This medical term were found from 1 different sources | Health Encyclopedia


Financial protection against the health care costs arising from disease or accidental bodily injury. Such insurance usually covers all or part of the costs of treating the disease or injury. Insurance may be obtained on either an individual or a group basis.

Community Health | Health Dictionary


Health Insurance | Health Encyclopedia

The keywords of this medical terms: Health Insurance

Academic Health Science Network

(AHSN, academic health science centre, academic health science system, academic medical partnership) a regional partnership between one or more academic institutions (typically universities) and one or more health-care providers (in England, typically foundation trusts) with a twin focus on promoting economic growth in the region covered and improving the health of the population. Many AHSNs also include third-sector and industry partners and most have a role in providing education and training. The fifteen AHSNs across England were established by NHS England in 2013 and represent a national expansion of the earlier Academic Health Science Partnerships (AHSPs), which were first set up in London in 2007.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Acute Care / Acute Health Care

Care that is generally provided for a short period of time to treat a new illness or a flare-up of an existing condition. This type of care may include treatment at home, short-term hospital stays, professional care, surgery, X-rays and scans, as well as emergency medical services.... Community Health

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Community Health

Advocacy For Health

A combination of individual and social actions designed to gain political commitment, policy support, social acceptance and systems support for a particular health goal or programme. Advocacy also has a role in creating awareness in the minds of the community regarding the rights of older persons.... Community Health

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Community Health

Allied Health Personnel

Specially trained and licensed (when necessary) people in occupations that support and supplement the functions of health professionals. For the older population, such health personnel may include home health workers and nursing assistants. See also “auxiliary worker”.... Community Health

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Community Health

Allied Health Professional

a health-care professional with expert knowledge and experience in certain fields but without a medical or nursing qualification. Allied health professionals include speech and language therapists, radiographers, physiotherapists, occupational therapists, and dieticians.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Alternative And Complementary Health Care / Medicine / Therapies

Health care practices that are not currently an integral part of conventional medicine. The list of these practices changes over time as the practices and therapies are proven safe and effective and become accepted as mainstream health care practices. These unorthodox approaches to health care are not based on biomedical explanations for their effectiveness. Examples include homeopathy, herbal formulas, and use of other natural products as preventive and treatment agents.... Community Health

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Community Health

Amazing Health Benefits Of Carrots

1. Beta carotene: Carrots are a rich source of this powerful antioxidant, which, among other vital uses, can be converted into vitamin A in the body to help maintain healthy skin. 2. Digestion: Carrots increase saliva and supply essential minerals, vitamins and enzymes that aid in digestion. Eating carrots regularly may help prevent gastric ulcers and other digestive disorders. 3. Alkaline elements: Carrots are rich in alkaline elements, which purify and revitalize the blood while balancing the acid/alkaline ratio of the body. 4. Potassium: Carrots are a good source of potassium, which can help maintain healthy sodium levels in the body, thereby helping to reduce elevated blood pressure levels. 5. Dental Health: Carrots kill harmful germs in the mouth and help prevent tooth decay. 6. Wounds: Raw or grated carrots can be used to help heal wounds, cuts and inflammation. 7. Phytonutrients: Among the many beneficial phytochemicals that carrots contain is a phytonutrient called falcarinol, which may reduce the risk of colon cancer and help promote overall colon health. 8. Carotenoids: Carrots are rich in carotenoids, which our bodies can use to help regulate blood sugar. 9. Fiber: Carrots are high in soluble fiber, which may reduce cholesterol by binding the LDL form (the kind we don’t want) and increasing the HDL form (the kind our body needs) to help reduce blood clots and prevent heart disease. 10. Eyes, hair, nails and more! The nutrients in carrots can improve the health of your eyes, skin, hair, nails and more through helping to detoxify your system and build new cells! 11. Improves vision There’s some truth in the old wisdom that carrots are good for your eyes. Carrots are rich in beta-carotene, which is converted into vitamin A in the liver. Vitamin A is transformed in the retina, to rhodopsin, a purple pigment necessary for night vision. Beta-carotene has also been shown to protect against macular degeneration and senile cataracts. A study found that people who eat large amounts of beta-carotene had a 40 percent lower risk of macular degeneration than those who consumed little. 12. Helps prevent cancer Studies have shown carrots reduce the risk of lung cancer, breast cancer and colon cancer. Falcarinol is a natural pesticide produced by the carrot that protects its roots from fungal diseases. Carrots are one of the only common sources of this compound. A study showed 1/3 lower cancer risk by carrot-eating rats. 13. Slows down aging The high level of beta-carotene in carrots acts as an antioxidant to cell damage done to the body through regular metabolism. It help slows down the aging of cells. 14. Promotes healthier skin Vitamin A and antioxidants protect the skin from sun damage. Deficiencies of vitamin A cause dryness to the skin, hair and nails. Vitamin A prevents premature wrinkling, acne, dry skin, pigmentation, blemishes and uneven skin tone. 15. Helps prevent infection Carrots are known by herbalists to prevent infection. They can be used on cuts—shredded raw or boiled and mashed. 16. Promotes healthier skin (from the outside) Carrots are used as an inexpensive and very convenient facial mask. Just mix grated carrot with a bit of honey. See the full recipe here: carrot face mask. 17. Prevents heart disease Studies show that diets high in carotenoids are associated with a lower risk of heart disease. Carrots have not only beta-carotene but also alpha-carotene and lutein. The regular consumption of carrots also reduces cholesterol levels because the soluble fibers in carrots bind with bile acids. 18. Cleanses the body Vitamin A assists the liver in flushing out the toxins from the body. It reduces the bile and fat in the liver. The fiber present in carrots helps clean out the colon and hasten waste movement. 19. Protects teeth and gums It’s all in the crunch! Carrots clean your teeth and mouth. They scrape off plaque and food particles just like toothbrushes or toothpaste. Carrots stimulate gums and trigger a lot of saliva, which, being alkaline, balances out the acid-forming, cavity-forming bacteria. The minerals in carrots prevent tooth damage. 20. Prevents stroke From all the above benefits it’s no surprise that in a Harvard University study, people who ate five or more carrots a week were less likely to suffer a stroke than those who ate only one carrot a month or less.... Benefits of Vegetables, Benefits of Vegetables and Fruits

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Benefits of Vegetables, Benefits of Vegetables and Fruits

Andrographis Tea: A Drop Of Health

Andrographis Tea is well known for its bitter taste, as well as for its healthy benefits. It has proven to be an adjuvant in treating severe illness such as hepatitis, due to its high content of antioxidants. Andrographis Tea description Andrographis is originating from Asia, being used for centuries in Ayurvedic medicine. The plant is easy to grow: its propagation is by seeds, planted during spring and summer. Andrographis grows both in full sun or shade, developing vigorously in moist conditions. The herb has been proved to treat infectious diseases. This fact was discovered during the global flu epidemic of 1919, known as one of the most destructive infectious to outbreak in history, which killed millions worldwide, in many countries. Andrographis Tea is the resulting beverage from brewing the andrographis plant. It is widely known for its bitter taste as well as for its adjuvant properties against flu, depression, digestion complaints, but not only. Andrographis Tea brewing To brew Andrographis tea:
  • place 1 teaspoon of dried andrographis in a tea infuser (10 grams of fresh leaves)
  • place the infuser in a tea cup
  • cover it with 1 cup of boiling water
  • steep the tea for 10 minutes
  • drink it slowly
The resulting tea has an extreme bitter taste. Another possibility of enjoying the benefits of Andrographis tea is to intake capsules containing the plant. Andrographis Tea benefits Andrographis Tea has many proven benefits, such as:
  • Treating gastrointestinal complains
  • Treating throat infections
  • Dispelling toxins
  • Increasing biliary flow
  • Treating coughs, headaches, edema
  • Treating pain conditions, inflammation
  • Treating arthritis, rheumatism
  • Treating constipation
  • Treating pneumonia, tuberculosis, leprosy, hepatitis, herpes, diabetes, bronchitis
Andrographis Tea side effects It has been showed that Andrographis Tea should not be used by pregnant and nursing women or by children. It has been also noticed that large doses of Andrographis Tea may lead to infertility. Andrographis Tea is a healthy beverage which has the ability to strengthen the immune system, stop cancer cells from multiplying, and also render a good physical state. It can be consumed as tea or medicinal pills.... Beneficial Teas

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Beneficial Teas

Appropriate Health Technology

Methods, procedures, techniques and equipment that are scientifically valid, adapted to local needs and acceptable to those who use them and to those for whom they are used, and that can be maintained and utilized with resources the community or country can afford.... Community Health

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Community Health

Barberry Tea For Body Health

Barberry tea is well known inAsia, Europe, Africa and America due to its medicinal properties. Nowadays, it is consumed worldwide as tincture, fluid extract or capsules. Barberry tea description Barberry is a shrub growing in gray-colored and tight thorny hedges, producing yellow flowers during spring and red berries in autumn. Its roots, bark and berries have been used for more than 2,500 years for a variety of health-promoting purposes. In ancient Egypt, barberry was mixed with fennel to fight plague. Nowadays, Barberry is available in the form of capsules, fluid extract and tincture. Barberry Tea is made of the dried roots and berries of barberry. Barberry tea brewing To prepare Barberry tea: steep 1 to 2 teaspoons of dried barberry root or 1 to 2 teaspoons of whole (or crushed berries) in about 2/3 of a cup of hot water for 10 to 15 minutes. Barberry Tea can be consumed three times, daily. Barberry tea benefits Barberry tea has proven its efficiency in treating:
  • inflammation due to bacterial ear, nose and throat infection
  • bacterial and viral forms of diarrhea
  • psoriasis
  • the function of the gallbladder
  • urinary tract infection
  • heartburn
  • candida
  • epilepsy
Barberry Tea may help stabilize blood pressure and normalize heart rhythm. Also, it has been claimed that Barberry Tea may help strengthen the immune system. Barberry tea side effects Studies conducted so far showed that Barberry tea should not be used beyond seven consecutive days, in order to avoid complications on excessive use of barberry. There have been cases when Barberry tea interacted with anti-coagulants, blood pressure medication and antibiotics, causing side effects. Pregnant, nursing women, and nursing infants also should avoid drinking this tea. Barberry tea is a medicinal beverage, effective in treating respiratory and urinary tract infections, as well as hypertension, diarrhea and gallbladder disease.... Beneficial Teas

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Beneficial Teas

Basic Health Service

A network of health units providing essential health care to a population. Basic health services include communicable disease control, environmental sanitation, maintenance of records for statistical purposes, health education of the public, public health nursing and medical care.... Community Health

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Community Health

Biota Tea Health Benefits

Biota tea is a Chinese beverage, used nowadays to heal hemorrhages and other types of ailments, such as headaches, but not only. Biota tea description Biota is a slow-growing shrub or tree from the cypress family, originating from China. It is considered as one of the 50 fundamental herbs in the annals of Chinese herbalism. Biota has a central stem, scale-like leaves and little inconspicuous flowers. The biota leaves are small, and triangular-shaped, with a grayish-green color and a fragrant odor. The seeds are the eatable parts of this plant. Both the leaves and the seeds are used for medicinal purposes. Biota trees and shrubs have ornamental uses as they make beautiful natural fences and hedges. Also, they are good as wind breakers and as a good ground cover for a variety of wildlife. Parts from these plants make useful additions as culinary ingredients and medicinal herbs. These vegetative substances became part of the cosmetic industry, being added to lotions, shampoos and conditioners. Biota tea is the beverage resulting from brewing the abovementioned plant. Biota tea brewing To prepare Biota tea, add the dried leaves in the boiling water and stir the mixture. Strain it and drink it slowly. Biota tea benefits Biota tea has been successfully used to:
  • fight headaches
  • fight asthma, cough and bronchitis
  • fight fever
  • fight bacteria and viruses
  • heal wounds, treat burns, as well as improve the growth of hair, when applied topically
  • help in the treatment of excessive menstruation
  • fight hemorrhages
  • ease arthritic pain
  • help in the treatment of premature baldness
  • soothe and calm the nerves
  • fight constipation among the elderly
Biota tea side effects Pregnant or nursing women should not intake Biota tea. Biota tea is a healthy beverage able to fight against bacteria, viruses or even prevent baldness, if applied topically. It also proved its efficiency in dealing with arthritic pains.... Beneficial Teas

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Beneficial Teas

Blessed Thistle Tea Is Good For Health

Blessed Thistle tea is a medicinal beverage useful in treating a large array of ailments such as constipation, but not only. Blessed Thistle Tea description Blessed thistle was at first used in Ayurvedic medicine in India and Bhutan. It was introduced in Europe in the 1500s where it gained the title “blessed” for its use in treating plague. The blessed thistle is a weed with prickly leaves and yellow flowers surrounded by purple spikes, found mostly in North Africa, Western Asia and Southern Europe. The leaves, the flowers and the stem are used to prepare Blessed thistle tea. Blessed Thistle Tea brewing Blessed thistle tea can be prepared in the following way: douse about 1 to 3 dried blessed thistle herb in a cup of boiled water for 5 to 15 minutes. It can then be drunk three times a day before meals. Blessed Thistle Tea benefits Blessed Thistle tea has been successfully used to:
  • treat digestive problems, like gas, constipation and stomach upset
  • improve appetite
  • detoxify the body
  • support liver and gallbladder
  • stimulate menstrual flow
Blessed Thistle Tea side effects High doses of Blessed thistle tea can cause:
  • stomach irritation and vomiting
  • liver disease
  • gastrointestinal and liver problems and esophageal or nasal cancer
Blessed Thistle tea is a natural remedy to detoxify the body and thus, to enhance the immunity and support the normal functioning of the human organs.... Beneficial Teas

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Beneficial Teas

Blue Flag Tea For A Healthy Liver

Blue Flag tea has a long history in treating liver ailments: Native American tribes used to consume it for its hepatic properties. Blue Flag Tea description Blue flag is a perennial herb also known as the liver lily and the fleur-de-lis, native to North America. It has smooth spear-shaped leaves topped with a light bluish-purple flower. Blue flag plants grow in bunches and bloom during late June and early July. Blue Flag tea is the resulting beverage from brewing the abovementioned plant. Blue Flag Tea brewing To prepare Blue Flag tea, place 1 teaspoon of the dried roots in a cup of boiling water. Let it steep for 10 minutes. The tea can be consumed three times a day. Blue Flag Tea benefits Blue Flag has been successfully used to:
  • stimulate the liver and thus, it is helpful in the treatment of jaundice and hepatitis
  • fight impurities of the blood
  • fight against skin problems like acne and psoriasis
  • detoxify the body by increasing the production of bile, as well as frequency of urination
  • help treat indigestion
  • treat rheumatism
  • help in weight loss
Blue Flag tea can be an effective laxative, diuretic and as an emetic. It is also effective in reducing inflammation of the skin, decreasing the symptoms of skin infections. It is also good in treating burns, bruises and wounds. Blue Flag Tea side effects Until further studies are conducted, pregnant and nursing women should avoid intaking this type of tea. Blue Flag tea has proven its efficiency in dealing with severe liver-related diseases. Also, applied topically, it can treat skin problems, but not only.... Beneficial Teas

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Beneficial Teas

Burdock Tea: A Health Remedy

Nowadays, burdock tea is largely consumed all over the world. It is successfully used to improve appetite and digestion, but not only. Burdock Tea description Burdock is a plant from the same family as the sunflower, which can grow up to five feet high. In the summer, the seeds are cropped and the roots are dug up. In traditional Chinese medicine, but not only, it is combined with other herbs to treat upper-respiratory tract infections. Burdock root is known to be a blood purifier, clearing several problems from the body’s systems. Burdock can be taken as infusion, decoction, extract, tincture and ointment. Burdock tea is the resulting beverage from brewing the abovementioned plant. Burdock Tea brewing To prepare Burdock tea:
  • Pour boiling water over the desired amount of herbs.
  • Cover and let them steep 10 to 20 minutes.
  • Strain off the herbs using a tea strainer or coffee filter.
It is essential to use good quality water and it is recommended to drink it slowly. Burdock Tea benefits Burdock tea has been successfully used to:
  • soothe the skin and gastrointestinal tract
  • improve appetite and digestion
  • reduce liver damage
  • mildly lower blood sugar (hypoglycemic effect)
  • purify the blood
  • fight the effects of rheumatism
  • treat some kidney disorders
  • counter bronchial cough and other irritations of the pulmonary tract
Burdock Tea side effects Burdock tea is not advised to be consumed by pregnant or nursing women. Burdock tea is a medicinal remedy for a large array of diseases. Studies have revealed its efficiency in dealing with liver and kidney ailments, as well as its soothing effects for the skin.... Beneficial Teas

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Beneficial Teas

Catastrophic Health Insurance

Health insurance which provides protection against the high cost of treating severe or lengthy illnesses or disabilities. Generally such policies cover all, or a specified percentage of medical expenses above an amount that is the responsibility of another insurance policy, up to a maximum limit of liability.... Community Health

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Community Health

Cherry Tea - Ingredients And Health Benefits

Cherry Tea is a dark red beverage with an intense fruity flavour whose colour resembles ripe cherries and it can be enjoyed hot or cold. The delightful cherry scent is often blended with other aromas which results in savory and exotic mixtures. Cherry Tea Brewing Regarding cherry tea, the brewing time can vary, but the standard procedure entails a five-minute steeping process. Consequently, you will rejoice in the lovely cherry aroma of your amazingly enticing and enjoyable beverage. Health Benefits of Cherry Tea Cherry Tea is a beneficial fruity beverage with numerous health benefits. Cherry fruits are renowned for their delightfully refreshing flavour and delicious sweet taste, but they are also packed with nutrients, vitamins and minerals that essentially contribute to our wellbeing. These fruits are rich in antioxidants which protect our body from free radicals and thus lower the risk of cancer and various neurological diseases, but they also delay the aging process. Cherries also contain melatonin, an antioxidant with calming effects on the brain, which helps releave irritability, insomnia and headaches, thus improving the quality of sleep. The countless health benefits of cherry tea also include anti-inflammatory properties and could potentially prove effective against pain caused by diseases or injuries. Cherry fruits are low in calories, but they contain vitamin C which unfortunately entices you to consume approximately 180 calories more a day. This could possibly result in the accumulation of some extra weight if consumed for large periods of time. Therefore, adjust your dietary plan accordingly. Side effects of Cherry Tea Cherry Tea contains extracts from the cherries which can induce an allergic reaction to people sensitive to these fruits, but it is generally side-effect-free. You can enjoy a savory cup of cherry tea at any given time of the day in order to boost your overall energy level and metabolism. The full flavour of succulent fresh cherries along with a delectable and lingering aftertaste will enchant you. Cherry tea is without doubt a delightful juicy drink with an exotic character.... Beneficial Teas

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Beneficial Teas

Child Health

Paediatrics is the branch of medicine which deals with diseases of children, but many paediatricians have a wider role, being employed largely outside acute hospitals and dealing with child health in general.

History Child health services were originally designed, before the NHS came into being, to ?nd or prevent physical illness by regular inspections. In the UK these were carried out by clinical medical o?cers (CMOs) working in infant welfare clinics (later, child health clinics) set up to ?ll the gap between general practice and hospital care. The services expanded greatly from the mid 1970s; ‘inspections’ have evolved into a regular screening and surveillance system by general practitioners and health visitors, while CMOs have mostly been replaced by consultant paediatricians in community child health (CPCCH).

Screening Screening begins at birth, when every baby is examined for congenital conditions such as dislocated hips, heart malformations, cataract and undescended testicles. Blood is taken to ?nd those babies with potentially brain-damaging conditions such as HYPOTHYROIDISM and PHENYLKETONURIA. Some NHS trusts screen for the life-threatening disease CYSTIC FIBROSIS, although in future it is more likely that ?nding this disease will be part of prenatal screening, along with DOWN’S (DOWN) SYNDROME and SPINA BIFIDA. A programme to detect hearing impairment in newborn babies has been piloted from 2001 in selected districts to ?nd out whether it would be a useful addition to the national screening programme. Children from ethnic groups at risk of inherited abnormalities of HAEMOGLOBIN (sickle cell disease; thalassaemia – see under ANAEMIA) have blood tested at some time between birth and six months of age.

Illness prevention At two months, GPs screen babies again for these abnormalities and start the process of primary IMMUNISATION. The routine immunisation programme has been dramatically successful in preventing illness, handicap and deaths: as such it is the cornerstone of the public health aspect of child health, with more potential vaccines being made available every year. Currently, infants are immunised against pertussis (see WHOOPING COUGH), DIPHTHERIA, TETANUS, POLIOMYELITIS, haemophilus (a cause of MENINGITIS, SEPTICAEMIA, ARTHRITIS and epiglottitis) and meningococcus C (SEPTICAEMIA and meningitis – see NEISSERIACEAE) at two, three and four months. Selected children from high-risk groups are o?ered BCG VACCINE against tuberculosis and hepatitis vaccine. At about 13 months all are o?ered MMR VACCINE (measles, mumps and rubella) and there are pre-school entry ‘boosters’ of diphtheria, tetanus, polio, meningococcus C and MMR. Pneumococcal vaccine is available for particular cases but is not yet part of the routine schedule.

Health promotion and education Throughout the UK, parents are given their child’s personal health record to keep with them. It contains advice on health promotion, including immunisation, developmental milestones (when did he or she ?rst smile, sit up, walk and so on), and graphs – called centile charts – on which to record height, weight and head circumference. There is space for midwives, doctors, practice nurses, health visitors and parents to make notes about the child.

Throughout at least the ?rst year of life, both parents and health-care providers set great store by regular weighing, designed to pick up children who are ‘failing to thrive’. Measuring length is not quite so easy, but height measurements are recommended from about two or three years of age in order to detect children with disorders such as growth-hormone de?ciency, malabsorption (e.g. COELIAC DISEASE) and psychosocial dwar?sm (see below).

All babies have their head circumference measured at birth, and again at the eight-week check. A too rapidly growing head implies that the infant might have HYDROCEPHALUS – excess ?uid in the hollow spaces within the brain. A too slowly growing head may mean failure of brain growth, which may go hand in hand with physically or intellectually delayed development.

At about eight months, babies receive a surveillance examination, usually by a health visitor. Parents are asked if they have any concerns about their child’s hearing, vision or physical ability. The examiner conducts a screening test for hearing impairment – the so-called distraction test; he or she stands behind the infant, who is on the mother’s lap, and activates a standardised sound at a set distance from each ear, noting whether or not the child turns his or her head or eyes towards the sound. If the child shows no reaction, the test is repeated a few weeks later; if still negative then referral is made to an audiologist for more formal testing.

The doctor or health visitor will also go through the child’s developmental progress (see above) noting any signi?cant deviation from normal which merits more detailed examination. Doctors are also recommended to examine infants developmentally at some time between 18 and 24 months. At this time they will be looking particularly for late walking or failure to develop appropriate language skills.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Child Health Clinic

(in Britain) a special clinic for the routine care of infants and preschool children, formerly known as a child welfare centre. Sometimes these clinics are staffed by doctors, *health visitors, and clinic nurses; the children attending them are drawn from the neighbourhood around the clinic. Alternatively, general practitioners may run their own child health clinic on a regular basis, with health visitors and other staff in attendance; it is unusual for children not registered with the practice to attend such clinics. The service provides screening tests for such conditions as *congenital dislocation of the hip, suppressed squint (see cover test), and impaired speech and/or hearing. The *Guthrie test may also be performed if this has not been done before the baby leaves hospital. The staff of child health clinics also educate mothers (especially those having their first child) in feeding techniques and hygiene and see that children receive the recommended immunizations against infectious diseases. They also ensure that the families of children with disabilities receive maximum support from health and social services and that such children achieve their maximum potential in the preschool period. See also community paediatrician.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Co-insurance

A cost-sharing requirement under a health insurance policy. It provides that the insured party will assume a portion or percentage of the costs of covered services.... Community Health

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Community Health

Coinsurance

n. a form of private medical insurance policy in which the patient or other beneficiary shares the costs of treatment for injury or disease with the insurance company. Coinsurance policies are very common in the USA.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Commercial Insurance

In health care, usually any insurance for hospital or medical care which has the objective of making a profit.... Community Health

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Community Health

Commission For Health Improvement

See HEALTHCARE COMMISSION.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Community Action For Health

Collective efforts by communities which are directed towards increasing community control over the determinants of health and thereby improving health.... Community Health

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Community Health

Community Health

The combination of sciences, skills and beliefs directed towards the maintenance and improvement of the health of all the people through collective or social actions. The programmes, services and institutions involved emphasize the prevention of disease and the health needs of the population as a whole. Community health activities change with changing technology and social values, but the goals remain the same.... Community Health

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Community Health

Community Health

Community Health

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... Community Health

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Community Health

preventive services, mainly outside the hospital, involving the surveillance of special groups of the population, such as preschool and school children, women, and the elderly, by means of routine clinical assessment and *screening tests. Routine preventive measures, such as immunization, family planning, and dietary advice, are offered in special clinics staffed by *community nurses, clinical medical officers, and senior clinical medical officers and sometimes by *community paediatricians. When somebody is identified as having an illness, he (or she) is referred for treatment to a *general practitioner or hospital as appropriate. See also child health clinic; school health service.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Community Health Care

Includes health services and integrates social care. It promotes self care, independence and family support networks.... Community Health

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Community Health

Community Health Centre

An ambulatory health care programme, usually serving a catchment area which has scarce or non-existent health services or a population with special health needs. These centres attempt to coordinate federal, state and local resources in a single organization capable of delivering both health and related social services to a defined population.... Community Health

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Community Health

Community Health Information Network (chin)

An integrated collection of computer and telecommunication capabilities that permit multiple providers, payers, employers and related health care entities within a geographic area to share and communicate client, clinical and payment information.... Community Health

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Community Health

Community Health Needs Assessment

The ongoing process of evaluating the health needs of a community. Usually facilitates prioritization of needs and a strategy to address them.... Community Health

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Community Health

Community Health Services

Usually managed by NHS trusts, these are a complex variety of services provided to people outside hospital settings. The key parts are the services delivered by district nurses, health visitors and therapists – for example, physiotherapists and speech therapists.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Community Health Worker

A trained health worker who works with other health and development workers as a team. The community health worker provides the first contact between the individual and the health system. The types of community health worker vary between countries and communities according to their needs and the resources available to meet them. In many societies, these workers come from and are chosen by the community in which they work. In some countries they work as volunteers; normally those who work part-time or full-time are rewarded, in cash or in kind, by the community and the formal health services.... Community Health

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Community Health

Community Mental Health Centre

An entity which provides comprehensive mental health services (principally ambulatory), primarily to individuals residing or employed in a defined catchment area.... Community Health

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Community Health

Community Mental Health Team

(CMHT) a multidisciplinary team consisting of psychiatrists, psychiatric nurses, psychologists, social workers, and occupational therapists who treat patients with severe mental illness in the community.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Community Mental Health Teams

Intended as a key part of the NHS’s local comprehensive mental health services serving populations of around 50,000, these multidisciplinary, multi-agency teams have been less e?ective than expected, in part due to varying modes of operation in di?erent districts. Some experts argue that the services they provide – for example, crisis intervention, liaison with primary care services and continuing care for long-term clients – could be delivered more e?ectively by several specialist teams rather than a single, large generic one comprising psychiatrists, psychologists, community mental health nurses, occupational therapists, support and (sometimes) social workers.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Comprehensive Health Care

Provision of a complete range of health services, from diagnosis to rehabilitation.... Community Health

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Community Health

Comprehensive Health System

A health system that includes all the elements required to meet all the health needs of the population.... Community Health

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Community Health

Consultant In Health Protection

(CHP) a consultant within *Public Health England who is responsible for the surveillance, prevention, and control of communicable disease and noncommunicable environmental exposures. While no longer the preferred term, the older form Consultant in Communicable Disease Control (CCDC) is still sometimes used. See also public health consultant.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Coordination Within The Health Sector

Organized collaboration, as necessary, among those providing the services at the same and different levels of the health system in order to make the most efficient use of resources, as well as within and among the various categories of health workers following agreement on the division of labour. It also means coordination of programmes or services to avoid duplication or inconsistency.... Community Health

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Community Health

Council For Healthcare Regulatory Excellence

In 2002 the UK government set up this new statutory council with the aim of improving consistency of action across the eight existing regulatory bodies for professional sta? involved in the provision of various aspects of health care. These bodies are: General Medical Council; General Dental Council; General Optical Council; Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain; General Chiropractic Council; General Osteopathic Council; Health Professions Council; and Nursing and Midwifery Council.

The new Council for Healthcare Regulatory Excellence will help to promote the interests of patients and to improve co-operation between the existing regulatory bodies – providing, in e?ect, a quality-control mechanism for their activities. The government and relevant professions will nominate individuals for this overarching council. The new council will not have the authority to intervene in the determination by the eight regulatory bodies of individual ?tness-to-practise cases unless these concern complaints about maladministration.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Country Health Programming

A managerial process dealing directly with the selection of priority health problems, specification of operational objectives and translation of these into activities, resource needs and organization.... Community Health

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Community Health

Demand (for Health Services)

Willingness and/or ability to seek, use and, in some settings, pay for services. Sometimes further subdivided into expressed demand (equated with use) and potential demand or need.... Community Health

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Community Health

Department Of Health And Human Services

(HHS) the major US government agency providing health care. The department was created in 1953 and assumed its current name in 1980. HHS administers more than 300 health and health-related programmes and services, including *Medicare and *Medicaid. Other activities include research, immunization services, and providing financial assistance for low-income families. Almost a quarter of federal spending occurs through HHS.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Department Of Health And Social Care

(DHSC) (in Britain) a department of central government that supports the Secretary of State for Health and Social Care in meeting his or her obligations, which include the *National Health Service, the promotion and protection of the health of the nation, and social care, including some oversight of personal social services provided by local authorities. The department is staffed by civil servants, including some health professionals. Following the reforms of the Health and Social Care Act 2012, the Department no longer has direct control of the NHS, which has passed to *NHS England. The name of the department was expanded from ‘Department of Health’ in 2018. Equivalent departments support the ministers responsible for health services in Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland.

DHSC section of the website: provides information on a wide range of public health issues... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Director Of Public Health

(DPH) a senior public health consultant or specialist in a local authority. Responsibilities include advising on the health needs of the local population. See also public health consultant; public health specialist.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

E-health

An emerging field in the intersection of medical informatics, public health and business, referring to health services and information delivered or enhanced through the Internet and related technologies.... Community Health

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Community Health

Empowerment For Health

A process through which people gain greater control over decisions and actions affecting their lives. It is the process by which disadvantaged individuals or groups acquire the knowledge and skills needed to assert their rights.... Community Health

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Community Health

Environment And Health

Environment and Health concerns those aspects of human health, including quality of life, that are determined by physical, biological, social and psychosocial factors in the environment. The promotion of good health requires not only public policies which support health, but also the creation of supportive environments in which living and working conditions are safe, stimulating and enjoyable.

Health has driven much of environmental policy since the work of Edwin Chadwick in the early 1840s. The ?rst British public-health act was introduced in 1848 to improve housing and sanitation with subsequent provision of puri?ed water, clean milk, food hygiene regulations, vaccinations and antibiotics. In the 21st century there are now many additional environmental factors that must be monitored, researched and controlled if risks to human health are to be well managed and the impact on human morbidity and mortality reduced.

Environmental impacts on health include:

noise

air pollution

water pollution

dust •odours

contaminated ground

loss of amenities

vermin

vibration

animal diseases

Environmental risk factors Many of the major determinants of health, disease and death are environmental risk factors. Some are natural hazards; others are generated by human activities. They may be directly harmful, as in the examples of exposure to toxic chemicals at work, pesticides, or air pollution from road transport, or to radon gas penetrating domestic properties. Environmental factors may also alter people’s susceptibility to disease: for example, the availability of su?cient food. In addition, they may operate by making unhealthy choices more likely, such as the availability and a?ord-ability of junk foods, alcohol, illegal drugs or tobacco.

Populations at risk Children are among the populations most sensitive to environmental health hazards. Their routine exposure to toxic chemicals in homes and communities can put their health at risk. Central to the ability to protect communities and families is the right of people to know about toxic substances. For many, the only source of environmental information is media reporting, which often leaves the public confused and frustrated. To bene?t from public access to information, increasingly via the Internet, people need basic environmental and health information, resources for interpreting, understanding and evaluating health risks, and familiarity with strategies for prevention or reduction of risk.

Risk assessment Environmental health experts rely on the principles of environmental toxicology and risk assessment to evaluate the environment and the potential effects on individual and community health. Key actions include:

identifying sources and routes of environmental exposure and recommending methods of reducing environmental health risks, such as exposure to heavy metals, solvents, pesticides, dioxins, etc.

assessing the risks of exposure-related health hazards.

alerting health professionals, the public, and the media to the levels of risk for particular potential hazards and the reasons for interventions.

ensuring that doctors and scientists explain the results of environmental monitoring studies – for example, the results of water ?uoridation in the UK to improve dental health.

National policies In the United Kingdom in 1996, an important step in linking environment and health was taken by a government-initiated joint consultation by the Departments of Health and Environment about adding ‘environment’ as a key area within the Health of the Nation strategy. The ?rst UK Minister of State for Public Health was appointed in 1997 with responsibilities for health promotion and public-health issues, both generally and within the NHS. These responsibilities include the implementation of the Health of the Nation strategy and its successor, Our Healthy Nation. The aim is to raise the priority given to human health throughout government departments, and to make health and environmental impact assessment a routine part of the making, implementing and assessing the impact of policies.

Global environmental risks The scope of many environmental threats to human health are international and cannot be regulated e?ectively on a local, regional or even national basis. One example is the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident, which led to a major release of radiation, the effects of which were felt in many countries. Some international action has already been taken to tackle global environmental problems, but governments should routinely measure the overall impacts of development on people and their environments and link with industry to reduce damage to the environment. For instance, the effects of global warming and pollution on health should be assessed within an ecological framework if communities are to respond e?ectively to potential new global threats to the environment.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Environmental Health Officer

A local-authority health o?cial specially quali?ed in aspects of environmental health such as clean air, food hygiene, housing, pollution, sanitation and water supplies. He or she is responsible for running the authority’s environmental health department and, when epidemiological advice is needed, the relevant public-health physician acts in a consultative capacity (see EPIDEMIOLOGY; PUBLIC HEALTH).... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Environmental Health Officer

(EHO) a person, employed by a local authority, with special training in such aspects of environmental health as housing, pollution, and food safety (formerly known as a Public Health Inspector). EHOs work closely with other professionals within the local authority and with other agencies, including *Public Health England.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Faculty Of Public Health

(FPH) a joint faculty of the three Royal Colleges of Physicians of the United Kingdom and the standard setting body for specialists in public health in the UK. It aims to promote public health, develop the public health workforce, and act as an authoritative body offering consultation and advocacy on matters concerning public health. It assesses public health trainees and makes recommendations for inclusion on the GMC specialist register and UK voluntary register for public health professionals.

The FPH website... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

General Health Questionnaire

(GHQ) a reliable screening tool published in 1978 for identifying minor psychiatric disorders, still frequently used for research in the general population. The 28-question version (GHQ28) is most commonly used, but the GHQ is available in lengths from 12 to 60 questions.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

General Liability Insurance

Insurance which covers the risk of loss for most accidents and injuries to third parties (the insured and its employees are not covered) which arise from the actions or negligence of the insured, and for which the insured may have legal liability, except those injuries directly related to the provision of professional health care services (the latter risks are covered by professional liability insurance).... Community Health

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Community Health

Green Health Cup

Feed into an electric juicer leaves of any one kind of leaf (Mint, Alfalfa, etc). For Green Multicup juice any number of different leaves: Alfalfa, Chard, Dandelion, Carrots, Parsley, Beet Greens, Filaree, Spinach, Celery, Mint, Kale. Discard stems.

Green drinks are important sources of chlorophyll, vitamins and minerals and are regarded as preventive medicine. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

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Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

Gyokuro Tea Health Benefits

Gyokuro tea is said to be the finest type of green tea. It is largely consumed for its health properties, but also for its unique taste. Its ingredients balance the diet in a harmonious way. Gyokuro tea description Gyokuro tea, or in translation “Jewel Dew”, is a fine type of green tea. It has a deep green colour and a rich seaweed and mellow taste flavor. Itscomponentsare theanine, caffeine, tannin and vitamin C. Theanine provides the tea’s flavor, caffeine its bitterness, and tannin its astringency. Gyokuro tea’s high quality and price are related to the unusual growing techniques. The tea is made only with the earliest leaf buds of the April/May harvest. The aforementioned tea is grown under shade cover for 20 days before harvesting begins. It is considered the best of the Japanese teas and offers consumers a refreshing experience. How to prepare Gyokuro tea Gyokuro tea is advisable to be drunk alone, without mixing it with milk or sugar. Occasionally, one can only serve it with a piece of dark chocolate. It seems that its leaves can be eaten, being soft and healthy.
  • Use good quality water to prepare a good Gyokuro tea
  • The optimal brewing temperature is between 122 F and 140 F degrees.
  • First, preheat the cups or the teapot, because pouring the moderately warm tea into a cold cup changes its temperature.
  • Pour some of the boiled water into the tea kettle and wait one or two minutes.
  • Add the leaves and the remaining water.
  • Use 2 table spoons of tea to approx. 4-5 ounces of water.
  • Brewing time is between two and three minutes. While brewing, don’t mix, stir or shake the tea. Try to leave enough room for the leaves to expand.
Gyokuro tea benefits Due to its high content of antioxidants, Gyokuro tea reduces the risk of cancer. It can fight the free radicals responsible for the growth of tumors. This type of tea has a large contribution in making cells less likely to be affected by mutations. There have been instances in which it helped to cell recovery. Gyokuro tea can be successfully used to:
  • stimulate the metabolism
  • burn off  calories
  • lower cholesterol
  • protect against various cardiovascular diseases
  • soothe and relax the mind
  • enhance cognition and alertness
  • improve concentration
  • keep one energetic
  • prevent dental plaque, bacterial infections and dental decay
  • freshen your breathe
  • protect against bacteria
Gyokuro tea side effects In case of large intakes of Gyokuro tea, insomnia may appear, especially to consumers already suffering from a sleep pattern disorder. Agitation and anxiety are other side effects caused by the content of caffeine. Children, people with heart medical problems and pregnant women are normally told to avoid Gyokuro tea or to drink it in limited quantities. Gyokuro tea contains a great quantity of antioxidants and caffeine that better people’s daily activities by enhancing their state of mind and well-being.  ... Beneficial Teas

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Beneficial Teas

Hazard (health)

A factor or exposure that may adversely affect health.... Community Health

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Community Health

Health

The state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. Health has many dimensions (anatomical, physiological and mental) and is largely culturally defined.... Community Health

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Community Health

Health

The state of health implies much more than freedom from disease, and good health may be de?ned as the attainment and maintenance of the highest state of mental and bodily vigour of which any given individual is capable. Environment, including living and working conditions, plays an important part in determining a person’s health. The UK government is now placing much greater emphasis on health promotion and the prevention of disease, and has published national targets for reducing the incidence of some major diseases. The 1978 World Health Organisation statement declares that primary care should ‘be made universally accessible to individuals and families in the community, by means acceptable to them, through their full participation, and at the cost that the community and country can a?ord to maintain in the spirit of self-reliance . . . [and] addresses the main health problems in the community, providing promotive, preventative, curative and rehabilitative services accordingly’. Factors affecting access to health include ?nance, ideology, and education. (See ENVIRONMENT AND HEALTH; PUBLIC HEALTH.)... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Health

At its simplest, the absence of physical and mental disease. A wider concept promoted by the World Health Organization is that all people should have the opportunity to fulfil their genetic potential. This includes the ability to develop without the impediments of poor nutrition, environmental contamination, or infectious diseases.

(See diet and disease; health hazards.)... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Health

n. according to the official definition of the World Health Organization, a state of complete physical, mental, and social wellbeing, not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. Others question whether defining it as an ideal state truly expresses either its practical dynamics or its philosophical complexity.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Health And Safety Executive

(HSE) (in Britain) a statutory body responsible for health and safety in the workplace (including factories, offices, and farms). See also COSHH.

HSE website: provides guidance on a wide range of health and safety topics... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Health And Safety Executive (hse)

The statutory body in Britain responsible for the health and safety of workers. The address of the HSE can be found in APPENDIX 7: STATUTORY ORGANISATIONS.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Health And Social Care Information Centre

(HSCIC) formerly, an executive nondepartmental public body set up in April 2013 to collect, analyse, and publish UK national health data and supply IT systems and services to health-care providers nationwide. It was rebranded as *NHS Digital in August 2016.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Health And Wellbeing Board

(HWB) a statutory local authority committee that aims to improve integration between local health care, social care, and other public service providers. HWBs (of which there are over 130) also have a responsibility to reduce health inequalities and produce a local joint strategic needs assessment to inform commissioning of local services. Each upper-tier local authority is obliged under the Health and Social Care Act 2012 to have an HWB, whose membership must include: an elected local representative; the local *Directors of Public Health, adult social services, and children’s social services; and representatives from the local *Healthwatch, each local *clinical commissioning group, and *NHS England.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Health Authority

see National Health Service.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Health Behaviour

Any activity undertaken by an individual, regardless of actual or perceived health status, for the purpose of promoting, protecting or maintaining health, whether or not such behaviour is objectively effective towards that end.... Community Health

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Community Health

Health Board

a health authority in Wales (since 2003), Scotland, and Northern Ireland. See National Health Service.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Health Care

Services provided to individuals or communities by health service providers for the purpose of promoting, maintaining, monitoring or restoring health.... Community Health

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Community Health

Health Care

see primary care; secondary care; tertiary care.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Health Care Delivery System

See “health system”.... Community Health

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Community Health

Health Care Institution / Facility

Any establishment that is engaged in direct patient care on site.... Community Health

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Community Health

Health Care Team

A group comprising a variety of professionals (medical practitioners, nurses, physical and occupational therapists, social workers, pharmacists, spiritual counsellors), as well as family members, who are involved in providing coordinated and comprehensive care. There are three types of health care team, defined by the degree of interaction among members and the sharing of responsibility for care:... Community Health

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Community Health

Health Care Technology Assessment (hcta)

The systematic evaluation of properties, effects and/or impacts of health care technology. It may address the direct, intended consequences of technologies as well as their indirect, unintended consequences.... Community Health

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Community Health

Health Centre

(in Britain) a building, usually owned or leased by a health authority, that houses personnel and/or services from one or more sections of the *National Health Service (e.g. *general practitioners, *district nurses, dentists, and *child health clinics. Services provided by local authorities, such as social services, may also operate from such a centre. A GP-led health centre (polyclinic) is one where a greater range of health services are available compared to conventional GP practices. They offer extended opening hours and other health services, such as ophthalmology and dentistry, as well as diagnostics, outpatient appointments, urgent care, and community services, such as community mental health care, community nursing, and management of long-term conditions. The main aim is to move more services into the community, thus making them easier to access for patients. Various models have been proposed for polyclinics, ranging from large premises housing many separate GP practices to more extensive facilities with additional services available. See also children’s centre.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Health Centre

A centre that may carry out promotive, protective, preventive, diagnostic, curative and rehabilitative health care activities for ambulant people.... Community Health

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Community Health

Health Centre

An imprecise term that may refer to a group of doctors and supporting sta? operating from one building owned or leased by the doctors, or to a building owned or leased by a health authority that contains sta? or services from one or more sections of the National Health Service.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Health Centre

A building owned by a local authority and leased to general practitioners and other healthcare professionals as premises for their work.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Health Communication Strategy

A communication strategy to inform the public or communities about health issues with the objective of reducing health risks and improving health status.... Community Health

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Community Health

Health Databases

The centralised collection and storage of information about the health of individuals. Recent advances in GENETICS have raised concerns about the potential for abuse of all health databases, whether maintained for scienti?c research – which has long used them – or for government or community health planning, or by groups of professionals (or individuals) to help in the treatment of patients. The public is concerned about whether their rights to privacy and con?dentiality are threatened by databases and whether information about them could be disclosed and misused.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Health Development

The process of continuous, progressive improvement of the health status of individuals and groups in a population.... Community Health

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Community Health

Health Development Agency (hda)

Appointed by the UK government to help improve the NHS in England (Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland have similar bodies), HDA replaced the long-established Health Education Authority in April 2000. The agency supports government priorities to improve public health and to tackle health inequalities. Among its key functions are:

Maintaining an up-to-date evidence base of ‘what works’ in public health and health improvements.

Providing useful information to health practitioners.

Commissioning research to remedy the gaps in the evidence base for medical practice.

Improving health promotion and advising on the standards for (and implementation of) public-health activities.

(See APPENDIX 7: STATUTORY ORGANISATIONS.)... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Health Education

methods used to inform people (either individually or collectively) and persuade and enable them to adopt lifestyles that the educators believe will improve health and to reject habits regarded as harmful to health. The term is also used in a broader sense to include instruction about bodily function, etc., so that the public is better informed about health issues. All children receive health education at school, often as part of a personal, social, and health education (PSHE) programme. See also health promotion.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Health Education

Constructed communication of knowledge to improve health literacy and improve skills in order to advance individual and community health.... Community Health

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Community Health

Health Education

The process of educating the public to adopt a healthy lifestyle and abandon dangerous or unhealthy behaviour. With the rising cost of health care and the increasing amount of illness and injury resulting from preventable causes, health professionals, governments and the World Health Organisation are strongly supporting more and better health education for everyone from schoolchildren to the elderly. Information on all aspects of health education in the United Kingdom can be obtained from

the HEALTH DEVELOPMENT AGENCY (HDA) (see also APPENDIX 7: STATUTORY ORGANISATIONS).... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Health Education England

(HEE) a *special health authority of the NHS responsible for leading education and training for the whole health-care and public health workforce. It was established following the Health and Social Care Act 2012. See also local education and training boards.

HEE website... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Health Expectancy

A population-based measure of the proportion of the expected life span estimated to be healthful and fulfilling, or free of illness, disease and disability.... Community Health

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Community Health

Health Food

A term applied to any food products thought to promote health.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Health Gain

A measure of improved health outcome following an intervention.... Community Health

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Community Health

Health Goal

An ultimate desired state of health towards which actions and resources are directed.... Community Health

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Community Health

Health Hazards

Envir-injury); hazards associated with domestic and social life; tobacco-smoking and alcohol; and global environmental hazards (see pollution; radiation hazards; sunlight, adverse effects of).... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Health Impact Assessment

(HIA) a systematic process that generally uses existing scientific literature and local geographic and demographic knowledge to judge the potential impact of a project or policy on the health of a population. HIAs are used to assess the likely health impact of many different types of projects or policies, from large construction projects to taxation policies.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Health Impact Assessment

This is a structured, multi-disciplinary process for assessing and improving the health consequences of projects and policies in the non-health sector. It combines a range of qualitative and quantitative evidence in preparing conclusions. Applications of the assessments include appraisal of national policies, local urban planning, and the progress of transport, water and agricultural projects.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Health Indicator / Index

A characteristic of an individual, population or environment which is subjected to measurement and can be used to describe one or more aspects of the health of an individual or population (quality, quantity and time). A health index comprises a number of indicators.... Community Health

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Community Health

Health Inequalities

differences in health-related *variables (e.g. life expectancy, all-age all-cause mortality, breast cancer incidence) between population groups (often defined by socio-economic group, sex, age, ethnic group, place of birth, place of residence, and income). Health inequalities between groups arise as a result of differences in constitutional factors (e.g. age, sex, ethnic group), educational attainment, health-related behaviour (e.g. smoking, diet) and access to services. Typically, socio-economic deprivation is associated with poorer health outcomes. Recent government policy has sought to reduce gaps in health outcomes between population groups, particularly those related to socio-economic group and income.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Health Information System

The generation and the use of appropriate health information to support decision-making, health care delivery and management of health services at national and subnational level.... Community Health

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Community Health

Health Insurance

Financial protection against the health care costs arising from disease or accidental bodily injury. Such insurance usually covers all or part of the costs of treating the disease or injury. Insurance may be obtained on either an individual or a group basis.... Community Health

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Community Health

Health Literacy

The cognitive skills and motivation of an individual to gain access to, and use information to promote and maintain good health.... Community Health

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Community Health

Health Maintenance Organization

(HMO) in the USA, a type of prepaid group medical practice with a defined and restricted patient population. Each enrolled patient pays a fixed fee regardless of the amount of physician services used. The HMO physicians assume responsibility for the health care of the enrolled members and provide a wide range of inpatient and outpatient services.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Health Maintenance Organization (hmo)

An organized system providing health care in a geographic area to an enrolled group of persons who pay a predetermined fixed, periodic prepayment made by, or on behalf of, each person or family unit enrolled, irrespective of actual service use.... Community Health

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Community Health

Health Needs Assessment

(HNA) a systematic process that assesses the health needs of a given population, often with relation to a particular issue (e.g. smoking or alcohol consumption). It aims to lead to policy that allows health resources to be used in the most efficient way.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Health Needs Assessment

A systematic procedure for determining the nature and extent of problems experienced by a specified population that affect their health, either directly or indirectly. Needs assessment makes use of epidemiological, sociodemographic and qualitative methods to describe health problems and their environmental, social, economic and behavioural determinants. See also “geriatric assessment”.... Community Health

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Community Health

Health Outcome

Changes in health status which result from the provision of health (or other) services.... Community Health

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Community Health

Health Personnel

All persons employed or contracted to provide health services.... Community Health

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Community Health

Health Planning

Planning for the improvement of the health of a population or community, for a particular population, type of health service, institution or health programme.... Community Health

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Community Health

Health Policy

A formal statement or procedure within an institution (notably government) which defines goals, priorities and the parameters for action in response to health needs, within the context of available resources.... Community Health

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Community Health

Health Programme

An organized series of activities directed towards the attainment of defined health objectives and targets.... Community Health

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Community Health

Health Promotion

action to maintain the best possible health and quality of life of the members of the community and to stimulate their involvement in their personal health, both collectively and individually. Programmes may include interventions targeting individuals and their behaviour, such as *health education, immunization, and *screening tests, and interventions targeting populations, such as environmental monitoring, housing, and water and food supplies.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Health Promotion

Any combination of health education and related organizational, political and economic interventions designed to facilitate behavioural and environmental adaptations that will improve or protect health.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Health Promotion

A surveillance plan based on a community, and aimed at maintaining an optimum state of health and quality of life for those who make up the community – both as individuals and as a group. Programmes would include immunisation targets, health education and screening tests, as well as environmental procedures such as monitoring atmosphere, improving housing, water and food supplies, and encouraging safe and healthy working practices. (See ENVIRONMENT AND HEALTH; PUBLIC HEALTH.)... Community Health

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Community Health

Health Promotion Evaluation

An assessment of the extent to which health promotion actions achieve a “valued” outcome.... Community Health

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Community Health

Health Promotion Outcome

Assessment of changes to personal characteristics and skills, and/or social norms and actions, and/or organizational practices and public policies which are attributable to a health promotion activity.... Community Health

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Community Health

Health Protection

the branch of *public health medicine that is concerned with protecting the population from communicable diseases, chemicals and poisons, radiation, and other potential threats to health. See Public Health England.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Health Protection Agency

(HPA) formerly, a nondepartmental public body set up as a special health authority in 2003 to protect the health of the UK population via advice and support to the NHS, local authorities, the Department of Health, emergency services, and others. The HPA was abolished in April 2013; its responsibilities were largely passed to *Public Health England. See Consultant in Health Protection.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Health Research

Research on all aspects of health, the factors affecting it, and ways of promoting, protecting and improving it. It is an essential part of national health development. It includes medical and biomedical research relating to a wide variety of medical matters and involving various life sciences, such as molecular biology and biophysics; clinical research, which is based on the observation and treatment of patients or volunteers; epidemiological research, which is concerned with the study and control of diseases and of situations that are suspected of being harmful to health; and socioeconomic and behavioural research, which investigates the social, economic, psychological and cultural determinants of health and disease with a view to promoting health and preventing disease. Often a multidisciplinary combination of the above kinds of research is needed to solve a health problem.... Community Health

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Community Health

Health Research Authority

a *special health authority of the NHS established following the Health and Social Care Act 2012 to promote and protect the interests of patients in health research and to simplify the regulation of research. The Health Research Authority inherited the functions of the National Research Ethics Service, which closed in 2012.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Health Resources

All the means available for the operation of the health system, including manpower, buildings, equipment, supplies, funds, knowledge and technology.... Community Health

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Community Health

Health Risk Appraisal

The process of gathering, analysing and comparing an individual’s prognostic health characteristics with a standard age group, thereby predicting the likelihood that a person may develop a health problem.... Community Health

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Community Health

Health Risk Factor

A chemical, psychological, physiological, social, environmental or genetic factor or conditions that predisposes an individual to the development of a disease or injury.... Community Health

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Community Health

Health Sector

The sector consisting of organized public and private health services (including health promotion, disease prevention, diagnostic, treatment and care services), the policies and activities of health departments and ministries, health-related nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and community groups, and professional associations.... Community Health

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Community Health

Health Service

Service performed by health care professionals, or by others under their direction, for the purpose of promoting, maintaining or restoring health.... Community Health

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Community Health

Health Service Area

A geographic area designated on the basis of such factors as geography, political boundaries, population and health resources, for the effective planning and development of health services.... Community Health

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Community Health

Health Service Commissioner

An o?cial, responsible to the United Kingdom’s parliament, appointed to protect the interests of National Health Service patients in matters concerning the administration of the health service and the delivery of health care (excluding clinical judgements). Known colloquially as the health ombudsman, the Commissioner presents regular reports on the complaints dealt with.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Health Service Manager

an administrator with special training and skills in management who is concerned with the planning and provision of health services and with managing performance. Some managers enter the profession via the NHS Graduate Management Training Scheme; for others the basic training is in disciplines other than health; however, doctors, nurses, and others may fill such posts, sometimes combining them with professional appointments. See also National Health Service.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Health Service Planning

balancing the health and health-care needs of a community, assessed by such indices as mortality, morbidity, and disability, with the resources available to meet these needs in terms of human resources (including ensuring the numbers in training grades meet future requirements) and technical resources, such as hospitals (capital planning), equipment, and medicines. See also clinical audit.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Health Services Research

The multidisciplinary field of scientific investigation that studies how social factors, financing systems, organizational structures and processes, health technologies, and personal behaviours affect access to health care, the quality and cost of health care, and ultimately health and well-being. Its research domains are individuals, families, organizations, institutions, communities and populations.... Community Health

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Community Health

Health Situation

An overall picture of the health status of a region, community or population, which includes measures taken to improve health, the resources devoted to health, an appreciation of specific health problems that require particular attention, and the degree of people’s awareness about their health and ways of improving it.... Community Health

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Community Health

Health Status

The state of health of an individual, group or population. It may be measured by obtaining proxies, such as people’s subjective assessments of their health; by one or more indicators of mortality and morbidity in the population, such as longevity; or by using the incidence or prevalence of major diseases (communicable, chronic or nutritional).... Community Health

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Community Health

Health Stores (wholesale) Ltd

Registered as a Friendly Society (1932) under the Industrial and Provident Societies Act. The buying society of the independent health food trader. Owned and managed entirely by retailer members and concerned with food standards. Stringent rules govern membership and conduct of business. Members are the only shareholders, who are required to hold 20 withdrawable shares of £5 each.

Financial advantages to members include earning profit-sharing discounts: suppliers are relieved of the burden of collecting separate accounts and benefit from having their products approved by the retailers own organisation. Its meetings are a focal point for reporting on up-to-date research and protecting the public interest. Address: Queen’s Road, Nottingham NG2 3AS. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

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Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

Health Survey

A survey designed to provide information on the health status of a population. It may be descriptive, exploratory or explanatory.... Community Health

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Community Health

Health System

The people, institutions and resources, arranged together in accordance with established policies, to improve the health of the population they serve, while responding to people’s legitimate expectations and protecting them against the cost of ill-health through a variety of activities, the primary intent of which is to improve health. Health systems fulfil three main functions: health care delivery, fair treatment of all, and meeting non-health expectations of the population. These functions are performed in the pursuit of three goals: health, responsiveness and fair financing. A health system is usually organized at various levels, starting at the community level or the primary level of health care and proceeding through the intermediate (district, regional or provincial) to the central level.... Community Health

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Community Health

Health System Infrastructure

Services, facilities, institutions, personnel or establishments, organizations and those operating them for the delivery of a variety of health programmes.... Community Health

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Community Health

Health Systems Research

Research dealing with the entire health system or only part of it, the object being to ensure that the system is optimally planned and organized and that programmes are carried out by the health system infrastructure efficiently and effectively and with appropriate technology.... Community Health

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Community Health

Health Target

A defined expected outcome generally based on specific and measurable changes.... Community Health

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Community Health

Health Team

A group of persons working together, where each member of the team contributes, in accordance with his or her competence and skill and in coordination with the functions of the others, in order to achieve the maximum benefit for the care recipient.... Community Health

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Community Health

Health Technology

The application of scientific knowledge to solving health problems. Health technologies include pharmaceuticals, medical devices, procedures or surgical techniques and management, communication and information systems innovations.... Community Health

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Community Health

Health Technology Assessment (hta)

The systematic evaluation of the properties, effects or other impacts of health care technology. HTA is intended to inform decision-makers about health technologies and may measure the direct or indirect consequences of a given technology or treatment.... Community Health

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Community Health

Health Trend

A picture of a health situation, referring also to what led up to it and to prospects for the future.... Community Health

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Community Health

Health Visitor

a trained nurse with specialist qualifications in *health promotion and public health. The role of the health visitor takes place within the primary health-care team and focuses on families with children under five years old, but can be extended to other targeted groups in the population (e.g. the elderly) to meet health needs in the wider community. Health visitors seek to educate, in particular by drawing attention to unmet needs in terms of health and social care.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Health Visitors

Health visitors are community nurses with a special training who form an important part of the primary health-care team. Working in close conjunction with general practitioners, they are primarily responsible for illness prevention and health screening and education of children and elderly people in the community.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Health-adjusted Life Expectancy

a measure developed by the World Health Organization to capture life expectancy in terms of both morbidity and mortality. The number of years lived with ill-health, weighted according to severity, are subtracted from the overall life expectancy. Previously known as disability-adjusted life expectancy, it is sometimes referred to as healthy life expectancy. See also disability-adjusted life year.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Health-care Commissioning

identifying services required to meet population health-care needs and obtaining such services from an appropriate service provider via allocation of resources and contracting arrangements. Commissioners monitor the quality of commissioned services, including adherence to any appropriate national standards. Most NHS commissioning is undertaken by *clinical commissioning groups or *NHS England.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Health-care Priorities

As the needs and demands of patients, and the costs of health care of populations, have risen sharply in recent years, governments and health-care providers – whether tax-funded, insurance-based, employer-provided or a mix of these – have had increasingly to face the dilemma of what services a country or a community can a?ord to provide. As a result, various techniques for deciding priorities of care and treatment are evolving. In the United Kingdom, priorities were for many years based on the decisions of individual clinicians who had wide freedom to prescribe the most appropriate care. Increasingly, this clinical freedom is being circumscribed by managerial, community and political decisions driven in part by the availability of resources and by what people want. Rationing services, however, is not popular and as yet no broadly agreed consensus has emerged, either in western Europe or in North America, as to how priorities can be decided that have broad community support and which can be a?orded. (See CLINICAL GOVERNANCE; EVIDENCE-BASED MEDICINE.)... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Health-promoting Hospital

A hospital which, not only provides high quality comprehensive medical and nursing services, but also develops a corporate identity that embraces the aims of health promotion; develops a health-promoting organizational structure and culture, including active, participatory roles for patients and all members of staff; develops itself into a health-promoting physical environment; and actively cooperates with its community.... Community Health

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Community Health

Health-related Quality-of-life (hrql) Measure

Individual outcome measure that extends beyond traditional measures of mortality and morbidity to include such dimensions as physiology, function, social activity, cognition, emotion, sleep and rest, energy and vitality, health perception and general life satisfaction (some of these are also known as health status, functional status or quality-of-life measures).... Community Health

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Community Health

Health-service Management

The administrative machinery for planning, delivering and monitoring health care provided by health professionals and their supporting sta?. This may range from running a small primary-care centre to organising a large hospital or being responsible for meeting the health needs of a region or a nation. Whether the overall structure for proving care is state-funded, insurance-based, private-practice or a mixture of these, health-service management is essential in an era of rapidly evolving and expensive scienti?c medicine. Health-service managers are administrators with special training and skills in managing health care; sometimes they are doctors, nurses or other health professionals, but many have been trained in management in commercial, civil service or industrial environments.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Healthcare Commission (commission For Health Improvement)

Launched in 1999 in England and Wales as CHI, this is an inspectorate charged with protecting patients from ‘unacceptable failings in the National Health Service’. A statutory body under the 1999 Health Act, it evaluates and re?nes local systems designed to safeguard standards of clinical quality. Working separately from the NHS and the health departments, it o?ers an independent safeguard that provides systems to monitor and improve clinical quality in primary care, community services and hospitals. As of 2004 it became responsible for dealing with patients’ complaints if they could not be settled by the trust concerned. The board members include health professionals, academics and eight lay members. Scotland has set up a similar statutory body. (See APPENDIX 7: STATUTORY ORGANISATIONS.)... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Healthwatch England

the national consumer champion for health and social care, formed following the Health and Social Care Act 2012. In addition, there are 148 local Healthwatch groups, which have statutory representation on local *health and wellbeing boards.

Healthwatch England website... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Healthy Ageing

An approach which recognizes that growing older is a part of living; recognizes the interdependence of generations; recognizes that everyone has a responsibility to be fair in their demands on other generations; fosters a positive attitude throughout life to growing older; eliminates age as a reason to exclude any person from participating fully in community life; promotes a commitment to activities which enhance well-being and health, choice and independence, and quality of life for all ages; encourages communities to value and listen to older people and to cater for the diverse preferences, motivations, characteristics and circumstances of older persons in a variety of ways.... Community Health

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Community Health

Healthy City

A city that is continually creating and improving physical and social environments and expanding community resources which enable people to mutually support each other in performing all the functions of life and in developing to their maximum potential.... Community Health

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Community Health

Healthy Life Expectancy

See “disability-adjusted life expectancy”.... Community Health

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Community Health

Healthy Public Policy

Public policy characterized by an explicit concern for health and equity in all areas of policy and by an accountability for health impact.... Community Health

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Community Health

Home Health Agency (hha) / Home Health Care Agency

A public or private organization that provides home health services supervised by a licensed health professional in a person’s home, either directly or through arrangements with other organizations.... Community Health

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Community Health

Home Health Aide

A person who, under the supervision of a home health or social service agency, assists an older, ill or disabled person with household chores, bathing, personal care and other daily living needs. See also “community-based service”.... Community Health

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Community Health

Home Health Care / Home Care

See “domiciliary care”.... Community Health

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Community Health

Huang Jin Gui Tea Health Benefits

Huang Jin Gui Tea, meaning “Golden Osmanthus”, is a type ofoolong tea, originating from the Fujian province of China. The drink earns its name through the golden liquor obtained after infusing the yellowish green leaves which offer the tea a distinct flowery honeysuckle aroma of Osmathus. The sweet flowery scent combines with a fruity flavour and complex refreshing taste. Huang Jin Gui Tea Brewing Huang Jin Gui Tea leaves allow multiple infusions, each of them providing a new character to the beverage. The brewing of Huang Jin Gui Tea should be made at a temperature of approximately 85 degrees Celsius. Allow two or three minutes for the steeping process in order to obtain a mild, smooth flavour. If brewed according to these instructions, Huang Jin Gui tea is low in caffeine. When to Drink Huang Jin Gui Tea A cup of Huang Jin Gui tea is suitable for drinking at any point during the day because it is only slightly oxidized and lacks the astringency of green tea. Its delightful light taste and floral aroma guarantee you will gladly enjoy several cups a day, discovering new layers of taste after every brew. You can serve it how or cold and benefit from the long lasting aftertaste and subtle hint of honey. Huang Jin Gui Tea Health Benefits Huang Jin Gui Tea brings a variety ofhealth benefits for the drinker, which include a valuable aid in the process of losing weight. Drinking Huang Jin Gui tea benefits your skin and strengthens your teeth. It is also a contributive factor in the prevention of cancer and heart disease and it helps improving the drinker’s metabolism and overall life quality. Huang Jin Gui tea helps reduce the blood sugar levels, which is beneficial for diabetic patients and last, but not least, it has a stress-relieving effect and it stimulates mental awareness. Huang Jin Gui Tea Side Effects As compared with the health benefits it brings, the side effects of Huang Jin Gui Tea are almost insignificant. The most common side effects are related to the large caffeine intake, which can lead to insomnia, dizziness, nausea, headaches or irregular heartbeat. Huang Jin Gui tea is not recommended for pregnant or nursing women and people who suffer from stomach ulcers, kidney or heart problems. Moreover, it is strongly advisable to consult with a specialist before includingHuang Jin Gui tea into your dietary plan, as the drink could interact with certain medications. Huang Jin Gui is a delicious variety of oolong tea with a rich, brisk taste that brings along an energy surplus. It is relatively easy to prepare and the leaves can be infused at least three times, surprising the drinker with each cup.... Beneficial Teas

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Beneficial Teas

In Home Health Service

A service provided in the home by a home health agency or a residential services agency. It may be provided by personal care attendants or home health aides hired privately and informally, or through staff agencies or registries.... Community Health

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Community Health

Institute Of Health Food Retailing

Professional body to ensure status of those whose career is in the health food industry. Encourages training, research and education in health food retailing, health and nutrition, and furthers these objects with meetings and seminars. Holders of the NAHS Diploma of Health Food Retailing may apply for membership. On acceptance they are awarded a certificate with authority to use the designatory letters M Inst HFR.

Address: Byron House, College Street, Nottingham NG1 5AQ. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

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Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

Institutional (care) Health Services

Health services delivered on an inpatient basis in hospitals, nursing homes or other inpatient institutions. The term may also refer to services delivered on an outpatient basis by departments or other organizational units of such institutions, or sponsored by them.... Community Health

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Community Health

International Classification Of Functioning, Disability And Health (icf) A

Classification of health and health-related domains that describe body functions and structures, activities and participation. The domains are classified from body, individual and societal perspectives. Since an individual’s functioning and disability occurs in a context, this classification includes a list of environmental factors.... Community Health

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Community Health

International Classification Of Health Problems In Primary Care (ichppc)

A classification of diseases, conditions and other reasons for attendance for primary care. This classification is an adaptation of the ICD but makes allowance for the diagnostic uncertainty that prevails in primary care.... Community Health

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Community Health

International Statistical Classification Of Diseases And Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision (icd-10)

A list of diagnoses and identifying codes used by medical practitioners and other health care providers. The coding and terminology provide a uniform language that permits consistent communication on claim forms. Data from earlier time periods were coded using the appropriate revision of the ICD for that time period. Changes in classification of causes of death in successive revisions of the ICD may introduce discontinuities in cause of death statistics over time.... Community Health

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Community Health

Lemongrass Tea - A Healthy Herbal Tea

Lemongrass tea is one of the most popular teas from South Asia. The lemongrass plant grows in India and tropical Asia being commonly used in teas, soups and curries. This plant has been used in medicinal purposes since ancient times due to its wonderful health benefits. How To Make Lemongrass Tea Lemongrass tea has a mild lemon taste with a hint of ginger and a tropical flower scent. You can easily brew your own herbal lemongrass tea by following some few easy steps: First of all you will need a pair of gloves to protect your hands from the leaves of the lemongrass plant because they can cut your skin when you pull them from the parent plant. To cut easier, use a sharp knife. Peel the outer layers of the lemongrass leaves (the dark green leaves surrounding the stalk inside) because they will give the tea a bitter taste if they are used. Then cut the remaining lemongrass plant into slices, about 3 inches long. For each cup you will need 1 tablespoon of lemongrass. Put the slices into the teapot, pour in the hot water and let it steep for about 5 minutes. Then strain the tea into your cup and sweeten it with honey or sugar. Optionally, you can add milk. Lemongrass Tea Benefits If you suffer from insomnia, a cup of lemongrass tea before bed provides you relaxation and a restful sleep. Lemongrass tea is a good aid in digestion, so drinking a cup of tea after a meal removes that full feeling and also, helps remove unhealthy food additives, chemicals and excess fats. Since it acts like a natural diuretic, lemongrass tea helps keep the kidneys and bladder working properly. Also, its powerful antioxidants keep the liver and pancreas healthy. A university study revealed that lemongrass tea may have a cholesterol-lowering effect in people. Another benefit is that lemongrass tea reduces the symptoms of anxiety and nervousness and it has been used in Brazil for centuries to treat nervous disorders. You can also use this tea on a wet rag to heal wounds or other skin problems, since lemongrass tea is known for its anti-bacterial and anti-fungal properties. Lemongrass Tea Side Effects Despite the fact that it has a lot of health benefits, lemongrass tea also has a few side effects. Make sure you will not drink lemongrass tea if you experience allergy symptoms after consuming lemongrass. It is not indicated for pregnant or breastfeeding women to drink lemongrass tea since it may have different effects on their child. In conclusion, lemongrass tea has a lot of benefits, from its calming effects to skin healing properties. Served hot or iced, this tea makes a wonderful drink during meals or before bed to have calm all night sleep.... Beneficial Teas

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Beneficial Teas

Level Of Health

The quantified expression of health status.... Community Health

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Community Health

Life Insurance

Insurance providing for payment of a stipulated sum to a designated beneficiary upon death of the insured.... Community Health

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Community Health

Long-term Care Insurance

Insurance policies which pay for long-term care services (such as nursing home and home care) that are generally not covered by other health insurance.... Community Health

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Community Health

Managed Health Care

This process aims to reduce the costs of health care while maintaining its quality. The concept originated in the United States but has attracted interest in the United Kingdom and Europe, where the spiralling costs of health care have been causing widespread concern. Managed care works through changing clinical practice, but it is not a discrete entity: the American I. J. Iglehart has de?ned it as ‘a variety of methods of ?nancing and organising the delivery of comprehensive health care in which an attempt is made to control costs by controlling the provision of services’. Managed care has three facets: health policy; how that policy is managed; and how individuals needing health care are dealt with. The process and its applications are still evolving and it is likely that di?erent health-care systems will adapt it to suit their own particular circumstances.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Mango Tea And Its Healthy Freshness

Mango tea is a complex type of tea, due to its ingredients: green tea, black tea and mango pieces. It is considered to be ideal both for tea consumers and fruit lovers worldwide. About Mango Tea Mango, originally coming fromsouth Asia, was brought to the United States in 1880. It symbolizes love and apparently, its leaves are a good choice to be gifted at weddings. It is a delicious and juicy fruit, that can be eaten fresh or cooked, sliced, pureed or, as part of several beverages. Mango tea is a type of tea resulting from mixing green tea, black tea and whole mango pieces. It gathers the freshness of mangoes and the strong flavor of the two teas mentioned above. How to make Mango Tea?
  • infuse 1 tablespoon per cup
  • use boiling water
  • infuse it for 3 minutes
Mango tea can be also consumed cold. In this case, ice is recommended to be added. To boost its freshness, connoisseurs indicate the use of fresh mint leaves use. Mango Tea benefits Owing to the high quantity of contained antioxidants, Mango tea is effectively used in treating cancer and helping cells to recover from this disease. This type of tea has proven its efficiency in dealing with:
  •  Anemia
  •  Stress
  • Muscle cramps
  • Digestion
  • Weight Control
  • Bone Growth
  • Immune Functions
  • Vision
  • Wound Healing
  • Protein Synthesis
  • Dehydration
Mango Tea side effects Mango tea side effects are generallyassociated to overconsumption or, citrus intolerance. It is indicated that individuals suffering from cardiac problems or hypertension to consume it moderately. Pregnant and breast-feeding women are advised to reduce the amount of Mango tea consumed (less than 2 cups per day), in order not to cause agitation to the baby. Mango teacould be successfully introduced in a daily diet, providing energy and enhancing mood for consumers of all ages and thus, carefully strengthening the immune system.... Beneficial Teas

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Beneficial Teas

Medicines And Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency

(MHRA) a UK government agency that regulates the use of medicinal drugs and medical devices. The agency regulates and issues *licences for the clinical trial, manufacture, and marketing of new products. It also applies the regulations governing the collection, storage, and use of human blood and blood products.

MHRA section of the website... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Mental Health

The absence of psychiatric disorders or traits. It can be influenced by biological, environmental, emotional and cultural factors. This term is highly variable in definition, depending on time and place.... Community Health

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Community Health

Mental Health Act

The Mental Health

Act (1983) details the rights of patients with mental illness and the grounds for detaining mentally ill people against their will. It also outlines forms of legal guardianship for such patients.

When a person is endangering his or her own or other people’s health or safety (for example, threatening harm or suicide) because of a recognized mental illness, he or she may be compulsorily taken into hospital to be given treatment.

If a person breaks the law because of a mental disorder, the courts may remand him or her to hospital.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Mental Health Act

an Act of Parliament to govern the treatment of people with a mental disorder, which is defined as including *mental illness, *personality disorder, and *learning disability. For England and Wales the Mental Health Act 1983 has been amended by the Mental Health Act 2007. The legislation provides for the voluntary and compulsory (involuntary) assessment and treatment of patients with a diagnosis or symptoms of a mental disorder. The purposes of involuntary admission are both to act in patients’ best interests, providing treatment for them when they have lost *insight into their illness, and to manage the risk that may arise from a mental disorder to the patients themselves or to others. One of the principal amendments in the 2007 Act is the introduction of Community Treatment Orders, which provide for the involuntary treatment of patients who have left hospital. Another, more controversial, change was the introduction of *sexual deviancy as a mental disorder to which the Act applies. In Scotland the current legislation is the Mental Health (Care and Treatment) (Scotland) Act 2003, which came into effect in April 2005. See section.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Mental Health Act Commission

a regulating body in England and Wales, governed by the Mental Health Act 2007, that was responsible for regularly visiting psychiatric hospitals, reviewing psychiatric care, giving second opinions on the need for certain psychiatric treatments, and acting as a forum for the discussion of psychiatric issues. It was subsumed under the *Care Quality Commission in April 2009.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Mental Health Problems In Children

Emotional and behavioural problems are common in children and adolescents, affecting up to one-?fth at any one time. But these problems are often not clear-cut, and they may come and go as the child develops and meets new challenges in life. If a child or teenager has an emotional problem that persists for weeks rather than days and is associated with disturbed behaviour, he or she may have a recognisable mental health disorder.

Anxiety, phobias and depression are fairly common. For instance, surveys show that up to

2.5 per cent of children and 8 per cent of adolescents are depressed at any one time, and by the age of 18 a quarter will have been depressed at least once. Problems such as OBSESSIVE COMPULSIVE DISORDER, ATTENTION DEFICIT DISORDER (HYPERACTIVITY SYNDROME), AUTISM, ASPERGER’S SYNDROME and SCHIZOPHRENIA are rare.

Mental-health problems may not be obvious at ?rst, because children often express distress through irritability, poor concentration, dif?cult behaviour, or physical symptoms. Physical symptoms of distress, such as unexplained headache and stomach ache, may persuade parents to keep children at home on school days. This may be appropriate occasionally, but regularly avoiding school can lead to a persistent phobia called school refusal.

If a parent, teacher or other person is worried that a child or teenager may have a mental-health problem, the ?rst thing to do is to ask the child gently if he or she is worried about anything. Listening, reassuring and helping the child to solve any speci?c problems may well be enough to help the child feel settled again. Serious problems such as bullying and child abuse need urgent professional involvement.

Children with emotional problems will usually feel most comfortable talking to their parents, while adolescents may prefer to talk to friends, counsellors, or other mentors. If this doesn’t work, and if the symptoms persist for weeks rather than days, it may be necessary to seek additional help through school or the family’s general practitioner. This may lead to the child and family being assessed and helped by a psychologist, or, less commonly, by a child psychiatrist. Again, listening and counselling will be the main forms of help o?ered. For outright depression, COGNITIVE BEHAVIOUR THERAPY and, rarely, antidepressant drugs may be used.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Mental Health Review Tribunal

(MHRT) a tribunal, established under the Mental Health Act 1959 and now operating under the Mental Health Act 2007, to which applications may be made for the discharge from hospital of a person compulsorily detained there under provisions of the Act (see compulsory admission). When a patient is subject to a restriction order an application may only be made after his or her first six months of detention. The powers of the tribunal, which comprises both legally and medically qualified members, include reclassifying unrestricted patients, recommending leave of absence for a patient, delaying discharge, and transferring patients to other hospitals. Detained patients may also apply to have a managers hearing to review their detention. The powers of the managers hearing are slightly different from those of the MHRT, but both are defined in the Mental Health Act 2007 and both can discharge a patient from a section of the Mental Health Act.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Mental Health Services

Comprehensive mental health services, as generally defined under some national (or state) laws and statutes, include: inpatient care, outpatient care, day care and other partial hospitalization and emergency services; specialized services for the mental health of the elderly; consultation and education services and specialized programmes for the prevention, treatment and rehabilitation of alcohol and drug abusers. They generally include a variety of services provided to people of all ages, including counselling, psychotherapy, psychiatric services, crisis intervention and support groups. Issues addressed include depression, grief, anxiety and stress, as well as severe mental illnesses.... Community Health

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Community Health

National Association Of Health Stores (nahs)

Founded 1931. Objects:

(a) To promote and protect the interests of Health Foods Stores among members.

(b) To set standards in retailing of health foods and herbs.

(c) To encourage production, marketing and sales of products derived from purely natural and vegetable sources.

((d) To provide qualifications by certificate and diploma courses for those engaged in the industry.

The Association provides advice on aspects of health food and herb retailing and is able to help its members with professional advice and merchandising. NAHS Diploma of Health Food Retailing qualifies for membership of the Institute of Health Food Retailing. Address: Bastow House, Queens Road, Nottingham NG2 3AS. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

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Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

National Electronic Library For Health

This National Health Service initiative went online in November 2000. It aims to provide health professionals with easy and fast access to best current knowledge from medical journals, professional group guidelines, etc. Unbiased data can be accessed by both clinicians and the public.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

National Health Accounts

Information, usually in the form of indicators, a country may collect on its health expenditures. Indicators may include total health expenditure, public expenditure, private expenditure, out-of-pocket expenditure, tax-funded and other public expenditure, and social security expenditure.... Community Health

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Community Health

National Health Policy

See “health policy”.... Community Health

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Community Health

National Health Service

(NHS) (in Britain) a comprehensive service offering therapeutic and preventive medical and surgical care, including the prescription and dispensing of medicines, spectacles, and medical and dental appliances. Exchequer funds pay for the services of doctors, nurses, and other professionals, as well as residential costs in NHS hospitals, and meet a substantial part of the cost of the medicines and appliances. Legislation enacted in 1946 was implemented in 1948 and the services were subjected to substantial reorganization in 1974 and again in 1982, 1991, 1999, and in 2013 as a result of the Health and Social Care Act 2012. In England overall responsibility is vested in the Secretary of State for Health. Responsibility for commissioning most services is held by *clinical commissioning groups, consisting of GPs in a local area, and commissioning for primary care services and some specialized services is undertaken by *NHS England. Public health functions are largely delivered by local authorities, though some specialist functions are provided by *Public Health England. The relationship between the Secretary of State for Health and the NHS also changed in 2013. The Secretary of State for Health, via the *Department of Health and Social Care (DHSC), no longer has direct control of the day-to-day operation of the NHS. This has passed to NHS England. However, the DHSC continues to provide strategic leadership for the NHS.

Different arrangements apply in Northern Ireland, Wales, and Scotland.

NHS website: includes much basic medical information together with a guide to local services... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

National Health Service (nhs)

The United Kingdom’s National Health Service was created by Act of Parliament and inaugurated on 5 July 1948. Its original aim was to provide a comprehensive system of health care to everyone, free at the point of delivery. Scotland had its own, similar legislation, as did Northern Ireland. The service is funded by National Insurance contributions and from general taxation, with a small amount from patient charges. The structure, functioning and ?nancing of the NHS have been – and still are – undergoing substantial changes.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

National Infection Control And Health Protection Agency

A National Health Service body intended to combat the increasing threat from infectious diseases and biological, chemical and radiological hazards. Covering England, the agency includes the Public Health Laboratory Service, the National Radiological Protection Board, the Centre for Applied Microbiology and Research, and the National Focus Group for Chemical Incidents.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

National Institute For Health Research

(NIHR) a national organization, funded through the *Department of Health and Social Care, that coordinates, supports, and funds research within the NHS.

NIHR website... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

National Insurance

(in Britain) a compulsory scheme of insurance under the terms of which employers and employees make joint contributions so that those who have contributed for a qualifying period may claim national insurance benefits in times of sickness, injury, maternity leave, unemployment, and retirement; self-employed persons pay all their own contributions. Those who do not qualify under the terms of this insurance scheme may also receive financial payments in times of need, but only subject to a means test.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Neighbourhood Health Centre

See “community health centre”.... Community Health

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Community Health

Occupational Health Service

(OHS) a scheme by which employers provide a mainly preventive health service for employees. Specially trained doctors and nurses advise management on hazardous situations at work. Advice is also given to management to ensure that people with ill health or disability are not prevented from taking up employment and on the potential for rehabilitating employees with prolonged or repeated sickness absence. Instruction may be given to the workforce on simple first aid procedures, and *health promotion programmes may be offered in relation to nutrition, physical activity, and stress. With the approval of the *Health and Safety Executive, the OHS may conduct routine tests on employees working with potentially hazardous substances, such as lead. See also coshh.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Occupational Health Services

Health services concerned with the physical, mental and social well-being of an individual in relation to his/her working environment and with the adjustment of individuals to their work. The term applies to more than the safety of the workplace and includes health and job satisfaction.... Community Health

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Community Health

Occupational Health, Medicine And Diseases

Occupational health The e?ect of work on human health, and the impact of workers’ health on their work. Although the term encompasses the identi?cation and treatment of speci?c occupational diseases, occupational health is also an applied and multidisciplinary subject concerned with the prevention of occupational ill-health caused by chemical, biological, physical and psychosocial factors, and the promotion of a healthy and productive workforce.

Occupational health includes both mental and physical health. It is about compliance with health-and-safety-at-work legislation (and common law duties) and about best practice in providing work environments that reduce risks to health and safety to lowest practicable levels. It includes workers’ ?tness to work, as well as the management of the work environment to accommodate people with disabilities, and procedures to facilitate the return to work of those absent with long-term illness. Occupational health incorporates several professional groups, including occupational physicians, occupational health nurses, occupational hygienists, ergonomists, disability managers, workplace counsellors, health-and-safety practitioners, and workplace physiotherapists.

In the UK, two key statutes provide a framework for occupational health: the Health and Safety at Work, etc. Act 1974 (HSW Act); and the Disability Discrimination Act 1995 (DDA). The HSW Act states that employers have a duty to protect the health, safety and welfare of their employees and to conduct their business in a way that does not expose others to risks to their health and safety. Employees and self-employed people also have duties under the Act. Modern health-and-safety legislation focuses on assessing and controlling risk rather than prescribing speci?c actions in di?erent industrial settings. Various regulations made under the HSW Act, such as the Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations, the Manual Handling Operations Regulations and the Noise at Work Regulations, set out duties with regard to di?erent risks, but apply to all employers and follow the general principles of risk assessment and control. Risks should be controlled principally by removing or reducing the hazard at source (for example, by substituting chemicals with safer alternatives, replacing noisy machinery, or automating tasks to avoid heavy lifting). Personal protective equipment, such as gloves and ear defenders, should be seen as a last line of defence after other control measures have been put in place.

The employment provisions of the DDA require employers to avoid discriminatory practice towards disabled people and to make reasonable adjustments to working arrangements where a disabled person is placed at a substantial disadvantage to a non-disabled person. Although the DDA does not require employers to provide access to rehabilitation services – even for those injured or made ill at work – occupational-health practitioners may become involved in programmes to help people get back to work after injury or long-term illness, and many businesses see the retention of valuable sta? as an attractive alternative to medical retirement or dismissal on health grounds.

Although a major part of occupational-health practice is concerned with statutory compliance, the workplace is also an important venue for health promotion. Many working people rarely see their general practitioner and, even when they do, there is little time to discuss wider health issues. Occupational-health advisers can ?ll in this gap by providing, for example, workplace initiatives on stopping smoking, cardiovascular health, diet and self-examination for breast and testicular cancers. Such initiatives are encouraged because of the perceived bene?ts to sta?, to the employing organisation and to the wider public-health agenda. Occupational psychologists recognise the need for the working population to achieve a ‘work-life balance’ and the promotion of this is an increasing part of occupational health strategies.

The law requires employers to consult with their sta? on health-and-safety matters. However, there is also a growing understanding that successful occupational-health management involves workers directly in the identi?cation of risks and in developing solutions in the workplace. Trade unions play an active role in promoting occupational health through local and national campaigns and by training and advising elected workplace safety representatives.

Occupational medicine The branch of medicine that deals with the control, prevention, diagnosis, treatment and management of ill-health and injuries caused or made worse by work, and with ensuring that workers are ?t for the work they do.

Occupational medicine includes: statutory surveillance of workers’ exposure to hazardous agents; advice to employers and employees on eliminating or reducing risks to health and safety at work; diagnosis and treatment/management of occupational illness; advice on adapting the working environment to suit the worker, particularly those with disabilities or long-term health problems; and advice on the return to work and, if necessary, rehabilitation of workers absent through illness. Occupational physicians may play a wider role in monitoring the health of workplace populations and in advising employers on controlling health hazards where ill-health trends are observed. They may also conduct epidemiological research (see EPIDEMIOLOGY) on workplace diseases.

Because of the occupational physician’s dual role as adviser to both employer and employee, he or she is required to be particularly diligent with regards to the individual worker’s medical CONFIDENTIALITY. Occupational physicians need to recognise in any given situation the context they are working in, and to make sure that all parties are aware of this.

Occupational medicine is a medical discipline and thus is only part of the broader ?eld of occupational health. Although there are some speci?c clinical duties associated with occupational medicine, such as diagnosis of occupational disease and medical screening, occupational physicians are frequently part of a multidisciplinary team that might include, for example, occupational-health nurses, healthand-safety advisers, ergonomists, counsellors and hygienists. Occupational physicians are medical practitioners with a post-registration quali?cation in occupational medicine. They will have completed a period of supervised in-post training. In the UK, the Faculty of Occupational Medicine of the Royal College of Physicians has three categories of membership, depending on quali?cations and experience: associateship (AFOM); membership (MFOM); and fellowship (FFOM).

Occupational diseases Occupational diseases are illnesses that are caused or made worse by work. In their widest sense, they include physical and mental ill-health conditions.

In diagnosing an occupational disease, the clinician will need to examine not just the signs and symptoms of ill-health, but also the occupational history of the patient. This is important not only in discovering the cause, or causes, of the disease (work may be one of a number of factors), but also in making recommendations on how the work should be modi?ed to prevent a recurrence – or, if necessary, in deciding whether or not the worker is able to return to that type of work. The occupational history will help in deciding whether or not other workers are also at risk of developing the condition. It will include information on:

the nature of the work.

how the tasks are performed in practice.

the likelihood of exposure to hazardous agents (physical, chemical, biological and psychosocial).

what control measures are in place and the extent to which these are adhered to.

previous occupational and non-occupational exposures.

whether or not others have reported similar symptoms in relation to the work. Some conditions – certain skin conditions,

for example – may show a close relationship to work, with symptoms appearing directly only after exposure to particular agents or possibly disappearing at weekends or with time away from work. Others, however, may be chronic and can have serious long-term implications for a person’s future health and employment.

Statistical information on the prevalence of occupational disease in the UK comes from a variety of sources, including o?cial ?gures from the Industrial Injuries Scheme (see below) and statutory reporting of occupational disease (also below). Neither of these o?cial schemes provides a representative picture, because the former is restricted to certain prescribed conditions and occupations, and the latter suffers from gross under-reporting. More useful are data from the various schemes that make up the Occupational Diseases Intelligence Network (ODIN) and from the Labour Force Survey (LFS). ODIN data is generated by the systematic reporting of work-related conditions by clinicians and includes several schemes. Under one scheme, more than 80 per cent of all reported diseases by occupational-health physicians fall into just six of the 42 clinical disease categories: upper-limb disorders; anxiety, depression and stress disorders; contact DERMATITIS; lower-back problems; hearing loss (see DEAFNESS); and ASTHMA. Information from the LFS yields a similar pattern in terms of disease frequency. Its most recent survey found that over 2 million people believed that, in the previous 12 months, they had suffered from an illness caused or made worse by work and that

19.5 million working days were lost as a result. The ten most frequently reported disease categories were:

stress and mental ill-health (see MENTAL ILLNESS): 515,000 cases.

back injuries: 508,000.

upper-limb and neck disorders: 375,000.

lower respiratory disease: 202,000.

deafness, TINNITUS or other ear conditions: 170,000.

lower-limb musculoskeletal conditions: 100,000.

skin disease: 66,000.

headache or ‘eyestrain’: 50,000.

traumatic injury (includes wounds and fractures from violent attacks at work): 34,000.

vibration white ?nger (hand-arm vibration syndrome): 36,000. A person who develops a chronic occu

pational disease may be able to sue his or her employer for damages if it can be shown that the employer was negligent in failing to take reasonable care of its employees, or had failed to provide a system of work that would have prevented harmful exposure to a known health hazard. There have been numerous successful claims (either awarded in court, or settled out of court) for damages for back and other musculoskeletal injuries, hand-arm vibration syndrome, noise-induced deafness, asthma, dermatitis, MESOTHELIOMA and ASBESTOSIS. Employers’ liability (workers’ compensation) insurers are predicting that the biggest future rise in damages claims will be for stress-related illness. In a recent study, funded by the Health and Safety Executive, about 20 per cent of all workers – more than 5 million people in the UK – claimed to be ‘very’ or ‘extremely’ stressed at work – a statistic that is likely to have a major impact on the long-term health of the working population.

While victims of occupational disease have the right to sue their employers for damages, many countries also operate a system of no-fault compensation for the victims of prescribed occupational diseases. In the UK, more than 60 diseases are prescribed under the Industrial Injuries Scheme and a person will automatically be entitled to state compensation for disability connected to one of these conditions, provided that he or she works in one of the occupations for which they are prescribed. The following short list gives an indication of the types of diseases and occupations prescribed under the scheme:

CARPAL TUNNEL SYNDROME connected to the use of hand-held vibrating tools.

hearing loss from (amongst others) use of pneumatic percussive tools and chainsaws, working in the vicinity of textile manufacturing or woodworking machines, and work in ships’ engine rooms.

LEPTOSPIROSIS – infection with Leptospira (various listed occupations).

viral HEPATITIS from contact with human blood, blood products or other sources of viral hepatitis.

LEAD POISONING, from any occupation causing exposure to fumes, dust and vapour from lead or lead products.

asthma caused by exposure to, among other listed substances, isocyanates, curing agents, solder ?ux fumes and insects reared for research.

mesothelioma from exposure to asbestos.

In the UK, employers and the self-employed have a duty to report all occupational injuries (if the employee is o? work for three days or more as a result), diseases or dangerous incidents to the relevant enforcing authority (the Health and Safety Executive or local-authority environmental-health department) under the Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations 1995 (RIDDOR). Despite this statutory duty, comparatively few diseases are reported so that ?gures generated from RIDDOR reports do not give a useful indication of the scale of occupational diseases in the UK. The statutory reporting of injuries is much better, presumably because of the clear and acute relationship between a workplace accident and the resultant injury. More than 160,000 injuries are reported under RIDDOR every year compared with just 2,500 or so occupational diseases, a gross underestimate of the true ?gure.

There are no precise ?gures for the number of people who die prematurely because of work-related ill-health, and it would be impossible to gauge the exact contribution that work has on, for example, cardiovascular disease and cancers where the causes are multifactorial. The toll would, however, dwarf the number of deaths caused by accidents at work. Around 250 people are killed by accidents at work in the UK each year – mesothelioma, from exposure to asbestos at work, alone kills more than 1,300 people annually.

The following is a sample list of occupational diseases, with brief descriptions of their aetiologies.

Inhaled materials

PNEUMOCONIOSIS covers a group of diseases which cause ?brotic lung disease following the inhalation of dust. Around 250–300 new cases receive bene?t each year – mostly due to coal dust with or without silica contamination. SILICOSIS is the more severe disease. The contraction in the size of the coal-mining industry as well as improved dust suppression in the mines have diminished the importance of this disease, whereas asbestos-related diseases now exceed 1,000 per year. Asbestos ?bres cause a restrictive lung disease but also are responsible for certain malignant conditions such as pleural and peritoneal mesothelioma and lung cancer. The lung-cancer risk is exacerbated by cigarette-smoking.

Even though the use of asbestos is virtually banned in the UK, many workers remain at risk of exposure because of the vast quantities present in buildings (much of which is not listed in building plans). Carpenters, electricians, plumbers, builders and demolition workers are all liable to exposure from work that disturbs existing asbestos. OCCUPATIONAL ASTHMA is of increasing importance – not only because of the recognition of new allergic agents (see ALLERGY), but also in the number of reported cases. The following eight substances are most frequently linked to occupational asthma (key occupations in brackets): isocyanates (spray painters, electrical processors); ?our and grain (bakers and farmers); wood dust (wood workers); glutaraldehyde (nurses, darkroom technicians); solder/colophony (welders, electronic assembly workers); laboratory animals (technicians, scientists); resins and glues (metal and electrical workers, construction, chemical processors); and latex (nurses, auxiliaries, laboratory technicians).

The disease develops after a short, symptomless period of exposure; symptoms are temporally related to work exposures and relieved by absences from work. Removal of the worker from exposure does not necessarily lead to complete cessation of symptoms. For many agents, there is no relationship with a previous history of ATOPY. Occupational asthma accounts for about 10 per cent of all asthma cases. DERMATITIS The risk of dermatitis caused by an allergic or irritant reaction to substances used or handled at work is present in a wide variety of jobs. About three-quarters of cases are irritant contact dermatitis due to such agents as acids, alkalis and solvents. Allergic contact dermatitis is a more speci?c response by susceptible individuals to a range of allergens (see ALLERGEN). The main occupational contact allergens include chromates, nickel, epoxy resins, rubber additives, germicidal agents, dyes, topical anaesthetics and antibiotics as well as certain plants and woods. Latex gloves are a particular cause of occupational dermatitis among health-care and laboratory sta? and have resulted in many workers being forced to leave their profession through ill-health. (See also SKIN, DISEASES OF.)

Musculoskeletal disorders Musculoskeletal injuries are by far the most common conditions related to work (see LFS ?gures, above) and the biggest cause of disability. Although not all work-related, musculoskeletal disorders account for 36.5 per cent of all disabilities among working-age people (compared with less than 4 per cent for sight and hearing impairment). Back pain (all causes – see BACKACHE) has been estimated to cause more than 50 million days lost every year in sickness absence and costs the UK economy up to £5 billion annually as a result of incapacity or disability. Back pain is a particular problem in the health-care sector because of the risk of injury from lifting and moving patients. While the emphasis should be on preventing injuries from occurring, it is now well established that the best way to manage most lower-back injuries is to encourage the patient to continue as normally as possible and to remain at work, or to return as soon as possible even if the patient has some residual back pain. Those who remain o? work on long-term sick leave are far less likely ever to return to work.

Aside from back injuries, there are a whole range of conditions affecting the upper limbs, neck and lower limbs. Some have clear aetiologies and clinical signs, while others are less well de?ned and have multiple causation. Some conditions, such as carpal tunnel syndrome, are prescribed diseases in certain occupations; however, they are not always caused by work (pregnant and older women are more likely to report carpal tunnel syndrome irrespective of work) and clinicians need to be careful when assigning work as the cause without ?rst considering the evidence. Other conditions may be revealed or made worse by work – such as OSTEOARTHRITIS in the hand. Much attention has focused on injuries caused by repeated movement, excessive force, and awkward postures and these include tenosynovitis (in?ammation of a tendon) and epicondylitis. The greatest controversy surrounds upper-limb disorders that do not present obvious tissue or nerve damage but nevertheless give signi?cant pain and discomfort to the individual. These are sometimes referred to as ‘repetitive strain injury’ or ‘di?use RSI’. The diagnosis of such conditions is controversial, making it di?cult for sufferers to pursue claims for compensation through the courts. Psychosocial factors, such as high demands of the job, lack of control and poor social support at work, have been implicated in the development of many upper-limb disorders, and in prevention and management it is important to deal with the psychological as well as the physical risk factors. Occupations known to be at particular risk of work-related upper-limb disorders include poultry processors, packers, electronic assembly workers, data processors, supermarket check-out operators and telephonists. These jobs often contain a number of the relevant exposures of dynamic load, static load, a full or excessive range of movements and awkward postures. (See UPPER LIMB DISORDERS.)

Physical agents A number of physical agents cause occupational ill-health of which the most important is occupational deafness. Workplace noise exposures in excess of 85 decibels for a working day are likely to cause damage to hearing which is initially restricted to the vital frequencies associated with speech – around 3–4 kHz. Protection from such noise is imperative as hearing aids do nothing to ameliorate the neural damage once it has occurred.

Hand-arm vibration syndrome is a disorder of the vascular and/or neural endings in the hands leading to episodic blanching (‘white ?nger’) and numbness which is exacerbated by low temperature. The condition, which is caused by vibrating tools such as chain saws and pneumatic hammers, is akin to RAYNAUD’S DISEASE and can be disabling.

Decompression sickness is caused by a rapid change in ambient pressure and is a disease associated with deep-sea divers, tunnel workers and high-?ying aviators. Apart from the direct effects of pressure change such as ruptured tympanic membrane or sinus pain, the more serious damage is indirectly due to nitrogen bubbles appearing in the blood and blocking small vessels. Central and peripheral nervous-system damage and bone necrosis are the most dangerous sequelae.

Radiation Non-ionising radiation from lasers or microwaves can cause severe localised heating leading to tissue damage of which cataracts (see under EYE, DISORDERS OF) are a particular variety. Ionising radiation from radioactive sources can cause similar acute tissue damage to the eyes as well as cell damage to rapidly dividing cells in the gut and bone marrow. Longer-term effects include genetic damage and various malignant disorders of which LEUKAEMIA and aplastic ANAEMIA are notable. Particular radioactive isotopes may destroy or induce malignant change in target organs, for example, 131I (thyroid), 90Sr (bone). Outdoor workers may also be at risk of sunburn and skin cancers. OTHER OCCUPATIONAL CANCERS Occupation is directly responsible for about 5 per cent of all cancers and contributes to a further 5 per cent. Apart from the cancers caused by asbestos and ionising radiation, a number of other occupational exposures can cause human cancer. The International Agency for Research on Cancer regularly reviews the evidence for carcinogenicity of compounds and industrial processes, and its published list of carcinogens is widely accepted as the current state of knowledge. More than 50 agents and processes are listed as class 1 carcinogens. Important occupational carcinogens include asbestos (mesothelioma, lung cancer); polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons such as mineral oils, soots, tars (skin and lung cancer); the aromatic amines in dyestu?s (bladder cancer); certain hexavalent chromates, arsenic and nickel re?ning (lung cancer); wood and leather dust (nasal sinus cancer); benzene (leukaemia); and vinyl chloride monomer (angiosarcoma of the liver). It has been estimated that elimination of all known occupational carcinogens, if possible, would lead to an annual saving of 5,000 premature deaths in Britain.

Infections Two broad categories of job carry an occupational risk. These are workers in contact with animals (farmers, veterinary surgeons and slaughtermen) and those in contact with human sources of infection (health-care sta? and sewage workers).

Occupational infections include various zoonoses (pathogens transmissible from animals to humans), such as ANTHRAX, Borrelia burgdorferi (LYME DISEASE), bovine TUBERCULOSIS, BRUCELLOSIS, Chlamydia psittaci, leptospirosis, ORF virus, Q fever, RINGWORM and Streptococcus suis. Human pathogens that may be transmissible at work include tuberculosis, and blood-borne pathogens such as viral hepatitis (B and C) and HIV (see AIDS/HIV). Health-care workers at risk of exposure to infected blood and body ?uids should be immunised against hapatitis B.

Poisoning The incidence of occupational poisonings has diminished with the substitution of noxious chemicals with safer alternatives, and with the advent of improved containment. However, poisonings owing to accidents at work are still reported, sometimes with fatal consequences. Workers involved in the application of pesticides are particularly at risk if safe procedures are not followed or if equipment is faulty. Exposure to organophosphate pesticides, for example, can lead to breathing diffculties, vomiting, diarrhoea and abdominal cramps, and to other neurological effects including confusion and dizziness. Severe poisonings can lead to death. Exposure can be through ingestion, inhalation and dermal (skin) contact.

Stress and mental health Stress is an adverse reaction to excessive pressures or demands and, in occupational-health terms, is di?erent from the motivational impact often associated with challenging work (some refer to this as ‘positive stress’). Stress at work is often linked to increasing demands on workers, although coping can often prevent the development of stress. The causes of occupational stress are multivariate and encompass job characteristics (e.g. long or unsocial working hours, high work demands, imbalance between e?ort and reward, poorly managed organisational change, lack of control over work, poor social support at work, fear of redundancy and bullying), as well as individual factors (such as personality type, personal circumstances, coping strategies, and availability of psychosocial support outside work). Stress may in?uence behaviours such as smoking, alcohol consumption, sleep and diet, which may in turn affect people’s health. Stress may also have direct effects on the immune system (see IMMUNITY) and lead to a decline in health. Stress may also alter the course and response to treatment of conditions such as cardiovascular disease. As well as these general effects of stress, speci?c types of disorder may be observed.

Exposure to extremely traumatic incidents at work – such as dealing with a major accident involving multiple loss of life and serious injury

(e.g. paramedics at the scene of an explosion or rail crash) – may result in a chronic condition known as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). PTSD is an abnormal psychological reaction to a traumatic event and is characterised by extreme psychological discomfort, such as anxiety or panic when reminded of the causative event; sufferers may be plagued with uncontrollable memories and can feel as if they are going through the trauma again. PTSD is a clinically de?ned condition in terms of its symptoms and causes and should not be used to include normal short-term reactions to trauma.... Medical Dictionary

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Oolong Tea Health Benefits, Side Effects And Brewing

Oolong tea, literally meaning “Black Dragon”, is a traditional Chinese beverage which undergoes a unique preparation process resulting in a reddish drink with a slightly sweet delicate flavour. Oolong tea is partially fermented, unlike black tea, which is fully fermented, or green tea, which is unfermented. Oolong Tea Brewing Oolong tea requires a higher brewingtemperature in order to extract the complex aromas of the tea leaves. It is recommended to use spring or filtered water heated at a temperature of approximately 90 degrees Celsius. The steeping process for most Oolong teas should last no longer than five minutes. If this period is extended for too long, it may ruin the delicate aromas and turn your cup of tea unpleasantly bitter. Oolong teas are best served plain, but you can add milk, sugar, honey or lemon according to your taste. Oolong Tea Health Benefits Oolong tea, a hybrid between black and green tea, has numerous health benefits, especially if consumed regularly. Drinking Oolong tea stimulates brain activity and relieves mental and physical stress. Oolong tea has the potential of reducing high blood pressure, lowering blood sugar levels and preventing serious afflictions like obesity, osteoporosis, tooth decay, cancer or heart disease. Oolong tea accelerates the metabolism and promotes weight loss. Another health benefit of Oolong tea is its effectiveness in treating skin problems such as eczema and rashes and combating skin aging. Oolong Tea Side Effects Although drinking Oolong tea is extremely beneficial for the body, it can also lead to unpleasant side effects when consumed in large quantities, therefore moderation is required. These side effects include sleeping difficulties, anxiety or irritability, most of them related to excessive caffeine intake. It is not recommended for pregnant women and people suffering from kidney disorders. Furthermore, oolong tea has been proven to interact with certain medications; therefore, people who undertake treatment are advised to consult a health care provider first. Oolong tea is extremely effective in keeping your energy levels up, due to its caffeine content, and it also increases brain function, helping you maintain active and aware throughout the day.... Beneficial Teas

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Beneficial Teas

Oral Health

The optimal state of the mouth and normal functioning of the organs of the mouth without evidence of disease.... Community Health

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Community Health

Orange Spice Tea: A Mixture For Health

Orange Spice Tea is a complex, full-flavored type of black tea, kindly recommended to beginner consumers of tea blends. It is a largely-appreciated tea, having an old acknowledged tradition, its first production being placed in the 19th century. Orange Spice Tea description. Orange Spice Tea is another variety of black tea mixed with orange zest or dried peel, together with a combination of spices, such as: cloves, cinnamon, nutmeg and allspice. It has been noticed that any number of spice combination is possible. Orange Spice Tea is usually caffeine-free, being thus, a good tea to consume at any time of the day or even night.  It can be drunk hot or as an iced tea beverage, with or without adding milk or honey. Orange Spice Tea is recommended to be one of the best choices for those not yet accustomed to gourmet tea blends. It is typically available as loose leaves or as bag forms and is often found in gourmet tea shops, health stores or on grocery shelves. Orange Spice Tea recipe The abovementioned tea has a delicate taste and is also a good ingredient to be included in the daily diet, due to its healthy properties. It can be consumed both as beverage, or can be added to different cookies recipes. To brew Orange Spice Tea:
  • Fill a teapot with about 16 ounces of water
  • Boil the water
  • Place about two tablespoons of the leaves in a teapot
  • Take the pot out of the water
  • Let the mix stand for about 5 to 7 minutes
  • Strain and drink it slowly
To include Orange Spice Tea in sweets recipes, grind the tea leaves and mix them with the dough, together with the ingredients. Orange Spice Tea benefits Orange Spice Tea gathers the benefits of black tea, citrus and spices:
  • strengthens the immune system
  • helps lower the risk of cardiovascular diseases
  • helps in the prevention of certain cancers
  • contributes to preventing colds, cough and flu
  • helps in calming and relaxing the senses
  • stimulates blood circulation
  • increases concentration and memory levels
  • warms the body (especially during winter)
Orange Spice Tea side effects Rarely,Orange Spice Teaconsumers experienced stomach aches or the syndrome of upset stomach. Patients suffering from gastritis are advised to intake a low quantity of Orange Spice Tea. Orange Spice Tea clusters the benefits and taste of black tea, citron and a large array of spices. It is intensely consumed by connoisseurs and novices, especially due to its health contributions and proven energy booster actions.... Beneficial Teas

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Ottawa Charter For Health Promotion

The Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion of 1986 identifies three basic strategies for health promotion. These are advocacy for health to create essential conditions for health; enabling all people to achieve their full health potential; and mediating between the different interests in society in the pursuit of health. These strategies are supported by five priority action areas: build health public policy; create supportive environments for health; strengthen community action for health; develop personal skills; and reorient health services.... Community Health

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Parliamentary And Health Service Ombudsman

(in England) an official responsible to Parliament and appointed to protect the interests of patients in relation to administration of and provision of health care by the *National Health Service. He or she can investigate complaints about the NHS when they cannot be resolved locally. In Scotland, and in Wales, this role is undertaken by a Public Services Ombudsman.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Partnership For Health Promotion

A voluntary agreement between two or more partners to work cooperatively towards a set of shared health outcomes.... Community Health

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Patient Health Questionnaire

see PHQ-9.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Positive Health

A state of health beyond an asymptomatic state. It usually includes the quality of life and the potential of the human condition. It may also include self-fulfilment, vitality for living and creativity. It is concerned with thriving rather than merely coping. See also “health”.... Community Health

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Primary Health Care

Sometimes called primary medical care, this is the care provided by a GENERAL PRACTITIONER (GP) – traditionally entitled the family doctor – or other health professionals who have ?rst contact with a patient needing or wanting medical attention. In the NHS, the primary health-care services include those provided by the general, dental, ophthalmic and pharmaceutical services as well as the family doctor service. Community health services provided outside the hospitals also o?er some primary health care.... Medical Dictionary

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Private Health Care

The provision of medical and dental care to patients who pay for the care either directly, through private medical insurance, or through employer-funded private insurance. In the UK, most patients are treated and cared for by the community- or hospital-based NHS. Although not forbidden to do so, few NHS general practitioners see private patients. NHS consultants are – within certain prescribed circumstances – allowed to treat private patients and many, especially surgeons, do so; but consultations and treatment are usually done on private-health premises. Some NHS hospitals have private facilities attached, but most private care is carried out in separate, privately run clinics and hospitals.

Certain specialties – for example, orthopaedic and reconstructive/cosmetic surgery and mental health – attract more private patients than others, such as paediatrics or medicine for the elderly. The standards of clinical care are generally the same in the two systems, but private patients can see the specialist of their choice at a time convenient to them. Waiting times for consultations and treatment are short and, when in hospital, private patients usually have their own room, telephone, TV, open visiting hours, etc.

A substantial proportion of private medical-care services are those provided for elderly people requiring regular nursing care and some medical supervision. The distinction between residential care and nursing care for the elderly is often blurred, but the government policy of providing means-tested state funding only for people genuinely needing regular nursing care – a system operated by local-authority social-service departments in England and Wales – has necessitated clearer de?nitions of the facilities provided for the elderly by private organisations. The strict criteria for state support (especially in England), the budget-conscious approach of local authorities when negotiating fees with private nursing homes, and the fact that NHS hospital trusts also have to pay for some patients discharged to such homes (to free-up hospital beds for new admissions) have led to intense ?nancial pressures on private facilities for the elderly. This has caused the closure of many homes, which, in turn, is worsening the level of BED-BLOCKING by elderly patients who do not require hospital-intensity nursing but who lack family support in the community and cannot a?ord private care.... Medical Dictionary

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Private Health Insurance

Privately organized health insurance that is based on estimation of probable population risks, and that provides either total or partial indemnity of medical expenses.... Community Health

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Professional Liability Insurance

Liability insurance to protect professionals for loss or expense resulting from claims arising from mistakes, errors or omissions committed or alleged to have been committed by the insured in his professional activities.... Community Health

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Public Health

The approach to health that is concerned with the health of the community as a whole. The three core public health functions are: the assessment and monitoring of the health of communities and populations at risk to identify health problems and priorities; the formulation of public policies designed to solve identified local and national health problems and priorities; and ensuring that all populations have access to appropriate and cost-effective care, including health promotion and disease prevention services, and evaluation of the effectiveness of that care. See “community health”.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Public Health

Individuals with health problems go to their doctor, are diagnosed and prescribed treatment. Public-health doctors use epidemiological studies (see EPIDEMIOLOGY, and below) to diagnose the causes of health problems in populations and to plan services to treat the health and disease problems identi?ed. Their concern is often focused particularly on those who are disadvantaged or marginalised, and on the delivery of safe, e?ective and accessible health care: however, to achieve their goal of better health and well-being for everybody, they must also in?uence decision-makers across the whole community.

Central to an understanding of public health is recognition that public-health practitioners are concerned not just with individuals, but also with whole populations – and that improving health care plays only a part of public-health improvement. The health of populations (public health) is also dependent on many factors such as the social, economic and physical environment in which the people live and the nutrition and health care available to them.

For thousands of years, a fundamental feature of civilisations has been to seek to improve the health of the population and protect it from disease. This has led to the development of legal frameworks which di?er widely from country to country, depending on their social and political development. All are concerned to stop the spread of infectious diseases, and to maintain the safety of urban food and water supplies and waste disposal. Most are also associated with housing standards, some form of poverty relief, and basic health care. Some trading standards are often covered, at least in relation to the sale and distribution of poisons and drugs, and to controls on industrial and transport safety – for example, in relation to drinking and driving and car design. Although these varied functions protect the public health and were often originally developed to improve it, most are managerially and professionally separated from today’s public-health departments. So public-health professionals in the NHS, armed with evidence of the cause of a disease problem, must frequently act as advocates for health across many agencies where they play no formal management part. They must also seek to build alliances and add a health perspective to the policies of other services wherever possible.

Epidemiology is the principal diagnostic method of public health. It is de?ned as the study of the distribution and determinants of health-related states in speci?ed populations, and the application of this study to the control of health problems. Public-health practitioners also draw on many other skills, such as those of statisticians, sociologists, anthropologists, economists and policy analysts in identifying and trying to resolve the health problems of the societies they serve. Treatments proposed are likely to extend well beyond the clinic or hospital and may include recommendations for measures to resolve poverty, improve sanitation or housing, control pollution, change lifestyles such as smoking, improve nutrition, or change health services. At times of acute EPIDEMIC, public-health doctors have considerable legal powers granted to enable them to prevent infection from spreading. At other times their work may be more concerned with monitoring, reporting, planning and managing services, and advocating policy changes to politicians so that health is promoted.

The term ‘the public health’ can relate to the state of health of the population, and be represented by measures such as MORTALITY indices

(e.g. perinatal or infant mortality and standardised mortality rates), life expectancy, or measures of MORBIDITY (illness). These can be compared across areas and even countries. Sometimes people refer to a pubic health-care system; this is a publicly funded service, the primary aim of which is to improve health by the use of population-based measures. They may include or be separate from private health-care services for which individuals pay. The structure of these systems varies from country to country, re?ecting di?erent social composition and political priorities. There are, however, some general elements that can be identi?ed:

Surveillance The collection, collation and analysis of data to provide useful information about the distribution and causes of health and disease and related factors in populations. These activities form the basis of epidemiology, which is the diagnostic backbone of public-health practice.

Intervention The design, advocacy and implementation of policies to improve health. This may be through the provison of PREVENTIVE MEDICINE, environmental measures, in?uencing the behaviour of individuals, or the provision of appropriate services to limit disability and handicap. It will lead to advocacy for health, promoting change in many areas of policy including, for example, taxation and improved housing and employment opportunities.

Evaluation Assessment of the ?rst two steps to assess their impact in terms of e?ectiveness, e?ciency, acceptability, accessibility, value for money or other indicators of quality. This enables the programme to be reviewed and changed as necessary.

The practice of public health The situation in the United Kingdom will be described as, even though systems vary, it will give a general impression of the type of work covered. HISTORY Initially, public-health practice related to food, the urban environment and the control of infectious diseases. Early examples include rules in the Bible about avoiding certain foods. These were probably based on practical experience, had gradually been adopted as sensible behaviour, become part of culture and ?nally been incorporated into religious laws. Other examples are the regulations about quarantine for PLAGUE and LEPROSY in the Middle Ages, vaccination against SMALLPOX introduced by William Jenner, and Lind’s use of citrus fruits to prevent SCURVY at sea in the 18th century.

It was during the 19th century, in response to the health problems arising from the rapid growth of urban life, that the foundations of a public-health system were created. The ‘sanitary’ concept was fundamental to these developments. This suggested that overcrowding in insanitary conditions was the cause of most disease epidemics and that improved sanitation measures such as sewerage and clean water supplies would prevent them. Action to introduce such measures were often initiated only after epidemics spread out of the slums and into wealthier and more powerful families. Other problems such as the stench of the River Thames outside the Houses of Parliament also led to a demand for e?ective sanitary control measures. Successive public-health laws were passed by Parliament, initially about sanitation and housing, and then, as scienti?c knowledge grew, about bacterial infections.

In the middle of the 19th century the ?rst medical o?cers of health were appointed with responsibility to report regularly and advise local government about the measures needed to control disease and improve health. Their scope and responsibility widened as society changed and took on a wider welfare role. After more than a century they changed as part of the reforms of the NHS and local government in the 1960s and became more narrowly focused within the health-care system and its management. Increased recognition of the multifactorial causes, costs and limitations of treatment of conditions such as cancer and heart disease, and the emergence of new problems such as AIDS/HIV and BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY (BSE) have again showed the importance of prevention and a broader approach to health. With it has come recognition that, while disease may be the justi?cation for action, a narrow diseasetreatment-based approach is not always the most e?ective or economic solution. The role of the director of public health (the successor to the medical o?cer of health) is again being expanded, and in 1997 – for the ?rst time in the UK – a government Minister for Public Health was appointed. This reffects not only a greater priority for public health, but also a concern that the health effects of policy should be considered across all parts of government.

(See also ENVIRONMENT AND HEALTH.)... Community Health

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Public Health

A branch of medicine concerned with prevention of disease through health education, provision of clean water supplies, sewage disposal, safer working conditions, infection control methods, immunizations, and the care of pregnant women and young children.

Public health functions are covered by many people and agencies, such as Environmental Health Officers, Medical Officers of Environmental Health, and the Public Health Laboratory Service.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Public Health Consultant

(in Britain) a medical consultant with postgraduate training in public health. Formerly known as community physicians, such consultants undertake public health functions, either as *Directors of Public Health in local authorities or as consultants in public health in local authorities, *Public Health England, or elsewhere. See also public health specialist.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Public Health England

(PHE) an executive agency of the Department of Health and Social Care with responsibility for providing national leadership on health protection, health improvement, and public health knowledge and information. In addition to the national team, there are four regional offices and nine local centres providing public health support to *clinical commissioning groups, local authorities, and health-care providers. PHE also hosts a network of specialist and reference microbiology laboratories. It was formed as a result of the Health and Social Care Act 2012; it absorbed the functions of a number of abolished bodies, including the *Health Protection Agency, the national network of public health observatories, and the National Treatment Agency for Substance Misuse.

Public Health England website... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Public Health Ethics

the ethics of population (as opposed to individual) health, including issues related to epidemiology, disease prevention, health promotion, *justice, and *equality. Public health ethics is commonly concerned with the tensions between individual *autonomy and *communitarianism and/or *utilitarianism.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Public Health Laboratoryservice (phls)

A statutory organisation that is part of the NHS. It comprises ten laboratory groups and two centres in the UK, with central coordination from PHLS headquarters. The service provides diagnostic-testing facilities for cases of suspected infectious disease. The remit of the PHLS (which was set up during World War II and then absorbed into the NHS) is now based on legislation approved in 1977 and 1979. Its overall purpose was to protect the population from infection by maintaining a national capability of high quality for the detection, diagnosis, surveillance, protection and control of infections and communicable diseases. It provided microbiology services to hospitals, family doctors and local authorities as well as providing national reference facilities. In 2001 it was incorporated into the newly established NATIONAL INFECTION CONTROL AND HEALTH PROTECTION AGENCY.... Medical Dictionary

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Public Health Medicine

the specialty concerned with preventing disease and improving health in populations as distinct from individuals. Formerly known as community medicine or social medicine, it includes *epidemiology, *health promotion, *health service planning, *health protection, and evaluation. See also public health consultant.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Public Health Service

(PHS) the oldest and one of the largest US federal health agencies. Founded in 1798 as a system of hospitals for sailors, the PHS is now the major health service operating division of the *Department of Health and Human Services and administers eleven agencies, including the *Food and Drug Administration, the National Institutes of Health, and the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. The agency employs tens of thousands of people with a total annual budget well into the billions.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Public Health Specialist

a public health practitioner with postgraduate training in public health or with demonstrated competence in key areas of public health practice. These specialists perform the same roles as *public health consultants but do not have medical training.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Re-orienting Health Services

Health services re-orientation is characterized by a more explicit concern for the achievement of population health outcomes in the ways in which the health system is organized and funded.... Community Health

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Regulation Of Health Professions

Professional sta? working in health care are registered with and regulated by several statutory bodies: doctors by the GENERAL MEDICAL COUNCIL (GMC); dentists by the GENERAL DENTAL COUNCIL; nurses and midwives by the Council for Nursing and Midwifery, formerly the UK Central Council for Nursing, Midwifery and Health Visiting (see NURSING); PHARMACISTS by the Royal Pharmaceutical Society; and the professions supplementary to medicine (chiropody, dietetics, medical laboratory sciences, occupational therapy, orthoptics, physiotherapy and radiography) by the Council for Professions Supplementary to Medicine. In 2002, the Council for the Regulation of Health Care Professions was set up as a statutory body that will promote cooperation between and give advice to existing regulatory bodies, provide a quality-control mechanism, and play a part in promoting the interests of patients. The new Council is accountable to a Select Committee of Parliament and is a non-ministerial government department similar in status to the FOOD STANDARDS AGENCY. It has the right to scrutinise the decisions of its constituent bodies and can apply for judicial review if it feels that a judgement by a disciplinary committee has been too lenient.... Medical Dictionary

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Reinsurance

A mechanism whereby an insurer can cover high-risk losses through insurance from another insurer.... Community Health

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Rooibos Tea Health Benefits

Rooibos tea is a largely consumed beverage, due to its medicinal properties dealing with weak bone structure, insomnia or even stomach ailments. Rooibos Tea description Rooibos is a plant belonging to the legume family which grows in South Africa. This plant is used to prepare Rooibos tea (also known as bush tea or redbush tea). The beverage is known for centuries in Southern Africa and nowadays, it is consumed in many countries. Fermentation by analogy (the process through which the leaves are oxidized) renders its reddish-brown color and enhances its flavor. Rooibos Tea brewing To prepare Rooibos tea:
  • use spring water or filtered water
  • brew Rooibos tea leaves in heartily boiling water: one heaping teaspoon of tea leaves per eight ounces (one cup) of water
  • steep it five to ten minutes
  • keep the water hot the entire time the leaves are steeping
Milk, sugar or honey can be added to the resulting beverage. Rooibos Tea benefits Rooibos tea has been successfully used to:
  • treat irritability,headaches, disturbed sleeping patterns, insomnia, nervous tension, mild depression or hypertension
  • relieve stomach cramps
  • relieve colic in infants
  • relieve stomach and indigestive problems like nausea, vomiting, heartburn, stomach ulcers and constipation
  • supplement the daily amounts of calcium, manganese and especially fluoride for the development of strong teeth and bones
  • relieve itching and certain skin irritations like eczema, nappy rash and acne (when directly applied to the affected area)
Rooibos Tea side effects Rooibos tea is not recommended to pregnant and nursing women. Also, it is recommended to ask your doctor before consuming this type of tea. Rooibos tea is a healthy beverage used to treat a large array of diseases such as skin-related issues, indigestion, disturbed sleeping patterns, but not only.... Beneficial Teas

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Rural Health Network

Any of a variety of organizational arrangements to link rural health care providers in a common purpose.... Community Health

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School Health Service

(in Britain) a service concerned with promotion of health and wellbeing in schoolchildren, including the early detection of health and social problems and their subsequent treatment and surveillance.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Self-rated Health Status / Perceived Health Status

Health status is usually obtained from survey data by asking the respondent if his/her health is excellent, very good, good, fair or poor (or similar questions).... Community Health

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Settings For Health

The place or social context in which people engage in daily activities in which environmental, organizational and personal factors interact to affect health and well-being.... Community Health

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Skullcap Tea Health Benefits

Skullcap tea gets its name from the perennial herb shaped like a human skull, native to North America. Skullcap tea has been used for centuries as a natural and effective sedative and nerve tonic which relieves fear, anxiety and promotes relaxation. Skullcap Tea Brewing Skullcap teabrewing should be made with water that is not too hot, because otherwise it will spoil the tea and its benefits will not be fully enjoyed. The infusion will last three to five minutes. Skullcap tea has a pleasant taste which will make you perceive it less like a medicinal sleeping aid. Skullcap Tea Health Benefits Skullcap tea has a wide range ofbeneficial effects on the human body. It has been used as a sedative for centuries and nowadays been proven effective as a cure for insomnia, anxiety and headaches. Skullcap tea has a calming effect which soothes stress, muscle spasms, menstrual cramps and other problems that require the use of a remedy with sedative properties. Skullcap tea consumption may also be useful as a complimentary treatment method for more serious illnesses such as bladder and liver cancer, asthma, arthritis, gout or allergies. Research suggests that the tea could be beneficial for the prevention of heart diseases and strokes as well. Skullcap Tea Side Effects Excessive Skullcap tea intake may lead to unpleasantside effects such as irregular heartbeat, mental confusion, slow responsiveness to stimuli and even seizures. Skullcap tea should not be consumed with other with other medications that have the same relaxing effects because it may enhance their sedation properties and it is not recommended for pregnant or nursing women. Patients suffering from spleen, liver or stomach problems and diabetics should avoid Skullcap tea. It is advisable to consult a doctor prior to adding skullcap tea to your dietary plan. Sleep is essential for the well-being of our body. Drinking Skullcap tea nightly before bed when you feel the need of easing your mind or calming your nerves will work miracles. You will turn off your brain and enjoy a good night’s sleep!... Beneficial Teas

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Solomon`s Seal Tea Health Benefits

Solomon’s Seal Tea is a very good remedy when it comes to heart problems and not only. Solomon’s Seal plant is a medicinal herb well known for its healing properties that can easily be recognized by its long green leaves and pale yellow flowers. You are probably more familiar to its cultivated cousin, Lily of the Valley. Solomon’s Seal plant has a large variety of types and it can be found in North America, Northern Europe and Siberia and it can be grown by division or by seeds. Solomon’s Seal was named after King Solomon the Hebrew, who was granted a lot of wisdom from God. According to herbal lore, Solomon put his royal seal on this plant’s leaves after recognizing its great benefits. Solomon’s Seal Tea Properties Solomon’s Seal tea is best known for its therapeutic use. You can make a tonic out of it, a hot tea or a tincture. All you need to do is find the use that bits you best and go for it! But make sure you do not eat or even touch the fruits, the leaves or the stems: they are poisonous ! The main substances of Solomon’s Seal tea are vitamins, saponins (similar to diosgenin), flavonoids. A solution made of roost or rhizomes is used in alternative medicine as an astringent, demulcent, and tonic. The dried roots are a great laxative and restorative, and is does wonders when it comes to inflammations of the stomach, indigestion, profuse menstruation, piles, general debility, bowels and chronic dysentery. You can also apply Solomon’s Seal roots on open cuts or eczema. Solomon’s Seal Tea Benefits Solomon’s Seal tea is useful for a lot of things and it has proven its medical and culinary utility in time. Ladies will find this plant very interesting and nevertheless important: a decoction made of Solomon’s Seal can be used as an excellent face rinse (think of it as a natural makeup remover or an organic face treatment). Solomon’s Seal tea is also a good remedy when it comes to kidney problems, heart conditions and nevertheless sexual problems. A solution of Solomon’s Seal can be used in case of internal bleeding, indigestion and other stomach and digestive system complaints. Let’s not forget that oil infused with Solomon’s Seal tea should always be kept in the medical cabinet: is great for broken bones or strains, torn ligaments and joint problems. How to make Solomon’s Seal Tea Infusion Solomon’s Seal tea can only be made from this herb’s rhizomes. What you need to do is take the roots and boil them for 15-20 minutes (depending on how dry they are). If they are freshly harvested, 10 minutes should do the trick. Put the solution in a bottle and drink it whenever you feel like it, but not more that 2 cups per day. Drinking too much Solomon’s Seal tea can cause diarrhea and other stomach problems. Solomon’s Seal Tea Side Effects Solomon’s Seal tea has few side effects. However, a high dosage may cause aching finger joints or heart burn. If any of that happened to you, see a doctor as soon as possible! Solomon’s Seal Tea- Contraindications Do not take Solomon’s Seal tea if you are suffering from diarrhea or other digestive track conditions, such as ulcer. It may cause serious damage to you and your body. Before starting any type of diet or treatment that involves Solomon’s Seal tea, see a doctor first. The benefits of Solomon’s Seal tea are many. Next time you’re looking for a natural treatment, add Solomon’s Seal Tea to your shopping list and just give it a try!... Beneficial Teas

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Beneficial Teas

Special Health Authority

a type of NHS trust that provides services across the NHS in England, rather than in a single defined geographical area. There are four special health authorities, which exist as arms-length bodies of the Department of Health and Social Care, independent of government: *NHS Blood and Transplant, *NHS Business Services Authority, *NHS Resolution and *NHS Counter Fraud Authority.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Speedwell Tea Organic Health Benefits

Speedwell Tea is and it has been for centuries used mainly for its soothing effects. Speedwell is a perennial herb that grows mostly in Europe. The French people used it in the 19th century as a very good replacement for ordinary tea, because of its bitter and astringent flavor. Nowadays, Speedwell Tea is used to calm any skin irritation, throat ache or cough. Speedwell Tea Properties Speedwell Tea is a great remedy for almost any health condition that involves inflammation or localized pain. You can use it as a supplementary aid or as a main treatment as well. There are many types of Speedwell Tea solutions, such as infusions, tonics or tinctures. Also, pressing the smashed plant on a open cut will calm your pain and bring relief if you are suffering from irritated skin. You can benefit from this plant’s wonders at home, preparing the tea by yourself or buy it from the tea shop. However, if you are thinking about making it at home, pay attention to our advice on How to prepare Speedwell Tea. Speedwell Tea Benefits Speedwell Tea has been used for many years as a panacea for almost any health problems. Its main use was in treating gall stones and colds. In our times, alternative medicine found new and excited benefits of Speedwell Tea in treating light-headedness, damaged hearing, sinusitis and ear infections. Also, if you are suffering from nephritic problems, skin ailments, hemorrhages or have a small opened wound, Speedwell Tea may come in hand. The leaves and roots of speedwell are astringent, gently diuretic, stomachic, slightly expectorant and stimulant. Lately, herbalists around the world announced the benefits that Speedwell Tea offers when treating ulcers or blockages of the respiratory system. How to make Speedwell Tea Infusion When making Speedwell Tea infusion, you need to pay attention to a couple of things. First of all, you need to decide if you are using Speedwell powder, freshly picked Speedwell plants or dry roots. Put the ingredients in a pot of boiled water and wait for the benefits of Speedwell Tea to be released. If you are using powder, wait only 10 minutes. For dry roots or fresh plants, 15 to 20 minutes, depending on the amount of water used. For better results and a more concentrated solution, wait another 15 minutes. You can drink it or use it on your affected area. Also, you can use the powder directly on an open cut or wound. Speedwell Tea Side Effects Speedwell Tea has almost no side effects at all. Just make sure you don’t drink more than 3 cups a day or you’ll get diarrhea and also experience vomiting sensations. Other than that, go for it! Speedwell Tea Contraindications Don’t take Speedwell Tea if you are already suffering from diarrhea or have vomiting episodes. Also, if you have a dry throat, this tea may not be the best idea for you. However, if you experience any of the symptoms mentioned before and are still thinking about taking Speedwell Tea, talk to a specialist before boiling the water. Judging by this tea’s popularity and the great reviews that people around the world gave, it’s fair to say that Speedwell tea should have its own place in your list of herbal remedies. If you have on open cut and are tired of your medicine cabinet, add Speedwell Tea to your shopping cart next time you’re shopping for natural treatments!... Beneficial Teas

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State Medicine (health Care Systems)

Major government schemes to ensure adequate health services to substantial sectors of the community through direct provision of services.... Community Health

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Strategic Health Authority

(SHA) formerly a statutory organization in England that was responsible for strategic leadership, building capacity, organizational development, and performance management in the local National Health Service. SHAs were abolished by the Health and Social Care Act 2012; their responsibilities passed to *NHS England, *clinical commissioning groups, and *Public Health England.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Supportive Environment For Health

An environment that reduces risks to people’s health and promotes healthy living.... Community Health

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Tea For Good Health

A good health means that all your system works properly and that there’s nothing that could give you a hard time. Generally, people think that if nothing hurts, they have a very strong health, when the truth is that they can’t really tell what’s going on with their body. In order to make sure everything is fine, you have to see a specialist. However, if your health is in danger, there are some teas that could work miracles for you and your body. Just give them a try! How Tea for Good Health Works A Tea for Good Health’s main purpose is to ameliorate your affections and induce a state of calmness and well-being. However, these teas are very useful if you have a very deficient immune system or you’re very sensitive to a series of external factors which may cause you colds, flu or asthenia. If that is the case, a Tea for Good Health will make your body produce the necessary amount of enzymes and nutrients in order to restore your natural health. Aside from Green Tea and Yerba Mate Tea, few teas can be taken for any problem. Not many teas have the same number of active ingredients capable to sustain life, like these two teas have. Efficient Tea for Good Health When choosing a Tea for Good Health, you need to keep in mind the fact that you’re looking for a decoction that’s both efficient and safe. If you don’t know which teas are good to strengthen your immune system, here’s a list to choose from: - Ginger Tea – the well known Chinese tea has a lot of benefits in store for you. Some say that it also cures a lot of affections, such as stress, anxiety and sore throat. Ginger Tea has a pleasant taste; just make sure you use the right amount of herbs when preparing a decoction in order to avoid irritations of the stomach, diarrhea and intolerance to acid foods and drinks. - Peppermint Tea – it’s good for a series of conditions, starting with digestive tract diseases and ending with respiratory system affections. It has a pleasant taste and it’s also one hundred percent safe. You can also use it if you’re suffering from diarrhea, bloating, vomiting and nausea. - Chamomile Tea – the world’s greatest panacea can be used to treat and bring relief to almost any medical problem, from sore throats to diabetes and menstrual or menopausal pains. You may also give it a try in case you’re suffering from stress, anxiety, migraines or headaches. A Chamomile Tea compress will turn this great Tea for Good Health into a reliable disinfector. - Rooibos Tea – rich in vitamin C, this tea can be taken to treat any auto-immune deficiency, such as colds, flu, soreness, pleurisy or pulmonary edema. Just make sure you don’t take more than 2 cups per day in order to avoid other health complications. Tea for Good Health Side Effects When taken properly, these teas are generally safe. However, high dosages may lead to a number of problems such as diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, upset stomach or even hallucinations. If you’ve been taking one of these teas for a while and you’re experiencing some unusual reactions from your body, talk to a specialist as soon as possible. Talk to an herbalist or ask your doctor before starting any kind of herbal treatment and be well informed of the risks. If you have your doctor’s ok on the matter and there’s nothing that could interfere with your herbal treatment, choose a Tea for Good Health that seems right for you and enjoy its wonderful benefits!... Beneficial Teas

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Tea For Heart Health

Heart conditions may be triggered by many causes, from stomach pains to vascular strokes and depression. However, some people have a congenital predisposition for cardiac problems and all they can do is treat this affection as it is. Having a heart problem could mean that your heart is not pumping enough blood (or too much), that you have an abnormal growth which weakens your circulatory system or that you suffer from arrhythmia (a disease in which your blood flow is never constant, but fluctuates depending on the situation). How a Tea for Heart Health Works A Tea for Heart Health’s main goal is to prevent diseases from developing and treating the already installed ones. If that is the case, you may want to look after teas and tinctures which contain a high level of antioxidants, natural enzymes, volatile oils and minerals (sodium, iron, magnesium and manganese) and are low on acids (in high concentrations, they may cause heartburn). Efficient Tea for Heart Health In order to work properly, a Tea for Heart Health needs to be both efficient and one hundred percent safe. Remember that you must schedule an appointment with your doctor before self medicating! This way, you’ll eliminate the risk of triggering other health problems and you’ll know for sure what’s wrong with your body. If you don’t know which teas could have a positive effect on you, here’s a list for guidance: - Green Tea – according to specialists, this Tea for Heart Health contains all the ingredients necessary to sustain life, so it’s useful for a wide range of ailments, from sore throats, headaches and migraines to infertility and erectile dysfunctions. However, you may want to avoid it if you’re experiencing menstrual and menopausal symptoms (due to its acids level, it may cause uterine contractions). - Yerba Mate Tea – named “the new green tea” by the herbalists, this decoction is a great choice for many problems, such as loss of appetite, asthenia or anemia. Although it remains yet unknown to European public, Yerba Mate Tea is very popular in South American regions. However, don’t drink more than 2 cups per day! High dosages may lead to death! - Chamomile Tea – has curative properties which are benefic for a series of health problems, from nausea, diarrhea, upset stomach to infertility and hot flashes. This Tea for Heart Health has a pleasant taste and a lovely smell. Plus, it’s one hundred percent safe, so you can drink as much as you want. If you’re thinking about giving up on coffee, Chamomile Tea can be a great replacer. Tea for Heart Health Side Effects When taken properly, these teas are generally safe. However, exceeding the number of cups recommended per day may lead to a number of problems, such as stomach pain, nausea, headaches and even death. Before starting any kind of herbal treatment, make sure you’re well informed of the risks that may occur. Don’t take a Tea for Heart Health if you’re pregnant, breastfeeding, on blood thinners or anticoagulants. The same advice if you’re preparing for a surgery. If you’ve been taking one of these teas for a while and something doesn’t feel quite right, ask for medical assistance right away! Once you have the green light from your doctor and there’s nothing that could interfere with your treatment, choose a Tea for Heart Health that fits best your condition and enjoy its great benefits!... Beneficial Teas

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Telemedicine / Telehealth

The employment of communication technology to provide assistance in the diagnosis, treatment, care and management of health conditions in remote areas.... Community Health

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White Tea - Health Benefits, Information

White tea is a fruity low-caffeine beverage with a delicate aroma and a sweet or bittersweet taste. Despite its name, it has a pale yellow colour. White tea originated in the Fujian province of China sometime in the 18th century. Green tea and black tea are made from the leaves of the tea plant, whereas white tea is prepared from its white fuzzy buds. White tea is minimally processed, withered in natural sunlight and only slightly oxidized. White Tea Brewing White tea brewing is a quite easy procedure. When preparing white tea, preferably use water heated at a below boiling temperature of approximately 80 degrees Celsius and steep it for three to five minutes. White tea should be enjoyed plain because milk might neutralize its beneficial properties. White Tea Health Benefits White tea consumption offers your body numerous health benefits by boosting the immune system and strengthening its power to fight against viruses and bacteria. The beverage is also effective in the prevention of dental plaque, one of the main causes of tooth decay, and it may also have a beneficial effect for people afflicted with osteoporosis or arthritis. Research shows that some white tea compounds protect against cancer, reduce the cholesterol level and improve artery function, thus lowering the risk of cardiovascular disease. The antioxidants in white tea protect the skin and make it appear healthy and radiant. Regular consumption of white tea may also prevent obesity and aid in the weight-loss process. White tea increases metabolism, encouraging the burning of fat. White Tea Side Effects Although white tea has low caffeine content, some people may still experience unpleasant side effects which include anxiety, sleeping difficulties, nausea, faster heart rate, tremors or gastrointestinal problems. Enjoy the pleasant aroma ofwhite tea and its health benefits at any time of the day. You have a wide range of white teas you can choose from and you can drink as many as four cups a day. White tea is definitely one of nature’s great gifts!... Beneficial Teas

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World Health Organization

(WHO)

An international organization established in 1948 as an agency of the United Nations with responsibilities for international health matters and public health. The headquarters are in Geneva, Switzerland.

The has campaigned effectively against some infectious diseases, most

notably smallpox, tuberculosis, and malaria.

Other functions include sponsoring medical research programmes, organizing a network of collaborating national laboratories, and providing expert advice and specific targets to its 160 member states with regard to health matters.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

World Health Organization

(WHO) an international organization working to improve global public health. Membership is open to all countries, and the member states are divided into six regions; the United Kingdom is part of the WHO European Region. Health issues are discussed and policies evolved mainly through topic-specific working groups. WHO staff are seconded by invitation to advise countries on solving public health problems (especially infectious disease control). WHO handles information on the internationally *notifiable diseases, publishes the *International Classification of Diseases, and awards fellowships to enable health staff from poorer countries to obtain further training.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary