaene, Haldana, Haldania, Haldanea, Halden, Haldin, Haldyn, Haldi, Haldie, Haldee, Haldea, Haldey, Haldy, Haldis... halda

Haldana

(Norse) One who is half Danish Haldanah, Haldanna, Haldane, Haldayne, Haldaine, Haldaene... haldana

Haldis

(Teutonic / Greek) A stone spirit / a reliable helper

Haldisa, Haldys, Haldiss, Haldisse, Haldyss, Haldysse, Halldis, Halldiss, Halldisse, Halldys, Halldyss, Halldysse... haldis

Haldora

(Norse) Feminine form of Haldor; Thor’s rock

Haldorah, Haldoria, Haldorea, Haldorra, Halldora, Halldorra, Halldoria, Halldorea... haldora

Hale

(English) From the hall of light; a heroine

Hayle, Haile, Haylan, Haylen, Hael, Haele, Hayl... hale

Haleigha

(Hawaiian) Born with the rising sun

Haleea, Haleya, Halya... haleigha

Halene

(Russian) A steadfast woman Haleen, Haleene, Halein, Haleine, Halien, Haliene... halene

Haletta

(Greek) A little girl from the meadow

Halett, Halet, Haleta, Halette, Halete... haletta

Haley

(English) From the field of hay Hailey, Hayle, Hailee, Haylee, Haylie, Haleigh, Hayley, Haeleigh, Haeli, Haili, Haily, Halea, Hayleigh, Hayli, Hailea, Haile, Hailie, Halie, Hali, Halee, Haelee... haley

Halfrida

(German) A peaceful woman Halfryda, Halfrieda, Halfreida, Halfreeda, Halfreada... halfrida

Halhul

(Hebrew) One who is hollow inside; full of grief... halhul

Halia

(Hawaiian) The remembrance of one who was loved... halia

Halibut-liver Oil

The oil expressed from fresh, or suitably preserved, halibut liver. It is a particularly rich source of vitamin A (30,000 international units per gram), and also contains vitamin D (2,300– 2,500 units per gram). It is available in capsules as a means of providing the two vitamins. (See APPENDIX 5: VITAMINS.)... halibut-liver oil

Halima

(Arabic) A mild-mannered woman; one who is gentle

Halimah, Haleema, Haleemah, Haleima, Halyma, Helima, Helimah, Helyma, Heleema, Heleemah, Haleama, Haleamah, Heleama, Heleamah... halima

Halimeda

(Greek) Woman from the sea Halameda, Halymeda, Halimyda, Halymyda, Halamyda, Halimida, Halamida... halimeda

Halina

(Greek / Polish) Born of the light / one who is calm

Halinah, Haleena, Haleenah, Halyna, Halynah, Haleina, Haleinah, Haleana, Haleanah, Haliena, Halienah, Halena, Halenah... halina

Hall

(American) One who is distinguished Haul... hall

Halla

(African) An unexpected gift Hallah... halla

Hallam

(English) From the valley Hallem, Halam, Halem... hallam

Hallan

(English) From the manor’s hall Hallen, Halan, Halen... hallan

Hallei

(Hebrew) One who is much praised... hallei

Hallela

(Hebrew) One who is praiseworthy Hallella, Halleli, Hallelie, Hallely, Halleley, Hallelee, Hallelea... hallela

Hallelujah

(Hebrew) Praise the Lord our God

Halleluja... hallelujah

Hallie

(Scandinavian / Greek / English) From the hall / woman of the sea / from the field of hay

Halley, Hallie, Halle, Hallee, Hally, Halleigh, Hallea, Halleah... hallie

Hallucinations

False perceptions arising without an adequate external stimulus, as opposed to illusions, which are misinterpretations of stimuli arising from an external object. Hallucinations come from ‘within’, although the affected individual may see them as coming from ‘without’. Nevertheless, they may occur at the same time as real perceptions, and may affect any sense (vision, hearing, smell, taste, touch, etc.).

Causes They may be the result of intense emotion or suggestion, sensory deprivation (for example, overwork or lack of sleep), disorders of sense organs, or disorders of the central nervous system. Although hallucinations may occur in perfectly sane people, they are more commonly an indication of a MENTAL ILLNESS. They may be deliberately induced by the use of HALLUCINOGENS.... hallucinations

Halofantrine

US Army discovered antimalarial related to mefloquine, used to kill blood parasites, especially in the treatment of severe malaria due to Plasmodium falciparum.... halofantrine

Haloke

(Native American) Resembling a salmon

Haloka, Halokia, Halokea... haloke

Halona

(Native American) Woman of good fortune

Halonna, Halonah, Halonia, Halonea... halona

Halothane Hepatitis

A very rare form of HEPATITIS following exposure to HALOTHANE during anaesthesia (1:35,000 halothane anaesthetics). Jaundice develops three to four days after exposure and will occasionally develop into a fatal massive hepatic necrosis. It is of unknown aetiology but probably has an immunological basis. It is more common following multiple exposures in a short time (less than 28 days), and in obesity, middle age and females. It is rare in children.... halothane hepatitis

Halsey

(American) A playful woman Halsy, Halsee, Halsea, Halsi, Halsie, Halcie, Halcy, Halcey, Halcea, Halcee, Halci... halsey

Halston

(American) A stylish woman Halsten, Halstin, Halstun, Halstan, Halstyn... halston

Halyn

(American) A unique young woman Halynn, Halynne, Halin, Halinn, Halinne... halyn

Halzey

(American) A great leader Halzy, Halzee, Halzea, Halzi, Halzie... halzey

Hama

(Arabic) From the city on the river Hamah, Hamma, Hammah... hama

Hamate

One of the carpal bones of the HAND that articulate between the METATARSAL BONES and the RADIUS and ulnar bones of the forearm.... hamate

Hamath

(Hebrew) From the mighty fortress

Hamathe, Hamoth, Hamothe, Hamatha, Hamotha... hamath

Hamida

(Arabic) One who gives thanks Hamidah, Hamyda, Hameeda, Hameida, Hamieda, Hameada, Hamydah, Hameedah, Hameidah, Hamiedah, Hameadah... hamida

Hamilton

(American) A dreamer; one who is wishful

Hamylton, Hamilten, Hamylten, Hamiltyn, Hamyltyn... hamilton

Hammon

(Hebrew) Of the warm springs... hammon

Hamony

(Latin) Form of Harmony, meaning “unity; musically in tune” Hamoney, Hamoni, Hamonie, Hamonee, Hamonea... hamony

Hamstrings

The name given to the tendons at the back of the knee – two on the inner side and one on the outer side – which bend this joint. They are attached to the tibia below. Strains, or ‘pulls’, and tears of the hamstring are common in people taking part in strenuous sports such as athletics, football, rugby and tennis (see SPORTS MEDICINE).... hamstrings

Hamula

(Hebrew) Feminine form of Hamul; spared by God Hamulah, Hamulla, Hamullah... hamula

Hamutal

(Hebrew) Of the morning dew Hamutala, Hamutalle, Hamutalla... hamutal

Hana

(Japanese / Arabic) Resembling a flower blossom / a blissful woman Hanah, Hanako... hana

Hanameel

(Hebrew) A gift from God Hanameela, Hannameel, Hanamele, Hanamelle, Hanamella, Hananeel, Hananeela, Hanameal, Hanameala, Hananeal, Hananeala... hanameel

Hanan

(Arabic) One who shows mercy and compassion... hanan

Hananna

(Hebrew) Feminine form of Hanan; one who is gracious Hanannah, Hanana, Hananah... hananna

Hande

(Turkish) A woman with an infectious smile... hande

Handsearching

Looking for articles, not by searching electronic databases, but by systematically going through journals.... handsearching

Hang

(Vietnamese) Of the moon... hang

Hang-nail

A splitting of the skin (cuticle) at the side of a ?ngernail. In manual workers it is usually caused by trauma, but ISCHAEMIA of the ?ngers (see also RAYNAUD’S DISEASE) may predispose to the condition. Secondary infection and in?ammation may make hang-nail a very tender condition; treatment consists of reducing trauma, and the use of EMOLLIENTS and ANTIBIOTICS if necessary.... hang-nail

Hanging

Hanging is a form of death due to suspension of the body from the neck – either suddenly, as in judicial hanging (although not in the United Kingdom, as the death penalty is not used in the UK justice system), so as to damage the spinal column and cord, or in such a way as to constrict the AIR PASSAGES and the blood vessels to the brain. Death is, in any case, speedy, resulting in 2–3 minutes if not instantaneously. Apart from judicial hanging, and in the absence of any signs of a struggle, hanging is usually due to SUICIDE. The resuscitation of people found hanging is similar to that for drowning. (See APPENDIX 1: BASIC FIRST AID – Cardiac/respiratory arrest.)... hanging

Hanh

(Vietnamese) From the apricot tree... hanh

Hanifa

(Arabic) Feminine form of Hanif; a true believer; one who is upright Hanifah, Haneefa, Haneefah, Hanyfa, Hanyfah, Haneifa, Haneifah, Haniefa, Haniefah, Haneafa, Haneafah... hanifa

Hanika

(Hebrew) A graceful woman Hanikah, Haneeka, Haneekah, Hanyka, Hanykah, Haneika, Haneikah, Hanieka, Haniekah, Haneaka, Haneakah... hanika

Hanima

(Indian) Of the waves Hanimah, Hanyma, Haneema, Hanymah, Haneemah, Haneima, Haneimah, Haniema, Haniemah, Haneama, Haneamah... hanima

Hanita

(Indian) Favored with divine grace Hanitah, Hanyta, Haneeta, Hanytah, Haneetah, Haneita, Haneitah, Hanieta, Hanietah, Haneata, Haneatah... hanita

Haniyah

(Arabic) One who is pleased; happy

Haniya, Haniyyah, Haniyya, Hani, Hanie, Hanee, Hany, Haney, Hanea, Haneah... haniyah

Hannabel

(German) Favored with grace and beauty

Hannabelle, Hannabell, Hannabele, Hannabela, Hannabella... hannabel

Hannah

(Hebrew) Having favor and grace; in the Bible, mother of Samuel Hanalee, Hanalise, Hanna, Hanne, Hannele, Hannelore, Hannie, Hanny, Honna, Hannalee, Hendel, Hannaleigh, Honna, Hannea, Hanneka, Hannika, Hannela, Hannella, Hannalea... hannah

Hannette

(American) One who is graceful Hannett, Hannet, Hannete, Hannetta, Hanneta... hannette

Hansa

(Indian) As graceful as a swan Hansika, Hansini, Hansinie, Hansia, Hansea... hansa

Hansen’s Disease

See LEPROSY.... hansen’s disease

Hansine

(Hebrew) Feminine form of John; God is gracious

Hansyne, Hanseen, Hansinah, Hansina, Hansyna, Hannes, Hanseane, Hanseana, Hanseena... hansine

Hanya

(Aboriginal) As solid as a stone... hanya

Hanzila

(African) Traveling a road or path Hanzilah, Hanzilla, Hanzillah, Hanzyla, Hanzylla, Hanzylah, Hanzyllah... hanzila

Hapalochlaena Spp.

Usually known as the blue-ringed octopus, a bite from this cephalopod can cause respiratoryparalysis (but not unconsciousness) within 30 minutes of a painless bite by the beak on the underside of this small octopus. It is normally some 8-11cm across, and a dull brown colour. However, when irritated (eg. by children playing with it) attractive blue rings appear, and a bite may occurs. Rapid (within 10 minutes) onset of progressive muscle weakness, with speech and respiratory difficulty, dysphagia and visual disturbance occur; respiratory failure mayoccur. There have been two Australian deaths. EAR can prevent death from respiratory failure.... hapalochlaena spp.

Haplanthus Verticillatus

(Roxb.) Nees.

Family: Acanthaceae.

Habitat: Hills of Deccan Peninsula and parts of western and central India.

Folk: Kaalaa-Kirayaat (Maharashtra).

Action: Febrifuge, bitter tonic.

A closely related species, Haplan- thus tentaculatus Nees, is also known as Kaalaa-Kiryaat. The herb is given in fever.... haplanthus verticillatus

Happy

(American) A joyful woman Happey, Happi, Happie, Happee, Happea... happy

Haqikah

(Egyptian) A truthful woman; one who is honest

Haqika, Haquikah, Haquika, Haqyka... haqikah

Hara

(Hebrew) From the mountainous land Harah, Harra, Harrah... hara

Haracha

(African) Resembling a frog... haracha

Haradah

(Hebrew) One who is filled with fear Harada... haradah

Haralda

(Norse) Feminine form of Harold; the ruler of an army

Haraldene, Haraldina, Harolda, Haroldene, Haroldina, Haraldia, Harelda, Hareldina, Hareldene, Harelde, Harolde, Haraldyna, Haroldyna, Hareldyna, Haraldyne, Haroldyne, Hareldyne... haralda

Harana

(Hebrew) Feminine form of Haran; a great moutaineer; one who is parched Haranah, Haranna, Haranne, Harane, Harann... harana

Hard Water

The term applied to water that contains a large amount of calcium and magnesium salts (lime salts). These form an insoluble curd with soap and thus interfere with the use of the water for washing. Hard water is especially found in districts where the soil is chalky. Temporary hardness, which is due mainly to the presence of bicarbonates of lime, can be remedied by boiling, when the lime is precipitated as carbonate of lime. Permanent hardness is not remedied by boiling, and is due to the presence of a large amount of sulphate of lime. It may be removed by the addition of sodium carbonate (washing soda) or by the Permutit process which involves the use of various combinations of silicate of alumina and soda. In the past, hard water was often blamed for many ills – without any convincing evidence. Epidemiologists suggest that drinking soft water may lead to a greater risk of heart disease.... hard water

Hardwickia Binata

Roxb.

Family: Caesalpiniaceae.

Habitat: Dry forests of Deccan Peninsula, Central India and parts of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar.

Ayurvedic: Anjana.

Siddha/Tamil: Katudugu, Kodapalai.

Action: Balsam—used for sexually transmitted diseases. The balsam is similar to Copaiba balsam (Copaifera langsdorffii Desf., Leguminosae) of Brasil and is used in leucorrhoea, chronic cystitis, gonorrhoea, combined with cubebs and sandal. The resin (not the oleo-resin) is used as diuretic.

The essential oil of H. binata is not a substitute for Copaiba oil.

The methanolic extract of the heart- wood yields beta-sitosterol, (+)-taxifo- lin, eriodictyol, (+)-catechin, (+)-epi- catechin and (+)-mopanol. The phenolic compounds are said to impart antibacterial and antifungal property to the herb.

The bark has a good absorption capacity for mercury from water.... hardwickia binata

Harhur

(Hebrew) Possessing a burning heat

Harhure, Harhurr, Harhura, Harhurra... harhur

Harika

(Turkish) A superior woman Harikah, Haryka, Hareeka, Harykah, Hareekah, Hareaka, Hareakah... harika

Harimanna

(German) A warrior maiden Harimanne, Harimana, Harimane... harimanna

Harimanti

(Indian) Born during the spring Harimantie, Harymanti, Harimanty, Harymanty, Harymantie, Harimantea, Harymantea... harimanti

Harinakshi

(Indian) A doe-eyed young woman

Harinakshie, Harynakshi, Harinakshy, Harynakshy, Harinakshea, Harynakshea, Harynakshie... harinakshi

Harini

(Indian) Resembling a deer Harinie, Harinee, Hariny, Haryni, Harynie, Haryny, Harinea, Harynea, Harynee... harini

Hariti

(Indian) In mythology, the goddess for the protection of children Haritie, Haryti, Harytie, Haritee, Harytee, Haritea, Harytea... hariti

Harla

(English) From the fields Harlah... harla

Harlan

(English) An athletic woman Harlen, Harlon, Harlun, Harlyn... harlan

Harlequine

(American) A romantic woman Harlequin, Harlequen, Harlequene, Harlequinne, Harlequinn... harlequine

Harley

(English) From the meadow of the hares

Harlea, Harlee, Harleen, Harleigh, Harlene, Harlie, Harli, Harly... harley

Harlow

(American) An impetuous woman Harlowe, Harlo, Harloe... harlow

Harmony

(English / Latin) Unity; musically in tune / in mythology, Harmonia was the daughter of Ares and Aphrodite; a beautiful blending

Harmonie, Harmoni, Harmonee, Harmonia, Harmoney, Harmonea... harmony

Harper

(English) One who plays or makes harps

Harpur, Harpar, Harpir, Harpyr... harper

Harrell

(American) A great leader Harel, Harell, Harrel, Harelle, Harrelle... harrell

Harriet

(German) Feminine form of Henry; ruler of the house

Harriett, Hanriette, Hanrietta, Harriette, Harrietta, Harrette, Harriot, Harriotte, Harriotte, Harriotta, Heirierte, Heirrierte... harriet

Harsha

(Hebrew / Indian) An enchantress; a hardworking woman / a bringer of happiness Harshada, Harshah, Harshini, Harshinie, Harshyni, Harshynie, Harshita, Harshitah, Harshinea... harsha

Hartley

(American) A warmhearted woman Hartly, Hartlee, Hartlea, Hartleigh, Hartlie, Hartli... hartley

Hartmann’s Solution

A solution commonly used as a means of ?uid replacement in dehydrated patients (see also DEHYDRATION). Each litre contains 3·1 grams of sodium lactate, 6 grams of sodium chloride, 0·4 grams of potassium chloride, and 0·7 grams of calcium chloride.... hartmann’s solution

Haru

(Japanese) Daughter born in the spring

Haruko, Haruo, Haruki, Harue... haru

Haruma

(Hebrew) Feminine form of Harum; one who is elevated... haruma

Haruphite

(Hebrew) Born of autumn’s rain Harupha, Haruphyte, Haruphita, Haruphitia... haruphite

Harva

(English) A warrior of the army... harva

Hashimoto’s Disease

A condition in which the whole of the THYROID GLAND is di?usely enlarged and ?rm. It is one of the diseases produced by AUTOIMMUNITY. The enlargement is due to di?use in?ltration of lymphocytes and increase of ?brous tissue. This form of GOITRE appears in middle-aged women, does not give rise to symptoms of thyrotoxicosis (see THYROID GLAND, DISEASES OF – Thyrotoxicosis), and tends to produce myxoedema (see THYROID GLAND, DISEASES OF – Hypothyroidism).... hashimoto’s disease

Hasibah

(Arabic) Feminine form of Hasib; one who is noble and respected Hasiba, Hasyba, Hasybah, Haseeba, Haseebah, Haseiba, Haseibah, Hasieba, Hasiebah, Haseaba, Haseabah... hasibah

Hasina

(African) One who is good and beautiful

Hasinah, Hasyna, Hasynah, Haseena, Haseenah, Hasiena, Hasienah, Haseina, Haseinah, Haseana, Haseanah... hasina

Hasita

(Indian) A bringer of happiness Hasumati... hasita

Hasna

(Arabic) A beautiful woman Hasnah, Hasnaa, Husinya, Husniyah, Husna, Husn... hasna

Hassaanah

(African) The first daughter Hassanah, Hassana, Hassaana... hassaanah

Hasuna

(Arabic) One who is well-behaved; good Hasunah... hasuna

Hateya

(Native American) Leaving footprints in the sand... hateya

Hathor

(Egyptian) In mythology, goddess of love

Hathora, Hathoria, Hathorea, Hathore... hathor

Hatita

(Hebrew) A traveling woman; an explorer

Hatitah, Hatyta, Hatytah, Hateetah, Hateeta, Hateata, Hateatah... hatita

Hatshepsut

(Egyptian) A successful ruler; a female pharoah Hatchepsut... hatshepsut

Hatsu

(Japanese) The firstborn daughter... hatsu

Haukea

(Hawaiian) Of the white snow Haukia, Haukeah, Haukiah, Haukiya, Haukiyah... haukea

Haunani

(Hawaiian) Of the heavenly dew Haunanie, Haunany, Haunaney, Haunanee, Haunanea... haunani

Haurana

(Hebrew) Feminine form of Hauran; woman from the caves Hauranna, Hauranah, Haurann, Hauranne, Haurane... haurana

Hausis

(Native American) A wise old woman

Hausisse, Hausiss, Hausys, Hausyss, Hausysse... hausis

Haut

(French) A stylish woman Haute, Hauti, Hautie, Hautey, Hauty, Hautee, Hautea... haut

Hava

(Hebrew) A lively woman; giver of life Havah, Haya, Hayat, Havaa... hava

Havana

(Spanish) From the capital city of Cuba

Havanah, Havanna, Havannah, Havane, Havann, Havanne... havana

Haven

(English) One who provides a safe place

Hayven, Havan, Hayvan, Havon, Hayvon, Havin, Hayvin, Havyn, Hayvyn, Haeven, Haevin, Haevan... haven

Haversian Canals

The ?ne canals in BONE which carry the blood vessels, lymphatics and nerves necessary for the maintenance and repair of bone.... haversian canals

Havilah

(Hebrew) From the stretch of sand Havila, Havillah, Havilla, Havily, Havili, Havilli, Havilie, Havillie, Havilea, Havillea... havilah

Haviland

(American) A lively woman Havyland, Havilande, Havylande, Havilanda, Havylanda... haviland

Havva

(Turkish) A giver of the breath of life Havvah, Havvia, Havviah... havva

Hawa

(African) One who is desired Hawah... hawa

Hawadah

(Arabic) A pleasant woman Hawada... hawadah

Hawaii

(Hawaiian) From the homeland; from the state of Hawaii... hawaii

Hawazin

(Arabic) A tribal name... hawazin

Hawke

(American) Resembling the bird Hawki, Hawkie, Hawky, Hawkey, Hawkee, Hawkea... hawke

Hawkins

(American) A cunning woman Haukins, Hawkens, Haukens, Hawkuns, Haukuns... hawkins

Hawlee

(American) One who negotiates Hawleigh, Hawli, Hawlie, Hawlea, Hawly, Hawley... hawlee

Hawwa

(Arabic) A lively woman; a giver of life

Hawaa, Hawwah, Hawwaa... hawwa

Haya

(Japanese / Hebrew) One who is quick and light / form of Havva, meaning “a giver of the breath of life” Hayah... haya

Hayam

(Arabic) One who is madly in love Hayaam... hayam

Haydee

(American) A capable woman Haydi, Haydea, Haydie, Haydie, Haydy, Haydey... haydee

Hayden

(English) From the hedged valley Haden, Haydan, Haydn, Haydon, Hayes, Haeden, Haedyn, Hadyn... hayden

Hayfa

(Arabic) A slender and delicate woman Hayfah, Haifa, Haifah, Haefa, Haefah... hayfa

Hayud

(Arabic) From the mountain Hayuda, Hayudah, Hayood, Hayooda... hayud

Hazan

(Turkish) Born during autumn Hazann, Hazanne, Hazana, Hazanna, Hazane... hazan

Hazar

(Arabic) Resembling a nightingale Hazare, Hazara, Hazarra, Hazarre, Hazarr... hazar

Hazard (health)

A factor or exposure that may adversely affect health.... hazard (health)

Hazarenan

(Hebrew) From the town of fountains

Hazara, Hazarah, Hazarenanna, Hazarena, Hazaryna... hazarenan

Hazargaddah

(Hebrew) From the town of fortune

Hazargadda, Hazargada, Hazargadah... hazargaddah

Haze

(American) One who is spontaneous Haize, Haise, Hase, Hayze, Hayse, Haeze, Haese, Hazi, Hazie, Hazy, Hazey, Hazee, Hazea... haze

Hazelelponi

(Hebrew) A shadowed woman Hazelelponie, Hazelelpony, Hazelelponey, Hazelelponee, Hazelelponea... hazelelponi

Hazelnut Or Wild Filbert

Corylus species

Description: Hazelnuts grow on bushes 1.8 to 3.6 meters high. One species in Turkey and another in China are large trees. The nut itself grows in a very bristly husk that conspicuously contracts above the nut into a long neck. The different species vary in this respect as to size and shape.

Habitat and Distribution: Hazelnuts are found over wide areas in the United States, especially the eastern half of the country and along the Pacific coast. These nuts are also found in Europe where they are known as filberts. The hazelnut is common in Asia, especially in eastern Asia from the Himalayas to China and Japan. The hazelnut usually grows in the dense thickets along stream banks and open places. They are not plants of the dense forest.

Edible Parts: Hazelnuts ripen in the autumn when you can crack them open and eat the kernel. The dried nut is extremely delicious. The nut’s high oil content makes it a good survival food. In the unripe stage, you can crack them open and eat the fresh kernel.... hazelnut or wild filbert

Hazina

(African) One who is treasured Hazinah, Hazyna, Hazeena, Hazena, Hazeana, Hazynah, Hazeenah, Hazenah, Hazeanah... hazina

Hazor

(Hebrew) From the stronghold Hazora, Hazoria, Hazorea, Hazorya, Hazorra, Hazorah... hazor

Health And Safety Executive (hse)

The statutory body in Britain responsible for the health and safety of workers. The address of the HSE can be found in APPENDIX 7: STATUTORY ORGANISATIONS.... health and safety executive (hse)

Health Behaviour

Any activity undertaken by an individual, regardless of actual or perceived health status, for the purpose of promoting, protecting or maintaining health, whether or not such behaviour is objectively effective towards that end.... health behaviour

Health Care Delivery System

See “health system”.... health care delivery system

Health Care Institution / Facility

Any establishment that is engaged in direct patient care on site.... health care institution / facility

Health Care Team

A group comprising a variety of professionals (medical practitioners, nurses, physical and occupational therapists, social workers, pharmacists, spiritual counsellors), as well as family members, who are involved in providing coordinated and comprehensive care. There are three types of health care team, defined by the degree of interaction among members and the sharing of responsibility for care:... health care team

Health Care Technology Assessment (hcta)

The systematic evaluation of properties, effects and/or impacts of health care technology. It may address the direct, intended consequences of technologies as well as their indirect, unintended consequences.... health care technology assessment (hcta)

Health Communication Strategy

A communication strategy to inform the public or communities about health issues with the objective of reducing health risks and improving health status.... health communication strategy

Health Databases

The centralised collection and storage of information about the health of individuals. Recent advances in GENETICS have raised concerns about the potential for abuse of all health databases, whether maintained for scienti?c research – which has long used them – or for government or community health planning, or by groups of professionals (or individuals) to help in the treatment of patients. The public is concerned about whether their rights to privacy and con?dentiality are threatened by databases and whether information about them could be disclosed and misused.... health databases

Health Development

The process of continuous, progressive improvement of the health status of individuals and groups in a population.... health development

Health Expectancy

A population-based measure of the proportion of the expected life span estimated to be healthful and fulfilling, or free of illness, disease and disability.... health expectancy

Health Gain

A measure of improved health outcome following an intervention.... health gain

Health Goal

An ultimate desired state of health towards which actions and resources are directed.... health goal

Health Indicator / Index

A characteristic of an individual, population or environment which is subjected to measurement and can be used to describe one or more aspects of the health of an individual or population (quality, quantity and time). A health index comprises a number of indicators.... health indicator / index

Health Information System

The generation and the use of appropriate health information to support decision-making, health care delivery and management of health services at national and subnational level.... health information system

Health Development Agency (hda)

Appointed by the UK government to help improve the NHS in England (Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland have similar bodies), HDA replaced the long-established Health Education Authority in April 2000. The agency supports government priorities to improve public health and to tackle health inequalities. Among its key functions are:

Maintaining an up-to-date evidence base of ‘what works’ in public health and health improvements.

Providing useful information to health practitioners.

Commissioning research to remedy the gaps in the evidence base for medical practice.

Improving health promotion and advising on the standards for (and implementation of) public-health activities.

(See APPENDIX 7: STATUTORY ORGANISATIONS.)... health development agency (hda)

Health Insurance

Financial protection against the health care costs arising from disease or accidental bodily injury. Such insurance usually covers all or part of the costs of treating the disease or injury. Insurance may be obtained on either an individual or a group basis.... health insurance

Health Literacy

The cognitive skills and motivation of an individual to gain access to, and use information to promote and maintain good health.... health literacy

Health Maintenance Organization (hmo)

An organized system providing health care in a geographic area to an enrolled group of persons who pay a predetermined fixed, periodic prepayment made by, or on behalf of, each person or family unit enrolled, irrespective of actual service use.... health maintenance organization (hmo)

Health Outcome

Changes in health status which result from the provision of health (or other) services.... health outcome

Health Personnel

All persons employed or contracted to provide health services.... health personnel

Health Planning

Planning for the improvement of the health of a population or community, for a particular population, type of health service, institution or health programme.... health planning

Health Policy

A formal statement or procedure within an institution (notably government) which defines goals, priorities and the parameters for action in response to health needs, within the context of available resources.... health policy

Health Programme

An organized series of activities directed towards the attainment of defined health objectives and targets.... health programme

Health Promotion Evaluation

An assessment of the extent to which health promotion actions achieve a “valued” outcome.... health promotion evaluation

Health Promotion Outcome

Assessment of changes to personal characteristics and skills, and/or social norms and actions, and/or organizational practices and public policies which are attributable to a health promotion activity.... health promotion outcome

Health Research

Research on all aspects of health, the factors affecting it, and ways of promoting, protecting and improving it. It is an essential part of national health development. It includes medical and biomedical research relating to a wide variety of medical matters and involving various life sciences, such as molecular biology and biophysics; clinical research, which is based on the observation and treatment of patients or volunteers; epidemiological research, which is concerned with the study and control of diseases and of situations that are suspected of being harmful to health; and socioeconomic and behavioural research, which investigates the social, economic, psychological and cultural determinants of health and disease with a view to promoting health and preventing disease. Often a multidisciplinary combination of the above kinds of research is needed to solve a health problem.... health research

Health Resources

All the means available for the operation of the health system, including manpower, buildings, equipment, supplies, funds, knowledge and technology.... health resources

Health Risk Appraisal

The process of gathering, analysing and comparing an individual’s prognostic health characteristics with a standard age group, thereby predicting the likelihood that a person may develop a health problem.... health risk appraisal

Health Risk Factor

A chemical, psychological, physiological, social, environmental or genetic factor or conditions that predisposes an individual to the development of a disease or injury.... health risk factor

Health Sector

The sector consisting of organized public and private health services (including health promotion, disease prevention, diagnostic, treatment and care services), the policies and activities of health departments and ministries, health-related nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and community groups, and professional associations.... health sector

Health Service

Service performed by health care professionals, or by others under their direction, for the purpose of promoting, maintaining or restoring health.... health service

Health Service Area

A geographic area designated on the basis of such factors as geography, political boundaries, population and health resources, for the effective planning and development of health services.... health service area

Health Service Commissioner

An o?cial, responsible to the United Kingdom’s parliament, appointed to protect the interests of National Health Service patients in matters concerning the administration of the health service and the delivery of health care (excluding clinical judgements). Known colloquially as the health ombudsman, the Commissioner presents regular reports on the complaints dealt with.... health service commissioner

Health Services Research

The multidisciplinary field of scientific investigation that studies how social factors, financing systems, organizational structures and processes, health technologies, and personal behaviours affect access to health care, the quality and cost of health care, and ultimately health and well-being. Its research domains are individuals, families, organizations, institutions, communities and populations.... health services research

Health Situation

An overall picture of the health status of a region, community or population, which includes measures taken to improve health, the resources devoted to health, an appreciation of specific health problems that require particular attention, and the degree of people’s awareness about their health and ways of improving it.... health situation

Health Status

The state of health of an individual, group or population. It may be measured by obtaining proxies, such as people’s subjective assessments of their health; by one or more indicators of mortality and morbidity in the population, such as longevity; or by using the incidence or prevalence of major diseases (communicable, chronic or nutritional).... health status

Health Survey

A survey designed to provide information on the health status of a population. It may be descriptive, exploratory or explanatory.... health survey

Health System

The people, institutions and resources, arranged together in accordance with established policies, to improve the health of the population they serve, while responding to people’s legitimate expectations and protecting them against the cost of ill-health through a variety of activities, the primary intent of which is to improve health. Health systems fulfil three main functions: health care delivery, fair treatment of all, and meeting non-health expectations of the population. These functions are performed in the pursuit of three goals: health, responsiveness and fair financing. A health system is usually organized at various levels, starting at the community level or the primary level of health care and proceeding through the intermediate (district, regional or provincial) to the central level.... health system

Health System Infrastructure

Services, facilities, institutions, personnel or establishments, organizations and those operating them for the delivery of a variety of health programmes.... health system infrastructure

Health Systems Research

Research dealing with the entire health system or only part of it, the object being to ensure that the system is optimally planned and organized and that programmes are carried out by the health system infrastructure efficiently and effectively and with appropriate technology.... health systems research

Health Target

A defined expected outcome generally based on specific and measurable changes.... health target

Health Team

A group of persons working together, where each member of the team contributes, in accordance with his or her competence and skill and in coordination with the functions of the others, in order to achieve the maximum benefit for the care recipient.... health team

Health Technology

The application of scientific knowledge to solving health problems. Health technologies include pharmaceuticals, medical devices, procedures or surgical techniques and management, communication and information systems innovations.... health technology

Health Technology Assessment (hta)

The systematic evaluation of the properties, effects or other impacts of health care technology. HTA is intended to inform decision-makers about health technologies and may measure the direct or indirect consequences of a given technology or treatment.... health technology assessment (hta)

Health Trend

A picture of a health situation, referring also to what led up to it and to prospects for the future.... health trend

Health Visitors

Health visitors are community nurses with a special training who form an important part of the primary health-care team. Working in close conjunction with general practitioners, they are primarily responsible for illness prevention and health screening and education of children and elderly people in the community.... health visitors

Health-promoting Hospital

A hospital which, not only provides high quality comprehensive medical and nursing services, but also develops a corporate identity that embraces the aims of health promotion; develops a health-promoting organizational structure and culture, including active, participatory roles for patients and all members of staff; develops itself into a health-promoting physical environment; and actively cooperates with its community.... health-promoting hospital

Health-related Quality-of-life (hrql) Measure

Individual outcome measure that extends beyond traditional measures of mortality and morbidity to include such dimensions as physiology, function, social activity, cognition, emotion, sleep and rest, energy and vitality, health perception and general life satisfaction (some of these are also known as health status, functional status or quality-of-life measures).... health-related quality-of-life (hrql) measure

Healthy Ageing

An approach which recognizes that growing older is a part of living; recognizes the interdependence of generations; recognizes that everyone has a responsibility to be fair in their demands on other generations; fosters a positive attitude throughout life to growing older; eliminates age as a reason to exclude any person from participating fully in community life; promotes a commitment to activities which enhance well-being and health, choice and independence, and quality of life for all ages; encourages communities to value and listen to older people and to cater for the diverse preferences, motivations, characteristics and circumstances of older persons in a variety of ways.... healthy ageing

Health-care Priorities

As the needs and demands of patients, and the costs of health care of populations, have risen sharply in recent years, governments and health-care providers – whether tax-funded, insurance-based, employer-provided or a mix of these – have had increasingly to face the dilemma of what services a country or a community can a?ord to provide. As a result, various techniques for deciding priorities of care and treatment are evolving. In the United Kingdom, priorities were for many years based on the decisions of individual clinicians who had wide freedom to prescribe the most appropriate care. Increasingly, this clinical freedom is being circumscribed by managerial, community and political decisions driven in part by the availability of resources and by what people want. Rationing services, however, is not popular and as yet no broadly agreed consensus has emerged, either in western Europe or in North America, as to how priorities can be decided that have broad community support and which can be a?orded. (See CLINICAL GOVERNANCE; EVIDENCE-BASED MEDICINE.)... health-care priorities

Health-service Management

The administrative machinery for planning, delivering and monitoring health care provided by health professionals and their supporting sta?. This may range from running a small primary-care centre to organising a large hospital or being responsible for meeting the health needs of a region or a nation. Whether the overall structure for proving care is state-funded, insurance-based, private-practice or a mixture of these, health-service management is essential in an era of rapidly evolving and expensive scienti?c medicine. Health-service managers are administrators with special training and skills in managing health care; sometimes they are doctors, nurses or other health professionals, but many have been trained in management in commercial, civil service or industrial environments.... health-service management

Healthcare Commission (commission For Health Improvement)

Launched in 1999 in England and Wales as CHI, this is an inspectorate charged with protecting patients from ‘unacceptable failings in the National Health Service’. A statutory body under the 1999 Health Act, it evaluates and re?nes local systems designed to safeguard standards of clinical quality. Working separately from the NHS and the health departments, it o?ers an independent safeguard that provides systems to monitor and improve clinical quality in primary care, community services and hospitals. As of 2004 it became responsible for dealing with patients’ complaints if they could not be settled by the trust concerned. The board members include health professionals, academics and eight lay members. Scotland has set up a similar statutory body. (See APPENDIX 7: STATUTORY ORGANISATIONS.)... healthcare commission (commission for health improvement)

Healthy City

A city that is continually creating and improving physical and social environments and expanding community resources which enable people to mutually support each other in performing all the functions of life and in developing to their maximum potential.... healthy city

Healthy Life Expectancy

See “disability-adjusted life expectancy”.... healthy life expectancy

Healthy Public Policy

Public policy characterized by an explicit concern for health and equity in all areas of policy and by an accountability for health impact.... healthy public policy

Heart Palpitations

Abnormally rapid and irregular beating of the heart... heart palpitations

Heart-lung Transplant

An operation in which a patient’s diseased lungs and heart are removed and replaced with donor organs from someone who has been certi?ed as ‘brain dead’ (see BRAIN-STEM DEATH). As well as the technical diffculties of such an operation, rejection by the recipient’s tissues of donated heart and lungs has proved hard to overcome. Since the early 1990s, however, immunosuppressant drug therapy (see CICLOSPORIN; TRANSPLANTATION) has facilitated the regular use of this type of surgery. Even so, patients receiving transplanted hearts and lungs face substantial risks such as lung infection and airway obstruction as well as the long-term problems of transplant rejection.... heart-lung transplant

Heart, Diseases Of

Heart disease can affect any of the structures of the HEART and may affect more than one at a time. Heart attack is an imprecise term and may refer to ANGINA PECTORIS (a symptom of pain originating in the heart) or to coronary artery thrombosis, also called myocardial infarction.

Arrhythmias An abnormal rate or rhythm of the heartbeat. The reason is a disturbance in the electrical impulses within the heart. Sometimes a person may have an occasional irregular heartbeat: this is called an ECTOPIC beat (or an extrasystole) and does not necessarily mean that an abnormality exists. There are two main types of arrhythmia: bradycardias, where the rate is slow – fewer than 60 beats a minute and sometimes so slow and unpredictable (heartblock) as to cause blackouts or heart failure; and tachycardia, where the rate is fast – more than 100 beats a minute. A common cause of arrhythmia is coronary artery disease, when vessels carrying blood to the heart are narrowed by fatty deposits (ATHEROMA), thus reducing the blood supply and damaging the heart tissue. This condition often causes myocardial infarction after which arrhythmias are quite common and may need correcting by DEFIBRILLATION (application of a short electric shock to the heart). Some tachycardias result from a defect in the electrical conduction system of the heart that is commonly congenital. Various drugs can be used to treat arrhythmias (see ANTIARRHYTHMIC DRUGS). If attacks constantly recur, the arrhythmia may be corrected by electrical removal of dead or diseased tissue that is the cause of the disorder. Heartblock is most e?ectively treated with an arti?cial CARDIAC PACEMAKER, a battery-activated control unit implanted in the chest.

Cardiomyopathy Any disease of the heart muscle that results in weakening of its contractions. The consequence is a fall in the e?ciency of the circulation of blood through the lungs and remainder of the body structures. The myopathy may be due to infection, disordered metabolism, nutritional excess or de?ciency, toxic agents, autoimmune processes, degeneration, or inheritance. Often, however, the cause is not identi?ed. Cardiomyopathies are less common than other types of heart diseases, and the incidence of di?erent types of myopathy (see below) is not known because patients or doctors are sometimes unaware of the presence of the condition.

The three recognised groups of cardiomyopathies are hypertrophic, dilated and restrictive.

•Hypertrophic myopathy, a familial condition, is characterised by great enlargement of the muscle of the heart ventricles. This reduces the muscle’s e?ciency, the ventricles fail to relax properly and do not ?ll suf?ciently during DIASTOLE.

In the dilated type of cardiomyopathy, both ventricles overdilate, impairing the e?ciency of contraction and causing congestion of the lungs.

In the restrictive variety, proper ?lling of the ventricles does not occur because the muscle walls are less elastic than normal. The result is raised pressure in the two atria (upper cavities) of the heart: these dilate and develop FIBRILLATION. Diagnosis can be di?cult and treatment is symptomatic, with a poor prognosis. In suitable patients, heart TRANSPLANTATION may be considered. Disorders of the heart muscle may also be

caused by poisoning – for example, heavy consumption of alcohol. Symptoms include tiredness, palpitations (quicker and sometimes irregular heartbeat), chest pain, di?culty in breathing, and swelling of the legs and hands due to accumulation of ?uid (OEDEMA). The heart is enlarged (as shown on chest X-ray) and ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY shows thickening of the heart muscle. A BIOPSY of heart muscle will show abnormalities in the cells of the heart muscle.

Where the cause of cardiomyopathy is unknown, as is the case with most patients, treatment is symptomatic using DIURETICS to control heart failure and drugs such as DIGOXIN to return the heart rhythm to normal. Patients should stop drinking alcohol. If, as often happens, the patient’s condition slowly deteriorates, heart transplantation should be considered.

Congenital heart disease accounts for 1–2 per cent of all cases of organic heart disease. It may be genetically determined and so inherited; present at birth for no obvious reason; or, in rare cases, related to RUBELLA in the mother. The most common forms are holes in the heart (atrial septal defect, ventricular septal defect – see SEPTAL DEFECT), a patent DUCTUS ARTERIOSUS, and COARCTATION OF THE AORTA. Many complex forms also exist and can be diagnosed in the womb by fetal echocardiography which can lead to elective termination of pregnancy. Surgery to correct many of these abnormalities is feasible, even for the most severe abnormalities, but may only be palliative giving rise to major diffculties of management as the children become older. Heart transplantation is now increasingly employed for the uncorrectable lesions.

Coronary artery disease Also known as ischaemic heart disease, this is a common cause of symptoms and death in the adult population. It may present for the ?rst time as sudden death, but more usually causes ANGINA PECTORIS, myocardial infarction (heart attack) or heart failure. It can also lead to a disturbance of heart rhythm. Factors associated with an increased risk of developing coronary artery disease include diabetes, cigarette smoking, high blood pressure, obesity, and a raised concentration of cholesterol in the blood. Older males are most affected.

Coronary thrombosis or acute myocardial infarction is the acute, dramatic manifestation of coronary-artery ischaemic heart disease – one of the major killing diseases of western civilisation. In 1999, ischaemic heart disease was responsible for about 115,000 deaths in England and Wales, compared with 153,000 deaths in 1988. In 1999 more than 55,600 people died of coronary thrombosis. The underlying cause is disease of the coronary arteries which carry the blood supply to the heart muscle (or myocardium). This results in narrowing of the arteries until ?nally they are unable to transport su?cient blood for the myocardium to function e?ciently. One of three things may happen. If the narrowing of the coronary arteries occurs gradually, then the individual concerned will develop either angina pectoris or signs of a failing heart: irregular rhythm, breathlessness, CYANOSIS and oedema.

If the narrowing occurs suddenly or leads to complete blockage (occlusion) of a major branch of one of the coronary arteries, then the victim collapses with acute pain and distress. This is the condition commonly referred to as a coronary thrombosis because it is usually due to the affected artery suddenly becoming completely blocked by THROMBOSIS. More correctly, it should be described as coronary occlusion, because the ?nal occluding factor need not necessarily be thrombosis.

Causes The precise cause is not known, but a wide range of factors play a part in inducing coronary artery disease. Heredity is an important factor. The condition is more common in men than in women; it is also more common in those in sedentary occupations than in those who lead a more physically active life, and more likely to occur in those with high blood pressure than in those with normal blood pressure (see HYPERTENSION). Obesity is a contributory factor. The disease is more common among smokers than non-smokers; it is also often associated with a high level of CHOLESTEROL in the blood, which in turn has been linked with an excessive consumption of animal, as opposed to vegetable, fats. In this connection the important factors seem to be the saturated fatty acids (low-density and very low-density lipoproteins [LDLs and VLDLs] – see CHOLESTEROL) of animal fats which would appear to be more likely to lead to a high level of cholesterol in the blood than the unsaturated fatty acids of vegetable fats. As more research on the subject is carried out, the arguments continue about the relative in?uence of the di?erent factors. (For advice on prevention of the disease, see APPENDIX 2: ADDRESSES: SOURCES OF INFORMATION, ADVICE, SUPPORT AND SELFHELP.)

Symptoms The presenting symptom is the sudden onset, often at rest, of acute, agonising pain in the front of the chest. This rapidly radiates all over the front of the chest and often down over the abdomen. The pain is frequently accompanied by nausea and vomiting, so that suspicion may be aroused of some acute abdominal condition such as biliary colic (see GALLBLADDER, DISEASES OF) or a perforated PEPTIC ULCER. The victim soon goes into SHOCK, with a pale, cold, sweating skin, rapid pulse and dif?culty in breathing. There is usually some rise in temperature.

Treatment is immediate relief of the pain by injections of diamorphine. Thrombolytic drugs should be given as soon as possible (‘rapid door to needle time’) and ARRHYTHMIA corrected. OXYGEN is essential and oral ASPIRIN is valuable. Treatment within the ?rst hour makes a great di?erence to recovery. Subsequent treatment includes the continued administration of drugs to relieve the pain; the administration of ANTIARRHYTHMIC DRUGS that may be necessary to deal with the heart failure that commonly develops, and the irregular action of the heart that quite often develops; and the continued administration of oxygen. Patients are usually admitted to coronary care units, where they receive constant supervision. Such units maintain an emergency, skilled, round-the-clock sta? of doctors and nurses, as well as all the necessary resuscitation facilities that may be required.

The outcome varies considerably. The ?rst (golden) hour is when the patient is at greatest risk of death: if he or she is treated, then there is a 50 per cent reduction in mortality compared with waiting until hospital admission. As each day passes the prognosis improves with a ?rst coronary thrombosis, provided that the patient does not have a high blood pressure and is not overweight. Following recovery, there should be a gradual return to work, care being taken to avoid any increase in weight, unnecessary stress and strain, and to observe moderation in all things. Smoking must stop. In uncomplicated cases patients get up and about as soon as possible, most being in hospital for a week to ten days and back at work in three months or sooner.

Valvular heart disease primarily affects the mitral and aortic valves which can become narrowed (stenosis) or leaking (incompetence). Pulmonary valve problems are usually congenital (stenosis) and the tricuspid valve is sometimes involved when rheumatic heart disease primarily affects the mitral or aortic valves. RHEUMATIC FEVER, usually in childhood, remains a common cause of chronic valvular heart disease causing stenosis, incompetence or both of the aortic and mitral valves, but each valve has other separate causes for malfunction.

Aortic valve disease is more common with increasing age. When the valve is narrowed, the heart hypertrophies and may later fail. Symptoms of angina or breathlessness are common and dizziness or blackouts (syncope) also occur. Replacing the valve is a very e?ective treatment, even with advancing age. Aortic stenosis may be caused by degeneration (senile calci?c), by the inheritance of two valvular leaflets instead of the usual three (bicuspid valve), or by rheumatic fever. Aortic incompetence again leads to hypertrophy, but dilatation is more common as blood leaks back into the ventricle. Breathlessness is the more common complaint. The causes are the same as stenosis but also include in?ammatory conditions such as SYPHILIS or ANKYLOSING SPONDYLITIS and other disorders of connective tissue. The valve may also leak if the aorta dilates, stretching the valve ring as with HYPERTENSION, aortic ANEURYSM and MARFAN’S SYNDROME – an inherited disorder of connective tissue that causes heart defects. Infection (endocarditis) can worsen acutely or chronically destroy the valve and sometimes lead to abnormal outgrowths on the valve (vegetations) which may break free and cause devastating damage such as a stroke or blocked circulation to the bowel or leg.

Mitral valve disease leading to stenosis is rheumatic in origin. Mitral incompetence may be rheumatic but in the absence of stenosis can be due to ISCHAEMIA, INFARCTION, in?ammation, infection and a congenital weakness (prolapse). The valve may also leak if stretched by a dilating ventricle (functional incompetence). Infection (endocarditis) may affect the valve in a similar way to aortic disease. Mitral symptoms are predominantly breathlessness which may lead to wheezing or waking at night breathless and needing to sit up or stand for relief. They are made worse when the heart rhythm changes (atrial ?brillation) which is frequent as the disease becomes more severe. This leads to a loss of e?ciency of up to 25 per cent and a predisposition to clot formation as blood stagnates rather than leaves the heart e?ciently. Mitral incompetence may remain mild and be of no trouble for many years, but infection must be guarded against (endocarditis prophylaxis).

Endocarditis is an infection of the heart which may acutely destroy a valve or may lead to chronic destruction. Bacteria settle usually on a mild lesion. Antibiotics taken at vulnerable times can prevent this (antibiotic prophylaxis) – for example, before tooth extraction. If established, lengthy intravenous antibiotic therapy is needed and surgery is often necessary. The mortality is 30 per cent but may be higher if the infection settles on a replaced valve (prosthetic endocarditis). Complications include heart failure, shock, embolisation (generation of small clots in the blood), and cerebral (mental) confusion.

PERICARDITIS is an in?ammation of the sac covering the outside of the heart. The sac becomes roughened and pain occurs as the heart and sac rub together. This is heard by stethoscope as a scratching noise (pericardial rub). Fever is often present and a virus the main cause. It may also occur with rheumatic fever, kidney failure, TUBERCULOSIS or from an adjacent lung problem such as PNEUMONIA or cancer. The in?ammation may cause ?uid to accumulate between the sac and the heart (e?usion) which may compress the heart causing a fall in blood pressure, a weak pulse and circulatory failure (tamponade). This can be relieved by aspirating the ?uid. The treatment is then directed at the underlying cause.... heart, diseases of

Heartha

(Teutonic) A gift from Mother Earth... heartha

Heat

An effective analgesic for some deeply-injected envenomations including stonefish, stingray and other venomous-spined fish.... heat

Heat Spots

A vague term applied to small in?amed and congested areas which appear especially upon the skin of the face, neck and chest or other parts of the body in warm weather.... heat spots

Heaven

(American) From paradise; from the sky

Heavely, Heavenly, Hevean, Hevan, Heavynne, Heavenli, Heavenlie, Heavenleigh, Heavenlee, Heavenley, Heavenlea, Heavyn... heaven

Hebe

(Greek) A youthful woman; in mythology, goddess of youth and spring and cupbearer to the gods Heebee, Hebee, Heebe... hebe

Heart, Artificial

A mechanical device in the chest that enhances or takes over the pumping action of the HEART, thus maintaining the necessary level of circulation of blood through the lungs and other body structures. An arti?cial heart was ?rst used in humans in 1985 and the three types in use are: an intra-aortic balloon pump, driven by compressed air, which in?ates a balloon in the AORTA with every heartbeat, increasing the volume of circulating blood; an electrical device that assists the left VENTRICLE by pumping blood into the abdominal aorta; and a mechanical arti?cial heart that replaces a diseased heart that has been removed. As yet there is no arti?cial heart suitable for long-term use. Existing devices are intended to tide over a patient who is extremely ill until a live heart can be transplanted from a donor. The results from arti?cial hearts have been disappointing because of complications and also because the patients have usually been already dangerously ill.... heart, artificial

Heberden’s Nodes

Small hard knobs which appear at the sides of the last phalanges of the ?ngers in people who have OSTEOARTHRITIS.... heberden’s nodes

Hebron

(Hebrew) Born of the community; a good friend

Hebrona, Hebronah, Hebrone, Hebrun... hebron

Hecate

(Greek) In mythology, a goddess of fertility and witchcraft Hekate... hecate

Hecuba

(Greek) In mythology, the mother of Paris, Hector, and Cassandra Hekuba... hecuba

Hedasaa

(Hebrew) Resembling a star Hedasa, Hedassa, Hedassaa... hedasaa

Hedia

(Hebrew) Voice of the Lord Hedya, Hediah, Hedyah, Hediya, Hediyah... hedia

Hedieh

(Turkish) A gift from God... hedieh

Hedva

(Hebrew) A bringer of joy Hedvah... hedva

Hedwig

(German) Suffering strife during war

Hadvig, Hadwig, Hedvig, Hedviga, Hedvige, Hedwiga, Hedwige, Hedda, Heda, Heddi, Heddie, Hedi, Hedy, Haduwig, Hadu... hedwig

Heat Stroke

A condition resulting from environmental temperatures which are too high for compensation by the body’s thermo-regulatory mechanism(s). It is characterised by hyperpyrexia, nausea, headache, thirst, confusion, and dry skin. If untreated, COMA and death ensue. The occurrence of heat stroke is sporadic: whereas a single individual may be affected (occasionally with fatal consequences), his or her colleagues may remain unaffected. Predisposing factors include unsatisfactory living or working conditions, inadequate acclimatisation to tropical conditions, unsuitable clothing, underlying poor health, and possibly dietetic or alcoholic indiscretions. The condition can be a major problem during pilgrimages – for example, the Muslim Hadj. Four clinical syndromes are recognised:

Heat collapse is characterised by fatigue, giddiness, and temporary loss of consciousness. It is accompanied by HYPOTENSION and BRADYCARDIA; there may also be vomiting and muscular cramps. Urinary volume is diminished. Recovery is usual.

Heat exhaustion is characterised by increasing weakness, dizziness and insomnia. In the majority of sufferers, sweating is defective; there are few, if any, signs of dehydration. Pulse rate is normal, and urinary output good. Body temperature is usually 37·8–38·3 °C.

Heat cramps (usually in the legs, arms or back, and occasionally involving the abdominal muscles) are associated with hard physical work at a high temperature. Sweating, pallor, headache, giddiness and intense anxiety are present. Body temperature is only mildly raised.

Heat hyperpyrexia is heralded by energy loss and irritability; this is followed by mental confusion and diminution of sweating. The individual rapidly becomes restless, then comatose; body temperature rises to 41–42 °C or even higher. The condition is fatal unless expertly treated as a matter of urgency.

Treatment With the ?rst two syndromes, the affected individual must be removed immediately to a cool place, and isotonic saline administered – intravenously in a severe case. The fourth syndrome is a medical emergency. The patient should be placed in the shade, stripped, and drenched with water; fanning should be instigated. He or she should be wrapped in a sheet soaked in cool water and fanning continued. When rectal temperature has fallen to 39 °C, the patient is wrapped in a dry blanket. Immediately after consciousness returns, normal saline should be given orally; this usually provokes sweating. The risk of circulatory collapse exists. Convalescence may be protracted and the patient should be repatriated to a cool climate. Prophylactically, personnel intended for work in a tropical climate must be very carefully selected. Adequate acclimatisation is also essential; severe physical exertion must be avoided for several weeks, and light clothes should be worn. The diet should be light but nourishing, and ?uid intake adequate. Those performing hard physical work at a very high ambient temperature should receive sodium chloride supplements. Attention to ventilation and air-conditioning is essential; fans are also of value.... heat stroke

Hedera Helix

Linn.

Synonym: H. rhombea Sieb. & Zucc.

Family: Araliaceae.

Habitat: Hills of Tamil Nadu. Grown in gardens as an ornamental.

English: Common Ivy, Bentwood.

Siddha/Tamil: Maravalai.

Action: Leaf—expectorant, anti- spasmodic, antineuralgic, vasocon- strictive.

Fruit—used in jaundice, haempt- ysis. Flower—antidysenteric. Leaf and resin—emmenagogue. Tender twigs—boiled in butter, used for sunburn. Extracts are used in some cosmetic preparations.

Key application: In catarrh of the upper respiratory passages, symptomatic treatment of chronic inflammatory bronchial conditions. (German Commission E.)

The stem and bark gave triterpene glycosides, named kizuta saponins. Oleanolic acid glycoside was also obtained from the plant but the presence of emetine could not be confirmed in subsequent work. The fruits gave hederagenin glycosides.

Emetin has been isolated from European and British plant. The fruit and hederagenin glycosides exhibit mollus- cacidal activity. Emetine-containing plant is amoebicidal.... hedera helix

Hedera Nepalensis

Koch.

Synonym: H. helix auct. non Linn. H. himalaica Tobler.

Family: Araliaceae.

Habitat: The Himalayas; from Kashmir to Bhutan at 1,5002,000 m and Assam at 1,3502,000 m.

English: Nepal Ivy.

Folk: Baandaa, Bandaa, Lablab.

Action: Leaves and berries— cathartic, diaphoretic, febrifuge, antispasmodic, expectorant. Used in whooping cough. Leaves— used in glandular enlargements. A decoction of the leaves is used topically to destroy lice in the hair. An infusion of berries is given in rheumatism. Gum— emmenagogue.

The inflorescences contain beta- amyrin, beta-sitosterol and its D-glu- coside, oleanolic acid, triterpene gly- cosides, nepalins. Nepalins 1,2 and 3 at 0.5, 0.25 and 0.125% respectively completely immobilize human sperm.

Plant extract exhibited antitumour activity in vivo and in vitro against Ehrich ascites.... hedera nepalensis

Hedy

(Greek) One who is pleasing; delightful; a sweetheart Hedea, Hedeah, Hedyla, Hedylah... hedy

Heeni

(Maori) Form of Jane, meaning “God is gracious”

Heenie, Heeny, Heeney, Heenee, Heenea, Heani, Heanie, Heany, Heaney, Heanee, Heanea... heeni

Heera

(Indian) As precious as a diamond... heera

Heget

(Egyptian) In mythology, a frog goddess who symbolized fertility Heqet, Heket, Hehet... heget

Hehewuti

(Native American) The warrior mother spirit

Hehewutie, Hehewute, Hehewuty, Hehewutey, Hehewutee, Hehewutea... hehewuti

Hedychium Coronarium

Koenig.

Family: Zingiberaceae.

Habitat: Throughout the moist parts of India, up to 2,000 m. Also grown in gardens of Assam and South India.

English: Ginger Lily.

Ayurvedic: Shati (related species).

Action: Anti-inflammatory, antirheumatic, febrifuge, tranquilizer.

The rhizomes gave furanoditerpene, hedychenone, an anti-inflammatory principle, also cytotoxic principles as labdane-type diterpenes.

The essential oil from rhizome shows anthelmintic and mild tranquil- izing property. The essential oil contains alpha- and beta-pinene, limo- nene, carene, and its oxide, linalool and elemole in varying concentrations. The essential oil also gave borneol, methyl salicylate, eugenol and methy- lanthranilate.... hedychium coronarium

Hedychium Spicatum

Ham. ex Smith.

Synonym: H. album Buch-Ham. Ex Wall.

Family: Zingiberaceae.

Habitat: Central Himalaya at 1,1002,500 m, East India and hills of South India.

English: Spiked Ginger Lily.

Ayurvedic: Shathi, Shati, Gand- hashathi, Gandhapalaashi, Kapu- urkachari, Suvrataa, Gandhaarikaa, Gandhavadhuu, Gandhamuulikaa.

Unani: Kapuurkachari.

Siddha/Tamil: Poolankizangu, Kichilikizangu.

Folk: Ban-haldi (Kumaon).

Action: Rhizome—carminative, spasmolytic, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, antiemetic, antidiarrhoeal, analgesic, expectorant, antiasthmatic, emmenagogue, hypoglycaemic, hypotensive, antimicrobial, anthelmintic, insect- repellent.

The rhizome shows hypotensive effect in dogs at low doses, lowers blood pressure in high doses.

EtOH (50%) extract—anti-inflammatory and hypoglycaemic; gave encouraging results in tropical pulmonary eosinophilia in clinical studies. Alcoholic extract of the plant—vasodilator, mild hypotensive and antiseptic in animals. Essential oil from rhizome—mild tranquilizer in male albino rats; antimicrobial.

Rhizome gave sitosterol and its glu- coside, a furanoid diterpene—hedy- chenone and 7-hydroxyhedychenone. The essential oil contains cineole, gamma-terpinene, limonene, beta- phellandrene, p-cymene, linalool and beta-terpineol as major constituents.

The oil inhibits the growth of several fungi. The ethanol (95%) extract showed antibacterial activity. The 50% extract showed antimalarial activity in vitro against Plasmodium berghei strain.

Dosage: Rhizome—1-3 g powder. (API Vol. I.)... hedychium spicatum

Hedyotis Corymbosa

(Linn.) Lam.

Synonym: Oldenlandia corymbosa Linn.

Family: Rubiaceae.

Habitat: A weed in wet, low lands and in cultivated fields.

Ayurvedic: Kshetraparpata (used in Kerala as Parpataka).

Action: Purifies blood, improves digestion, stimulates action of liver.

The presence of caffeine and fumar- ic acid has been reported in H. corym- bosa.

Iridoidoglucosides have been isolated from H. diffusa Willd. The plant is reported to have immunopotentiation activity and has been used in China to treat some tumours. An aqueous extract of the plant yielded a polysac- charide composed of rhamnose, arabi- nose, xylose, mannose, galactose and glucose.

Hedyotis herbacea Linn., synonym Oldenlandia herbacea Roxb. is also used in Kerala as Parpata, Parpataka.

See Fumaria indica.... hedyotis corymbosa

Heidi

(German) Form of Adelaide, meaning “of the nobility; serene; of good humor” Heide, Heid, Heidie, Heidy, Heida, Haidee, Heidey, Hydi, Hydie, Hydey, Hydee, Hydy... heidi

Heidrun

(Norse) In mythology, the goat who provided the gods with mead... heidrun

Height

See WEIGHT AND HEIGHT.... height

Heilwig

(German) Born of a safe war Heilwyg... heilwig

Heirnine

(Greek) Form of Helen, meaning “the shining light”

Heirnyne, Heirneine, Heirniene, Heirneene, Heirneane... heirnine

Hekaterine

(Greek) Form of Catherine, meaning “one who is pure; virginal” Hekateros, Hekateryn, Hekateryne, Hekaterina, Hekateryna, Hekaterin... hekaterine

Helam

(Hebrew) From the wealthy village Helama, Helamah, Helamma, Helame... helam

Helbah

(Hebrew) A healthy woman; one who is fertile Helbon, Helba, Helbia, Helbona, Helbea ... helbah

Held

(Welsh) Surrounded by light... held

Heledd

(Welsh) One who is highborn; a princess Heled, Helede... heledd

Helen

(Greek) The shining light; in mythology, Helen was the most beautiful woman in the world

Helene, Halina, Helaine, Helana, Heleena, Helena, Helenna, Hellen, Helaina, Helenka, Heleana, Heley, Helina, Heleanor, Helenore, Helenann, HelEne, Hellena, Hellene, Hellenor, Hellia, Heli, Helli, Helie, Hella, Helle... helen

Helga

(German) A holy woman; one who is successful... helga

Helia

(Greek) Daughter of the sun Heliah, Helea, Heleah, Heliya, Heliyah, Heller, Hellar... helia

Helice

(Greek) Form of Helen, meaning “the shining light” Helyce, Heleece, Heliece, Heleace... helice

Helianthus Annuus

Linn.

Family: Compositae; Asteraceae.

Habitat: Native to America. Cultivated in India.

English: Sunflower.

Ayurvedic: Suurajmukhi, Su- uryaavarta.

Siddha/Tamil: Suryakanti.

Action: Seeds—build up physical endurance and resistance against diseases; a decoction is used in coughs and colds, bronchial, laryngeal and pulmonary affections, whooping cough, also as a febrifuge and diuretic.

The seeds contain a fatty oil (3748%), rich in polyunsaturated acids (linoleic 70%, oleic 20%). The oil also contains tocopherols (alpha-type 92% of the total) and phytosterol (beta- sitosterol 154 mcg/100 g). In Europe and USA, several hybrids produce oils rich in oleic acid. Sunflower oil is reported to decrease the risk of coronary and arterial diseases.

Extracted oil from dehulled seeds (chlorogenic acid, present in hulls, interferes with lipid metabolism) reduced serum and hepatic cholesterol in healthy women.

The tubers of Helianthus tuberosus Linn., a related species, consists mainly of inulin. The dried tubers can be utilized in diabetic products. The tuber concentrate as food diminishes the risk of developing arteriosclerosis. It is advantageous in the diet of patients with gout, chronic renal diseases, and for obesity control.... helianthus annuus

Helichrysum Tea

Helichrysum tea is known for its diuretic, anti-inflammatory and anti-viral properties. Considered one of the oldest healing substances in Europe Helichrysum is native to Africa, Madagascar and Eurasia. The plants can be annuals, herbaceous perennials or shrubs that can grow up to 60-90 cm. Helichrysum flower can be distinguished by its fringed margin and its resemblance with daisies. The constituents of the Helichrysum flowers include flavonoids, kaempferol flucosides, apigenin, luetolin, quercetin and essential oils. How To Make Helichrysum Tea In order to obtain Helichrysum`s light fruity flavor, start by infusing a handful of dried Helichrysum flowers in a kettle of boiled water. Let the mix steep for about 7 minutes and enjoy! Also, Helichrysum can be used as a flavoring agent for other herbal teas. Basically, soak the Helichrysum flowers as the other herbal tea steeps. Helichrysum Tea Benefits
  • Improves digestion.
  • Alleviates gastrointestinal spasms.
  • Prevents atherosclerotic plaques.
  • Helps in the treatment of rheumatism.
  • Helps fight cystitis.
  • Energy booster.
  • Calms menstrual cramps.
Helichrysum Tea Side Effects
  • Pregnant and breastfeeding women should avoid drinking Helichrysum tea.
  • Helichrysum tea may interact with the effects of certain medications or supplements, so make sure you always consult your doctor before drinking Helichrysum tea or any herbal teas.
As you can see, Helichrysum tea has more benefits than side effects. Just avoid over-consumption and enjoy its wonderful health benefits!... helichrysum tea

Helicteres Isora

Linn.

Family: Sterculiaceae.

Habitat: Dry forests throughout the country.

English: East Indian Screw tree.

Ayurvedic: Aavartani, Aavartphalaa, Aavartaki.

Unani: Marorphali.

Siddha/Tamil: Valampiri.

Action: Pods and bark—antidiar- rhoeal, astringent, antibilious. Bark and root—antigalactic, demulcent, expectorant (used in cough and asthma). Leaf—paste used against skin diseases. Pods—anthelmintic. Used in fever due to cold. Seeds— aqueous extract administered in colic and dysentery.

The plant contains a 4-quinolone alkaloid, malatyamine, an antidiarrhoeal principle.

The seeds gave diosgenin. Root gave cytotoxic principles—cucurbitacin B and iso-cucurbitacin B. Leaves yielded as ester tetratriacontanyl—tetratri- acontanoate along with tetratriacon- tanoic acid, tetratriacontanol and sitos- terol.

Dosage: Fruit, bark—3-6 g powder; 50-100 ml decoction. (CCRAS.)... helicteres isora

Helike

(Greek) In mythology, a willow nymph who nurtured Zeus Helica, Helyke, Helika, Helyka, Helyca... helike

Heliotrope

Exorcism, Prophetic Dreams, Healing, Wealth, Invisibility... heliotrope

Helium

This is the lightest gas known, with the exception of hydrogen. This property renders it of value in ANAESTHESIA, as its addition to the anaesthetic means that it can be inhaled with less e?ort by the patient. Thus it can be used in the presence of any obstruction to the entry of air to the lungs.... helium

Helki

(Native American) A sensuous woman

Helkie, Helky, Helkey, Helkee, Helkea... helki

Helle

(Greek) In mythology, the daughter of Athamas who escaped sacrifice on the back of a golden ram... helle

Hellebore, Black

Protection ****TOXIC*** ... hellebore, black

Heliotropium Indicum

Linn.

Family: Boraginaceae.

Habitat: Throughout India.

English: Scorpion Tail.

Ayurvedic: Hastishundi Shrihastini, Vrischikaali.

Siddha/Tamil: Thaelkodukku.

Action: Plant—diuretic, astringent, emollient, vulnerary. Used as a local application for ulcers, wounds, sores, gum boils and skin affections. Decoction of leaves is used in urticaria and fevers; that of root in coughs. Flowers—emmenagogue in small doses, abortifacient in large doses. Masticated seeds— stomachic.

Aerial parts of the plant contain alkaloids—indicine (principal base), echinatine, supinine, heleurine, he- liotrine, lasiocarpine and lasiocarpine- N-oxide. Aerial parts and root gave an anticancer principle—indicine-N- oxide.

The aqueous and alcohol extracts of the plant possess oxytocic activity. The roots contain significant amounts of estradiol, a sex hormone.

The inflorescences are used by trib- als for scorpion bite.... heliotropium indicum

Helleborus Niger

Linn.

Family: Ranunculaceae.

Habitat: Native to sub-alpine woods in Southern and Eastern Europe. Grown in Indian gardens.

English: Black Hellebore, Christmas Rose.

Ayurvedic: Khuraasaani Kutaki.

Unani: Kharbaq Siyah, Kutaki.

Action: Digitalis-like action in cardiac disorders, drastic purgative, abortifacient, diuretic, local anaesthetic, narcotic.

The rhizome contains cardiac glycosides; helleborin, helleborein, hellebrin and others based on helleborigenin.

Helleborin has a burning, acrid taste and is narcotic. Helleborein has a sweetish taste and is a highly active cardiac poison. Helleborin and veratrin (steroidal saponins), helle- brin or helleborein (steroid glycoside) are main constituents of the root and leaves. The plant irritates mucous membranes.

A related species, Helleborus virdis Linn. (Bear's Foot, Green Hellebore) is known as Kaali Kutaki and Krishna- bhedi. The plant contains magno- florine and corytuberine. The roots and rhizomes gave hellebrin, desgluco- hellebrin, hellebrigenin, bufatetraeno- lide, beta-ecdysterone and 5beta-hy- droxyecdysterone.... helleborus niger

Helma

(German) Form of Wilhelmina, meaning “determined protector” Helmah, Helmia, Helmea, Helmina, Helmyna, Helmeena, Helmine, Helmyne, Helmeen, Helmeene... helma

Heloise

(French) One who is famous in battle

Helois, Heloisa, Helewidis... heloise

Helsa

(Danish) Form of Elizabeth, meaning “my God is bountiful” Helsah, Helisa, Helise, Helissa, Helisse... helsa

Hemagogue

An agent that promotes the flow of blood... hemagogue

Hemangini

(Indian) The golden child; one who shines

Hemangi, Hemangie, Hema, Hemlata, Hem... hemangini

Hemanti

(Indian) Born during the early winter

Hemantie, Hemanty, Hemantey, Hemantee, Hemantea... hemanti

Hematinic

Stimulating the formation of blood cells and hemoglobin... hematinic

Hematorrhea

Copious hemorrhage... hematorrhea

Hematuria

The presence of blood in the urine.... hematuria

Hemera

(Greek) Born during daylight; in mythology, the goddess of the day Hemerah, Hemerra, Hemyra, Hemira... hemera

Hemerocallis Fulva

Linn.

Habitat: The Himalaya, Khasi Hills; cultivated in Indian gardens.

English: Common Yellow Day-lily, Tawny Day-lily, Orange Day-lily.

Action: Flower—analgesic, especially in child birth; blood purifier. (Flowers are sold in Chinese food shops as Gum-Tsoy or Gum-Jum.)

Hemerocallin, a neurotoxic principle, has been found in Hemerocallis sp. The plant gave amino acid—oxyp- innatanine.... hemerocallis fulva

Hemianaesthesia

Loss of the sense of touch down one side of the body.... hemianaesthesia

Hemiatrophy

Atrophy of one side of the body, or of part of the body on one side: for example, facial hemiatrophy, in which one-half of the face is smaller than the other, either in the course of development or as a result of some nervous disorder.... hemiatrophy

Hemidesmus Indicus

(L.) R. Br.

Synonym: Periploca indica Linn.

Family: Asclepiadaceae, Periplo- caceae.

Habitat: Throughout India; common in Bengal, Maharashtra and extending to Travancore.

English: Indian Sarsaparilla (white var.). Sarsaparilla root is equated with Smilax sp. in Western herbal.

Ayurvedic: Shveta Saarivaa, Anant- muula, Gopi, Gopaa, Gopakanyaa, Gopavalli, Gopasutaa, Krishodari, Sphotaa, Utpalsaarivaa, Kapuuri, Dugdhgarbhaa.

Unani: Ushbaa Hindi.

Siddha/Tamil: Nannaari, Sugan- thipala.

Action: Blood purifier, antisyphilitic, antileucorrhoeic, galactogenic, antidiarrhoeal, antirheumatic, febrifuge, alterative. Roots used against gonorrhoea, leucoderma, bleeding piles, jaundice and dysentery.

Key application: Smilax sp.—in skin diseases and urinary infections. (German Commission E included Smilax sp. among unapproved herbs.)

Hemidesmus indicus does not contain the same saponins or other principal constituents which are found in sarsaparilla. (Tyler's Honest Herbal.)

The root contains coumarino-lig- noids, hemidesmine, hemidesmin-1, 2. The stem contains pregnane glyco- sides, hemidine, hemidescine, emidine and indicine, a triterpene lactone, a lu- panone, besides lupeol acetate, sitos- terol and hexadecanoic acid and several hydroxy- methoxybenzaldehydes.

Aqueous extract of the root is bacteriostatic against Mycobacterium leprae.

Dosage: Root—20-30 g for decoction. (API Vol. I.) palmitoleic, stearic, oleic, linoleic and arachidic. Pyrocatechol, tannins, fla- vonoids and amino acids were also present.... hemidesmus indicus

Hemidictyum Ceterach

L.

Synonym: Ceterach officinarum Willd. Asplenium ceterach L.

Family: Athyriaceae, Polypodiaceae.

Habitat: Western Himalaya, from Kashmir to Garhwal, up to 3,000 m.

Action: Fern—diuretic, astringent; used for diseases of the urinary tract, infirmities of spleen, also for treating jaundice.

The plant contains caffeic acid, neo- hesperidin, kaempferol-3, 7-digluco- side, chlorogenic acid and quercetol- 3-glucoside. The leaves gave methyl esters of the acids—myristic, palmitic,

Synonym: H. nepalense D. Don. H. lanatum Michx.

Family: Umbelliferae; Apiaceae.

Habitat: Chamba, Kulu, Jammu & Kashmir, Bushahr, Garhwal and Kumaon Hills.

English: Cowparsnip.

Folk: Kaindal (Kashmir), Gandhraayana (Garhwal).

Action: Fruit—stimulant, nervine tonic, spasmolytic. Heraclenin (active principle)—hypoprothrom- binaemic.

Essential oil from the fruits is moderately antimicrobial.

Furanocoumarins present in the whole fruit and leaves are psoralen, xanthotoxin and bergapten. Roots also contain furanocoumarins.

The fruits of H. concanense Dalz. contain a coumarin which is effective against dermatophytosis. The fruits of H. regins Wall. ex DC. are used for cough and bronchitis, also for urinary concretions in Siddha medicine. H. thomsoni C. B. Clarke (Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh) also contains a coumarin; the fruit showed nonspecific spasmolytic activity equipotent to papaverine.... hemidictyum ceterach

Hemionites Arifolia

(Burm. f) Moore.

Family: Adiantaceae.

Habitat: Plains and mountains of South India up to 1,200., and in West Bengal, Bihar and Orissa.

English: Mule Fern.

Folk: Raamabaanam (Andhra Pradesh), Chakuliya (Bengal).

Action: Fonds—antibacterial, used in burns and as febrifuge.

Heracleum candicans Wall. ex DC.... hemionites arifolia

Hemolysis

Breakdown of senescent red blood cells into recyclable constituents, with particular importance given to the reuse of the heme part of hemoglobin.... hemolysis

Hemopathy

A disease of the blood.... hemopathy

Hemoptysis

Coughing up blood or pulmonary bleeding. If simply resulting from excessive coughing, where bleeding is from prolonged tracheal or pharynx irritation and minute mucosal hemorrhage, it can be self-treatable...anything else and start worrying... hemoptysis

Hemorrhage

Bleeding, pure and simply. Menses is not blood but the carefully orchestrated excretion of excess endometrium. If the membranes fail to vasoconstrict and bleed further, THAT is hemorrhage.... hemorrhage

Hemorrhoids

Enlarged veins protruding into the anorectal area, either internal or externally visible. They are either the result of poor sphincter tone and portal congestion, or sphincter hypertonicity, skeletal muscle and adrenergic excess...”Jock Hemmies”.... hemorrhoids

Hemostatic

A substance that stops or slows bleeding, used either internally or externally... hemostatic

Henbane

Love Attraction ***TOXIC*** ... henbane

Hender

(American) One who is embraced by all Hendere... hender

Hendra Virus

Virus of Flying Foxes (Fruit Bats) in Australia. Can infect horses and humans. Also known as the Equine morbillivirus.... hendra virus

Heng

(Chinese) An eternal beauty... heng

Henle, Loop Of

That part of the nephron (see KIDNEYS) between the proximal and distal convoluted tubules. It extends into the renal medulla as a hairpin-shaped loop. The ascending link of the loop actively transports sodium from the lumen of the tube to the interstitium, and this, combined with the ‘counter-current’ ?ow of ?uid through the two limbs of the loop, plays a part in concentrating the urine.... henle, loop of

Henley

(American) A social butterfly Henleigh, Henlee, Henly, Henlea, Henli, Henlie... henley

Henoch-schönlein Purpura

This is an in?ammatory condition of the small blood vessels, the cause of which is not known but may be an allergic response to food or drugs. Most common among young children, the in?ammation causes blood to leak into joints, kidneys, intestine and skin. The child presents with a purpuric rash and stomach pains which may come and go for weeks. Paracetamol alone is often su?cient to alleviate the condition, but severely ill patients may need corticosteroid drugs. All sufferers need follow-up for 12 months to ensure that they have not developed kidney disease.... henoch-schönlein purpura

Henrietta

(German) Feminine form of Henry; ruler of the house Henretta, Henrieta, Henriette, Henrika, Henryetta, Hetta, Hette, Hettie, Henrieeta, Hatsie, Hatsy, Hattie, Hatty, Hendrika, Henia, Henie, Henka, Hennie, Henrie, Henny, Henni, Henriqua, Henuite, Henuita, Hanrietta, Hanriette, Hanretta, Hanriet... henrietta

Hensley

(American) One who is ambitious Hensly, Henslee, Hensleigh, Henslea, Hensli, Henslie... hensley

Hepatalgi A

Pain in the liver... hepatalgi a

Hepatitis Viruses

The most common causes of viral hepatitis are those caused by the Hepatitis A, B, C, D, E and G viruses. Hepatitis F virus has been described but is a doubtful entity. Other viruses which can cause hepatitis include the Epstein-Barr Virus, cytomegalovirus, and the Yellow Fever virus.... hepatitis viruses

Hepatocytes

A functional or parenchymal liver cell, specializing in enzyme synthesis.... hepatocytes

Hepatodynia

Pain in the liver... hepatodynia

Hepatolenticular Degeneration

See WILSON’S DISEASE.... hepatolenticular degeneration

Hepatopathy

Any disease of the liver... hepatopathy

Hepatosis

Downward displacement of the liver... hepatosis

Hepatozoon

A genus of tick-borne apicomplexan protozoa infecting a range of animal species including lizards and snakes but not humans.... hepatozoon

Hephzibah

(Hebrew) She is my delight Hepsiba, Hepzibeth, Hepsey, Hepsie, Hepsy, Hepzibah, Hepsee, Hepsea... hephzibah

Hepolenticular Degeneration

See WILSON’S DISEASE.... hepolenticular degeneration

Hera

(Greek) The chosen heroine; in mythology, the wife of Zeus, and the goddess of marriage and childbirth Here, Herah... hera

Herbal Manual

Herbal Manual

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... herbal manual

Herbal Medical

Herbal Medical

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... herbal medical

Herbalism

A system of alternative medical treatment based on the use of herbs and plant materials to stimulate the body’s healing powers.... herbalism

Herdis

(Scandinavian) A battlemaiden Herdiss, Herdisse, Herdys, Herdyss, Herdysse... herdis

Herendira

(American) A tender woman Herendyra, Herendeera, Herendeara, Herendiera, Herendeira... herendira

Herise

(American) A warmhearted woman Heryse, Hereese, Heriese, Hereise, Herease... herise

Herleen

(American) A quiet and peaceful woman

Herleene, Herlean, Herleane, Herlein, Herleine, Herlien, Herliene, Herlyn, Herlyne... herleen

Hermandina

(Greek) A wellborn woman Hermandine, Hermandyna, Hermandeena, Hermandena, Hermandyne, Hermandeene, Hermandeane, Hermandeana... hermandina

Hermelinda

(Spanish) Bearing a powerful shield

Hermelynda, Hermalinda, Hermalynda, Hermelenda, Hermalenda... hermelinda

Hermia

(Greek) Feminine form of Hermes; a messenger of the gods Hermiah, Hermea, Hermila, Hermilla, Hermilda, Herminia, Hermenia, Herma, Hermina, Hermine, Hermione... hermia

Hermippe

(Greek) In mythology, the mother of Orchomenus Hermipe, Hermip, Hermipp... hermippe

Hermona

(Hebrew) From the mountain peak

Hermonah, Hermonna, Hermonnah... hermona

Hermosa

(Spanish) A beautiful young woman

Hermossa, Hermosah, Hermoza, Hermosia, Hermozia, Hermosea, Hermozea... hermosa

Hernanda

(Spanish) One who is daring Hernandia, Hernandea, Hernandiya... hernanda

Herniaria Glabra

Linn.

Family: Illecebraceae.

Habitat: Throughout Europe. Introduced into Indian gardens.

English: Rupture-Wort.

Action: Plant—astringent, diuretic, antimicrobial, anticatarrhal. An infusion is used principally for bladder complaints for ruptures.

The plant gave a flavonic glycoside, rutoside; coumarins, herniarin and umbelliferone, and saponins.

A related species, H. hirsuta L. (Himalaya, from Kashmir to Kumaon up to 3,000 m) gave umbelliferone, scopo- letin and herniarin.... herniaria glabra

Herniorraphy

Surgical repair of a HERNIA. This may be done as an open operation or as MINIMALLY INVASIVE SURGERY (MIS) using a LAPAROSCOPE.... herniorraphy

Hero

(Greek) The brave defender; a heroine; in mythology, the lover of Leander who killed herself when she discovered his death Heroe... hero

Herodias

(Greek) One who watches over others; in the Bible, the mother of Salome... herodias

Herpes Genitalis

An infection of the genitals (see GENITALIA) of either sex, caused by HERPES SIMPLEX virus type

2. It is mostly acquired as a result of sexual activity; some cases are caused by simplex type

1. After initial infection the virus lies latent in the dorsal nerve root ganglion (of the spinal cord) which enervates the affected area of the skin. Latent virus is never cured and reactivation results in either a recurrence of symptoms or in asymptomatic shedding of the virus which then infects a sexual partner. Around 30,000 cases of genital herpes are reported annually from clinics dealing with SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES (STDS) in England, but there are also many unrecognised (by either patient or doctor) infections. Patients may have a history of painful attacks of ulceration of the genitals for many years before seeking medical advice. All patients with a ?rst episode of the infection should be given oral antiviral treatment, and those who suffer more than six attacks a year should be considered for suppressive antiviral treatment. ACICLOVIR, valaciclovir and famciclovir are all e?ective antiviral drugs. If a woman in the ?nal three months of her pregnancy contracts herpes genitalis, this can have serious consequences for the baby as he or she will be at risk of herpes encephalitis after delivery.... herpes genitalis

Herpes Simplex Virus

Causative virus of genital herpes and herpes labalis or cold sores.... herpes simplex virus

Herpes Viruses

One member of a group of viruses containing DNA which cause latent infections in animals and humans. Viruses from this group cause HERPES SIMPLEX, HERPES ZOSTER (shingles) and CHICKENPOX, and include CYTOMEGALOVIRUS (CCMV) and EPSTEIN-BARR VIRUS.... herpes viruses

Herpes Zoster Virus

Causative virus of chicken pox and shingles.... herpes zoster virus

Herpetic

Treating skin eruptions... herpetic

Herra

(Greek) Daughter of the earth Herrah... herra

Hersala

(Spanish) A lovely woman Hersalah, Hersalla, Hersallah, Hersalia, Hersaliah, Hersalea, Hersaleah... hersala

Herschelle

(Hebrew) Feminine form of Hirsh; resembling a deer Herschele, Herschell, Hershelle, Hershele, Hershell... herschelle

Hersilia

(Latin) In mythology, the wife of Romulus

Hersiliah, Hersilea, Hersileah, Hersylia, Hersylea, Hersyleah, Hersiliya, Hersiliyah... hersilia

Hertha

(English) Of the earth Herthe, Herta, Herte... hertha

Hertnia

(English) Of the earth Hertniah, Hertnea, Hertneah, Hertniya, Hertniyah... hertnia

Hervie

(English) A battle-ready woman warrior

Hervi, Hervy, Hervey, Hervee, Hervea, Herveah... hervie

Heshbon

(Hebrew) An industrious woman; one with great intelligence... heshbon

Hesiena

(African) The firstborn of twins Hesienna, Hesienah, Heseina, Hasana, Hasanah, Hasanna, Hasane... hesiena

Hesione

(Greek) In mythology, a Trojan princess saved by Hercules from a sea monster... hesione

Hesper

(Greek) Born under the evening star

Hespera, Hesperie, Hesperi, Hespery, Hesperey, Hesperee, Hesperea... hesper

Hesperia

(Greek) In mythology, one of the Hesperides

Hesperiah, Hesperea, Hespereah... hesperia

Hester

(Greek) A starlike woman Hestere, Hesther, Hesta, Hestar... hester

Hestia

(Greek) In mythology, goddess of the hearth

Hestiah, Hestea, Hesteah, Hestya, Hestyah... hestia

Hetal

(Hindi) A friendly young girl Hetall, Hetale, Hetalia, Hetalea, Hetala, Hetalla, Hetalle... hetal

Heterophil Antibody

Antibody which reacts with an antigen which has not stimulated its production (i.e. a crossreacting antibody).... heterophil antibody

Heterophragma Roxburghii

DC.

Synonym: H. quadriloculare (Roxb.) D. Schum.

Habitat: Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu.

Ayurvedic: Waarasa.

Siddha/Tamil: Barokalagoru.

Folk: Pullunga, Paatang (Maharashtra).

Action: Tar extracted from wood— used in skin diseases. Leaf juice— applied externally on toe sores and in chilblain.

The flowers gave hentriacontane and allantoin; the leaves contain ursolic acid and sitosterol. The seeds contain a saponin (rhamnoside), lupeol, beta- sitosterol, stigmasterol and cubulin. The essential oil from flowers exhibits antimicrobial activity.... heterophragma roxburghii

Heterosexual

Sexual attraction to individuals of the opposite sex. (See also HOMOSEXUALITY.)... heterosexual

Heulwen

(Welsh) As bright as the light from the sun

Heulwenn, Heulwenne, Heulwin, Heulwinn, Heulwinne, Heulwyn, Heulwynn, Heulwynne... heulwen

Heven

(American) A pretty young woman Hevin, Hevon, Hevun, Hevven, Hevvin, Hevvon, Hevvun... heven

Hexachlorophene

A widely used antiseptic (see ANTISEPTICS) which is active against a range of microorganisms, including gram-positive and gram-negative organisms (see GRAM’S STAIN), Shigella dysenteriae, and Salmonella typhi. One of its advantages is that it retains its activity in the presence of soap, and is therefore often used in soaps and creams in a concentration of 1–2 per cent. It must be used with caution in babies as it can be absorbed through the skin and prove harmful. Hexachlorophene must not be used on burned or excoriated skin.... hexachlorophene

Heyzell

(American) Form of Hazel, meaning “from the hazel tree” Heyzel, Heyzelle, Heyzill, Heyzille, Heyzil... heyzell

Hezer

(Hebrew) A woman of great strength Hezir, Hezyr, Hezire, Hezyre, Hezere... hezer

Hiah

(Korean) A bright woman Heija, Heijah, Hia... hiah

Hiawatha

(Native American) She who makes rivers

Hiawathah, Hyawatha, Hiwatha, Hywatha... hiawatha

Hiba

(Arabic) A gift from God Hibah, Heba, Hebah... hiba

Hibernia

(Latin) Woman from Ireland Hiberniah, Hibernea, Hybernia, Hybernea, Hibernya, Hybernya... hibernia

Hibiscus Abelmoschus

Linn.

Synonym: Abelmoschus moschatus Medic.

Family: Malvaceae.

Habitat: Throughout the warmer parts and hilly regions of India; also cultivated.

English: Musk Seed, Muskmallow, Ambette Seed.

Ayurvedic: Lataakasturi, Lataakas- turikaa, Kattaphala, Katuka.

Unani: Mushkdaanaa.

Siddha/Tamil: Kasturi-vendai.

Action: Seeds—diuretic, antispas- modic, stomachic, nervine (nervous debility, hysteria and other nervous disorders). Used externally for skin diseases and itch. Mucilage made from the root and leaves is prescribed in venereal diseases, urinary discharges and painful micturition. Seeds, steeped in water, are used for asthma, cold, flu.

Fatty oil of seeds contains phospholipids—alpha cephalin, phosphatidyl- serine and its plasmalogen and phos- phatidylcholine plasmalogen. Absolute contains farnesol and ambrettolic acid lactones.

The seeds contain chiefly 2-trans, 6-trans-farnesyl acetate, 2-cis, 6-trans farnesyl acetate and ambrettolide. The leaves contain beta-sitosterol and its beta-D-glucoside.

Dosage: Seed—2-4 g powder. (API Vol. IV.)... hibiscus abelmoschus

Hibiscus Cannabinus

Linn.

Family: Malvaceae.

Habitat: Native to tropical America and Africa; cultivated in West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Bihar and Punjab.

English: Bimlipatam Jute, Kenaf, Mesta, Deccan Hemp.

Siddha/Tamil: Pulichhai, Pulimanji, Kasini.

Folk: Patsan, Pitwaa. Ambaadi (Maharashtra).

Action: Seed—nervine tonic, analgesic. Leaf—purgative. The juice of flowers, mixed with sugar and black pepper, is given for biliousness.

The leaves contain flavonoids, including rutin and isoquercitrin; kaem- pferol; polyphenols. The flowers gave myricetin glucoside; the root contains polyphenols, also proanthocyanidins. The seeds gave phosphonolipids.... hibiscus cannabinus

Hibiscus Flower Tea

(Sorrel) Dried Hibiscus flowers are made into a tea that offers very high health benefits. Hibiscus tea is known to lower blood pressure, reduce high cholesterol and strengthen the immune system (it’s rich in Vitamin C). Hibiscus flower infusions have known to reduce hypertension as well, in people prone to this condition. A recent study reveals that hibiscus tea is rich in antioxidants, which protect the body against cell-damaging free radicals. Red zinger tea and sorrel tea contain hibiscus.... hibiscus flower tea

Hibiscus Surattensis

Linn.

Family: Malvaceae.

Habitat: Throughout the warmer parts of India.

Ayurvedic: Ran Bhindi.

Folk: Kishli-Keerai (Tamil Nadu).

Action: Flower—emollient, pectoral. Stem and leaf—used in urethritis and venereal diseases.

Petals (yellow part) gave gossypitrin and gossypetin; the purple part gave cyanidin, delphinidin and pelargoni-... hibiscus surattensis

Hickory

Legal Matters... hickory

Hicks

(American) A saucy woman Hiks, Hycks, Hyks, Hicksi, Hicksie, Hicksee, Hicksy, Hicksey, Hicksea... hicks

Hidayah

(Arabic) One who provides guidance for others Hidaya, Hydayah, Hydaya... hidayah

Hidde

(German) An honorable woman Hiddee, Hiddy, Hiddey, Hidda, Hiddea... hidde

Hide

(Japanese) A superior woman Hideyo... hide

Hideko

(Japanese) A superior woman Hydeko... hideko

Hibiscus Mutabilis

Linn.

Family: Malvaceae.

Habitat: Native to China; planted in the hedges of gardens.

English: Cotton-Rose, ChineseRose, Confederate Rose.

Ayurvedic: Sthala-Padam, Sthal- Kamal.

Siddha/Tamil: Irratai-vellaichemba- rattam, Sembarattai.

Action: Flower—used in pectoral and pulmonary affections. Leaf and flower—expectorant, bechic, anodyne. Used in menorrhagia, dysuria, swellings, fistulae, wounds and burns.

The flowers contain quercetin, kaempferol, betulinic acid, hexyl stearate, tetratriacontanol, nonacosane, stigmasta-3, 7-dione, stigmasta-4-ene- one and beta-sitosterol. Flowers collected in the morning gave no an- thocyanin; maximum anthocyanin is found in the afternoon.... hibiscus mutabilis

Hibiscus Rosa-sinensis

Linn.

Family: Malvaceae.

Habitat: Native of China; grown in gardens throughout India.

English: Rose-of-China, Shoe- flower, Chinese Hibiscus.

Ayurvedic: Japaa, Javaa, Odrapush- pa, Rudrapushpa, Arunaa.

Unani: Gul-e-Gurhal.

Siddha/Tamil: Semparuthi.

Action: Flower—used in impo- tency, bronchial catarrh. Flower and bark—emmenagogue. Leaf— stimulates expulsion of placenta after childbirth; laxative, anodyne. Flower and root—used in menorrhagia.

The plant contains the cyclopro- panoids, methyl sterculate, methyl- 2-hydroxysterculate, 2-hydroxystercu- late, malvalate and beta-sitosterol.

The major anthocyanin in the flower is cyanidin 3-sophoroside. The flower nectar is rich in amino acids, mainly aspartic acid and asparagin. During pollination, the amino acid concentration increases substantially.

Flower powder exhibited anti-inflammatory activity in male albino rats with carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema. The aqueous extract of the plant showed antitumour activity against sarcoma 180 ascites.

An aqueous extract of flowers reduced the duration of oestrus cycle in experimental albino rabbits. The alcoholic extract of flowers showed antiimplantation activity. The benzene extract of flowers, on oral administration, terminated pregnancy in experimental animals.

Flower buds are used in the treatment of vaginal and uterine discharges.

Oral administration of flower extract to rats affected spermatogenesis and endocrine function of testis.

In diabetic patients, a flower bud is given daily up to 10 days or until the level of blood sugar is reduced to tolerable limits.

The white-flowered var. of Japan (cultivated all over India in garden) is equated with Hibiscus syriacus Linn. (Rose of Sharon, Shrubby Althaea). The white flower is an oriental drug used as demulcent and antidiarrhoeal. The bud yields mucilage which consists mainly of partially acetylated acidic polysaccharides. The aqueous extract of the petals causes vasorelaxation of the isolated rat arota via both endo- thelium-dependent and -independent mechanisms. The petals contain anthocyanin pigments.

The cortex and bark exhibit antifun- gal acitivity.

The bark gave canthin-6-one and a fatty acid fraction consisting of lauric, myristic and palmitic acids.

Dosage: Flower—10-20 g paste. (CCRAS.)... hibiscus rosa-sinensis

Hibiscus Sabdariffa

Linn.

Family: Malvaceae.

Habitat: Native to the West Indies; now cultivated in Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, West Bengal, Bihar, Punjab, Assam and Tamil Nadu.

English: Roselle, Jamaican Sorrel, Natal Sorrel, Red Sorrel.

Ayurvedic: Ambashtthaki.

Siddha/Tamil: Sivappu Kashmakki, Pulichai-keerai, Gogu, Seemai Kaseru.

Folk: Laal-ambaadi, Patavaa, Patsan.

Action: Digestive, choleretic, antibilious, laxative, diuretic, hypotensive, antiscorbutic. Used as a cardiac and nervine tonic for disorders of circulation, also for calcified arteries.

Key application: Flowers—used for loss of appetite, for colds, catarrhs of the upper respiratory tract and stomach, for disorders of circulation. (Included among unapproved herbs by German Commission E.)

The seeds contain sterols, including 3.2% ergosterol; leaves contain sitosterol-beta-D-galactoside. Flowers contain myricetin, kaempferol and quercetin, but did not contain free mutagenic flavonol aglycons.

The aqueous extract of flower buds has been reported to decrease blood pressure, cause relaxation of rat uterus. Succulent sepals and leaves—hypoten- sive, antimicrobial and anthelmintic.

Oil and unsapanofiable matter—antibacterial, antifungal.

Dosage: Root—5-10 g. (API Vol. III.)... hibiscus sabdariffa

Hidi

(African) One who is rooted to the earth

Hidie, Hidy, Hidey, Hidee, Hidea... hidi

Hien

(Vietnamese) A meek and gentle woman... hien

Hierapolis

(Hebrew) From the sacred city... hierapolis

Hierro

Iron; used for the treatment of anemia and other illnesses; typically sold as a powder; added as an ingredient to botellas and herbal preparations; often sold in the amount of a single dose, packaged in an envelope (sobre).... hierro

Higgaion

(Hebrew) One who meditates; a pause for reflection... higgaion

High Dependency Care Facility

An establishment primarily engaged in providing inpatient nursing and rehabilitative services to individuals requiring nursing care.... high dependency care facility

Hibiscus Tea - A Popular Herbal Tea

Hibiscus tea is one of the most famous herbal tea drinks around the world. It is made from the red hibiscus flower, which is dried and steeped. Hibiscus tea can be drank either hot or cold and it is recognized for being a strong allied in the weight loss process. Hibiscus tea contains organic acids such as citric acid, malic acid and tartaric acid. This tea can be taken as a traditional supplement or as a natural medicine since it produces Vitamin C and minerals. How to make Hibiscus tea To prepare a perfect cup of hibiscus tea, first of all you will need to boil the water into a kettle. Then measure 2 teaspoons of hibiscus flowers or more if you want a stronger flavor. After the water is boiled, place the hibiscus flowers into the kettle and let it steep for about 10 minutes. Then pour the tea into a cup using a strainer to catch the hibiscus flowers. To enhance the flavor, you can always add lemon juice, sugar or even cinnamon. Hibiscus Tea benefits
  • Lowers cholesterol
  • Some studies revealed that people who suffer from type 2 diabetes may benefits from drinking this tea.
  • In Eastern medicine, hibiscus tea is used to treat liver problems
  • Due to the fact that hibiscus tea stops the body from absorbing too many carbohydrates, it is a string allied in the weight loss process.
  • Since it contains Vitamin C, hibiscus tea helps preventing colds, flu and also, strengthens your immune system.
Hibiscus tea side effects
  • Pregnant and breastfeeding women should avoid drinking hibiscus tea.
  • People with low blood pressure are not advised to drink hibiscus tea.
  • You should be careful if you want to drink hibiscus tea for the first time since it can (rarely) produce hallucinogenic effects or even cause a sensations similar to intoxication.
  • If you are taking any type of anti-inflammatories and want to drink hibiscus tea, drink it two hours after taking the medicine.
Hibiscus tea makes a wonderful drink either on cold winter days or on hot summer days, since it can be consumed either hot or cold. Enjoy its benefits and try not to experience any of its side effects!... hibiscus tea - a popular herbal tea

Hierba Mora

Black nightshade (Solanum americanum; also, Solanum nigrescens).

Plant Part Used: Leaf.

Dominican Medicinal Uses: Leaf: decoction, orally, for allergies, vaginal infections, cysts, fibroids, cancer (early stages), blood-cleansing, childbirth and postpartum recovery.

Safety: Leaf extracts in moderate amounts have shown relatively low toxicity; in excess, can cause adverse reactions; fruits contain toxic alkaloids.

Clinical Data: Human clinical trials: treatment of vaginal candidiasis (plant extract).

Laboratory & Preclinical Data: In vivo: immunomodulatory (leaf extract).

In vitro: antidermatophytic, antifungal (plant extract); antimicrobial (leaf extract); antitrypanosomal (plant extract).

* See entry for Hierba mora in “Part 3: Dominican Medicinal Plant Profiles” of this book for more information, including references.... hierba mora

Hierbabuena

YERBA BUENA Mint (Mentha species). Plant Part Used: Leaf, stalk, flower.Dominican Medicinal Uses: Leaves and stems: tea, orally, for stomach pain, indigestion, stress, anxiety, diabetes, menstrual cramps; poultice, externally, for topical burns and minor abrasions.Safety: Widely consumed and generally considered safe.Laboratory & Preclinical Data: Antispasmodic, antiflatulent, stimulant, antimicrobial and sedative.* See entry for Hierbabuena in “Part 3: Dominican Medicinal Plant Profiles” of this book for more information, including references.... hierbabuena

High John The Conqueror

Money, Love, Success, Happiness ... high john the conqueror

Higüero

Calabash (Crescentia cujete).

Plant Part Used: Fruit pulp.

Dominican Medicinal Uses: Fruit pulp: added fresh to multi-herb preparations, taken internally for infections in general, vaginal infections, infertility, fibroids, cysts, menopausal symptoms, childbirth and post-partum recovery.

Safety: Signs of toxicity exhibited in birds and cattle.

Contraindications: Pregnancy; not to be used for ear infection if ear secretions or perforation of ear drum is evident.

Laboratory & Preclinical Data: In vitro: antimicrobial (leaf and stem ethanol extracts, fruit pulp).

In vivo: anti-inflammatory (hydroalcoholic leaf extract).

* See entry for Higüero in “Part 3: Dominican Medicinal Plant Profiles” of this book for more information, including references.... higüero

Hija

(African) Her father’s daughter... hija

Hijrah

(Arabic) Refers to the migration of Muhammad Hijra... hijrah

Hikmah

(Arabic) Having great wisdom Hikmat, Hikma... hikmah

Hilan

(Greek) Filled with happines Hylan, Hilane, Hilann, Hilanne, Hylane, Hylann, Hylanne... hilan

Hilary

(Greek) A cheerful woman; bringer of joy

Hillary, Hilaree, Hilarie, Hilarey, Hilari, Hillari, Hillarie, Hillaree, Hillarey, Hillory, Hilaire, Hilaria, Hilery, Hillery, Hiliary, Hiliarie, Hylary, Hylarie, Hylari, Hylarey, Hylaree, Hyllari, Hyllary, Hilaeira, Hiolair, Hillarea, Hylarea, Hyllarea, Hilarea... hilary

Hildar

(Scandinavian) A feisty woman Hildarr, Hildare, Hildayr, Hildaer, Hyldar, Hyldarr, Hyldare, Hyldayr, Hyldaer, Hildair, Hyldair... hildar

Hildebrand

(German) Having great strength

Hildibrand, Hildebrande, Hildibrande, Hyldebrand, Hyldibrand... hildebrand

Hildegard

(German) A battlemaiden; a protector; in mythology, a Valkyrie Hildegarde, Hildagarde, Hildagard, Hilda, Hilde, Hulda, Hylda, Hildred, Hildee, Hildi, Hildie, Hildey, Hildy, Hildia, Hildea, Hyldi, Hylda, Hylde, Hyldy, Hyldegard, Hyldegarde, Hyldagard, Hyldagarde, Hild, Hildegunn, Hildigunn, Holda, Hyldea... hildegard

Hildemare

(German) A glorious woman; famous in battle

Hildemara, Hildimar, Hildimara, Hildemar, Hyldemare, Hyldemar, Hyldemara... hildemare

Hildireth

(German) An advisor during war time Hildreth... hildireth

Hildur

(Icelandic) A battlemaiden Hildurr, Hyldur, Hyldurr, Hildura, Hyldura... hildur

Hilina

(Hawaiian) Resembling a celestial body

Hilinah, Hileena, Hileenah, Hilyna, Hilynah, Hileana, Hileanah, Hiliena, Hilienah, Hileina, Hileinah... hilina

Hilliard

(English / German) From the hill / a guardian during battle Hiller, Hillierd, Hillyard, Hillyer, Hillyerd... hilliard

Hilma

(German) One who is protected Hilmah, Hylma, Hylmah... hilma

Hilton

(American) A wealthy woman Hylton, Hiltan, Hyltan, Hiltun, Hyltun, Hillton, Hiltin, Hyltin... hilton

Himalaya

(American) Woman from the mountains Hymalaya... himalaya

Hina

(Polynesian) In mythology, a dual goddess symbolizing day and night Hinna, Henna, Hinaa, Hinah, Heena, Hena... hina

Hind

(Arabic) Owning a group of camels; a wife of Muhammad Hynd, Hinde, Hynde... hind

Hinda

(Hebrew) Resembling a doe Hindah, Hindy, Hindey, Hindee, Hindi, Hindie, Hynda, Hyndy, Hyndey, Hyndee, Hyndi, Hyndie, Hindea, Hyndea, Hindal... hinda

Hine

(Polynesian) One who is chaste; a maiden... hine

Hinnom

(Hebrew) From the deep ravine... hinnom

Hinojo

Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare).

Plant Part Used: Seeds.

Dominican Medicinal Uses: Seeds: decoction, orally, for digestive ailments, flatulence, stomach pain, pasmo, infant colic, inflammation, allergy, sinus infection and women’s health. Leaves: decoction, orally, for stomach ache, indigestion and gas.

Safety: Widely consumed and considered safe; caution advised if used in anise tea: seeds are often combined with anís de estrella which may be adulterated by poisonous look-alike.

Contraindications: Essential oil: epileptics, young children, pregnancy; herb considered safe for children and pregnant women.

Clinical Data: Human clinical trial: infant colic treatment (seed extract and essential oil emulsion).

* See entry for Hinojo in “Part 3: Dominican Medicinal Plant Profiles” of this book for more information, including references.... hinojo

Hinto

(Native American) Having deep-blue eyes... hinto

Hinton

(American) A wealthy woman Hynton, Hintan, Hyntan, Hintun, Hyntun... hinton

Hippodamia

(Greek) A tamer of horses; in mythology, a bride who was nearly kidnapped by centaurs

Hippodamea, Hippodameia, Hipodamia, Hipodamea, Hipodameia... hippodamia

Hippolyte

(Greek) Feminine form of Hippolytus; one who frees the horses; in mythology, the queen of the Amazons Hippolyta, Hippolite, Hippothoe... hippolyte

Hiral

(Indian) A lustrous woman... hiral

Hiriwa

(Polynesian) A silvery woman... hiriwa

Hirkani

(Indian) Resembling a small diamond

Hirkanie, Hirkany, Hirkaney, Hirkanee, Hirkanea... hirkani

Hiroko

(Japanese) One who is noble and generous

Hiriko, Hyroko, Hyriko, Hyryko... hiroko

Hirschsprung’s Disease

Hirschsprung’s disease, or MEGACOLON, is a rare congenital disorder characterised by great hypertrophy and dilatation of the colon (see INTESTINE). The RECTUM and lower colon have failed to develop a normal nerve network, thus disturbing normal contraction and expansion of these structures. Treatment is surgical removal of the affected sections, with the remaining colon being joined to the anus.... hirschsprung’s disease

Hippophae Rhamnoides

Linn.

Family: Elaeagnaceae.

Habitat: North-west Himalayas at 2,350-5,000 m.

English: Seabuckthorn, Sand Thorn.

Folk: Dhurchuk, Chumaa, Tarwaa (Uttar Pradesh), Sirmaa (Punjab, Ladakh).

Action: Fruit—astringent, anti- diarrhoeal, stomachic, antitussive, antihaemorrhagic.

Sea Buckthorn preparations are used internally for stomach ulcer, duodenal ulcer and other illnesses of the alimentary organs; externally in cases of burns, bedsores and other skin complications induced by the treatment with X-rays and other radiations.

The berries contain polyphenols, 3,4-dihydroxy benzoic acid and p- coumaric acid. They are an important source of vitamins for people living in cold, long winter regions; contain high concentration of vitamin A (carotene 30-40 mg), B1, B2, B6, C (50-600 mg) and E (160 mg/100 g).

The plant is an effective antioxidant and shows protective effect on smooth muscles of rabbits in vitro. The methanolic extract of the berry showed scavenging activity on chemically generated superoxide radicals.

The leaves contain flavonoids, iso- rhamnetin and astragalin; the bark gave serotonin.... hippophae rhamnoides

Hiptage Benghalensis

Kurz.

Synonym: H. madablota Gaertn.

Family: Malpighiaceae.

Habitat: Throughout the warmer parts of Maharashtra, Konkan, Karnataka and other parts of India.

Ayurvedic: Atimukta, Atimuktaka, Maadhavi, Vaasanti, Pundrika, Mandaka, Vimukta, Kaamu- ka.

Siddha/Tamil: Madhavi, Vasanda- gala-malligai.

Action: Kernel of seeds is prescribed for reducing abdominal girth (obesity). Leaves—used in chronic rheumatism, asthma and skin diseases. Bark—used in bronchial asthma.

The stem and its bark contain friede- lin, epi-friedelinol, octacosanol, alpha- amyrin, beta-sitosterol and its beta-D- glucoside. The root bark gave a nitrogenous glucoside, hiptagin, identical with endecaphyllin and a glucosyl xanthone, mangiferin.

Dosage: Fruit, seed, root—powder 3-5 g; paste 5-10 g. (CCRAS.)... hiptage benghalensis

Hisa

(Japanese) A long-lived woman Hisah, Hysa, Hisako, Hisayo, Hisano... hisa

Hisaye

(Japanese) An everlasting beauty Hisay, Hysaye, Hysay, Hisai, Hysai, Hisae, Hysae... hisaye

Hisolda

(Irish) Form of Isolda, meaning “a woman known for her beauty” Hiseult, Hiseut, Hisold, Hisolde, Hisolt, Hisolte, Hisota, Hisotta, Hisotte, Hisoud, Hisoude... hisolda

Hitomi

(Japanese) One who has beautiful

eyes

Hitomie, Hitomee, Hitomea, Hitomy, Hitomey... hitomi

Hiv (human Immunodeficiency Virus)

The name of the causative agent of AIDS.... hiv (human immunodeficiency virus)

Hiya

(Indian) Of the heart... hiya

Hodaiah

(Hebrew) One who praises God Hodaviah, Hodiah, Hodijah, Hoda... hodaiah

Hodel

(Hebrew) From the flowering myrtle tree

Hodell, Hodele, Hodelle, Hodela, Hodella... hodel

Hodesh

(Hebrew) Born during the new moon

Hodesha, Hodeshah, Hodeshia, Hodeshea... hodesh

Hodge

(American) One who is confident Hoge... hodge

Hodgkin’s Disease

See LYMPHOMA.... hodgkin’s disease

Hoja De

Means “leaf of (plant name”; look up the plant name following this description of the plant part used.... hoja de

Hojicha Tea - A Different Japanese Green Tea

Hojicha tea is a type of Japanese green tea which is made from the sun-grown Japanese green tea known as bancha, harvested from the tea plant later in the season.Hojicha tea is roasted in a porcelain pot over charcoal at a high temperature, fact that alters the leaf color from green to reddish-brown. Hojicha tea has been certified as organic by the government of Japan. Brewing Hojicha tea There are many ways of preparing Hojicha tea, depending on each and other person’s taste. For example, shorter infusions of Hojicha tea may produce a fresh flavor, while longer infusions are more developed and have a “nuttier” taste. For starters, heat the the teapot with boiling water. The heat of the water is the one that brings out the aroma of Hojicha tea, so it shouldn’t be boiled at more than 180°F (80 degrees Celsius). The next step is adding the tea inside the teapot, one tablespoon of tea for each serving, when the water has just boiled. Then, depending on the flavor that you want, let it steep between 30 - 90 seconds.  In the end, pour the tea into a cup, making sure to use all the water in the teapot. Hojicha tea is usually served after the evening meal or before bed since it has lower caffeine content than other green teas. Components of Hojicha tea The main components of Hojicha tea are, like most green teas, tannin, caffeine, theanine (which is an amino acid) and Vitamin C.  Hojicha tea is known for the low amounts of caffeine and tannin (less astringency), fact that makes the tea easier to drink in the evening and it is also more suitable for children and elders.  Since it lacks in caffeine, some people even drinkHojicha tea to replace coffee, or before bed for a deep and calm sleep. Hojicha tea benefits Hojicha tea has a lot of health benefits, even though the same process that removes the caffeine also reduces the antioxidants. Due to the fact that Hojicha tea is actually a green tea, it basically presents the same benefits as any other green tea:
  • Hojicha tea helps fighting against diseases caused by viruses or bacteria and strengthens the immune system.
  • Hojicha tea helps protect against cardiovascular diseases, tumors and it’s also an important element when it comes to cancer prevention.
  • Hojicha tea is a strong allied in the process of weight loss.
  • Hojicha tea gives an overall well-being and helps you relax.
 Hojicha tea side effects Hojicha tea, because of the low caffeine, tannin and theanine content doesn’t actually present any particular side effects. However, being a green tea you should be aware of the following side effects that may appear if it is not consumed properly:
  • You should not drinkHojicha tea when you are pregnant or breastfeeding.
  • If you suffer from anemia or iron deficiency. According to some studies, green tea extract reduces the absorption of iron by 25%.
  • It is advised not to drink green tea on an empty stomach since it could cause liver damage.
  • Avoid green tea if you have kidney disorders or stomach ulcers.
All in all, try not to drink more than 6 cups a day of Hojicha green tea. If you are a green tea drinker or if you just want to try a different tea taste, besides the herbal flavor that most green teas have, you should not miss Hojicha tea. The components of Hojicha tea helps improve your immune system and, generally, keeps you healthy. It’s perfect for cold winter days!  ... hojicha tea - a different japanese green tea

Hoku

(Polynesian) One who shines as bright as a star

Hokulani, Hokulanie, Hokulanee, Hokulanea, Hokulany, Hokulaney... hoku

Holbrook

(English) From the brook on the hillside

Holebrook, Holbrooke, Holebrooke... holbrook

Holda

(German) A secretive woman; one who is hidden Holde... holda

Holden

(English) One who is willing and

eager

Holdin, Holdyn, Holdan... holden

Holder

(English) One who has a beautiful voice

Holdar, Holdir, Holdyr, Holdur... holder

Holiday

(American) Born on a festive day Holliday, Holidaye, Hollidaye, Holidai, Hollidai, Holidae, Hollidae... holiday

Holine

(American) A special woman Holyne, Holeene, Holeane, Holeine, Holene... holine

Holism

An approach based on the integration of a person’s mind, body and spirit, and which emphasizes the importance of perceiving the individual in a “whole” sense in the provision of health care to the person.... holism

Holarrhena Antidysenterica

(Linn.) Wall.

Synonym: H. pubescens (Buch.- Ham.) Wall. ex G. Don.

Family: Apocynaceae.

Habitat: The tropical Himalayas, going up to an altitude of 1,100 m. Also found throughout many forests of India, in Travancore, Assam and Uttar Pradesh.

English: Easter tree, Ivory tree, Tellicherry Bark.

Ayurvedic: Kutaja, Girimallikaa, Kaalinga, Kalingaka, Indravrik- sha, Shakra, Vatsa, Vatsaka, Shakraahvya. Indrayava, Indrabija, Vatsabija (seed). Kurchi (bark).

Unani: Inderjo talkh, Teewaaj-e- Khataai.

Siddha/Tamil: Kudasappaalai-pattai, -vidai (bark, seed).

Action: Root and bark—used in amoebic dysentery. Bark—astringent, anthelmintic, amoebicidal, diuretic. Used in colic, dyspepsia, piles, diseases of the skin and spleen. Seed—antibilious. Used for promoting conception, also for toning up vaginal tissues after delivery.

The bark contains the alkaloids, regholarrhenine-A, -B, -C, -D, -E and -F; pubescine, norholadiene, pubes- cimine, kurchinin, kurchinine, kur- chinidine, holarrifine, holadiene, kurchilidine, kurchamide, kurcholes- sine, kurchessine, conessine, cones- simine and isoconessimine, and the steroidal compounds kurchinicin and holadyson.

The alkaloid conessine is used as a therapeutic drug for the treatment of dysentery and helminthic disorders. Conessine and conimine inhibited the growth of Shigella sonnei, S. flexneri and Salmonella enteritidis strains in vitro. In chronic amoebiasis, Bi-iodide compound of total alkaloids, given orally, compare favourably with emetine Bi-iodide.

The plant possesses potent immuno- stimulant property.

The Kurchi seeds are sold as a substitute for Strophanthus sp. seeds in Indian market. (Seeds of Strophanthus sp. contain a toxic glucoside, strophan- thin, and are poisonous.)

Dosage: Stem bark—20-30 g for decoction. (API Vol. I); seed—3- 6 g powder; 20-30 g for decoction. (API Vol. III.)... holarrhena antidysenterica

Holla

(German) A secretive woman Hollah... holla

Hollander

(Dutch) A woman from Holland Hollynder, Hollender, Holander, Holynder, Holender, Hollande, Hollanda... hollander

Hollis

(English) Near the valley of the holly bushes

Hollace, Holisa, Hollisa, Holise, Holyse, Hollice, Hollissa, Holyce, Hollyse, Hollisse, Holisse, Hollysa... hollis

Hollisha

(English) A genius Holleesha, Holleisha, Holliesha, Holleasha, Hollysha... hollisha

Holoendemic

Perennial transmission of a high degree resulting in a significant immune response in all age groups, particularly in adults.... holoendemic

Holoptelea Integrifolia

Planch.

Family: Ulmaceae.

Habitat: Throughout greater parts of India, also grown in gardens.

Ayurvedic: Chirbilva, Putika, Prakirya.

Siddha/Tamil: Avil thol, Ayil pattai (bark)

Action: Bark—internally and externally used in rheumatism. Stem bark paste—in scabies. Seeds—used topically on ringworm.

The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India recommends dried fruits in poly- uria and other urinary disorders.

The stem bark contains the triter- penoidal fatty acid esters, holoptelin-A (epi-friedelinol palmitate) and holop- telin-B (epi-friedelinol stearate), frie- delin and epi-friedelinol.

The powdered bark exhibited lipoly- tic action and mobilized fat from adipose tissues in rats and consequently helped in the reduction of obesity.

Dosage: Dried fruit—1-3 g. (API Vol. III.)... holoptelea integrifolia

Holsey

(American) An easygoing woman Holsy, Holsi, Holsie, Holsee, Holsea... holsey

Holton

(American) One who is whimsical Holten, Holtan, Holtin, Holtyn, Holtun... holton

Holy

(American) One who is pious or sacred

Holey, Holee, Holeigh, Holi, Holie, Holye, Holea, Holeah... holy

Holyn

(American) A fresh-faced woman Holen, Holan, Holun, Holin... holyn

Homatropine

Homatropine is an alkaloid derived from ATROPINE, which is used to produce dilatation of the pupil (see EYE) and to paralyse ACCOMMODATION temporarily for the purpose of examining the interior of the eye. It is used in 1 per cent solution, and its effects last a few hours.... homatropine

Home

Domicile of an individual.... home

Home Adaptation

See “adaptation”.... home adaptation

Home And Community-based Services; Home And Community Care Programme

See “community-based care”.... home and community-based services; home and community care programme

Home For The Aged

See “residential care”; “assisted living facility”; “high dependency care facility”.... home for the aged

Home Health Agency (hha) / Home Health Care Agency

A public or private organization that provides home health services supervised by a licensed health professional in a person’s home, either directly or through arrangements with other organizations.... home health agency (hha) / home health care agency

Home Health Aide

A person who, under the supervision of a home health or social service agency, assists an older, ill or disabled person with household chores, bathing, personal care and other daily living needs. See also “community-based service”.... home health aide

Holostemma Annularis

(Roxb.) K. Schum.

Synonym: H. ada-kodien Schult. H. rheedii Wall. Asclepias annularis Roxb.

Family: Asclepiadaceae.

Habitat: Tropical Himalayas and Western Peninsula. Cultivated in Dharmapuri district of Tamil Nadu.

Ayurvedic: Ark-pushpi.

Siddha/Tamil: Palay-keerai.

Action: Roots—used in orchitis, spermatorrhoea, also as laxative. Roots are used as Jivanti in Kerala (See also Leptadenia reticulata.)

The tubers contain protein (5.510%). It gave alpha-amyrin, lupeol and beta-sitosterol. Aspartic acid, glycine, serine, threonine and valine were detected chromatographically.

The bark gave alpha-amyrin, lupeol and beta-sitosterol.... holostemma annularis

Home Health Care / Home Care

See “domiciliary care”.... home health care / home care

Home Improvement Agency

An organization offering advice and practical assistance to older people who need to repair, improve or adapt their homes.... home improvement agency

Home Medical Equipment

Equipment, such as hospital beds, wheelchairs and prosthetics, provided by an agency and used at home.... home medical equipment

Home Visits

Professional visits in the home.... home visits

Home-from-hospital / Hospital After-care Schemes

Schemes providing nursing care, personal care or practical help for older people who have returned home after a stay in hospital.... home-from-hospital / hospital after-care schemes

Homebound / Housebound

Generally unable to leave the house, or only for a short time.... homebound / housebound

Homemaker Service

A home help service for meal preparation, shopping, light housekeeping, money management, personal hygiene and grooming, and laundry.... homemaker service

Homer

(American) A tomboyish woman Homar, Homir, Homyr, Homur, Homor... homer

Homeshare

A scheme whereby a householder offers a bedroom and a share of the home’s facilities and pays a small contribution to someone in exchange for services.... homeshare

Homonoia Riparia

Lour.

Synonym: Adelia neriifolia Heyne ex Roth.

Family: Euphorbiaceae.

Habitat: Eastern, Central and Peninsular India, up to 700 m.

Ayurvedic: Paashaana-bheda (substitute), Kshudra Paashaana- bheda.

Siddha/Tamil: Kattu Alari.

Action: Root—diuretic, spasmolytic, antilithic. Used for urinary discharges. Leaf and stem— depurative. Leaf and fruit—used in skin diseases.

The roots gave alpha-spinasteryl acetate. The fatty acid from the fat of roots gave myristic, palmitic, stearic and oleic acids.... homonoia riparia

Honeymoon Cystitis

Urethral irritation from excess sexual activity...or as a famous French writer described it,”the plentiful rubbing together of bacons.... honeymoon cystitis

Honeysuckle

Money, Psychic Powers, Protection... honeysuckle

Hong

(Vietnamese) A young girl with a rosy complexion... hong

Honora

(Latin) Having a good name and integrity; an honorable woman Honour, Honoria, Honor, Honorata, Honoratas, Honnor, Honorina, Honorine, Honore, Honoree, Honori, Honorie, Honory, Honouri, Honourie, Honoury, Honoura, Honouria, Honoure, Honorea, Honourea... honora

Honovi

(Native American) As strong as a deer

Honovie, Honovee, Honovy, Honovey, Honovea... honovi

Honeybush Tea

Honeybush Tea is a South African tea known for its healing properties. The herb got this name due to the scent of its flowers than resembles to the one that honey has. Its taste is very similar to the one of rooibos tea, but a little sweeter and it doesn’t have any caffeine content. The main constituents of Honeybush Tea are iron, potassium, calcium, magnesium, manganese and sodium. It is also known for its antioxidant properties. How To Make Honeybush Tea Start by infusing 2 tablespoons of dried honeybush herbs in a liter of boiled water for about 20 minutes. After that, strain the Honeybush Tea and enjoy! To really maximize its health benefits, try not to add any sweetener or milk. Honeybush Tea Benefits
  • Helps fight indigestion and ease constipation.
  • Strong allied in the process of weight loss.
  • Lowers blood cholesterol levels.
  • May stimulate milk production in breastfeeding women.
  • Expectorant.
  • Helps ease insomnia.
  • Strengthens your immune system.
  • Eases menopausal symptoms.
  • Helps in the treatment of asthma and certain allergies.
Honeybush Tea Side Effects Honeybush Tea has no side effects whatsoever. Just avoid over-consumption and make sure you always consult your doctor before drinking it. Honeybush Tea, like most herbal teas, may interact with the effects of some medications. Also, if you are pregnant, try to drink honeybush tea in small amounts. All in all, Honeybush Tea is a healthy tea with slightly no side effects! Just enjoy it and make sure you enjoy its wonderful benefits!... honeybush tea

Honeysuckle Tea

Honeysuckle tea has been known in Chinese medicine as being an efficient herb for eliminating heat and accumulated toxins from the body. The honeysuckle is a climbing plant that grows in the Northern Hemisphere. It can reach up to 12 feet in length and can be recognized by its oval-shaped leaves and by its tubular shaped, yellow or white flowers. The constituents of honeysuckle are tannins, inositol, luteolin and volatile oils which are active in the flowers just before the bud opens. How To Make Honeysuckle Tea To brew Honeysuckle Tea, you need to place 1 cup of honeysuckle flowers in 1 quart of boiling water. Let the tea steep for about 10-15 minutes and enjoy! You can drink 3 cups of honeysuckle tea per day. Honeysuckle Tea Benefits
  • Helps fight bladder infections.
  • Alleviates sores and swellings of the eyes, breast and throat.
  • Honeysuckle Tea alleviates fever.
  • It is said that it inhibits the bacteria that causes salmonella, strep and tuberculosis.
  • Treats nausea and vomiting caused by hepatitis C.
  • Stops the pain caused by headaches.
Honeysuckle Tea Side Effects
  • People who suffer from chronic diarrhea caused by treatment from chronic diseases should avoid drinking Honeysuckle Tea.
  • Pregnant and breastfeeding women should not drink Honeysuckle Tea.
  • Honeysuckle Tea may increase the risk of extra bleeding during and after a surgery. Make sure you stop consuming honeysuckle tea at least 2 weeks before a scheduled surgery.
Honeysuckle Tea is a great herbal tea, that has many benefits for your health. Just make sure you don’t drink more than 3 cups per day in order to avoid its side effects.... honeysuckle tea

Hope

(English) One who has expectations through faith... hope
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