The meaning of the symbols of dreams/ seen in a dream.


Pain in mid or lower back... lumbago


A neoplasia of the lymph tissue, such as Hodgkin’s Disease. Although it is frequently useful to stimulate immunity when a person is undergoing chemotherapy for cancer, since the resultant immunosuppression is a major side effect of the treatment, in lymphatic cancer this the POINT of the therapy...let it be.... lymphoma


Inflammation of the larynx... laryngitis

Lassa Fever

A serious viral haemorrhagic fever of humans harboured by small rodents such as the multimammate mouse of West and Central Africa.... lassa fever


A zoonosis. It is an acute, febrile, septicaemic disease caused by the Leptospira interrogans which has more than 200 serovars. The disease is characterised by a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations including fever, chills, headache, conjunctivitis and muscular pains. The disease may be subclinical in mild cases but jaundice and renal failure are observed in severe cases. Includes Weil’s Disease. Can result in an aseptic meningitis.... leptospirosis


An abnormal mucous discharge from the vagina... leucorrhoea


Blood cancer... leukaemia


Nelumbo species

Description: There are two species of lotus: one has yellow flowers and the other pink flowers. The flowers are large and showy. The leaves, which may float on or rise above the surface of the water, often reach 1.5 meters in radius. The fruit has a distinctive flattened shape and contains up to 20 hard seeds.

Habitat and Distribution: The yellow-flowered lotus is native to North America. The pink-flowered species, which is widespread in the Orient, is planted in many other areas of the world. Lotuses are found in quiet fresh water.

Edible Parts: All parts of the plant are edible raw or cooked. The underwater parts contain large quantities of starch. Dig the fleshy portions from the mud and bake or boil them. Boil the young leaves and eat them as a vegetable. The seeds have a pleasant flavor and are nutritious. Eat them raw, or parch and grind them into flour.... lotus

Lyme Disease

A zoonotic disease caused by the spirochaete Borrelia burgdorferi and other species of the genus. Common in Europe and the USA and transmi tted by Ixodid ticks.... lyme disease

Corpus Luteum

A temporary endocrine gland formed at ovulation from part of the former egg follicle, and the source of progesterone. See PROGESTERONE, ESTROGEN, MENOPAUSE... corpus luteum




The secretion of milk by mammals... lactation


A genus of gram-positive, acid-resistant bacteria in the Lactobacillaceae family. We know of lactobacillus because of its use in making yogurt and the conventional wisdom of taking it in one form or another after antibiotic therapy, but it is an integral part of the colon and mouth flora, and is the critical acidifying agent in vaginal flora. There is a growing body of rather ignored data showing the value of regular consumption of a lactobacillus-containing food in immunosuppression, slow virus, and candidiasis conditions.... lactobacillus


The o?cial name for sugar of milk.... lactose


At or on the side, usually from a stem.... lateral


Having the action of loosening the bowel... laxative


See Limón.... lemon


See Limoncillo.... lemongrass


A group of infections caused by parasites transmitted to humans by sand?ies.

Visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar) A systemic infection caused by Leishmania donovani which occurs in tropical and subtropical Africa, Asia, the Mediterranean littoral (and some islands), and in tropical South America. Onset is frequently insidious; incubation period is 2–6 months. Enlargement of spleen and liver may be gross; fever, anaemia, and generalised lymphadenopathy are usually present. Diagnosis is usually made from a bone-marrow specimen, splenic-aspirate, or liver-biopsy specimen; amastigotes (Leishman-Donovan bodies) of L. donovani can be visualised. Several serological tests are of value in diagnosis.

Untreated, the infection is fatal within two years, in approximately 70 per cent of patients. Treatment traditionally involved sodium stibogluconate, but other chemotherapeutic agents (including allupurinol, ketoconazole, and immunotherapy) are now in use, the most recently used being liposomal amphotericin B. Although immunointact persons usually respond satisfactorily, they are likely to relapse if they have HIV infection (see AIDS/HIV).

Cutaneous leishmaniasis This form is caused by infection with L. tropica, L. major,

L. aethiopica, and other species. The disease is widely distributed in the Mediterranean region, Middle East, Asia, Africa, Central and South America, and the former Soviet Union. It is characterised by localised cutaneous ulcers

– usually situated on exposed areas of the body. Diagnosis is by demonstration of the causative organism in a skin biopsy-specimen; the leishmanin skin test is of value. Most patients respond to sodium stibogluconate (see above); local heat therapy is also used. Paromomycin cream has been successfully applied locally.

Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis This form is caused by L. braziliensis and rarely L. mexicana. It is present in Central and South America, particularly the Amazon basin, and characterised by highly destructive, ulcerative, granulomatous lesions of the skin and mucous membranes, especially involving the mucocutaneous junctions of the mouth, nasopharynx, genitalia, and rectum. Infection is usually via a super?cial skin lesion at the site of a sand?y bite. However, spread is by haematogenous routes (usually after several years) to a mucocutaneous location. Diagnosis and treatment are the same as for cutaneous leishmaniasis.... leishmaniasis


A brownish or yellowish spot found on the skin, generally on the hands, arms or face often caused by exposure to sunlight... lentigo


A wound... lesion


Also known as Hansen’s disease, this is a chronic bacterial infection caused by Mycobacterium leprae affecting the skin, mucous membranes, and nerves. Infection is now almost con?ned to tropical and subtropical countries – mostly in Africa and India. There are two distinct (polarised) clinical forms: tuberculoid and lepromatous. The former usually takes a benign course and frequently burns out, whereas the latter is relentlessly progressive; between these two polar forms lies an intermediate/dimorphous group. Susceptibility may be increased by malnutrition. Nasal secretions (especially in lepromatous disease) are teeming with M. leprae and constitute the main source of infection; however, living in close proximity to an infected individual seems necessary for someone to contract the disease. M. leprae can also be transmitted in breast milk from an infected mother.

Only a small minority of those exposed to M. leprae develop the disease. The incubation period is 3–5 years or longer. The major clinical manifestations involve skin and nerves: the former range from depigmented, often anaesthetic areas, to massive nodules; nerve involvement ranges from localised nerve swelling(s) to extensive areas of anaesthesia. Advanced nerve destruction gives rise to severe deformities: foot-drop, wrist-drop, claw-foot, extensive ulceration of the extremities with loss of ?ngers and toes, and bone changes. Eye involvement can produce blindness. Laryngeal lesions produce hoarseness and more serious sequelae. The diagnosis is essentially a clinical one; however, skin-smears, histological features and the lepromin skin-test help to con?rm the diagnosis and enable the form of disease to be graded.

Although the World Health Organisation had originally hoped to eliminate leprosy worldwide by 2000, that has proved an unrealistic target. The reason is an absence of basic information. Doctors are unable to diagnose the disorder before a patient starts to show symptoms; meanwhile he or she may have already passed on the infection. Doctors do not know exactly how transmission occurs or how it infects humans – nor do they know at what point a carrier of the bacterium may infect others. The incidence of new infections is still more than 650,000 cases a year or about 4.5 cases per 10,000 people in those countries worst affected by the disease.

Treatment Introduction of the sulphone compound, dapsone, revolutionised management of the disease. More recently, rifampicin and clofazimine have been added as ?rst-line drugs for treatment. Second-line drugs include minocycline, o?oxacin and clarithromycin; a number of regimens incorporating several of these compounds (multi-drug regimens – introduced in 1982) are now widely used. A three-drug regime is recommended for multi-bacillary leprosy and a two-drug one for parcibacillary leprosy. Dapsone resistance is a major problem worldwide, but occurs less commonly when multi-drug regimens are used. Older compounds – ethionamide and prothionamide

– are no longer used because they are severely toxic to the liver. Corticosteroids are sometimes required in patients with ‘reversal reaction’. Supportive therapy includes physiotherapy; both plastic and orthopaedic surgery may be necessary in advanced stages of the disease. Improvement in socio-economic conditions, and widespread use of BCG vaccination are of value as preventive strategies. Early diagnosis and prompt institution of chemotherapy should prevent long-term complications.... leprosy


A white plaque on mucous membranes caused by overgrowth of the tissues. It is occasionally a pre-cancerous condition.... leukoplakia


See PEDICULOSIS.... lice

Life Expectancy

The average number of years of life remaining to a person at a particular age based on a given set of age-specific death rates, generally the mortality conditions existing in the period mentioned.... life expectancy

Limbic System

A functional, not physical, system in the brain, generally considered to mediate emotions with metabolism.... limbic system


A term applied to any thick, syrupy medicine. Most of these are remedies for excessive coughing.... linctus


See Tilo.... linden


A liquid or thin paste applied to the skin to work as a pain reliever... liniment


A TUMOUR mainly composed of FAT. Such tumours arise in almost any part of the body, developing in ?brous tissues – particularly in that beneath the skin. They are benign in nature, and seldom give any trouble beyond that connected with their size and position. If large, they can be excised.... lipoma


The formation of calculus of any kind... lithiasis


The liver is the largest gland in the body, serving numerous functions, chie?y involving various aspects of METABOLISM.

Form The liver is divided into four lobes, the greatest part being the right lobe, with a small left lobe, while the quadrate and caudate lobes are two small divisions on the back and undersurface. Around the middle of the undersurface, towards the back, a transverse ?ssure (the porta hepatis) is placed, by which the hepatic artery and portal vein carry blood into the liver, and the right and left hepatic ducts emerge, carrying o? the BILE formed in the liver to the GALL-BLADDER attached under the right lobe, where it is stored.

Position Occupying the right-hand upper part of the abdominal cavity, the liver is separated from the right lung by the DIAPHRAGM and the pleural membrane (see PLEURA). It rests on various abdominal organs, chie?y the right of the two KIDNEYS, the suprarenal gland (see ADRENAL GLANDS), the large INTESTINE, the DUODENUM and the STOMACH.

Vessels The blood supply di?ers from that of the rest of the body, in that the blood collected from the stomach and bowels into the PORTAL VEIN does not pass directly to the heart, but is ?rst distributed to the liver, where it breaks up into capillary vessels. As a result, some harmful substances are ?ltered from the bloodstream and destroyed, while various constituents of the food are stored in the liver for use in the body’s metabolic processes. The liver also receives the large hepatic artery from the coeliac axis. After circulating through capillaries, the blood from both sources is collected into the hepatic veins, which pass directly from the back surface of the liver into the inferior vena cava.

Minute structure The liver is enveloped in a capsule of ?brous tissue – Glisson’s capsule – from which strands run along the vessels and penetrate deep into the organ, binding it together. Subdivisions of the hepatic artery, portal vein, and bile duct lie alongside each other, ?nally forming the interlobular vessels,

which lie between the lobules of which the whole gland is built up. Each is about the size of a pin’s head and forms a complete secreting unit; the liver is built up of hundreds of thousands of such lobules. These contain small vessels, capillaries, or sinusoids, lined with stellate KUPFFER CELLS, which run into the centre of the lobule, where they empty into a small central vein. These lobular veins ultimately empty into the hepatic veins. Between these capillaries lie rows of large liver cells in which metabolic activity occurs. Fine bile capillaries collect the bile from the cells and discharge it into the bile ducts lying along the margins of the lobules. Liver cells are among the largest in the body, each containing one or two large round nuclei. The cells frequently contain droplets of fat or granules of GLYCOGEN – that is, animal starch.

Functions The liver is, in e?ect, a large chemical factory and the heat this produces contributes to the general warming of the body. The liver secretes bile, the chief constituents of which are the bile salts (sodium glycocholate and taurocholate), the bile pigments (BILIRUBIN and biliverdin), CHOLESTEROL, and LECITHIN. These bile salts are collected and formed in the liver and are eventually converted into the bile acids. The bile pigments are the iron-free and globin-free remnant of HAEMOGLOBIN, formed in the Kup?er cells of the liver. (They can also be formed in the spleen, lymph glands, bone marrow and connective tissues.) Bile therefore serves several purposes: it excretes pigment, the breakdown products of old red blood cells; the bile salts increase fat absorption and activate pancreatic lipase, thus aiding the digestion of fat; and bile is also necessary for the absorption of vitamins D and E.

The other important functions of the liver are as follows:

In the EMBRYO it forms red blood cells, while the adult liver stores vitamin B12, necessary for the proper functioning of the bone marrow in the manufacture of red cells.

It manufactures FIBRINOGEN, ALBUMINS and GLOBULIN from the blood.

It stores IRON and copper, necessary for the manufacture of red cells.

It produces HEPARIN, and – with the aid of vitamin K – PROTHROMBIN.

Its Kup?er cells form an important part of the RETICULO-ENDOTHELIAL SYSTEM, which breaks down red cells and probably manufactures ANTIBODIES.

Noxious products made in the intestine and absorbed into the blood are detoxicated in the liver.

It stores carbohydrate in the form of glycogen, maintaining a two-way process: glucose


CAROTENE, a plant pigment, is converted to vitamin A, and B vitamins are stored.

It splits up AMINO ACIDS and manufactures UREA and uric acids.

It plays an essential role in the storage and metabolism of FAT.... liver

Living Will

See “advance directive”.... living will


The uterine discharge following birth, changing from reddish the first few days, to yellowish or clear after a couple of weeks. Many traditional skills of a midwife or partera center around evaluating the qualities and progress of lochia.... lochia


A painful spasm of the JAW muscles, making it hard to open the mouth. It is a prominent symptom of TETANUS and was once the popular name for this condition.... lockjaw


Inflammation or swelling of one or more lymph nodes. It may be an acute response or chronic, but signals the drainage into those nodes of microbes, their waste products, or the immuno-complexes produced upstream, whether from infection or allergy. A few infections can target or inhabit lymph nodes such as typhoid and EBV. Some people, with a past history of infection in a specific tissue (such as chronic sore throat as a kid) will have developed a LARGER sized node, hard and permanently palpable. These are hypertrophic or “shotty” nodes, and of no more importance than pumped-up muscles or old scar tissue.... lymphadenitis


Pertaining to the lymph system or lymph tissue, the “back alley” of blood circulation. Lymph is the alkaline, clear intercellular fluid that drains from the blood capillaries, where the arterial blood separates into thick, gooey venous blood and lymph. It bathes the cells, drains up into the lymph capillaries, through the lymph nodes for cleaning and checking against antibody templates, up through the body, and back to recombine with the venous blood in the upper chest. Blood in the veins is thick, mainly because part of its fluid is missing, traveling through the tissues as lymph. Lymph nodes in the small intestine absorb most of the dietary fats as well-organized chylomicrons. Lymph nodes and tissue in the spleen, thymus, and tonsils also organize lymphocytes and maintain the software memory of previously encountered antigens and their antibody defense response. Blood feeds the lymph, lymph feeds the cells, lymph cleanses the cells and returns to the blood.... lymph


Enlargement of the lymph nodes. Swelling of the body lymph glands which is sometimes painful, especially after envenomation. Lymph glands when swollen may be almost anywhere in the body, but are more easilyfelt in the neck, under the arms (axillae) and in the groins.... lymphadenopathy


Inflammation of one or more lymph nodes and/or lymph vessels, usually part of an acute infectious condition.... lymphangitis


Swelling of a part or organ due to obstruction to the LYMPH vessels draining it.... lymphoedema


A traditional term for non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (see LYMPHOMA).... lymphosarcoma


The gradual ending of a fever, and the opposite of CRISIS, which signi?es the sudden ending of a fever. It is also used to describe the process of dissolution of a blood clot, or the destruction of CELLS as a result of damage to or rupture of the PLASMA membrane, thus allowing the cell contents to escape.... lysis

Blind Loop Syndrome

A disorder in which abnormal FAECES occur as a result of a redundant loop in the small INTESTINE. The loop obstructs the normal ?ow of the contents of the bowel, causing stagnation. The syndrome is characterised by light-yellow, smelly, fatty, bulky faeces. The patient suffers from tiredness, malaise and loss of weight. Previous abdominal surgery is sometimes the cause, but the condition can be inherited. Blockage of intestinal contents upsets the bowel’s normal bacterial balance and hinders the normal absorption of nutrients. Treatment is either with antibiotics or, if that fails, surgery.... blind loop syndrome

Cruciate Ligaments

Two strong ligaments in the interior of the knee-joint, which cross one another like the limbs of the letter X. They are so attached as to become taut when the lower limb is straightened, and they prevent over-extension or bending forwards at the knee. The cruciate ligaments are sometimes strained or torn as a result of sporting injuries or vehicular accidents; surgery may be needed to repair the damage, but the knee will be permanently weakened.... cruciate ligaments

Excimer Laser

A type of laser that is used to remove thin sheets of tissue from the surface of the cornea (see EYE), thus changing the curvature of the eye’s corneal surface. The procedure is used to excise diseased tissue or to correct myopia (see REFRACTION), when it is known as photorefractive keratectomy or lasik.... excimer laser

Face Lift

An operation to reduce wrinkles and lift ‘loose’ skin on the face of mature persons with the aim of making them look younger. It can be performed under local anaesthetic as an outpatient or with general anaesthesia as an inpatient. The operation is regarded as cosmetic and is usually done in the private health-care sector in the UK.... face lift

Contact Lenses

Contact lenses are lenses worn in contact with the EYE, behind the eyelids and in front of the cornea. They may be worn for cosmetic, optical or therapeutic reasons. The commonest reason for wear is cosmetic, many short-sighted people preferring to wear contact lenses instead of glasses. Optical reasons for contact-lens wear include cataract surgery (usually unilateral extraction) and the considerable improvement in overall standard of vision experienced by very short-sighted people when wearing contact lenses instead of glasses. Therapeutic lenses are those used in the treatment of eye disease: ‘bandage lenses’ are used in certain corneal diseases; contact lenses can be soaked in a particular drug and then put on the eye so that the drug slowly leaks out on to the eye. Contact lenses may be hard, soft or gas permeable. Hard lenses are more optically accurate (because they are rigid), cheaper and more durable than soft. The main advantage of soft lenses is that they are more comfortable to wear. Gas-permeable lenses are so-called because they are more permeable to oxygen than other lenses, thus allowing more oxygen to reach the cornea.

Disposable lenses are soft lenses designed to be thrown away after a short period of continuous use; their popularity rests on the fact that they need not be cleaned. The instructions on use should be followed carefully because the risk of complications, such as corneal infection, are higher than with other types of contact lenses.

Contraindications to the use of contact lenses include a history of ATOPY, ‘dry eyes’, previous GLAUCOMA surgery and a person’s inability to cope with the management of lenses. The best way to determine whether contact lenses are suitable, however, may be to try them out. Good hygiene is essential for wearers so as to minimise the risk of infection, which may lead to a corneal abscess – a serious complication. Corneal abrasions are fairly common and, if a contact-lens wearer develops a red eye, the lens should be removed and the eye tested with ?uorescein dye to identify any abrasions. Appropriate treatment should be given and the lens not worn again until the abrasion or infection has cleared up.... contact lenses

Kiss Of Life

Emergency mouth-to-mouth resuscitation of an unconscious person (see APPENDIX 1: BASIC FIRST AID).... kiss of life


Labetalol is an alpha- and beta-adrenoceptor blocker (see ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS) used to treat HYPERTENSION. Beta blockers block the beta-adrenoceptors in the heart, peripheral blood vessels and bronchi. Many drugs belonging to this group are now available, and all are equally e?ective – but with di?erences that may make them suitable for a particular patient. Labetalol has the added property of dilating arterioles (small arteries), thus lowering resistance in the small peripheral blood vessels and helping to reduce blood pressure.... labetalol


A convoluted system of structures forming the inner EAR and involved in hearing and balance.... labyrinth


In?ammation of the LABYRINTH of the EAR. Usually caused by bacterial or viral infection, the former often the result of inadequately treated otitis media (see EAR, DISEASES OF – Diseases of the middle ear), or MEASLES. Symptoms are VERTIGO, nausea, vomiting, nystagmus (see EYE, DISORDERS OF), TINNITUS and loss of hearing. Bacterial infection needs treatment with ANTIBIOTICS; viral infection is usually self-limiting. ANTIHISTAMINE DRUGS will help reduce the vertigo. Rarely, surgery may be required to drain the infection in bacteria-based labyrinthitis.... labyrinthitis


A wound to the skin or surface of an organ which results in a cut with irregular edges (cf. an incision produced with a knife, which has smooth, regular edges).... laceration

Lactic Acid

A colourless, syrupy, sour liquid, which is produced by the action of a bacterium upon lactose, the sugar found in milk. The growth of this organism and consequent formation of lactic acid cause the souring of milk, and the same change takes place to a limited extent when food is long retained in the stomach.

Lactic acid (CH3.CHOH.COOH) is produced in the body during muscular activity, the lactic acid being derived from the breakdown of GLYCOGEN. Muscle fatigue is associated with an accumulation of lactic acid in the muscle. Recovery follows when enough oxygen gets to the muscle, part of the lactic acid being oxidised and most of it then being built up once more into glycogen.... lactic acid


An osmotic laxative (see OSMOSIS; LAXATIVES), lactulose is a semisynthetic disaccharide – a type of carbohydrate – which is not absorbed from the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT. It reduces the acidity of FAECES.... lactulose

Lactose Intolerance

is due to lack in the INTESTINE of the ENZYME known as LACTASE which is responsible for the digestion of lactose, the sugar in milk. The result is that drinking milk or eating milk-containing products is followed by nausea, a sensation of bloating, or distension, in the gut, abdominal pain and diarrhoea. (Similar disturbances after taking milk may also occur in those who do not lack lactase but have an allergy to milk protein). Treatment is by means of a low-lactose diet avoiding fresh or powdered milk and milk puddings. Many can tolerate fermented milk products, as well as the small amounts of milk used in baking and added to margarine and sausages. However, infamts may have to be fed exclusively on a lactose-free formula as even breast milk may produce symptoms.... lactose intolerance


An operation in which the arches of one or more vertebrae in the SPINAL COLUMN are removed so as to expose a portion of the SPINAL CORD for removal of a tumour, relief of pressure due to a fracture (see under BONE, DISORDERS OF), or disc protrusion.... laminectomy


An antiepileptic drug for the treatment of patients with EPILEPSY, whose condition is characterised by partial seizures.... lamotrigine


Derived from wool fat, it is an ingredient of many ointments and creams but may cause allergic contact DERMATITIS.... lanolin


One of the PROTON-PUMP INHIBITORS, it blocks the ‘proton pump’ ENZYME system of the STOMACH’s acid-producing PARIETAL cells. It is used in short-term treatment of PEPTIC ULCER and in combination with antibacterial drugs to eliminate infection with the bacteria HELICOBACTER PYLORI.... lansoprazole


Also called peritoneoscopy, this is a technique using an instrument called an ENDOSCOPE for viewing the contents of the ABDOMEN. The instrument is inserted via an incision just below the UMBILICUS and air is then pumped into the peritoneal (abdominal) cavity. Visual inspection may help in the diagnosis of cancer, APPENDICITIS, SALPINGITIS, and abnormalities of the LIVER, GALL-BLADDER, OVARIES or GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT. A BIOPSY can be taken of tissue suspected of being abnormal, and operations such as removal of the gall-bladder or appendix may be carried out. (See also MINIMALLY INVASIVE SURGERY (MIS).)... laparoscopy


A general term applied to any operation in which the abdominal cavity is opened (see ABDOMEN). A laparotomy may be exploratory to establish a diagnosis, or carried out as a preliminary to major surgery. Viewing of the peritoneal cavity (see PERITONEUM) through an ENDOSCOPE is called a LAPAROSCOPY or peritoneoscopy.... laparotomy

Larva Migrans

A self-limiting, intensely itching skin eruption caused by nematode (roundworm) larvae, usually of the dog and cat hookworm (see ANCYLOSTOMIASIS). The migrating larvae leave red, raised, irregular tracks in the skin, often on the foot and less frequently elsewhere. The disease is usually acquired by people who take their holidays on tropical beaches. It can be cured by a three-day course of oral ALBENDAZOLE.... larva migrans


Operation for removal of the LARYNX.... laryngectomy


The organ of voice which also forms one of the higher parts of the AIR PASSAGES. It is placed high up in the front of the neck and there forms a considerable prominence on the surface (Adam’s apple). The vocal cords vibrating in di?erent notes, according to their tenseness and the like, produce the sounds of VOICE AND SPEECH.... larynx


Acronym for laser in-situ keratomileusis, which is a variety of surgery of the EYE used to correct severe myopia (short-sightedness – see REFRACTION; EYE, DISORDERS OF). A thin ?ap of the cornea is lifted, the area underneath reshaped using an EXCIMER LASER, and the ?ap is then returned to its place, the altered contour of the cornea improving the patient’s sight.... lasik


See LETHARGY.... lassitude


Laser stands for Light Ampli?cation by Stimulated Emission of Radiation. The light produced by a laser is of a single wavelength and all the waves are in phase with each other, allowing a very high level of energy to be projected as a parallel beam or focused on to a small spot.

Various gases, liquids and solids will emit light when they are suitably stimulated. A gassed laser is pumped by the ionising e?ect of a high-voltage current. This is the same process as that used in a ?uorescent tube. Each type of laser has a di?erent e?ect on biological tissues and this is related to the wavelength of the light produced. The wavelength determines the degree of energy absorption by di?erent tissues, and because of this, di?erent lasers are needed for di?erent tasks. The argon laser produces light in the visible green wavelength which is selectively absorbed by HAEMOGLOBIN. It heats and coagulates (see COAGULATION) tissues so can be used to seal bleeding blood vessels and to selectively destroy pigmented lesions. The carbon-dioxide laser is the standard laser for cutting tissue: the infra-red beam it produces is strongly absorbed by water and so vaporises cells. Thus, by moving a ?nely focused beam across the tissue, it is possible to make an incision.

The two main uses of laser in surgery are the endoscopic (see ENDOSCOPE) photocoagulation of bleeding vessels, and the incision of tissue. Lasers have important applications in OPHTHALMOLOGY in the treatment of such disorders as detachment of the retina and the diabetic complications of proliferative retinopathy and of the cornea (see EYE, DISORDERS OF). The destruction of abnormal cells – a sign of pre-malignancy – in the CERVIX UTERI is done using lasers. The beams may also be used to remove scar tissue from the FALLOPIAN TUBES resulting from infection, thus unblocking the tubes and improving the chances of CONCEPTION. Lasers also have several important applications in DERMATOLOGY. They are used in the treatment of pigmented lesions such as LENTIGO, in the obliteration of port-wine stains, in the removal of small, benign tumours such as verrucas, and ?nally in the removal of tattoos.

Low-intensity laser beams promote tissue healing and reduce in?ammation, pain and swelling. Their e?ect is achieved by stimulating blood and lymph ?ow and by cutting the production of PROSTAGLANDINS, which provoke in?ammation and pain. The beams are used to treat ligament sprains, muscle tears and in?amed joints and tendons.

The three great advantages of lasers are their potency, their speed of action, and the ability to focus on an extremely small area. For these reasons they are widely used, and have allowed great advances to be made in microsurgery, and particularly in FIBREOPTIC ENDOSCOPY.... laser

Laughing Gas

A popular name for NITROUS OXIDE GAS.... laughing gas


See Alhucema.... lavender

Lead Poisoning

Lead and lead compounds are used in a variety of products including petrol additives (in the UK, lead-free petrol is now mandatory), piping (lead water pipes were once a common source of poisoning), weights, professional paints, dyes, ceramics, ammunition, homeopathic remedies, and ethnic cosmetic preparations. Lead compounds are toxic by ingestion, by inhalation and, rarely, by skin exposures. Metallic lead, if ingested, is absorbed if it remains in the gut. The absorption is greater in children, who may ingest lead from the paint on old cots

– although lead-containing paints are no longer used for items that children may be in contact with.

Acute poisonings are rare. Clinical features include metallic taste, abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhoea, ANOREXIA, fatigue, muscle weakness and SHOCK. Neurological effects may include headache, drowsiness, CONVULSIONS and COMA. Inhalation results in severe respiratory-tract irritation and systemic symptoms as above.

Chronic poisonings cause gastrointestinal disturbances and constipation. Other effects are ANAEMIA, weakness, pallor, anorexia, insomnia, renal HYPERTENSION and mental fatigue. There may be a bluish ‘lead line’ on the gums, although this is rarely seen. Neuromuscular dysfunction may result in motor weakness and paralysis of the extensor muscles of the wrist and ankles. ENCEPHALOPATHY and nephropathy are severe effects. Chronic low-level exposures in children are linked with reduced intelligence and behavioural and learning disorders.

Treatment Management of patients who have been poisoned is supportive, with removal from source, gastric decontamination if required, and X-RAYS to monitor the passage of metallic lead through the gut if ingested. It is essential to ensure adequate hydration and renal function. Concentrations of lead in the blood should be monitored; where these are found to be toxic, chelation therapy should be started. Several CHELATING AGENTS are now available, such as DMSA (Meso-2,3dimercaptosuccinic acid), sodium calcium edetate (see EDTA) and PENICILLAMINE. (See also POISONS.)... lead poisoning


A very complex fat found in various tissues of the body, but particularly in the brain and nerves, of which it forms a large part. It is also found in large quantities in the yolk of an egg.... lecithin

Learning Disability

Learning disability, previously called mental handicap, is a problem of markedly low intellectual functioning. In general, people with learning disability want to be seen as themselves, to learn new skills, to choose where to live, to have good health care, to have girlfriends or boyfriends, to make decisions about their lives, and to have enough money to live on. They may live at home with their families, or in small residential units with access to work and leisure and to other people in ordinary communities. Some people with learning disabilities, however, also have a MENTAL ILLNESS. Most can be treated as outpatients, but a few need more intensive inpatient treatment, and a very small minority with disturbed behaviour need secure (i.e. locked) settings.

In the United Kingdom, the 1993 Education Act refers to ‘learning diffculties’: generalised (severe or moderate), or speci?c (e.g. DYSLEXIA, dyspraxia [or APRAXIA], language disorder). The 1991 Social Security (Disability Living Allowance) Regulations use the term ‘severely mentally impaired’ if a person suffers from a state of arrested development or incomplete physical development of the brain which results in severe impairment of intelligence and social functioning. This is distinct from the consequences of DEMENTIA. Though ‘mental handicap’ is widely used, ‘learning disability’ is preferred by the Department of Health.

There is a distinction between impairment (a biological de?cit), disability (the functional consequence) and handicap (the social consequence).

People with profound learning disability are usually unable to communicate adequately and may be seriously movement-impaired. They are totally dependent on others for care and mobility. Those with moderate disability may achieve basic functional literacy (recognition of name, common signs) and numeracy (some understanding of money) but most have a life-long dependency for aspects of self-care (some fastenings for clothes, preparation of meals, menstrual hygiene, shaving) and need supervision for outdoor mobility.

Children with moderate learning disability develop at between half and three-quarters of the normal rate, and reach the standard of an average child of 8–11 years. They become independent for self-care and public transport unless they have associated disabilities. Most are capable of supervised or sheltered employment. Living independently and raising a family may be possible.

Occurrence Profound learning disability affects about 1 in 1,000; severe learning disability 3 in 1,000; and moderate learning disability requiring special service, 1 per cent. With improved health care, survival of people with profound or severe learning disability is increasing.

Causation Many children with profound or severe learning disability have a diagnosable biological brain disorder. Forty per cent have a chromosome disorder – see CHROMOSOMES (three quarters of whom have DOWN’S (DOWN) SYNDROME); a further 15 per cent have other genetic causes, brain malformations or recognisable syndromes. About 10 per cent suffered brain damage during pregnancy (e.g. from CYTOMEGALOVIRUS (CMV) infection) or from lack of oxygen during labour or delivery. A similar proportion suffer postnatal brain damage from head injury – accidental or otherwise – near-miss cot death or drowning, cardiac arrest, brain infection (ENCEPHALITIS or MENINGITIS), or in association with severe seizure disorders.

Explanations for moderate learning disability include Fragile X or other chromosome abnormalities in a tenth, neuro?bromatosis (see VON RECKLINGHAUSEN’S DISEASE), fetal alcohol syndrome and other causes of intra-uterine growth retardation. Genetic counselling should be considered for children with learning disability. Prenatal diagnosis is sometimes possible. In many children, especially those with mild or moderate disability, no known cause may be found.

Medical complications EPILEPSY affects 1 in 20 with moderate, 1 in 3 with severe and 2 in 3 with profound learning disability, although only 1 in 50 with Down’s syndrome is affected. One in 5 with severe or profound learning disability has CEREBRAL PALSY.

Psychological and psychiatric needs Over half of those with profound or severe – and many with moderate – learning disability show psychiatric or behavioural problems, especially in early years or adolescence. Symptoms may be atypical and hard to assess. Psychiatric disorders include autistic behaviour (see AUTISM) and SCHIZOPHRENIA. Emotional problems include anxiety, dependence and depression. Behavioural problems include tantrums, hyperactivity, self-injury, passivity, masturbation in public, and resistance to being shaved or helped with menstrual hygiene. There is greater vulnerability to abuse with its behavioural consequences.

Respite and care needs Respite care is arranged with link families for children or sta?ed family homes for adults where possible. Responsibility for care lies with social services departments which can advise also about bene?ts.

Education Special educational needs should be met in the least restrictive environment available to allow access to the national curriculum with appropriate modi?cation and support. For older children with learning disability, and for young children with severe or profound learning disability, this may be in a special day or boarding school. Other children can be provided for in mainstream schools with extra classroom support. The 1993 Education Act lays down stages of assessment and support up to a written statement of special educational needs with annual reviews.

Pupils with learning disability are entitled to remain at school until the age of 19, and most with severe or profound learning disability do so. Usually those with moderate learning disability move to further education after the age of 16.

Advice is available from the Mental Health Foundation, the British Institute of Learning Disabilities, MENCAP (Royal Society for Mentally Handicapped Children and Adults), and ENABLE (Scottish Society for the Mentally Handicapped).... learning disability


A blood-feeding annelid worm.... leech

Legionnaire’s Disease

Infection by the Gram negative rod, Legionella pneumophila and other species of the Genus. Often presents as an atypical pneumonia. Outbreaks have been reported from various countries.... legionnaire’s disease


A benign tumour made up of unstriped or involuntary muscle ?bres.... leiomyoma


Lethargy, or lassitude, means a loss of energy. It is a common presenting complaint both to general practitioners and to hospital consultants. It may have a physical cause or a psychological cause; it may be the result of inadequate rest, environmental noise, boredom, insomnia or recent illness. Certain medicinal drugs can cause lethargy, the most common being beta blockers (see BETA-ADRENOCEPTOR-BLOCKING DRUGS) and DIURETICS, and drugs of abuse may also be a cause (see DEPENDENCE). The common psychosocial problems producing lethargy are DEPRESSION and anxiety.

If the patient with lethargy runs a fever, the di?erential diagnosis is that of a PUO (pyrexia of unknown origin). Many patients with fatigue can establish the onset of the symptom to a febrile illness even though they no longer run a fever. The lethargy that follows some viral infecions, such as HEPATITIS A and glandular fever (see MONONUCLEOSIS) is well recognised; MYALGIC ENCEPHALOMYELITIS (ME) or chronic fatigue syndrome is another disorder associated with lethargy and tiredness. Organic causes of lethargy include ANAEMIA, malnutrition and hypothyroidism (see THYROID GLAND, DISEASES OF). Some of these patients have a true depressive illness and their presentation and response to treatment is little di?erent from that of sufferers of any other depressive illness, URAEMIA, alcoholism and DIABETES MELLITUS.... lethargy


A white blood cell.... leucocyte


Any white area on the skin... leucoderma


A condition in which the polymorphonuclear LEUCOCYTES in the blood are increased in number. It occurs in many di?erent circumstances, and forms a valuable means of diagnosis in certain diseases; however, the condition may occur as a normal reaction in certain conditions (e.g. pregnancy, menstruation, and during muscular exercise). It is usually due to the presence of in?ammatory processes (see INFLAMMATION) – the increased number of leucocytes helping to destroy the invading bacteria. Thus, during many acute infective diseases, such as pneumonia, the number is greatly increased. In all suppurative conditions (where PUS is formed) there is also a leucocytosis, and if it seems that an ABSCESS is forming deep in the abdomen, or in some other site where it cannot be readily examined – as, for example, an abscess resulting from APPENDICITIS – the examination of a drop of blood gives a valuable aid in the diagnosis, and may be su?cient, in the absence of other signs, to point out the urgent need of an operation.... leucocytosis


A drug used to treat ASCARIASIS. Its main advantage seems to be in mass treatment, as one dose may prove e?ective. It is also being used in the treatment of a group of diseases of obscure origin, including CROHN’S DISEASE and RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS. The drug is available in the UK with certain restrictions.... levamisole


A drug used in the treatment of PARKINSONISM. It is converted to DOPAMINE in the brain, correcting the de?ciency which causes the disorder. Levodopa is often given with carbidopa or benserazide, both dopamine decarboxylase inhibitors, to prevent its conversion to dopamine in the body before it reaches the brain. It may cause nausea, HYPOTENSION or cardiac DYSRHYTHMIA.... levodopa


The natural desire for sexual intercourse. Lack of desire or diminished libido may occur in any general medical illness as well as in endocrine diseases when there is a lack of production of the sex hormones. The strength or weakness of the sexual drive may be associated with psychiatric diseases; it may also be the result of certain drugs. It must be distinguished from IMPOTENCE, where the desire for intercourse is normal but the performance is defective due to the inability to achieve or maintain an erection.... libido


A local anaesthetic given by injection, previously called lignocaine. It is also used in the treatment of certain disorders of cardiac rhythm known as ventricular arrhythmias which may be particularly dangerous following a coronary thrombosis (see HEART, DISEASES OF).... lidocaine


(Vietnamese) Resembling the lotus Lian... lien


Tying-o? – for example, of a blood vessel – by completely encircling it with a tight band, usually of catgut or some other suture material.... ligation


A cord or thread used to tie around arteries in order to stop the circulation through them, or to prevent escape of blood from their cut ends. Ligatures are generally made of catgut or silk, and are tied with a reef-knot.... ligature

Linear Accelerator

See RADIOTHERAPY.... linear accelerator


A descriptive term, rather than chemical one, for fats. Broadly, it means true fats (like triglycerides), lipoids (like phospholipids) and sterols (like cholesterol).... lipid


A rare malignant TUMOUR of adipose or fatty tissue. It occurs most frequently in the thighs, buttocks or retro-peritoneum. The four main types are: well di?erentiated; myxoid; round cell; and pleomorphic (variety of forms).... liposarcoma


A surgical procedure, also called suction lipectomy, for extracting unwanted accumulations of subcutaneous FAT with the use of a powerful suction tube passed through the skin at di?erent sites. Widely used in cosmetic surgery to improve the contour of the body, particularly that of women, the technique can have unwanted side-effects.... liposuction


Glycyrrhiza glabra


San: Yashtimadhu Hin: Jathimadh Mal: Irattimadhuram Tam:Athimadhuram

Tel: Yashtimadhukam

Ben: Yashtomadhu Pun:Muleti

Importance: Liquorice or Muleti is a perennial herb or undershrub about 1m high. Its dried peeled or unpeeled underground stems and roots constitute the drug which is an important constituent of all cough and catarrh syrups, throat lozenges and pastilles. This has been used in medicine for more than 4000 years. Hippocrates (400 BC) mentioned its use as a remedy for ulcers and quenching of thirst. Dioscorides, the father of Greek medicine described this drug in detail and considered it useful for maintaining shape of arteries and in burning stomach, trouble of liver and kidney, scabies, healing of wounds and as a remedy for eye diseases. It has been used in Arab system of medicine for more than 600 years from where it has been adopted to modern medicine (Gibson, 1978).

The commercial name of the dried rhizome and root of the plant is liquorice which is used as flavouring agent and the taste coorigent in pharmaceutical and confectionery industries and its products are widely reported to be useful in ulcer therapy. Glycyrrhizin, a triterpene glucoside, is the principal constituent of G. glabra which is 50 times sweeter than sugar.

Distribution: Liquorice is native to Mediterranean region, South Europe and Middle East. It is widely distributed in Spain, Italy, Greece, Syria, Iraq, Afghanistan, Turkey, parts of USSR and China. However its cultivation is limited to small areas in USSR, UK, and USA. In India, it grows in Punjab and Jammu and Kashmir. Semi arid areas of Haryana, Rajasthan and Gujarath states are suitable for the cultivation of Liquorice. However, its commercial cultivation has not yet been possible and the domestic requirement is largely met through imports.

Botany: Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn. belongs to the family Papilionaceae. The word Glycyrrhiza is of Greek origin meaning ‘sweet’ and glabra means ‘smooth’ which refers to smooth fruit of the species. This is a tall perennial, self pollinated herb or undershrub about 1m high with long cylindrical burrowing rootstock and horizontal creeping stolons which reach 1.5-1.8m in length. Leaves are alternate, pinnate with 9-17 leaflets. Leaflets are yellowish-green, 2.5-5cm long, ovate and obtuse. Flowers are pale blue arranged in a raceme and 1.25cm long. Calyx is glandular and pubescent. The pods are glabrous, red to brown having 3-4 seeds. Rhizome is soft, flexible and fibrous with light yellow colour and a characteristic sweet taste.

Agrotechnology: This plant thrives well in subtropical areas with very warm summers and cool winters with a rainfall not exceeding 500mm. Semi -arid and arid areas in subtropical zones are not suitable for the cultivation of this crop. It does not tolerate high humidity and waterlogged conditions. Well drained light loam soils which are rich in calcium and magnesium with slightly alkaline pH and free from stones are ideal for this crop. There are a number of varieties of this crop among which Spanish, Russian and Persian liquorice are quite common. Commercial varieties are Typica, Regel and Herd. This is propagated by seed, but usually multiplied vegetatively either through crown cuttings or stolon pieces. In the case of crown cuttings, 10-15cm long crown pieces with 2-3 buds are planted vertically at a distance of 0.6-0.7m in rows 1-1.5m apart. However, most of the liquorice is propagated through stolon pieces of the above size planted horizontally, preferably on ridges during spring at the same distance as above. Rapid clonal propagation is also possible by tissue culture technique. Murashige and Skoog’s medium supplemented with 6-benzylaminopurine and indole-3-acetic acid favoured multiple shoot production without any intervening callus phase. These regenerated plantlets can be transferred to earthen pots in the glass house and after a brief hardening phase, these are transplanted in the field with a high rate (90-95%) of survival. This plant normally does not require much fertilizers but in deficient soils, it is better to apply 10-15 tonnes FYM per hectare before planting. The field should be immediately irrigated after planting in spring and after the crop has sprouted, it requires very little irrigation. Space between the rows should be kept free from weeds. Short term vegetables like carrot or cabbage can be planted between the rows for additional income. In order to produce good rhizome, flowering shoots are clipped. No serious disease except leaf spot caused by Cercospora cavarae has been reported in this crop. Roots are ready for harvesting after 3-4 years. The root is dug when the top has dried during autumn (November- December). A trench 60cm deep is dug along the ridges and the entire root is lifted. Broken parts of the root left in the soil, sprout again and give another crop after 2-3 years. Thus liquorice once planted properly can be harvested for 10-15 years.

Postharvest technology: Harvested roots are cut into pieces of 15-20cm long and 1-2cm in diameter. They are washed and dried upto 6-8% moisture in the sun and shade alternately which reduces the weight by 50%. The average yield of dried roots varies from 1-3 tonnes per hectare depending on the variety, soil and climatic conditions.

Properties and activity: Roots gave a number of compounds the most important bieng a glucoside, glycyrrhizin which gave glycyrrhetinic acid on enzyme hydrolysis. Root also contains flavans, flavones, iso-flavanoes and coumarins including a 4-methyl coumarin, liqcoumarin, glabridin, glabrene, 4’-0-methyl and 3’-methoxyglabridin, formononetin, salicylic acid, 0-acetyl salicylic acid which has been isolated first time from nature, hispaglabridins A and B and 4’0- methylglabridin.On hydrolysis it also gave two molecules of d-glucuronic acid, each linked with 1-2 linkage to 3-hydroxyl of the sapogenin (Elgamal et al, 1969) Glycyrrhizin is antidiuretic, antiinflammatory, expectorant, antiulcerous, antihistamine. Glycyrrhizic acid is antiviral. The roots are emetic, tonic, diuretic, demulcent, mild laxative, aphrodisiac, trichogenous, expectorant, emmenagogue, alexipharmic, alterant and intellect promoting.... liquorice


The operation of cutting for stone in the bladder. The operation is of great historic interest, because more has probably been written about it in early times than about any other type of surgery – and because, for a long time, it formed almost the only operation in which the surgeon dared to attack diseases of the internal organs.... lithotomy


Extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL) causes disintegration of renal and biliary stones (see CALCULI) without physical contact, and is therefore an attractive procedure for patients and surgeons alike.

Shock waves generated outside the body can be accurately focused with a re?ector whilst the patient is suspended in water, to facilitate transmission of the waves. These are focused on the calculus. The resultant ?ne fragments are passed spontaneously in the urine with minimal, if any, discomfort. The procedure has been shown to be safe, short and e?ective, and is most acceptable to patients.... lithotripsy


The operation of cutting out a lobe of the lung in such diseases as abscess of the lung and bronchiectasis and carcinoma (see LUNGS, DISEASES OF).... lobectomy


Lobelia inflata. N.O. Campanulaceae.

Synonym: Indian Tobacco, Pukeweed, Emetic Weed.

Habitat: North America ; cultivated in Salt Lake City.

Features ? A biennial herb, in height from twelve to eighteen inches, the stem is angular and slightly hairy. One to three inches long, the leaves are alternate, sessile, and ovate-lanceolate, with small, whitish glands on the edge. The fruit is in the form of a flat, oval capsule, which contains ovate-oblong seeds about one eighth of an inch long, brown in colour, with a reticulated, pitted surface. The root is fibrous, and the plant bears a small blue, pointed flower. The taste is burning and acrid like tobacco, the odour slight. Part used ? Herb and seeds are used.

Action: Emetic, stimulant, antispasmodic, expectorant, and diaphoretic.

Lobelia inflata has for many years been one of the most widely discussed and hotly debated articles used in medicine. While many herbalists contend that it is the most valuable of all botanic remedies, official medicine in England classifies it as a poison. Herbalists who use Lobelia insist that it is most certainly not a poison, and that it can be administered by them in large doses with perfect safety. They use it chiefly as an emetic, and, as its administration brings about the prompt removal of accumulations of mucus, the action in bronchial complaints is speedy and beneficial. Coffin's comments in this connection are enthusiastic ? "Lobelia is decidedly the most certain and efficient emetic known, and is at the same time safe in its operations. Unlike most emetics from the mineral kingdom, it produces its specific effect without corroding the stomach or producing morbid irritation and inflammation of the mucous membrane of this organ, which are so common in the use of antimony, zinc, and the sulphate of copper. Lobelia may emphatically be said to 'operate in unison with the laws of life'."

In view of the controversy surrounding its use, the history of Lobelia is interesting. North American Indians had apparently long been acquainted

with its properties, but its first introduction to general use was due to the efforts of the famous American, Samuel Thomson. His disciple, Dr. Coffin, brought the herb to this country and used it extensively in his practice for over forty years, apparently with great success "in almost every form of disease, and from the tender infant to the aged," to quote Coffin himself. In both America and Britain herbalists have been tried on charges of causing death by administering Lobelia, but in no instance has a verdict been obtained against them.... lobelia


The term applied to the larger divisions of various organs, such as to the four lobes of the LIVER, the three lobes of the right and the two lobes of the left lung, which are separated by ?ssures from one another (see LUNGS), and to the lobes or super?cial areas into which the BRAIN is divided. The term lobar is applied to structures which are connected with lobes of organs, or to diseases which have a tendency to be limited by the boundaries of lobes, such as lobar PNEUMONIA.... lobe


The name applied to the part of the back between the lower ribs and the pelvis. (For pain in the loins, see BACKACHE; LUMBAGO.)... loin


Loiasis is the disease caused by the ?larial worm Loa loa, a thread-like worm which di?ers from

W. bancrofti in that it is shorter and thicker, and is found in the bloodstream during the day, not at night. It is transmitted by the mango ?y, Chrysops dimidiata, but other ?ies of this genus can also transmit it. It is con?ned to West and Central Africa. The characteristic feature of the disease is the appearance of fugitive swellings which may arise anywhere in the body in the course of the worm’s migration through it: these are known as Calabar swellings. The worm is often found in the eye, hence the old name of the worm in Africa – the eye worm. Diethylcarbamazine is the treatment for this form of FILARIASIS.... loiasis


A drug that reduces the motility of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT. It is of limited use as an adjunct to ?uid replacement in diarrhoea in adults, and is sometimes used in chronic non-infective diarrhoea in children.... loperamide


A benzodiazepine tranquilliser (see BENZODIAZEPINES), shown to be of limited use in the short-term treatment of anxiety or insomnia, in STATUS EPILEPTICUS, or for perioperative use. Its use is not recommended for children. As with other benzodiazepines, the smallest possible dose should be given for the shortest possible time, as DEPENDENCE is a well-recognised danger.... lorazepam


An unnatural curvature of the spine forwards. It occurs chie?y in the lumbar region, where the natural curve is forwards, as the result of muscular weakness, spinal disease, etc. (See SPINAL COLUMN.)... lordosis


Insects belonging to the orders Anoplura (sucking lice) or Mallophaga (biting/feather lice). Human lice include the Head louse (Pediculus humanus capitis), the body louse (P.h.corporis) and the pubic louse (Pthirus pubis).... louse


Love... lovage


A term used to denote structures in, or diseases affecting, the region of the loins (see LOIN) – as, for example, the lumbar vertebrae, lumbar abscess.... lumbar


(1) The space enclosed by a tubular structure or hollow organ (e.g. the gastrointestinal tract or urinary bladder).

(2) The SI unit of luminous ?ux (1 lumen [1m] = the amount of light emitted per second in a unit solid angle of 1 steradian by a 1-candela point source).... lumen


An operation for suspected breast cancer (see BREASTS, DISEASES OF), in which the tumour is removed from the breast rather than with it (see MASTECTOMY).... lumpectomy

Lumbar Puncture

A procedure for removing CEREBROSPINAL FLUID (CSF) from the spinal canal in the LUMBAR region in order: (1) to diagnose disease of the nervous system; (2) to introduce medicaments – spinal anaesthetics or drugs. A hollow needle is inserted into the lower section of the space around the SPINAL CORD (see diagram) and the cerebrospinal ?uid withdrawn. The procedure should not be done too rapidly or the subject may develop a severe headache. Examination of the cerebrospinal ?uid helps in the diagnosis and investigation of disorders of the brain and spinal cord – for example, MENINGITIS and SUBARACHNOID HAEMORRHAGE. When using the procedure to inject drugs into the CSF, the operator must take care to inject only those agents speci?cally produced for CSF injection. Deaths have occurred because the wrong drug has been injected, and there have been demands for specialised equipment and strict procedures that will prevent such tragedies.... lumbar puncture

Luteinizing Hormone

(LH) This is a sugar-bearing protein manufactured by the anterior pituitary. Like a lot of the pituitary hormones, it surges on and off, since constant secretion would overload and deaden receptors. In women, it builds up after menses, stimulating the release of estrogen from the ovaries. Estrogen in turn stimulates the hypothalamus to increase its stimulation of LH from the pituitary, until, a day or two before ovulation, they produce a guitar-amp feedback, and the cells that produce LH start to surge follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). The egg pops, being replaced by the corpus luteum, which produces progesterone for the next eleven to twelve days. Progesterone inhibits and lowers LH levels, as well as inhibiting levels of estrogen already being produced by the young follicles that will produce next month’s egg. In men, LH is responsible for stimulation of testosterone, although FSH and the testes hormone inhibin are responsible for both the production of sperm and controlling testosterone.... luteinizing hormone


A procedure whereby the LYMPHATICS and lymphatic glands can be rendered visible on X-ray ?lms by means of the injection of radio-opaque substances. It has now been replaced largely by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).... lymphangiography


An uncommon, non-malignant tumour occurring in the skin or the tongue. It comprises an abnormal collection of lymph vessels and tends to be present from birth. Sometimes it disappears spontaneously, but it may need surgical removal.... lymphangioma


Pertaining to the lymph system...sometimes more broadly to include immunity.... lymphatic

Lymphogranuloma Venereum

(LGV) A tropical sexually transmitted disease caused by Chlamydia trachomatis serotypes L1, L2 and L3.... lymphogranuloma venereum


A variety of white blood cell produced in the LYMPHOID TISSUE and lymphatic glands (see LYMPHATICS; GLAND) of the body. It contains a simple, rounded nucleus surrounded by protoplasm generally described as non-granular. Two varieties of lymphocyte are described, small and large, and together they form over 20 per cent of the white cells of the blood. They play an important part in the production of ANTIBODIES, and in the rejection of transplanted organs such as the heart (see TRANSPLANTATION). This they do in two di?erent ways: what are known as B-lymphocytes produce antibodies, while T-lymphocytes attack and destroy antigens (see ANTIGEN) directly. The latter are known as T-lymphocytes because they are produced by the THYMUS GLAND. Their numbers are increased in TUBERCULOSIS and certain other diseases. Such an increase is known as LYMPHOCYTOSIS.... lymphocyte


An ENZYME present in tears and egg white, lysozyme catalyses the destruction of some bacteria by damaging their walls.... lysozyme

Phantom Limb

Following the AMPUTATION of a limb, it is usual for the patient to experience sensations as if the limb were still present. This condition is referred to as a phantom limb. In most patients the sensation passes o? in time.... phantom limb


A protein found in the blood lymph and plasma which combines with fats such as cholesterol. It is important for transport of fats in the lymph vessels and blood stream.

High density lipoproteins (HDLs) are blood-fats known to delay deposits of cholesterol on blood vessels, while low density lipoproteins (LDLs) have the opposite effect.


Farmer’s Lung

Allergic alveolitis. An occupational lung disease due to inhaling dust and mouldy grain, hay or other mouldy vegetable produce. Usually affects farm workers and those exposed to its wide range of allergens.

Symptoms: Influenza-like fever, breathlessness, cough.

Prognosis: Chronic lung damage and progressive disability.

Indicated: antifungals, antibiotics.

Alternatives. Teas. Marigold, Ground Ivy, Scarlet Pimpernel, Yarrow. 1 heaped teaspoon to each cup boiling water; infuse 5-15 minutes; 1 cup freely.

Tablets/capsules. Garlic, Echinacea, Goldenseal, Thuja.

Powders. Combine, parts, Echinacea 3; Goldenseal 1; Thuja 1. Dose: 500mg, (two 00 capsules or one- third teaspoon) thrice daily.

Decoction. Irish Moss, to promote expectoration and eliminate debris.

Tinctures. Alternatives. (1) Echinacea 2; Lobelia 1; Liquorice 1. (2) Equal parts: Wild Indigo, Thuja and Pleurisy root. (3) Echinacea 2; Marigold 1; Thuja half; Liquorice half. Dosage: two 5ml teaspoons in water thrice daily. Acute cases: every 2 hours.

Topical. Inhalation of Eucalyptus or Tea Tree oils.

Diet. See: DIET – GENERAL. Yoghurt in place of milk.

Note: Bronchodilators of little value. Those at risk should have an X-ray at regular intervals. ... farmer’s lung

Hearing Loss

Otosclerosis: a common cause of deafness in healthy adults. Gradual progressive hearing loss with troublesome tinnitus. The stapes may be fixed and the cochlea damaged. Bones may become spongy and demineralised. While deafness is a matter for the professional specialist, herbal treatment may prove useful. Examine ear for wax.

Internal. Elderflower and Peppermint tea (catarrhal). Ginkgo tea.

Tablets/capsules. Ginkgo. Improvement reported in moderate loss.

Topical. Garlic oil. Injection of 3-4 drops at night.

Wax in the ear. Mixture: 30 drops oil Eucalyptus, 1 drop Tincture Capsicum (or 3 of Ginger), 1oz (30ml) Olive oil. Inject 4-5 drops, warm.

Black Cohosh Drops. It is claimed that John Christopher (USA) improved many cases of moderate hearing loss with topical use of 5-10 drops Liquid Extract in 1oz oil of Mullein (or Olive oil).

Pulsatilla Drops. Tincture Pulsatilla and glycerol 50/50. 2-3 drops injected at bedtime. Assists auditory nerve function. (Arthur Hyde)

Nerve deafness due to fibroma of the 8th cranial nerve, or after surgery – oral: Mistletoe tea for temporary relief. ... hearing loss

Lichen Planus

An inflammatory skin eruption with small shiny pimples starting from the wrists and spreading towards the trunk. Associated with lesions on mucous surfaces – vulva, penis, mouth. Cause is unknown but sometimes related to tuberculosis or drug poisoning. Usually over front of wrists, trunk and shins.

Symptoms: Severe itching. Thickened skin with shiny red patches which later become brown and scaly. Distinguish from psoriasis. Nails ridged and split.

Alternatives. Relief from itching by use of antihistamines: Garlic, Goldenseal, Ephedra, Lobelia.

Teas. Nettles, Boneset, Chickweed, Heartsease, Yucca.

Decoctions. (1) Combine: equal parts: Burdock, Sarsaparilla, Passion flower. OR (2) Combine: equal parts: Echinacea, Blue Flag root, Sarsaparilla. Half an ounce (14g) to 1 pint (500ml) water gently simmered 20 minutes. Dose: half-1 cup thrice daily.

Cold infusion. One heaped teaspoon Barberry (Berberis Vul) to cup cold water. Steep overnight. Half-1 cup thrice daily.

Powders, Liquid Extracts or Tinctures. Equal parts: Wild Yam, Blue Flag root, Fringe Tree bark. Powders: 500mg. Liquid Extracts: 30-60 drops in water. Tinctures: 1-2 teaspoons in water. Thrice daily before meals.

Mouth ulcers: Rinse mouth with Goldenseal and Myrrh drops, in water.

Topical. Ointment or pulp from any one: Aloe Vera, Comfrey, Chickweed, Houseleek, Marshmallow. Vaginal lesion. Aloe Vera pulp or gel.

Diet. Avoid citrus fruits and milk.

Vitamins. A. B-complex, B12, C. E. F. PABA.

Minerals. Dolomite. Zinc. Cod Liver oil: one dessertspoon daily. ... lichen planus

Lupus Erythematosus

Auto-immune disease – antibody to DNA. Non-tubercula. Two kinds: (1) discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE) and (2) systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). DLE occurs mostly in middle-aged women, but SLE in young women. Activity may be followed by period of remission. The condition may evolve into rheumatic disease.

Symptoms (SLE): Loss of appetite, fever. Weight loss, weakness. Thickened scaly red patches on face (butterfly rash). May invade scalp and cause loss of hair. Sunlight worsens. Anaemia. Joint pains. Enlarged spleen. Heart disorders. Kidney weakness, with protein in the urine. Symptoms worse on exposure to sunlight. Low white blood cell count. Many patients may also present with Raynaud’s phenomenon while some women with silicone breast implants may develop lupus.

Treatment. Anti-virals. Alteratives. Anti-inflammatories, anticoagulants. Alternatives. Teas: Lime flowers, Gotu Kola, Ginkgo, Aloe Vera, Boneset.

Decoctions: Burdock. Queen’s Delight. Helonias.

Tablets/capsules. Echinacea. Blue Flag root. Wild Yam. Ginkgo.

Formula. Dandelion 1; Black Haw 1; Wild Yam half; Poke root half. Dose: Liquid Extracts: one 5ml teaspoon. Tinctures: two 5ml teaspoons. Powders: 500mg (two 00 capsules or one-third teaspoon). Thrice daily.

Topical. Sunlight barrier creams: Aloe Vera, Comfrey. Horsetail poultice. Garlic ointment. Castor oil packs.


Supplements. Calcium pantothenate, Vitamin A, Vitamin E, Selenium.

Note: The disorder is frequently misdiagnosed as rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis or ME. Lupus antibodies have been linked with premature heart disease in women and transient strokes. ... lupus erythematosus

Lupus Vulgaris

Tubercula skin disease, with small apple-jelly yellow nodules progressing to ulceration. Distribution: face, neck and mucous surfaces of mouth and nose. Non-itching. Skin thickens and discolours. Nose may be eroded and deformed.

Treatment. Because of plastic surgery deformities are now seldom seen, yet herbalism may still have a case in the absence of conventional drugs.

Teas. Elecampane. Gotu Kola.

Red Clover compound.

Arthur Barker. Liquid Extract Echinacea 1oz; Liquid Extract Queen’s Delight half an ounce; Tincture Goldenseal 30 drops. Syr Senna 2oz. Distilled, or pure spring water to 8oz. Dose: 1 dessertspoon after meals.

Topical. Marshmallow and Slippery Elm poultices or ointment. Oil of Mullein. Aloe Vera. Castor oil packs. ... lupus vulgaris

Lymphatic System

Lymph is the same fluid which oozes from a cut when bleeding stops. It surrounds every living cell. Lymph conveys to the blood the final products of digestion of food. It also receives from the blood waste products of metabolism. This is a two-way traffic.

Lymph fluid, loaded with waste, excess protein, etc, is sucked into the lymph tubes to be filtered by the spleen and the lymph nodes. The tubes are filled with countless one-way valves referred to collectively as the lymphatic pump, which propels the flow of lymph forwards. Lymph ultimately is collected in the main thoracic duct rising upwards in front of the spine to enter the bloodstream at the base of the neck.

A number of disorders may arise when the fluid becomes over-burdened by toxaemia, poor drainage and enlarged nodes (glands). Such un-eliminated wastes form cellulite – unwanted tissue formation and swelling. Thus, the soil may be prepared for various chronic illnesses from glandular disorders to arthritis. If the lymph is circulating freely it is almost impossible to become sick.

This system is capable of ingesting foreign particles and building up an immunity against future infection. Some herbal Lymphatics are also antimicrobials, natural alternatives to conventional antibiotics.

Treatment. Clivers is particularly relative to glandular swellings of neck and axillae.

For active inflammation: Echinacea, Goldenseal, Ginseng (Panax).

Alternatives. Teas: Clivers, Red Clover, Agnus Castus herb, Bladderwrack, Violet leaves, Marigold petals.

Decoctions: Blue Flag, Echinacea, Fenugreek seeds, Saw Palmetto.

Tablets/capsules. Agnus Castus, Echinacea, Bladderwrack, Red Clover, Thuja, Poke root, Fenugreek. Formula No 1. Echinacea 2; Clivers 1; Burdock 1; Poke root half. Dose: Liquid Extracts: one 5ml teaspoon. Tinctures: two 5ml teaspoons. Powders: 500mg (two 00 capsules or one-third teaspoon). Thrice daily.

Formula No 2. Equal parts: Blue Flag root, Poke root, Senna. Dose: as above.

Topical. Poultices: Slippery Elm, Fenugreek seeds, Marshmallow. Horsechestnut (Aesculus) ointment. ... lymphatic system

Assisted Living

See “residential care services”; “assisted living facility”.... assisted living

Bifocal Lens

A spectacle lens in which the upper part is shaped to assist distant vision and the lower part is for close work such as reading.... bifocal lens

Burkitt’s Lymphoma

Lymphoid tumour associated with Epstein-Barr (EB) virus. Especially common in malaria endemic areas, such as Africa and Papua New Guinea. May be associated with the immunosuppressive effects of the malaria infection.... burkitt’s lymphoma

Cod-liver Oil

Cod-liver oil is derived from the fresh liver of the cod (Gadus callarius). It is a rich source of vitamin D, used in the prevention and treatment of RICKETS, and of vitamin A. Human milk contains more than enough vitamin D for the breast-fed baby, provided the mother has a balanced diet with adequate exposure to sunlight, or is taking vitamin supplements during pregnancy and lactation if considered necessary. All baby foods in the UK contain added vitamins, and therefore supplementation is unnecessary until weaning begins, and the baby starts taking cow’s milk, which contains less vitamin D than human milk. (See APPENDIX 5: VITAMINS.)... cod-liver oil


Another name for Pediculus pubis, a louse that infests the pubic region. (See PEDICULOSIS.)... crab-louse


See SLEEP.... dreams

End-of-life Care

Care of older persons who are dying.... end-of-life care

Frontal Lobe

The anterior part of the cerebral hemisphere as far back as the central sulcus. It contains the motor cortex and the parts of the brain concerned with personality, behaviour and learning. (See BRAIN.)... frontal lobe

Germ Layer

Any one of the three discrete varieties of body tissue that develop in the early stages of growth of the EMBRYO. Development of the layers can be followed throughout the embryo’s stages of growth and specialisation into the body’s full range of tissues and organs (see ECTODERM; ENDODERM; MESODERM).... germ layer

Half Life

The time taken for the PLASMA concentration of an administered drug to decline by half as a result of redistribution, METABOLISM and EXCRETION.... half life

Islets Of Langerhans

Groups of specialised cells distributed throughout the PANCREAS, that produce three hormones: INSULIN, GLUCAGON, and SOMATOSTATIN.... islets of langerhans


Lips. The labia majora and labia minora are the outer and inner lip-like folds of skin surrounding the entrance to the VAGINA.... labia


Labium is the Latin word for a lip or lip-shaped organ.... labium

Lacrimal Nerve

A branch of the ophthalmic nerve supplying the lacrimal gland and conjunctiva of the EYE.... lacrimal nerve


Crying, or the secretion of an excess quantity of tears.... lacrimation


An ENZYME produced by glands in the small INTESTINE which changes lactose (milk sugar) into glucose and galactose during the process of digestion.... lactase


A lymphatic vessel that transmits CHYLE from the INTESTINE. (See also LYMPH.)... lacteal


Retarding or causing cessation of the secretion of milk... lactifuge


A small pit or depression.... lacuna

Gracilaria Lichenoides

(Linn.) Hary.

Habitat: Native to South America, particularly its north-western parts. Also cultivated in India.

English: Egyptian Cotton, Sea- Island Cotton.

Ayurvedic: Kaarpaasa.

Siddha/Tamil: Semparutthi.

Folk: Kapaasa.

Action: Root—emmenagogue, oxytocic, abortifacient, parturient, lactagogue. Seed and leaf— antidysenteric. Seed—galacto- gogue, pectoral, febrifuge. Seed oil—used externally for clearing spots and freckles from the skin. Leaf—hypotensive, an- tirheumatic. Flower—used in hypochondriasis and bronchial inflammations.

The seed contains 26.2-27.9% protein; 1.22-2.42 free gossypol.... gracilaria lichenoides

Heart-lung Machine

A device that temporarily takes over the function of the heart and lungs. It is used in certain operations in the chest, giving the surgeon more time for operations such as open-heart surgery, heart transplants and heart-lung transplants. The machine also ensures an operating area largely free of blood, which helps the surgeon to work more quickly. A pump replaces the heart and an oxygenator replaces the lungs. When connected up, the machine in e?ect bypasses normal cardiopulmonary activity. It also contains a heat exchanger to warm or cool the patient’s blood according to the requirements of the operation. The patient is given an anticoagulant (HEPARIN) to counteract clotting which may occur when blood cells get damaged during the machine’s use. Patients are on the machine for a few hours only, because blood supply to vital organs begins to be reduced.... heart-lung machine


(Greek) One who is well-spoken Lali, Lallia, Lalya, Lalea, Lalie, Lalee, Laly, Laley... lalia


A small disc of glycerin jelly, 3 mm (1/8 inch) in diameter, containing an active drug for application to the eye. It is applied by insertion behind the lower lid.... lamella


A leaf that is lance-shaped.... lanceolate


(English) One who takes the narrow path

Laine, Lainey, Laney, Lanie, Layne, Laina, Layna, Lainie, Laen, Laene, Laena, Laeni, Laenie, Lanee, Laynee, Laenee... lane


Soft ?ne hair covering the FETUS. It disappears by the ninth month of gestation and is therefore only seen on premature babies.... lanugo


An instrument consisting, essentially, of a rigid or ?exible cylinder, an eyepiece and a light source, which is inserted through a small incision into the abdominal cavity (which has already been distended with carbon dioxode gas). The laparoscope allows the contents of the abdominal cavity to be examined without performing a LAPAROTOMY. Some operations may be performed using the laparoscope to guide the manipulation of instruments inserted through another small incision – for example, STERILISATION; CHOLECYSTECTOMY. (See also ENDOSCOPE; MINIMALLY INVASIVE SURGERY (MIS).)... laparoscope


(American) One who is full of life Larche... larch


(English) Resembling the blue flower

Larkspurr, Larkspurre... larkspur


The pre-adult stage in insects and nematodes occurring between the egg and the sexually mature adult.... larva


Also known as croup – see under LARYNX, DISORDERS OF.... laryngo-tracheo-bronchitis


See OTOLARYNGOLOGY.... laryngology


Examination of the LARYNX may be performed indirectly with use of a laryngeal mirror, or directly by use of a laryngoscope – a type of endoscope. The direct examination is usually performed under general anaesthetic.... laryngoscope

Larynx, Disorders Of

Obstruction of the larynx is potentially dangerous in adults but can sometimes be life-threatening in infants and children. Stridor – noisy, di?cult breathing – is a symptom of obstruction. There are several causes, including congenital abnormalities of the larynx. Others are in?ammatory conditions such as acute laryngitis (see below), acute EPIGLOTTITIS and laryngo-tracheo-bronchitis (croup – see below); neurological abnormalities; trauma; and inhalation of foreign bodies.

Laryngitis In?ammation of the mucous membrane of the larynx and vocal chords may be acute or chronic. The cause is usually an infection, most commonly viral, although it may be the result of secondary bacterial infection, voice abuse or irritation by gases or chemicals. ACUTE LARYNGITIS may accompany any form of upper-respiratory-tract infection. The main symptom is hoarseness and often pain in the throat. The voice becomes husky or it may be lost. Cough, breathing diffculties and sometimes stridor may occur. Acute airway obstruction is unusual following laryngitis but may occasionally occur in infants (see laryngotracheo-bronchitis, below).

Treatment Vapour inhalations may be soothing and reduce swelling. Usually all that is needed is rest and analgesics such as paracetamol. Rarely, airway intervention – either ENDOTRACHEAL INTUBATION or TRACHEOSTOMY – may be necessary if severe airway obstruction develops (see APPENDIX 1: BASIC FIRST AID). A?ected patients should rest their voice and avoid smoking.

Chronic laryngitis can result from repeated attacks of acute laryngitis; excessive use of the voice – loud and prolonged, singing or shouting; tumours, which may be benign or malignant; or secondary to diseases such as TUBERCULOSIS and SYPHILIS.

Benign tumours or small nodules, such as singer’s nodules, may be surgically removed by direct laryngoscopy under general anaesthetic; while cancer of the larynx may be treated either by RADIOTHERAPY or by SURGERY, depending on the extent of the disease. Hoarseness may be the only symptom of vocal-chord disturbance or of laryngeal cancer: any case which has lasted for six weeks should be referred for a specialist opinion.

Laryngectomy clubs are being established

A laryngoscopic view of the interior of the larynx.

throughout the country to support patients following laryngectomy. Speech therapists provide speech rehabilitation.... larynx, disorders of


An analogue of prostaglandin (see PROSTAGLANDINS), used to treat open-angled GLAUCOMA and raised intra-ocular pressure in the EYE. Delivered as an eye drop, the drug is used in patients who cannot tolerate, or who fail to respond to, other treatments.... latanoprost

Latent Period

The time between initiation of infection and the first shedding of the agent.... latent period

Latissimus Dorsi

A large, ?at, triangular muscle in the back.... latissimus dorsi


The name applied to the washing-out of the stomach, for example to deal with potentially harmful drug ingestion. (See GASTRIC LAVAGE.)... lavage

Lemon Balm Tea

Lemon balm tea is fragrant to drink and is a very effective tonic to calm nerves and anxiety. Cold lemon balm tea bags help relieve cold sores, or genital sores caused by the herpes simplex virus. Mix lemon balm leaves with valerian to treat anxiety, stress and insomnia. Lemon Balm contains several properties, which control herpes and also regulate the thyroid. Lemon balm when mixed with peppermint can calm an upset stomach, sooth the digestive track and reduce flatulence. Drink lemon balm tea if you suffer from nerve pain. Drinking lemon balm tea also helps strengthen memory and brain functions and also uplifts one’s mood.... lemon balm tea


A nodule in the skin occurring in LEPROSY.... leproma


A group, or genus, of spiral micro-organisms, normally found in rodents and other small mammals in which they cause no harm. When transmitted to humans by these animals, either directly or indirectly as through cows, they give rise to various forms of illness (see LEPTOSPIROSIS).... leptospira

Lethal Gene

A gene that produces a GENOTYPE which causes the death of an organism before that organism has reproduced – or which prevents it from reproducing. Lethal genes are usually RECESSIVE, so the organism will die only if both its ‘parents’ carry the gene. Should only one parent have the lethal gene, its consequences will be masked by the dominant ALLELE passed on by the normal parent.... lethal gene


One of the essential, or indispensable, AMINO ACIDS. They are so-called because they cannot be synthesised, or manufactured, in the body, and are therefore essential constituents of the diet.... leucine


A condition in which the number of LEUCOCYTES in the blood is greatly reduced – by, say, ANAEMIA or cancer. It is also a dangerous sign in severe SEPTICAEMIA.... leucopenia


See LEUKOPLAKIA.... leucoplakia


See PSYCHOSURGERY.... leucotomy


(1) Any muscle that raises the organ or structure into which it is inserted.

(2) A surgical instrument for raising depressed fragments of bone in a fracture, particularly a fracture of the skull.... levator

Lhrh Analogue

A synthetically produced agent with the same properties as LUTEINISING HORMONERELEASING HORMONE (LHRH).... lhrh analogue



Life Cycle

1 The entire course of a person’s life – from infancy to old age. 2 The genetically prescribed course followed by all living organisms, including humans.... life cycle


(Latin) Resembling the bluish-purple flower

Lilack, Lilak, Lylac, Lylack, Lylak, Lilach... lilac


(English) Resembling the flower; one who is innocent and beautiful Leelee, Lil, Lili, Lilie, Lilla, Lilley, Lilli, Lillie, Lillika, Lillita, Lilly, Lilybel, Lilybell, Lilybella, Lilybelle, Lillah, Lilia, Lilch, Lilika, Lilike... lily

Lily Of The Valley

Mental Powers, Happiness... lily of the valley

Limb Lengthening

An orthopaedic procedure in which the length of a limb, usually a leg, is increased. The bone is surgically divided and slowly stretched in a special frame. The operation is usually done on people with unequal leg lengths as a result of injury or from PARALYSIS in childhood. Exceptionally, it may be done in both legs to help people of short stature.... limb lengthening


Healing, Love, Protection... lime


An insecticide used in SCABIES and lice infestations (see PEDICULOSIS); however, head lice are now often resistant. Used excessively, lindane may be neurotoxic (damage the nervous system).... lindane

Linea Nigra

During pregnancy, the LINEA ALBA becomes pigmented and appears as a dark line down the middle of the belly, and is called the linea nigra.... linea nigra


Referring or related to the TONGUE: for example, the lingual nerve supplies sensation to the tongue.... lingual


Liniments, or EMBROCATIONS, are oily mixtures intended for external application by rubbing. Their chief use is in the production of pain relief, particularly in rheumatic conditions. They may be highly toxic if taken orally.... liniments


A description that in GENETICS means circumstances in which two or more GENES lie near each other on a chromosome (see CHROMOSOMES) and so may well be inherited together.... linkage

Linoleic Acid

An unsaturated fatty acid occurring widely in the glycerides of plants. It is an essential nutrient for mammals, including humans.... linoleic acid


This was originally made of teased-out linen; now it consists of a loose cotton fabric, one side of which is ?u?y, the other being smooth and applied next to the skin when the surface is broken. Marine lint consists of tow impregnated with tar, and is used where large quantities of some absorbent and deodorising dressing are required. Cotton lint is impregnated with various substances, the most common being boracic lint. Lint containing perchloride of iron (15 per cent) is valuable as a styptic (see STYPTICS).... lint


The presence of an excessive amount of FAT in the blood.... lipaemia


An ENZYME widely distributed in plants, and present also in the liver and gastric and pancreatic juices, which breaks down fats to the constituent fatty acids and glycerol.... lipase


Any disorder of LIPID metabolism in body cells. Some hereditary disorders cause deposition of lipids within the brain.... lipidosis


A congenital maldistribution of FAT tissue. Subcutaneous fat is totally absent from a portion of the body and hypertrophied in the remainder. Another form of lipodystrophy occurs at the site of INSULIN injections, but is much less frequently seen nowadays; the new, synthetic preparations of insulin are pure and unlikely to cause this reaction, which was not uncommon with the older preparations. Occasionally the converse occurs at the site of insulin injections, where the lipogenic action of insulin stimulates the fat cells to hypertrophy. This can also be dis?guring and usually results from using the same site for injections too frequently.... lipodystrophy


The enzymatic breaking-down of FAT.... lipolysis


See SOLUTION.... liquor


These form a pair of ‘curtains’ before the mouth, each composed of a layer of skin and of mucous membrane, between which lies a considerable amount of fat and of muscle ?bres.

Fissures coming on in cold weather are often di?cult to get rid of. Peeling and cracking of the vermilion of the lips is common in those exposed for long periods to wind and sunlight. Treatment consists of the application of aqueous cream. If the main cause is excessive exposure to sunlight – in which case the lower lip is mainly affected – a protective cream should be applied.

Herpes in the form of ‘cold sores’ often develops on the lip as a result of a cold or other feverish condition, but quickly passes o? (see HERPES SIMPLEX).

Ulcers may form on the inner surface of the lip, usually in consequence of bad teeth or of DYSPEPSIA.

Small cysts sometimes form on the inner surface of the lip, and are seen as little bluish swellings ?lled with mucus; they are of no importance.

Hare-lip is a deformity sometimes present at birth (see PALATE, MALFORMATIONS OF).

Cancer of the lip sometimes occurs – almost always in men, and usually on the lower lip. (See also MOUTH, DISEASES OF.)... lips


Litholapaxy is the term applied to the operation in which a stone in the URINARY BLADDER is crushed by an instrument introduced along the URETHRA, and the fragments washed out through a catheter (see CATHETERS).... litholapaxy


A unit measurement of volume. One litre (l) is equivalent to the volume occupied by one kilogram of pure water at 4 °C and 760 mm Hg pressure. For day-to-day measurement, 1 litre is taken as being equal to 1,000 cubic centimetres (cm3).... litre

Liver Fluke

Fasciola hepatica is a parasite infesting sheep and occasionally invading the bile ducts and liver of humans (see FASCIOLIASIS).... liver fluke

Liver Spots

A misnomer applied to the brown MACULES often seen on the backs of the hands of those chronically exposed to sunlight (see LENTIGO). They have no connection with any liver disorder.... liver spots


Protection ... liverwort


Lobotomy is the cutting of a lobe of the BRAIN. (See also PSYCHOSURGERY.)... lobotomy


The term applied to a division of an organ smaller than a lobe: for example, the lobules of the lung are of the size of millet seeds (see LUNGS); those of the LIVER, slightly larger. Lobules form the smallest subdivisions or units of an organ, each lobule being similar to the others, of which there may be perhaps several hundred thousand in the organ.... lobule

Locked-in Syndrome

This describes a condition in which a patient is awake and retains the power of sense perception, but is unable to communicate except by limited eye movements because the motor nervous system is paralysed. Several diseases can cause this syndrome, which results from interruption of some of the nerve tracts between the mid brain and the pons (see BRAIN). Sometimes the syndrome is caused by severe damage to muscles or the nerves enervating them. Locked-in syndrome may sometimes be confused with a PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE (PVS).... locked-in syndrome

Locomotor Ataxia

The uncoordinated movements and unsteady lurching gait that occurs in the tertiary stage of untreated SYPHILIS.... locomotor ataxia

Locum Tenens

A doctor who stands in for another.... locum tenens


Logorrhoea is the technical term for garrulousness (‘chatterbox’) – a feature which may be exaggerated in certain states of mental instability.... logorrhoea


Fluid preparations intended for bringing into contact with, or for washing, the external surface of the body. Lotions are generally of a watery or alcoholic composition, and many of them are known as ‘liquors’. Those external applications which are of an oily nature, and intended to be rubbed into the surface, are known as liniments.... lotions

Lucid Interval

A temporary restoration of consciousness after a person has been rendered unconscious from a blow to the head. The victim subsequently relapses into COMA. This is a sign of raised INTRACRANIAL PRESSURE from arterial bleeding and indicates that surgery may be required to control the intracranial haemorrhage. (See also GLASGOW COMA SCALE.)... lucid interval


Another word for dislocation (see DISLOCATIONS).... luxation


This is the Latin word for wolf, and a term applied to certain chronic skin diseases which can destroy skin, underlying cartilage and even bone to cause serious deformity if uncontrolled.

Lupus vulgaris is a form of TUBERCULOSIS of the skin. It typically begins in childhood and may spread slowly for decades if untreated. The face and neck are the usual sites. In untreated disease, large, well-demarcated areas may be affected with redness, scaling and thickening. If the affected skin is blanched by pressure, yellow-brown foci may be observed – the so-called apple-jelly nodules. The disease causes extensive scarring as it spreads and may destroy cartilage in its path – for example, on the nose or ear – causing gross deformity. The disease was common in the UK up to 50 years ago, but is now rare. It is treated with a combination of tuberculostatic drugs.

Lupus erythematosus is an autoimmune disease which can affect skin or internal organs.

Discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE) In this disease, only the skin is affected. Sharply de?ned red, scaly and eventually atrophic patches appear on the face, especially on the nose and cheeks. ALOPECIA with scarring is seen if the scalp is affected. The condition is aggravated by sunlight. Topical CORTICOSTEROIDS are helpful.... lupus

Luteinizing-hormone Releasing Hormone

(LH-RH) The same substance as Follicle-Stimulating-Hormone Releasing Hormone (FSH-RH), both of which are actually Gonadotrophin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH or GRH). Confused? Imagine being an endocrinologist 20 years ago. These (This) are (is) a peptide secreted into the little portal system that drains from the hypothalamus to the pituitary. If it is surged hourly and not too strongly, the pituitary secretes LH and the ovaries secrete estrogen. If it is surged hourly and strongly, the estrogens rise drastically, the pituitary secretes FSH, you pop an egg, start the corpus luteum and begin progesterone secretion. The surge is now slowed to every four or five hours, not too strongly, and the pituitary secretes LH every four or five hours...and the ovaries make progesterone. The same hypothalamic hormone triggers different pituitary responses based on AMPLITUDE and FREQUENCY.... luteinizing-hormone releasing hormone

Lymph Nodes

The central drainage and metabolic organs strung along the lymph vessels. The mesenchymal structure is native, being present at birth. The functional cells have all migrated there, some recently from the marrow, spleen, thymus or blood, others have resided since a few months after birth. Much of the antibody memory is stored in these nodes, and having only venous blood supply, lymph nodes are constantly shunting metabolized substances back into the blood, so the final lymph drainage from the thoracic duct into the left subclavian vein (or the right subclavian) contains fluid already screened and cleansed by many nodes.... lymph nodes


Surgical removal of the LYMPH NODES. The procedure is usually carried out when cancer has in?ltrated the nodes in the lymphatic drainage zone of an organ or tissue invaded by a malignant growth. RADIOTHERAPY or CHEMOTHERAPY may be given if laboratory tests show that the type or extent of spread of the cancer cells merits this.... lymphadenectomy


Lymphangiectasis means an abnormal dilatation of the lymph vessels, as in FILARIASIS.... lymphangiectasis


Vessels which convey the LYMPH. (For an account of their arrangement, see GLAND.)... lymphatics


An increase in the number of lymphocytes in the blood (see LYMPHOCYTE) – for example, in response to viral infection or in chronic lymphocytic LEUKAEMIA.... lymphocytosis

Lymphoid Tissue

Tissue involved in the formation of LYMPH, lymphocytes (see LYMPHOCYTE), and ANTIBODIES. It consists of the LYMPH NODES, THYMUS GLAND, TONSILS and SPLEEN.... lymphoid tissue


An essential amino acid (see AMINO ACIDS; INDISPENSABLE AMINO ACIDS), lysine was ?rst isolated in 1889 from casein, the principal protein of milk. Like other essential amino acids, it ensures optimum growth in infants and balanced nitrogen metabolism in adults.... lysine

Mid-life Crisis

A colloquial description of the feelings of anxiety and distress experienced by some individuals in early middle age. They realise that by 45 years of age they are no longer young, and men in particular try to turn the clock back by changing jobs, dressing trendily, taking up energetic or unusual sports or engaging in extramarital liaisons. Sometimes those in mid-life crises develop mild or even serious DEPRESSION. The feelings of anxiety and insecurity usually disappear with time but some people may bene?t from counselling.... mid-life crisis

Parietal Lobe

A major section of each cerebral hemisphere (see BRAIN). The two lobes lie under the parietal bones and contain the sensory cortex.... parietal lobe

Quality Of Life

The product of the interplay between social, health, economic and environmental conditions which affect human and social development. It is a broad-ranging concept, incorporating a person’s physical health, psychological state, level of independence, social relationships, personal beliefs and relationship to salient features in the environment. As people age, their quality of life is largely determined by their ability to access needed resources and maintain autonomy and independence.... quality of life

Restless Legs Syndrome

A condition in which the patient experiences unpleasant sensations, and occasionally involuntary movements, in the legs when at rest, especially at night. No pathological changes have been identi?ed. It is sometimes indicative of iron-de?ciency ANAEMIA, but in many cases the cause remains a mystery and the variety of cures o?ered are a testimony to this. Some anti-epileptic drugs are said to help (see EPILEPSY).... restless legs syndrome

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (sle)

See separate dictionary entry.... systemic lupus erythematosus (sle)


See LYMPHOCYTE.... t-lymphocyte

Temporal Lobe

Part of the cerebral cortex in each hemisphere of the BRAIN. Areas of the temporal lobe are involved in the understanding of sound and spoken language.... temporal lobe

Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

More accurately called complex partial seizures, this is a type of EPILEPSY in which the abnormal cerebral activity originates in the temporal lobe of the BRAIN. It is characterised by hallucinations of smell and sometimes of taste, hearing, or sight. There may be disturbances of memory, including déjà vu phenomena. AUTOMATISM may occur, but consciousness is seldom lost.... temporal lobe epilepsy

Waiting List

A term widely used in the NHS to show the number of people waiting for hospital admission, usually for non-acute surgery. The size of the waiting list has come to be perceived over the past 20 years– especially by politicians – as a measure of the Service’s e?ectiveness. To the individual patient, however, what matters is the ‘waiting time’ – how long they have to wait before admission. This ?gure – along with the time a patient has to wait for an outpatient appointment to see a consultant – is increasingly being recognised as one important measurement of how well a hospital is serving its local communities.... waiting list

Sex-linked Inheritance

The way in which a characteristic or an illness determined by the SEX CHROMOSOMES in an individual’s cells is passed on to the succeeding generation. Men have one X and one Y sex chromosome and women have two X chromosomes. Disorders that result from an abnormal number of sex chromosomes include KLINEFELTER’S SYNDROME, which affects only men, and TURNER’S SYNDROME, which affects mainly women. Recessive GENES on the X chromosome cause most other sex-linked characteristics; in women these may well be masked because one of their two X chromosomes carries a normal (dominant) gene. In men, who have just one X chromosome, no such masking occurs – so more men than women are affected by X-linked characteristics or diseases. (See also HEREDITY.)... sex-linked inheritance

Urena Lobata

Linn. Mast.

Family: Malvaceae.

Habitat: Throughout warmer parts of India, frequent in West Bengal.

Ayurvedic: Naagabalaa (Grewia hirsuta and Sida veronicaefolia are also equated with Naagabalaa). Used as Balaa in Kerala.

Siddha/Tamil: Ottatti.

Action: Root—diuretic, emollient, antispasmodic (roots and stem used in severe windy colic), antirheumatic. Flowers—used as a pectoral and expectorant in dry and inveterate coughs. An infusion is used as a gargle for aphthae amd sore throat.

The aerial parts gave magniferin and quercetin. Alkanes, stigmasterol and beta-sitosterol are reported from the whole plant. The seeds contain protein, pentosan and mucilage.... urena lobata

Burkitt’s Lymphoma

A cancer of lymph tissues that is characterized by tumours within the jaw and/or abdomen. It is confined almost exclusively to children living in low-lying, moist, tropical regions of Africa and New Guinea. Anticancer drugs or radiotherapy give complete or partial cure in about 80 per cent of cases. (See also lymphoma.)... burkitt’s lymphoma

Café Au Lait Spots

Patches of coffeecoloured skin that may occur anywhere on the body.

Café au lait spots are usually oval in shape and may measure several centimetres across.

Generally, a few spots are not significant; larger numbers may be a sign of neurofibromatosis.... café au lait spots


Amygdalin. From apricot or peach kernels. Dramatic claims of cures of malignancy reported in 1950. In spite of extensive anecdotal efficacy, performance has not lived up to early promise. Powdered kernels are usually taken with additional vitamins and pancreatic enzymes. Purpose of the enzymes is to break down the muco-protein capsule which enables the cyanide in the remedy to penetrate the wall of the cancer cell and destroy its contents. Dr Ernest Krebs claimed the body’s own immune response broke down the cyanide content to produce a substance with an ability to destroy cancer cells. Apple pips are also said to be a good source of this property. ... laetrile

High Density Lipoprotein

One of a group of proteins that transport lipids in the blood. High levels of high density lipoprotein can help protect against atherosclerosis. (See also fats and oils; low density lipoprotein.)... high density lipoprotein

Iron Lung

A large machine formerly used to maintain breathing, especially in people paralysed by poliomyelitis. The iron lung has been replaced by more efficient means of maintaining breathing (see ventilation).... iron lung


Another name for giardiasis.... lambliasis


A reverse transcriptase inhibitor drug used in the treatment of HIV infection.

Often, when the treatment is started, 3 drugs are used: 2 reverse transcriptase inhibitors and a third drug from another class, such as a protease inhibitor.

Lamivudine may also be used to treat longstanding hepatitis B infections.

Nausea, vomiting, and diarrhoea are the most common side effects.... lamivudine


A small, pointed, double-edged knife used to open and drain lesions, such as boils and abscesses.... lancet


Examination of the larynx using a mirror held against the back of the palate (indirect laryngoscopy), or a rigid or flexible viewing tube called a laryngoscope (direct laryngoscopy).... laryngoscopy


Inflammation of the larynx, trachea, and bronchi, caused by a viral or a bacterial infection.

The disorder is usually mild, but can be life-threatening.

It is a common cause of croup in young children.... laryngotracheobronchitis


A solution of opium, formerly used as a sedative and painkiller and in the treatment of diarrhoea.... laudanum


Listeriosis. A form of food poisoning by the bacterium listeria monocytogenes which from the soil enters the human food chain on unwashed vegetables, infected milk through udder infection or faecal matter or the carcasses of slaughtered animals. A common route is unpasteurised milk in soft cheeses. The organism can survive a long time in extreme conditions of heat or cold – even microwave cooking.

At risk: pregnant females, babies, the elderly and immuno-suppressed groups. Notifiable disease.

There may be few gastrointestinal signs but it may lead to endocarditis and CNS disturbance: encephalitis and meningitis. When faced with a previously healthy person with acute diarrhoea and vomiting, food poisoning should be suspected.

Treatment. Dosage: thrice daily (chronic conditions); 2-hourly (acute conditions).

Formula. Equal parts: Wild Yam, Goldenseal, Valerian. Dose: Liquid Extracts: 30-60 drops in water. Powders: 500mg (two 00 capsules or one-third teaspoon). Tinctures: two 5ml teaspoons. Tablets: one tablet of each taken together.

Diet. Slippery Elm gruel. No tea, alcohol or caffeine drinks. Lemon balm tea freely. Listeria is inhibited by unsaturated fatty acids.

Prevention. 2 Garlic tablets/capsules at night.

Treatment by or in liaison with a general medical practitioner. ... listeria

Liver – Abscess

May follow inflammation of the liver from a number of causes, the most common being a manifestation of amoebic dysentery. Through blood infection it may appear on the surface of the liver or other organs.

Symptoms: pain under the right lower rib which may be referred to the right shoulder or under shoulder blades.

Treatment. Official treatment is aspiration or opening-up the abscess followed by drainage. Whether or not this is necessary, alternative anti-bacterials such as Myrrh, Goldenseal, Echinacea and Blue Flag may be used with good effect.

Alternatives. Teas: Milk Thistle. Grape leaves. 1 heaped teaspoon to each cup of water, thrice daily. Decoctions: Echinacea, Blue Flag, Goldenseal, Parsley root. One heaped teaspoon to each cup water gently simmered 20 minutes. Half a cup thrice daily.

Tablets/capsules: Blue Flag, Echinacea. Goldenseal. Wild Yam. Devil’s Claw.

Tinctures. Formula. Fringe Tree 3; Meadowsweet 2; Goldenseal 1. One to two 5ml teaspoons, thrice daily.

Practitioner. Ipecacuanha contains emetine which is specific for liver abscess; at the same time it is effective as an anti-amoebic-dysentery agent. Where dysentery is treated with Ipecacuanha liver abscess is rare. Tincture Ipecacuanha BP (1973). Dose: 0.25-1ml.

Diet. Fat-free. Dandelion coffee. Vitamins B6, C and K. Lecithin.

Treatment by or in liaison with a general medical practitioner. ... liver – abscess

Lazy Eye

An ambiguous name for the visual defect that commonly results from squint (see amblyopia).... lazy eye


The internal optical component of the eye responsible for focusing; also called the crystalline lens. It is situated behind the iris and is suspended on delicate fibres from the ciliary body. The lens is elastic, transparent, and slightly less convex on the front surface than on the back. Changing its curvature alters

the focus so that near or distant objects can be seen sharply (see accommodation). Opacification of the lens is called cataract. (See also lens dislocation.)... lens

Lens Implant

A plastic prosthesis used to replace the removed opaque lens in cataract surgery.... lens implant


A protein that has a role in the regulation of fat storage by the body.... leptin


A progestogen drug used in some oral contraceptives.... levonorgestrel


Thickening and hardening of the skin caused by repeated scratching, often to relieve the intense itching of disorders such as atopic eczema or lichen simplex.... lichenification


A thyroid hormone used as replacement therapy in hypothyroidism. Liothyronine acts more quickly than levothyroxine and is cleared from the body more rapidly.... liothyronine

Lacrimal Apparatus

The system that produces and drains tears. The lacrimal apparatus of the eye includes the main and accessory lacrimal glands and the nasolacrimal drainage duct. The main gland lies just within the upper and outer

margin of the eye orbit and drains on to the conjunctiva. It secretes tears during crying and when the eye is irritated. The accessory gland lies within the conjunctiva, and maintains the normal tear film, secreting it directly onto the conjunctiva. Tears drain through the lacrimal puncta, tiny openings towards the inner ends of the upper and lower eyelids. The puncta are connected by narrow tubes to the lacrimal sac, which lies within the lacrimal bone on the side of the nose. Leading from the sac is the nasolacrimal duct, which opens inside the nose.... lacrimal apparatus


A drug used in the long-term treatment of mania and manic-depressive illness. High levels of lithium in the blood may cause vomiting, diarrhoea, blurred vision, tremor, drowsiness, rash, and, in rare cases, kidney damage.... lithium

Lithotomy Position

Position in which a patient lies on his or her back with the hips and knees bent and the legs wide apart.

Once used for lithotomy, the position is still used for pelvic examinations and some types of pelvic surgery.... lithotomy position


A tricyclic antidepressant drug that is used in the long-term treatment of depression.... lofepramine


An angiotensin II antagonist drug used to treat hypertension (high blood pressure).

Side effects are usually mild; they include dizziness and fatigue.... losartan


A liquid drug preparation applied to the skin. Some examples of drugs prepared as a lotion include calamine and betamethasone, which are used to treat skin inflammation.... lotion

Low Density Lipoprotein

One of a group of proteins that are combined with lipids in the plasma. Low density lipoproteins (LDLs) are involved in the transport of

cholesterol in the bloodstream. An excess of LDLs (see hyperlipidaemias) is associated with atherosclerosis. (See also high density lipoprotein.)... low density lipoprotein

Ludwig’s Angina

A rare bacterial infection of the floor of the mouth.

The condition spreads to the throat, causing life-threatening swelling.

It requires immediate treatment with antibiotic drugs.... ludwig’s angina


One of the 2 main organs of the respiratory system. The lungs supply the body with the oxygen needed for aerobic metabolism and eliminate the waste product carbon dioxide. Air is delivered to the lungs via the trachea (windpipe); this branches into 2 main bronchi (air passages), with 1 bronchus supplying each lung. The main bronchi divide again into smaller bronchi and then into bronchioles, which lead to air passages that open out into grape-like air sacs called alveoli (see alveolus, pulmonary). Oxygen and carbon dioxide diffuse into or out of the blood through the thin walls of the alveoli. Each lung is enclosed in a double membrane called the pleura; thetwo layers of the pleura secrete a lubricating fluid that enables the lungs to move freely as they expand and contract during breathing. (See also respiration.) lung cancer The most common form of cancer in the. Tobacco-smoking is the main cause. Passive smoking (the inhalation of tobacco smoke by nonsmokers) and environmental pollution (for example, with radioactive minerals or asbestos) are also risk factors.

The first and most common symptom is a cough. Other symptoms include coughing up blood, shortness of breath, and chest pain. Lung cancer can spread to other parts of the body, especially the liver, brain, and bones. In most cases, the cancer is revealed in a chest X-ray. To confirm the diagnosis, tissue must be examined microscopically for the presence of cancerous cells (see cytology). If lung cancer is diagnosed at an early stage, pneumonectomy (removal of the lung) or lobectomy (removal of part of the lung) may be possible. Anticancer drugs and radiotherapy may also be used. lung, collapse of See atelectasis; pneumothorax.... lung

Lymph Node

A small organ lying along the course of a lymphatic vessel (see lymphatic system); commonly but incorrectly called a lymph gland. Lymph nodes vary considerably in size, from microscopic to about 2.5 cm (1 in) in diameter.

A lymph node consists of a thin, fibrous outer capsule and an inner mass of lymphoid tissue. Penetrating the capsule are several small lymphatic vessels (whichcarry lymph into the node). Each node contains sinuses (spaces), in which the lymph is filtered. The flow of the lymph slows as it moves through narrow channels in the sinuses; this reduction in flow allows macrophages (white blood cells that engulf and destroy foreign and dead material) time to filter microorganisms from the lymph. Germinal centres in the lymph node release white blood cells called lymphocytes, which also help to fight infection. A single, larger vessel carries lymph out of the node.... lymph node


An illuminated type of microscope that is used to examine the internal structures of the front

part of the eye and of the retina at the back. (See also eye, examination of.)... slit-lamp

Stein-leventhal Syndrome

See ovary, polycystic.... stein-leventhal syndrome


(litho-) combining form denoting a calculus (stone). Example: lithogenesis (formation of).... lith


n. see hyperuricuria.... lithuria

Acacia Leucophloea


Synonym: A. alba Willd.

Family: Mimosaceae.

Habitat: Native to West Indies; now occurring throughout India.

English: Cassie Flower, Cassie Absolute, Sweet Acacia.

Ayurvedic: Arimeda, Vitkhadira.

Unani: Vilaayati Kikar, Gandbabuul, Guyaa Babuul, Durgandh Khair.

Siddha/Tamil: Kastuurivel, Vedday- ala.

Action: Bark—astringent, demulcent, anthelmintic, antidysenteric, anti-inflammatory (used in stomatitis, ulcers, swollen gums, dental caries, bronchitis, skin diseases).

Ripe pods contain tannins and several polyphenolic compounds. Essential oil from pods—direct muscle relaxant, cardiac depressant and sedative.

Various plant parts are used in insanity, epilepsy, delirium and convulsions.

Family: Mimosaceae.

Habitat: Dry regions of the country, especially in Punjab, Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh.

English: White Babul.

Ayurvedic: Arimeda, Arimedaka, Arimanja, Irimeda, Vitakhadir, Godhaa-skandha, Raamaka.

Unani: Kath Safed, Vilaayati Babuul, Guyaa Babuul.

Siddha/Tamil: Valval, Velvayalam.

Folk: Safed Babuul, Safed Kikar, Renvaa.

Action: Bark—bitter, demulcent and cooling; used in biliousness and bronchitis. Seeds—haemaggluti- nating activity has been reported. Leaves—antisyphilitic and antibacterial. Gum—demulcent.

EtOH (50%) extract of aerial parts— hypotensive and central nervous system depressant.

The rootbark contains leucophleol, leucophleoxol and leucoxol.... acacia leucophloea

Aconitum Laciniatum

(Bruhl) Stapf.

Family: Ranunculaceae.

Habitat: The sub-alpine and alpine Himalayas of Sikkim between altitudes of 3,330 m and 4,200 m.

Ayurvedic: Vatsanaabha (related sp.).

Folk: Kaalo Bikhmo.

Action: Poisonous. (Found mixed with the roots of A.ferox and A. spicatum of commerce.)... aconitum laciniatum

Aconitum Luridum

Hook. f. and Thoms.

Family: Ranunculaceae.

Habitat: The Himalayas from eastern Nepal to Chumbi at altitudes of 3,600 to 4,200 m.

Ayurvedic: Vatsanaabha (related sp.).

Action: As potent as Aconitum ferox.... aconitum luridum

Activities Of Daily Living (adl)

A concept of functioning – activities of daily living are basic activities that are necessary to independent living, including eating, bathing and toileting. This concept has several assessment tools to determine an individual’s ability to perform the activity with or without assistance. See related “instrumental activities of daily living (IADL)”.... activities of daily living (adl)

Acute Life-threatening Event (alte)

See ALTE.... acute life-threatening event (alte)

Adapted Living Facility / Housing

Housing that has been specially built for, or changed to a certain standard to accommodate people with disabilities.... adapted living facility / housing

Adiantum Lunulatum


Synonym: A. philippense Linn.

Family: Adiantaceae.

Habitat: Throughout the greater part of India, up to an altitude of 1,200 m.

English: Walking Maidenhair Fern. Black Maidenhair (A. venustum G. Don is also known as Hansaraaja.)

Ayurvedic: Hansapadi, Hansapaadi, Raktapaadi, Kitamaataa, Tri- paadikaa, Hansaraaja; a substitute for Taamrachuda-paadikaa.

Siddha/Tamil: Seruppadai.

Folk: Raajhans, Mubaaraka.

Action: Febrifugal, antidysenteric, soothing agent in erysipelas. The rhizome is also prescribed for strangury, atrophy, emaciation or cachexy, muscular pain; emetic in large doses.

Along with other therapeutic applications, The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India indicates the use of the dried whole plant in psychosis-related fear. (It is one of the ingredients of the classical drug Maanasamitra Vataka, prescribed for mental disorders.)

The chemical constituents are chlorophyll-degradation products and higher carotenoids.

Dosage: Whole plant-1-3 g (API Vol. III.)... adiantum lunulatum

Amoebic Liver Abscess (ala)

Abscess of the liver caused by Entamoeba histolytica and often containing socalled “anchovy sauce” fluid.... amoebic liver abscess (ala)

Artificial Limbs And Other Parts

See PROSTHESIS.... artificial limbs and other parts

Artificial Ventilation Of The Lungs

When we breathe in, the outward movement of the chest increases the volume of the lungs and the pressure in them falls below that of the outside world. Therefore, air is drawn in automatically. When we breathe out, some air exits because of the normal elastic recoil of the lungs, but we also force air out by using the muscles of the chest and the DIAPHRAGM. Replicating this arti?cially involves using a device to produce intermittent positive or negative pressure ventilation as described below.... artificial ventilation of the lungs

Aerva Lanata

(L.) Juss. ex Schult.

Family: Amaranthaceae.

Habitat: The warmer parts of India, ascending to 1,000 m.

Ayurvedic: Paashaanabheda. Gorakshaganjaa, Aadaanpaaki, Shatkabhedi.

Siddha/Tamil: Sirupeelai.

Folk: Paashaanabheda (southern India), Gorakhagaanjaa.

Action: Anticalculus (used in lithiasis), diuretic, demulcent, anthelmintic, antidiarrhoeal, anticholerin, bechic; leaf used in hepatitis, root in strangury. A decoction of the plant is used in catarrh of bladder. The flowers and roots are used for headache.

Key application: As diuretic and lithontriptic. (The British Herbal Pharmacopoeia.)

The plant contains palmitic acid, beta-sitosterol and alpha-amyrin.

Aerva scandens Wall., synonym A. sanguinolenta Blume, is also known as Paashaanabheda in the south.

Species used as Paashaanabheda: Bergenia ligulata (north), Aerva lanata (south), Coleus amboinicus (east) and Bryophyllum pinnatum (west).

Dosage: 50-100 ml decoction. (CCRAS.)... aerva lanata

Alangium Lamarckii


Synonym: A. salviifolium (Linn. f.) Wang.

Family: Alangiaceae.

Habitat: The drier parts of India, in plains and foothills of southern India.

Ayurvedic: Ankola, Ankota, Taamraphala, Guptasneha, Dirgha- keelaka.

Siddha/Tamil: Azinjil.

Action: Rootbark—astringent, spasmolytic, hypotensive, also diaphoretic and antipyretic. Leaves— hypoglycaemic. Fruits—acidic, astringent, laxative and refrigerant. Used in haemorrhages, strangury and consumption. The bark is used as a substitute for Cephaelis ipecacuanha. It is a rich source of alkaloids structurally related to ipecac alkaloids (emetin).

The bark contains the alkaloid alan- gine which shows a selective action of the parasympathetic mechanism, the action being more marked on gastrointestinal tract. The root extract shows hypotensive action. Flowers contain deoxytubulosine, a potent antiplatelet aggregation component, which has a strong binding with DNA.

The plant extract possesses antineo- plastic properties.

Dosage: Rootbark—1-2 g powder. (CCRAS.)... alangium lamarckii

Albizia Lebbeck

(Linn.) Willd.

Family: Mimosaceae.

Habitat: All over India, from the plains up to 900 m in the Himalayas; also in the Andamans.

English: Siris tree, East Indian walnut.

Ayurvedic: Shirisha, Bhandi, Bhandila, Shitapushpa, Mridu- pushpa, Kapitana (bark—dusty black).

Unani: Siras.

Siddha/Tamil: Vaagei.

Action: Antiseptic, antibacterial, antiallergic, antidermatosis, antidysenteric. Bark—used in bronchitis; bark and seeds in piles; root in hemicrania; flowers in cough, bronchitis, tropical pulmonary eosinophilia, and asthma. Pod— antiprotozoal.

Along with other therapeutic applications, The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India indicates the use of stembark in rhinitis, sinusitis and migraine.

Analysis of the plant revealed the presence of flavonoids, triterpenoids and triterpenoid saponins; oleano- lic acid, albigenic acid, albigenin and acacic acid. The bark contains 7-11% condensed tannin; also d-catechin and d-leucocyanidin.

Aqueous extract of the bark decreased histamine-induced broncho- spasm in guinea pigs.

Alcoholic extract of stembark contains cardenolide glycosides of digitox- in nature. It showed antidermatophyt- ic activity. Anthraquinone glycosides and its aglycone exhibited antibacterial activity.

A saponin from seeds exhibited spermicidal activity in animals. EtOH (50%) extract of pods was found to be spermicidal against rat and human spermatozoa at 2% concentration.

The therapeutic properties of Albizia julibrissin Durazz, Pink Siris, found in the outer Himalayas from the Indus eastwards to Sikkim, are the same as those of A. lebbeck.

Dosage: Stembark—3-6 g powder.

20-50 g for decoction. (API

Vol. III.)... albizia lebbeck

Assisted Living Facility / Assisted Care Living Facility

Establishment which provides accommodation and care for older or disabled persons who cannot live independently but do not need nursing care. Residents are also provided with domestic assistance (meals, laundry, personal care).... assisted living facility / assisted care living facility

Average Length Of Stay (alos)

A measure of how many days a patient, on average, spends in the hospital. Hence, this measure, when applied to individuals or specific groups of patients, may be an indicator of the severity of illness and resource use. It is often used as a comparison to assess efficiency of resource usage between hospitals.... average length of stay (alos)

B-lymphocyte (or B-cell)

A type of white blood cell that circulates through the body and is able to detect the presence of the foreign agents. Once exposed to an antigen on the agent, these cells differentiate into plasma cells to produce antibody.... b-lymphocyte (or b-cell)

Balm, Lemon

Love, Success, Healing... balm, lemon

Beta Lactams

Antibiotics with a beta-lactam ring in their molecular structure, including the penicillins and the cephalosporins. Act on penicillin binding proteins in the mucopeptides of the bacterial cell wall. Can be destroyed bybacterial beta-lactamases.... beta lactams

Anogeissus Latifolia

Wall. ex Bedd.

Family: Combretaceae.

Habitat: Central and southern India.

English: Axle-wood, Button tree, Ghatti tree.

Ayurvedic: Dhava, Dhurand- hara, Shakataahya. Indravrksha (A. acuminata Wall. ex Bedd. is a related sp. of Dhava).

Unani: Dhaawaa.

Siddha/Tamil: Vellaynaga.

Folk: Ghatti (Gum).

Action: Astringent, cooling, used in diarrhoea, dysentery, ulcers, piles, urinary disorders and dysuria. Gum—used as a tonic after delivery.

The leaves, bark and heartwood yield quinic and shikmik acids; leaves contain gallotannin (90-95% of the tannins). The young leaves and shoots contain 50% tannins (dry basis). The bark contains 12-18% tannins. Heart- wood contains gallic acid, ellagic acid, its derivatives, quercetin and myricetin.

The gum is mainly the calcium salt of a complex, high molecular weight polysaccharic acid (ghattic acid). The gum is a substitute for Gum arabic.... anogeissus latifolia

Apium Leptophyllum

(Pers.) F. Muell. ex Benth.

Family: Umbelliferae.

Habitat: Native to America; cultivated in Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka.

Ayurvedic: Ajmodaa, Dipyaka.

Unani: Ajmod, Karafs-e-Hindi.

Siddha: Omam.

Action: See Apium graveolens.

The essential oil contains Meethers of thymol, carvacrol and thymoquinol; used as a carminative. The oil shows strong antifungal activity against Candida albicans, and moderate activity against Gram-positive and Gramnegative bacteria.

Dosage: Dried fruit—3-6 g powder. (API Vol. II.)... apium leptophyllum

Arctium Lappa


Family: Compositae; Asteraceae.

Habitat: Native to northern Europe; now found in western Himalayas, Kashmir and Simla.

English: Common or Great Burdock.

Folk: Phaggarmuul (Kashmir).

Action: Hypoglycaemic (plant extract caused reduction of blood sugar with an increase in carbohydrate tolerance). Roots—inhibitory of tumour growth, cardiac stimulant, diuretic, spasmolytic. Leaves and seeds—anticutaneous (used in psoriasis, seborrhoic eczema).

Key application: As dermatolog- ical agent. (The British Herbal Pharmacopoeia.)

Important constituents of Burdock roots are fatty acids, organic acids, phenolic acids, lignans, sesquiterpenes, tannin, inulin and mucilage.

Extracts of the fruit are reported to have hypoglycaemic activity in rats. Arctigenin (lignan) is a weak inhibitor of experimental tumour growth. The antimicrobial properties are due to polyacetylenes (of the root). The root exhibits antibiotic activity against Staphylococcus, and is used for fungal and bacterial infections. A flavonoid, arctiin, shows smooth muscle relaxant properties.... arctium lappa

Aristolochia Longa


Family: Aristolochiaceae. English: European Birthwort. Unani: Zaraawand Taweel.

Action: Oxytocic, abortifacient, emmenagogue.

Aristolochic acid and its Me es- ter—strongly abortifacient, showed damage to liver and kidney. Roots— anti-oestrogenic. A cytotoxic lignan, savinin, has been isolated from the roots.

Aristolochic acid also has an effect against adenosarcoma and HeLa cells in culture; however, it is suspected to be carcinogenic.

Aristolochia extracts show a pronounced enhancement of phagocytosis by leucocytes, granulocytes and peritoneal macrophages, due to the presence of aristolochic acids.

Tardolyt-coated tablets, which contain 0.3 mg of aristolochic acid, increase phagocytosis in healthy men.

Aristolochic acid also exhibits reduction of some of the toxic effects of prednisolone, chloramphenicol and tetracycline in experiments in vitro, and a reduction in the rate of recurrent herpes lesions in vivo.... aristolochia longa

Bird Fancier’s Lung

Also known as pigeon breeder’s lung, this is a form of extrinsic allergic ALVEOLITIS resulting from sensitisation to birds. In bird fanciers, skin tests sometimes show sensitisation to birds’ droppings, eggs, protein and serum, even through there has been no evidence of any illness.... bird fancier’s lung

Blackberry Leaves

Picked, dried in the sun and infused with boiling water, blackberry leaves are the essence of most berry-flavored teas. Studies suggest that the leaves contain a healthy dose of flavonoids, which are known for their antioxidant activity.... blackberry leaves


See VENESECTION.... blood-letting

Budgerigar-fancier’s Lung

Budgerigar-fancier’s lung is a form of extrinsic allergic ALVEOLITIS, resulting from sensitisation to budgerigars, or parakeets as they are known in North America. Skin tests have revealed sensitisation to the birds’ droppings and/or serum. As it is estimated that budgerigars are kept in 5– 6 million homes in Britain, current ?gures suggest that anything up to 900 per 100,000 of the population are exposed to the risk of developing this condition.... budgerigar-fancier’s lung

Armoracia Lapathifolia


Synonym: A. rusticana Gaertn et al.

Family: Cruciferae; Brassicaceae.

Habitat: Native to Europe; grown in gardens in northern India and in hill stations of southern India.

English: Horseradish.

Action: Circulatory stimulant, diaphoretic, diuretic, antibiotic. Used for both urinary and respiratory tract infections. Root—liver, spleen and pancreatic stimulant; an alternative to Cayenne pepper; urinary antiseptic; diuretic; used in the treatment of gout, increases excretion of uric acid; also for proteinura and vaginal discharges. An infusion is used for hepatitis.

Key application: In catarrhs of the respiratory tract and as a supportive therapy for infections of the urinary tract; externally for catarrhs of the respiratory tract and hyperaemic treatment of minor muscle aches. (German Commission E.) It is contraindicated in stomach and intestinal ulcers and kidney disorders; not to be administered to children under 4 years.

The root contains glucosinolates, mainly sinigrin, which releases allyl isothiocyanate on contact with the enzyme myrosin during crushing. The oil exhibits broad-spectrum antibiotic activity due to allyl isothiocyanates and allied compounds; used internally as stimulant, sudorific and diuretic. Antibiotic activity is stronger against Gram-positive bacteria than against Gram-negative bacteria. The oil also exhibits cytotoxic activity.

The root produces an inhibitory effect on the growth of Gram-negative bacteria of the typhoid-paratyphoid- entertitis group.

Kaempferol, a component of Horseradish, inhibits thyroid peroxidase, which is involved in the biosynthe sis of thyroid hormone. (Sharon M. Herr.)... armoracia lapathifolia

Artichoke Leaf Tea

Artichoke leaf tea is one of oldest natural remedies valued by Egyptians. Nowadays, it is largely used to treat ailments like constipation, indigestion or liver disorders, but not only. Artichoke leaf tea description Artichoke is a perennial thistle plant originating from the Mediterranean areas of Southern Europe and North Africa. It has arching leaves which are deeply lobed. Artichoke usually blossoms from the end of spring up to the middle of summer. It is said to be one of the world’s oldest vegetables. People normally intake the fleshy portion of the artichoke leaves, its green base and its core. Artichoke leaf tea is the beverage resulting from brewing the leaves of the abovementioned plant. It is a caffeine-free substitute for those who want to avoid consuming coffee. Artichoke Leaf Tea brewing To prepare Artichoke leaf tea, consumers need a teapot, a strainer and a heatproof cup or mug:
  • Heat water in a teapot to about 208 degrees F (or bring the water to a boil)
  • Remove from heat for a minute or two
  • Pour water into your cup or mug
  • Immerse the tea bag (in case of loose-leaf tea, use a tea strainer)
  • Let it steep for four to five minutes (If you steep the tea longer, the flavor will be stronger, but the tea might taste bitter)
  • Remove the tea from the mug and serve it
  • Add milk and/or sugar to taste
Artichoke Leaf Tea benefits Studies have shown that Artichoke leaf tea is successfully used to:
  • lower bad cholesterol levels
  • lower the risks of cardiovascular diseases
  • promote good digestion by helping relieve constipation, heartburn, diarrhea and bloating
  • support the functions of the liver fighting against cirrhosis and other ailments of the liver
  • help lower blood sugar levels
  • help lower the risks for diabetes
  • help in the treatment of problems affecting the kidney
  • strengthen the immune system
  • eliminate toxins
  • clean the skin
Artichoke Leaf Tea side effects Artichoke leaf tea is not recommended for patients with gallstones. Pregnant and nursing women, as well as small children, should not intake it until further research is conducted. Artichoke leaf tea is a beverage with no caffeine content, used to help in treating a large array of diseases. Except its healthy properties, it can be a good alternative for an afternoon or evening tea.... artichoke leaf tea

Change Of Life

See CLIMACTERIC; MENOPAUSE.... change of life

Chapped Lips

See LIPS.... chapped lips

Cimex Lectularius

See BED BUG.... cimex lectularius

Cirrhosis, Laennecs

The most common type of cirrhosis, caused by chronic alcoholism and a lousy diet (or malabsorption).... cirrhosis, laennecs

Confidence Limit

The minimum and maximum value of a confidence interval.... confidence limit

Cost-of-living Adjustment (cola)

Increase to a monthly long-term disability benefit, usually after the first year of payments. May be a flat percentage (e.g. 3%) or tied to changes in inflation.... cost-of-living adjustment (cola)

Artocarpus Lacucha


Synonym: A. lakoocha Roxb.

Family: Moraceae.

Habitat: Cultivated in Uttar Pradesh, Bengal, Khasi Hills and western Ghats.

English: Monkey Jack.

Ayurvedic: Lakuch, Kshudra Panas, Granthiphala, Pitanaasha.

Siddha/Tamil: Ilangu, Irapala, Ottipilu (Tamil).

Folk: Badhar.

Action: Bark—when applied externally, draws out purulent matter; heals boils, cracked skin and pimples. Seeds—purgative, haemagglutinating. Stems— vermifuge.

The stembark contains oxyresvera- trol, used for tapeworm.

A lectin, artocarpin, isolated from seeds, precipitates several galactoman- nans. It agglutinates rat lymphocytes and mouse ascites cells.

Dosage: Fruit—5-10 ml juice. (CCRAS.)... artocarpus lacucha

Ashwagandha Tea Increases Libido

Ashwagandha tea has a long medicinal history, being used for its healing properties byAyurveda practitioners, native Americans and Africans. At present, it is used to improve memory, but not only. What is Ashwagandha? Ashwagandha is a stout shrub that belongs to the nightshade family, but it does not possess poisonous properties.  It grows in India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Nepal and Bangladesh. Literally translated, Ashwagandha means horse smell. It has been also known as “India’s ginseng” or “winter cherry.” In Ayurveda, practitioners use Ashwagandha for its medicinal properties which enhance longevity and health in general. Native Americans and Africans have been using Ashwagandha to heal inflammation, fevers and infection. The plant has anti-microbial and anti-bacterial properties. Ashwagandha can be taken as tea, as tincture, in capsule form, or as an extract. Ashwagandha tea is the resulting beverage from brewing the abovementioned plant. Ashwagandha tea brewing To prepare Ashwagandha tea:
  • Place about 1 teaspoon of dried ashwagandha leaves in boiling water.
  • Let the mix steep for about 15 minutes and cool.
  • Strain and then drink.
Ashwagandha tea benefits Studies revealed that Ashwagandha tea is successfully used to:
  • calm the nerves and treat severe stress and nervous exhaustion
  • help in the treatment of hypertension
  • clear the mind, as well as to improve memory and cognitive abilities
  • help in fighting arthritis
  • help in restoring sexual vitality, especially in males
It also has anti-carcinogenic and anti-cancer properties. Ashwagandha tea is recommended for expectant mothers. It is said to purify the mother’s blood and strengthen her immune system. Because it acts as a uterine sedative, Ashwagandha tea is used during childbirth, bytraditional Ayurvedic medicine. Ashwagandha tea side effects Ashwagandha tea is not recommended to pregnant women. To avoid any possible side effects, consumers should not intake the tea in high doses or for long periods of time. Ashwagandha tea is a good choice when looking for an increased libido, or an adjuvant against cancer, due to its antioxidant content. It can be also used to enhance the immune system and thus, to release stress.... ashwagandha tea increases libido

Asteracantha Longifolia


Synonym: Hygrophila spinosa T. Anders

Family: Acanthaceae.

Habitat: Common in moist places, paddy fields, throughout India and Sri Lanka.

Ayurvedic: Kokilaaksha, Kokilaak- shi, Ikshura, Ikshuraka, Kaakekshu, Kshurak, Bhikshu.

Unani: Taalmakhaanaa. (Wrongly equated with Euryaleferox Salisb. (Fox Nut) in National Formulary of Unani Medicine, Part I, first edn., 1981.)

Siddha/Tamil: Neermulli, Nerugobbi.

Action: Diuretic, used for catarrh of the urinary organs, also for dropsy when accompanied by hepatic obstruction.

The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia ofIn- dia recommends the seed in lithiasis; the whole plant and root for gout.

Aqueous extract of herb ash—diuretic in albino rats. EtOH (50%)— spasmolytic and hypotensive. The herb exhibits antihepatotoxic activity in dogs. Essential oil from whole plant—antibacterial.

The plant gave lupeol, stigmasterol and hydrocarbons; seed gave sterols; flowers, apigenin glucuronide.

Aqueous extract decreased fasting glucose and improved glucose tolerance in rats. (Sharon M. Herr.)

Dosage: Whole plant—3-6 g, powder; dried seed—3-6 g powder; dried root—3-6 g for decoction. (API Vol. II.) Herb ash—1-3 g (CCRAS.)... asteracantha longifolia

Crusta Lactea

See CRADLE CAP.... crusta lactea

Cutaneous Larva Migrans

A cutaneous eruption resulting from exposure of the skin the infective filariform larva of non-human hookworms, Ancylostoma braziliense, A. caninum and some Strongyloides spp (especially S. procyormis of the raccoon and S. myopotami of the nutria).... cutaneous larva migrans

Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

A spectrum of skin disease caused by protozoan Leishmania spp, with a lifecycle and vectors identical to that of Leishmania donovani (see visceral leishmaniasis). The spectrum of disease ranges from a single, dry cutaneous lesion (L. tropica) through to destructive mucocutaneous lesions (L. braziliensis braziliensis).... cutaneous leishmaniasis

Bassia Longifolia


Synonym: Madhuca longifolia (Linn.) Macbride.

Family: Sapotaceae.

Habitat: South India; common in the monsoon forests of Western Ghats.

English: Mowra Butter tree, South Indian Mahua.

Siddha/Tamil: Illupei, Elupa, Naatu, Iluppei, Iruppei.

Action: Flowers—laxative, bechic (used in coughs, colds and bronchitis), stimulant and nervine tonic. Seed oil—galactogenic, anticephalalgic, laxative in cases of habitual constipation and piles; used externally in rheumatism and skin affections. Bark, seed oil and gum—antirheumatic.

The herb contains 17% tannins and is used for bleeding and spongy gums, tonsillitis, ulcers, rheumatism and diabetes mellitus. Roots are applied to ulcers.

Seed kernel gave protobassic acid (a sapogenol) and two major saponins— Mi-saponins A and B. Mi-saponins (bisdesmosides of protobassic acid) exhibit anti-inflammatory activity in rheumatism.

The carollas are a rich source of sugars and contain an appreciable amount of vitamins and calcium (total sugars 72.9%, calcium 140 mg/100 g). Sugars are identified as sucrose, maltose, glucose, fructose, arabinose and rham- nose. Flowers are largely used in the preparation of distilled liquors. They constitute the most important raw material for fermentative production of alcohol.... bassia longifolia

Begonia Laciniata

Roxb. var. nepalensis A. DC.

Family: Begoniaceae.

Habitat: Tropical and sub-tropical regions, especially in America. Found in Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Meghalaya, Nagaland and Manipur, ascending to an altitude to 2,100 m.

English: Beefsteak Geraniums, Elephant's Ear.

Folk: Hooirjo (West Bengal), Teisu (Nagaland).

Action: A decoction of the root is given for liver diseases and fever. The extract from succulent stalks is used for venereal diseases in folk medicine. Fresh shoots are chewed for tooth troubles. Aqueous extracts of the leaves and flowers of Begonia sp. are active against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.

Hooirjo and Teisu are also equated with B. palmata D. Don var. gamblei Hara, found in northeastern regions of India.... begonia laciniata

Bergenia Ligulata

(Wall.) Engl.

Synonym: B. ciliata Sternb. Saxífraga ligulata Wall.

Family: Saxifragaceae.

Habitat: Temperate Himalaya from Kashmir to Bhutan, between altitudes of 900 and 3,000 m.

Ayurvedic: Paashaanabheda, Ashmaribhedikaa, Ashmaribhit, Ashmghna, Shilaabhit, Shilaabheda. (These synonyms are also equated with Aerva lanata Juss.)

Siddha/Tamil: Padanbethi.

Action: Leaf and root—antiscorbutic, astringent, spasmolytic, antidiarrhoeal. Used in dysuria, spleen enlargement, pulmonary affections as a cough remedy, menorrhagia, urinary tract infections. Alcoholic extract of roots— antilithic. Acetone extract of root- bark—cardiotoxic, CNS depressant and anti-inflammatory; in mild doses diuretic but antidiuretic in higher doses. Anti-inflammatory activity decreases with increasing dosage.

Due to its depressant action on the central nervous system, the drug is used against vertigo, dizziness and headache in moderate or low dosage.

Key application: In lithiasis, dysuria, polyuria. (The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India; Indian Herbal Pharmacopoeia.)

The rhizome contains an active principle bergenin (0.6%), gallic acid, glucose (5.6%), tannins (14.2-016.3%), mucilage and wax; a C-glycoside and beta-sitosterol.

Bergenin prevented stress-induced erosions in rats and lowered gastric outputs.

(Paashaanabheda indicates that the plant grows between rocks appearing to break them; it does not necessarily mean that it possesses lithotriptic property.)

Dosage: Rhizome—20-30 g for decoction. (API Vol. I)... bergenia ligulata

Diphyllobothrium Latum

The broad or fish tapeworm of humans and other fish-eating mammals. Als o called Dibothriocephalus latum. Infection acquired by eating fish containing the infective plerocercoid (sparganum) larva. May be associated in humans with a megaloblastic (macrocytic) anaemia due to competition for Vitamin B12.... diphyllobothrium latum

Disability-adjusted Life Expectancy

A modification of conventional life expectancy to account for time lived with disability. It is the number of healthy years of life that can be expected on average in a given population. It is generally calculated at birth, but estimates can also be prepared at other ages. It adjusts the expectation of years of life for the loss on account of disability, using explicit weights for different health states.... disability-adjusted life expectancy

Disability-adjusted Life Years (dalys)

The number of healthy years of life lost due to premature death and disability.... disability-adjusted life years (dalys)

Discoid Lupus Erythematosus (dle)

See under LUPUS.... discoid lupus erythematosus (dle)

Ecbolium Linneanum


Synonym: E. viride (Forsk.) Alston. Justica ecbolium Linn.

Family: Acanthaceae.

Habitat: Northeastern Peninsular India.

English: Blue Fox Tail Nail Dye.

Siddha/Tamil: Nilambari.

Action: Plant—used in gout and dysuria; decoction of leaves for stricture. Roots—given in jaundice, menorrhagia and rheumatism.... ecbolium linneanum

Benefits Of Lapsang Souchong Tea

Lapsang Souchong tea is a type of black tea originating from China. Out of all the types of black tea, this one is special thanks to its history, rich taste and health benefits. Find out more about the Lapsang Souchong tea in this article. About the Lapsang Souchong tea Lapsang Souchong tea is a type of black tea originating from China, from the Wuyi region of the Fujian province. It is the first type of black tea in history, having been discovered around the beginning of the 19th century. Later, people started to move the tea bushes even outside of China, for example to India or Sri Lanka. The flavor of this tea is smoky, rich and fruity. It goes well with salty and spicy dishes, as well as with cheese. Lapsang Souchong tea - a smoked tea It is said that the lapsang souchong tea was discovered by accident. During the Dao Guang era of the Qing Dynasty, an army unit passed through Xingcu village and decided to set camp at a tea factory filled with unprocessed tea leaves. The workers could only return at the company after the soldiers left. Discovering that they didn’t have enough time to let the leaves dry, the workers decided to speed up the process. What they did was to place the tea leaves into bamboo baskets and dry them over fires made from local pines. This is how the lapsang souchong tea was discovered. Because of this, it is also called “smoked tea”. Seeing as they are smoke-dried over fires made from pine wood, the lapsang souchong tea has a strong, smoky flavor. How to make lapsang souchong tea To make lapsang souchong tea, you need one teaspoon of leaves for a 6 ounce cup. Leave it to steep for 3-4 minutes before you remove the leaves. You can later use the leaves to resteep, but the flavor might differ after each steeping. The lapsang souchong tea is usually drunk without milk or sugar. People either love its taste, or completely hate it, so there’s no need to change it. Benefits of lapsang souchong tea The lapsang souchong tea, just like all other types of black teas, has many health benefits that should encourage you to drink more of it. First of all, drinking lapsang souchong tea can reduce your chances of getting cancer. It also helps reduce the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases, as it lowers the cholesterol in your blood and helps the blood flow better in your veins. The lapsang souchong tea helps strengthen your immunity, protecting you from viruses that lead to colds, the flu or other diseases. It also helps you fight against various types of inflammations. During diets, it is recommended to drink black tea; this includes the lapsang souchong tea, as well. It helps burn fats faster and, therefore, helps you lose weight. Side effects of lapsang souchong tea The side effects of the lapsang souchong tea are those found at other types of black tea, as well. They are related to the caffeine found in the tea’s composition, and drinking too much tea. If you know caffeine isn’t good for you, be careful when drinking lapsang souchong tea. It may cause you to experience the following symptoms: insomnia, anxiety, headache, dizziness, irritability, blurred vision and skin rashes. You also have to be careful if you’re pregnant or breastfeeding. In the case of pregnancy, the caffeine in the lapsang souchong tea (and caffeine in general) can cause miscarriages and birth defects. If you’re breastfeeding, lapsang souchong tea can affect the baby, who might get insomnia, heart palpitations and tremors. Also, if you’re suffering from ulcer, don’t drink too much lapsang souchong tea. The caffeine in its composition may increase the production of stomach acid and, therefore, aggravate the ulcer symptoms. It is recommended that you not drink more than six cups of tea per day. Otherwise, it might end up becoming harmful rather than helpful. The side effects that you might get are headaches, dizziness, insomnia, irregular heartbeats, vomiting, diarrhea and loss of appetite. If you encounter any of these symptoms, reduce the amount of tea you drink. This applies to all types of tea, including the lapsang souchong tea. If you want a special kind of black tea, try the lapsang souchong tea. The smoky, fruity flavor will definitely charm you. And don’t forget, it’s also good for your health!... benefits of lapsang souchong tea

Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (elisa)

This is a sensitive method for measuring the quantity of a substance. An antibody to the substance is prepared along with an ENZYME which binds to the antibody and which can be accurately measured using colour changes that occur as a result of the chemical reaction.... enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa)

Expectation Of Life

The average number of years an individual of a given age is expected to live if current mortality rates continue to apply. See “life expectancy”.... expectation of life

Farmer’s Lung

A form of external allergic ALVEOLITIS caused by the inhalation of dust from mouldy hay or straw.... farmer’s lung

Gastric Lavage

A method of gastric decontamination used in the treatment of poisoning. It is not used routinely. Lavage involves the passage of a lubricated tube via the mouth and OESOPHAGUS into the stomach. Patients are positioned on their side with the head lower than the feet. A small quantity of ?uid (300 ml) is passed into the stomach and the contents then drained out (by gravity) by lowering the end of the tube. This is repeated until the solution is clear of particulate matter. The procedure should be done only by an experienced health professional.... gastric lavage

Blepharis Linariaefolia


Synonym: B. sindica T. Anders.

Family: Acanthaceae.

Habitat: Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan and Gujarat.

Ayurvedic: Ushtrakaandi, Utangan (var.).

Folk: Utangana (Sindh). Asad.

Action: Seeds, boiled in milk, are taken as an invigorating tonic.

Blepharis molluginifolia Pers., used for urinary discharges, is also equated with Utangana.... blepharis linariaefolia

Blue Flag Tea For A Healthy Liver

Blue Flag tea has a long history in treating liver ailments: Native American tribes used to consume it for its hepatic properties. Blue Flag Tea description Blue flag is a perennial herb also known as the liver lily and the fleur-de-lis, native to North America. It has smooth spear-shaped leaves topped with a light bluish-purple flower. Blue flag plants grow in bunches and bloom during late June and early July. Blue Flag tea is the resulting beverage from brewing the abovementioned plant. Blue Flag Tea brewing To prepare Blue Flag tea, place 1 teaspoon of the dried roots in a cup of boiling water. Let it steep for 10 minutes. The tea can be consumed three times a day. Blue Flag Tea benefits Blue Flag has been successfully used to:
  • stimulate the liver and thus, it is helpful in the treatment of jaundice and hepatitis
  • fight impurities of the blood
  • fight against skin problems like acne and psoriasis
  • detoxify the body by increasing the production of bile, as well as frequency of urination
  • help treat indigestion
  • treat rheumatism
  • help in weight loss
Blue Flag tea can be an effective laxative, diuretic and as an emetic. It is also effective in reducing inflammation of the skin, decreasing the symptoms of skin infections. It is also good in treating burns, bruises and wounds. Blue Flag Tea side effects Until further studies are conducted, pregnant and nursing women should avoid intaking this type of tea. Blue Flag tea has proven its efficiency in dealing with severe liver-related diseases. Also, applied topically, it can treat skin problems, but not only.... blue flag tea for a healthy liver

Boldo Tea Is Benefic For The Liver

Boldo tea has a long medicinal history, according to recent archeological discoveries. It is a healthy choice for the liver, urinary tract and infections. Boldo Tea description Boldo is a tree found in the central region of Chile and near the Mediterranean. It is an evergreen shrub whose leaves are colored brown when dried and whose fruits are small green spheres. Apparently, boldo use dates back at least 10,000 years. Nowadays, people use this plant to aid digestion, cleanse the liver and increase bile production for gallbladder’s health. Boldo tea is the resulting beverage from brewing the abovementioned plant. Boldo Tea brewing To prepare Boldo tea:
  • Pour boiling water over 1 teaspoon of dried boldo leaves.
  • Let the mix infuse for about 10 to 15 minutes.
  • Drink it slowly.
Boldo tea can be drunk three times a day for short periods of time. Boldo Tea benefits Studies have shown that Boldo tea is efficient in:
  • treating urinary tract and bladder infections
  • helping in liver cleansing
  • helping alleviate heartburn
  • relieving discomfort in the gallbladder
  • helping treat mild stomach cramps
  • treating worm infections
  • helping in the treatment of cystitis
  • treating gonorrhea
Boldo Tea side effects Patients with severe liver or kidney disease or obstruction of the bile ducts are advised to avoid the use of Boldo tea. Pregnant and nursing women should not consume Boldo tea. Boldo tea is a medicinal beverage which proved its efficiency in dealing with liver cleansing and urinary tract infections. It is recommended to patients suffering from stomach cramps, but not only.... boldo tea is benefic for the liver

General Liability Insurance

Insurance which covers the risk of loss for most accidents and injuries to third parties (the insured and its employees are not covered) which arise from the actions or negligence of the insured, and for which the insured may have legal liability, except those injuries directly related to the provision of professional health care services (the latter risks are covered by professional liability insurance).... general liability insurance

Gnaphalium Luteo-album


Family: Asteraceae.

Habitat: Throughout India, ascending up to 3,350 m in the Himalayas.

English: Jersey Cudweed, Cotton Weed, Cat's Foot, Everlasting Flower.

Folk: Bal-raksha.

Action: Leaves—astringent, haemostatic, vulnerary. The tomentum is applied as counter- irritant in gout, also used as tinder.... gnaphalium luteo-album

Gray Or Grey Literature

Research reports that are not found in traditional peer-reviewed publications, such as government agency monographs, symposium proceedings and unpublished reports.... gray or grey literature

Halibut-liver Oil

The oil expressed from fresh, or suitably preserved, halibut liver. It is a particularly rich source of vitamin A (30,000 international units per gram), and also contains vitamin D (2,300– 2,500 units per gram). It is available in capsules as a means of providing the two vitamins. (See APPENDIX 5: VITAMINS.)... halibut-liver oil

Buchanania Lanzan


Synonym: B. latifolia Roxb.

Family: Anacardiaceae.

Habitat: Drier parts of India.

English: Almondette tree, Cheron- jee, Buchanan's Mango.

Ayurvedic: Priyaala, Piyaala, Kharskandha, Bahulvalkala, Taa- paseshtha, Sannakadru Dhanush- pat, Chaar.

Unani/Tamil ? Saaraapparuppu.

Siddha: Mudaima, Morala (Tamil).

Action: Kernel—laxative, febrifuge. An ointment made out of the kernels is used to cure itch of the skin and to remove blemishes from the face. Oil from kernels— substitute for almond oil. Applied to glandular swellings of the neck. The oil is a promising source of palmitic and oleic acids.

Kernel lipids (65.6%), comprised mainly of neutral lipids (90.4%), consist mostly of triacylglycerol (82.2%), free fatty acids (7.8%) and small amount of diacylglycerols, monoacylglycerols and sterols.

The kernels are used in Indian medicine as a brain tonic. The leaves are valued as a cardiotonic.

The leaves contain 2.64% tannins (0.35% gallo-tannins). The presence of triterpenoids, saponins, flavonoids and reducing sugars are also reported. Powdered or crushed leaves are applied to wounds.

The bark contains 13.40% tannins. The presence of alkaloids, saponins and reducing sugars is also reported.

Gum (stem exudate) is antidiar- rhoeal. Used internally in rheumatism.

Dosage: Stem bark—5-10 g (API Vol. IV.)... buchanania lanzan

Bupleurum Tea: A Cure For The Liver

Bupleurum tea is largely known for its healing propertiesand its action against the growth and spreading of cancer cells. Bupleurum Tea description Bupleurum is a plant from the Apiaceae family, originating from Asia. The roots of Bupleurum are used in various healing mixtures throughout China and East Asia. Scientists have shown that this plant possesses anti-inflammatory constituents and may inhibit the growth of liver cancer cells. Both Japan and China medicinal industries use it in order to treat cancer and hepatitis. Bupleurum tea is the resulting beverage from brewing the abovementioned plant. Bupleurum Tea brewing Bupleurum tea can be prepared by combining dried and chopped bupleurum roots with hot water. After steeping the mixture for about 10 minutes, drink it slowly. Bupleurum herb can also be consumed as extracts and capsules. Buplerum Tea benefits Bupleurum tea has been successfully used to:
  • treat liver problems like hepatitis, cirrhosis and cancer
  • treat infections with fever
  • relieve chest congestion
  • treat indigestion
  • treat hemorrhoids
  • treat uterine and anal prolapse
  • treat diarrhea
  • help in overall efforts to treat HIV
Bupleurum Tea side effects Bupleurum tea is not recommended to pregnant and breastfeeding women. Bupleurum tea is a healthy beverage used efficiently to treat liver-related diseases. It has been also proven that this type of tea can fight free radicals, responsible for cancer cells growth, due to its content of antioxidants.... bupleurum tea: a cure for the liver

Calamus Tea Is Good For Laryngitis

Calamus tea is a good remedy against a large array of ailments such as laryngitis, but not only. It has a good taste when drank and it can fight the desire for tobacco. Calamus Tea description Calamus is a perennial semi-aquatic plant that grows in wetlands. It is found in Europe, Russia, East and South Asia, and the United States and Canada. Its leaves and rhizomes have a strong scent, due to which Calamus is appreciated in the perfume industry. Calamus tea is the resulting beverage from brewing the abovementioned plant. Calamus Tea brewing To prepare Calamus tea:
  • pour a cup of boiling water on 2 teaspoonfuls of the calamus root
  • leave it to steep for about 10 to 15 minutes
Calamus tea is recommended to be drunk an hour before eating. Calamus Tea benefits Calamus tea has been successfully used to:
  • treat chest congestion
  • treat digestive problems (flatulence and bloating)
  • relieve stomach spasms
  • enhance the appetite
  • treat laryngitis
  • fight the desire for tobacco
  • fight fever
Calamus Tea side effects Calamus tea is not recommended to pregnant or nursing women. Calamus tea is a medicinal beverage efficient in dealing with stomach spasms, digestive problems and chest congestion.... calamus tea is good for laryngitis

Health Literacy

The cognitive skills and motivation of an individual to gain access to, and use information to promote and maintain good health.... health literacy

Health-related Quality-of-life (hrql) Measure

Individual outcome measure that extends beyond traditional measures of mortality and morbidity to include such dimensions as physiology, function, social activity, cognition, emotion, sleep and rest, energy and vitality, health perception and general life satisfaction (some of these are also known as health status, functional status or quality-of-life measures).... health-related quality-of-life (hrql) measure

Healthy Life Expectancy

See “disability-adjusted life expectancy”.... healthy life expectancy

Heart-lung Transplant

An operation in which a patient’s diseased lungs and heart are removed and replaced with donor organs from someone who has been certi?ed as ‘brain dead’ (see BRAIN-STEM DEATH). As well as the technical diffculties of such an operation, rejection by the recipient’s tissues of donated heart and lungs has proved hard to overcome. Since the early 1990s, however, immunosuppressant drug therapy (see CICLOSPORIN; TRANSPLANTATION) has facilitated the regular use of this type of surgery. Even so, patients receiving transplanted hearts and lungs face substantial risks such as lung infection and airway obstruction as well as the long-term problems of transplant rejection.... heart-lung transplant

Canna Lily

Canna indica

Description: The canna lily is a coarse perennial herb, 90 centimeters to 3 meters tall. The plant grows from a large, thick, underground rootstock that is edible. Its large leaves resemble those of the banana plant but are not so large. The flowers of wild canna lily are usually small, relatively inconspicuous, and brightly colored reds, oranges, or yellows.

Habitat and Distribution: As a wild plant, the canna lily is found in all tropical areas, especially in moist places along streams, springs, ditches, and the margins of woods. It may also be found in wet temperate, mountainous regions. It is easy to recognize because it is commonly cultivated in flower gardens in the United States.

Edible Parts: The large and much branched rootstocks are full of edible starch. The younger parts may be finely chopped and then boiled or pulverized into a meal. Mix in the young shoots of palm cabbage for flavoring.... canna lily

Cascara Sagrada Tea - A Powerful Laxative

Cascara Sagrada Tea has been known since ancient times as a great stimulant and laxative agent. In fact, the ones to discover its medical benefits were the American. The first proofs of this fact date from the 17th century, when American practitioners used Cascara Sagrada bark to treat many bacterial ailments of the digestive system. Cascara is a small shrub that grows mainly in the North America, in states like Idaho, California or Montana. Cascara never grows taller than 50 centimeters and has pale yellow greenish leaves and deep green leaves. Also known as rhamnus purshiana, Cascara has purple fruits or black berries that hide usually three hard seeds. Cascara Sagrada is harvested in the fall and can only be used dried (one year apart from the harvesting time) in order to release its curative benefits. Many people in Northern America specialize in Cascara Sagrada harvesting and herb processing (the plant needs to be properly dried and according to a list of specifications). Cascara Sagrada Tea Properties Cascara Sagrada Tea is known for its strong, stimulant and laxative properties. The main substances of this tea are very efficient in cases of nervous system failures and intestinal tract ailments. Cascara Sagrada Tea has a very bitter and therefore unpleasant taste. That’s why most people prefer to take it as capsules or extracts. Cascara Sagrada Tea Benefits Aside from its use as a constipation treatment, Cascara Sagrada Tea can also cure a variety of diseases involving the digestive tract, such as intestinal parasites or bacterial infections. However, make sure that you take this tea responsibly and don’t forget that this is a medical treatment wich only should be taking while you’re sick. Don’t try to replace your morning coffee with Cascara Sagrada Tea or you’ll face a series of complications! How to make Cascara Sagrada Tea Infusion When preparing Cascara Sagrada Tea, you have to make sure that you only use ingredients from a trusted provider. Nowadays, there are many illegal substances on the market sold as tea. Also, the herb you bought may be exactly what the label says it is, but not properly dried, in which case you’ll suffer from unwanted complications as well. Once you have the right ingredients, use a teaspoon of dried herbs for every cup of tea you want to make, add boiling water and wait 20 minutes for the wonderful benefits to be released. Strain the decoction and drink it hot or cold. You may also add honey or even sugar if the taste feels a bit unpleasant. Cascara Sagrada Tea Side Effects When taken in small amounts, Cascara Sagrada Tea is a safe treatment. However, high dosages may lead to various problems, such as urine discoloration, blood in stools, pain and vomiting. Make sure the dosage you’re using is the appropriate one or ask your doctor before making any moves: it’s better to be safe than sorry! Cascara Sagrada Contraindications Cascara Sagrada Tea is not recommended for pregnant or breastfeeding women, patients suffering from appendicitis or ulcerative colitis. Also, if you are on blood thinners or anticoagulants, avoid taking a treatment based on Cascara Sagrada Tea. To gather more information, talk to an herbalist or to your doctor! If he gives you the green light and you happen to be in a teashop, add Cascara Sagrada Tea to your shopping cart and enjoy its wonderful benefits responsibly!... cascara sagrada tea - a powerful laxative

Citrus Limon

(Linn.) Burm.f.

Family: Rutaceae.

Habitat: Cultivated all over India.

English: Lemon.

Ayurvedic: Jambira, Jambh, Jambhir, Jaamphal, Nimbu, Nimbuka, Naaranga, Limpaka, Dantashatha, Airaavata, Neebu (bigger var.).

Unani: Utraj.

Siddha/Tamil: Periya elumuchhai.

Action: Fruit—antiscorbutic, carminative, stomachic, antihistaminic, antibacterial. Used during coughs, colds, influenza and onset of fever (juice of roasted lemon), hiccoughs, biliousness. Fruit juice—used externally for ringworm (mixed with salt), erysipelas, also in the treatment of leprosy and white spots. Leaves and stems—antibacterial.

All parts of the plants of citrus sp. contain coumarins and psoralins. The fruits contain flavonoids and li- monoids. The flavonoids comprise three main groups—flavanones, fla- vones and 3-hydroxyflavylium (antho- cyanins); flavanones being predominantly followed by flavones and antho- cyanins. Bitter flavonoids do not occur in lemon and lime.

Lemon juice is a richer source of antiscorbutic vitamin (contains 4050 mg/100 g of vitamin C) than lime, and a fair source of carotene and vitamin B1. Volatile oil (about 2.5% of the peel) consists of about 75% limonene, alpha-and beta-pinenes, alpha-ter- pinene and citral. The fruit juice also contains coumarins and bioflavonoids.

The acid content of the fruit, once digested, provides an alkaline effect within the body and is found useful in conditions where acidity is a contributory factor (as in case of rheumatic conditions). The bioflavonoids strengthen the inner lining of blood vessels, especially veins and capillaries, and help counter varicose veins, arteriosclerosis, circulatory disorders and infections of liver, stomach and intestines.

Major flavonoid glycosides, isolated from citrus peels and juices, include hesperidin (with properties of vitamin P). Rutin and other flavanones, isolated from citrus fruits, form the principal components of vitamin P. Flavanone glycosides contained in lemon and lime juices are eriocitrin 47 and 94; hesperidin 84 and 196 mg/l, respectively.

The composition of cold pressed lime oil is quite similar to lemon oil, but citral content of lime oil is higher.

Monoterpene alcohols and their esters, aldehydes—geraniol, geranial and neral, contribute to the characteristic aroma of lemon and lime.

Dosage: Fruit—6-12 g (Juice—5- 10 ml). (API Vol. IV.)... citrus limon

Cleavers Tea - Best Tonic For The Lymphatic System Available In Nature

Cleavers tea has been used for centuries, even in ancient Greece. It is considered probably the best tonic for the lymphatic system available. Discover all of its benefits and learn how to make the most of this type of tea. Description of Cleavers tea Cleavers is an annual green plant that grows mostly in Britain, North America and Eurasia regions. The green to white flowers look like small balls and they are very sticky, similar to the leaves. Scientifically named gallium aparine, cleavers is also called bedstraw, barweed, catchweed, grip grass. The entire cleavers plant is used in herbal medicine and is harvested just before it blooms in early summer. The active constituents of cleavers tea are chlorophyll, citric acide, rubichloric acid, galiosin and tannins. To benefit the most from these constituents, you can consume cleavers, usually found in the form of tea, extracts, capsule, or fresh for many cooking recipes. The roasted seeds are used as a coffee substitute and the young leaves can be eaten like spinach. Cleavers tea has a slightly bitter taste and no odor. Cleavers tea brew For a tasty Cleavers tea, take 2 to 3 teaspoons of the dried above-ground parts of the plant and infuse them in a 250 mg cup of hot water for 10 or 15 minutes. You may add sugar or honey to improve its taste and drink up to three times per day. Cleavers tea  Benefits Cleavers tea is a strong detoxifying for the lymphatic system. It is diuretic, thus treating most of urinary tract infections. It cleans the blood, the liver and kidneys. The tea can be used together with Uva Ursi or Echinacea for best results. Applied topically, Cleavers tea helps in the treatment of many skin conditions like acne, eczema, psoriasis, dandruff, itchy scalp, sunburns or even wounds. Cleavers tea can be used as a facial tonner because it helps clear the complexion. Cleavers tea Side effects Cleavers tea has no known side effects. Though it is widely safe, children, pregnant or nursing women should drink it with precaution. Cleavers tea can surely be included in a healthy lifestyle. As long as you don’t exaggerate with it, you can enjoy the benefits of this tea and even use the plant to prepare many tasty recipes and salads.... cleavers tea - best tonic for the lymphatic system available in nature

Coix Lacryma-jobi


Synonym: C. lachryma Linn.

Family: Gramineae; Poaceae.

Habitat: Warm and damp areas up to about 2,000 m, both wild and cultivated as an annual grass.

English: Job's Tears.

Ayurvedic: Gavedhukaa.

Siddha/Tamil: Kaatu Kunthumani.

Folk: Garaheduaa, Gargari.

Action: Fruits—a decoction is used for catarrhal affections of the air passage and inflammation of the urinary tract. Seed— diuretic. Root—used in menstrual disorders. Leaves—used as a drink for inducing fertility in women.

The seeds contain trans-ferulyl stig- mastanol and trans-ferulyl campes- tanol, which form part of an ovulation- inducing drug. Seed extract—immu- no-enhancer, used for the prevention of cancer and infections. Seeds exhibit anti-tumour and anticomplimenta- ry activities. Seeds contain coixeno- lides, a mixed ester of palmitoleic and vaccenic acids, which is an anticancer agent.

The bigger var. of the grass is equated with Coix gigantea Koenig ex Roxb., also known as Gavedhukaa and Gar- gari.... coix lacryma-jobi

Colchicum Luteum


Family: Liliaceae.

Habitat: The temperate Himalayas from Kashmir to Chamba. Major supplies of the drug are received from Kashmir.

English: Hermodactyls, Colchicum, Meadow Saffron, Golden Collyrium (Indian substitute). (C. luteum is a good substitute for C. autumnale L. which is official in the B.P.)

Ayurvedic: Hiranyatuttha.

Unani: Suranjaan Talkh.

Action: Non-steroidal antiinflammatory, anti-gout (relieves inflammation and pain of acute gout but does not increase expulsion of uric acid, is used with an alkaline diuretic), emetic, cathartic. Anti-chemotactic, antiphlogistic, inhibitor of mitosis. Highly toxic. Used for external application to lessen inflammation and pain.

Key application: In acute gout attack. (German Commission E.)

The fresh corms and aerial parts of a sample from Jammu yielded 0.94% and 070% of total alkaloids, the major being colchicine 0.40% and 0.20% respectively. Colchicine analogs— decteyl thiocolchicine (DTC), decetyl- methylcolchicine (DMC) and tri- methylcolchicinic acid (TMCA) were effective in the treatment of gout; DTC may elicit agranulocytosis.

Colchicine binds to tubulin, the protein subunit of microtubules. Its most important biological effect is the inhibition of processes that depend upon microtubule function by blocking polymerization. In preventing micro- tubule formation, colchicine has been shown to inhibit catecholamine secretion from adrenal medulla, iodine secretion from thyroid gland and pro- lactin secretion from pituitary tumour cells. It inhibits stimulated insulin secretion from isolated perfused pancreas and islets in vitro.

The use of Colchicum for long periods is not recommended owing to its toxicity in larger doses (even 7 mg of colchicine has caused death) and its depressant action upon central nervous system.

Prolonged use of Colchicum autum- nale may cause agranulocytosis, aplas- tic anaemia and peripheral nerve inflammation. (Sharon M. Herr.)... colchicum luteum

Henle, Loop Of

That part of the nephron (see KIDNEYS) between the proximal and distal convoluted tubules. It extends into the renal medulla as a hairpin-shaped loop. The ascending link of the loop actively transports sodium from the lumen of the tube to the interstitium, and this, combined with the ‘counter-current’ ?ow of ?uid through the two limbs of the loop, plays a part in concentrating the urine.... henle, loop of

Human Leucocyte Antigen (hla)

See HLA SYSTEM.... human leucocyte antigen (hla)

Crinum Latifolium


Family: Amaryllidaceae.

Habitat: Wild as well as cultivated as an ornamental.

English: Wide-leaved Crinum.

Ayurvedic: Sudarshana, Sukhadar- shana, Chakraangi, Somvalli, Madhuparnikaa.

Siddha/Tamil: Vishamoongil.

Action: Bulb—rubefacient, an- tirheumatic. Also used for piles and tubercular fistula.

The alkaloids, crinafoline and crina- folidine, have been isolated from the plant. These along with crinafoline methochloride exhibited significant tumour-inhibiting activity in vivo. The plant extract in also used in allergic condition. This activity is attributed to the presence of glucan A and phos- phatidyllycorine.

A related species, C. zeylanicum, is known as Milk-and-Wine Lily.

Dosage: Leaf, root—5-10 g paste. (CCRAS.)... crinum latifolium

Dalbergia Lanceolaria


Synonym: D.frondosa Roxb.

Family: Papilionaceae; Fabaceae.

Habitat: The sub-Himalayan tract, ascending up to 750 m, and throughout India.

Siddha/Tamil: Erigai, Navelangu.

Folk: Gorakh, Takoli, Bithuaa.

Action: A decoction of bark— used in dyspepsia. Oil—applied to rheumatic affections, and cutaneous diseases. Leaf—in leprosy and allied obstinate skin diseases.

Baptigenin from leaves and flowers possesses properties to treat arthritic affections and inflammations. An isoflavone glycoside of biochanin (lanceolarin) has been obtained from the root bark. Ether, EtOH and aqueous extract of leaves exhibited an- tiarthritic activity in rats.

The heartwood of Dalbergia sp. contains quinones. Bark and pods contain tannins.

Root bark gave isoflavone glycosides and lanceolarin.

Dosage: Whole plant—50-100 ml decoction. (CCRAS.)... dalbergia lanceolaria

Hypecoum Leptocarpum

Hook. f. & Thoms.

Family: Papaveraceae.

Habitat: Mediterranean region and temperate Asia. (Allied species: H. pendulum Linn. and H. procumbens Linn., found in Peshavar, Multan, Waziristan and Baluchistan). Occurs in Sikkim.

Folk: Zirgulaki, Waziri.

Action: Used in stomachache. Juice of the plant has the same effect as opium. Leaves diaphoretic. Plant— narcotic.

The whole plant contains protopine (0.19) as the major alkaloid.... hypecoum leptocarpum

Independent Living

Living at home without the need for continuous help and with a degree of self determination or control over one’s activities.... independent living

Independent Living Facility

A rental unit in which services are not included as part of the rent, although services may be available on site and may be purchased by residents for an additional fee.... independent living facility

Instrumental Activities Of Daily Living (iadl)

Activities with aspects of cognitive and social functioning, including shopping, cooking, doing housework, managing money and using the telephone. See also “activities of daily living (ADLs)”.... instrumental activities of daily living (iadl)


(French) One who loves and is loved

Lamour, Lamoure, L’Amoure, Lamore, Lamoura... l’amour

Curcuma Longa


Synonym: C. domestica Valeton.

Family: Zingiberaceae.

Habitat: Cultivated all over India, particularly in West Bengal, Tamil Nadu and Maharashtra.

English: Turmeric.

Ayurvedic: Haridraa, Priyaka, Haridruma, Kshanda, Gauri, Kaanchani, Krimighna, Varavarni- ni, Yoshitapriyaa, Hattavilaasini, Naktaahvaa, Sharvari.

Unani: Zard Chob.

Action: Anti-inflammatory, cholagogue, hepatoprotective, blood-purifier, antioxidant, detoxi- fier and regenerator of liver tissue, antiasthmatic, anti-tumour, anticu- taneous, antiprotozoal, stomachic, carminative. Reduces high plasma cholesterol. Antiplatelet activity offers protection to heart and vessels. Also protects against DNA damage in lymphocytes.

Key application: In dyspeptic conditions. (German Commission E, ESCOP, WHO.) As antiinflammatory, stomachic. (Indian Herbal Pharmacopoeia.)

The rhizomes gave curcuminoids, the mixture known as curcumin, consisting of atleast four phenolic diaryl- heptanoids, including curcumin and monodesmethoxycurcumin; volatile oil (3-5%), containing about 60% of turmerones which are sesquiterpene ketones, and bitter principles, sugars, starch, resin.

Curcumin related phenolics possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, gastroprotective and hepatoprotective activities. The antioxidant activity of curcumin is comparable to standard antioxidants—vitamin C and E, BHA and BHT.

The volatile oil, also curcumin, exhibited anti-inflammatory activity in a variety of experimental models (the effects were comparable to those of cortisone and phenylbutazone). Used orally, curcumin prevents the release of inflammatory mediators. It depletes nerve endings of substance P, the neu- rotransmitter of pain receptors.

Curcumin's cholesterol-lowering actions include interfering with intestinal cholesterol uptake, increasing the conversion of cholesterol into bile acids and increasing the excretion of bile acids via its choleretic effects.

Curcuminoids prevent the increases in liver enzymes, SGOT and SGPT; this validates the use of turmeric as a he- patoprotective drug in liver disorders. Curlone, obtained from the dried rhizome, is used against hepatitis.

Turmeric and curcumin increase the mucin content of the stomach and exert gastroprotective effects against stress, alcohol, drug-induced ulcer formation. (Curcumin at doses of 100 mg/kg weight exhibited ulcerogenic activity in rats.)

The ethanolic extract of the rhizome exhibited blood sugar lowering activity in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

Piperine (a constituent of black and long pepper) enhances absorption and bioavailability of curcumin.

Dosage: Cured rhizome—1-3 g powder. (API Vol. I.)... curcuma longa

Dalbergia Latifolia


Synonym: D. emerginata Roxb.

Family: Papilionaceae; Fabaceae.

Habitat: Bengal, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh and Western Peninsula.

English: East Indian Rosewood, Bombay Blackwood.

Ayurvedic: Shimshapaa (related sp.)

Unani: Sheesham.

Siddha/Tamil: Itti, Eravadi, Karun- doroiral.

Folk: Sisu.

Action: Stimulant, appetiser, anthelmintic, spasmogenic. Used in dyspepsia, diarrhoea; also in obesity, cutaneous affections and leprosy.

The bark contains hentriacontane, latifolin, beta-sitosterol and tannins. EtOH (50%) extract of the bark exhibits spasmogenic, and anthelmintic activity against Ascaridia galli.... dalbergia latifolia

Diente De León

Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale).

Plant Part Used: Leaf, root.

Dominican Medicinal Uses: Leaf: fresh juice, orally, for liver conditions.

Safety: Leaves are widely consumed and generally considered safe; root and leaf: relatively nontoxic.

Contraindications: Root: digestive, biliary or gallbladder conditions, stomach inflammation, irritable bowel, digestive weakness, bowel obstruction (due to laxative, stomach acid stimulating& cholagogue effects);

Drug Interactions: Lithium (potential exacerbation of toxicity).

Laboratory & Preclinical Data: In vivo: analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, bile flow stimulant (root extracts); diuretic, hypoglycemic (leaf water extract).

In vitro: anti-inflammatory in CNS, anti-tumor, cytotoxic, antidiabetic, nitric oxide production, insulin secretion (root or plant extract); antioxidant (flowers),

Nutritional: potassium.

* See entry for Diente de León in “Part 3: Dominican Medicinal Plant Profiles” of this book for more information, including references.... diente de león


(Hebrew) A distinguished woman; fair-skinned Laden... laadan


(Indian) A graceful dancer Laasyah, Lasya, Lasyah... laasya


(Hebrew) Feminine form of Labon; white; fair-skinned Labanah, Labanna, Labania, Labanea, Labaniya, Labannah, Labaniah, Labaneah, Labaniyah... labana


(American) One who moves slowly Labie, Labi, Laby, Labey, Labee, Labea... labe


(Irish) A mighty battlemaiden; crowned with laurel Laoise, Laoiseach, Laobhaoise... labhaoise

Curry Leaf

Murraya Koenigii


San: Kalasakh, Kaidaryah

Hin: Mithinim, Katnim

Ben: Barsunga

Mal: Kariveppu, Karuveppu

Tam: Kariveppilai, Karuveppu

Kan: Kari Baeva

Tel: Karivepaku

Ass: Narasingha, Bishahari

Importance: Curry leaf, a plant of homestead gardens has gained importance as a commercial crop and is cultivated for its culinary and medicinal value. The plant is highly esteemed for its leaves which promote appetite and digestion and destroy pathogenic organisms. It is reported to be useful in emaciation, skin diseases, hemopathy, worm troubles, neurosis and poisons. They are useful in vitiated conditions of kapha and pitta, hyperdipna, colic, flatulence, diarrhoea, dysentery, vomiting, inflammations and foul ulcers. “Kaidaryah” drug is prepared using this plant which improves voice, stimulates digestion and destroys concocted poisons in the system. The important preparations using the drug are Kalasadi kasayam, Pamantaka tailam, Jatyadi tailam, Jatyadi ghrtam, etc (Sivarajan et al,1994).

Distribution: Curry leaf is seen in the foot of the Himalaya and Bashahi eastwards to Sikkim and Peninsular India, upto 1700m. It is also found in Sri Lanka, Burma, Indo-China, South China and Hainan. Commercial cultivation in India is limited to Tamil Nadu and Karnataka states.

Botany: The genus Murraya of the family Rutaceae includes the following species:

M. Koenigii (Linn.) Spreng. syn. Bergera koenigii Linn.

M. Exotica Linn. syn. M. paniculata (Linn.) Jack.

Murraya koenigii is a small aromatic tree with dark grey bark and closely crowded spreading dark green foliage. Leaves are imparipinnate and alternate. Leaflets are alternate, obliquely ovate or somewhat rhomboid, gland dotted and strongly aromatic. Flowers are white, arranged in much branched terminal corymbose cymes and fragrant. Fruits are subglobose or ellipsoid berries, purplish black when ripe and 2-seeded (Warrier et al, 1995).

Agrotechnology: Curry leaf tree does not choose a specific climate and can come up even in dry climate too. In places where minimum temperature goes below 13 C, the growth of the shoot will be slightly affected. It comes up well in light textured red soils. DWD-1 and DWD-2 are two improved varieties released from UAS, Dharwad. Curry leaf is propagated by seed. Main field is to be ploughed repeatedly. A spacing of 90-120cm is followed on either side. Pits of size 30cm3 are dug out one month before planting and filled with top soil mixed with well decomposed FYM at the time of planting. Healthy seedlings are planted in the centre of the pits. Then long furrows are formed connecting all the pits to facilitate easy irrigation. The seedlings are irrigated once in 5-7 days upto 3 years and once in 15 days afterwards. The field should be kept free from weeds. Plants may be trained and pruned to maintain a bush of 1m in height. For better growth and yield, each plant is fertilised with 20kg of FYM besides 150:25:50g of N, P2O5, K2O/ year. Attack of aphids in the vegetative stage can be controlled by spraying of dimethoate at 2ml/l of water. Leaves from such sprayed plants should be harvested only after 10 days. Spraying carbendazim at 1g/l can take care of leaf spot diseases. The crop comes to first harvest at the end of first year. The yield of leaves account to 400kg/ha at the end of first year, 2000 to 2200kg/ha in the second and third year harvested at an interval of four months and 2500kg/ha in the fourth year harvested at three months interval. From fifth year onwards it is harvested at 2.5-3 months interval giving an yield of 3500-5000kg/ha (Kumar et al, 1997).

Properties and activity: All parts of the plant, especially the leaves are rich in carbazole alkaloids. These include members with (i) C13 - skeleton -murrayanin, mukoeic acid, mukonine and mukonidine; (ii) C18 - skeleton including gerinimbine, koenimbine, murrayacine, koenigine and koenigicine (koenidine); and (iii) C23- skeleton containing mahanimbine, mahanimbicine, iso- mahanimbicine, mahanine, mahanimbinine, murrayayazoline, murrayazolinine, murrayazolidine, cyclomahanimbine and bicyclomahanimbicine. Other carbazole bases include mukoline, mukolidine (C13 group, from roots), mukonicine (C18 from leaves), the biogenetically significant mukonal (C13, stem-bark), mahanimboline (C23, root-bark), iso- murrayazoline (C23, stem-bark). The leaves gave a coumarin glucoside, scopolin also. Essential oil from leaves contained -caryophylline, -gurjunene, -elemene, - phellandrene, -thujene as major constituents.

The roots, bark and leaves are bitter, acrid, astringent, cooling, aromatic, demulcent, depurative, anthelmintic, febrifuge, stomachic, appetising, carminative, antiinflammatory and antiseptic. Aerial part is spasmolytic and antiprotozoal. Root is antiprotozoal, CVS active and has effect on nictitating membrane. Leaf is hypoglycaemic (Hussain et al,1992).... curry leaf


(Arabic) Having great wisdom; one who is intelligent

Labibah, Labeeba, Labeebah, Labyba, Labybah, Labieba, Labiebah, Labeiba, Labeibah, Labeaba, Labeabah... labiba


Chemical instability.... lability


(Spanish) The beautiful one Labonitah, Laboneeta, Labonyta, Labonieta, Laboneita, Laboneata... labonita


(French) Woman from Normandy; as delicate as lace

Lace, Lacee, Lacene, Laci, Laciann, Lacie, Lacina, Lacy, Lacyann, Laicee, Laicey, Laisey, Laycie, Layci, Laycee, Lacea, Laycea, Laicea... lacey

Digitalis Lanata


Habitat: Native to Europe. Now cultivated mainly in Kashmir (Yarikhah), also occurs wild.

English: Grecian Foxglove.

Ayurvedic: Hritpatri, Tilapushpi (non-classical). (Yellow var.)

Action: See D. purpurea.

Earlier, the herb was used to treat ulcers, boils, abscesses, headaches and paralysis. William Withering, an 18th century English country doctor, explored the plant's hidden properties. His work led to the production of digoxin, a life-saving medicine.

Safety of the herb cannot be established due to variable amounts of cardiac glycosides. The powder is toxic at 520 mg.... digitalis lanata

Dolichos Lablab

Linn. var. typicus Prain.

Synonym: Lablab purpureus Linn.

Family: Papilionaceae; Fabaceae.

Habitat: Cultivated throughout India.

English: Indian Butter Bean, Lablab Bean, Horsebean.

Ayurvedic: Nishpaav, Sem.

Unani: Lab Laab, Semphali.

Siddha/Tamil: Avarin.

Action: Seeds—febrifuge, stomachic, antispasmodic, antifungal.

Key application: As expectorant. (The British Herbal Pharmacopoeia.)

Lablab pods contain protein 4.5, carbohydrates 10.0, calcium 0.05%; vitamin C (7.33 to 10.26 mg/100g in cooked samples; 0.77-1.12 mg/100 g in uncooked samples) increases on cooking. Enzyme liberation of essential amino acids from protein is slower than from casein and wheat.

Callus tissue of Dolichos lablab Linn. (Horsebean) showed presence of beta- sitosterol, stigmasterol, lanosterol and cholesterol. The isolated flavonoids show antifungal activity (the maximum amount of flavonoids was found in the flowers). The plant contains the alkaloid, trigonelline, which exhibits hypoglycaemic activity. The maximum alkaloid was found in the seeds (0.14 mg/g dry weight). In tissue cultures raised from seedlings, the maximum amount was present in the tissue at the age of 6 weeks (0.068 mg/g dry weight).... dolichos lablab

Ehretia Laevis

Roxb. var. aspera (Willd.) C.B. Clarke.

Synonym: E. aspera Willd. E. obtusifolia Hochst. ex DC.

Family: Ehretiaceae.

Habitat: Throughout India, also grown along roadsides.

Ayurvedic: Charmi-vrksha.

Siddha/Tamil: Addula.

Folk: Chamror (Punjab). Kuptaa, Datarangi (Maharashtra.)

Action: Root—used in venereal diseases. A decoction of bark is used internally and as gargle in throat infections.

The plant contains tannins, saponins and allantoin, and monomethyl ethers of cyclitols. Leaves yielded a pyrrolizidine alkaloid, creatinine. arsenic effectively. It can be used in purification of silver-containing waste water, also for the treatment of low- level liquid radioactive wastes and mercurial waste water. The plant has a strong capacity for removing phenol. Biomass of non-living dried water Hyacinth roots showed high absorption of copper from aqueous solutions.

The plant exhibits antifungal activity against Candida albicans.... ehretia laevis

Enicostemma Littorale

auct. non-Bl.

Synonym: E. hyssopifolium (Willd) I. C. Verdoorn. E. axillare (Lam.) Raynal. Exacum hyssopifolium Willd. Adenema hyssopifolium G. Don.

Family: Gentianaceae.

Habitat: Throughout India, from Punjab and Gangetic Plain to Kanyakumari up to 500 m.

English: Indian Gentian.

Ayurvedic: Naagjhvaa, Maamajjaka, Naahi, Tikshnapatra.

Unani: Naai, Naahi.

Siddha/Tamil: Vellargu.

Folk: Chhotaa Chirayataa.

Action: Bitter tonic, carminative, blood purifier, antirheumatic, anti-inflammatory, antipsychotic, anthelmintic, cardiostimulant.

The plant is used as a substitute for Swertia chirayita, and is reported to be effective against malaria. The plant contains ophelic acid which is also present in chiretta as a hydrolytic product of chiratin. The root extract showed antimalarial activity both in vitro and in vivo.

Whole plant gave alkaloids—gen- tianine, erythrocentaurin, enicoflavine and gentiocrucine; flavonoids—api- genin, genkwanin iso-vitaxin, swer- tisin, saponarin and 5-O-glucoside derivatives of sylwertisin and isoswer- tisin; glucosides—swertiamarin, a tri- terpene betulin. Swertisiode exhibited hypotensive activity.

The plant extracts inhibited carrage- enan-induced oedema and its anti- inflammatory activity was found comparable to that of hydrocortisone.

Enicostema verticellatum Blume, the smallar var. ofKiryaata, is also equated with Vellargu (Siddha/Tamil).

Dosage: Whole plant—3-5 g powder; 50-100 ml decoction. (CCRAS.)... enicostemma littorale


(American) A sweet woman Lachell, Lachel, Lachele, Lachela, Lachella... lachelle


(Greek) In mythology, one of the three Fates

Lachesiss, Lachesisse, Lachesys, Lacheses... lachesis


(Gaelic) From the land of the lochs Lochlan, Lachlana, Lochlana, Lachina, Lachyna, Locke, Loche, Lacklan, Locklan... lachlan


(also Lacrimitis) Inflamed lacrimal or tear ducts.... lachrymitis


(American) A sly woman Lakole, Lucole, Lukole... lacole

Drink Tea For Weight Loss

If you’ve decided to go on a diet in order to lose weight, you have to be careful with what you drink and eat. Sodas and some juices are a definite no, and while you can drink water all the time, it might get a bit dull. If you want to try something different, and especially pleasant to the taste, tea’s the best choice. Find out more about the perfect teas for weight loss. Benefits of tea for weight loss If you drink your tea simple, without sugar, then you’ll enjoy a hot beverage with 0 calories. This at least prevents you from gaining weight. However, based on the effect one type of tea may have on the digestive system, drinking tea can even help you lose weight. From green tea to oolong tea, each has its own health benefits which help you when you’re on a diet. Types of tea for weight loss First of all, green tea is perfect when you’re on a diet. Among its active constituents, green tea has catechin polyphenols, which is quite useful when you want to lose weight. Thanks to this, drinking green tea will increase thermogenesis (the amount of calories which are burned) and fat oxidation. You can drink 4-5 cups of tea a day. Oolong tea is also helpful if you’re on a diet. It even has a stronger effect than green tea, by speeding up the body’s metabolism and promoting fat burning. If you include it in your diet, don’t drink more than two cups a day. Peppermint tea is included on the list of teas you can drink while on a diet. Besides the fact that it promotes a good digestion, it helps you burn calories as it speeds up the digestive process. Other teas that help you lose weight include star anise tea, rose petal tea, as well as various types of herbal teas. Tea Steeping Time Steeping time varies from one type of tea to another. If you use teabags, follow the instructions written on the box. If you use dried leaves to make your tea for weight loss, then here are a few steeping instructions. If you’re drinking green tea, it’s best that you let it steep for about 3 minutes. Steeping time for oolong tea can vary from one minute to 5, based on how strong you want the tea’s flavor to be. And as for peppermint tea, you should let it steep for about 4-5 minutes. Tips to sweeten your diet tea If you want to sweeten your tea even when on a diet, you mustn’t use sugar or milk, even if you like those the best. While they won’t add weight, they also won’t help you lose it. The best solution, in this case, is for you to use honey. Other things you can use to sweeten it are fruit juices (especially lemon juice) and stevia leaves. Based on your preferences and the taste of the tea you choose, you can even combine them. Caffeine in tea and weight loss The caffeine found in various types of tea also helps you lose weight. Caffeine acts as a stimulant; therefore it gives you more energy. The more energetic you feel, the more you’re bound to exercise in order to burn more fats. Also, as it acts as a stimulant, it can help reduce your appetite. Caffeine might not be the only stimulant you’ll find in teas. Other stimulants include ginseng, taurine, and guarnine. Side effects related to weight loss tea People who know coffee doesn’t do them good should be careful with teas that contain caffeine. It can cause unpleasant side effects, such as insomnia, anxiety, headache, dizziness, irritability, blurred vision and skin rashes. When you combine your diet tea with a different alimentation and exercising, the side effects might become more unpleasant. Also, make sure you check the amount of tea that’s recommended for drinking. You can have 4-5 cups of green tea per day, while in the case of oolong tea, it is advised that you drink two cups. The amount varies from one tea to another. Now, drinking tea for weight loss sounds like a tempting idea. Considering how helpful tea can be when you’re trying to lose weight, make sure you pick one when you go on a diet.... drink tea for weight loss

Euphoria Longan


Family: Sapindaceae.

Habitat: South India, Assam and Bengal.

Ayurvedic: Aakshiki (non-classical).

Siddha/Tamil: Puvatti, Shempuvan.

Folk: Aashaphala (Bengal), Naag- lichi (Assam).

Action: The aril of the fruit is used in prescriptions of Chinese traditional medicine for treating insomnia, neurosis, palpitation, amnesia and anaemia.

It has been found to ameliorate the impaired learning process in mice.

An aqueous extract of the fruit pulp showed stimulating effect on superoxide dimutase activity in red blood cells of mice., indicating its possible use in delaying the aging process.

The seeds contain antimutagens, amino-hydroxy-hexynoic acid, hypo- glycin A (which causes hypoglycaemia) and amino-hydroxy-heptynoic acid.... euphoria longan


(Spanish) Form of Lucretia, meaning “a bringer of light; a successful woman” Lacrete, Lacrita, Lacrite, Lacryta, Lacryte... lacreta


See EYE – Lacrimal apparatus.... lacrimal

Lacrimal Bones

The smallest bones of the face, one forming part of the bony structure of each orbit containing an EYE.... lacrimal bones

Feronia Limonia

(Linn.) Swingle.

Synonym: F. elephantum Corr.

Family: Rutaceae.

Habitat: Indigenous to South India; cultivated throughout the plains of India up to 500 m in the western Himalaya.

English: Wood Apple.

Ayurvedic: Kapittha, Dadhittha, Dadhiphala, Surabhichhada, Dantshatha, Kapipriya.

Unani: Kuvet.

Siddha/Tamil: Vilamaram, Vilangai, Narivila.

Folk: Kaith.

Action: Fruit—antiscorbutic, carminative, stimulates the digestive system bark. Pulp is included in a paste to tone the breast. Leaves— astringent; used for indigestion, flatulence, diarrhoea, dysentery and haemorrhoids.

Unripe fruit—prescribed in sprue, malabsorption syndrome. (The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India.)

The leaves and stem bark contain the coumarins, luvangetin, xanthotoxin and limonin and the steroids, sitosterol and sitosterol-O-beta-D-glucoside.

Antifungal compounds, psoralene from stem bark; xanthotoxin and os- thenol from root bark and 2,6-dimeth- oxybenzo-quinone from the fruit shell are reported. Roots contain xanthotoxin and bergapten, used for the treatment of leucoderma, characterized by vitiligo.

Dosage: Dried pulp of mature fruit—1-3 g powder. (API Vol. II.)... feronia limonia

Ficus Lacor


Synonym: F. infectoria auct. non- Willd.

F. viren Aiton.

Family: Moraceae.

Habitat: Plains and lower hills of India.

English: White Fig.

Ayurvedic: Plaksha, Karpari, Pitana, Parkati.

Siddha/Tamil: Kurugu, Itthi, Kallalnaram.

Action: Bark—decoction is used for washing ulcers, as a gargle in salivation; also used for menstrual disorders and leucorrhoea. Leaf— estrogenic. Plant— used in erysipelas, ulcer, epistaxis.

Fresh ripe fruit or powder of dried fruits is used to treat diabetes.

The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia ofIn- dia indicates the use of the fruit and stem bark in syncope, delirium and illusive and unstable state of mind. The stem bark of the plant yield acetates of long-chain alcohols, methyl- ricinolate, beta-sitosterol, lanosterol, caffeic acid, bergenin and sugars. The triterpenoids, lupeol and alpha- and beta-amyrin, are also present in the leaves. Flavonoids including sorbifolin and scutellarein derivatives, have been isolated from the leaves.

Dosage: Stem bark—50 g powder for decoction (API Vol. II); dried fruit—5-10 g. (API Vol. IV.) Leaf, root—10-20 g paste. (CCRAS.)... ficus lacor

Gardenia Latifolia


Family: Rubiaceae.

Habitat: Throughout the greater part of India, mostly in dry forests.

English: Boxwood Gardenia.

Ayurvedic: Parpataki.

Siddha/Tamil: Kumbay, Perungam- bil.

Folk: Paaparaa, Ban-pindaalu.

Action: Bark—used in skin diseases.

The stem bark contains hederage- nin, D-mannitol, sitosterol and siaresi- nolic, episiaresinolic, oleanolic and spinosic acid.... gardenia latifolia

Glinus Lotoides


Synonym: Mollugo lotoides (L.) O. Kuntze. M hirta Thumb.

Family: Molluginaceae; Aizoaceae.

Habitat: Throughout the plains and lower ghats of India in river beds.

Siddha/Tamil: Siru seruppadai. Folk: Gandhi-buuti.

Action: Plant—antidiarrhoeal, antibilious, diuretic. Decoction is given in piles.

The plant gave pentacyclic triterpe- noid sapogenins; a mixture ofbeta-and gamma-sitosterol, oleanolic acid, mol- lugogenol and its constituents. Aerial parts gave vitexin and vicenin.... glinus lotoides


(Slavic) In mythology, goddess of love, harmony, and fertility Ladah, Ladda, Laddah... lada


(American) As beautiful as the sunrise

Ladawn, LaDaun, Ladaun, LeDawn, Ledawn, LeDaun, Ledaun... ladawn


(Slavic) Feminine form of Vladislav; a glorious ruler Ladislavah, Ladislavia, Ladislavea, Ladyslava, Ladyslavia, Ladyslavea... ladislava

Glory Lily

Gloriosa superba


San: Langali, Visalya, Agnishika,Shakrapushpi, Garbhaghatini

Hin: Kalihari

Mal: Menthonni

Tam: Akkinichilam

Pan: Kariari

Guj: Dudhiya vachnag

Kan: Nangulika Mar: Nagakaria

Ben: Bishalanguli Ori: Dangogahana

Tel: Adavinabhi

Importance: Glory lily is a glabrous herbaceous climber which yields different types of troplone alkaloids of medicinal importance. The major alkaloids are colchicine , 3-demethyl colchicine and colchicoside. There is another alkaloid gloriosine which promises to be even more effective than colchicine in plant breeding for inducing polyploidy. The genus has importance in the ornamental horticulture due to its bright flowers and wiry climbing stem.

The roots and rhizomes are used in traditional system of medicine. Its abortifacient and antipyretic properties have been mentioned in ancient classics “Charaka”. The name Garbhaghatini is due to this abortifacient activity. They are useful in the treatment of inflammations, ulcers, scrofula, hemorrhoids, pruritus, dyspepsia, helminthiasis, flatulence, intermittent fevers and debility. The root is given internally as an effective antidote against cobra poison. A paste of the root is also used as an anodyne; applications in bites of poisonous insects, snake bites, scorpion sting, parasitic skin diseases and leprosy (Nadkarni,1954; Chaudhuri and Thakur; 1994).

Distribution: The plant is distributed throughout tropical India upto an altitude of 2500m and in Andaman islands. It is also cultivated in tropical and South Africa, Madagaskar, Indonesia and Malasia. It is reported to be cultivated in some parts of Europe. In India it was cultivated in RRL, Jammu in 1960s. Recently it was taken up by Indian Council of Agricultural Research(ICAR). Cultivation of the plant is mostly confined to the Southern states of India besides its collection from wild sources.

Botany: Gloriosa superba Linn. belongs to Liliaceae family. It is a glabrous climbing herb with tuberous root stock grows over hedges and small trees. Stem is 6m long which grows to a height of 1.2-1.5m before the stem branches. Leaves are simple, alternate or whorled, sessile, ovate-lanceolate, 17x4.5cm, tip elongating into a spirally coiled tendril, base cordate and margin entire. Flowers are large in terminal racemes; perianth segments 6, linear, flexuosus and deflexed, basal half bright yellow, upper half red; stamens 6; ovary glabrous, 3-celled. Fruits are capsules, linear-oblong, upto 6.8cm long, 3 equal lobes, one or two lobes shorter in malformed fruits; green dried to pale and then black colour, dehisced into three sections. Seeds are oval in shape, testa spongy, embryo cylindric, 30-150 seeds per capsule, pale orange attached to the sutures. Tubers are cylindric, large, simple, ‘V’ shaped with the two limps equal or unequal in lenth pointed towards end brownish externally and yellowish internally. (Narain, 1977)

Agrotechnology: This is a rainy season plant and sprouts well in warm, humid and tropical conditions. It should be grown in sun as the plants in shade become weedy and thin and move towards light. G. superba is a shallow rooted plant and grows well in a variety of soils either clay or sand through out India. It grows well in a light porous soil with good drainage. For vigorous growth, greater blooms and strong tuber, a mixture of soil, sand and compost manure is recommended. The propagation is mainly by tubers, by division of rhizomes. Seeds remain dormant for 6-9 months and due to hard seed coat, about 20-30 days are required for germination and seeds may take 3-4 years before it matures to flower. Treatment of seeds by gibberellin(1-3 ppm) resulted in higher yield of colchicine in the plant and higher production of tubers. In tissue culture, young sprouts are cultured on Murashige and Skoog’s medium (Msb) supplemented with kinetin (1-4 mg/l). Direct regeneration of the explants are obtained.

The seeds and rhizomes are sown usually in the last week of June to mid July. The rhizomes are planted by splitting carefully into two from their ‘V’ shaped joints (two buds being at the extreme end of each rhizome) in lines 20cm apart at a distance of 20cm (while seeds are sown in lines at a distance of 4-6cm apart). They are watered regularly when the plants are growing. After green shoots appear 2-3 showers are weekly. The irradiation of the plant at 42% natural sunlight intensity increased the production of tuber and colchicine. They usually takes 6-10 weeks to flower after sprouting and then set on fruits. The fruits ripen at the end of October and after that aerial shoot eventually dies, leaving the fleshy tubers underground. The tubers are dug out with great care. An individual plant produces 50g tubers on an average. The average yield is approximately 4000-5000kg of rhizomes and 1000 kg of seed per hectare. The content of colchicine is usually 0.358% and 1.013% in tubers and seeds, respectively.

Post harvest technology: Lixivation of the material is done with 70% ethyl alcohol. Concentrated under vacuum to one third of its volume and extracted with chloroform for colchicine and related substances-concentration of the aqueous phase to syrup which is extracted 6-8 times with a mixture of CHCl3 - alcohol (4:1) to yield colchicoside.

Properties and activity: The flowers, leaves and tubers contain colchicine, superbin, N-formyl deacetyl colchicine, demethyl colochicine and lumicolchicine. Tubers also contain gloriosine. Leaves in addition, contain chelidonic acid, 2-hydroxy 6-methoxy benzoic acid and -sitosterol glucoside. Colchicine, demethyl colchicine and colchicoside have been reported from seeds. Rhizome is oxytocic, anticancerous, antimalarial, stomachic, purgative, cholagogue, anthelmintic, alterative, febrifuge and antileprotic. Leaf is antiasthmatic and antiinflammatory. Root shows antigonorrhoeic and antibiotic activity. This plant has poisonous effect to enviroment and livestock. The toxic properties are due to presence of alkaloids chiefly colchicine (Clewer et al, 1915).... glory lily


(American) Form of Donna, meaning “ruler of the world” Ladona, Ladonnah, Ladonah, Ledonna, Ledona... ladonna


(American) One who is guarded Ladrendah, Ladrynda, Ladryndah, Ladrinda, Ladrindah... ladrenda


(English) One who kneads bread; the head of the house

Lady, Ladee, Ladi, Ladie, Laidy, Laydy, Laydi, Laydie, Laidi, Laidie, Laydee, Laidee, Ladea, Laydea, Laidea... lady

Ladys Mantle

Love ... ladys mantle

Ladys Slipper

Protection ... ladys slipper


(Hebrew) One who belongs to God Laele, Laelle... lael


(Latin) Feminine form of Laelius; resembling the orchid Laeliah, Laeliya, Laelea, Laeleah, Laeliyah, Laelya, Laelyah... laelia

Gouania Leptostachya


Synonym: G. tiliaefolia Lam.

Family: Rhamnaceae.

Habitat: Sub-Himalayan region from Kangra eastwards and in parts of Assam, Bengal, Bihar, Orissa and Andhra Pradesh.

Folk: Batvaasi (Nepal), Batvaasi (Bengal), Bitkil-chaand (Bihar).

Action: Leaves—used in poultices for sores. Bark—used for washing hair for destroying vermin.

The bark and root contain saponin. The leaves of a related species, Goua- nia microcarpa DC., found in Peninsular India from Konkan southwards, gave a triterpenic acid, along with tetratriacontanoic acid.... gouania leptostachya

Humulus Lupulus


Family: Cannabinaceae.

Habitat: Native to Europe and Asia. Conditions for its successful cultivation are reported to exist in Kashmir and parts of Himachal Pradesh.

English: Hops.

Unani: Hashish-ut-Dinaar.

Action: Flowers—sedative, hypnotic, nervine tonic, diuretic, spasmolytic on smooth muscle, analgesic, astringent. Used for nervous diseases, intestinal cramps, menopause, insomnia, neuralgia and nervous diarrhoea. Also as a tonic in stomach and liver affections. As a blood cleanser, the root is used like sarsaparilla.

Key application: In mood disturbances, such as restlessness and anxiety, sleep disturbances. (German Commission E. ESCOP.)

The British Herbal Compendium and The British Herbal Pharmacopoeia reported herb's action as sedative, soporific, spasmolytic and aromatic bitter, and indicated its use for excitability, restlessness, disorders of sleep and lack of appetite.

Hop cones consist of the whole dried female inflorescences of Humu- lus lupulus.

Hop contains bitter principles— lupulin containing humulon, lupulon and valerianic acid; volatile oil (0.31.0%) including humulene; flavonoids including xanthohumole; polypheno- lic tannins, asparagin, oestrogenic substances.

Bitter principles stimulate the digestive system. Valerianic acid is sedative. The resin components, lupulon and humulon are antiseptic against Grampositive bacteria. Asparagin is diuretic. Research suggested that the anti- spasmodic effect is stronger than the sedative, and hops also possess antihis- taminic and anti-oxytocic properties. (Cases of amenorrhoea and dysmen- orrhoea are treated with hops.)

Hop extracts exert different effects on CNS in mice. They show hypother- mic, hypnotic, sedative, muscle relaxing and spontaneous locomotor activities, besides potentiating pentobarbital anaesthesia in mice.

Humulone inhibited induced inflammation in mice.

The dried strobila containing humu- lone and lupulone showed antidiabetic activity in experimental rats.

Hop mash or extract is used in the preparation of toothpaste for inhibiting Gram-positive bacteria and in hair preparations for preventing dandruff formation. It is also used in skin- lightening creams.... humulus lupulus


(American) One who is affectionate... lafonde


(Swedish) Woman from the ocean... lage

Lagerstroemia Indica


Family: Lythraceae.

Habitat: Native to China; grown as an ornamental.

English: Common Crape Myrtle.

Siddha/Tamil: Pavalak-kurinji, Sinappu.

Folk: Saavani, Faraash.

Action: Seed—narcotic. Bark— stimulant, febrifuge. Leaves and flowers—purgative. Root— astringent. Used as a gargle.... lagerstroemia indica


(American) From the beach Lagoona, Lagunah, Lagoonah, Lagouna, Lagounah... laguna


(Hawaiian) As innocent as a lamb Lahelah, Lahella, Lahellah... lahela


(Finnish) Gift from God... lahja


(Arabic) A beauty of the night; born at nightfall

Laela, Laliah, Lailie, Laily, Lailie, Laili, Lailaa, Leila, Leela, Leelah, Leilah, Lela, Lelah, Lelia, Leyla, Loelia... laila

Hydnocarpus Laurifolia

(Dennst.) Sleumer.

Synonym: H. wightiana Blume.

Family: Flacourtiaceae.

Habitat: Western Ghats.

English: Soorty Oil tree.

Ayurvedic: Tuvaraka, Katu- Kapittha, Kushtavairi, Garudaphala, Chaalmograa.

Unani: Chaalmograa, Tukhm-e- Biranj Mograa.

Siddha/Tamil: Maravattai, Niradi- muttu.

Action: Seed oil—antileprotic, anti-inflammatory, antirheumatic.

The seed oil gave chemical constituents similar to Hydnocarpus kuzii, and contain the flavonolignan, hyd- nowightin, hydnocarpin and neohyd- nocarpin.

Hydnocarpin showed good anti- inflammatory and anti-neoplastic activity in mice, in vivo. Cytotoxicity against the growth of murine and human tissue cultured cells was also observed.

The stem bark and leaves contain triterpenes, acelylbetulinic, betulinic, ursolic and acetylursolic acids.

Dosage: Seed—3-5 g powder; oil— 5-10 drops. (CCRAS.)... hydnocarpus laurifolia

Kalanchoe Laciniata

(Linn.) DC.

Synonym: K. schweinfurthii Penzig. Cotyledon laciniata Roxb.

Family: Crassulaceae.

Habitat: Maharashtra, Deccan and Bengal.

Ayurvedic: Parnabija (var.), Vatapatri.

Unani: Zakhm-e-Hayaat.

Siddha/Tamil: Malakalli.

Folk: Hemasaagar.

Action: Plant—used in fever, dyspepsia, skin allergy, asthma, bronchitis. Leaves—astringent, antiseptic, astringent. Applied to insect bites. Lotions are used for smallpox. Leaf juice is given in diarrhoea, dysentery, lithiasis.... kalanchoe laciniata


Specialized lymph formations found in the small intestine mucosa. Together with enzymatic activities in the submucosa, they collect digested fats into stable transport bubbles called chylomicrons, and draw them up into the lymph system. There they are gradually leeched into the blood as the lymph passes upwards through the body, the remainder discharged into the venous blood with the lymph...12-24 hours later. Time-Released fat capsules. Fats lower the blood charge and make it sticky, which can interfere with vascular capabilities; the sideways bypassing of the blood in this manner spreads the fats out over long periods. The rest of the digested constituents can happily flow up to the liver through the portal system, unsludged, and the liver itself therefore has little lipid stress to face. If fats are poorly digested in the upper intestinal tract, the floating bubbles are larger, broken down too slowly to be well absorbed into the lymph system, and the portal blood...and liver...get sludged. Ever wonder why a bunch of lousy pizza can give you hemorrhoids the next day? Sludgy portal blood and backed-up venous drainage from the legs is why.... lacteals

Lactuca Runcinata


Synonym: L. heyneana DC.

Family: Compositae; Asteraceae.

Habitat: Many parts of India, as a common weed.

Folk: Undir-chaa-kaan (Maharashtra).

Action: Diuretic, slightly aperient. Used as a diuretic in calculous affections, also for chronic obstruction of liver and bowels.

A smaller var., found in western Ut- tar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Saurashtra and the Deccan Penninsula, is equated with L. remotiflora DC.... lactuca runcinata


(Latvian) One who is fortunate; in mythology, goddess of luck Layma, Laema... laima


(American) A softhearted woman Lainill, Lainyl, Lainyll, Laenil, Laenill, Laenyl, Laenyll, Laynil, Laynill, Laynyl, Laynyll... lainil


(Scottish) Resembling a mare Lair, Laira, Lairia, Lairea, Layr, Layre, Laer, Laere... laire


(Greek) A legendary courtesan Laise, Lays, Layse, Laisa, Laes, Laese... lais


(Hebrew) Resembling a lioness Laisha, Lashia, Lashea, Laysh, Laishe, Layshe, Laysha, Laesh, Laeshe, Laesha... laish


(French) A soothing woman Lajeane, LaJean, LaJeane, Lajeanne, L’Jean... lajean


(Indian) One who is modest; shy Lajyla, Lajeela, Lajeala... lajila


(Indian) A truthful woman Lajyta, Lajeeta, Lajeata... lajita


(Polynesian) In mythology, the patron goddess of dancers Lakah... laka


(American) From the still waters Laken, Laiken, Layken, Layk, Layke, Laik, Laike, Laeken, Laek, Laeke... lake

Lactuca Sativa


Synonym: L. scariola Linn. var. sativa C.B. Clarke.

Family: Compositae; Asteraceae.

Habitat: Native to Southern and West Asia. Cultivated throughout India as a cold weather crop.

English: Garden Lettuce.

Unani: Kaahuu Bustaani, Salaad Pattaa, Salaad Baaghi.

Siddha/Tamil: Salattu.

Action: Plant—used in painful ulcers and burns.

The leaves contain calcium, phosphorus, iron, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, carotine, iodine, fluorine. A. dietary allowance of 10 g of lettuce is adequate to meet the vitamin K requirement of the body.

Aqueous extract of roots gave a gua- iene-type sesquiterpene glycoside, lac- toside C, along with known glycosides, lactoside A and macro-cliniside A.... lactuca sativa

Lactuca Serriola


Synonym: L. scariola Linn.

Family: Compositae; Asteraceae.

Habitat: The Western Himalayas, between 1,800 and 3,300 m. Found wild.

English: Wild Lettuce, Prickly Lettuce.

Ayurvedic: Salaad, Vanya-Kaahuu.

Unani: Kaahuu Saharai, Kaahuu Barri.

Siddha/Tamil: Salattu.

Action: Plant—mild sedative, diuretic, diaphoretic, expectorant, antiseptic. Seed—demulcent. The seeds are used in the form of powder for coughs and as a decoction for insomnia.

Seeds contain protein, amino acids; Mg Al and K as major elements besides Na, Ca, Si, Ti, Mn, Fe and Cu.

Arachidic, caproic, linoleic, ole- ic, palmitic, stearic acids and sitos- terol (from the root); ascorbic acid, beta-carotene, 8-deoxylactucin, lac- ticin, jacquilenin, lactupicrin, ubiqui-... lactuca serriola

Lactuca Virosa


Family: Compositae; Asteraceae.

Habitat: Native to Europe. Imported into India.

English: Bitter Lettuce, Wild Lettuce.

Unani: Kaahuu Sahrai (var.), Kaahuu Barri (var.).

Action: Mild sedative, hypnotic, (once used as a substitute for opium), anodyne, expectorant.

Key application: As sedative. (The British Herbal Pharmacopoeia.)

Used in insomnia, nervous excitability, anxiety, restlessness, hyperactivity in children, nymphomania, smoker's cough, irritable cough and bronchitis.

Aerial parts contain sesquiterpene glycosides.

The leaves and dried juice contain lacticin, lactucopicrin (sesquiterpene lactones); flavonoids (mainly based on quercetin); coumarins (cichoriin and aesculin); N-methyl-beta-phenethy- lamine; triterpenes include taraxas- terol and beta-amyrin. The sesquiterpene lactones have a sedative effect.

The Wild Lettuce also contains hyos- cyamine, while the dried sap is devoid of it. Morphine content has been found in low concentrations, too low to have pharmacological effect. (Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, 2007.)

The oil of seeds is used for arteriosclerosis.

Synonym: L. vulgaris Ser. L. leucanth Rusby. Cucurbita siceraria Mol.

Family: Cucurbitaceae.

Habitat: Throughout India.

English: Bitter Bottle-Gourd.

Ayurvedic: Katu-tumbi, Tumbini, Ikshavaaku. Tiktaalaavu, Pindapha- laa.

Unani: Kaddu-e-talkh (bitter var.).

Siddha/Tamil: Suraikai.

Action: Pulp—purgative, emetic. Leaf—used in jaundice.

Cucurbita lagenaria Linn. is equated with Lauki or Sweet Bottle-Guard, used all over India as a vegetable.

Cucurbita siceraria Mol. is equated with Titalauki or the Bitter Bottle- Gourd. Bitter fruits yield 0.013% of a solid foam containing cucurbitacin B,D,G and H, mainly cucurbitacin B. These bitter principles are present in the fruit as aglycones. Leaves contain cucurbitacin B, and roots cucurbitacins B, D and traces of E. The fruit juice contains beta-glycosidase (elaterase).

Plants which yield non-bitter fruits contain no bitter principles or elat- erase; their roots are not bitter.... lactuca virosa


(American / African) A lively and healthy woman / the favorite Lakeesha, Lakecia, Lakesha, Lakeshia, Laketia, Lakeysha, Lakicia, Lakiesha, Lakisha, Lakitia, Laquisha, Lekeesha, Lekeisha, Lekisha, Laquiesha, Lakeasha, Lekeasha... lakeisha


(Hawaiian) A girly woman Lakelah, Lakella, Lakellah... lakela


(Arabic) One who is treasured Lakiah, Lakeea, Lakeah, Lakeya, Lakea, Lakiyah, Lakiya, Lakeyah... lakia


(Indian) As beautiful as a white rose Lakshah, Lakshia, Lakshiya, Lakshea, Lakshya... laksha


(Hindi) A good omen; in Hinduism, the goddess of wealth, light, and beauty

Lakshmie, Lakshmy, Laxmi, Laxmie, Laxmy, Lakshmey, Laxmey, Lakshmee, Laxmee, Lakshmea, Laxmea... lakshmi


(Indian) Born on a Thursday... lakya


(Slavic) Resembling a tulip Lalah, Lalla, Lallah, Laleh... lala


(Greek) One who often prattles Lallie, Lally, Lalli, Lalley, Lallea, Lalleah... lalage


(American) A hardworking woman Lalain, Lalaina, Lalayn, Lalayne, Lalayna, Lalaen, Lalaene, Lalaena... lalaine

Ladies' Mantle

Alchemilla vulgaris. N.O. Rosaceae.

Synonym: Lion's Foot.

Habitat: Hedgerows and waysides.

Features ? Whole plant covered with silky hairs. Leaves rounded, about two inches across, nine blunt, serrate lobes, on long stalks. Greenish flowers, without petals, bloom in small clusters from forked stem. Astringent, saliva-drying taste.

Part used ? Herb.

Action: Astringent, nervine, antispasmodic.

In excessive menstruation and flooding, as well as spasmodic nervous complaints. Decoction of 1 ounce to 1 1/2 pints water simmered to 1 pint is used as an injection in the menstrual disorders. The 1 ounce to 1 pint infusion may be taken internally in teacupful doses as required.... ladies' mantle

Ladies' Slipper

Cypripedium pubescens. N.O. Orchidaceae.

Synonym: American Valerian, Mocassin flower, Nerveroot, Noah's Ark.

Habitat: United States of America.

Features ? Flower supposed to resemble a lady's shoe in form. Rhizome about quarter- inch diameter, many cupshaped scars on top surface; wavy, thickly-matted roots underneath. Fracture short and white.

Part used ? Rhizome.

Action: Antispasmodic, tonic, nervine.

Combined with other tonics in the relief of neuralgia, and to allay pain

generally. Of use in hysteria and other nervous disorders. Dose, 1 drachm of the powdered rhizome. Like other medicines of a similar nature, it is of little use unless the cause of the nervous excitement is traced and removed.

The remarks of Rafinesque, then Professor of Medical Botany in the University of Transylvania, are interesting in view of the "orthodox" attitude towards remedies of the herbalists ? "I am enabled to introduce, for the first time, this beautiful genus into our materia medica ; all the species are equally remedial. They have long been known to the Indians, who called them moccasin flower, and were used by the empyrics of New England, particularly Samuel Thomson. Their properties, however, have been tested and confirmed by Dr. Hales, of Troy; Dr. Tully, of Albany, etc.

. . . They produce beneficial effects in all nervous diseases and hysterical affections by allaying pain, quieting the nerves and promoting sleep. They are preferable to opium in many cases, having no baneful or narcotic effect."

Professor Rafinesque, however, goes even further than would Thomson and his successors when he announces that "all the species are equally remedial."... ladies' slipper

Lady`s Mantle Tea

Lady’s Mantle Tea is a popular tea known especially for its astringent properties. Lady’s Mantle, also known as alchemilla vulgaris, is a perennial herb that grows in North America, Europe and Asia. It has pleated leaves that look like the cloak ladies used to wear during the medieval era. The constituents of lady’s mantle herb are tannins and various flavonoids such as quercetin. How to Make Lady’s Mantle Tea To make Lady’s Mantle Tea you have to infuse 3-4 grams of dried lady’s mantle stems, leaves and flowers, in about 5 ounces of boiling water. Reduce the heat and let the mix stand for 10 minutes. After that, strain and pour the tea into your cup. Lady’s Mantle Tea Benefits
  • Relieves menstrual cramps and discomfort during menopause.
  • When applied on skin, it can heal wounds, cuts, burns or other skin conditions.
  • Helps relieving nausea.
  • Effective in treating diarrhea and gastroenteritis.
  • May heal bleeding gums.
Lady’s Mantle Side Effects
  • Do not drink Lady’s Mantle Tea if you are pregnant or breastfeeding.
  • Stop drinking Lady’s Mantle tea if you experience weakness or fatigue.
  • It may interact with the effects of some medications, so always consult your doctor before drinking any herbal tea, including Lady’s Mantle Tea.
Lady’s Mantle Tea is a wonderful tea with many benefits for your body and general well-being. Just try not to drink too much of this tea in order to not experience any of its side effects.... lady`s mantle tea

Lagerstroemia Flos-reginae


Synonym: L. speciosa (L.) Pers. L. reginae Roxb.

Family: Lythraceae.

Habitat: Tropical Himalaya, and Assam, Western and Eastern Ghats, up to 1,000 m.

English: Pride of India, Queen's Flowers, Queen Crape Myrtle.

Siddha/Tamil: Kadalai, Pumaruttu.

Folk: Jaarul. Kramuk and Arjun are confusing synonyms.

Action: Seed—narcotic. Root— astringent, stimulant, febrifuge. Fruit—used for aphthae of the mouth. Leaves—purgative, diuretic, deobstruent. Bark—an infusion is given in diarrhoea and abdominal pain.

A decoction of the leaves, also of dried fruits, is used like tea for diabetes mellitus in Philippines. Mature leaves and fruits, in fresh condition, exhibit hypoglycaemic activity experimentally The potency decreases on storing the material.

The leaf extract, when administered as powder and as tannin-free extract, showed hypoglycaemic activity in mice. Amino acids constitute the insulin-like principle. The plant contains triterpenoids, colocolic acid and maslinic acid. Colocolic acid is known to possess hypoglycaemic activity.

Leaves contain lageracetal and sitos- terol. Ellagitannins have been isolated from fruits and leaves.... lagerstroemia flos-reginae


(Indian) Resembling a dove; one who is peaceful and promotes love Lalasah, Lalassa, Lallassa, Lallasa... lalasa


(Spanish) A devoted woman Laleemah, Laleima, Laleimah, Laliema, Laliemah, Lalyma, Lalymah, Laleama, Laleamah... laleema


(Indian) A lovely young woman Lalica, Lalicka, Lalyka, Lalycka, Lalyca, Lalikah... lalika


(Indian) A playful and charming woman

Lalitah, Laleeta, Laleetah, Lalyta, Lalytah, Laleita, Laleitah, Lalieta, Lalietah, Laleata, Laleatah... lalita

Lagerstroemia Parviflora


Family: Lythraceae.

Habitat: Almost throughout India, up to an altitude of 900 m, in the

Ayurvedic: Siddhaka, Siddha, Syandana (provisional synonym).

Folk: Dhauraa, Bakli. Chungi (Hyderabad). Lendia (trade).

Action: Astringent, fungitoxic.

The bark and leaves contain tannin 7-10 and 16% respectively. The plant contains a pentacyclic triterpene, lag- florin. Aqueous extract of fresh and ethanolic extract of dried and powdered leaves exhibit fungitoxic activity against several fungal pathogens of rice.... lagerstroemia parviflora

Laggera Alata

Sch.- Bip. ex Oliver.

Family: Asteraceae, Compositae.

Habitat: Throughout India, ascending up to 2,100 m in the hills. (Native to tropical Africa and Madagascar.)

Folk: Amadok (Garhwal).

Action: Disinfectant.

The plant is one of the major ingredients of an ointment used in the treatment of skin tumours in Chinese medicine. In Ivory Coast, Burkina Faso, Gabon and Tanganyika, different parts of the plant are used for the treatment of intercostal pain, rheumatic pain and fever. The leaf and root decoctions are used to treat pneumonia.

The plant from Nigeria was found rich in phenolic ethers (45%), followed by monoterpenes (22%) and sesquiterpenes (12%). The major component of the oil was dimethyl thy- moquinone (44%). It showed activity against Gram-positive microorganisms. Dried powder of the plant contained artemisetin (artemetin).... laggera alata

Lallemantia Royleana


Family: Labiatae.

Habitat: Plain and hills of Kumaon and Punjab, extending westwards to Afghanistan. Imported into India from Persia.

Unani: Baalango, Tukhm-e- Baalango.

Folk: Tuut-malangaa.

Action: Seed—cooling, diuretic, sedative; given internally as a soothing agent during urinary troubles, also for cough. A poultice of seeds is applied to abscesses, boils and inflammations. (Seeds are not to be used as a substitute for Plantago sp.)

Seeds contain linoleic, oleic, palmitic and stearic acids; beta-sitosterol. Gum contains L-arabinose, D-galac- tose, L-rhamnose, pentosans, protein, uronic anhydride. Amino acids are also found in the plant.... lallemantia royleana


(Slavic) A girl from the mountains Lamaarah, Lamara, Lamarah, Laamarra, Lamarra... lamaara


(American) One who is conflicted Lamariane, Lamarean, Lamareane... lamarian


See GIARDIASIS.... lamblia


(Greek) In mythology, a female vampire

Lamiah, Lamiya, Lamiyah, Lamea, Lameah... lamia


(American) One who is calm and peaceful

Lamikah, Lamyka, Lamykah, Lameeka, Lameekah, Lameika, Lameikah, Lamieka, Lamiekah, Lameaka, Lameakah... lamika

Laminum Amplexicaule


Family: Labiatae; Lamiaceae.

Habitat: The temperate Himalayas from Kashmir to Kumaon, Sikkim and Assam.

Folk: Titpaati (Garhwal), Jipachi (Tibbet).

Action: Plant—stimulant, laxative, diaphoretic, cephalic, antirheum- atic.... laminum amplexicaule


(Arabic) A soft-skinned woman Lamiss, Lamisse, Lamys, Lamyss, Lamysse, Lamees, Lameese... lamis

Lamprachaenium Microcephalum


Family: Compositae; Asteraceae.

Habitat: Deccan, Konkan and Karnataka.

Unani: Brahmdandi. (Tricholepis angustifolia DC. of the same family has also been equated with Brahmdandi in National Formulary of Unani Medicine.)

Folk: Brahmdandi (Maharashtra), Ajadandi.

Action: Antiseptic, bitter tonic.... lamprachaenium microcephalum


(Arabic) Having lovely dark lips Lamyah, Lamyia, Lama... lamya


(German / Greek) Form of Alana, meaning “beautiful and fair woman; dear child” / form of Helen, meaning “the shining light”

Lanae, Lanette, Lanna, Lanny, Lannice, Lanice... lana


(Hawaiian) A veranda; from the island Lenai... lanai


(Russian) A lighthearted woman; cheerful

Lanasa, Lanassia, Lanasia, Lanassiya, Lanasiya... lanassa

Lamium Album


Family: Labiatae; Lamiaceae.

Habitat: West Himalayas from Kashmir to Kumaon.

English: White Dead Nettle, Archangel.

Action: Haemostatic (particularly on the uterus), astringent, diuretic, anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, expectorant. Used for menorrhagia, leucorrhoea, cystitis, prostatitis, bleeding piles, diarrhoea, irritable bowel and respiratory catarrh.

Key application: Internally, for catarrh of the upper respiratory passages; externally, for mild, superficial inflammation of the skin. (German Commission E.) Flowers have been recommended for teas and other galenical preparations for internal applications, rinses, baths and moist compresses. As astringent. (The British Herbal Pharmacopoeia.)

The herb contains iridoid monoterpenes; triterpene saponins; caffeic acid derivatives; flavonoids based on kaem- pferol; tannins (mainly catechins). The plant also gave a carbocyclic iridoid, caryoptoside; besides lambalbide, al- bosides A and B (iridoid monoter- penes).... lamium album


(American) Of the earth Lande, Landy, Landey, Landee, Landea, Landi, Landie... land


(Spanish) Refers to the Virgin Mary... landa


(English) From the grassy meadow Landin, Landyn... landen


(English) From the long hill Landan, Lanton, Lantan... landon


(Latin) A wise counselor Landrada, Landria, Landrea, Landradah... landra


(English) Of the rough terrain Landrey, Landri, Landrie, Landree, Landrea, Landreah... landry


(American) One who takes the narrow path Lanell, Lanele, Lanella, Lanela, Lanel ... lanelle


(Scandinavian) Woman of great height... lang


(English) From the long meadow Langly, Langli, Langlie, Langlee, Langleigh, Langlea... langley


(Hawaiian) From the sky; one who is heavenly Lanikai... lani


(Hindi) From the island fortress Lankah, Lankia, Lankiah, Lankea, Lankeah... lanka

Lannea Coromandelica

(Houtt.) Merrill.

Synonym: L. grandis (Dennst.) Engl.; Odina wodier Roxb.

Family: Anacardiaceae.

Habitat: Throughout India, ascending to 1,500 m in the Himalayas.

Ayurvedic: Jingini, Jhingan, Gudamanjari.

Siddha/Tamil: Kalasan, Anaikkarai, Odiyan.

Action: Bark—stimulant and astringent; used in gout; decoction for aphthae of the mouth and for toothache. Leaves— boiled and applied to sprains, bruises, local swellings, elephantiasis. Gum— given in asthma; as a cordial to women during lactation.

The roots contain cluytyl ferulate; heartwood gave lanosterol; bark, dl- epi-catechin and (+)-leucocyanidin; flowers and leaves, ellagic acid, querce- tin and quercetin-3-arabinoside. Flowers also contain iso-quercetin and morin. Leaves in addition contain beta-sitosterol, leucocyanidin and leu- codelphinidin.... lannea coromandelica


(English) Filled with hope Lanseng, Lansyng... lansing


(English) Resembling the flower with orange or purple blossoms Lantanah, Lantanna, Lantania, Lantanea, Lantaniya, Lantanya... lantana


(Italian) One who is noble and willing

Lanzah, Lanzia, Lanziah, Lanzea, Lanzeah... lanza


(Greek) In mythology, daughter of Bellerophon

Laodamiah, Laodamea, Laodameah ... laodamia


(Gaelic) From the meadowland... laoidheach

Lansium Domesticum


Family: Meliaceae.

Habitat: Cultivated in Nilgiris and a few other places in South India.

En ? glishLangsat Fruit, Dockoa.

Folk: Duku.

Action: Bark—astringent, an- tidysenteric. Resin—antidiarrhoeal, prescribed in intestinal spasm. Seed—febrifuge, vermifuge.

The peel of the fruit contains a tri- terpenoid acid (lansic acid). Seeds are bitter; contain traces of an alkaloid and resin.

The crude extract of fruit peel, containing lansic acid, lansioside A, B and C or their derivatives, is used as an ingredient of shampoos and hair tonics.... lansium domesticum

Lantana Camara

Linn. var. aculeata Moldenke.

Synonym: L. aculeata L.

Family: Verbenaceae.

Habitat: Native to tropical America; naturalized and occurs throughout India. Also grown as hedge plant.

English: Lantana, Wild Sage, Surinam Tea Plant.

Ayurvedic: Chaturaangi, Vanachch- hedi.

Siddha/Tamil: Unnichedi.

Folk: Ghaaneri (Maharashtra).

Action: Plant—antirheumatic, antimalarial; used in tetanus and ataxy of abdominal viscera. Pounded leaves are applied to cuts, ulcers and swellings; a decoction of leaves and fruits is used as a lotion for wounds.

The plant is considered poisonous. The leaves contain toxic principles, lantadenes A and B, which cause acute photosensitization, jaundice, kidney and liver lesions. A steroid, lanca- marone, is cardioactive and fish poison.

The bark of stems and roots contain a quinine-like alkaloid, lantanine. The extract of the shoot showed antibacterial activity against E. coli and Micrococcus pyogenes var. aureus. Flowers contain anthocyanin.... lantana camara


(Egyptian) Resembling the dark-blue gemstone

Lapiss, Lapisse, Lapys, Lapyss, Lapysse... lapis

Laportea Crenulata


Family: Urticaceae.

Habitat: Tropical Himalayas from Nepal eastwards, Bihar, Chota Nagpur, Bengal, Assam, Anaimalai Hills and Western Ghats in Kerala.

English: Devil Nettle, Fever Nettle.

Siddha/Tamil: Perunkanchori.

Folk: Utigun, Chorpaat (Bengal). (Uttangan is equated with Blepharis edulis Pers.)

Action: Root—juice used in chronic fevers. Roots and leaves are applied to swellings and abscesses.... laportea crenulata


(American) An outspoken woman

Laquana, Laquann, Laquane, Laquan... laquanna


(American) A quiet and well- behaved child Laquetta, Laquita, Laquitta... laqueta


(American) The fifth-born child... laquinta


(Latin) One who is protected; a cheerful woman

Larra, Laralaine, Laramae, Larina, Larinda, Larita, Larya... lara


(French) Shedding tears of love Larami, Laramy, Laramey, Laramee, Laramea... laramie


(American) Form of Darby, meaning “of the deer park” Larbey, Larbi, Larbie, Larbee, Larbea... larby


(Spanish) The queen; one born to royalty

Laraene, Larayne, Lareine, Larena, Larrayna, Larreina, Laranya, Laraena, Larayna... lareina


(Latin) In mythology, an earth goddess

Larentia, Larentea, Larynta... larenta


(American) A flashy woman Larhondah, Larhondia, Larhondiah, Larhondea, Larhondeah, Laranda... larhonda


(Latin) A lighthearted woman Lari, Larisa, Laryssa, Lerissa, Lorissa, Lyssa, Larisse, Laryssa, Larysse, Laurissa... larissa


(English) Resembling the songbird Larke... lark


(American) A pretty young woman Larkyn, Larkine, Larkyne, Larken, Larkene, Larkun, Larkune... larkin


(American) A tomboyish woman Larri, Larry, Larrey, Larree, Larrea... larrie

Larix Griffithiana


Synonym: L. griffithii Hook. f. & Thoms.

Family: Pinaceae.

Habitat: The Himalayas from eastern Nepal to Bhutan at altitudes of 2,400-3,600 m.

English: Himalayan Larch, Sikkim Larch.

Folk: Boargasella, Binyi (Nepal).

Action: Balsam—antiseptic, hypermic.

Key application: Larix decidua Miller—in rheumatic and neuralgic discomforts, catarrhal diseases of the respiratory tract, furuncle (in the form of ointments, gels, emulsions and oils). (German Commission E.)

American Larch is equated with Larix laricina Koch., synonym L. americana Michx. It is known as Tamarac.

European Larch is equated with Lar- ix decidua Miller., synonym L. europea DC., Pinus larix L., Abies larix. It is known as Pine Larch.

The bark of American Larch contains 2-15% tannins. The bark of Larix dedidua is also astringent, balsamic and diuretic. It contains lig- nans; lariciresinol, liovil and secoiso- lariciresinol; 60-80% resins; essential oil, containing alpha- and beta-pinene, limonene, phellandrene, borneol as major constituents.... larix griffithiana


(Scandinavian) Daughter of Lars Larson, Larssen, Larsson... larsen


(American) Form of Rue, meaning “from the medicinal herb” LaRue, Laroo, Larou... larue

Larva Currens

A rash rather like that of cutaneous larva migrans resulting from penetration of the filariform larva of Strongyloides stercoralis in the skin around the anus and buttocks, as part of autoinfection.... larva currens

Larval Habitat

The type of aquatic environment in which mosquito larvae are typically found.... larval habitat

Larval Survey

The process of searching for mosquito larvae in a defined area. Larvae are collected and taken to the laboratory for identification and enumeration.... larval survey

Larvivorous Fish

Fish species which feed preferentially on mosquito larvae. They may contribute significantly to the reduction of vector densities.... larvivorous fish

Laryngeal Reflex

A ‘protective’ cough occurring as a result of irritation of the LARYNX – for example, a small particle of food may be accidentally ‘inhaled’ into the larynx, which reacts with an expulsive cough to prevent the food from entering the lungs.... laryngeal reflex


(Spanish) One who is forlorn Lashah, Lashe... lasha


(American) A brassy woman Lashonda, Lashounda, Lashunda... lashanda


(American) Filled with happiness Lashauna, Laseana, Lashona, Lashawn, Lasean, Lashone, Lashaun... lashawna

Lassar’s Paste

O?cially known as Zinc and Salicylic Acid Paste, BP, this preparation is an old remedy for eczema (see DERMATITIS).... lassar’s paste


(Scottish) A young girl; one who is pure

Lassi, Lassey, Lassy, Lassee, Lass, Lassea... lassie


(Indian) Of the lovely vine Latah... lata


(American) Daughter of the fairy queen

Latanyah, Latonya, Latania, Latanja, Latonia, Latanea... latanya


(American) Form of Natasha, meaning “born on Christmas Day” Latashah, Latascha, Latashia, Latasia, Latashea, Latashiya... latasha


(Spanish) A flirtatious woman Lateasa, Lateaza... lateasa

Latent Stage

Resting or inactive stage found in some viral infections such as the herpes viruses.... latent stage


(American) A talkative woman Latheniah, Lathena, Lathenah, Lathenea, Latheneah... lathenia


Family name for sea snake kraits.... laticaudidae

Lasia Spinosa

(L.) Thw.

Synonym: Lasia aculeata Linn.

Family: Araceae.

Habitat: Tropical Sikkim Himalayas, Assam, Bengal and Southwards to Sri Lanka.

Siddha: Kantakachoramu, Mulasari (Telugu.)

Folk: Kantakachu (Bengal), Kaantaasaru. Lakshmanaa and Indiver-kand are doubtful synonyms.

Action: Plant—used for colic and intestinal diseases. Leaves—used for stomachache. Rootstock and fruits—for affections of the throat.... lasia spinosa

Lasiosiphon Eriocephalus


Family: Thymelaceaceae.

Habitat: Deccan and Western Ghats, from Konkan southwards to Kerala at altitudes of 1,200-2,500 m.

Siddha: Nachinaar (Tamil).

Folk: Raamethaa (Maharashtra).

Action: Barkandleaves—poisonous. Plant—vesicant. Leaves are applied to swellings and contusions.

The stem bark and seeds contain a xanthone glycoside, lasioside and a biscoumarin, lasiocephatin.... lasiosiphon eriocephalus

Lathyrus Sativus


Family: Papilionaceae; Fabaceae.

Habitat: Cultivated chiefly in Madhya Pradesh, Eastern Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh and Gujarat.

English: Chickling Vetch, Grass Pea.

Folk: Khesaari, Latari, Kalaaya.

Action: Seeds—toxic. Prolonged consumption results in paralysis of legs, both in animals and human beings, known as lathyrism. The toxic substance responsible for lathyrism had been identified as selenium. Peritoneal injection of beta-N-oxalylaminoalanine (isolated from the seeds) produced acute neurolathyrism at LD50 doses (748.8 mg/kg) in mice and (694.9 mg/kg) in chicken; liver and kidney cells showed denaturation, vacuolar and fatty degeneration. (It is a neuropoison, which mainly affects central nervous system.)

Related species include, Lathyrus aphaca Linn., L. sphaericus Retz. and L. tingitanus Linn., known as Kalaaya or Khesaari.... lathyrus sativus


(Arabic) One who is gentle and kind Latifa, Lateefa, Lateefah, Lateifa, Lateiffa, Latiffa, Latyfa, Latiefa, Lateifah, Latiefah, Lateafa, Lateafah, Latyfah... latifah


(Indian) An elegant and majestic lady Latikah, Laticka, Latica, Lateeka, Latieka, Lateaka, Latyka, Lateika... latika


(American) A happy woman... latisehsha


(Latin) In mythology, the Roman equivalent of Leto, the mother of Artemis and Apollo

Latonah, Latonia, Latonea, Lantoniah, Latoneah... latona


(American) Filled with happiness Latoshia, Latoshah, Latoshiah, Latoshea, Latosheah... latosha


(Spanish) One who is victorious Letoya, Latoia, Latoria, Latorya, Latoyah, Latoyla, Latoiya... latoya


(American) One who laughs a lot Latrell, Latrel, Latrele, Latrella, Latrela... latrelle


(English) Born into the nobility Latrecia, Latreece, Latreese, Latreshia, Latricia, Leetriss, Letrice, Leatrice, Letreece... latrice


(American) One who is high maintenance

Latrishah, Latrysha, Latryshah, Latriesha, Latrieshah, Latreisha, Latreishah, Latreesha, Latreeshah, Latreasha, Latreashah... latrisha


A genus of spiders which includes such venomous species as the black widow spider of the USA,the red back spider of Australia and the button spider of South Africa.... latrodectus


(Latin) One who is praised... lauda


(English) Lady of the fountain; in Arthurian legend, the wife of Yvain Laudene, Laudyne, Laudina, Laudena, Laudyna, Laudeen, Laudean, Laudeena, Laudeana... laudine


(Italian) Praises the house Laudonea, Laudoniya, Laudomia, Laudomea, Laudomiya... laudonia


(Norse) From the wooded island Laufia, Laufea, Laufeiya, Laufeya... laufeia

Launaea Mucronata

(Forsk.) Muschler.

Synonym: L. chondrilloides Hook. f.

Family: Compositae; Asteraceae.

Habitat: Western India, Punjab and Sind.

Folk: Dudh-phad (Rajasthan).

Action: Plant—galactagogue. A decoction is administered in constipation.... launaea mucronata

Launaea Pinnatifida


Synonym: L. sarmentosa (Willd.) Alston.

Family: Compositae; Asteraceae.

Habitat: Sandy coasts of India.

Ayurvedic: Gojihvaa, Golomikaa. (Gaozabaan, used in Unani medicine, is equated with Bor- aginaceae sp.)

Folk: Vana-gobhi; Paathri (Maharashtra).

Action: Plant—galactagogue, soporific, diuretic, aperient.... launaea pinnatifida

Laundry Services

The provision of assistance with laundry tasks for someone in his or her own home, either through a central facility or by a home help in the home.... laundry services


(Latin) Crowned with laurel; from the laurel tree

Lauraine, Lauralee, Laralyn, Laranca, Larea, Lari, Lauralee, Laurana, Laure, Laurel, Laurella, Laurence, Laurentia, Laurentine, Laurestine, Lauretha, Lauretta, Laurette, Lauri, Lauriane, Laurianne, Laurice, Lauricia, Laurie, Laurina, Laurinda, Laurine, Laurita, Laurnea, Lavra, Lawra, Lollie, Lolly, Laural, Lauralle, Laurell, Laurelle, Lauriel, Lauralyn, Lauene, Lauica, Laurencia, Lawrencia, Lonyn, Loura, Larunda, Lawena, Laria... laura


(French) Form of Laura, meaning “crowned with laurel; from the laurel tree” Laren, Larentia, Larentina, Larenzina, Larren, Laryn, Larryn, Larrynn, Larsina, Larsine, Laurenne, Laurin, Lauryn, Laurynn, Laurena, Laurene, Laureen, Lareen... lauren


(French) A graceful woman Laurente, Lorent, Lorente... laurent

Laurus Nobilis


Family: Lauraceae.

Habitat: Native to the Mediterranean region; cultivated throughout India.

English: Laurel, Sweet Bay.

Unani: Habb-ul-Ghaar, Daphni.

Action: Leaves—mild sedative, gastric tonic, cholagogue, diaphoretic, antiseptic, antifungal. Used as a gargle against sore throat. Oil—used externally for rheumatism and in hair dressings for dandruff. Berry— emmenagogue, antileucorrhoeic, antidiarrhoeal.

Fresh leaves from Lahore (Pakistan) gave an essential oil (0.3-0.36%) with, 1,8-cineole 42.2, eugenol 16.4, sabinene 6.5, alpha terpineol 1.6, alpha-pinene 3.4, methyl eugenol 2.4 and terpinolene 1.9%. Major components of Greek and Russian oils were 1,8-cineole followed by alpha-terpinyl acetate.

The fruit from Kumaon region gave an essential oil (5%), including among others, 1,8-cineol (28.4), methyl cinna- mate (20.1), alpha phellandrene (10.1) and alpha-pinene (9.3%).

The leaves contain sesquiterpene lactones and isoquinoline alkaloids. Ethanolic extract of leaves produces a significant decrease in blood glucose level of diabetic rabbits. It contains amylase inhibitors which can supress sugar metabolism and can be used as an antiobesity agent for pet animals.

The leaf extract has been used as an antidandruff solution.... laurus nobilis


(American) One who is creative; muscially talented Lavadah, Lavadia, Lavadea, Lavadiya... lavada

Lavado Vaginal

Vaginal wash; see ducha.... lavado vaginal

Lavandula Angustifolia


Synonym: L. officinalis Chaix. L. spica Linn.

Family: Labiatae; Lamiaceae.

Habitat: Native to Mediterranean region; cultivated in Jammu and Kashmir.

English: Lavender.

Action: Herb—mildly sedative, antiflatulent and cholagogue. Essential oil—antiseptic, antibacterial, antispasmodic.

Key application: Internally, for mood disturbances, such as restlessness or insomnia; functional abdominal complaints (nervous stomach irritation and discomfort); for the treatment of functional circulatory disorders in balneother- apy. (German Commission E.) The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India indicates the use of Lavandula sp. for depressive states associated with digestive dysfunction.

Major constituents of the essential oil are linalool and linalyl acetate. Others include borneol, camphor, lavan- dulyl, caryophyllene, limonene, beta- ocimene, terpene-4-ol-and alpha-ter- pineol.

Aerial parts of the plant contains ursolic acid lactone, betulin, betulin- ic acid and 3 beta-formyl ursolic acid. The essential oil from flowering shoots showed neuro-depressive or anxiolytic activity in albino rats.... lavandula angustifolia

Lavandula Bipinnata


Synonym: L. burmanni Benth.

Family: Labiatae; Lamiaceae.

Habitat: Bihar, Chota Nagpur, Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Maharashtra, Decan and Konkan southwards to Kerala.

Ayurvedic: Shankhapushpi (Gujarat).

Action: Used as a substitute for Convolvulus pluricaulas Choisy.... lavandula bipinnata


(Indian) One who is filled with grace

Lavania, Lavani, Lavanie, Lavany, Lavaney, Lavanee, Lavanea, Lavaneah, Lavaniya... lavanya


(Latin) One who is washed clean... lave


(Latin) One who is innocent; cleansed

Lavedah, Lavella, Lavelle, Laveta, Lavetta, Lavette... laveda


(Latin) Born in the spring; in mythology, Laverna was the goddess of thieves

Laverine, Lavern, Laverna, Laverrne, Leverne, Loverna, Lavyrne, Lavyrna, Lavernia, La Verne, La Vergne, Lativerna, Levema... laverne


(Latin) In mythology, the daughter of Latinus and wife of Aeneas Lavena, Lavenia, Lavina, Lavinie, Levenia, Levinia, Livinia, Louvenia, Louvinia, Lovina, Lovinia, Luvena, Luvenia, Luvina, Luvinia... lavinia


(American) A charming woman Lavitah, Laveeta, Laveetah, Laveata, Laveatah, Lavieta, Lavietah, Laveita, Laveitah, Lavyta, Lavytah... lavita

Lavandula Stoechas


Family: Papilionaceae; Fabaceae.

Habitat: Mediterranean region and Asia Minor. Dried plant and flowers are imported into Mumbai from Persian Gulf.

English: Arabian or French Lavender.

Unani: Ustukhuddus, Alfaajan.

Folk: Dhaaru.

Action: Flowers—antidepressive, sedative, anticonvulsant, carminative, antispasmodic, antibacterial, antiseptic. Used in depression, nervous headache, sluggish circulation, physical and mental exhaustion, insomnia, epilepsy, neuralgia and rheumatic affections.

Oil—rubefacient, antimicrobial. Used for nervous palpitations, giddiness, spasm and colic. Relieves sprains, neuralgia and rheumatism; rubbed for stimulating paralysed limbs. Applied to sores, burns, scalds and varicose veins.

Plant—used for the treatment of epilepsy and chronic sinusitis in Unani medicine.

Aerial parts of the plant contain oleanolic, ursolic and vergatic acid, beta-sitosterol, alpha-amyrin and its acetate, lupeol, erythrodiol, luteolin, acacetin and vitexin.

The leaves contain polyphenols, api- genin-7-O-beta-D-glucoside, luteolin andits7-O-beta-D-glucoside, and7-O- beta-D-glucuronide, rosmarinic acid, and 6-O-caffeoyl glucose.

For depression, tincture of lavender flower (1: 5 in 50% alcohol), 60 drops per day, has been used for 4 weeks in Western herbal. (Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, 2007.)... lavandula stoechas

Lavender Tea

Lavender tea is made out of the dried purple, pink and white colored flowers that grow on lavender shrubs. Used as a scented herb for many centuries, lavender’s medicinal uses have been appreciated and documented for centuries. A cup of lavender tea can soothe your mind and body, inducing sleep. If you are feeling down and depressed, a cup of lavender tea can help uplift your spirit. Lavender tea helps sooth and treat flatulence, colic, bowel infections and an upset stomach. Lavender tea can be used as a wash on the chest to help reduce cough, bronchitis, asthma, cold and other respiratory issues. For both children and adults, lavender is used to reduce body temperature during fever. Lavender also has healing properties; use a wash of lavender tea to help heal wounds, cuts, ulcers and sores.... lavender tea


(French) Form of Yvonne, meaning “a young archer” Lavonda, Lavonna, Lahvonne, Levonne, Levonda, Lavonn... lavonne


(American) Form of Wanda, meaning “a wanderer” Lawandah, Lawannda, Lawahnda, Lawonda, Lawonnda, Lawohnda, Lawande, Lawandis... lawanda

Lawsonia Inermis


Family: Lythraceae.

Habitat: Native to Arabia and Persia; now cultivated mainly in Haryana and Gujarat; to a small extent in Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan.

English: Henna.

Ayurvedic: Madayanti, Madayan- tikaa, Mendika, Ranjaka.

Unani: Hinaa, Mehndi.

Siddha/Tamil: Marudum.

Action: Leaves—astringent, antihaemorrhagic, antispasmodic, oxytocic, antifertility, antifungal, antibacterial. Used externally to treat skin infections (tinea); also as a hair conditioner.

The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia ofIn- dia indicated the use of the leaves in dysuria, jaundice, bleeding disorders, ulcers, prurigo and other obstinate skin diseases. The leaf is also recommended in giddiness and vertigo.

The leaves contain naphthoqui- nones, in particular lawsone; couma- rins (laxanthone, I, II and III); flavono- ids, luteolin and its 7-O-glucoside, acacetin-7-O-glucoside; beta-sitoste- rol-3-O-glucoside; all parts contain tannins.

Chloroform and ethanol extracts of leaves exhibit promising antibacterial activity against Shigella and Vibrio cholerae. Leaf extract shows antifun- gal activity against several pathogenic bacteria and fungi.

Henna paint is used as a medicament for treatment of hands and feet for mycosis. The antimycotic activity is due to lawsone, a naphthoquinone.

The ethanol-water (1 : 1) extract of the stem bark shows hepatoprotective activity CCl4-induced liver toxicity. Stembarkand root, probably due to the presence of isoplumbagin and lawsar- itol, exhibit anti-inflammatory activity experimentally.

Evidence shows Henna leaf might be able to decrease the formation of sickled cells in individuals with sickle cell anaemia. (Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, 2007.)

Dosage: Leaves—5-10 ml juice. (API, Vol. IV.)... lawsonia inermis


(Arabic) form of Laila, meaning “a beauty of the night; born at nightfall” Laylah, Laylie, Layli... layla


(American) Woman of the forest Leaf,, Leafie, Leafy, Leafey, Leafee, Leafea... leaf


The cuticular extension to fine pointed processes in the nematodes which have no lip; extension from the rim of the mouth called “external leaf-crown”, from the rim of the buccal capsule called “internal leaf-crown” as in Strongyloidea.... leaf-crown


A small leaf that is part of a compound leaf.... leaflet


(Hebrew) One who is weary; in the Bible, Jacob’s first wife Leia, Leigha, Lia, Liah, Leeya... leah


(French) One who is faithful; loyal Leola, Lealia, Lealie, Leal, Liealia... leala


(Greek) Feminine form of Leander; resembling a lioness

Leandre, Leandria, Leanza, Leanda, Leiandra, Leodora, Leoine, Leoline, Leonelle... leandra


(Gaelic) Form of Helen, meaning “the shining light”

Leana, Leann, Leanne, Lee-Ann, Leeann, Leeanne, Leianne, Leyanne, Leigh-Anne, Leighanna, Leeahnne, Leane, Leianna, Leighanne, Leighna, Leena, Leauna... leanna


Drugs or other substances used to treat CONSTIPATION. Also called aperients or purgatives, laxatives are classi?ed according to their mode of action. The four main groups are bulk, stimulant, faecal softeners and osmotics. In addition, bowel-cleansing solutions are used before surgery, ENDOSCOPY, or radiological examination of the COLON, to ensure that the bowel is clear of solid matter. However, these are not procedures for treating constipation.

People should be aware that normal bowel habits vary greatly, from twice a day to once every two or even three days. Any change from normal frequency to irregular or infrequent defaecation may signal constipation. Furthermore, before laxatives are prescribed, it is essential to ensure that the constipation is not the result of an underlying condition producing ‘secondary’ constipation. Individuals should not use laxatives too often or indiscriminately; persistent constipation is a reason to seek medical advice.

Bulk laxatives include bran and most high-?bre foods, such as fruit, vegetables and wholemeal foods. These leave a large indigestible residue that holds water in the gut and produces a large soft stool. Isphaghula husk, methyl cellulose and stercula are helpful when bran is ine?ective. Inorganic salts such as magnesium sulphate (Epsom Salts) have a similar e?ect.

Stimulant laxatives – for example, bisacodyl, senna and docusate sodium – stimulate PERISTALSIS, although the action may be accompanied by colicky pains.

Faecal softeners (emollients) There are two groups: surface active agents such as dioctyl sodium and sulphosuccinate which retain water in the stools and are often combined with a stimulant purgative; and liquid para?n which is chemically inert and is said to act by lubrication.

Osmotic laxatives These substances act by holding ?uid in the bowel by OSMOSIS, or by altering the manner in which water is distributed in the FAECES. Magnesium salts are used to produce rapid bowel evacuation, although one of them, magnesium hydroxide, should be used only occasionally. Phosphate or sodium citrate enemas (see ENEMA) can be used for constipation, while the former is used to ensure bowel evacuation before abdominal radiological procedures, endoscopy and surgery.... laxatives


Papaya (Carica papaya).

Plant Part Used: Fruit (ripe and unripe), papain enzymes.

Dominican Medicinal Uses: Fruit: eaten for digestive ailments, flatulence, stomachache, intestinal pain, heartburn, heart disease, hypertension, menopausal hot flashes, urinary tract infection, skin infection.

Safety: Ripe fruit is widely consumed and generally considered safe; topical application of the unripe fruit did not show toxicity in rabbits; other plant preparations have shown mixed results in animal toxicity studies.

Contraindications: Pregnancy and lactation (unripe fruit and papain); children under 12 years (due to lack of clinical data); history of hypersensitivity to fruit.

Drug Interactions: Warfarin (w/papain may cause excessive bleeding).

Clinical Data: Human clinical trials: guinea worm infection (leaves), immunomodulation (papain enzymes), burn wound-healing (fruit).

Laboratory & Preclinical Data: In vivo: abortifacient (unripe fruit constituents), anthelmintic (latex), antifertility—inhibits sperm motility (seed extract), antihypertensive (unripe fruit ethanolic extract); anti-ulcer (unripe fruit latex); diuretic (root); reversible azoospermia (seed extract).

In vitro: antiamoebic (seed extract), antihypertensive (unripe fruit ethanolic extract), antimicrobial, antioxidant (unripe fruit and seed), anti-salmonella (leaf and root extracts), immunomodulatory, immunostimulatory (seed extract), uterine stimulatory (fruit latex extract).

* See entry for Lechosa in “Part 3: Dominican Medicinal Plant Profiles” of this book for more information, including references.... lechosa


(Polish) A beautiful maiden of the forest... lechsinska


(English) Form of Alice, meaning “woman of the nobility; truthful; having high moral character” Licia, Lecea, Licea, Lisha, Lysha, Lesha... lecia


(Greek) One who is queenly Ledelle, Ledele, Ledella, Ledela, Ledel... ledell

Leea Macrophylla


Family: Vitaceae.

Habitat: Throughout hotter parts of India.

Ayurvedic: Hastikanda, Hasti-karna Palaasha; Kekidandaa.

Folk: Hatkan, Dholsamudra, Haath, Kaan.

Action: Astringent, anodyne, styptic, antiseptic. Root tubers— astringent, mucilaginous; applied to wounds and sores; used for ringworm and guineaworm.... leea macrophylla


Plumbago spp.


The genus Plumbago belonging to the family Plumbaginaceae is a popular and medicinally very important group of medicinal plants. Three species, namely P. rosea, P. zeylanica and P. auriculata have been identified. Among these P. rosea and P. zeylanica are important ones.

Plumbago, in general is an esteemed remedy for leucoderma and other skin diseases. The synonyms of fire like agnih, vahnih, etc. are attributed to this drug to indicate the very burning action of the root, causing blisters on the skin (daranah). The drug is used only after adequate curing and purification. Root is the officinal part and it enters into the composition of preparations like Citrakasavam, Dasamularista, Gulgulutiktaka kasaya, Yogarajachurna, etc.

1. P. rosea Linn. syn. P. indica Linn.

Eng: Rosy-flowered Leadwort; San: Citrakah, Dhahanah;

Hin: Lalcitra, Raktacitra;

Ben: Lalchita;

Mal: Kotuveli, Chettikkoduveli, Chuvannakotuveli;

Tam: Chenkotuveli, Cittiramulam;

Kan: Kempacitramula;

Tel: Yerracitramulam

Rosy-flowered leadwort or Fire plant is a native of Coromandel Coast. It is found throughout India, in moist situations as well as cultivated. The roots are useful in dyspepsia, colic, inflammations, cough, bronchitis, helmenthiasis, haemorrhoids, elephantiasis, chronic and intermittent fever, leprosy, leucoderma, ringworm, scabies, hepatosplenomegaly, amenorrhoea, odontalgia, vitiated conditions of vata, kapha and anaemia. It is a pretty subscandent perennial shrub with semi -woody striate stems and flexible branches. Leaves are simple, alternate oblong, short cuneate at the base passing into a very short amplexicaul, exauriculate, and reddish petiole. Flowers are bright red, arranged in long terminal spikes. The calyx ribs are covered with stipitate, bifarious and subsessile gland. Corolla tube is slender and four times as long as the calyx. The stout roots are cylindrical, irregularly bent, light yellowish brown with smooth surface having short transverse shallow fissures at the regions of the bents. A light yellowish juice excudes from the cut surface. A healthy plant may produce 18-20 stout roots (Warrier et al, 1995).

The chemical constituents include plumbagin and sitosterol glucoside. Clinical trials have demonstrated that plumbagin oil from P. indica is useful in common wart (Satyavati et al, 1987). The roots are acrid, astringent, thermogenic, anthelmintic, constipating, expectorant, antiinflammmatory, abortifacient, alterant, anti-periodic, carminative, digestive, sudorific, narcotic, gastric, nervous stimulant and rejuvenating. Root is a powerful sialogogue and vesicant.

2. P. zeylanica Linn.

Eng:White flowered Leadwort; San:Chitraka;

Hin, Ben:Chitarak, Chitra; Mal:Vellakotuveli

Tam: Sittragam, Chittiramoolam;

Kan: Vahini; Mar: Chitraka;

Tel: Chitramulam

White flowered Leadwort or Chitarak is found wild in peninsular India and mostly in West Bengal. Root is used externally in leprosy and other skin diseases or obstinate character, aphthae, abscesses, influenza, piles and anasarca. Juice is used externally in scabies and ulcers. One of the important preparations of Chitrak is “Yograjguggal”, prescribed for arthritis, rheumatism, etc. The other well known preparations are “Chitrak Adivati” and “ Chitraka Haritaki”. In Unani system it is an ingredient of “Aqaruva-i- Kabir”, “Hab Ashkhar”, “Ma’jun Baladur”, “Ma’jun Raig Mahi”, etc. It is a branched undershrub. Roots are long and tuberous. Stem is striate. Leaves are simple, alternate, short petioled, ovate or ovate-oblong, acute with entire or wavy margin, 7x3.8cm and glabrous. Flowers are white, arranged in terminal spikes. Calyx is tubular, glandular-hairy. Corolla tube is slender; limb rotate and 5 lobbed. Stamens are 5 on a disc. Style is slender with 5 stigmatic branches. Fruit is membranous capsule enclosed within the persistent calyx.

The roots of P. zeylanica have been exhaustively studied and naphthaquinones have been isolated, namely, plumbagin, 3-chlroplumbagin, droserone (Sidhu et al, 1971; Padhye et al, 1973), 3,3’-biplumbagin(Chitranone), zeylanone and iso-zeylanone and a coumarin, elliptinone (Sankaram et al, 1976, 1979). It also contains 1,2(3)-tetrahydro-3,3’-biplumbagin and plumbazeylanone. The leaf is antirheumatic. Root is appetiser, sudorific, relieves pain, vasicant, diuretic, caustic, antidiarrhoeal and expellent of phlegmatic tumours. Root is uterine stimulant. Root and fruits have antiimplantation activity. Plumbagin induces antiimplantation, has abortifacient and antiovulatory activity and causes selective testicular lesions in dogs. It is also a mitotic inhibitor. In lower concentration it behaves like a spindle, poison but in higher concentration it exhibits radiomimetic, nucleotoxic and cyclotoxic effects. It also has antibacterial, antifungal and anticoagulant activities and shows antagonism to amphetamine hyperactivity in mice.

3. P. auriculata Lam. syn. P. capensis

Eng: Blue flowered Leadwort;

Mal: Neelakotuveli

The blue flowered Leadwort is often grown in gardens throughout India (Moos, 1976; Chunekar, 1982; Sharma, 1983). It is a native of Cape Province in South Africa. It is a constituent of many Ayurvedic drugs (KAU, 1991). The plant is a subshrub growing to a height of 1-1.5m. Leaves are elliptic to obovate, 3-4 x 1.5-2cm. Inflorescence is a raceme of length 3-4cm. Corolla is blue to violet. Stamens are 5 in number. Flowers and fruits may be upto 12 in number (Matthew, 1995).

Agrotechnology: The plant is grown in tropical to subtropical ecosystems. Warm humid tropical climate is most suited. They come up well in almost all types of deep and well drained soils. It is propagated vegetatively by stem cuttings. Three stem cuttings of size 15cm long are planted in polybags of size 14x10cm. IAA and IBA treatments will improve rooting of cuttings. The land is to be ploughed well. About 4 tonnes of FYM are to be applied, mixed thoroughly and seed bed of size 50cm breadth, 1.5cm height and convenient length are to be prepared. On these beds pits are taken at a distance of 25cm and the rooted plants are transplanted from the polybags. Regular irrigation and weeding are to be carried out. In the second year with the onset of monsoon, seedbeds are again refreshed after adding about 4 tonnes of FYM. At the end of second year tubers are collected. Care should be taken to wear gloves, else the chemical plumbagin present in the roots will cause burning sensation. The collected tubers are washed, tied into bundles and marketed. Plumbago yields about 7-10t tubers/ha with good management (Prasad et al, 1997).... leadwort


(American) Form of Beatrix, meaning “one who blesses others” Leatrix, Leatriz, Leatriss, Leatrisse, Leatrize, Leatricia, Leatrisa, Leate, Leata, Leat, Leitris, Letrys, Lettrys... leatrice


(Hebrew) One who is dearly loved Lebah, Lebba, Lebbah... leba

Leber’s Disease

A hereditary disease in which blindness comes on at about the age of 20.... leber’s disease


(Hebrew) Refers to frankincense Lebona, Lebonna, Lebonia, Lebonea, Leboniya, Levona, Levonia, Levonah, Levonea, Levonna... lebonah


Milk; usually cow’s milk; sometimes used as a substitute for water in the preparation of herbal remedies; can also be coconut milk (leche de coco); cow’s milk reported for use in treating kidney ailments and anemia and for preparing decoctions of calabaza or auyama seeds.... leche


Love, Protection, Exorcism... leek


(Indian) An accomplished actress... leela

Left To Right Shunt

A term used when a hole in the septum (internal wall) of the HEART allows blood to ?ow from the systemic circulation properly con?ned to the left side of the heart to the pulmonary circulation, con?ned to the right. The shunt is usually detected by hearing a murmur, and the diagnosis con?rmed by ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY (see also SEPTAL DEFECT).... left to right shunt

Leea Aequata


Synonym: L. hirta Roxb. ex Hornem.

Family: Vitaceae.

Habitat: Northern Eastern India, West Peninsula and the Andamans.

Ayurvedic: Kaakajanghaa, Nadikaantaa, Sulomaasha, Paaraa- vatapaadi.

Folk: Surapadi (Telugu).

Action: Stem and root—astringent, anthelmintic. Used for indigestion, jaundice, chronic fever and malaria. Essential oil—inhibits the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Schroeter) Lehmann & Neumann; also inhibits the growth of Micro- coccus pyogenes var. aureus and Pasteurella pestis. Root, tuber and stem—mucilaginous, astringent. Leaves and twigs—antiseptic; used for poulticing wounds.... leea aequata

Leea Crispa


Family: Vitaceae.

Habitat: North-Eastern India and in Western parts of Deccan Peninsula.

Folk: Banachelt (Maharashtra), Banachalit (Bengal), Nalugu, Nellu (Kerala).

Action: Leaves—applied to wounds. Root tubers—used for guineaworm. Plant—a host of the Indian lac insect.

Action: Root—antidiarrhoeal, antidysenteric, antispasmodic, cooling, sudorific. A decoction allays thirst. Leaves—juice of young leaves, digestive. Ointment prepared from roasted leaves relieves vertigo.

The leaves contain amorphous froth forming acid.... leea crispa


Animals provided with suckers surrounding the mouth, and living a semi-parasitic life, their food being mainly derived from the blood of other animals. They abstract blood by means of the sucker, which has several large, sharp teeth. Land leeches live in tropical forests and can attach themselves to a person’s ankles and lower legs. Aquatic leeches are found in warm water and may attach themselves to swimmers. Their bites are painless, their saliva reducing the clotting properties of blood with hirudin; the result is that the wound continues to bleed after the leech has detached itself or been gently removed (lighted match, alcohol, salt and vinegar are e?ective removal agents). The medicinal leech, Hirudo medicinalis, was formerly employed for the abstraction of small quantities of blood in in?ammatory and other conditions. Nowadays it is occasionally used to drain haematomas and to manage healing in certain types of plastic surgery.... leeches

Legal Guardianship

Power, conferred by legal authority, to control an indivdual’s affairs in relation to medical or other care.... legal guardianship


(Spanish) Refers to the Virgin Mary Legare, Legarra, Legara, Lera, Leira... legarre


(American) One who is memorable Legende, Legund, Legunde... legend


(Spanish) A bright woman Legiah, Legea, Legeah, Legiya, Legiyah, Legya, Legyah... legia


(Hebrew) A fiery woman; the little flame

Lehavah, Lehavia, Lehavea, Lehavit, Lehaviya... lehava


(Hawaiian) Resembling a small flower Leeko, Lyko, Liko, Lieko... leiko


(Hawaiian) Child of heaven; adorned with heavenly flowers Leia, Lalani, Leilanie, Leilanee, Leilaney, Leilany, Lalanie, Lalaney, Lalanee, Lalany, Leilanea, Lalanea... leilani

Leishman-donovan Bodies

(LD Bodies) Amastigote stages of protozoa of the genus Leishmania. These stages in a skin biopsy, bone marrow or spleen aspirate are diagnostic of Leishmaniasis.... leishman-donovan bodies


(Greek) One who is forgetful; in mythology, Lethe was the river of forgetful- ness

Leith, Leithe, Lethe, Letha, Lethia, Lethea... leitha


(French) Filled with happiness Lejoy, Lejoye... lejoi

Lemon Verbena

Purification, Love... lemon verbena


(Hebrew) Feminine form of Lemuel; devoted to God Lemuelah, Lemuella, Lemuellah, Lemuel, Lemuele, Lemuelle... lemuela


(German) Form of Helen, meaning “the shining light”

Lina, Leena, Leyna, Leina, Lyna, Lenci, Lencie, Lency, Lencey, Lencee, Lenka, Lencea... lena


(American) One who smiles a lot Lenesha, Leneesha, Leneeshah, Leniesha, Lenieshah, Leneisha, Leneishah, Leneasha, Leneashah, Lenysha, Lenyshah... lenesha

Lemon Thyme Tea

Lemon Thyme Tea is popular for treating infections, congestion problems, calming and relaxing the senses.  Lemon thyme (thymus citriodorus) can be recognized by its lace-shaped, light green colored leaves and lemon scent. Due to its aromatic leaves, lemon thyme is used as a flavoring agent for many dishes, especially those involving fish, chicken and vegetables. The constituents of lemon thyme tea include geraniol, esters, nerol, citronellol, citral and thymol. The essential oil that is extracted from the leaves contains a higher level of these constituents than the actual leaves. How To Make Lemon Thyme Tea You can brew Lemon Thyme Tea by placing small dried leaves in a kettle of boiled water. Let the mix steep for about 5-7 minutes. Then, using a strainer to catch the leaves, pour the tea into your cup. Lemon Thyme Tea Benefits
  • Helps fight asthma in children.
  • Prevents infections caused by viruses, fungi or bacteria.
  • Provides relaxation.
  • It can be gargled and used as a deodorizing mouthwash.
  • Facilitates good digestion.
  • Boosts your immune system.
Lemon Thyme Side Effects Like in the case of Lemon Verbena Tea , there are a few side effects that you sould keep in mind when drinking Lemon Thyme Tea:
  • If you suffer from allergies, avoid drinking Lemon Thyme Tea.
  • Do not drink Lemon Thyme Tea if you are pregnant or breastfeeding.
  • Avoid over-consumption
Lemon Thyme Tea is a wonderful tea with a tasty lemon flavor. Make sure you read the side effects listed above and stay away from them!... lemon thyme tea

Lemon Verbena Tea

Lemon Verbena Tea has been known for many years as being an incredible natural remedy for many disorders, especially the ones in the nervous and digestive systems. Lemon verbena (aloysia tryphilla) is native to South America, mainly in Argentina, Brazil and Peru. The herb can grow up to 1-3 meters and it can be recognized by its lancet shaped green leaves and tiny white or lavender-colored flowers. The constituents of lemon verbena are found in its specific oil which contains methyl heptenone, borneol, geraniol and dipentene. How To Make Lemon Verbena Tea To really experience its health benefits, you can make Lemon VerbenaTea by infusing 2 teaspoons of dried lemon verbena herbs into one cup of boiling water. Let the mix boil for a few minutes and then let it steep for about 5 minutes. Lemon verbena has a strong lemony scent and taste. Add some honey to really enhance its taste! Lemon Verbena Tea Benefits
  • Lemon VerbenaTea strengthens the nervous system.
  • Alleviates colon and stomach spasms.
  • Helps reduce fever.
  • Acts as a cough remedy.
  • Helps with digestion.
  • Calms menstrual cramps.
Lemon Verbena Tea Side Effects
  • Make sure you do not suffer from any allergies, since Lemon Verbena Tea can cause skin irritation in some people.
  • Pregnant and breastfeeding women must avoid drinking Lemon Verbena Tea and other herbal teas.
  • Drinking large amounts of Lemon Verbena Tea may irritate the kidneys. Avoid drinking this tea if you suffer from kidney stones or any other kidney problems.
Lemon Verbena Tea is a healthy tea with many health benefits. Make sure you keep in mind its side effects and avoid over-consumption!... lemon verbena tea

Length Of Stay (los)

The number of days between a patient’s admission and discharge. This abbreviation is often misused when the intent is to refer to average length of stay (ALOS).... length of stay (los)


(Latin) One who has soft and silky skin Lene, Leneta, Lenice, Lenita, Lennice, Lenos, Lenys, Lenisse, Lenysse, Lenyce, Lenet... lenis


(Native American) Talented with the flute

Lenmanna, Linmana, Linmanna, Lynmana, Lynmanna... lenmana


(English) Daughter of love Lennan, Lennin, Lenon, Lenan, Lenin... lennon

Lemongrass Tea - A Healthy Herbal Tea

Lemongrass tea is one of the most popular teas from South Asia. The lemongrass plant grows in India and tropical Asia being commonly used in teas, soups and curries. This plant has been used in medicinal purposes since ancient times due to its wonderful health benefits. How To Make Lemongrass Tea Lemongrass tea has a mild lemon taste with a hint of ginger and a tropical flower scent. You can easily brew your own herbal lemongrass tea by following some few easy steps: First of all you will need a pair of gloves to protect your hands from the leaves of the lemongrass plant because they can cut your skin when you pull them from the parent plant. To cut easier, use a sharp knife. Peel the outer layers of the lemongrass leaves (the dark green leaves surrounding the stalk inside) because they will give the tea a bitter taste if they are used. Then cut the remaining lemongrass plant into slices, about 3 inches long. For each cup you will need 1 tablespoon of lemongrass. Put the slices into the teapot, pour in the hot water and let it steep for about 5 minutes. Then strain the tea into your cup and sweeten it with honey or sugar. Optionally, you can add milk. Lemongrass Tea Benefits If you suffer from insomnia, a cup of lemongrass tea before bed provides you relaxation and a restful sleep. Lemongrass tea is a good aid in digestion, so drinking a cup of tea after a meal removes that full feeling and also, helps remove unhealthy food additives, chemicals and excess fats. Since it acts like a natural diuretic, lemongrass tea helps keep the kidneys and bladder working properly. Also, its powerful antioxidants keep the liver and pancreas healthy. A university study revealed that lemongrass tea may have a cholesterol-lowering effect in people. Another benefit is that lemongrass tea reduces the symptoms of anxiety and nervousness and it has been used in Brazil for centuries to treat nervous disorders. You can also use this tea on a wet rag to heal wounds or other skin problems, since lemongrass tea is known for its anti-bacterial and anti-fungal properties. Lemongrass Tea Side Effects Despite the fact that it has a lot of health benefits, lemongrass tea also has a few side effects. Make sure you will not drink lemongrass tea if you experience allergy symptoms after consuming lemongrass. It is not indicated for pregnant or breastfeeding women to drink lemongrass tea since it may have different effects on their child. In conclusion, lemongrass tea has a lot of benefits, from its calming effects to skin healing properties. Served hot or iced, this tea makes a wonderful drink during meals or before bed to have calm all night sleep.... lemongrass tea - a healthy herbal tea


(Greek) Form of Eleanor, meaning “the shining light”

Lenor, Lenora, Lenorah, Lenorr, Lenorra, Lenorre, Leonora, Leonore, Lanora, Leanor, Leanora, Leanore, Leora, Leorah, Leeora, Liora, Leeor, Lior, Liorit, Leonor, Linore, Linor, Linora, Lenoa... lenore

Lens Culinaris


Family: Vitaceae.

Habitat: Forests of tropical and subtropical India, from Himalayas as far west as Kumaon, and southwards to the Peninsula.

Ayurvedic: Chhatri, Karkatajihvaa, Kukurjihvaa.

Siddha/Tamil: Nalava, Nyekki, Ottanali.

Folk: Karkani (Maharashtra).

Synonym: L. esculenta Moench.

Family: Papilionaceae; Fabaceae.

Habitat: Native to South West Asia; cultivated as a pulse crop mainly in North India, Madhya Pradesh and some parts of Maharashtra.

English: Lentil.

Ayurvedic: Masura, Masurikaa, Mangalyaa, Mangalyak, Adaasa.

Unani: Masoor.

Siddha: Misurpurpu.

Action: Seeds—mostly used as a pulse. Contain as much as 30% proteins (similar to those of peas and beans). Soup is used in gastric troubles and constipation. Paste or poultice is applied to foul and indolent ulcers.

Dosage: Dried seed—10-20 g. (API, Vol. III.) oil, extracted from the seeds, is similar to olive oil. The seeds possess feeble antimalarial activity. The seed extract showed 100% toxicity against Alternaria alternata and marked toxicity against Aspergillus niger.

Dosage: Root—5-10 g powder. (API, Vol. IV.)... lens culinaris

Lens Of The Eye

See EYE.... lens of the eye


(Russian) As delicate as a flower Lenusey, Lenusi, Lenusie, Lenusee, Lenusea... lenusy


(German) Daughter of the people Leota, Leodah, Leotah, Luete, Lueta... leoda


(Latin) Feminine form of Leon; having the strength of a lion Leeona, Leeowna, Leoine, Leola, Leone, Leonelle, Leonia, Leonie, Leontine, Leontina, Leontyne, Leontyna, Leowna, Leoma, Leonda, Leondra, Leondrea, Leonline, Leonela, Leoni, Leonine, Leonita, Leonlina, Leontin, Liona, Lione, Lyonene, Lyonet, Lyonette, Lyoneta, Lyonetta, Leonee, Leonea... leona


(French) Feminine form of Leonard; having the strength of a lion Lenarda, Leonda, Lennarda, Leonarde, Lenna, Leondra, Leodora, Leoarrie... leonarda


(Spanish) One who is fierce Leonsa, Leonsia, Leonsea, Leonsi, Leonsie, Leonsy, Leonsey, Leonsee... leonsio


(German) Feminine form of Leopold; a bold ruler of the people Leopoldia, Leopoldea, Leopoldina, Leopoldyna, Leopoldeena, Leopoldeana, Leopoldena, Leopoldine, Leopoldyne, Leopoldeen... leopolda

Leonurus Cardiaca


Leonotis nepetaefolia (L.) R. Br.

Family: Labiatae; Lamiaceae.

Habitat: Throughout the warmer parts of India.

Ayurvedic: Granthiparni, Kaaka- puchha.

Folk: Gathivan, Deepamaal (Maharashtra).

Action: Leaves—spasmolytic. Ash of flower head—applied to burns and scalds, in ringworm and other skin diseases.

The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia ofIn- dia recommends the root in cough, bronchitis and dyspnoea.

The root contains n-octacosanol, n-octacosanoic acid, quercetin, 4,6,7- trimethoxy-5-methylchromene-2-one, campesterol and beta-sitosterol-beta- D-glucopyranoside.

The plant contains 4,6,7-trimethoxy- 5-methyl-chromene-2-one.

The leaves contain neptaefolin, nep- taefuran, neptaefuranol, neptaefolinol, leonitin, neptaefolinin and (-)-55, 6- octadecadienoic acid.

The seed oil contains oleic, linoleic, palmitic and stearic acids. The fatty

Family: Labiatae; Lamiaceae.

Habitat: Native to Europe; also distributed in Himalayas from Kashmir to Kumaon.

English: Common Motherwort, Lion's Tail.

Unani: Baranjaasif. (Also equated with Artemesia vulgaris Linn; and Achillea millifolium Linn.)

Action: Stomachic, laxative, antispasmodic, diaphoretic, em- menagogue (used in absent or painful menstruation, premenstrual tension, menopausal flushes). Hypnotic, sedative. Used as a cardiac tonic. (Studies in China have shown that Motherwort extracts show antiplatelet aggregation actions and decrease the levels of blood lipids.)

Key application: In nervous cardiac disorders and as adjuvant for thyroid hyperfunction. (German Commission E.) As antispasmodic. (The British Herbal Pharmacopoeia.) The British Herbal Compendium indicated its use for patients who have neuropathic cardiac disorders and cardiac complaints of nervous origin.

The plant contains diterpene bitter principles, iridoid monoterpenes, flavonoids including rutin and querci- trin, leonurin, betaine, caffeic acid derivatives, tannins and traces of a volatile oil.

The herb is a slow acting adjuvant in functional and neurogenic heart diseases. Its sedative and spasmolytic properties combine well with Valeriana officinalis or other cardioactive substances.

The herb contains several components with sedative effects—alpha- pinene, benzaldehyde, caryophyllene, limonene and oleanolic acid. (Sharon M. Herr.)

Habitat: Western Europe. Seeds are imported into India from Persia.

English: Pepper-Grass.

Unani: Bazr-ul-khumkhum, Todari (white var.).

Action: Seeds—blood purifier; prescribed in bronchitis.

The fatty acid of the oil are: oleic 12.9, linoleic 47.87, linolenic 5.43, erucic 31.97, stearic 0.54 and palmitic 1.22%.

The seed mucilage on hydrolysis gave galactose, arabinose, rhamnose and galacturonic acid.

Flowering tops and seeds contain a bitter principle, lepidin.

The plant yield a sulphur-containing volatile oil.... leonurus cardiaca


(Native American) Resembling a wildflower

Leoti, Leotee, Leoty, Leotey, Leotea... leotie

Lepidagathis Trinervis


Family: Acanthaceae.

Habitat: North-west Himalayas and Sikkim and from Bihar to central, western and southern India.

Folk: Safed Raasnaa (Bihar). Hiran-chaaro, Paniru (Gujarat).

Action: Plant—bitter tonic. Used for rheumatic affections. (Raasnaa is equated with Pluchea lanceolata.)

Related species of Lepidagathis: L. cristata Willd., and L. hamiltoniana Wall. ex Nees. These are used as a bitter tonic in fevers and are applied to itchy affections of the skin. The leaves of L. incurva D. Don, synonymL. hyali- na Nees are chewed to relieve cough.... lepidagathis trinervis

Lepidium Iberis

Linn. var. alba.

Family: Curciferace; Brassicaceae.... lepidium iberis


(Native American) Form of Sequoia, meaning “of the giant redwood tree”

Lequoya, Lequoiya, Lekoya, Lekoia... lequoia


(Latin) Resembling a blackbird Lerolla, Lerolah, Lerolia, Lerolea... lerola


A female homosexual (see HOMOSEXUALITY); lesbians form about 2 per cent of the female population in the UK. Some engage in active sexual behaviour with another woman, with MASTURBATION, mutual stimulation of the CLITORIS and oral sex being the usual techniques for achieving ORGASM.... lesbian


(Hebrew) Our precious child Leshama, Leshamah, Leshamia, Leshamea, Leshamiya, Leshmya... lesham

Lepidium Latifolium


Family: Curciferace; Brassicaceae.

Habitat: North-West Himalayas.

Folk: Gonyuch (Ladakh).

Action: Plant—depurative, antilith- ic, diuretic, stomachic, antiscorbutic. An infusion is given for liver and kidney diseases. Also used as a resolvent in skin affections.

The leaves show dose-dependent increase of diuretic activity; also increase in potassium excretion in urine.

The leaves contain cholesterol, stig- masterol and beta-sitosterol.... lepidium latifolium

Lepidium Sativum


Family: Curciferace, Brassicaceae.

Habitat: Native to West Asia; cultivated throughout India as a salad plant.

English: Garden Cress, Water Cress.

Ayurvedic: Chandrashuura, Chan- drikaa, Vaas-pushpaa, Pashume- hankaarikaa, Nandini, Suvaasaraa, Aashaalim.

Unani: Habb-ul-rashaad, Tukh-e- Taratezak, Haalim, Sipandaan.

Siddha/Tamil: Alivirai.

Action: Used in asthma, bronchial affections and bleeding piles. Seeds—lactagogue, diuretic, and emmenagogue. Used for treating skin disorders, fever, amoebic dysentery and asthma. Leaf— stimulant, antiscorbutic, diuretic. Roots—used in secondary syphilis and in tenesmus.

The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India recommends the use of dried seeds, in powder form, in gout.

The seeds are a good source of iron, but its bioavailability is poor (5.4% of total iron). They are used for rapid healing ofbone fractures. The ethano- lic extract of seeds significantly increased collagen synthesis and its deposition at bone fracture portion in the treated rats. The tensile strength of the broken tibiae also increased.

The seeds contain an alkaloid (0.19%), glucotropaeolin, sinapin (cho- line ester of sinapic acid), sinapic acid, mucilaginous matter (5%) and uric acid (0.108 g/kg). The seed oil exhibits pronounced oestrogenic activity.

The seed mucilage allays the irritation of the mucous membrane of intestines in dysentery and diarrhoea. It consists of a mixture of cellulose (18.3%) and uronic acid-containing polysaccharides; acid hydrolysis yield L-arabinose, D-galactose, L-rhamnose, D-glacturonic acid and D-glucose.

The plant contains pantothenic acid, pyridoxin and rutin. Ethanolic extract of the plant showed antiviral activity against rinderpest virus.

Dosage: Seed—3-6 g powder. (API, Vol. I.)... lepidium sativum

Leptadenia Reticulata

W. & A.

Family: Asclepiadaceae.

Habitat: Sub-Himalayan tracts of Punjab and Uttar Pradesh and Deccan Peninsula up to an altitude of 900 m.

Ayurvedic: Jivanti; Jivaniya, Jiva- pushpa, Hemavati, Jivana. Shaaka- shreshtha, Payaswini, Maangalya, Madhusravaa. (Guduuchi, Medaa, Kaakoli and Vrkshaadani are also known as Jivanti.) (Haimavati is equated with Orris Root and Hemapushpa with Sarca asoca flower.)

Siddha/Tamil: Keerippaalai.

Folk: Dodishaak (Gujarat).

Action: Plant—stimulant and restorative. Improves eyesight. Found useful in the treatment of habitual abortion. Leaves and roots used in skin diseases.

The herb contains «-triacontane, cetyl alcohol, beta-sitosterol, beta- amyrin acetate, lupanol 3-O-digluco- side and lepitidin glycoside.

Stigmasterol and lipoid fraction of the plant exhibited estrogen mimetic effects.

Alcoholic extract of roots and leaves show antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.

Intravenous administration of aqueous extract of stems has a pronounced and hypotensive action in anaesthetized dogs.

Dosage: Root—3-6 g powder. (CCRAS.)... leptadenia reticulata

Leptadenia Spartium


Synonym: L. pyrotechnica (Forsk.) Decne.

Family: Asclepiadaeae.

Habitat: Punjab, Western Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan and northern parts of Mumbai along the sea coast.

Folk: Kheemp (Rajasthan), Kheep (Gujarat). Prasaarani is a doubtful synonym.

Action: Antiseptic. Plant used for the treatment of burns and wounds.

The plant contains a triterpenoid, leptadenol; also 2.32 g/100 g tannin.... leptadenia spartium


(Gaelic) From the holly garden; of the gray fortress

Leslea, Leslee, Lesleigh, Lesley, Lesli, Lesly, Lezlee, Lezley, Lezlie, Lezleigh, Lezli, Lioslaith, Lezlea... leslie


(Latin) One who is glad; joyful; loved by all

Leeta, Lita, Lida, Leeda, Leita, Leida, Leyta, Lyta, Leyda, Lyda, Loida, Loyda, Leda, Luda, Ledaea, Ledah... leta


(American) Filled with happiness Letichell, Letichele, Letichelle, Letichela, Letichella, Letishel, Letishell, Letishele, Letishelle, Letishela, Letishella... letichel


(Latin) One who brings joy to others Laetitia, Laetizia, Latashia, Latia, Latisha, Letice, Leticia, Leticja, Letisha, Letizia, Letta, Lettice, Lettie, Lettitia, Letty, Letycja, Lateisha, Latesha, Laticia, Latitia... letitia


(Greek) In mythology, mother of Apollo and Artemis... leto


(American) Form of Letitia, meaning “one who brings joy to others” Letsy, Letsee, Letsea, Letsi, Letsie... letsey


Chastity, Protection, Love, Divination, Sleep... lettuce

Leucas Lavandulaefolia


Synonym: L. linifolia Spreng.

Family: Labiatae; Lamiaceae. Ayurvedic: Dronpushpi (related species).

Folk: Tumbaa, Guumaa.

Action: Leaves—a decoction is used as a sedative in nervous disorders; also as a stomachic and vermifuge. Crushed leaves are applied externally for dermatosis, a poultice to sores and wounds.

Roots, stems and leaves are cyano- genetic.... leucas lavandulaefolia

Leucas Martinicensis

R. Br.

Family: Labiatae; Lamiaceae.

Habitat: Bihar and South India.

Folk: Guumaa (var.). Sugandhak is a doubtful synonym.

Action: Plant—an infusion is given for colds and gastrointestinal troubles.... leucas martinicensis


(Greek) In mythology, a nymph Lucippe, Leucipe, Lucipe... leucippe


Or leuko- – a pre?x meaning white.... leuco

Lettsomia Elliptica


Synonym: Argyreia elliptica (Wight) Choisy.

Family: Convolvulaceae.

Habitat: Chota Nagpur, Orissa, Deccan, Karnataka, Anaimalai Hills and Western Ghats from Konkan southwards to Kerala.

English: Silverweed.

Siddha/Tamil: Unnayangodi.

Folk: Khedari, Bond vel (Maharashtra).

Action: Leaves—a paste is applied externally in cough and quinsy.... lettsomia elliptica

Leucaena Glauca


Synonym: L. leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit.

Family: Mimosaceae.

Habitat: The plains of India.

English: White Popinac, Lead tree.

Siddha/Tamil: Tagarai.

Folk: Vilaayati Baval Lasobaval (Gujarat).

Action: The bark and leaves contain 16.3 and 3% tannin respectively. Leaves also contain quercitrin (0.08%). The toxicity of the plant is due to an alkaloid leucenine or leucenol. Beta-and alpha-amino- propionic acid is reported to be identical with mimosine (from Mimosa pudica).

Seeds, in addition to a fatty oil (8.8%), also contain mucilage composed of mannans, glactans and xy- lans. Stachyose is also reported to be present in the seeds. (Heat treatment of leaves and seeds after moistening lowers the alkaloid content.)... leucaena glauca

Leucas Aspera


Family: Labiatae; Laminceae.

Habitat: Throughout India in cultivated fields, wastelands, roadsides.

English: White Dead Nettle.

Ayurvedic: Dronpushpi, Phalepush- paa, Kutambaka.

Siddha/Tamil: Thumbai.

Folk: Guumaa, Halkusa (smaller var.), Tumbaa.

Action: Carminative, antihis- taminic, antipyretic, febrifuge, antiseptic. Used in jaundice, anorexia, dyspepsia, fever, helminthic manifestation, respiratory and skin diseases.

Flowers—given with honey for coughs and colds to children. Leaves— juice is used as an external application for psoriasis, chronic skin eruptions and painful swellings.

An alcoholic extract of leaves shows antibacterial activity.

The plant gave oleanolic acid, urso- lic acid and beta-sitosterol. The root contains a triterpenoid, leucolactone, and the sterols, sitosterol, stigmasterol and campesterol.... leucas aspera

Leucas Cephalotes

(Roth.) Spreng.

Family: Labiatae; Lamiaceae.

Habitat: Throughout the greater part of India, as a weed, ascending up to 1,800 m in the Himalayas.

Ayurvedic: Dronpushpi, Katumbaa. Siddha/Tamil: Tumbai. Folk: Guumaa, Dhurpi saaga, Halkusa (bigger var.), Tumbaa.

Action: Plant—stimulant, diaphoretic, antiseptic (fresh juice is used in scabies), insecticidal. Flowers— a syrup is used as a domestic remedy for coughs and colds. Dry leaves along with tobacco (1: 3) are smoked to treat bleeding as well as itching piles.

The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia ofIn- dia indicated the use of the dried whole plant in jaundice, inflammations, cough, bronchial asthma and intermittent fever.

The plant contains beta-sitosterol glycoside and traces of an alkaloid.

Dosage: Whole plant—5-10 ml juice; 1-3 g powder. (API, Vol. II.)... leucas cephalotes


(Greek) In mythology, a sea nymph

Leucothia, Leucothiah, Leucotheah... leucothea


See LEUCO-.... leuko


White blood cells, of whatever race or creed.... leukocytes


Having abnormally high numbers of white blood cells, usually the result of a non-viral infection.... leukocytosis


Having abnormally low numbers of white blood cells.... leukopenia


A group of naturally occurring, slow-reacting substances (SRSS) which have powerful smooth-muscle stimulating properties, particularly on bronchial smooth muscle. Leukotrienes are a metabolic derivative of PROSTAGLANDINS. Leukotriene receptor antagonists, such as montelukast and za?rlukast, are drugs useful in asthma.... leukotrienes


The scienti?c name for white blood cells. Leucocytes contain no HAEMOGLOBIN so are colourless, and have a well-formed NUCLEUS. Healthy people have around 8,000 leucocytes per cubic millimetre of blood. There are three main classes of white cells: granulocytes, lymphocytes and monocytes.

Granulocytes Also known as polymorphonuclear leucocytes (‘polys’), these normally constitute 70 per cent of the white blood cells. They are divided into three groups according to the staining reactions of these granules: neutrophils, which stain with neutral dyes and constitute 65–70 per cent of all the white blood cells; eosinophils, which stain with acid dyes (e.g. eosin) and constitute 3–4 per cent of the total white blood cells; and basophils, which stain with basic dyes (e.g. methylene blue) and constitute about 0·5 per cent of the total white blood cells.

Lymphocytes constitute 25–30 per cent of the white blood cells. They have a clear, non-granular cytoplasm and a relatively large nucleus which is only slightly indented. They are divided into two groups: small lymphocytes, which are slightly larger than erythrocytes (about 8 micrometres in diameter); and large lymphocytes, which are about 12 micrometres in diameter.

Monocytes Motile phagocytic cells that circulate in the blood and migrate into the tissues, where they develop into various forms of MACROPHAGE such as tissue macrophages and KUPFFER CELLS.

Site of origin The granulocytes are formed in the red BONE MARROW. The lymphocytes are formed predominantly in LYMPHOID TISSUE. There is some controversy as to the site of origin of monocytes: some say they arise from lymphocytes, whilst others contend that they are derived from histiocytes – i.e. the RETICULO-ENDOTHELIAL SYSTEM.

Function The leucocytes constitute one of the most important of the defence mechanisms against infection. This applies particularly to the neutrophil leucocytes (see LEUCOCYTOSIS). (See also ABSCESS; BLOOD – Composition; INFLAMMATION; PHAGOCYTOSIS; WOUNDS.)... leucocytes

Levallorphan Tartrate

An antidote to MORPHINE. It is usually given intravenously.... levallorphan tartrate


(Latin) One who is raised up; in mythology, goddess and protector of new- borns

Livana, Livaun, Levanah, Levanna, Levania, Levanea, Livanna, Livania, Livanea... levana


(Irish) Of the great elm Levayne, Levaine, Levayn, Levain, Levaen, Levaene... levane

Level Of Health

The quantified expression of health status.... level of health


(Hebrew) One who joins forces with others

Leviah, Leviya, Leviyah, Levya, Levyah, Levea, Leveah... levia


(Latin) Resembling a lightning bolt Levyna, Levena, Leveena, Leviena, Leveina, Leveana... levina


(American) One who is straightforward Levit, Levitte, Levytt, Levyt, Levytte... levitt


(American) A lighthearted woman Leviti, Levitie, Levitee, Levitea, Levitey... levity


(American) A homebody Levorah, Levorra, Levorrah, Levoria, Levoriah, Levorea, Levoreah, Levorya, Levoryah... levora


A synthetic derivative of MORPHINE. It is an e?ective analgesic but, like morphine, is a drug of addiction.... levorphanol


(African) A very beautiful woman Lewah... lewa


(Hebrew) Of the white moon Lewanah, Lewanna, Lewannah... lewana


(Greek) Form of Alexandra, meaning “helper and defender of mankind” Lexa, Lexandra, Lexann, Lexi, Lexia, Lexina, Lexine, Lexus, Lexya, Lexea, Lex, Lexis, Lexiss, Lexy, Lexy, Lexee... lexie


(Spanish) One who upholds the law Leyah... leya


(American) One who smiles often Lezenah, Lezina, Lezinah, Lezyna, Lezynah, Lezene, Lyzena... lezena


(Indian) From the sacred city Lhasah, Lasa, Lassa, Laasa... lhasa


Abbreviation for LUTEINISING HORMONERELEASING HORMONE (LHRH), which is released by the PITUITARY GLAND.... lhrh


(Irish) An older woman; the gray lady

Leadan, Lyadan... liadan


(French / English) Of the jungle vine; bound / form of Eliana, meaning “the Lord answers our prayers” Liann, Lianna, Lianne, Liahna, Liahne, Liane, Liani, Lianie, Lianee, Liany, Lianey, Lyanne, Lyane, Lyana, Lyanna, Lianea... liana


(English) Form of Elizabeth, meaning “my God is bountiful” Libba, Libbee, Libbey, Libbie, Libet, Liby, Lilibet, Lilibeth, Lilibet, Lillibet, Lilybet, Lilybeth, Lilybell, Lib, Libbea, Libea... libby


(English) An independent woman; having freedom

Libertey, Libertee, Libertea, Liberti, Libertie, Libertas, Libera, Liber, Libyr... liberty


(Latin) In mythology, goddess of death

Lybitina, Lybytyna, Libitena, Libityna, Libiteena, Libiteana, Libitiena, Libiteina... libitina


(Hebrew) A distinguished woman; fair-skinned

Libnie, Libney, Libny, Libnee, Libnea... libni


(Latin) One who is balanced; the seventh sign of the zodiac Leebra, Leibra, Liebra, Leabra, Leighbra, Lybra... libra


(Spanish) One who is free Libradah, Lybrada, Lybradah... librada


A permission granted to an individual or organization by a competent authority, usually public, to engage lawfully in a practice, occupation or activity. Licensure is the process by which the licence is granted. It is usually granted on the basis of examination and/or proof of education rather than on measures of performance. A licence is usually permanent, but may be conditional on annual payment of a fee, proof of continuing education, or proof of competence. See also “accreditation”.... licence/licensure


Lichen, or licheni?cation, is a term used to describe a thickening of chronically in?amed skin to give a tree-bark-like appearance.

Lichen simplex (neurodermatitis) is a form of eczema (see DERMATITIS) perpetuated by constant rubbing of the affected skin. Typically, well-de?ned plaques occur on one or both sides of the nape of the neck, on the ulnar forearm near the elbow, or on the sides of the calves. It is often associated with emotional stress.

Lichen planus is a less common in?ammation of the skin characterised by small, shiny, ?at-topped violaceous papules which may coalesce to form large plaques. Itching can be intense. Typically seen on the ?exor aspects of the wrists, the lower back and on the legs below the knees, it may also affect the mucous membranes of the mouth and lips. The cause is unknown. While in some patients the disorder appears to be nervous or emotional in origin, it can be caused by certain drugs such as CHLOROQUINE. Severe cases may require oral CORTICOSTEROIDS to control the eruption.... lichen


(Latin / English) Woman from Lycia / form of Alicia, meaning “woman of the nobility; truthful; having high moral character” Liciah, Leecea, Leecia, Leesha, Lesia, Lisia, Lycia... licia


Love, Lust, Fidelity... licorice


(Scandinavian) A friend to all Lidwyna, Lidweena, Lidwiena, Lidweina, Lidweana... lidwina


(American) Form of Liesl, meaning “my God is bountiful” Lieselet, Lieselete, Lieselett, Lieseleta, Lieseletta... lieselette


(German) Form of Elizabeth, meaning “my God is bountiful” Liezl, Liesa, Liese, Liesel, Liezel, Liesei, Liesheth, Liesi, Liesie... liesl


(Vietnamese) Of the willow tree... lieu

Life Course

See “life cycle”.... life course

Life Everlasting

Longevity, Health, Healing... life everlasting

Licorice Tea

Licorice tea has been known for many years due to its medicinal benefits. Licorice herb (glycyrrhiza glabra) grows in Greece, Italy, Spain, Syria, Iraq and Southern China. The root is the one that contains an abundance of valuable properties. The root contains a substance that is as sweet as sugar cane, named glycyrrhizin. How To Make Licorice Tea To brew licorice tea, first of all, cut the licorice root into small pieces. You can buy a whole licorice root from a “natural foods” shop. Then put 1 teaspoon of licorice into 1 cup of boiled water and let it steep for about 5-10 minutes. To really flavor the tea you can add peppermint or cinnamon. Licorice Tea Benefits
  • Speeds the healing of stomach ulcers.
  • Alleviates liver inflammations.
  • Combats diarrhea.
  • Helps treating headaches.
  • Overcomes excessive thirst.
  • Treats sore throat.
Licorice Tea Side Effects If you drink licorice tea excessively, you can be predisposed to some disorders:
  • Hypertension.
  • High blood pressure.
  • Headaches.
  • Low potassium levels in the blood.
  • It may interact with the effects of some medications.
  • It should not be consumed by pregnant or breastfeeding women.
All in al, licorice tea is a healthy option and it can be drank 3 times a day! Just make sure you won`t experience any of its side effects!... licorice tea

Life Insurance

Insurance providing for payment of a stipulated sum to a designated beneficiary upon death of the insured.... life insurance

Life Satisfaction

See “well-being”.... life satisfaction

Life Span

The longest period over which the life of any plant or animal organism or species may extend, according to the available biological knowledge concerning it.... life span

Life-sustaining Treatment

Drugs, medical devices, or procedures that can keep alive a person who would otherwise die within a foreseeable, though usually uncertain, time. Examples include cardiopulmonary resuscitation, mechanical ventilation, renal dialysis, nutritional support (i.e. tube or intravenous feeding) and provision of antibiotics to fight life-threatening infections.... life-sustaining treatment


The set of habits and customs that is influenced, modified, encouraged or constrained by the lifelong process of socialization. These habits and customs include the use of substances, such as alcohol, tobacco, tea or coffee; dietary habits; and exercise. They have important implications for health and are often the subject of epidemiological investigation.... lifestyle

Lifestyle Medicines

Drugs used for non-health problems or for disorders that are in the grey area between a genuine health need and a desire to change a ‘lifestyle failing’ by the use of medication. Examples are: SILDENAFIL CITRATE, which is prescribed for men unable to achieve penile erection (erectile dysfunction); and ORLISTAT, a drug used to combat OBESITY.... lifestyle medicines

Lifetime Home

Housing built to be adaptable to people’s changing needs, thus avoiding the need for expensive and disruptive adaptations.... lifetime home


Strong bands of ?brous tissue which serve to bind together the bones entering into a joint. In some cases they are cord-like; in others, ?attened bands – whilst most joints are surrounded by a ?brous capsule or capsular ligament. (See JOINTS.)... ligaments


(American) A lighthearted woman Lite, Lyte... light

Light Reflex

Pupillary constriction in the EYE in response to light. The direct light re?ex involves pupillary constriction in the eye into which a light is shone; the consensual light re?ex is the pupillary constriction that occurs in the other eye. The a?erent or inward pathway of the re?ex is via the optic nerve, and the e?erent or outward pathway is via the occulomotor nerve.... light reflex

Light Traps

A mechanical trap which use a combination of light and/or carbon dioxide to attract and trap adult mosquitoes, e.g. Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Light Trap.... light traps


(Greek) One who is musically talented Ligiah, Ligya, Ligiya, Lygia, Ligea, Lygea, Lygya, Lygiya... ligia

Ligularia Tussilaginea

(Burm. f) Makino.

Synonym: L. kaempferi Sieb & Zucc. Senecio kaempferi DC.

Family: Compositae; Asteraceae.

Habitat: Native to Japan; grows in Indian gardens.

Action: Used for obstinate skin diseases.

The rhizomes contain inulin and beta-dimethylacrylic acid.... ligularia tussilaginea


(Greek) One who loves music Liguriah, Lyguria, Lyguriah, Ligurea, Ligureah, Lygurea, Lygureah... liguria

Likert Scale

An ordinal scale of responses to a question or statement ordered in a hierarchical sequence, such as from “strongly agree” through “no opinion” to “strongly disagree”.... likert scale


(Arabic / Greek) Born at night / resembling a lily Lilah, Lyla, Lylah... lila


(Latin) Resembling a lily Lilea, Lyleah, Lylea, Lilya, Lilyah, Lylya, Lylyah... lileah


(Latin) Resembling a budding lily Lilett, Lilete, Lilet, Lileta, Liletta, Lylette, Lylett, Lylete, Lylet, Lyletta, Lyleta... lilette


(Spanish) Resembling a lily Liliashe, Lilyash, Lilyashe... liliash


(Hawaiian) One who holds rank as chief... liliha


(Babylonian) Woman of the night Lilyth, Lillith, Lillyth, Lylith, Lyllith, Lylyth, Lyllyth, Lilithe, Lylithe, Lilythe... lilith

Lilium Candidum


Habitat: Native to Southern Europe and South-West Asia; grown in Indian gardens.

English: Madona Lily, Annunciation Lily, White Lily.

Action: Bulb—astringent, demulcent. Used for gynaecological disorders. A decoction of the bulbs in water or milk is given for dropsy; a poultice is applied to tumours, ulcers and skin inflammations. Fresh flowering plant is used in homoeopathy as an antispasmodic; the pollen is used against epilepsy

A total extract stimulates phagocytosis in mice. The bulbs contain alkaloids (pyrroline derivatives), jat- ropham, ethyljatropham and citracon- ic acid imides.

Mucous, tannin, sterine and gluco- side impart anti-inflammatory, analgesic, diuretic and expectorant properties to the bulb.

Bulbs of Lilium species contain soluble polysaccharides (glucomannans), starch, gamma-methylene glutamic acid and tuliposide.... lilium candidum

Lilium Giganteum


Family: Liliaceae.

Habitat: Temperate Himalayas from Kumaon and Garhwal to Sikkim, Khasi and Aka hills and Manipur at altitudes of 1,200-3,000 m.

Folk: Gaayotraa (Jaunsar).

Action: Leaves—used as an external cooling applications to alleviate pains of wounds and bruises.... lilium giganteum

Lilium Polyphyllum

D. Don.

Family: Liliaceae.

Habitat: Uttaranchal, Himachal Pradesh.

Ayurvedic: Kaakoli, Madhuraa, Kshira, Vayhasthaa, Karnikaa, Vaayasoli.

Action: Tuberous root—used as a tonic in emaciation and as a source of energy, after dry roasting.

Dosage: Tuberous root—3-6 g. (API, Vol. III.)... lilium polyphyllum

Lilium Tigrinum


Family: Liliaceae.

Habitat: Native to China and Japan; cultivated in Indian gardens.

English: Tiger Lily, Crumple Lily.

Action: Bulbs—used as a cardiac tonic. Flowers—used for ovarian neuralgia, also recommended in myoptic astigmia.

The bulbs of Lilium martagon Linn., Turk's Cap Lily, also possesses cardio- tonic properties and are used in the treatment of dysmenorrhoea; externally for ulcers.

Folk: Findora. Badai (Lushai).

Action: Dried bulb scales— demulcent; used like salep in pectoral complaints.... lilium tigrinum

Lilium Wallichianum

Schutt. f.

Family: Liliaceae.

Habitat: Western Himalayas, Nepal, Lushai hills, Manipur and hills of South India at altitudes of 3002,400 m.... lilium wallichianum


(Latin) Resembling the lily

Lilian, Liliana, Liliane, Lilianne, Lilias, Lilas, Lillas, Lillias, Lilianna, Lilliana, Lilliane, Lilliann, Lillianna, Lillianne, Lillyan, Lillyanne, Lilyan, Lilyann, Lillis, Lilis... lillian


(Hawaiian) One who is generous Lylo, Leelo, Lealo, Leylo, Lielo, Leilo... lilo


(Native American) Resembling the soaring hawk... liluye


(African) One who is joyful Lymber, Lember... limber


Broadly the accumulative process of emotional and metabolic evaluation, as carried on by the various parts of the brain that are part of the ad hoc “evaluations” committee (the limbic system) and those changes in metabolism that, based on the evaluations, are acted out in the whole body by the hypothalamus. The hypothalamus, the main part of the system with tools, acts through a blood translator, the pituitary gland.... limbic/hypothalamus

Limbs, Artificial

See PROSTHESIS.... limbs, artificial


A yellow liquid obtained by squeezing lime-fruit, Citrus limetta. In common with lemon-juice, it is a rich source of vitamin C (16·8–62·5 mg per 100 ml) and contains a large quantity of citric acid. It is used as a refreshing drink and as a preventive of, and remedy for, SCURVY. Lime-juice which has been boiled, or preserved for a prolonged period, loses its anti-scorbutic properties.... lime-juice

Limnanthemum Cristatum

(Roxb.) Griseb.

Synonym: Menyanthes hydrophyl- lum Lour.

Nymphoides hydrophyllum Kuntze.

Family: Menyanthaceae.

Habitat: Throughout India, in fresh water ponds and tanks. (Considered by some authors a synonym of Nymphoides Hill.)

Folk: Ghainchu, Tagarmuula; Panchuli, Chandmalla (Bengal); Kumudini (Maharashtra).

Action: Plant—used in fevers and jaundice. Seeds—anthelmintic. Stalks and leaves—applied to ulcers and insect bites. A decoction is used as a wash for parasitic skin affections. The plant is used as a substitute for Swertia Chirata.

The rhizomes and roots of Nymphoides macrospermum Vasudevan (Family: Menyanthaceae) are sold in the market as Granthik Tagar. These are used as a substitute for Valeriana hard- wickii Wall. in neurological disorders and colic.... limnanthemum cristatum

Limnanthemum Indicum

(L.) Griseb.

Synonym: Menyanthes indica Linn. Nymphoides indicum (L.) O. Kuntze.

Family: Menyanthaceae.

Habitat: Throughout India, in tanks and back waters.

Folk: Barachuli, Chinnambal (Kerala).

Action: Plant—bitter, febrifuge, antiscorbutic. Used as a substitute for Swertia Chirata in fever and jaundice.... limnanthemum indicum

Limnanthemum Nymphaeoides

Hoffm. & Link.

Synonym: Nymphoides peltata (Gmel.) O. Kuntze.

Family: Menyanthaceae.

Habitat: Kashmir.

English: Fringed Water-Lily.

Folk: Kuru, Khairposh (Punjab).

Action: Leaf—used in periodic headache.... limnanthemum nymphaeoides

Limnophila Aromatica

(Lam.) Druce.

Synonym: L. gratissima Blume.

Family: Scrophulariaceae.

Habitat: South Bihar, Orissa, Assam, Western parts of South India, up to 600 m, also in back waters.

Folk: Aamragandha Karpuur (non-classical); Karpuur (Bengal); Ambuli (Maharashtra); Manganari (Kerala). Kuttra.

Action: Plant—galactagogue, aperient, antiseptic. Juice given in fever and to nursing mothers when milk is sour. Oil—antiseptic.

The plant gave an essential oil (0.1%), containing d-limolene and d-perillal- dehyde as principal constituents. The essential oil showed significant antimicrobial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus oryzae.

The plant, made into a liniment with coconut oil, is used in elephantiasis.

L. conferia Benth., known as Munga- nari in Kerala, contains flavonoids showing anti-inflammatory activity, quercetin showed significant activity only at a dose of 150 mg/kg, while wogonin, nevadensin and quercetin- pentamethyl ether at 75 mg/kg. The essential oil from the plant exhibited antifungal activity against ringworm fungi.... limnophila aromatica


Lemon (Citrus spp.; typically Citrus limon).

Plant Part Used: Fruit, leaf, root.

Dominican Medicinal Uses: Fruit: juice or tea, orally for common cold, flu, kidney stones, musculoskeletal injury, diarrhea; juice, topically, for burns, bruises and dermatological conditions. Root: multi-herb decoction or tincture, orally, menstrual disorders.

Safety: Fruit is widely consumed and generally considered safe; little data available on safety of root and leaves.

Laboratory & Preclinical Data: Anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, diuretic, nutritive.

* See entry for Limón in “Part 3: Dominican Medicinal Plant Profiles” of this book for more information, including references.... limón


(Hebrew) Refers to myrrh Limora, Limoria, Limorea, Leemor, Leemora, Leemoria, Leemorea... limor


(Arabic) Of the palm tree Leena, Leina, Leyna, Lena, Lyna, Leana... lina


(Spanish) One who is soft and beautiful

Lindalee, Lindee, Lindey, Lindi, Lindie, Lindira, Lindka, Lindy, Lynda, Lynde, Lyndy, Lyndi, Lyndall, Lyndee, Lynnda, Lynndie, Lueinda, Lindea, Lyndea... linda

Lindenbergia Indica

(Linn.) Kuntze.

Synonym: L. urticaefolia Lehm.

Family: Scrophulariaceae.

Habitat: Throughout India, ascending to 2,100 m in the Himalayas.

Folk: Haldi Basanto (Bengal), Dhol (Maharashtra), Patthar-chatti (Gujarat), Bheet-chatti.

Action: Plant—juice is given in chronic bronchitis; also applied to skin eruptions.... lindenbergia indica

Limnophila Indica

(Lam.) Bruce.

Synonym: L. gratioloides R. Br. L. racemosa Benth.

Family: Scrophulariaceae.

Habitat: Throughout India in damp places, swamps and rice fields.

Folk: Kuttra; Karpuur (Bengal), Ambuli (Maharashtra); Manganari (Kerala).

Action: Plant—carminative, antiseptic. Leaves—an infusion is given in dyspepsia and dysentery. A liniment prepared from the plant is used in elephantiasis.

Related species: L. rugosa (Roth) Merrill, synonym L. roxburghii G. Don, known as Kaalaa Karpuur (throughout India), is used as diuretic, stomachic, digestive tonic. Also used as a hair perfume.... limnophila indica


Lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus).

Plant Part Used: Leaf, stalk.

Dominican Medicinal Uses: Leaf/stalk: infusion, orally, for asthma, common cold, flu-symptoms, stomach ailments, indigestion, gastro-intestinal pain, diarrhea (in children), menopausal hot flashes, arthritis, internal bruising and musculoskeletal injury.

Safety: This plant is nontoxic according to clinical studies; the essential oil potential may cause allergic reaction to skin or lung irritation if inhaled.

Contraindications: Pregnancy.

Laboratory & Preclinical Data: In vivo: anti-inflammatory, antimalarial, lowered heart rate (leaf infusion, essential oil); antinociceptive (essential oil); chemopreventive, inhibition of hepatocarcinogenesis (leaf extract); hypocholesterolemic (leaves).

In vitro: antibacterial, antifungal, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antitumor, polyphenol oxidase inhibition (essential oil or constituents); enzyme inhibition, vasorelaxant (leaf/stalk extract).

* See entry for Limoncillo in “Part 3: Dominican Medicinal Plant Profiles” of this book for more information, including references.... limoncillo

Limonia Crenulata


Synonym: Hesperethusa crenulata (Roxb.) M. Roem.

Family: Rutaceae.

Habitat: Throughout India, from Punjab and Kumaon eastwards; in Assam, Bihar, Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Karnataka and South India.

Ayurvedic: Bilvaparni.

Siddha/Tamil: Nayvila.

Folk: Ran-limbu, Naringi (Mum- bai), Tondsha (Maharashtra), Beli, Bainthaa.

Action: Dried fruit—stomachic; used in pestilent fevers, also as an antidote to poisons. Root— purgative, sudorific.

The plant showed anti-inflammatory activity which was attributed to 8- hydroxy-6-methoxy-2-methyl-anthra- quinone-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside in animal studies.

The leaves contain an essential oil; major constituents are geraniol, alpha- and beta-pinene, 1,8-cineole, elemol acetate, linool, alpha-terpinolene, camphor, eudesmol, p-cymene, cam- phane, azulene, borneol acetate, alpha- terpenol, alpha-curcumene, alpha thu- jone, limolene, myrcene and beta- ocimene.

Leaves also contain anthraquinones and dalbargin galactopyranoside.... limonia crenulata


Cleaning, cleansing or clearing; this term has two uses: to describe (1.) the internal cleansing action of remedies inside the body; or (2.) an external spiritual/energetic cleansing ritual:

1. Herbal preparations taken internally are sometimes said to “cleanse the body [internally]” (limpiar el sistema), particularly the digestive tract, kidneys, liver and/or reproductive system; in this sense, it can be used to describe laxative or diuretic herbs, remedies that cleanse the blood or preparations that clear obstruction in the reproductive system.

2. a cleansing ritual is performed using herbs and/or other items to ritually clear or dispel unwanted energy around a person’s body or in a physical space (i.e. a room, house, office or car); this ritual often includes the use of incense, prayer and bundles of herbs that are swept or shaken over the body or in ones living space. Often, water-based preparations of herbs, fragrant aguas and/or perfume oils are used for washing ones living area, especially the floor; then a similar mixture of herbs is prepared as a bath for washing the physical body as part of this spiritual/energetic cleansing ritual.... limpieza


(African) The daughter we have waited for... lindiwe


(English) From the pastureland Lindly, Lindlee, Lindleigh, Lindli, Lindlie, Leland, Lindlea... lindley


(English) From the island of linden trees; from Lincoln’s wetland Lind, Lindsea, Lindsee, Lindseigh, Lindsey, Lindsy, Linsay, Linsey, Linsie, Linzi, Linzee, Linzy, Lyndsay, Lyndsey, Lyndsie, Lynnsey, Lynnzey, Lynsey, Lynzey, Lynzi, Lynzy, Lynzee, Lynzie, Lindse... lindsay

Linea Alba

The line of ?brous tissue stretching down the mid line of the belly from the lower end of the sternum to the pubic bone (see PUBIS). The linea alba gives attachment to the muscles of the wall of the stomach.... linea alba


(Chinese) As sweet as the tinkling of a bell Lyng... ling

Linden Tea

Linden Tea has been used in medicine as a natural remedy for various health problems. Linden plant grows mainly in Europe and North America, linden tree having large deep roots and smooth reddish twigs. Linden tea is known for its diuretic, diaphoretic, antispasmodic and sedative properties. The constituents of linden are mucilages, tannins, volatile oils and antioxidants flavonoids. How To Make Linden Tea To brew Linden Tea, you have to infuse a handful of linden flowers and leaves into 250 ml of water. Let the tea steep for about 5-10 minutes and then, using a strainer, pour it into your cup. Be careful! Linden Tea should not be consumed for long periods since over-consumption may lead to heart damage. Also, if you are taking drugs or different supplements, drink Linden Tea 2 hours before taking them so that it cannot interfere with their action. Linden Tea Benefits
  • The most common use of Linden Tea is to treat anxiety since the herb has a relaxing effect on the body.
  • Helps clear up any problems with the digestive system, combating also diarrhea.
  • Alleviates fever, colds and cough.
  • Relieves sore throat.
  • Lessens the effects of excessive flatulence.
  • Helps you to sweat out the toxins from your body.
  • Is a strong helper in fighting different infections.
Linden Tea Side Effects Linden Tea doesn’t have many side effects. But there a few thing that you should keep in mind when drinking linden tea:
  • First of all, avoid over-consumption. Drinking too much linden tea can be harmful rather than helpful.
  • Pregnant and breastfeeding women should not drink linden tea.
  • Frequent use of linden tea has been linked with heart problems, so if you are experiencing heart diseases make sure you always consult your doctor before taking any herbal teas or supplements.
In conclusion, Linden Tea is a healthy tea with a lot of benefits for your body. In order not to experience its (very few) side effects, avoid drinking too much linden tea!... linden tea

Lindera Nessiana


Family: Lauraceae.

Habitat: Temperate Himalayas from Nepal eastwards at 1,800-2,400 m, and in Assam.

Folk: Gandha-daaru (Bengal), Siltimur (Nepal).

Action: Carminative.

The plant is reported to yield sassafras, which is substituted for the true sassafras from Cinnamomum glan- duliferum Meissn.

The seeds yield a fatty oil (60.7%). It gave methyl esters : methyl laurate 75.2, methyl caprate 13.3, methyl oleate 5.4, methyl myristate 2.4, and methyl- palmitate 0.5%.... lindera nessiana


(Scottish) Resembling the cascade of a waterfall Linne... linn


(Scandinavian) Resembling a small mountain flower; of the lime tree Lenae, Linea, Linna, Linnae, Linnaea, Lynae, Lynea, Lynnae, Lynnea... linnea


An agent that effects the dissolution of a calculus... linthontriptic

Lion’s Mane

A colloquial term for Cyanea - used in many countries other than Australia.... lion’s mane


See Scorpaenidae.... lionfish

Liothyronine Acid

A preparation based on the thyroid (see THYROID GLAND) hormone triiodothyronine, which is prescribed to replace the lack of natural thyroid hormone (hypothyroidism). The drug is also used to treat goitre and cancer of the

thyroid gland. (See THYROID GLAND, DISEASES OF.)... liothyronine acid

Lipasis Rostrata


Family: Orchidaceae.

Ayurvedic: Jivaka-Rshabhaka (bulbs of Microstylis wallichi Lindl. and M. musifera, also of other orchids, are sold as Jivaka-Rshabhaka).

Action: Used in age-sustaining and invigorating tonics.... lipasis rostrata

Lipid-regulating Drugs

These drugs reduce the amount of low-density LIPOPROTEINS, which transport CHOLESTEROL and triglycerides (see TRIGLYCERIDE) in the blood, or raise the concentration of high-density lipoproteins. The aim is to reduce the progression of ATHEROSCLEROSIS and therefore help prevent coronary heart disease (see HEART, DISEASES OF). These drugs should be combined with reducing other risk factors for raised lipid concentrations, such as a high-fat diet, smoking and obesity. Lipid-regulating drugs include STATINS, ?brates, anion-exchange resins, and NICOTINIC ACID, which may be used singly or in combination under careful medical supervision (see HYPERLIPIDAEMIA).... lipid-regulating drugs

Linum Usitatissimum


Habitat: Cultivated mainly in Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Bihar and Rajasthan.

English: Linseed, Flax.

Ayurvedic: Atasi, Umaa, Masrnaa, Nilapushpi, Kshumaa.

Unani: Kattan.

Siddha/Tamil: (Seed).

Action: Seed—demulcent, emollient, laxative, antilipidemic, antitussive, pectoral (used in bronchitis and cough). Flowers—used as nervine and cardiac tonic. Oil— used in burns, skin injuries and sores.

Key application: Internally, for chronic constipation, for colons damaged by abuse of laxatives, irritable bowel syndrome, diverticular disease, symptomatic short-term treatment of gastritis and enteritis. Externally, for painful skin inflammations. (German Commission E, ESCOP, The British Herbal Pharmacopoeia.)

The plant contains chlorogenic acid and its isomer. Also present are palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic acids, along with amino acids, and sugars. Linseed also contains mucilage (3-10%) in epidermis; fatty oil (30-40%); cyanogenic glycosides (0.05-00.1%) mainly linus- tatin, neolinustatin and linamarin; lig- nans; phenylpropane derivatives including linusitamarin. (Cyanogenic glycosides are not found toxic in therapeutic doses as these are broken down only to a limited extent in the body.)

The seeds are an excellent source of dietary alpha-linolenic acid for modifying plasma and tissue lipids. Flaxseed preparations reduced atherogenic risk in hyperlipemic patients. (Cited in Expanded Commission E Monographs.)

Human studies have indicated Flax- seed's use in atherosclerosis, hyperc- holesterolemia, lupus nephritis, chronic renal diseases and in cancer prevention (active principle: lignan precursor secoisolariciresinol diglycoside). (Sharon M. Herr. Also Am J Clin Nutr, 1999, 69, 395-402.)

The PP glucose response to a 50 g carbohydrate load given as Flaxseed bread was found to be 27% lower when compared with regular white bread.

Taking Flaxseed oil daily for 3 months did not improve symptoms of pain and stiffness in rheumatoid arthritis and no effect was observed on RA, such as C-reactive protein and ESR. (Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, 2007.)

The water-binding capacity and rhe- ological properties of linseed mucilage resembled those of guar gum.

Dosage: Ripe seed—3-6 g powder. (API, Vol. I.) Flower-bud—3-6 g; oil—5-10 ml. (CCRAS.)... linum usitatissimum

Lipoid Factor

An agent involved in the clotting mechanism of the blood. It helps in the activation of THROMBOPLASTIN in the blood PLASMA (see COAGULATION).... lipoid factor


Compounds containing lipids and proteins (see LIPID; PROTEIN). Most lipids in blood PLASMA are present in this form and are characterised according to their densities: very low (VLDL), intermediate (IDL), low (LD), high (HDL) and very high (VHDL). Concentrations of lipoproteins are key factors in assessing the risk of cardiovascular disease (see HEART, DISEASES OF).... lipoproteins


These are essentially tiny oil droplets consisting of layers of fatty material, known as phospholipid, separated by aqueous compartments. Drugs can be incorporated into the liposomes, which are then injected into the bloodstream or into the muscles, or given by mouth. Using this method of giving drugs, it is possible to protect them from being broken down in the body before they reach the part of the body where their curative e?ect is required: for example, in the liver or in a tumour.... liposomes

Lipotropic Factors

Various compounds and processes that enable the liver to metabolize fats properly or prevent the formation of cholesterolic stones in the gall bladder by supporting the continued emulsification of gall bladder bile. EXAMPLES: Lecithin, choline, Aristolochia... lipotropic factors


Protection ... liquidamber


(French) One who enjoys reading aloud

Lirienne, Liriena, Lirienna, Lirien, Lirienn... liriene

Lippia Geminata

H. B. & K.

Synonym: L. alba (Mill.) N.E.Br. L. javanica (Burm.f.) Spreng.

Family: Verbenaceae.

Habitat: Bihar and Orissa to Assam; Madhya Pradesh, Nilgiris and Anaimalais up to 900 m in wet places and river banks.

Folk: Basula (Madhya Pradesh), Naagaa-aiari (Orissa).

Action: Leaves—stomachic and nervine. Essential oil—fungitoxic.

The essential oil from leaves contains citral, neral and geranial. Diterpenes, d- and l-limonene, l-piperitone, geranial. Diterpenes, d-and l-limonene, l- piperitone, lippone, a saturated ketone, d-alpha-pinene, dl-dihydrocarvone, citral and camphor have been identified in different samples.... lippia geminata

Lippia Nodiflora


Synonym: Phyla nodiflora (Linn.) Greene.

Family: Verbenaceae.

Habitat: Throughout India, in wet places and river banks.

English: Wild sage.

Ayurvedic: Jalapippali, Shaaradi, Shakulaadani, Jalakarnaa, Matsya- gandhaa. Laangali (now equated with Gloriosa superba).

Unani: Bukkum Booti.

Siddha/Tamil: Paduthalai.

Action: Plant—cooling, febrifuge, diuretic. Poultice used as maturant for boils. Leaves—an infusion is given to women after delivery.

An alcoholic extract of the leaves shows antibacterial activity against E. coli. The leaf juice enters into hair oils for alopecia areata.

Aerial parts are reported to contain flavonoids, flavone aglycones and flavone sulphates.

Dosage: Whole plant—10-20 ml juice. (CCRAS.)... lippia nodiflora

Liquidambar Formosana


Family: Altingiaceae; Hamameli- daceae.

Habitat: Native to China; now reported to have been introduced into Lalbagh gardens, Bangalore.

English: Fragrant Maple.

Ayurvedic: Silhak (var.).

Unani: Silaaras (var.).

Action: See Liquidambar orientalis.

Balsam (Chinese Storax) contains cinnamic acid (16%). Cinnamyl alcohol, borneol, a resin alcohol and volatile constituents (1.8-8%). The leaves on steam-distillation yield 005% of a volatile oil consisting principally of terpenes (88%).... liquidambar formosana

Liquidambar Orientalis


Family: Altingiaceae; Hamameli- daceae.

Habitat: Native to Asia Minor.

English: Storax, Oriental Sweet Gum.

Ayurvedic: Turushka, Silhaka, Kapitaila.

Unani: Ambar Saayil, Silaaras.

Siddha/Tamil: Neri-arishippal.

Action: Balsam—anti-inflammatory, stimulating expectorant, antipara- sitic, antiseptic, antimicrobial. Used externally in scabies, ringworm and other skin diseases. Used for coughs and bronchitis as an inhalation.

Storax contained cinnamic acid up to 30%—cinnamin acid esters, cin- namyl cinnamate (styracin), phenyl- propyl cinnamate; triterpene acids; vanillin; styrene; aromatic alcohols. Pentacyclic triterpene aldehydes—liq- uidambronal and ambronal—have been isolated from nonvolatile part of resin along with bornyl trans-cinna- mate.

Dosage: Gum—1-3 g. (CCRAS.)... liquidambar orientalis

Liriodendron Tulipifera


Family: Magnoliaceae.

Habitat: Native to North America; introduced into hill stations in India.

English: Tulip tree.

Action: Bark—antipyretic, diaphoretic; used in rheumatism, dyspepsia and as antimalarial.

The root contains an alkaloid tulip- iferin, traces of a glycoside, essential oil and tannin.... liriodendron tulipifera


(Greek) In mythology, a nymph and the mother of Narcissus Leiriope, Leirioessa... liriope


(Hebrew) One who is musically talented Lirita, Liritia, Liritea, Leerit... lirit


(English) Form of Elizabeth, meaning “my God is bountiful” Leesa, Liesa, Lisebet, Lise, Liseta, Lisette, Liszka, Lisebeth, Lisabet, Lisabeth, Lisabette, Lisbet, Lisbeth, Lisavet, Lissa, Lissette, Lyssa, Lysa, Lesa, Liesbet, Liisa, Lis, Leysa, Leisa, Leasa... lisa


(African) One who is awarded a medal

Lishana, Lishanna, Lyshan, Lyshana, Lyshanna... lishan


(American) Resembling a flower Lissi, Lissy, Lissey, Lissee, Lissea... lissie


A rare disease, although the causal organism, Listeria monocytogenes, is widely distributed in soil, silage, water, and various animals, with consequent risk of food contamination – for example, from unpasteurised soft cheese. Neonates are mainly affected – often as a result of a mild or inapparent infection in the pregnant mother. The disease presents in two main forms: MENINGOENCEPHALITIS, or SEPTICAEMIA with enlarged LYMPH glands. Elderly adults occasionally develop the ?rst form, while younger adults are more likely to develop a mild or even inapparent form. The disease is treated with ANTIBIOTICS such as ampicillin (see PENICILLIN) or CHLORAMPHENICOL.... listeriosis

Litchi Chinensis

(Gaertn.) Sonn.

Synonym: Nephelium litchi Cambess.

Family: Sapindaceae.

Habitat: Native to China; now cultivated mainly in Northern Bihar, particularly in Muzaffarpur and Darbhanga districts, and Saharanpur, Dehra Dun, Muzaffar- nagar, Gorakhpur, Deoria, Gonda, Basti, Faizabad, Rampur, Bareil- ly, Bahraich, Kheri and Pilibhit districts of Uttar Pradesh.

English: Litchi, Lychee.

Action: Fruit—refrigerant during summer. Leaf—used in bites of animals.

Litchi aril contains: total sugars (as invert sugar) 12.1-14.8; reducing sugar 9-13.7; non-reducing sugar 1.0-3.4; acidity (as citric acid) 0.22-0.36%; and ascorbic acid 34.5-45.4 mg/100 g.

The plant contains levulinic, malic, citric, lactic, malonic, fumaric, suc- cinic, phosphoric and glutaric acids.

The Bark contains friedelin and stig- masterol.

Litchi seeds are prescribed in Malaya for neurological disorders and orchi- tis. In seed lipids, fatty acids cyclo- propanoic 42.0; oleic 27.0, palmitic 12.0 and linoleic 11.0%, have been determined.... litchi chinensis

Literature Review

A summary and interpretation of research findings reported in the literature. It may include unstructured qualitative reviews by single authors as well as various systematic and quantitative procedures, such as meta-analysis.... literature review

Lithium Carbonate

A drug widely used in the PROPHYLAXIS treatment of certain forms of MENTAL ILLNESS. The drug should be given only on specialist advice. The major indication for its use is acute MANIA; it induces improvement or remission in over 70 per cent of such patients. In addition, it is e?ective in the treatment of manic-depressive patients (see MANIC DEPRESSION), preventing both the manic and the depressive episodes. There is also evidence that it lessens aggression in prisoners who behave antisocially and in patients with learning diffculties who mutilate themselves and have temper tantrums.

Because of its possible toxic effects – including kidney damage – lithium must only be administered under medical supervision and with monitoring of the blood levels, as the gap between therapeutic and toxic concentrations is narrow. Due to the risk of its damaging the unborn child, it should not be prescribed, unless absolutely necessary, during pregnancy – particularly not in the ?rst three months. Mothers should not take it while breast feeding, as it is excreted in the milk in high concentrations. The drug should not be taken with DIURETICS.... lithium carbonate

Lithospermum Officinanle


Family: Boraginaceae.

Habitat: Kashmir and Kumaon, at altitudes of 1,500-2,700 m.

Folk: Lubis firmun.

Action: Leaves—sedative. Seeds— diuretic, lithotriptic. A decoction of roots and twigs is given in the form of syrup in eruptive diseases, such as smallpox and measles.

The aerial parts contain pyrrolizi- dine alkaloids.

Saline extracts of the aerial parts and roots, administered to experimental animals by injection, inhibit oestrus and the functioning of ovaries and testes; the activity of the thyroid gland is also reduced. The active principle is formed from phenolic precursors like caffeic, chlorogenic, rosmarinic acid as well as luteolin-7 beta-glucuronide by an oxidation step. Other constituents are lithospermic acid and shikonin.

Shikonin and acetyl-shikonin, the pigments of the root, exhibit anti- inflammatory activity comparable to phenylbutazone.

An infusion of leaves is used in Spain as sedative.... lithospermum officinanle


See MEDICAL LITIGATION.... litigation


Litmus, which is prepared from several lichens, is a vegetable dye-substance, which on contact with alkaline ?uids becomes blue, and on contact with acid ?uids, red. Slips of paper, impregnated with litmus, form a valuable test for the acidity of the secretions and discharges.... litmus

Litsea Stocksii

Hook. f.

Family: Lauraceae.

Habitat: The hills of western Deccan Peninsula.

Folk: Pisi, Posha (Maharashtra).

Action: Leaves—an infusion is given in irritation of bladder and urethra.

The seeds yield a fat consisting mostly of lauric acid with a small amount of oleic acid.

The leaves are mucilaginous.... litsea stocksii

Litsea Glutinosa

(Lour.) C. B. Robinson.

Synonym: L. sebifera Pers. L. chinensis Lam.

Family: Lauraceae.

Habitat: Punjab, Khasi Hills, Bengal, Assam and South India.

English: Common Tallow Lowrel.

Ayurvedic: Medaasaka.

Unani: Maidaa-lakdi, MaghaaseHindi.

Siddha/Tamil: Mushaippeyetti, Elumpurukki, Uralli.

Action: Leaf—antispasmodic and emollient. Bark—demulcent, emollient, astringent, antidiarrhoeal, anodyne. Root—decoction is used as an emmenagogue. Oil from berries—used in rheumatism. Essential oil—antibacterial, antifungal.

The bark is mucilaginous. The plant contains a polysaccharide. Leaves and stem contain aporphine al- kaloids—boldine, laurotetanine, acti- nodaphnine and their derivatives. The trunk bark gave sebiferine and litsefer- ine.

Boldine produced dose-dependent inhibition of induced microsomal peroxidation in experimental studies.

Dosage: Bark—3-5 g powder. (CCRAS.)... litsea glutinosa

Litsea Monopetala

(Roxb.) Pers.

Synonym: L. polyantha Juss.

Family: Lauraceae.

Habitat: Assam and Eastern Himalayas, also Tamil Nadu.

Ayurvedic: Maidaa-lakdi (var.).

Siddha/Tamil: Maidalagadil, Picin- pattai.

Action: Bark—stimulant, astringent, spasmolytic, stomachic, antidiarrhoeal. Root—applied externally for pains, bruises and contusions.

The bark contains beta-sitosterol and an aporphine alkaloid, actino- daphnine.... litsea monopetala

Little’s Disease

A form of CEREBRAL PALSY.... little’s disease


Plantain (Plantago major or P. lanceolata).

Plant Part Used: Leaf.

Dominican Medicinal Uses: Leaf: fresh juice or tea, orally, for liver disorders, vaginal infections, high cholesterol, stomach ache, menopausal symptoms, abortion; juice, externally, wound-healing; as a salve or poultice, externally, for headache, migraine and nausea.

Safety: Results of toxicity studies and published literature.

Clinical Data: Human clinical trials: bronchitis treatment (plant extract).

Laboratory & Preclinical Data: In vivo: antibacterial (leaf compound), antidiarrheal (leaf extract), chemopreventive (constituents), antinociceptive (seed and leaf extract), antitumor (leaf).

In vitro: antiviral, immuno-enhancing, laxative and gastroprotective (extracts and compounds).

* See entry for Llantén in “Part 3: Dominican Medicinal Plant Profiles” of this book for more information, including references.... llantén

Lobelia Chinensis


Synonym: L. radicans Thunb.

Family: Campanulaceae, Lobeli- aceae.

Habitat: Nepal, Chota Nagpur and Khasi hills at altitudes of 9001,500 m.

Action: Plant—used in China for fevers and asthma. Root—considered depurative and antirheumatic in Indo-China. The plant is one of the constituent of a tincture formulation used for the treatment of scars.

The rhizomes of the plant are reported to contain the polyfructosan, lobelinin.... lobelia chinensis


(Hebrew) A vibrant woman; full of life

Livona, Lyvonah, Lyvona, Levona, Levonah... livonah


(Hebrew) The Lord’s daughter Liyah, Leeya, Leeyah, Leaya, Leayah... liya


(English) Form of Elizabeth, meaning “my God is bountiful” Lyza, Leeza, Litsea, Litzea, Liz, Lizzie, Lizabeth, Lizandra, Lizann, Lizbet, Lizbeth, Lizeth, Lizette, Lizina, Lizzy, Lyzbeth, Lyzbet, Lyzabeth, Lyzz, Lizz, Lyz, Leyza, Liiza, Leza... liza


(English) In Arthurian legend, Arthur’s steed... llamrei


(Spanish) Form of Yesenia, meaning “resembling a flower” Lleseniah, Llesinia, Llesenya, Llecenia, Llasenya, Llesnia, Llessenia, Llessena, Llessenya, Llissenia, Llesenea, Lleseneah, Llesinea... llesenia


(Welsh) The treasured light Lleyke... lleucu


(American) A gracious and loving woman

Loana, Loann, Loane, Loanne... loanna

Liver Disease In The Tropics

ACUTE LIVER DISEASE The hepatitis viruses (A– F) are of paramount importance. Hepatitis E (HEV) often produces acute hepatic failure in pregnant women; extensive epidemics – transmitted by contaminated drinking-water supplies – have been documented. HBV, especially in association with HDV, also causes acute liver failure in infected patients in several tropical countries: however, the major importance of HBV is that the infection leads to chronic liver disease (see below). Other hepatotoxic viruses include the EPSTEIN BARR VIRUS, CYTOMEGALOVIRUS (CMV), the ?avivirus causing YELLOW FEVER, Marburg/Ebola viruses, etc. Acute liver disease also occurs in the presence of several acute bacterial infections, including Salmonella typhi, brucellosis, leptospirosis, syphilis, etc. The complex type of jaundice associated with acute systemic bacterial infection – especially pneumococcal PNEUMONIA and pyomiositis – assumes a major importance in many tropical countries, especially those in Africa and in Papua New Guinea. Of protozoan infections, plasmodium falciparum malaria, LEISHMANIASIS, and TOXOPLASMOSIS should be considered. Ascaris lumbricoides (the roundworm) can produce obstruction to the biliary system. CHRONIC LIVER DISEASE Long-term disease is dominated by sequelae of HBV and HCV infections (often acquired during the neonatal period), both of which can cause chronic active hepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (‘hepatoma’) – one of the world’s most common malignancies. Chronic liver disease is also caused by SCHISTOSOMIASIS (usually Schistosoma mansoni and S. japonicum), and acute and chronic alcohol ingestion. Furthermore, many local herbal remedies and also orthodox chemotherapeutic compounds (e.g. those used in tuberculosis and leprosy) can result in chronic liver disease. HAEMOSIDEROSIS is a major problem in southern Africa. Hepatocytes contain excessive iron – derived primarily from an excessive intake, often present in locally brewed beer; however, a genetic predisposition seems likely. Indian childhood cirrhosis – associated with an excess of copper – is a major problem in India and surrounding countries. Epidemiological evidence shows that much of the copper is derived from copper vessels used to store milk after weaning. Veno-occlusive disease was ?rst described in Jamaica and is caused by pyrrolyzidine alkaloids (present in bush-tea). Several HIV-associated ‘opportunistic’ infections can give rise to hepatic disease (see AIDS/HIV).

A localised (focal) form of liver disease in all tropical/subtropical countries results from invasive Entamoeba histolytica infection (amoebic liver ‘abscess’); serology and imaging techniques assist in diagnosis. Hydatidosis also causes localised liver disease; one or more cysts usually involve the right lobe of the liver. Serological tests and imaging techniques are of value in diagnosis. Whilst surgery formerly constituted the sole method of management, prolonged courses of albendazole and/or praziquantel have now been shown to be e?ective; however, surgical intervention is still required in some cases.

Hepato-biliary disease is also a problem in many tropical/subtropical countries. In southeast Asia, Clonorchis sinensis and Opisthorchis viverini infections cause chronic biliary-tract infection, complicated by adenocarcinoma of the biliary system. Praziquantel is e?ective chemotherapy before advanced disease ensues. Fasciola hepatica (the liver ?uke) is a further hepato-biliary helminthic infection; treatment is with bithionol or triclabendazole, praziquantel being relatively ine?ective.... liver disease in the tropics

Lobelia Inflata


Family: Campanulaceae; Lobeli-

Habitat: Native to eastern United States; imported into India.

English: Indian Tabacco, Pukeweed.

Ayurvedic: Devanala (var.).

Action: Antiasthmatic, antispasmodic, broncho-dilator, expectorant, mild sedative and relaxant. Used as a tabacco deterrent (as a major ingredient in many antismoking mixtures).

Key application: In the treatment of asthma, bronchitis. (German Commission E.) As respiratory stimulant. (The British Herbal Pharmacopoeia.)

Lobelia contains piperidine alkaloids, mainly lobeline, with lobelanine, lobelanidine, norlobelanine, isolobi- nine. Lobeline stimulates respiration in animals by stimulating respiratory centre and at high doses stimulates the vomiting centre.

Lobeline has similar but less potent pharmacological properties to nicotine but 1/20-1/5 as potent.

Lobeline (0.5%) has also been used as an active ingredient in skin-lightening preparations.

Clinical research could not demonstrate lobeline efficacy greater than placebo in smoking cessation. It was disallowed as an ingredient in antismoking products in the US in 1993. (Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, 2007.)

The leaves contain beta-amyrin pal- mitate which possesses sedative and antidepressant properties comparable to the antidepressant drug mianserin. Methanolic extract of leaves exhibited antidepressant activity.

The leaf powder is toxic at 0.6-1.0 , (Francis Brinker.)... lobelia inflata

Local Anaesthesia

Loss of sensation produced in a part of the body to stop pain while a person is examined, investigated or treated (see also ANAESTHESIA). The anaesthesia is e?ected by giving drugs in a local area temporarily to stop the action of pain-carrying nerve ?bres. To anaesthetise a large area, a nerve block is done. Various drugs are used, depending on the depth and length of local anaesthesia required.... local anaesthesia

Liver, Diseases Of

The LIVER may be extensively diseased without any obviously serious symptoms, unless the circulation through it is impeded, the out?ow of BILE checked, or neighbouring organs implicated. JAUNDICE is a symptom of several liver disorders, and is discussed under its separate heading. ASCITES, which may be caused by interference with the circulation through the portal vein of the liver, as well as by other reasons, is also considered separately. The presence of gallstones is a complication of some diseases connected with the liver, and is treated under GALLBLADDER, DISEASES OF. For hydatid cyst of the liver, see TAENIASIS. Liver diseases in a tropical environment are dealt with later in this section.

In?ammation of the liver, or HEPATITIS, may occur as part of a generalised infection or may be a localised condition. Infectious hepatitis, which is the result of infection with a virus, is one of the most common forms. Many di?erent viruses can cause hepatitis, including that responsible for glandular fever (see MONONUCLEOSIS). Certain spirochaetes may also be the cause, particularly that responsible for LEPTOSPIROSIS, as can many drugs. Hepatitis may also occur if there is obstruction of the BILE DUCT, as by a gall-stone.

Cirrhosis of the liver A disorder caused by chronic damage to liver cells. The liver develops areas of ?brosis or scarring; in response, the remaining normal liver cells increase and form regeneration nodules. Those islands of normality, however, suffer from inadequate blood supply, thus adversely affecting liver function. Alcohol is the most common cause of cirrhosis in the United Kingdom and the USA, and the incidence of the disorder among women in the UK has recently risen sharply as a consequence of greater consumption of alcohol by young women in the latter decades of the 20th century. In Africa and many parts of Asia, infection with hepatitis B virus is a common cause. Certain drugs – for example, PARACETAMOL – may damage the liver if taken in excess. Unusual causes of cirrhosis include defects of the bile ducts, HAEMOCHROMATOSIS (raised iron absorption from the gut), CYSTIC FIBROSIS, cardiac cirrhosis (the result of heart failure causing circulatory congestion in the liver), and WILSON’S DISEASE (raised copper absorption).

Symptoms Some people with cirrhosis have no signs or symptoms and the disease may be diagnosed at a routine medical examination. Others may develop jaundice, OEDEMA (including ascites – ?uid in the abdomen), fever, confusion, HAEMATEMESIS (vomiting blood), loss of appetite and lethargy. On examination, cirrhotic patients often have an enlarged liver and/ or SPLEEN, and HYPERTENSION. Liver function tests, cholangiography (X-ray examination of the bile ducts) and biopsy of liver tissue will help to reach a diagnosis.

Treatment Nothing can be done to repair a cirrhosed organ, but the cause, if known, must be removed and further advance of the process thus prevented. In the case of the liver, a high-protein, high-carbohydrate, low-fat diet is given, supplemented by liver extract and vitamins B and K. The consumption of alcohol should be banned. In patients with liver failure and a poor prognosis, liver TRANSPLANTATION is worthwhile but only after careful consideration.

Abscess of the liver When an ABSCESS develops in the liver, it is usually a result of amoebic DYSENTERY, appearing sometimes late in the disease – even after the diarrhoea is cured (see below). It may also follow upon in?ammation of the liver due to other causes. In the case of an amoebic abscess, treatment consists of oral metronidazole.

Acute hepatic necrosis is a destructive and often fatal disease of the liver which is very rare. It may be due to chemical poisons, such as carbontetrachloride, chloroform, phosphorus and industrial solvents derived from benzene. It may also be the cause of death in cases of poisoning with fungi. Very occasionally, it may be a complication of acute infectious hepatitis.

Cancer of the liver is not uncommon, although it is rare for the disease to begin in the liver – the involvement of this organ being usually secondary to disease situated somewhere in the stomach or bowels. Cancer originating in the liver is more common in Asia and Africa. It usually arises in a ?brotic (or cirrhotic) liver and in carriers of the hepatitis B virus. There is great emaciation, which increases as the disease progresses. The liver is much enlarged, and its margin and surface are rough, being studded with hard cancer masses of varying size, which can often be felt through the abdominal wall. Pain may be present. Jaundice and oedema often appear.... liver, diseases of

Lobelia Leschenaultina

(Persl) Skottsb.

Synonym: L. excelsa Lesch.

Family: Campanulaceae; Lobeli- aceae.

Habitat: Hills of South India at altitudes above 1,800 m.

Ayurvedic: Nala (var.).

Folk: Devanala (var.) (Maharashtra.)

Action: Leaves—filtered solution is used in the control of aphids, tingids and mites on vegetable and other crops. Plant—poisonous to man and livestock. The leaves are cured and smoked as tabacco.... lobelia leschenaultina


(English) One who provides guidance

Lodemah, Lodima, Lodimah, Lodyma, Lodymah, Lodeema, Lodeemah... lodema


An opioid antagonist drug used to modify the symptoms of addicted patients undergoing opioid-withdrawal treatment.... lofexidine


(Norse) In mythology, one of the principal goddesses... lofn


(Gaelic) From the hollow Logann, Logane, Loganne... logan


(French) Daughter of a legend Logistilla, Logestila, Logistila, Logestylla, Logistylla, Logestile, Logestille, Logistile, Logistille... logestilla

Lobelia Nicotianaefolia


Family: Campanulaceae; Lobeli- aceae.

Habitat: Deccan, Konkan and Western Ghats, at altitudes of 9002,100 m.

English: Wild Tobacco.

Ayurvedic: Devanala, Nala (var.).

Siddha/Tamil: Kattuppugaiyilai, Upperichedi.

Action: Used as a substitute for Lobelia inflata.

An analysis of Lobelia nicotianae- folia, grown in Maharashtra, shows that the plant contains appreciable quantities of nor-lobelanine and small amounts of lobinine and minor bases.

Lobelia cardinalis Linn., Cardinal Flower, is cultivated in Indian gardens. It contains lobinaline as main alkaloid. Lobinaline depresses blood pressure but has no influence on respiration. L. erinus Linn. and L. succulenta Blume, synonym L. affinis Wall. also contain alkaloids with lobinaline 0.445%.

Lobelia cordigera Cav., synonym L. fulgens Willd., an ornamental Lobelia sp., grown in Indian gardens, contains inulin.

Lobelia pyramidalis Wall. (Himalayas from Kumaon eastwards to Sikkim and Assam at altitudes of900-2,700 m) contains 0.29-0.38% alkaloids as lobeline, and may be used as a substitute for Lobelia inflata.... lobelia nicotianaefolia

Lobelia Tea

Lobelia tea is known for many years as being very effective for respiratory and viral disorders. Lobelia, also known as Indian Tobacco, is a flowering plant that can grow up to two feet tall. Its leaves have a yellow or light green color, violet spiky flowers and oval-shaped fruits. The constituents of lobelia are alkaloids, resins, lipids and gums, constituents that help relax the muscles and reduce a person’s craving for nicotine. How To Make Lobelia Tea Lobelia tea can be made by infusing ½ teaspoon of dried lobelia leaves in boiling water. Let the mix steep for about 10-15 minutes and when the time is up, pout the tea into your cup using a strainer to catch the leaves. Tea drinkers suggest that you should combine lobelia tea with another herbal tea to really enhance the flavor. But this depends on what you prefer. Lobelia Tea Benefits
  • Lobelia Tea has been used for many years to beak the smoking habit and it is often used in many smoking cessation programs.
  • Provides relaxation, easing tension and panic.
  • Treats asthma and bronchitis. It is said that Native Americans used to smoke lobelia to treat these conditions.
  • Clears toxins from your body, lobelia tea being able to induce vomiting.
  • Have anti-spasmodic, diuretic and sedative properties.
Lobelia Tea Side Effects
  • People who experience certain health conditions such as heart, liver or kidney disease, high blood pressure, seizure disorders, paralysis, shortness of breath should not drink Lobelia Tea.
  • Pregnant and breastfeeding women should not drink Lobelia Tea.
  • Lobelia Tea may interfere with the effects of certain medications, such as psychiatric medications or nicotine substitutes, so do not drink lobelia tea before consulting your doctor!
Lobelia Tea is a healty herbal tea, having a lot of benefits for your body. Try not to drink more than 3-4 cups per day of Lobelia Tea and make sure you won’t experience any of the side effects listed above!... lobelia tea

Lodoicea Maldivica

(Poir.) Pers.

Family: Arecaceae; Palmae.

Habitat: A dioecious palm, cultivated in gardens as an ornamental.

English: Double Coconut Palm, Sea Coconut Palm.

Ayurvedic: Samudra-naarikela, Dariyaayee Naariyal.

Unani: Naarjeel-e-Daryaayee, Naarjeel-e-Bahari.

Siddha/Tamil: Kadalthengai, Aklaari.

Action: The water of the green fruit and its soft kernel—antacid and antibilious.

A decoction of the fibrous husk is reported to bring down urinary sugar level in diabetic patients (the effect is temporary).

The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia ofln- dia recommends dried endosperm in gastroenteritis.

Dosage: Dried endosperm—5-10 g powder. (API, Vol.IV.)... lodoicea maldivica


(American) A delightful woman Loicey, Loicee, Loicea, Loici, Loicie, Loyce, Loice, Loyci, Loycie, Loycee, Loycea, Loycy, Loycey... loicy


(French) From the river in France Loir... loire


(Greek) A superior woman Loes... lois


(American) A bravehearted woman Lojeane, Lojeanne... lojean


(Hawaiian) Resembling a small red rose

Lokelanie, Lokelany, Lokelaney, Lokelanee, Lokelanea... lokelani


(Norse) In mythology, a trickster god Lokie, Lokee, Lokey, Loky, Lokea, Lokeah, Lokia, Lokiah... loki


(Spanish) Form of Dolores, meaning “woman of sorrow”

Lolah, Lolla, Loela, Lolita, Lolitta, Loleta, Loletta, Lo, Loe... lola


(American) Filled with joy Loleena, Lolene, Lolena, Loliene, Loliena, Loleine, Loleina, Loleana, Loleane, Lolyne, Lolyna... loleen


(Native American) Of the pretty clouds... lomahongva

Lolium Temulentum


Family: Gramineae; Poaceae.

Habitat: The Western Himalayas, Punjab and Upper Gangetic Plain.

English: Darnel, Taumelloolch.

Ayurvedic: Mochani.

Folk: Mostaki, Visha-ghaasa (Bihar).

Action: Sedative.

The overground parts of the grass gave alkaloids—loline and perloline. The caryopses of the plant contain volatile alkaloids—N-acetylloline, N- formylloline and N-acetylnorloline.

Loline dihydrochloride did not show CNS toxicity.... lolium temulentum


(Native American) Resembling a beautiful flower

Lomasie, Lomasee, Lomasy, Lomasey, Lomasea... lomasi


(Spanish) A good woman Lomitah, Lomeeta, Lomeetah, Lomieta, Lomietah, Lomeita, Lomeitah, Lomeata, Lomeatah, Lomyta, Lomytah... lomita


(American) One who is shy Londah, Londe, Londeh, Londy, Londey, Londee, Londea, Londi, Londie... londa


(English) From the captial of 0 England... london


Also known as hypermetropia: see under EYE, DISORDERS OF – Errors of refraction.... long-sight

Long-term Care (ltc) / Long-term Aged Care

A range of health care, personal care and social services provided to individuals who, due to frailty or level of physical or intellectual disability, are no longer able to live independently. Services may be for varying periods of time and may be provided in a person’s home, in the community or in residential facilities (e.g. nursing homes or assisted living facilities). These people have relatively stable medical conditions and are unlikely to greatly improve their level of functioning through medical intervention.... long-term care (ltc) / long-term aged care

Long-term Care Facility

See “high dependency care facility”.... long-term care facility

Long-term Care Insurance

Insurance policies which pay for long-term care services (such as nursing home and home care) that are generally not covered by other health insurance.... long-term care insurance

Long-term Supportive Psychotherapy

is needed for patients with personality disorders or recurrent psychotic states, where the aim of treatment is to prevent deterioration and help the patient to achieve an optimal adaptation, making the most of his or her psychological assets. Such patients may ?nd more profound and unstructured forms of therapy distressing.

Behavioural therapy and cognitive therapy, often carried out by psychologists, attempt to clarify with the patient speci?c features of behaviour or mental outlook respectively, and to identify step-by-step methods that the patient can use for controlling the disorder. Behaviour therapy is commonly used for AGORAPHOBIA and other phobias, and cognitive therapy has been used for depression and anxiety. (See MENTAL ILLNESS.)... long-term supportive psychotherapy


The duration of life.... longevity


(English) Form of Leona, meaning “having the strength of a lion” Lona, Lonee, Lonie, Lonna, Lonni, Lonnie, Lonee, Lony, Loney, Lonea, Lonnea, Lonnee, Lonny, Lonney... loni


Peace, Protection ... looestrife

Loop Diuretics

Drugs used in pulmonary oedema (excess ?uid in the lungs) caused by failure of the left VENTRICLE of the HEART. DIURETICS cause an increase in excretion of URINE, thus reducing the amount of ?uid in the body. Intravenous administration of loop diuretics relieves patients’ breathlessness. They work by inhibiting resorption of ?uid in the renal tubule loops of the KIDNEYS. Frusemide and bumetanide are commonly used loop diuretic drugs that act quickly and last for six hours so that they can be given twice in 24 hours without disturbing the patient’s sleep.... loop diuretics


(Latin) Form of Laura, meaning “crowned with laurel; from the laurel tree” Lorabelle, Lorah, Loranna, Loreanna, Loree, Lorenna, Lorey, Lori, Loribelle, Lorinda, Lorita, Lorra, Lorrae, Lorree, Lorrie, Lory, Lowra, Lorna, Loria, Lorian, Loriane, Loriana, Loriann, Lorianne, Lorianna, Lorie, Lorilla, Loriel, Lorilynn, Lorrella, Loralle, Lorel, Lorelle, Lowrelle, Lorand, Lorant, Loris, Lowri, Lowrie... lora


(American) A genius Lorandena, Lorandyn, Lorandyna, Luranden, Lurandena, Lurandyna, Lurandyne... loranden

Long Pepper

Piper longum

Piperaceae: San: Pippali;

Hin, Ben, Pun: Piplamul; Kan, Mal:Thippali ;

Tam: Thippili; Mar: Pimpli;

Tel: Pipppaloo; Ass: Piplu.

Introduction: Long pepper is a slender aromatic climber whose spike is widely used in ayurvedic and unani systems of medicine particularly for diseases of respiratory tract. Pipalarishta, Pippalyasava, Panchakola, Pippalayadilauha, and Lavana bhaskar churan are common ayurvedic preparations made out of the dry spikes of female types. Ittrifal fauladi, Angaruya-i-kabir and Majun khadar are well known unani preparations of long pepper. Its roots also have several medicinal uses. The root is useful in bronchitis, stomach ache, diseases of spleen and tumours. Fruit is useful in vata and kapha, asthma, bronchitis, abdominal complaints, fever, leucoderma, urinary discharges, tumours, piles, insomnia and tuberculosis. Root and fruit are used in gout and lumbago. The infusion of root is prescribed after parturition to induce the expulsion of placenta. The root and fruit decoction are used in acute and chronic bronchitis and cough. It contains the alkaloid piperine which has diverse pharmacological activities, including nerve depressant and antagonistic effect on electro- shock and chemo -shock seizures as well as muscular incoordination.

Distribution: The plant is a native of Indo-Malaya region. It was very early introduced to Europe and was highly regarded as a flavour ingredient by the Romans. The Greek name “Peperi”, the Latin “Piper” and the English “Pepper” were derived from the Sanskrit name “Pippali”. It grows wild in the tropical rain forests of India, Nepal, Indonesia, Malaysia, Sri lanka, Rhio, Timor and the Philippines. In India, it is seen in Assam, West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Kerala, Karnataka.and Tamil Nadu. It is also cultivated in Bengal, Chirapunchi area of Assam, Akola-Amravati region of Maharashtra, Anamalai hills of Tamil Nadu, Orissa, Uduppi and Mangalore regions of Karnataka. Bulk of Indian long pepper comes from its wild growth in Assam, Shillong and West Bengal, supplemented by imports from Sri Lanka and Indonesia (Viswanathan,1995)

Botany: Piper longum Linn. is a member of Piperaceae family. The plant is a glabrous perennial under-shrub with erect or sub-scandent nodose stem and slender branches, the latter are often creeping or trailing and rooting below or rarely scandent reaching a few metres height. Leaves are simple, alternate, stipulate, and petiolate or nearly sessile; lower ones broadly ovate, cordate; upper ones oblong, oval, all entire, smooth, thin with reticulate venation; veins raised beneath. It flowers nearly throughout the year. Inflorescence is spike with unisexual small achlamydeous densely packed flowers and form very close clusters of small greyish green or darker grey berries. Female spikes with short thick stalk varying from 1.5 to2.5 cm in length and 0.5 to 0.7 cm in thickness.

A number of geographical races are available in different agroclimatic regions of India; the most popular being Assam, West Bengal and Nepal races. Piper officinarum DC; syn. Chavica officinarum Miquel, Piper pepuloides and Piper chaba Hunter are the other related species of importance.

Agrotechnology: Long pepper is a tropical plant adapted to high rainfall areas with high humidity. An elevation of 100-1000 m is ideal. It needs partial shade to the tune of 20-30% for best growth. The natural habitat of the plant is on the borders of streams. It is successfully cultivated in well drained forest soils rich in organic matter. Laterite soils with high organic matter content and moisture holding capacity are also suitable for cultivation.

Long pepper is propagated by suckers or rooted vine cuttings.15-20 cm long 3-5 nodded rooted vine cuttings establishes very well in polybags. The best time for raising nursery is March-April. Normal irrigation is given on alternate days. The rooted cuttings will be ready for transplanting in 2 months time. With the onset of monsoon in June the field is ploughed well and brought to good tilth. 15-20 cm raised beds of convenient length and breadth are taken. On these beds, pits are dug at 60 x 60 cm spacing and well decomposed organic manure at 100 g/pit is applied and mixed with the soil. Rooted vine cuttings from polybags are transplanted to these pits. Gap filling can be done after one month of planting.The crop needs heavy manuring at the rate of 20 t FYM/ha every year. Application of heavy dose organic matter and mulching increase water retention in the soil and control weeds. Small doses of chemical fertilisers can also be used. The crop needs irrigation once a week. Sprinkler irrigation is ideal. With irrigation the crop continues to produce spikes and off-season produce will be available. However, it is reported that unirrigated crop after the onset of monsoon grows vigorously and shows much hardiness than the irrigated crop.

Crop losses can be heavy due to pests and diseases. Mealy bugs and root grubs, attack the plant particularly during summer. Infested plants show yellowing and stunted growth. Application of systemic insecticides like nuvacron or dimecron will control the pests. Adults and nymphs of Helopeltis theivora severely feeds on the foliage which can be controlled by 0.25% neem kernel suspension. Rotting of leaves and vines during monsoon season is caused by Colletotrichum glorosporiodes and necrotic lesions and blights on the leaves during summer is caused by Colletotrichum and Cercospora spp. These diseases can be controlled by spraying of 1% Bordeaux mixture repeatedly. A virus like disease characterised by yellowing and crinkling of leaves, stunted growth and production of spikes of smaller size and inferior quality was also recently reported.

The vines start flowering six months after planting and flowers are produced almost throughout the year. The spikes mature in 2 months time. The optimum stage of harvest is when the spikes are blackish green. The pungency is highest at this stage. Spikes are hand picked when they become mature and then dried. The yield of dry spike is 400 kg /ha during first year, increases to 1000kg during third year and thereafter it decreases. Therefore, after 3 years the whole plant is harvested. The stem is cut close to the ground and roots are dug up. Average yield is 500 kg dry roots/ha (Viswanathan,1995).

Piper longum can also be cultivated as an intercrop in plantations of coconut, subabul and eucalyptus.

Post harvest technology: The harvested spikes are dried in sun for 4-5 days until they are perfectly dry. The green to dry spike ratio is 10:1.5 by weight. The dried spikes have to be stored in moisture proof containers. Stem and roots are cleaned, cut into pieces of 2.5-5 cm length, dried in shade and marketed as piplamool. There are three grades of piplamool, based on the thickness. The commercial drug consists 0.5-2.5 cm long ,0.5-2.5 mm thick, cylindrical pieces dirty light brown in colour and peculiar odour with a pungent bitter taste, producing numbness to the tongue.

Properties and activity: The spike of long pepper contains 4-5% piperine, piplartin, piperolactam, N-isobutyl deca trans-2-trans-4-dienamide and piporadione alkaloides, besides 0.7 % essential oil. Roots gave the alkaloids piperine, piperlongumine (piplartine) and piperlonguminine; sesamine, methyl 3, 4, 5-trimethoxy cinnamate. Stem gave triacoutane 22, 23 - dihydrostigmasterol. Fruit essential oil contains piperidine, caryophyllene and sesquiterpene alcohol (Atal et al, 1975).

The root is plungent, hot, stomachic, laxative, anthelmintic and carminative. The fruit is sweetish, pungent, hot, stomachic, aphrodisiac, alterative, laxative, antidysenteric, emmenagogue, abortifacient, diuretic and tonic. The essential oil is antimicrobial and anthelmintic.

N-isobutyl-deca-trans-2-trans-4-dienamide is antitubercular.

Piperine is hypotensive, antipyretic, analeptic, and nerve stimulant (Warrier et al, 1995).... long pepper

Lonicera Japonica


Family: Caprifoliaceae.

Habitat: Assam (Lushai hills); cultivated in gardens.

English: Japanese Honeysuckle.

Action: The plant is used in China as an antipyretic, stomachic and in dysentery, also as an antidote to consumption of poisonous mushroom. Dried flowers are considered diuretic.

The plant contains tannin and a sa- ponin; lutolin and i-inositol have been isolated from the flowers. The berries are rich in carotenoids of which cryp- toxanthin is the major component. Lonicera angustifolia Wall. ex DC. (the Himalayas from Kashmir to Sikkim at altitudes of 1,800-3,600 m), known as Geaang, Chulu and Mithik in Punjab; and L. glaucea Hook. f. Thoms. (the Himalayas from Kashmir to Ku- maon at altitudes of 3,600-4,800 m), known as Sheaa and Shevaa in Punjab and Kumaon, possess antispasmodic properties.

Lonicera periclymenum Linn., Woodbine Honeysuckle, cultivated in hill stations of India, possesses an- tispasmodic, diuretic and sudorific properties. Flowers are used in the form of syrup in diseases of the respiratory tract. The leaves contain an amorphous glycoside and salicylic acid. Sec- oiridoid and secoxyloganin have been isolated from the plant.

Lonicera quinquelocularis Hardw. is equated with Himalayan Honeysuckle, found in the Himalayas from Kashmir to Bhutan, up to an altitude of 4,000 m.

Honeysuckle, also known as Duch Honeysuckle, Goat's Leaf, is equated with Lonicera caprifolium Linn.... lonicera japonica

Loranthus Falcatus

Linn. f.

Synonym: Dendrophthoe falcate (Linn. f.) Etting.

Family: Loranthaceae.

Habitat: Throughout India, as a parasite.

Ayurvedic: Bandaaka, Sanharshaa, Vrikshaadani, Vrikshaaruha, Vriksha-bhakshaa. (A large bushy parasite, which causes much damage to the host tree.)

Folk: Baandaa.

Action: Tender shoots—contain 10% tannins. Bark—astringent and narcotic.... loranthus falcatus

Loranthus Pentandrus


Synonym: Dendrophthoe pentandra (Linn.) Miq.

Family: Loranthaceae.

Habitat: Sylhet. (A parasite found on trees.)

Ayurvedic: Bandaaka (var.).

Folk: Baandaa.

Action: Leaves—used as poultice for sores and ulcers. The twigs contain quercitrin and a wax, which gives melissyl alcohol. The twig ash (8.95%) contains manganese (0.26%).... loranthus pentandrus


(American) An enchanting woman Lordynn, Lordynne, Lordin, Lordinn, Lordinne, Lordyne, Lordine... lordyn


(Basque / English) Resembling a flower / form of Lora, meaning “crowned with laurel; from the laurel tree” Lorea... lore


(German) From the rocky cliff; in mythology, a siren who lured sailors to their deaths

Laurelei, Laurelie, Loralee, Loralei, Loralie, Loralyn, Lorilee, Lorilyn, Lura, Lurette, Lurleen, Lurlene, Lurline, Lurlyne, Lorali, Loreli, Laureli... lorelei


(English) Form of Laura, meaning “crowned with laurel; from the laurel tree” Lorin, Lorren, Lorrin, Lorryn, Loryn, Lorena, Loreen, Loreene, Lorene, Lorenia, Lorenna, Lorine, Larena, Lorrina, Lourana... loren


(Italian) Form of Laura, meaning “crowned with laurel; from the laurel tree” Laretta, Larretta, Lauretta, Laurette, Leretta, Loreta, Lorette, Lorretta, Lowretta, Larette, Larrette... loretta


(French) From the kingdom of Lothair

Laraine, Larayne, Laurraine, Leraine, Lerayne, Lorain, Loraina, Loraine, Lorayne, Lorraina, Lorrayne, Laraene, Larayne, Lareine, Larina, Larine, Larraine, Lorenza, Lourine... lorraine


(French) Form of Charlotte, meaning “a small, strong woman” Lotti, Lotty, Lotte, Lottey, Lottee, Lotta, Loti, Lotie, Lotye, Letya, Letje, Lottea, Lotea... lottie


(German) Feminine form of Louis; a famous warrior

Loise, Louella, Louisa, Louisetta, Louisette, Louisina, Louisiana, Louisiane, Louisine, Louiza, Lovisa, Lowise, Loyise, Lu, Ludovica, Ludovika, Ludwiga, Luella, Luisa, Luise, Lujza, Lujzika, Luiza, Loyce, Ludkhannah, Luijzika, Likla, Ludka, Lilka, Luell, Luelle, Luigina, Loring, Lodoiska... louise


(French) From the place of healing and miracles

Lurdes, Lourdecita, Lourdetta, Lourdette, Louredes, Loordes, Lorda... lourdes


(English) From the city in Belgium Leuven, Loovain... louvain

Loss Of Blood

As a result of trauma. This is perhaps the simplest example of all, when, as a result of an accident involving a large artery, there is severe haemorrhage.

Menstruation. The regular monthly loss of blood which women sustain as a result of menstruation always puts a strain on the blood-forming organs. If this loss is excessive, then over a period of time it may lead to quite severe anaemia.

Childbirth. A considerable amount of blood is always lost at childbirth; if this is severe, or if the woman was anaemic during pregnancy, a severe degree of anaemia may develop.

Bleeding from the gastrointestinal tract. The best example here is anaemia due to ‘bleeding piles’ (see HAEMORRHOIDS). Such bleeding, even though slight, is a common cause of anaemia in both men and women if maintained over a long period of time. The haemorrhage may be more acute and occur from a DUODENAL ULCER or gastric ulcer (see STOMACH, DISEASES OF), when it is known as haematemesis.

Certain blood diseases, such as PURPURA and HAEMOPHILIA, which are characterised by bleeding.... loss of blood

Lotus Tea

Lotus tea is a Vietnamese green tea and has been often associated with purity and serenity in Hindu and Buddhist literature. The lotus plant is a pink aquatic flower with a unique circular seed pod that is collected during late summer after the seeds have matured. The constituents of the lotus plant are lotusine, demethyl coclaurine, neferin and nuciferine. How To Make Lotus Tea Lotus is very effective in the tea form, since this way is digested much faster than pills or other supplements. To make lotus tea, you only need to infuse 2 teaspoons of dried lotus flower and leaves in 500 ml of boiled water. Let it steep for about 5 minutes, then, using a strainer to catch the lotus flowers, pour the tea into your cup and enjoy! Lotus Tea Benefits Lotus tea has been recognized worldwide for its diuretic, astringent and cooling properties. Other health benefits attributed to lotus tea are:
  • It is very effective in treating intestinal problems such as diarrhea and abdominal cramps.
  • Controls bleeding due to the quercetin and other flavonoids in the lotus plant.
  • Lotus leaf tea has a general calming effect, providing relaxation.
  • Helps fighting gastric ulcers and combating hemorrhoids.
  • Lotus tea alleviates restlessness and insomnia.
Lotus Tea Side Effects Lotus tea doesn’t have any particular side effects, but since it is a green tea there may be some things that you should keep in mind. If you are pregnant or breastfeeding, avoid drinking lotus tea or any other type of green tea. Do not drink this tea if you suffer from anemia, diabetes or liver disease. Also, if you are taking medication, green tea including lotus tea, can inhibit their effect. In this case, if you really want to drink lotus tea, consume it 2 hours after taking your medications. In the end, avoid over consumption. Drinking too much lotus tea can be dangerous especially if the tea is low quality!... lotus tea

Lovage Tea

Lovage Tea is known for its diuretic, antiseptic and antimicrobial properties. Lovage is a perennial aromatic flowering plant that grows in the northern and central parts of the United States. The constituents of lovage tea are quercetin, a flavonoid used as a nutritional supplement for people who struggle with fighting cancer, coumarins, beta-sitosterol, gums and resins. How To Make Lovage Tea To brew Lovage Tea, you will need to infuse about 2 teaspoons of dried lovage herb in a cup of boiled water. Let the mix steep for about 7 minutes and then, using a strainer, pour it into your cup. Lovage Tea Benefits
  • Alleviates menstrual cramps.
  • Helps in the treatment of rheumatism.
  • Treats urinary tract infections.
  • Stimulates food appetite.
  • Improves blood circulation.
  • Alleviates migraine headache.
  • Alleviates gas pains and flatulence.
Lovage Tea Side Effects
  • Pregnant and breastfeeding women should avoid drinking Lovage Tea since during pregnancy may cause contractions or even miscarriage.
  • Lovage Tea may lead to fluid retention.
  • Might increase blood pressure.
  • Do not drink Lovage Tea if you have kidney problems.
As you can see, lovage tea is a wonderful tea with many health benefits. Just read the side effects listed above and make sure you won`t experience them!... lovage tea


(English) One who is full of affection Lovey, Loveday, Lovette, Lovi, Lovie, Lov, Luv, Luvey, Luvee, Luvi, Luvie, Lovee, Lovea, Luvea, Luvy... love

Love Seed

Love, Friendship... love seed


(Spanish) A loving woman Loveadah, Loviada, Loviadah, Lovyada, Lovyadah, Lovada... loveada


(American) A gracious and loving woman

Loveann, Lovean, Loveane, Loveanne, Lovanna, Lovana, Lovann, Lovane, Lovanne... loveanna


(American) Filled with love and joy Lovjoy, Lovejoye, Lovjoi, Lovejoi, Luvjoi, Luvjoy, Luvjoye... lovejoy


(Native American) Having a soft spirit

Lovell, Lovela, Lovele, Lovelle, Lovel... lovella


(American) An attractive and pleasant woman

Loveli, Loveley, Lovelie, Lovelee, Loveleigh, Lovelea... lovely


(American) Form of Louise, meaning “a famous warrior” Lowenna, Lowenah, Lowennah, Loweniah, Lowenia, Lowenea, Loweneah... lowena


(English) One who is faithful and true Loyalty, Loyalti, Loyaltie, Loyaltee, Loyaltea, Loyaltey... loyal


These are small tablets containing drugs mixed with sugar, gum, glycerin-jelly or fruit-paste. They are used in various affections of the mouth and throat, being sucked and slowly dissolved by the saliva, which brings the drugs they contain into contact with the affected surface. Some of the substances used in lozenges are benzalkonium (disinfectant), benzocaine (analgesic), betamethasone (corticosteroid), bismuth (disinfectant), formaldehyde (disinfectant), hydrocortisone (corticosteroid), liquorice, and penicillin (antibiotic).... lozenges


(Hawaiian) One who is content and enjoys life

Lewanna, Lou-Ann, Louann, Louanna, Louanne, Luanda, Luane, Luann, Luanna, Luannah, Luanne, Luannie, Luwanna, Luwana, Lujuana... luana


(Hebrew) One who is dearly loved Liba, Lubah, Libena, Lyuba, Lyubah... luba


(Arabic) A soulful woman Lubabah, Lubabia, Lubaby, Lubabie, Lubabey, Lubabee, Lubabea, Lubabi... lubaba


(Spanish) Surrounded by light Luberdah, Luberdia, Luberdiah, Luberdea, Luberdeah, Luberdiya, Luberdiyah... luberda


(Slavic) One who yearns for peace

Lubomirah, Lubomiria, Lubomirea, Lubomyra, Lubomyrah, Lubomeera, Lubomeira, Lubomiera... lubomira


(English) Feminine form of Lucas; woman from Lucanus Luca, Lucania, Lucanea, Lukasta, Luka, Lukina... lucasta


(Latin) One who is surrounded by light

Lucerna, Luceria, Lucena, Lucenia, Lucenea, Lucernia, Lucernea, Lucero... lucerne


(French) Form of Lucy, meaning “one who is illuminated” Lusile, Loucille, Luciela, Lucila, Lucile, Lucilia, Lucilla, Lucyle, Luseele, Lucja, Lucyna, Lucylle, Luceil... lucille


(Polish) Lady of the light Luscia... lucja


(American) One who is fortunate Lucki, Luckie, Luckey, Luckee, Luckea, Luckette, Lucket, Lucketta, Luckete, Lucketa... lucky

Lucky Hand

Employment, Luck, Protection, Money, Travel... lucky hand


(Latin) A bringer of light; a successful woman; in mythology, a maiden who was raped by the prince of Rome Lacretia, Loucrecia, Loucresha, Loucretia, Loucrezia, Lucrece, Lucrecia, Lucreecia, Lucreesha, Lucreisha, Lucresha, Lucrezia, Luighseach... lucretia


(Latin) Feminine form of Lucius; one who is illuminated

Luce, Lucetta, Lucette, Luci, Lucia, Luciana, Lucianna, Lucida, Lucie, Lucienne, Lucina, Lucinda, Lucine, Lucita, Lucyna, Lucyja, Lucza, Lusita, Luz, Luzija, Lucinna, Liusaidh, Lucee, Lucea... lucy


(American) A lighthearted woman Lucylyn, Lucylynne, Lucilynn, Lucilyn, Lucilynne... lucylynn


(Slavic) One who is greatly loved Ludivinah, Ludivyna, Ludivynah, Ludiveena, Ludiveenah, Ludiviena, Ludivienah, Ludiveina, Ludiveinah, Ludiveana, Ludiveanah... ludivina


(Slavic) Having the favor of the people

Ludmilah, Ludmilla, Ludmillah, Ludmyla, Ludmylla, Lyubochka, Lyudmila, Lyuha, Lubmilla, Lubmila, Ljudmila, Ljudumilu... ludmila

Ludwig’s Angina

An uncommon bacterial infection affecting the ?oor of the mouth. It can spread to the throat and become life-threatening. Usually caused by infected gums or teeth, it causes pain, fever and swelling, resulting in di?culty in opening the mouth or swallowing. Urgent treatment with ANTIBIOTICS is called for, otherwise the patient may need a TRACHEOSTOMY to relieve breathing problems.... ludwig’s angina


(American) A self-centered woman

Luenette, Luenett, Luenete, Luenet, Luenetta, Lueneta... luenetter

Lugol’s Solution

A compound solution of iodine and potassium iodide used in the preoperative preparation of patients with thyrotoxicosis (see THYROID GLAND, DISEASES OF). The solution is taken orally.... lugol’s solution


(Polynesian) Sent from heaven Lulanie, Lulaney, Lulany, Lulanee, Lulanea... lulani


(American) One who soothes others Lulli, Lullie, Lullee, Lulleigh, Lullea... lully


(Hawaiian / African) A calm, peaceful woman / as precious as a pearl Lu’lu, Luloah, Lula, Loloo, Looloo... lulu


(American) A well-known beauty Lulubelle, Lulubele, Lulubel, Lulubela, Lulubella... lulubell

Luffa Acutangula

(Linn.) Roxb. var. amara (Roxb.) C. B. Clarke.

Family: Cucurbitaceae.

Habitat: Throughout India.

English: Ribbed or Ridged Gourd (bitter var.).

Ayurvedic: Katukoshataki, Tik- takoshtaki.

Action: Plant—purgative, diuretic. Used for oedema, splenic enlargement, cough and asthma. Seeds— emetic, expectorant.

The plant contains the oleanane type triterpene saponins. It is reported to exhibit antitumour activity.

The fruit juice is used as a homoeopathic drug in hepatic congestion, irritation and inflammation of gastric mucosa.

Dosage: Leaf, fruit, root—10-20 ml juice. (CCRAS.)... luffa acutangula

Luffa Cylindrica

(Linn.) M. J. Roem.

Synonym: L. aegyptiaca Mill. L. pentandra Roxb.

Family: Cucurbitaceae.

Habitat: Cultivated throughout greater parts of India.

English: Smooth Luffa, Sponge- gourd, sponge Cucumber.

Ayurvedic: Dhaamaargava, Ma- haakoshtaki, Mahaajaalini, Raa- jakoshataki.

Siddha/Tamil: Mozhukupeerankai, Pikku.

Action: Plant—used against pharyngitis, rhinitis, mastitis, oedema, swellings and burns. Leaves— used for chronic bronchitis. Leaf juice is given for amenorrhoea. Flowers—used for treating migraine. Seeds—alcoholic extract exhibited 9.80% fungitoxic activity.

German Commission E included Luffa aegyptiaca among unapproved herbs. Preparations of Luffa sponge, used as a preventive for infections or cold, as a remedy for colds, nasal catarrh as well as sinusitis and suppuration of the sinus, have been negatively evaluated.

The saponins isolated from aerial parts are effective in controlling obesity, also the side-effects of steroids.

The oleanane saponins, lucyoside AH (at least one component) is effective in preventing loss of hair.

Spongegourd extracts or saponins (ginsenosides and lucyosides) find application in topical medication for skin disorders and haemorrhoids. Lucyo- sides are also used as antitussive.

The roots of the mature plants contain an acidic pentacyclic triterpene, bryonolic acid. Bryonolic acid showed antiallergic and anti-inflammatory activity in experimental animals. An aqueous extract of seeds showed strong fibrinolytic activity. It also showed anticancer activity in transplanted tumours.

Dosage: Leaf, flower, fruit—10- 20 ml juice. (CCRAS.)... luffa cylindrica

Luffa Echinata


Family: Cucurbitaceae.

Habitat: Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Bengal and Gujarat.

English: Bristly Luffa.

Ayurvedic: Devadaali, Devataadaka, Jimuuta, Garaagari, Kothaphala.

Siddha/Tamil: Panibira.

Folk: Bandaal (Varanasi).

Action: Fruit—purgative (intensely bitter and fibrous). An infusion is given in biliary and intestinal colic; also in nephritis and chronic bronchitis.

The fruit contains chrysoeriol and its glycosides as principal flavonoids. Seeds contain cucurbitacin B, triter- pene alcohols, and a saponin with olea- nolic acid as sapogenin.

The alcoholic and ether extracts of the plant showed protection against CCl4-induced hepatic injury in rats. The aqueous extract of fruits is beneficial in jaundice as it significantly lowered serum bilirubin level in chlorpromazine-induced jaundice in rats and human patients. The ethano- lic extract (50%) of the plant exhibited hypoglycaemic activity.

The yellow-flowered var. of De- vadaali (Eastern Himalayas, Sikkim, Bihar, Bengal) is equated with Luffa graveolens Roxb.

Dosage: Fruit—1-3 g powder. (CCRAS.)... luffa echinata

Lumbar Region

The lower back, five segments of the spinal chord and column, between the sacrum and thoracic regions.... lumbar region

Lumbar Sympathectomy

Destruction of the LUMBAR chain of sympathetic nerves (see NERVOUS SYSTEM) by means of surgery, DIATHERMY or injection of chemicals (phenol or alcohol). The technique is used to improve the blood ?ow to the leg in patients with peripheral vascular disease, and to treat some types of chronic leg pain. It has only limited success.... lumbar sympathectomy

Lumbar Vertebra

There are ?ve lumbar vertebrae in the lower SPINAL COLUMN between the thoracic vertebrae and the sacrum.... lumbar vertebra


Lumbricus is a name sometimes applied to the roundworm, or Ascaris lumbricoides. (See ASCARIASIS.)... lumbricus


(Latin) Surrounded by a brilliant light

Luminah, Lumeena, Lumeenah, Lumyna, Lumynah, Luminosa... lumina


(Latin) Of the moon; in mythology, the goddess of the moon Lunah, Luneth, Lunetta, Lunette, Lunneta, Lunethe, Lunetha... luna


An out-of-date and now derogatory term applied to people of disordered mind, because lunacy was supposed at one time to be largely in?uenced by the moon. (See MENTAL ILLNESS.)... lunatic

Lunch Club

Provision of a meal, usually on one to five days a week, to members of a seniors’ centre at a nominal fee. The lunch club may offer other activities for members.... lunch club


(French / Gaelic) Born on a Monday / from the marshland Lundey, Lundi, Lundie, Lundee, Lundea, Lunde, Lund... lundy


(American) One who is unlike others

Lundynn, Lundynne, Lundan, Lundann, Lunden, Lundon... lundyn


(Welsh) Form of Eiluned, meaning “an idol worshipper” Luneda, Lunedia, Lunedea... luned


(English) Of the crescent moon Lunett, Lunette, Luneta, Lunete, Lunetta... lunet

Lung Flukes

Trematode worms infecting the lungs of humans and other crab-eating mammals. Belong to the genusParagonimus and are found in parts of Africa, Latin America, Asia and SE Asia.... lung flukes

Lung Volumes

The volume of air within the LUNGS changes with the respiratory cycle (see RESPIRATION). The volumes de?ned in the following table can be measured, and may be useful indicators of some pulmonary diseases.

Normal values for a 60 kg man are (in ml):

Total lung capacity (TLC) The volume of air that can be held in the lungs at maximum inspiration.

Tidal volume (TV) The volume of air taken into and expelled from the lungs with each breath.

Inspiratory reserve volume (IRV) The volume of air that can still be inspired at the end of a normal quiet inspiration.

Expiratory reserve volume (ERV) The volume of air that can still be expired at the end of a normal quiet expiration.

Residual volume (RV) The volume of air remaining in the lungs after a maximal expiration.

Vital capacity (VC) The maximum amount of air that can be expired after a maximal inspiration.

Functional residual capacity (FRC) The volume of air left in the lungs at the end of a normal quiet expiration.... lung volumes


Positioned in the chest, the lungs serve primarily as respiratory organs (see RESPIRATION), also acting as a ?lter for the blood.

Form and position Each lung is a sponge-like cone, pink in children and grey in adults. Its apex projects into the neck, with the base resting on the DIAPHRAGM. Each lung is enveloped by a closed cavity, the pleural cavity, consisting of two layers of pleural membrane separated by a thin layer of ?uid. In healthy states this allows expansion and retraction as breathing occurs.

Heart/lung connections The HEART lies in contact with the two lungs, so that changes in lung volume inevitably affect the pumping action of the heart. Furthermore, both lungs are connected by blood vessels to the heart. The pulmonary artery passes from the right ventricle and divides into two branches, one of which runs straight outwards to each lung, entering its substance along with the bronchial tube at the hilum or root of the lung. From this point also emerge the pulmonary veins, which carry the blood oxygenated in the lungs back to the left atrium.

Fine structure of lungs Each main bronchial tube, entering the lung at the root, divides into branches. These subdivide again and again, to be distributed all through the substance of the lung until the ?nest tubes, known as respiratory bronchioles, have a width of only 0·25 mm (1/100 inch). All these tubes consist of a mucous membrane surrounded by a ?brous sheath. The surface of the mucous membrane comprises columnar cells provided with cilia (hair-like structures) which sweep mucus and unwanted matter such as bacteria to the exterior.

The smallest divisions of the bronchial tubes, or bronchioles, divide into a number of tortuous tubes known as alveolar ducts terminating eventually in minute sacs, known as alveoli, of which there are around 300 million.

The branches of the pulmonary artery accompany the bronchial tubes to the furthest recesses of the lung, dividing like the latter into ?ner and ?ner branches, and ending in a dense network of capillaries. The air in the air-vesicles is separated therefore from the blood only by two delicate membranes: the wall of the air-vesicle, and the capillary wall, through which exchange of gases (oxygen and carbon dioxide) readily takes place. The essential oxygenated blood from the capillaries is collected by the pulmonary veins, which also accompany the bronchi to the root of the lung.

The lungs also contain an important system of lymph vessels, which start in spaces situated between the air-vesicles and eventually leave the lung along with the blood vessels, and are connected with a chain of bronchial glands lying near the end of the TRACHEA.... lungs


(Spanish) Form of Guadalupe, meaning “from the valley of wolves” Lupe, Lupyta, Lupelina, Lupeeta, Lupieta, Lupeita, Lupeata... lupita


(American) An affectionate woman

Luquithah, Luquithia, Luquithiah, Luquithea, Luquitheah, Luquithe, Luquetha... luquitha


(American) A beguiling woman Lurisa, Luryssa, Lurysa, Luressa, Luresa... lurissa

Luteinising Hormone

A hormone secreted by the anterior PITUITARY GLAND which stimulates OVULATION, maturation of the CORPUS LUTEUM, and the synthesis of progesterone by the ovary (see OVARIES) and testosterone by the testis (see TESTICLE).... luteinising hormone

Lungs, Diseases Of


In?ammation of the lungs is generally known as PNEUMONIA, when it is due to infection; as ALVEOLITIS when the in?ammation is immunological; and as PNEUMONITIS when it is due to physical or chemical agents.

Abscess of the lung consists of a collection of PUS within the lung tissue. Causes include inadequate treatment of pneumonia, inhalation of vomit, obstruction of the bronchial tubes by tumours and foreign bodies, pulmonary emboli (see EMBOLISM) and septic emboli. The patient becomes generally unwell with cough and fever. BRONCHOSCOPY is frequently performed to detect any obstruction to the bronchi. Treatment is with a prolonged course of antibiotics. Rarely, surgery is necessary.

Pulmonary oedema is the accumulation of ?uid in the pulmonary tissues and air spaces. This may be caused by cardiac disease (heart failure or disease of heart valves – see below, and HEART, DISEASES OF) or by an increase in the permeability of the pulmonary capillaries allowing leakage of ?uid into the lung tissue (see ACUTE RESPIRATORY DISTRESS SYNDROME (ARDS)).

Heart failure (left ventricular failure) can be caused by a weakness in the pumping action of the HEART leading to an increase in back pressure which forces ?uid out of the blood vessels into the lung tissue. Causes include heart attacks and HYPERTENSION (high blood pressure). Narrowed or leaking heart valves hinder the ?ow of blood through the heart; again, this produces an increase in back pressure which raises the capillary pressure in the pulmonary vessels and causes ?ooding of ?uid into the interstitial spaces and alveoli. Accumulation of ?uid in lung tissue produces breathlessness. Treatments include DIURETICS and other drugs to aid the pumping action of the heart. Surgical valve replacement may help when heart failure is due to valvular heart disease.

Acute respiratory distress syndrome Formerly known as adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), this produces pulmonary congestion because of leakage of ?uid through pulmonary capillaries. It complicates a variety of illnesses such as sepsis, trauma, aspiration of gastric contents and di?use pneumonia. Treatment involves treating the cause and supporting the patient by providing oxygen.

Collapse of the lung may occur due to blockage of a bronchial tube by tumour, foreign body or a plug of mucus which may occur in bronchitis or pneumonia. Air beyond the blockage is absorbed into the circulation, causing the affected area of lung to collapse. Collapse may also occur when air is allowed into the pleural space – the space between the lining of the lung and the lining of the inside of the chest wall. This is called a pneumothorax and may occur following trauma, or spontaneously

– for example, when there is a rupture of a subpleural air pocket (such as a cyst) allowing a communication between the airways and the pleural space. Lung collapse by compression may occur when ?uid collects in the pleural space (pleural e?usion): when this ?uid is blood, it is known as a haemothorax; if it is due to pus it is known as an empyema. Collections of air, blood, pus or other ?uid can be removed from the pleural space by insertion of a chest drain, thus allowing the lung to re-expand.

Tumours of the lung are the most common cause of cancer in men and, along with breast cancer, are a major cause of cancer in women. Several types of lung cancer occur, the most common being squamous cell carcinoma, small- (or oat-) cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, and large-cell carcinoma. All but the adenocarcinoma have a strong link with smoking. Each type has a di?erent pattern of growth and responds di?erently to treatment. More than 30,000 men and women die of cancer of the trachea, bronchus and lung annually in England and Wales.

The most common presenting symptom is cough; others include haemoptisis (coughing up blood), breathlessness, chest pain, wheezing and weight loss. As well as spreading locally in the lung – the rate of spread varies – lung cancer commonly spawns secondary growths in the liver, bones or brain. Diagnosis is con?rmed by X-rays and bronchoscopy with biopsy.

Treatment Treatment for the two main categories of lung cancer – small-cell and nonsmall-cell cancer – is di?erent. Surgery is the only curative treatment for the latter and should be considered in all cases, even though fewer than half undergoing surgery will survive ?ve years. In those patients unsuitable for surgery, radical RADIOTHERAPY should be considered. For other patients the aim should be the control of symptoms and the maintenance of quality of life, with palliative radiotherapy one of the options.

Small-cell lung cancer progresses rapidly, and untreated patients survive for only a few months. Because the disease is often widespread by the time of diagnosis, surgery is rarely an option. All patients should be considered for CHEMOTHERAPY which improves symptoms and prolongs survival.

Wounds of the lung may cause damage to the lung and, by admitting air into the pleural cavity, cause the lung to collapse with air in the pleural space (pneumothorax). This may require the insertion of a chest drain to remove the air from the pleural space and allow the lung to re-expand. The lung may be wounded by the end of a fractured rib or by some sharp object such as a knife pushed between the ribs.... lungs, diseases of

Luteinising Hormone-releasing Hormone (lhrh)

A natural hormone released by the HYPOTHALAMUS gland in the BRAIN. It stimulates the release of GONADOTROPHINS from the PITUITARY GLAND; these control the production of the sex hormones (see ANDROGEN; OESTROGENS).... luteinising hormone-releasing hormone (lhrh)


(American) Surrounded by light Luvell, Luvel, Luvele, Luvela, Luvella... luvelle


(English) Little one who is dearly loved

Luvinah, Luvena, Luvyna, Luveena, Luveina, Luviena, Luveana... luvina

Luvunga Eleutherandra

Dalz in part.

Family: Rutaceae.

Habitat: The western part of Peninsular India, from Konkan southwards to Anaimalai and Travancore hills, up to an altitude of 1,000 m.

Ayurvedic: Lavanga-lataa (var.).

Folk: Kokilaa (Bengal).

Action: See Luvunga scandens.... luvunga eleutherandra

Lupinus Albus


Family: Leguminosae; Fabaceae.

Habitat: Cultivated in gardens. English: While Lupine, Wolfsbohne. Unani: Turmus.

Action: Seeds—deobstruent, carminative, alterative, anthelmintic. Used as an external application to ulcers.

The seed contains alkaloids d-and dl-lupanine and hydroxylupanine.

The principal alkaloid of Blue Lupine (Lupinus angustifolius L.) seeds is d-lupanine, also hydroxylupanine.

Yellow Lupine (Lupinus luteus L.) seeds contain lupinine (0.43-0.73%) and sparteine (0.20-0.37%). Seeds are feebly cyanogenetic. Other species of Indian gardens, Lupinus hirsutus Linn. and Lupinus mutabilis Sweet, contain sparteine.... lupinus albus

Luvunga Scandens

(Roxb.) Buch.-Ham. ex Wight.

Family: Rutaceae.

Habitat: Bengal, Assam and Khasi Hills.

Ayurvedic: Lavanga-lataa. Folk: Sugandh-kokilaa (Bengal).

Action: Essential oil—antifungal.

Mature berries contain coumarins. The essential oil from berries contains cinnamyl cinnamate, cineole, d- camphor and methyl cinnamate as major components.

Dried fruits are used in medicinal hair oils, prescribed for treating baldness.

The bark contains myricadiol, tara- xerol and myricolal.... luvunga scandens


(Native American) Resembling the dove... luyu


(Spanish) A shining woman Luzill, Luzil, Luzile, Luzila, Luzilla... luzille


(American) A beloved friend Lyawanda, Lyawunda, Lywonda, Lywanda, Lywunda... lyawonda


Morbid delusion that one is a wolf.... lycanthropy


(Greek) Born at twilight Lycoriss, Lycorisse, Lycorys, Lycorysse, Lycoryss... lycoris


(Greek) A beautiful woman from Lydia

Lidia, Lidie, Lidija, Lyda, Lydie, Lydea, Liddy, Lidiy, Lidochka... lydia

Lydia Pinkham

Manufactured herbal preparation sold at botánicas and used for women’s health conditions, including menopause, infertility, vaginal infections, menstrual irregularities and uterine fibroids.... lydia pinkham




(Greek) Resembling a she-wolf... lykaios


(English) From the island Lisle, Lysle, Lile... lyle

Lycium Barbarum


Family: Solanaceae.

Habitat: Punjab, Rajasthan, Gujarat and Maharashtra.

Unani: Chirchataa, Chirchitaa, Chirchitta.

Folk: Kheechar Chirchataa.

Action: Immunostimulatory, antiproliferatory, antiageing; antioxidant.

The leaves and flowers contain free quercetin (1.28 and 1.58 mg/g dry weight, respectively), and bound kaem- pferol. Total alkaloid percentage is nearly the same in shoots (1.26%) and fruits (1.24%) but lower in cal- li (0.83%) and roots (0.67%). Fruits had highest atropine content (0.95%) and shoots the highest hyoscyamine content (0.33%).

Flavonoids are active against E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans (quercetin does not show activity against Candida albicans).

The polysaccharide extract from fruits showed antiageing, immunos- timulatory and antiproliferatory activities. The polysaccharide acts as an an- tioxidant and prevented CCl4-induced increases in lipid peroxidases in liver. It can also protect against genetic damage from mutagenic and genotoxic compounds. This activity leads to its potential use in preventing the adverse effects of chemotherapeutic agents.

The fruit contain beta-carotene (8 mg/100 g dry weight), also free amino acids (1.0-2.6%); major amino acid is proline.

The dried fruit and root bark reduce cholesterol level by preventing its absorption in gastrointestinal tract. A constituent of the root bark, kuko- amine exhibits cholesterol lowering, antihypertensive and hypoglycaemic effects. Hepatoprotective activity is attributed to a cerebroside constituent found in the fruit. (Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, 2007.)

The fruit and root bark is contraindi- cated in bleeding disorders and hypoglycemia. (Sharon M. Herr.)... lycium barbarum

Lycopersicon Esculentum


Synonym: Solanum lycopersicum Linn.

Family: Solanaceae.

Habitat: Cultivated in many parts of India.

English: Tomato, Love Apple.

Unani: Tamaatar.

Action: Mild aperient, blood purifier, cholagogue, digestive. Used in homoeopathy for treating rheumatic conditions, colds, chills, digestive disorders, diabetes, obesity, leucorrhoea, metrorrhagia.

Tomato is a powerful deobstruent. It promotes flow of bile; mildly laxative, especially when taken raw. Tomato stimulates torpid liver and kidneys and helps to wash away toxins. Tomato is recommended for diabetics. It is a major dietary source of carotenoid lycopene.

Tomato juice inhibits carcinogenic N-nitrosocompound formation chiefly in the stomach. Most of the inhibition of formation of N-nitrosomorpholine by phenolic fraction of tomato juice was due to chlorogenic acids. The ascorbate fraction of the juice also contains compounds that inhibit ni- trosation.

Consumption of tomato juice can significantly increase serum lycopene levels. (Decreased serum lycopene concentrations are associated with an increase risk of prostate cancer.) (Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, 2007.)

The alcoholic extract of tomato possesses CNS depressant and analgesic properties.... lycopersicon esculentum

Lycopodium Clavatum


Family: Lycopodiaceae.

Habitat: Indigenous to North America, Europe, Asia; found in Kumaon, eastwards in West Bengal, Sikkim, Asam, Khasi Hills, Manipur and in Western Ghats.

English: Common Club Moss.

Folk: Naaga-beli (Nepal), Bendarali (Maharashtra).

Action: Sedative, antispasmodic, diuretic. At one time used for urinary disorders (spasmodic retention of urine, catarrhal cystitis and chronic kidney disorders), and as a gastric sedative in gastritis.

The plant contains alkaloids (about 0.1-00.2%), including lycopodine, ly- codoline, faucettimine and lycoflexine; triterpenoids including clavatol and oxoserrat derivatives; flavonoids including apigenin; polyphenolic acids including dihydrocaffeic.

Lycopodine produces uterine contractions and stimulates peristalsis in the small intestines of rodents.

The plant contains (dry basis): lipid 4.06 and desmethylsterols 0.05%.

Used in homoeopathy for distended abdomen, cough, cystitis, renal colic and disorders of menstruation.

Chinese Club Moss, equated with Huperzia serrata, is a different herb. Its constituent, huperzine A is thought to be beneficial in dementia due to its effect on acetylcholine levels.

L. annotinum Linn., L. complanatum Linn. (American Club Moss) and L. selago Linn. are among other species of Lycopodium occurring in India.... lycopodium clavatum


(Greek) Woman of royalty Lymekiah, Lymekea, Lymekeah, Lymekiya, Lymekiyah, Lymekya, Lymekyah... lymekia

Lycopus Europaeus


Family: Labiatae.

Habitat: Western Himalayas in Jammu and Kashmir, and Himachal Pradesh.

English: Gipsywort, Bugleweed.

Folk: Gandam-gundu, Jalneem.

Action: Cardioactive, diuretic, peripheral vasoconstrictor, sedative, narcotic, antihaemorrhagic, antitussive, thyrostatic.

Key application: In mild thyroid hyperfunction (contraindicated in thyroid hypofunction, enlargement of thyroid) with disturbances of vegetative nervous system; masto- dynia (tension and pain in breast). No simultaneous administration of thyroid preparations. Administration of Bugleweed preparations interferes with the administration of diagnostic procedures using radioactive isotopes. (German Commission E.)

The leaves contain lithospermic acid. Plant contains luteolin-7-glucoside; ur- solic acid, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, sinapic acid, ellagic acid and other derivatives of phenolic acid. The antioxidant activity of the plant is partially attributed to rosmarinic acid. Antigonadotropic activity of the leaf extract is attributed to phenolic precursors.

Ethanol extract of the plant showed diverse effects on the pituitary, thyroid and gonadal glands of rats.

A closely related species, Lycopus virginicus of Europe, exhibits anti- thyrotropic activity. It induces TSH repletion in hypothyroid rats and reduction of TSH levels in euthyroid rats. Antigonadotropic activity has been demonstrated in rats.... lycopus europaeus

Lygodium Flexuosum

(L.) Sw.

Synonym: L. pinnatifidum Sw.

Family: Schizaeaceae.

Habitat: Throughout India; up to an elevation of 1,500 m in the Himalayas.

Folk: Vallipana (Malyalam); Bhuuta-bhairavi (Bengal), Bhuuta- raaj; Kalzhaa (Bihar). Rudrajataa is a doubtful synonym.

Action: Plant—expectorant. Root— used in external applications for rheumatism, sprains, cut wounds, eczema, scabies, carbuncles. A decoction in drunk in gastric attacks.

The acetone extract of fresh leaves exhibits antifungal activity. The fern contains a methyl ester of gibberellin.

The plant contains lygodinolide, dryocrassol, tectoquinone, kaempfer- ol, beta-sitosterol and stigmasterol. The root contains quercetin.

Alcoholic extract of the plant exhibited potent antifertility activity.

L. japonicum Sw., found in North India from Kashmir to Sikkim and Bhutan, and in Western mountains of South India, is used as an expectorant in China.... lygodium flexuosum


Another name for Hodgkin’s disease. (See LYMPHOMA.)... lymphadenoma

Lymphogranuloma Inguinale

A venereal disease in which the chief characteristic is enlargement of glands in the groin – the infecting agent being a virus.... lymphogranuloma inguinale


Lymphokines are polypeptides that are produced by lymphocytes (see LYMPHOCYTE) as part of their immune response to an ANTIGEN; their function is to communicate with other cells of the immune system (see IMMUNITY). Some lymphokines stimulate B-cells to di?erentiate into antibody-producing plasma cells; others stimulate T-lymphocytes to proliferate; other lymphokines become interferons (see INTERFERON).... lymphokines


(Welsh) A beautiful maiden; resembling a songbird

Lanette, Linett, Linette, Linnet, Lynet, Lynessa, Lynett, Lynetta, Lynnet, Lynnette, Lenette, Linet, Linetta, Linnette, Linnetta, Lonette, Linytte, Lynete, Lynley, Lyneth... lynette


(English) Woman of the lake; form of Linda, meaning “one who is soft and beautiful”

Linell, Linnell, Lyn, Lynae, Lyndel, Lyndell, Lynell, Lynelle, Lynlee, Lynley, Lynna, Lynne, Lynnelle, Lynnea... lynn


(English) From the town of lime trees

Lynten, Lyntan, Linton, Linten, Lintan... lynton


(English) From the lost land Lyoness, Lyonness, Lyonnesse, Lyones... lyonesse

Lyonia Ovalifolia

(Wall.) Drude.

Synonym: Pieris ovalifolia D. Don.

Family: Ericaceae.

Habitat: Outer Himalayas from Kashmir to Sikkim, at 1,000 to 2,500 m, and in Khasi hills between 1,200 to 2,000 m.

Folk: Angyaar (Garhwal), Arwan (Punjab), Angeri (Nepal).

Action: Young leaves and buds— used externally for cutaneous affections. Leaves—insectici- dal. Honey from flowers— poisonous.

Leaves contain a toxic, insecticidal substance andromedotoxin.

The wood yields 0.51% ash, rich in soluble potassium salts.... lyonia ovalifolia


(Greek) One who plays the lyre Lyria, Lyris, Lyrea, Lyre... lyra


(French) Of the lyre; the words of a song

Lyrica, Lyricia, Lyrik, Lyrick, Lyrika, Lyricka... lyric


(Greek) Form of Alexandra, meaning “helper and defender of mankind”

Lisandra, Lissandra, Lizandra, Lisandrina, Lisandrine, Lissandrina, Lissandrine, Lyssandra, Lyssa, Lyaksandra... lysandra

Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (lsd)

Lysergic acid diethylamide belongs to the ergot group of ALKALOIDS. It has various effects on the brain, notably analgesic and hallucinogenic, thought to be due to its antagonism of 5hydroxytryptamine (5-HT). In small doses it induces psychic states, in which the individual may become aware of repressed memories. For this reason it may help in the treatment of certain anxiety states, if used under skilled supervision. LSD rapidly induces TOLERANCE, however, and psychological DEPENDENCE may occur, although not physical dependence. Serious side-effects include psychotic reactions, with an increased risk of suicide.... lysergic acid diethylamide (lsd)


(American) A pretty young girl Lysette, Lyset, Lysete, Lysetta, Lyseta... lysett


(Greek) Feminine form of Lysimachus; released from battle Lysimachie, Lysimachi, Lysimachee, Lysimacha, Lysimachia, Lysimachea... lysimache


A brown, clear, oily ?uid with antiseptic properties, made from coal-tar and containing 50 per cent CRESOL. When mixed with water it forms a clear soapy ?uid.... lysol

Lysol Poisoning

When LYSOL is swallowed it burns the mouth and throat. Brown discoloration of the affected tissues, accompanied by the characteristic smell of lysol on the breath, is typical.

Treatment This is urgent. If the skin has been contaminated with the lysol, it must be washed with water, and any lysol-contaminated clothing must be taken o?. Do not make the victim vomit if he or she has swallowed a corrosive substance such as lysol or phenol. Call an ambulance and say what the victim has taken. See APPENDIX 1: BASIC FIRST AID.... lysol poisoning


... lyssa

Lyssa Is Another Term For Rabies.

... lyssa is another term for rabies.

Lyssa Virus

A group of rhabdoviruses closely related to the rabies virus. The Australian Bat Lyssa virus is found in flying foxes (fruit bats) and can cause a rabies-like disease in humans. The disease should be handled as for rabies and can be prevented by using rabies vaccine.... lyssa virus


(Greek) Form of Alexandra, meaning “helper and defender of mankind” Lyssana, Lyssann, Lyssane, Lyssanne, Lysan, Lysann, Lysane, Lysanne, Lysana, Lysanna... lyssan


(American) A scintillating woman Lytanesha, Lytaniesha, Lytaneisha, Lytanysha, Lytaneesha, Lytaneasha... lytanisha

Lytocarpus Philippinus

Commonly known as fireweed, Lytocarpus is a stinging hydroid (hydrozoan) that grows on pilings, rocks and overhangs in tropical and sub-tropical areas of the world. Skin contact causes an itchy vesicular rash.... lytocarpus philippinus

Maca (lepidium Meyenii)

Maca is a native plant of Peru and is used to increase libido, strength, stamina, and energy (I know, right? It’s like the perfect herb. Time to bake it into some cookies and deliver them to that co-worker/friend/neighbor you’ve had your eye on…). Further, maca can normalize all the sex hormones: testosterone, progesterone, and estrogen (i.e. a great option for combating the natural hormonal downslide that occurs with aging). If fertility issues are on your radar, maca is a great herb to include, as it regulates menstrual cycles and eases cycle pain. For menopause? Again, spotlight on hormones. Maca can ease this transition as well. It also decreases stress which, as we know, is a major downer to any sexual liaison. How to take maca? Well, you can buy it in supplement form, but you’re going to need a lot of it. I don’t care what the bottle says, you want to aim for 6-10 500mg capsules per day (at least!). Or, you can buy the powdered herb and blend a tablespoon into a smoothie or juice every day. The more you take? The better. There are no toxic side effects to this herb.... maca (lepidium meyenii)

Maca Tea - A Libido Enhancer

Maca tea has been recognized for its nutritional properties and for being a libido enhancer. Maca plant, also known as the “Peruvian ginseng”, is an herb that grows in the high Andes of Bolivia and Peru for thousands of years. It is related to the turnip and the radish, having green and fragrant tops that lie along the ground. Maca has been used in Peru as a remedy to enhance energy and sexual function. The constituents of maca root are basically minerals such as calcium, potassium, magnesium, zinc, phosphorus and iron; sterols, lipids, carbohydrates, fiber, proteins and amino acids. How To Make Maca Tea Maca tea has a sweet taste, similar to butterscotch. To brew maca tea you will need an herbal tea of your choice to combine it with the maca powder. Prepare the herbal tea and after 1-2 minutes, add a teaspoon of maca powder and stir the mixture. To really enhance the flavor, you can add milk or honey. Tea connoisseurs recommend Soya milk. Maca Tea Benefits
  • Helps providing energy without over-stimulating the body’s systems.
  • Enhances libido and helps in the treatment of erectile dysfunction.
  • Increases the production of sperm.
  • Helps relieving the symptoms of menopause.
  • Strengthens your immune system.
  • Balances and stabilizes the body’s cardiovascular, nervous, muscular and lymphatic systems.
Maca Tea Side Effects In toxicity studies, maca tea showed no adverse pharmacological effects. However, maca root contains iodine, which can lead to side effects such as thyroid disease. Maca root is also high in glucosinolates and in case of over consumption, combined with low-iodine diet, can cause goiter. It can also cause hives and fatigue to people that are allergic to the constituents of maca tea. Maca Tea is a wonderful tea with many health benefits. It is ideal for incresing your libido and boosting your immune system! Try to avoid over consumption in order not to experience any of its side effects!... maca tea - a libido enhancer

Malignant Lymphoma

See LYMPHOMA.... malignant lymphoma

Minimum Lethal Dose (mld)

See MLD.... minimum lethal dose (mld)

Mucocutaneous Lymph Nodesyndrome

See KAWASAKI DISEASE.... mucocutaneous lymph nodesyndrome

National Electronic Library For Health

This National Health Service initiative went online in November 2000. It aims to provide health professionals with easy and fast access to best current knowledge from medical journals, professional group guidelines, etc. Unbiased data can be accessed by both clinicians and the public.... national electronic library for health

National Listening Library

National Listening Library is a charity which produces recorded books for handicapped people who cannot read, with the exception of the blind who have their own separate organisation, the Royal National Institute for the Blind. (See also CALIBRE.)... national listening library

Nhs Litigation Authority

See MEDICAL LITIGATION.... nhs litigation authority

Madhuca Longifolia

(Koen.) Macb.

Synonym: Bassia longifolia Koenig.

Family: Sapotaceae.

Habitat: Cultivated in Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Andhara Pradesh, Karnataka, Bengal and Maharas- tra.

English: South Indian Mahua.

Siddha/Tamil: Illupei, Elupa, Naatu Iluppai, Iruppai.

Folk: Madhuulaka, Jala-Madhuuka, Jala-Mahuaa.

Action: Same as that of Madhuca indica.

Seed kernel gave protobassic acid (a sapogenol) and two major sapo- nins named Mi-saponins A and B and a minor one Mi-saponin C—all bis- desmosides of protobassic acid. Mi- saponins exhibit anti-inflammatory and antiulcerogenic activities.

Mahua oil causes total but reversible sterility in male rats as it shows testicu- lar atrophy with degeneration of seminiferous tubules.

A related species, Madhuca neri- ifolia (Moon) H. J. Lam., synonym Bassia neriifolia Moon, Bassia mal- abarica Bedd. (known as Atta Illuppei in Tamil), is found in Western Ghats and coastal region of South India.

The flowers are used in renal diseases; fruits in rheumatism, cough, asthma and consumption; seed oil is used in rheumatism.... madhuca longifolia

Medical Litigation

Legal action taken by an individual or group of individuals, usually patients, against hospitals, health-service providers or health professionals in respect of alleged inadequacies in the provision of health care.

In the hospital service, claims for clinical negligence have risen enormously since the 1970s. In 1975 the NHS spent about £1m a year on legal claims; by 2004 the NHS faced over £2 billion in outstanding claims. In 1995 a risk-pooling Clinical Negligence Scheme for Trusts (CNST) was set up in England, and is administered by the NHS Litigation Authority. NHS trusts are expected to follow a set of risk-management standards, the ?rst being that each trust should have a written risk-management strategy with an explicit commitment to managing clinical risk (see RISK MANAGEMENT).... medical litigation

Melaleuca Leucadendron


Family: Myrtaceae.

Habitat: Indegenous to Burma, Cambodia, Thailand, Malay Peninsula to Australia; grown in Indian gardens and parks.

English: Cajeput tree, Swamp Tea tree, White Tea tree.

Folk: Kaayaaputi. (The oil of Cajeput is imported into India, chiefly from France and Netherlands.)

Action: Oil—used as an expectorant in chronic laryngitis and bronchitis, and as a carminative. Acts as anthelmintic, especially against round worms. Enters into ointments for rheumatism and stiff joints, sprains and neuralgia, migraine, colds, influenza, and as a mosquito repellent.

Key application: The oil is antimicrobial and hypermic in vitro. (German Commission.)

The oil contains terpenoids, 1,8- cineole (40-65%) as major component, with alpha-pinene, alpha-terpineol, nerolidol, limonene, benzaldehyde, valeraldehyde, dipentene and various sesquiterpenes; 3,5-dimethyl-4,6,di- O-methylphloroacetophenone.

The essential oil of Melaleuca al- ternifolia (Tea Tree Oil) is indicated for acne, tinea pedis and toe and nail onychomycosis on the basis of human trials. (Sharon M. Herr.)

Tea Tree Oil is distilled from the leaves of several species of Australian trees belonging the genus Melaleuca, principaly from M. alternifolia. Tea Tree Oil should contain a maximum of 15% 1,8-cineole and a minimum of 30% (+)-terpinen-4-ol, the principal germicidal ingredient. Other constituents, alpha-terpineol and linalool, also exhibit antimicrobial activity. (Cited in Rational Phytotherapy.)

The essential oil of Melaleuca virdi- flora Solander ex Gaertner leaves, known as Niauli Oil, is used for catarrh of the upper respiratory tract. The oil is antibacterial and stimulatory to circulation in vitro. (German Commission E.) Like cajeput oil, the principal constituent is cineole (eucalyptol).

A related species, M. genistifolia, indigenous to Australia, is grown in botanical gardens at Saharanpur and Lucknow (Uttar Pradesh). The leaves and terminal twigs yield 0.53% of a volatile oil which consists mainly of d-pinene, and about 2% cineole and traces of aldehyde.... melaleuca leucadendron

Non-hodgkin’s Lymphoma

See LYMPHOMA.... non-hodgkin’s lymphoma

Nurse Logs

In old-growth forests, these are ancient downed trees that rot so slowly that they themselves become the fundus and growth media for new and growing trees and other life-forms.... nurse logs

Passiflora Laurifolia


Family: Passifloraceae.

Habitat: Native of tropical America; grown in Indian gardens.

English: Water-lemon, Jamaica Honey Suckle.

Action: Leaves—anthelmintic. Seeds—hypnodil. Fruit—edible. Plant—poisonous (the foliage produces hydrocyanic acid).

The fruit pulp contains pantothenic acid (1.55 mg/100 g); leaves contain 387 mg/100 g vitamin C.... passiflora laurifolia

Poupart’s Ligament

Also known as the inguinal ligament, it is the strong ligament lying in the boundary between the anterior abdominal wall and the front of the thigh.... poupart’s ligament

Poverty Level / Line

A minimum income level below which a person is officially considered to lack adequate subsistence and to be living in poverty. Poverty statistics are based on definitions developed by individual countries or constituencies.... poverty level / line

Mentha Longifolia

(Linn.) Huds.

Synonym: M. sylvestris Linn.

Family: Labiatae; Lamiaceae.

Habitat: Native to Europe and Asia; cultivated in Kashmir, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh and Punjab.

English: English Horsemint.

Unani: Pudinaa-Barri, Jangali Pudinaa.

Action: Leaf and flowering top— carminative, stimulant, antiseptic, febrifuge. Used for digestive disorders and headaches. Essential oil—antibacterial.

Chief components of the volatile oil are 1,8-cineole 28.8, piperitone 13.9, cis- piperitone oxide 15.4 and piperitenone 13.8%. The aerial parts contain flavonoids—3'-hydroxy-4',5,6,7-tetra- methoxyflavone, hesperetin-7-rutino- side, luteolin, ursolic acid and beta- sitosterol. The essential oil acts as a CNS depressant and has somnifacient properties. Phenolic extract showed stimulative effect on CNS of mice. Administration of the oil leads to a drop in body temperature.

American Horsemint is equated with Monarda punctata L. The major component of the volatile oil is thymol. The leaves and tops are used as stimulant, carminative and emmenagogue.... mentha longifolia

Meyna Laxiflora


Synonym: Vangueria spinosa Hook. f.

Family: Rubiaceae.

Habitat: West Bengal, Bihar, Orissa, in hedges and waste places.