Quality-adjusted life years (qalys) Health Dictionary

Quality-adjusted Life Years (qalys): From 1 Different Sources

Years of life saved by a medical technology or service, adjusted according to the quality of those years (as determined by some evaluative measure). QALYs are the most commonly used unit to express the results in some types of cost-effectiveness analysis.
Health Source: Community Health
Author: Health Dictionary

Life Expectancy

The average number of years of life remaining to a person at a particular age based on a given set of age-specific death rates, generally the mortality conditions existing in the period mentioned.... life expectancy

Kiss Of Life

Emergency mouth-to-mouth resuscitation of an unconscious person (see APPENDIX 1: BASIC FIRST AID).... kiss of life

End-of-life Care

Care of older persons who are dying.... end-of-life care

Half Life

The time taken for the PLASMA concentration of an administered drug to decline by half as a result of redistribution, METABOLISM and EXCRETION.... half life

Life Cycle

1 The entire course of a person’s life – from infancy to old age. 2 The genetically prescribed course followed by all living organisms, including humans.... life cycle

Mid-life Crisis

A colloquial description of the feelings of anxiety and distress experienced by some individuals in early middle age. They realise that by 45 years of age they are no longer young, and men in particular try to turn the clock back by changing jobs, dressing trendily, taking up energetic or unusual sports or engaging in extramarital liaisons. Sometimes those in mid-life crises develop mild or even serious DEPRESSION. The feelings of anxiety and insecurity usually disappear with time but some people may bene?t from counselling.... mid-life crisis

Quality Of Life

The product of the interplay between social, health, economic and environmental conditions which affect human and social development. It is a broad-ranging concept, incorporating a person’s physical health, psychological state, level of independence, social relationships, personal beliefs and relationship to salient features in the environment. As people age, their quality of life is largely determined by their ability to access needed resources and maintain autonomy and independence.... quality of life

Acute Life-threatening Event (alte)

See ALTE.... acute life-threatening event (alte)

Change Of Life

See CLIMACTERIC; MENOPAUSE.... change of life

Client Quality

The outcome of care/service from an individual/user’s point of view. It is how well the care service supports the client/user to improve his/her quality of life.... client quality

Disability-adjusted Life Expectancy

A modification of conventional life expectancy to account for time lived with disability. It is the number of healthy years of life that can be expected on average in a given population. It is generally calculated at birth, but estimates can also be prepared at other ages. It adjusts the expectation of years of life for the loss on account of disability, using explicit weights for different health states.... disability-adjusted life expectancy

Disability-adjusted Life Years (dalys)

The number of healthy years of life lost due to premature death and disability.... disability-adjusted life years (dalys)

Expectation Of Life

The average number of years an individual of a given age is expected to live if current mortality rates continue to apply. See “life expectancy”.... expectation of life

Health-related Quality-of-life (hrql) Measure

Individual outcome measure that extends beyond traditional measures of mortality and morbidity to include such dimensions as physiology, function, social activity, cognition, emotion, sleep and rest, energy and vitality, health perception and general life satisfaction (some of these are also known as health status, functional status or quality-of-life measures).... health-related quality-of-life (hrql) measure

Healthy Life Expectancy

See “disability-adjusted life expectancy”.... healthy life expectancy

Life Course

See “life cycle”.... life course

Life Everlasting

Longevity, Health, Healing... life everlasting

Life Insurance

Insurance providing for payment of a stipulated sum to a designated beneficiary upon death of the insured.... life insurance

Life Satisfaction

See “well-being”.... life satisfaction

Life Span

The longest period over which the life of any plant or animal organism or species may extend, according to the available biological knowledge concerning it.... life span

Life-sustaining Treatment

Drugs, medical devices, or procedures that can keep alive a person who would otherwise die within a foreseeable, though usually uncertain, time. Examples include cardiopulmonary resuscitation, mechanical ventilation, renal dialysis, nutritional support (i.e. tube or intravenous feeding) and provision of antibiotics to fight life-threatening infections.... life-sustaining treatment

Quality Assurance (qa)

Standardized procedures, methods or philosophy for collecting, processing or analysing data, which is performed on an ongoing basis and aimed at maintaining or improving the appropriateness and reliability of health care services.... quality assurance (qa)

Quality Circle

An instrument for quality enhancement and quality assurance which uses groups of peers to assess and discuss the quality of their own work and develop strategies for improvement.... quality circle

Quality Control (qc)

The sum of all the activities which prevent unwanted change in quality. In the health care setting, quality control requires a repeated series of feedback loops which monitor and evaluate the care of the individual (and other elements in the health care process). These feedback loops involve checking the care being delivered against standards of care, identification of any problems or opportunities for improvement, and prompt corrective action, so that the quality is maintained.... quality control (qc)

Quality Improvement / Continuous Quality Improvement

The sum of all the activities which create desired change in quality. In the health care setting, quality improvement requires a feedback loop which involves the identification of patterns of the care of individuals (or of the performance of other systems involved in care), the analysis of those patterns in order to identify opportunities for improvement (or instances of departure from standards of care), and then action to improve the quality of care for future patients. An effective quality improvement system results in step-by-step increases in quality of care.... quality improvement / continuous quality improvement

Quality Assessment And Performance Improvement Programme (qapi)

QAPI establishes strategies for promoting high quality health care. First, each organization must meet certain required levels of performance when providing specific health care and related services. Second, organizations must conduct performance improvement projects that are outcome-oriented and that achieve demonstrable and sustained improvement in care and services. It is expected that an organization will continuously monitor its own performance on a variety of dimensions of care and services, identify its own areas for potential improvement, carry out individual projects to undertake system interventions to improve care, and monitor the effectiveness of those interventions.... quality assessment and performance improvement programme (qapi)

Quality Of Basic Amenities

The quality of non-clinical attributes of health care units, such as cleanliness of the facility, adequacy of the furniture and quality of the food.... quality of basic amenities

Quality Of Care

The degree to which delivered health services meet established professional standards and are judged to be of value to the consumer. Quality may also be seen as the degree to which actions taken or not taken maximize the probability of beneficial health outcomes and minimize risk and other outcomes, given the existing state of medical science and art.... quality of care

Total Quality Management (tqm)

TQM is synonymous with continuous quality improvement (CQI). It is an integrative management concept of continuously improving the quality of delivered goods and services through the participation of all level and functions of the organization to meet the needs and expectations of the customer.... total quality management (tqm)

User Quality

See “client quality”.... user quality

Life Drops

A combination of tinctures devised to stimulate a healthy reaction from the major organs of the body. For promoting body warmth in winter; mobilising resources to fight off colds, chills, or threatening infection. When the fires of life burn low, a few drops in a cup of tea has power to revive and rouse the vital force.

Ingredients: Tincture Capsicum fort 70 per cent, (general stimulant). Ess Menth Pip 20 per cent (stomach and intestines). Tincture Elder flowers 5 per cent (to promote vigorous peripheral circulation). Tincture Cola vera 2 per cent (to activate brain cells). Tincture Hawthorn (or Cactus grand) 3 per cent (to sustain the heart).

Formula: Edgar G. Jones MNIMH ... life drops

Life Force, The.

The spirit of the body concerned with life and survival. An extension of the spirit of the Creator in the human body. The intelligence and power behind the immune system.

A weak immune system, with little ability to withstand infection or injury, may be genetic in origin. May be acquired by faulty diet, chemicalised food and medicine, antibiotics, vaccines, and steroid drugs that exhaust the glandular system.

The Life Force can be sustained by a diet of wholefoods, organically grown vegetables and an absence of chemicals in medicine, food and environment. It is safe-guarded by a relaxed life-style which predisposes to a balanced personality capable of meeting the stresses of modern living with equanimity and self-possession. Only the spirit can restore. It is the work of the practitioner to aid in its work. ... life force, the.

Life Root

Squaw weed. Senecio aureus L. Dried herb. Keynote: menopause.

Constituents: sesquiterpenes, pyrrolizidine alkaloids.

Action: Tonic for relaxed womb, emmenagogue, astringent, mild expectorant.

Uses: Hot flushes of the menopause with nervous instability. Absent, painful or profuse menstruation. Ovarian pain. Stone, gravel. Diarrhoea. Bleeding from mucous surfaces. Prostatitis.

Combinations: with Motherwort for suppressed menses. With Oats for menopause. Preparations. Average dose: 1-4 grams. Thrice daily.

Tea: half-2 teaspoons to cup boiling water; infuse 15 minutes. Dose: half-1 cup. Liquid Extract. Half-1 teaspoon, in water.

Powder: 1-4 grams.

Not now used internally. ... life root

Advanced Life Support

(ALS) a structured and algorithm-driven method of life support for use in the severest of medical emergencies, especially cardiac arrest. Doctors, nurses, and paramedic personnel involved in ALS receive special training in the use of equipment (e.g. defibrillators and appropriate drugs). Paediatric advanced life support (PALS) is ALS for use in severe medical emergencies in children, while advanced trauma life support(ATLS) is specifically for patients who have been subjected to major trauma, such as a serious road accident. Compare basic life support.... advanced life support

Basic Life Support

the provision of treatment designed to maintain adequate circulation and ventilation to a patient in *cardiac arrest, without the use of drugs or specialist equipment. Compare advanced life support.... basic life support

Dermatology Life Quality Index

(DLQI) a validated questionnaire designed by Finlay in 1994 to assess the impact of skin diseases on psychological and social wellbeing. It is the most common *quality of life tool used as an endpoint in dermatology clinical trials. DLQI scores of more than 10 (indicating a severe impact on life) are required before biological treatments for psoriasis may be administered in the UK.... dermatology life quality index

Care Quality Commission

(CQC) a publicly funded independent organization established in 2009 and responsible for regulation of health and social care in England; it replaced the Healthcare Commission, the Commission for Social Care Inspection, and the Mental Health Act Commission. The responsibilities of the commission include publication of national health-care standards; annual assessment of the performance of NHS and social-care organizations; reviewing other (i.e. private and voluntary) health- and social-care organizations; reviewing complaints about the services when it has not been possible to resolve them locally; and investigating serious service failures.... care quality commission

Disability-adjusted Life Year

(DALY) a common research measure of disease burden that accounts for both morbidity and mortality. One year lived in full health is equivalent to one DALY. Disabilities and disease states are assigned a weighting that reduces this figure, such that a year lived with disability is equivalent to less than one DALY. Some studies also use social weighting, in which years lived as a young adult receive a greater DALY weight than those lived as a young child or older adult. See also health-adjusted life expectancy; quality of life.... disability-adjusted life year

Health-adjusted Life Expectancy

a measure developed by the World Health Organization to capture life expectancy in terms of both morbidity and mortality. The number of years lived with ill-health, weighted according to severity, are subtracted from the overall life expectancy. Previously known as disability-adjusted life expectancy, it is sometimes referred to as healthy life expectancy. See also disability-adjusted life year.... health-adjusted life expectancy

2–4 Years

influenza vaccine... 2–4 years

3 Years 4 Months

DTaP/IPV, MMR... 3 years 4 months

Girls Aged 12–13 Years

HPV (two doses)... girls aged 12–13 years

14 Years

Td/IPV, MenCAWY... 14 years

Life Table

an actuarial presentation of the ages at which a group of males and/or females are expected to die and from which mean life expectancy at any age can be estimated, based on the assumption that mortality patterns current at the time of preparation of the table will continue to apply.... life table

Pack Years

a measure of a person’s cumulative cigarette consumption over a long period of time. It is expressed as the number of packs (assuming 20 cigarettes in a pack) smoked per day multiplied by the number of years of smoking:

For example, a patient who has smoked 15 cigarettes a day for 40 years has a (15/20) × 40 = 30 pack-year smoking history.... pack years


quality-adjusted life years. See quality of life.

qat n. see khat....  qalys

Quality And Outcomes Framework

(QOF) a system, introduced as part of the new general medical services (nGMS) contract (see general practitioner), whereby practices are rewarded for implementing good medical practice. There are four main domains: clinical, organizational, patient experience, and additional services. Each domain has various criteria based on best practice, which have a number of points allocated for achievement. The points are collated at the end of the financial year and converted into payment for the practice.... quality and outcomes framework

Quality Assurance

setting, monitoring, and maintaining standards for the quality of a service. See clinical governance.... quality assurance

Sanctity Of Life

the religious or moral belief that all life – and especially all human life – is intrinsically valuable and so should never be deliberately harmed or destroyed. Many of those who hold such a view will have ethical objections to *euthanasia, *abortion, and *embryo research. The phrase may also be used to denote that the value of life should always be respected, whatever the perceived quality of that life. See also humanity; personhood.... sanctity of life

Years Of Life Lost

(YLL, years of potential life lost, YPLL, potential years of life lost, PYLL) a measure of premature mortality that calculates the number of additional years a person could have expected to live, on average, had they not died prematurely. A reference age intended to represent the total number of years a person can expect to live, on average, is required for the calculation: this is often given in square brackets after YLL. Negative values for YLL are not used: if somebody survives longer than the reference age, their YLL is calculated as 0. YLLs for different diseases can be compared across populations to give an indication of which diseases carry the greatest burden of premature mortality.... years of life lost

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