The meaning of the symbols of dreams/ seen in a dream.


A disease of purine metabolism characterized by attacks of arthritis with an associated raised level of serum uric acid... gout


Inflammation of the mucous coat of the stomach and intestine due to bacterial infection... gastroenteritis


Inflammation of the gingival margins around the teeth accompanied by swelling and bleeding... gingivitis


Increased intraocular pressure and its consequences... glaucoma


Enlargement of the thyroid gland... goitre


An inflammatory disease of the genitourinary passages characterized by pain and discharge... gonorrhoea


Necrosis and putrefaction of tissue due to lack of blood supply... gangrene


Inflammation of the stomach lining, with either congested and boggy or inflamed membranes. It may be caused by bacteria and yeast or chemical irritation like alcohol, but most frequently it is the result of emotional stress and inappropriate patterns of eating.... gastritis


See also Onions.

Nutritional Profile Energy value (calories per serving): Low Protein: Moderate Fat: Low Saturated fat: Low Cholesterol: None Carbohydrates: High Fiber: High Sodium: Low Major vitamin contribution: Vitamin C Major mineral contribution: Iron, selenium

About the Nutrients in This Food Although raw garlic has some fiber and protein plus vitamins and minerals, we rarely eat enough garlic to get useful amounts of these nutrients. Source: USDA Nut rient Data Laborator y. Nat ional Nut rient Database for Standard Reference. Available online. UR L : http://w w w.nal.usda. gov/fnic/foodcomp/search /. Elephant garlic, a cross between an onion and garlic that may grow as large as a grapefruit, has a milder flavor than regular garlic. Garlic contains alliin and allicin, two sulfur compounds with antibi- otic activity. In a number of laboratory experiments, garlic juice appears to inhibit the growth of a broad variety of bacteria, yeast, and fungi growing in test tubes, but its effects on human beings have yet to be proven.

Diets That May Restrict or Exclude This Food Antiflatulence diet Bland diet

Buying This Food Look for: Firm, solid cloves with tight clinging skin. If the skin is paper y and pulling away from the cloves and the head feels light for its size, the garlic has withered or rotted away inside.

The Most Nutritious Way to Serve This Food Fresh.

Storing This Food Store garlic in a cool, dark, air y place to keep it from dr ying out or sprouting. ( When garlic sprouts, diallyl disulfide—the sulfur compound that gives fresh garlic its distinctive taste and odor—goes into the new growth and the garlic itself becomes milder.) A n unglazed ceramic “garlic keeper” will protect the garlic from moisture while allowing air to circulate freely around the head and cloves. Properly stored, garlic will keep for several months. Do not refrigerate garlic unless you live in a very hot and humid climate.

Preparing This Food To peel garlic easily, blanch the cloves in boiling water for about 30 seconds, then drain and cool. Slice off the root end, and the skin should come right off without sticking to your fin- gers. Or you can put a head of fresh, raw garlic on a flat surface and hit the flat end with the flat side of a knife. The head will come apart and the skin should come off easily. To get the most “garlicky” taste from garlic cloves, chop or mash them or extract the oil with a garlic press. When you cut into a garlic clove, you tear its cell walls, releasing an enzyme that converts sulfur compounds in the garlic into ammonia, pyruvic acid, and diallyl disulfide.

What Happens When You Cook This Food Heating garlic destroys its diallyl disulfide, which is why cooked garlic is so much milder tasting than raw garlic.

How Other Kinds of Processing Affect This Food Drying. Drying removes moisture from garlic but leaves the oils intact. Powdered garlic and garlic salt should be stored in a cool, dry place to keep their oils from turning rancid. Garlic salt is much higher in sodium than either raw garlic, garlic powder, or dried garlic flakes.

Medical Uses and/or Benefits Protection against some cancers. The organic sulfur compounds in garlic and onions appear to reduce the risk of some forms of cancer perhaps by preventing the formation of carcinogens in your body or by blocking carcinogens from reaching or reacting with sensitive body tis- sues or by inhibiting the transformation of healthy cells to malignant ones. Protection against circulatory diseases. In a number of laboratory studies during the 1980s, adding garlic oil to animal feeds reduced levels of low-density lipoproteins (LDLs), the fat and protein particles that carry cholesterol into your arteries, and raised levels of high density lipoproteins (HDLs), the particles that carry cholesterol out of the body. However, current studies are contradictory. One year-long study at the Harbor-UCLA Medical Center showed that daily doses of aged garlic (brand name Kyolic) appeared to reduce the formation of cholesterol deposits in arteries while lowering blood levels of homocysteine, an amino acid the American Heart Association calls an independent risk factor for heart disease. But another study funded by the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM), a division of the National Institutes of Health, to determine the safety and effec- tiveness of garlic showed that neither fresh garlic nor powdered garlic nor garlic tablets have any effect on cholesterol levels.

Adverse Effects Associated with This Food Body odor, halitosis. Diallyl disulfide is excreted in perspiration and in the air you exhale, which is why eating garlic makes you smell garlicky.

Food/Drug Interactions Anticoagulants (blood thinners). Garlic appears to reduce blood’s ability to clot, thus increas- ing the effect of anticoagulants, including aspirin. NCCAM recommends using garlic with caution before surgery, including dental surgery. Patients who have a clotting disorder should consult their own doctors before using garlic.... garlic


An intestinal tract infection caused by Giardia lamblia, a flagellate protozoa now common to much of the world. Brought in by hikers and the hoards of grazing cattle, wintering over in beavers, elk and moose, it is one of the few parasites to be encountered in the mountains and north country. It is not normally a very serious infection, but for some reason certain people experience great debility.... giardiasis


Inflammation of the tongue.... glossitis


Excretion of sugar in the urine... glycosuria

Adrenal Glands

Also known as suprarenal glands, these are two small triangular ENDOCRINE GLANDS situated one upon the upper end of each kidney. (See diagram of ABDOMEN.)

Structure Each suprarenal gland has an enveloping layer of ?brous tissue. Within this, the gland shows two distinct parts: an outer, ?rm, deep-yellow cortical (see CORTEX) layer, and a central, soft, dark-brown medullary (see MEDULLA) portion. The cortical part consists of columns of cells running from the surface inwards, whilst in the medullary portion the cells are arranged irregularly and separated from one another by large capillary blood vessels.

Functions Removal of the suprarenal glands in animals is speedily followed by great muscular prostration and death within a few days. In human beings, disease of the suprarenal glands usually causes ADDISON’S DISEASE, in which the chief symptoms are increasing weakness and bronzing of the skin. The medulla of the glands produces a substance – ADRENALINE – the effects of which closely resemble those brought about by activity of the SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM: dilated pupils, hair standing on end, quickening and strengthening of the heartbeat, immobilisation of the gut, increased output of sugar from the liver into the bloodstream. Several hormones (called CORTICOSTEROIDS) are produced in the cortex of the gland and play a vital role in the metabolism of the body. Some (such as aldosterone) control the electrolyte balance of the body and help to maintain the blood pressure and blood volume. Others are concerned in carbohydrate metabolism, whilst others again are concerned with sex physiology. HYDROCORTISONE is the most important hormone of the adrenal cortex, controlling as it does the body’s use of carbohydrates, fats and proteins. It also helps to suppress in?ammatory reactions and has an in?uence on the immune system.... adrenal glands


This term may refer to unusually copious secretion of milk from the mammary glands when a mother is feeding her baby. It is also used to describe secretion of milk after the mother has stopped breast feeding.... galactorrhoea


This term is used in two senses. In anatomy, it means an aggregation of nerve cells found in the course of certain nerves. In surgery, it means an enlargement of the sheath of a tendon, containing ?uid. The latter occurs particularly in connection with the tendons in front of, and behind, the wrist.

Causes The cause of these dilatations on the tendon-sheaths is either some irregular growth of the SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE which lines them and secretes the ?uid that lubricates their movements, or the forcing-out of a small pouch of this membrane through the sheath in consequence of a strain. In either case a bag-like swelling forms, whose connection with the synovial sheath becomes cut o?, so that synovial ?uid collects in it and distends it more and more.

Symptoms A soft, elastic, movable swelling forms, most often on the back of the wrist. It is usually small and gives no problems. Sometimes weakness and discomfort may develop. A ganglion which forms in connection with the ?exor tendons in front of the wrist sometimes attains a large size, and extends down to form another swelling in the palm of the hand.

Treatment Sudden pressure with the thumbs may often burst a ganglion and disperse its contents beneath the skin. If this fails, surgical excision is necessary but, as the ganglion may disappear spontaneously, there should be no rush to remove it unless it is causing inconvenience or pain.... ganglion

Gastric Ulcer

A usually chronic condition, started by irritation, with congestion in time, leading to edema, blistering, and the formation of an ulcer. Hylobacter infections seem to prolong and aggravate the condition, but the presence alone of the bacteria, without functional impairment, will not begin the disease. Possessing a certain “workaholic” panache...even boasted of in some business circles as if to validate one’s work ethic, it nonetheless is fatal if untreated.... gastric ulcer


The functional unit of heredity. A segment of DNA (or RNA in certain viruses) that encodes a single protein or confers a specific trait.... gene

German Measles

See RUBELLA.... german measles


The multidisciplinary study of all aspects of ageing, including health, biological, sociological, psychological, economic, behavioural and environmental factors.... gerontology




(English) A lively woman; resembling the spice

Gingee, Gingie, Ginjer, Gingea, Gingy, Gingey, Gingi... ginger

Glandular Fever

See MONONUCLEOSIS.... glandular fever


A hormone produced by the alpha cells of the pancreas that increases the release of sugar by the liver: it is hyperglycemic. The substance produced by the beta cells, insulin, induces many tissues (muscles particularly) to absorb glucose through their membranes and out of the blood; it is hypoglycemic.... glucagon

Glue Ear

Another name for secretory otitis media (see EAR, DISEASES OF).... glue ear


A non-malignant or new growth made up of granulation tissue. This is caused by various forms of chronic in?ammation, such as SYPHILIS and TUBERCULOSIS.... granuloma


An abnormal increase in size of the male breast.... gynaecomastia

Bone Graft

See BONE TRANSPLANT.... bone graft

Clinical Governance

A framework through which health organizations are accountable for continuously improving the quality of their services and safeguarding high standards of care.... clinical governance

Exocrine Gland

A gland that secretes its products through a duct to the surface of the body or of an organ. The sweat glands in the skin and the salivary glands in the mouth are examples. The secretion is set o? by a hormone (see HORMONES) or a NEUROTRANSMITTER.... exocrine gland


GABA, or gamma aminobutyric acid, is an amino acid (see AMINO ACIDS) that occurs in the central nervous system, mainly in the brain tissue. It is a chemical substance that transmits inhibitory impulses from nerve endings across synapses to other nerves or tissues.... gaba

Corneal Graft

Also known as keratoplasty. If the cornea (see EYE) becomes damaged or diseased and vision is impaired, it can be removed and replaced by a corneal graft. The graft is taken from the cornea of a human donor. Some of the indications for corneal grafting include keratoconus (conicalshaped cornea), corneal dystrophies, severe corneal scarring following HERPES SIMPLEX, and alkali burns or other injury. Because the graft is a foreign protein, there is a danger that the recipient’s immune system may set up a reaction causing rejection of the graft. Rejection results in OEDEMA of the graft with subsequent poor vision. Once a corneal graft has been taken from a donor, it should be used as quickly as possible. Corneas can be stored for days in tissue-culture medium at low temperature. A small number of grafts are autografts in which a patient’s cornea is repositioned.

The Department of Health has drawn up a list of suitable eye-banks to which people can apply to bequeath their eyes, and an o?cial form is now available for the bequest of eyes. (See also DONORS; TRANSPLANTATION.)... corneal graft


Protection, Lust, Health, Money, Psychic Powers, Hex-Breaking... galangal


A sexual or germ cell: for example, an OVUM or SPERMATOZOON.... gamete


A drug used in the treatment of life- or sight-threatening infection with CYTOMEGALOVIRUS (CMV) in patients whose immune systems (see IMMUNITY) are compromised. Administered by intravenous transfusion, the drug is toxic and should be prescribed only when the potential bene?ts outweigh the risks. It is also used for the prevention of cytomegalovirus infection in patients who have had a liver transplant.... ganciclovir


(English) Resembling the sweet- smelling flower

Gardeniah, Gardenea, Gardeneah, Gardeniya, Gardynia, Gardynea, Gardena, Gardyna, Gardeena... gardenia


Pertaining to the stomach.... gastric


A hormone produced by the MUCOUS MEMBRANE in the pyloric part of the STOMACH. The arrival of food stimulates production of the hormone which in turn stimulates the production of gastric juice.... gastrin


An operation performed usually in order to relieve some obstruction to the outlet from the STOMACH. One opening is made in the lower part of the stomach; another in a neighbouring loop of the small intestine. The two are then stitched together.... gastroenterostomy


A major operation to remove the whole or part of the STOMACH. Total gastrectomy is a rare operation, usually performed when a person has cancer of the stomach; the OESPHAGUS is then connected to the DUODENUM. Sometimes cancer of the stomach can be treated by doing a partial gastrectomy: the use of partial gastrectomy to treat PEPTIC ULCER used to be common before the advent of e?ective drug therapy.

The operation is sometimes still done if the patient has failed to respond to dietary treatment and treatment with H2-blocking drugs (see CIMETIDINE; RANITIDINE) along with antibiotics to combat Helicobacter pylori, an important contributary factor to ulcer development. Partial gastrectomy is usually accompanied by VAGOTOMY, which involves cutting the VAGUS nerve controlling acid secretion in the stomach. Among the side-effects of gastrectomy are fullness and discomfort after meals; formation of ulcers at the new junction between the stomach and duodenum which may lead to GASTRITIS and oesophagitis (see OESOPHAGUS, DISEASES OF); dumping syndrome (nausea, sweating and dizziness because the food leaves the stomach too quickly after eating); vomiting and diarrhoea. The side-effects usually subside but may need dietary and drug treatment.... gastrectomy


An operation on the STOMACH by which, when the gullet is blocked by a tumour or other cause, an opening is made from the front of the abdomen into the stomach, so that ?uid food can be passed into the organ.... gastrostomy


Nutritional Profile Energy value (calories per serving): Low Protein: Low Fat: Low Saturated fat: Low Cholesterol: Low Carbohydrates: None Fiber: None Sodium: Low Major vitamin contribution: None Major mineral contribution: None

About the Nutrients in This Food Although gelatin is made from the collagen (connective tissue) of cattle hides and bones or pig skin, its proteins are limited in the essential acid tryptophan, which is destroyed when the bones and skin are treated with acid, and is deficient in several others, including lysine. In fact, gelatin’s proteins are of such poor quality that, unlike other foods of animal origin (meat, milk), gelatin cannot sustain life. Laboratory rats fed a diet in which gelatin was the primary protein did not grow as they should; half died within 48 days, even though the gelatin was supplemented with some of the essential amino acids. Plain gelatin has no carbohydrates and fiber. It is low in fat. Flavored gel- atin desserts, however, are high in carbohydrates because of the added sugar.

The Most Nutritious Way to Serve This Food With a protein food rich in complete proteins. Gelatin desserts whipped with milk fit the bill.

Diets That May Restrict or Exclude This Food Low-carbohydrate diet (gelatin desserts prepared with sugar) Low-sodium diet (commercial gelatin powders) Sucrose-free diet (gelatin desserts prepared with sugar) * Values are for prepared unsweetened gelat in.

Buying This Food Look for: Tightly sealed, clean boxes.

Storing This Food Store gelatin boxes in a cool, dry cabinet.

Preparing This Food Commercial unflavored gelatin comes in premeasured 1-tablespoon packets. One tablespoon of gelatin will thicken about two cups of water. To combine the gelatin and water, first heat ¾ cup water to boiling. While it is heating, add the gelatin to ¼ cup cold liquid and let it absorb moisture until it is translucent. Then add the boiling water. (Flavored fruit gelatins can be dissolved directly in hot water.)

What Happens When You Cook This Food When you mix gelatin with hot water, its protein molecules create a network that stiffens into a stable, solid gel as it squeezes out moisture. The longer the gel sits, the more intermo- lecular bonds it forms, the more moisture it loses and the firmer it becomes. A day-old gel is much firmer than one you’ve just made. Gelatin is used as a thickener in prepared foods and can be used at home to thicken sauces. Flavored gelatin dessert powders have less stiffening power than plain gelatin because some of their protein has been replaced by sugar. To build a layered gelatin mold, let each layer harden before you add the next.... gelatin

Gene Therapy

Gene therapy is the transfer of normal GENES into a patient to combat the effects of abnormal genes which are causing disease(s). The GENETIC ENGINEERING technique used is SOMATIC cell gene therapy in which the healthy gene is put into somatic cells that produce other cells – for example, stem cells that develop into BONE MARROW. Descendants of these altered cells will be normal and, when su?cient numbers have developed, the patient’s genetic disorder should be remedied. The abnormal gene, however, will still be present in the treated individual’s germ cells (eggs or sperm) so he or she can still pass the inherited defect on to succeeding generations.

Gene therapy is currently used to treat disorders caused by a fault in a single recessive gene, when the defect can remedied by introducing a normal ALLELE. Treating disorders caused by dominant genes is more complicated. CYSTIC FIBROSIS is an example of a disease caused by a recessive gene, and clinical trials are taking place on the e?ectiveness of using LIPOSOMES to introduce the normal gene into the lungs of someone with the disorder. Trials are also underway to test the e?ectiveness of introducing tumour-suppressing genes into cancer cells to check their spread.

Gene therapy was ?rst used in 1990 to treat an American patient. Eleven European medical research councils (including the UK’s) recommended in 1988 that gene therapy should be restricted to correcting disease or defects, and that it should be limited to somatic cells. Interventions in germ-line cells (the sperm and egg) to e?ect changes that would be inherited, though technically feasible, is not allowed (see CLONING; HUMAN GENOME).... gene therapy

General Paralysis Of The Insane

An outdated term for the tertiary stage of SYPHILIS.... general paralysis of the insane

Genetic Code

The message set out sequentially along the human CHROMOSOMES. The human gene map is being constructed through the work of the international, collaborative HUMAN GENOME project; so far, only part of the code has been translated and this is the part that occurs in the GENES. Genes are responsible for the PROTEIN synthesis of the cell (see CELLS): they instruct the cell how to make a particular polypeptide chain for a particular protein.

Genes carry, in coded form, the detailed speci?cations for the thousands of kinds of protein molecules required by the cell for its existence, for its enzymes, for its repair work and for its reproduction. These proteins are synthesised from the 20 natural AMINO ACIDS, which are uniform throughout nature and which exist in the cell cytoplasm as part of the metabolic pool. The protein molecule consists of amino acids joined end to end to form long polypeptide chains. An average chain contains 100–300 amino acids. The sequence of bases in the nucleic acid chain of the gene corresponds in some fundamental way to the sequence of amino acids in the protein molecule, and hence it determines the structure of the particular protein. This is the genetic code. Deoxyribonucleic acid (see DNA) is the bearer of this genetic information.

DNA has a long backbone made up of repeating groups of phosphate and sugar deoxyribose. To this backbone, four bases are attached as side groups at regular intervals. These four bases are the four letters used to spell out the genetic message: they are adenine, thymine, guanine and cystosine. The molecule of the DNA is made up of two chains coiled round a common axis to form what is called a double helix. The two chains are held together by hydrogen bonds between pairs of bases. Since adenine only pairs with thymine, and guanine only with cystosine, the sequences of bases in one chain ?xes the sequence in the other. Several hundred bases would be contained in the length of DNA of a typical gene. If the message of the DNA-based sequences is a continuous succession of thymine, the RIBOSOME will link together a series of the amino acid, phenylalanine. If the base sequence is a succession of cytosine, the ribosome will link up a series of prolines. Thus, each amino acid has its own particular code of bases. In fact, each amino acid is coded by a word consisting of three adjacent bases. In addition to carrying genetic information, DNA is able to synthesise or replicate itself and so pass its information on to daughter cells.

All DNA is part of the chromosome and so remains con?ned to the nucleus of the cell (except in the mitochondrial DNA). Proteins are synthesised by the ribosomes which are in the cytoplasm. DNA achieves control over pro-tein production in the cytoplasm by directing the synthesis of ribonucleic acid (see RNA). Most of the DNA in a cell is inactive, otherwise the cell would synthesise simultaneously every protein that the individual was capable of forming. When part of the DNA structure becomes ‘active’, it acts as a template for the ribonucleic acid, which itself acts as a template for protein synthesis when it becomes attached to the ribosome.

Ribonucleic acid exists in three forms. First ‘messenger RNA’ carries the necessary ‘message’ for the synthesis of a speci?c protein, from the nucleus to the ribosome. Second, ‘transfer RNA’ collects the individual amino acids which exist in the cytoplasm as part of the metabolic pool and carries them to the ribosome. Third, there is RNA in the ribosome itself. RNA has a similar structure to DNA but the sugar is ribose instead of deoxyribose and uracil replaces the base thymine. Before the ribosome can produce the proteins, the amino acids must be lined up in the correct order on the messenger RNA template. This alignment is carried out by transfer RNA, of which there is a speci?c form for each individual amino acid. Transfer RNA can not only recognise its speci?c amino acid, but also identify the position it is required to occupy on the messenger RNA template. This is because each transfer RNA has its own sequence of bases and recognises its site on the messenger RNA by pairing bases with it. The ribosome then travels along the chain of messenger RNA and links the amino acids, which have thus been arranged in the requisite order, by peptide bonds and protein is released.

Proteins are important for two main reasons. First, all the enzymes of living cells are made of protein. One gene is responsible for one enzyme. Genes thus control all the biochemical processes of the body and are responsible for the inborn di?erence between human beings. Second, proteins also ful?l a structural role in the cell, so that genes controlling the synthesis of structural proteins are responsible for morphological di?erences between human beings.... genetic code


The science which deals with the origin of the characteristics of an individual or the study of HEREDITY.... genetics

Genital Herpes

See HERPES GENITALIS.... genital herpes


The external organs of reproduction. The term is usually applied to the external parts of the reproductive system: the VULVA in females and PENIS and SCROTUM in males. Rarely the sex of an individual may not be apparent from the genitalia. Genitals develop from a common embryonic structure, and disturbances in the hormone controls of the developing genitalia may produce an individual whose external genitalia are ambiguous. The condition is known as intersex. The individual may be HERMAPHRODITE or PSEUDOHERMAPHRODITE.... genitalia

Genetic Counselling

The procedure whereby advice is given about the risks of a genetic disorder and the various options that are open to the individual at risk. This may often involve establishing the diagnosis in the family, as this would be a prerequisite before giving any detailed advice. Risks can be calculated from simple Mendelian inheritance (see MENDELISM) in many genetic disorders. However, in many disorders with a genetic element, such as cleft lip or palate (see CLEFT PALATE), the risk of recurrence is obtained from population studies. Risks include not only the likelihood of having a child who is congenitally affected by a disorder, but also, for adults, that of being vulnerable to an adult-onset disease.

The options for individuals would include taking no action; modifying their behaviour; or taking some form of direct action. For those at risk of having an affected child, where prenatal diagnosis is available, this would involve either carrying on with reproduction regardless of risk; deciding not to have children; or deciding to go ahead to have children but opting for prenatal diagnosis. For an adult-onset disorder such as a predisposition to ovarian cancer, an individual may choose to take no action; to take preventive measures such as use of the oral contraceptive pill; to have screening of the ovaries with measures such as ultrasound; or to take direct action such as removing the ovaries to prevent ovarian cancer from occurring.

There are now regional genetics centres throughout the United Kingdom, and patients can be referred through their family doctor or specialists.... genetic counselling

Genetic Engineering

Genetic engineering, or recombinant DNA technology, has only developed in the past decade or so; it is the process of changing the genetic material of a cell (see CELLS). GENES from one cell – for example, a human cell – can be inserted into another cell, usually a bacterium, and made to function. It is now possible to insert the gene responsible for the production of human INSULIN, human GROWTH HORMONE and INTERFERON from a human cell into a bacterium. Segments of DNA for insertion can be prepared by breaking long chains into smaller pieces by the use of restriction enzymes. The segments are then inserted into the affecting organism by using PLASMIDS and bacteriophages (see BACTERIOPHAGE). Plasmids are small packets of DNA that are found within bacteria and can be passed from one bacterium to another.

Already genetic engineering is contributing to easing the problems of diagnosis. DNA analysis and production of MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES are other applications of genetic engineering. Genetic engineering has signi?cantly contributed to horticulture and agriculture with certain characteristics of one organism or variant of a species being transfected (a method of gene transfer) into another. This has given rise to higher-yield crops and to alteration in colouring and size in produce. Genetic engineering is also contributing to our knowledge of how human genes function, as these can be transfected into mice and other animals which can then act as models for genetic therapy. Studying the effects of inherited mutations derived from human DNA in these animal models is thus a very important and much faster way of learning about human disease.

Genetic engineering is a scienti?c procedure that could have profound implications for the human race. Manipulating heredity would be an unwelcome activity under the control of maverick scientists, politicians or others in positions of power.... genetic engineering


The total genetic information present in a cell or organism.... genome


An antibiotic derived from a species of microorganisms, Micromonospora purpurea. Its main value is that it is active against certain microorganisms such as Pseudomonas pyocyanea, E. coli and Aerobacter aerogenes which are not affected by other antibiotics, as well as staphylococci which have become resistant to PENICILLIN.... gentamicin


Gentiana lutea. N.O. Gentianaceae.

Habitat: Grows abundantly throughout France, Spain, and large areas of Central


Part used ? Large quantities of Gentiana lutea root are imported into this country as it is preferred to the English variety (Gentiana campestris—see below) for no very apparent therapeutic reason. It is certain, however, that Gentian root, of whichever kind, is the most popular of all herbal tonics and stomachics—and deservedly so.

Features ? Gentiana lutea root is cylindrical in form, half to one inch thick, and ringed in the upper portion, the lower being longitudinally wrinkled. It is flexible and tough, internally spongy and nearly white when fresh, an orange-brown tint and strong distinctive odour developing during drying. The taste is extremely bitter.

A decoction of 1 ounce to 1 pint (reduced from 1 1/2 pints) of water, given in wineglass doses, will be found very helpful in dyspepsia and loss of tone, or general debility of the digestive organs. One of the effects of the medicine is to stimulate the nerve-endings of taste, thus increasing the flow of gastric juice. As a simple bitter it may be given in all cases when a tonic is needed.

The English Gentian (also known locally as Baldmoney and Felwort) grows to six inches high and is branched above. Leaves opposite, ovate- lanceolate above and ovate-spatulate below, entire margins. Flowers are bluish-purple. The whole herb may be used for the same purposes as the foreign root, although here also the root contains the more active principles.... gentian

Gentian Violet

A dye belonging to the rosaniline group. It is a useful super?cial antiseptic for use on unbroken skin.... gentian violet

Genu Valgum

The medical term for knock-knee – a deformity of the lower limbs in such a direction that when the limbs are straightened, the legs diverge from one another. As a result, in walking, the knees knock against each other. The amount of knock-knee is measured by the distance between the medial malleoli of the ankles, with the inner surfaces of the knee touching and the knee-caps facing forwards. The condition is so common in children between the ages of 2–6 years that it may almost be regarded as a normal phase in childhood. When marked, or persisting into later childhood, it can be corrected by surgery (osteotomy).... genu valgum

Genu Varum

Genu varum is the medical term for BOW LEG.... genu varum


(Latin) Resembling the flower; a crane

Geranyum, Geranum... geranium

Germ Cell

Those embryonic cells with the potential to develop into ova (see OVUM) or spermatozoa (see SPERMATOZOON).... germ cell


Gestation is another name for pregnancy (see PREGNANCY AND LABOUR).... gestation


See VERTIGO.... giddiness


Excessive growth (mainly in height) caused by overproduction, during childhood or adolescence, of GROWTH HORMONE by a tumour of the PITUITARY GLAND. Untreated, the affected individual may die in early adulthood. Sometimes the tumour appears after the individual has stopped growing and the result then is ACROMEGALY rather than gigantism.... gigantism


The term applied to the ends of the PENIS and the CLITORIS. In the penis the glans is the distal, helmet-shaped part that is formed by the bulbous corpus spongiosum (erectile tissue). In an uncircumcised man the glans is covered by the foreskin or PREPUCE when the penis is ?accid.... glans


Chronic discharge of thin mucous from the vagina ... gleet


A drug which stimulates the beta cells of the PANCREAS to liberate INSULIN, and is used to treat some patients with DIABETES MELLITUS. (See also SULPHONYLUREAS.)... glibenclamide


See SULPHONYLUREAS.... gliclazide


A tumour in the brain or spinal cord, composed of neuroglia, which is the special connective tissue that supports the nerve cells and nerve ?bres (see GLIA). Low-grade malignant gliomas cause symptoms by putting pressure on surrounding tissues and organs. Highly malignant gliomas are usually invasive. Gliomas, like other space-occupying tumours in the brain, may present with headaches, seizures, neurological symptoms or symptoms of mental disturbance. Treatment may include surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy and should be done in a specialist neurological centre. Gliomas tend to spread within the brain and can be di?cult to remove surgically.... glioma


See SULPHONYLUREAS.... glipizide


A class of proteins which are insoluble in water and alcohol and soluble in weak salt solution. (See also GAMMA-GLOBULIN.)... globulin


See KIDNEYS, DISEASES OF.... glomerulonephritis


The narrow opening at the upper end of the LARYNX. The glottis is made up of the true vocal cords. (See AIR PASSAGES; CHOKING.)... glottis


A plant compound containing a glucose and another substance (the bioactive part). A special-case glycoside.... glucoside


Glucose, also known as dextrose or grape sugar, is the form of sugar found in honey and in grapes and some other fruits. It is also the form of sugar circulating in the bloodstream, and the form into which all sugars and starches are converted in the small INTESTINE before being absorbed. Glucose is a yellowish-white crystalline substance soluble in water and having the property of turning a ray of polarised light to the right. It is often given to patients orally or, sometimes, intravenously as an easily assimilated form of CARBOHYDRATE. It has the further practical advantage in this context of not being nearly as sweet-tasting as cane sugar and therefore relatively large amounts can be consumed without sickening the patient.... glucose


The constituent of wheat-?our which forms an adhesive substance on addition of water, and allows the ‘raising’ of bread. It can be separated from the starch of ?our, and being of a protein nature is used to make bread for those diabetics who are debarred from starchy and sugary foods.

It is also responsible for certain forms of what is now known as the MALABSORPTION SYNDROME. In patients with this condition, an essential part of treatment is a gluten-free diet. (See also COELIAC DISEASE.)... gluten

Glyceryl Trinitrate

Also known as trinitrin and nitroglycerin, this is a drug used in the treatment of ANGINA PECTORIS and left ventricular failure of the heart. It is normally given as a sublingual tablet or spray, though percutaneous preparations may be useful in the prophylaxis of angina – particularly for patients who suffer attacks at rest, and especially at night. Sublingually it provides rapid symptomatic relief of angina, but is only e?ective for 20–30 minutes. It is a potent vasodilator, and this may lead to unwanted side-effects such as ?ushing, headache, and postural HYPOTENSION. Its antispasmodic effects are also valuable in the treatment of ASTHMA, biliary and renal colic, and certain cases of VOMITING. (See also COLIC.)... glyceryl trinitrate


Glycogen, or animal starch, is a CARBOHYDRATE substance found specially in the liver, as well as in other tissues. It is the form in which carbohydrates taken in the food are stored in the liver and muscles before they are converted into GLUCOSE as the needs of the body require.... glycogen


A plant compound containing one or more alcohols or sugars and a biologically active compound. The sugar part is called a glycone, the other stuff is called an aglycone. The important things to remember about some glycosides is that they may pass through much of the intestinal tract, with the hydrolysis of the molecule only occurring in the brush borders of the small intestine. The result is that the bioactive part, the aglycone, is absorbed directly into the bloodstream, and is often not floating around the intestinal tract contents at all. Quinones are irritating and even toxic when ingested, but when taken as glycosides, they are absorbed directly into the bloodstream, where they are not dangerous (in moderation), and get excreted in the urine, where they inhibit infections. Plants like Madrone, Uva Ursi, and Manzanita work in this fashion. Some plant-derived heart medicines are only safe in proper doses because they, too, are glycosides, and they can be carried safely bound to proteins in the bloodstream, whereas if the aglycone were in the free form in the gut it might be either toxic or be digested directly into an inactive form.... glycoside


Money, Divination ... goldenrod


A group of male or female reproductive cells, which in jellyfish often line the sides of the stomach, but mayextend through the bell of a jellyfish in the most mature specimens, especially the chirodropids.... gonad


The unit of weight in the metric system, equal to a little over 15·4 grains. For the purposes of weighing food, 30 grams are usually taken as being approximately equal to an


Gram Stain

Stain developed in 1884 by Hans Christian Gram, whereby Gram positive bacteria stain purple while Gram negative bacteria stain red.... gram stain

Grand Mal

An out-of-date and now colloquial name for a tonic-clonic seizure (in contrast to petit mal) – see EPILEPSY.... grand mal

Granuloma Inguinale

Donovanosis.... granuloma inguinale


See Toronja.... grapefruit


A way to show quantitative data visually, using a system of coordinates.... graph


The name applied to any sediment which precipitates in the urine, but particularly to small crystal masses of uric acid. It produces DYSURIA and other urinary symptoms. (See URINARY BLADDER, DISEASES OF; GOUT; URINE.)... gravel

Greenstick Fracture

An incomplete fracture, in which the bone is not completely broken across. It occurs in the long bones of children and is usually due to indirect force. (See BONE, DISORDERS OF – Bone fractures.)... greenstick fracture

Grey Matter

Those parts of the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD that comprise mainly the interconnected and tightly packed nuclei of neurons (nerve cells). The tissue is darker than that of the white matter, which is made of axons from the nerve cells. In the brain, grey matter is mainly found in the outer layers of the cerebrum, which is the zone responsible for advanced mental functions. The inner core of the spinal cord is made up of grey matter.... grey matter


A sharp pain in the stomach... gripe


An antibiotic obtained from Penicillium griseofulvum Dierckse, used to treat various forms of RINGWORM.... griseofulvin


The region which includes the upper part of the front of the thigh and lower part of the abdomen. A deep groove runs obliquely across it, which corresponds to the inguinal ligament, and divides the thigh from the abdomen. The principal diseased conditions in this region are enlarged glands (see GLAND), and HERNIA.... groin


A small bobbin-shaped tube used to keep open the incision made in the ear drum in the treatment of secretory otitis media. It acts as a ventilation tube by allowing the Eustachian tube to recover its normal function. The operation is now less commonly performed than 20 years ago. (See EAR, DISEASES OF; EUSTACHIAN TUBES.)... grommet

Group Therapy

Psychotherapy in which at least two, but more commonly up to ten, patients, as well as the therapist, take part. The therapist encourages the patients to analyse their own and the others’ emotional and psychological diffculties. Group therapy is also used to help patients sharing the same condition – for instance, alcoholism or compulsive gambling. They discuss their problems for perhaps an hour twice a week and explore ways of resolving them.... group therapy

Growing Pains

Ill-de?ned discomfort and pains that occur in the limbs of some children. They occur mainly at night between the ages of 6–12 years. The cause is unknown, but the condition is not signi?cant and does not require treatment once other more important conditions have been ruled out.... growing pains

Guillain-barré Syndrome

A disease of the peripheral nerves causing weakness and numbness in the limbs. It customarily occurs up to three weeks after an infection – for example, CAMPYLOBACTER infection of the gastrointestinal tract provoking an allergic response in the nerves. It may begin with weakness of the legs and gradually spread up the body. In the worst cases the patient may become totally paralysed and require to be arti?cially ventilated. Despite this, recovery is the rule.... guillain-barré syndrome

Guinea Worm

Dracunculus medinensis.... guinea worm


Grindelia camporum. N.O. Compositae.

Synonym: G. robusta, G. squarrosa, Gum. Plant, Hardy or Scaly Grindelia.

Habitat: Indigenous to western regions of North America, and imported from


Features ? Leaves broad, narrowing at base, brittle, smooth, serrate, approximately three inches long by half an inch to one inch broad. Flower heads globular, florets yellow, scales of involucre reflexed. Bitterish taste.

Part used ? Herb.

Action: Anti-asthmatic, tonic, diuretic.

Widely prescribed for asthma and bronchitis, and often combined with Euphorbia and Yerba Santa for the former complaint. The paroxysms are quickly reduced both in sharpness and frequency. Figures prominently in the American herbal materia medica.... grindelia

Ground Ivy

Glechoma hederacea. N.O. Labiateae.

Synonym: Alehoof, Gill-go-over-the-Ground, Haymaids, Runaway Jack.

Habitat: Woods and shady places, near old walls and under hedges.

Features ? This ivy, as its common name and second synonym convey, creeps along the ground. The quadrangular, unbranched stem is six inches or so long. Two kidney- shaped leaves appear opposite each other at every joint. They are deeply crenate, the upper leaves purplish in colour and paler underneath. The roots issue at the corners of the jointed stalks, and the two-lipped, purplish flowers bloom three or four together in the axils of the upper leaves. The taste is bitter and acrid, the odour strong and aromatic.

Part used ? The whole herb.

Action: Astringent, tonic, diuretic.

It is applicable to kidney disorders and dyspepsia. It was formerly valued as an antiscorbutic, but with advances in food distribution, this property is now rarely considered. In conjunction with Yarrow or Chamomile flowers an excellent poultice may be made for application to abscesses and gatherings. The infusion of 1 ounce of the herb to 1 pint of boiling water is taken in wineglass doses.... ground ivy


Gullet, or OESOPHAGUS, is the tube down which food passes from the throat to the stomach.... gullet


A painful condition of in?ammation, ending sometimes as an ABSCESS, situated in the gum about the root of a carious tooth (see TEETH, DISORDERS OF – Caries of the teeth).... gumboil


A hard swelling, or GRANULOMA, characteristic of tertiary SYPHILIS. It normally develops in the skin or subcutaneous tissue, mucous membranes or submucosa, and the long bones. Although often painless, it may produce marked symptoms by interfering with the brain or other internal organs in which it may be located. Treatment with penicillin (or tetracycline if the patient is allergic) usually ensures a rapid disappearance of the gumma.... gumma

Growth Hormone

A product of the anterior part of the PITUITARY GLAND that promotes normal growth and development in the body by changing the chemical activity in the cells. The hormone activates protein production in the muscle cells as well as the release of energy from the metabolism of fats. Its release is controlled by the contrasting actions of growth-hormone releasing factor and somatostatin. If the body produces too much growth hormone before puberty GIGANTISM results; in adulthood the result is ACROMEGALY. Lack of growth hormone in children retards growth.

For many years growth hormone was extracted from human corpses and very rarely this caused CREUTZFELDT-JAKOB DISEASE (CJD) in the recipients. The hormone is now genetically engineered, so safe.... growth hormone


The branch of medicine dealing with the female pelvic and urogenital organs, in both the normal and diseased states. It encompasses aspects of CONTRACEPTION, ABORTION, and in vitro fertilisation or IVF (see under ASSISTED CONCEPTION). Covering the full age range, it is closely related to OBSTETRICS, while involving aspects of both surgery and psychiatry.... gynaecology

Gulf War Syndrome

A collection of varying symptoms, such as persistent tiredness, headaches, muscle pain and poor concentration, reported by members of the Coalition Armed Forces who served in the 1991 Gulf War. Whilst there is strong evidence for a health e?ect related to service, there is no evidence of a particular set of signs and symptoms (the de?nition of a ‘syndrome’) unique to those who served in the Gulf War. Symptoms have been blamed on multiple possible hazards, such as exposure to depleted uranium munitions, smoke from oil-well ?res and use of pesticides. However, the only clearly demonstrated association is with the particular pattern of vaccinations used to protect against biological weapons. Many con?icts in the past have generated their own ‘syndromes’, given names such as e?ort syndrome and shell-shock, suggesting a link to the psychological stress of being in the midst of warfare.... gulf war syndrome

Human Chorionic Gonadotrophin

A glycoprotein hormone secreted by the PLACENTA in early pregnancy, and stimulating the CORPUS LUTEUM within the ovary (see OVARIES) to secrete OESTROGENS, PROGESTERONE, and relaxin. The hormone is essential for the maintenance of pregnancy up to about 6–8 weeks of gestation. A RADIOIMMUNOASSAY can be used to detect its presence, and pregnancy can be diagnosed as early as six days after conception by testing for it in the urine. Some tumours also secrete human chorionic gonadotrophin, particularly HYDATIDIFORM MOLE, which produces large amounts.... human chorionic gonadotrophin

Mammary Gland

See BREASTS.... mammary gland

Prostate Gland

This is an accessory sex gland in males which is wrapped round the URETHRA as this tube leaves the URINARY BLADDER. Opening into the urethra, the gland secretes an alkaline ?uid during ejaculation and is a constituent of SEMEN. The gland grows during adolescence and is sensitive to the concentrations of sex hormones.... prostate gland

Pyoderma Gangrenosum

This is a disorder in which large ulcerating lesions appear suddenly and dramatically in the skin. It is the result of underlying VASCULITIS. It is usually the result of in?ammatory bowel disease such as ULCERATIVE COLITIS or CROHN’S DISEASE but can be associated with RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS.... pyoderma gangrenosum

Salivary Glands

The glands that produce the saliva injected when a mosquito or other ectoparasite bites, which prevent blood from clotting while the mosquito feeds.... salivary glands

Suprarenal Glands

See ADRENAL GLANDS.... suprarenal glands

Myasthenia Gravis

A serious disorder in which the chief symptoms are muscular weakness and a special tendency for fatigue to come on rapidly when e?orts are made. The prevalence is around 1 in 30,000. Two-thirds of the patients are women, in whom it develops in early adult life. In men it tends to develop later in life.

It is a classical example of an autoimmune disease (see AUTOIMMUNITY). The body develops ANTIBODIES which interfere with the working of the nerve endings in muscle that are acted on by ACETYLCHOLINE. It is acetylcholine that transmits the nerve impulses to muscles: if this transmission cannot be e?ected, as in myasthenia gravis, then the muscles are unable to contract. Not only the voluntary muscles, but those connected with the acts of swallowing, breathing, and the like, become progressively weaker. Rest and avoidance of undue exertion are necessary, and regular doses of neostigmine bromide, or pyridostigmine, at intervals enable the muscles to be used and in some cases have a curative e?ect. These drugs act by inhibiting the action of cholinesterase – an ENZYME produced in the body which destroys any excess of acetylcholine. In this way they increase the amount of available acetylcholine which compensates for the deleterious e?ect of antibodies on the nerve endings.

The THYMUS GLAND plays the major part in the cause of myasthenia gravis, possibly by being the source of the original acetylcholine receptors to which the antibodies are being formed. Thymectomy (removal of the thymus) is often used in the management of patients with myasthenia gravis. The incidence of remission following thymectomy increases with the number of years after the operation. Complete remission or substantial improvement can be expected in 80 per cent of patients.

The other important aspect in the management of patients with myasthenia gravis is IMMUNOSUPPRESSION. Drugs are now available that suppress antibody production and so reduce the concentration of antibodies to the acetylcholine receptor. The problem is that they not only suppress abnormal antibody production, but also suppress normal antibody production. The main groups of immunosuppressive drugs used in myasthenia gravis are the CORTICOSTEROIDS and AZATHIOPRINE. Improvement following steroids may take several weeks and an initial deterioration is often found during the ?rst week or ten days of treatment. Azathioprine is also e?ective in producing clinical improvement and reducing the antibodies to acetylcholine receptors. These effects occur more slowly than with steroids, and the mean time for an azathioprine remission is nine months.

The Myasthenia Gravis Association, which provides advice and help to sufferers, was created and is supported by myasthenics, their families and friends.... myasthenia gravis


A herb to increase flow of breast milk in nursing mothers. Agnus Castus, (John Parkinson, 1640) Aniseed, Basil, Caraway, Centuary, Cumin, Fennel, Goat’s Rue, Holy Thistle, Nettles, Raspberry, Vervain. ... galactagogue

Pituitary Gland

Also known as the pituitary body and the hypophysis, this is an ovoid structure, weighing around 0·5 gram in the adult. It is attached to the base of the BRAIN, and lies in the depression in the base of the skull known as the sella turcica. The anterior part is called the adenohypophysis and the posterior part the neurohy-P pophysis. The gland is connected to the HYPOTHALAMUS of the brain by a stalk known as the hypophyseal or pituitary stalk.

The pituitary gland is the most important ductless, or endocrine, gland in the body. (See

ENDOCRINE GLANDS.) It exerts overall control of the endocrine system through the media of a series of hormones which it produces. The adenohypophysis produces trophic hormones (that is, they work by stimulating or inhibiting other endocrine glands) and have therefore been given names ending with ‘trophic’ or ‘trophin’. The thyrotrophic hormone, or thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), exerts a powerful in?uence over the activity of the THYROID GLAND. The ADRENOCORTICOTROPHIC HORMONE (ACTH) stimulates the cortex of the adrenal glands. GROWTH HORMONE, also known as somatotrophin (SMH), controls the growth of the body. There are also two gonadotrophic hormones which play a vital part in the control of the gonads: these are the follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and the luteinising hormone (LH) which is also known as the interstitial-cell-stimulating hormone (ICSH) – see GONADOTROPHINS. The lactogenic hormone, also known as prolactin, mammotrophin and luteotrophin, induces lactation.

The neurohypophysis produces two hormones. One is oxytocin, which is widely used because of its stimulating e?ect on contraction of the UTERUS. The other is VASOPRESSIN, or the antidiuretic hormone (ADH), which acts on the renal tubules and the collecting tubules (see KIDNEYS) to increase the amount of water that they normally absorb.... pituitary gland

Giant Cell Arteritis

See: ARTERITIS. ... giant cell arteritis

Globus Hystericus

Sensation of a ‘lump in the throat’ causing a choking under stress of emotion. Related to hysteria with spasm of the pharynx.

Indicated: German Chamomile, St John’s Wort, Balm, Valerian or Lobelia. In the form of tincture, tea, liquid extract or tablets. ... globus hystericus

Parathyroid Glands

Glands that control the level of calcium in the blood. The four glands appear, two on each side, implanted in the thyroid gland in the front of the neck.

Disorders are (1) hypoparathyroidism and (2) hyperparathyroidism. See entries. ... parathyroid glands

Thyroid Gland

A highly vascular organ situated in front of the neck. It consists of a narrow isthmus crossing the windpipe close to its upper end, and joining together two lateral lobes which run upwards, one on each side of the LARYNX. The gland is therefore shaped somewhat like a horseshoe, each lateral lobe being about 5 cm (2 inches) long and the isthmus about 12 mm (••• inch) wide, and it is ?rmly bound to the larynx. The weight of the thyroid gland is about 28·5 grams (1 ounce), but it is larger in females than in males and in some women increases in size during MENSTRUATION. It often reaches an enormous size in the condition known as GOITRE (see also THYROID GLAND, DISEASES OF).

Function The chief function of the thyroid gland is to produce a hormone (see HORMONES) rich in iodine – THYROXINE, which controls the rate of body METABOLISM. Thus, if it is de?cient in infants they fail to grow and suffer LEARNING DISABILITY, a condition formerly known as CRETINISM. If the de?ciency develops in adult life, the individual becomes obese, lethargic, and develops a coarse skin, a condition known as hypothyroidism (see under THYROID GLAND, DISEASES OF). Overactivity of the thyroid, or hyperthyroidism, results in loss of weight, rapid heart action, anxiety, overactivity and increased appetite. (See THYROID GLAND, DISEASES OF – Thyrotoxicosis.)

The production of the thyroid hormone is controlled by a hormone of the PITUITARY GLAND – the thyrotrophic hormone.... thyroid gland


An antirheumatic drug used to treat severe rheumatoid arthritis and, occasionally, arthritis arising as a complication of psoriasis.

It is given either as regular injections or orally (see auranofin).

A common adverse effect is dermatitis.

Gold may damage the kidneys, liver, and bone marrow and may cause loss of appetite, nausea, and diarrhoea.... gold

Abo Blood Groups

See BLOOD GROUPS.... abo blood groups

Caldicott Guardian

A senior health professional in all NHS trusts, whose responsibility it is to preserve the con?dentiality of patient information.... caldicott guardian

Blood Gases

Speci?cally, this describes the measurement of the tensions of oxygen and carbon dioxide in blood. However, it is commonly used to describe the analysis of a sample of heparinised arterial blood for measurement of oxygen, carbon dioxide, oxygen saturation, pH, bicarbonate, and base excess (the amount of acid required to return a unit volume of the blood to normal pH). These values are vital in monitoring the severity of illness in patients receiving intensive care or who have severe respiratory illness, as they provide a guide to the e?ectiveness of oxygen transport between the outside air and the body tissues. Thus they are both a guide to whether the patient is being optimally ventilated, and also a general guide to the severity of their illness.... blood gases

Blood Groups

People are divided into four main groups in respect of a certain reaction of the blood. This depends upon the capacity of the serum of one person’s blood to cause the red cells of another’s to stick together (agglutinate). The reaction depends on antigens (see ANTIGEN), known as agglutinogens, in the erythrocytes and on ANTIBODIES, known as agglutinins, in the serum. There are two of each, the agglutinogens being known as A and B. A person’s erythrocytes may have (1) no agglutinogens, (2) agglutinogen A, (3) agglutinogen B, (4) agglutinogens A and B: these are the four groups. Since the identi?cation of the ABO and Rhesus factors (see below), around 400 other antigens have been discovered, but they cause few problems over transfusions.

In blood transfusion, the person giving and the person receiving the blood must belong to the same blood group, or a dangerous reaction will take place from the agglutination that occurs when blood of a di?erent group is present. One exception is that group O Rhesus-negative blood can be used in an emergency for anybody.

Agglutinogens Agglutinins Frequency
in the in the in Great
Group erythrocytes plasma Britain
AB A and B None 2 per cent
A A Anti-B 46 per cent
B B Anti-A 8 per cent
O Neither Anti-A and 44 per cent
A nor B Anti-B

Rhesus factor In addition to the A and B agglutinogens (or antigens), there is another one known as the Rhesus (or Rh) factor – so named because there is a similar antigen in the red blood corpuscles of the Rhesus monkey. About 84 per cent of the population have this Rh factor in their blood and are therefore known as ‘Rh-positive’. The remaining 16 per cent who do not possess the factor are known as ‘Rh-negative’.

The practical importance of the Rh factor is that, unlike the A and B agglutinogens, there are no naturally occurring Rh antibodies. However, such antibodies may develop in a Rh-negative person if the Rh antigen is introduced into his or her circulation. This can occur (a) if a Rh-negative person is given a transfusion of Rh-positive blood, and (b) if a Rh-negative mother married to a Rh-positive husband becomes pregnant and the fetus is Rh-positive. If the latter happens, the mother develops Rh antibodies which can pass into the fetal circulation, where they react with the baby’s Rh antigen and cause HAEMOLYTIC DISEASE of the fetus and newborn. This means that, untreated, the child may be stillborn or become jaundiced shortly after birth.

As about one in six expectant mothers is Rh-negative, a blood-group examination is now considered an essential part of the antenatal examination of a pregnant woman. All such Rh-negative expectant mothers are now given a ‘Rhesus card’ showing that they belong to the rhesus-negative blood group. This card should always be carried with them. Rh-positive blood should never be transfused to a Rh-negative girl or woman.... blood groups

Cardiac Glycosides

Drugs whose main actions are to increase the force of myocardial contraction and reduce the conductivity of the nerve ?bres in the atrioventricular node of the heart. They are useful in treating supraventricular tachycardias (rapid heart rhythm) and some forms of heart failure. Glycosides are a traditional group of cardiac drugs, originally derived from the leaves of foxglove plants and used as digitalis. The active principle has long been synthesised and used as DIGOXIN. They are potentaially toxic and their use, especially during initial treatment, should be monitored. Side-effects include ANOREXIA, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea and abdominal pain; drowsiness, confusion and DEPRESSION may occur. An abnormally slow heart rate may develop. The glycosides should be used with special care in the elderly who are sometimes particularly susceptible to their toxic effects.... cardiac glycosides


See SLEEP.... dreams

Ductless Gland

Any one of certain glands in the body the secretion of which goes directly into the bloodstream and so is carried to di?erent parts of the body. These glands – the pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal and reproductive – are also known as the ENDOCRINE GLANDS. Some glands may be both duct glands and ductless glands. For example, the PANCREAS manufactures a digestive juice which passes by a duct into the small intestine. It also manufactures, by means of special cells, a substance called INSULIN which passes straight into the blood.... ductless gland

Endocrine Glands

Organs whose function it is to secrete into the blood or lymph, substances known as HORMONES. These play an important part in general changes to or the activities of other organs at a distance. Various diseases arise as the result of defects or excess in the internal secretions of the di?erent glands. The chief endocrine glands are:

Adrenal glands These two glands, also known as suprarenal glands, lie immediately above the kidneys. The central or medullary portion of the glands forms the secretions known as ADRENALINE (or epinephrine) and NORADRENALINE. Adrenaline acts upon structures innervated by sympathetic nerves. Brie?y, the blood vessels of the skin and of the abdominal viscera (except the intestines) are constricted, and at the same time the arteries of the muscles and the coronary arteries are dilated; systolic blood pressure rises; blood sugar increases; the metabolic rate rises; muscle fatigue is diminished. The super?cial or cortical part of the glands produces steroid-based substances such as aldosterone, cortisone, hydrocortisone, and deoxycortone acetate, for the maintenance of life. It is the absence of these substances, due to atrophy or destruction of the suprarenal cortex, that is responsible for the condition known as ADDISON’S DISEASE. (See CORTICOSTEROIDS.)

Ovaries and testicles The ovary (see OVARIES) secretes at least two hormones – known, respectively, as oestradiol (follicular hormone) and progesterone (corpus luteum hormone). Oestradiol develops (under the stimulus of the anterior pituitary lobe – see PITUITARY GLAND below, and under separate entry) each time an ovum in the ovary becomes mature, and causes extensive proliferation of the ENDOMETRIUM lining the UTERUS, a stage ending with shedding of the ovum about 14 days before the onset of MENSTRUATION. The corpus luteum, which then forms, secretes both progesterone and oestradiol. Progesterone brings about great activity of the glands in the endometrium. The uterus is now ready to receive the ovum if it is fertilised. If fertilisation does not occur, the corpus luteum degenerates, the hormones cease acting, and menstruation takes place.

The hormone secreted by the testicles (see TESTICLE) is known as TESTOSTERONE. It is responsible for the growth of the male secondary sex characteristics.

Pancreas This gland is situated in the upper part of the abdomen and, in addition to the digestive enzymes, it produces INSULIN within specialised cells (islets of Langerhans). This controls carbohydrate metabolism; faulty or absent insulin production causes DIABETES MELLITUS.

Parathyroid glands These are four minute glands lying at the side of, or behind, the thyroid (see below). They have a certain e?ect in controlling the absorption of calcium salts by the bones and other tissues. When their secretion is defective, TETANY occurs.

Pituitary gland This gland is attached to the base of the brain and rests in a hollow on the base of the skull. It is the most important of all endocrine glands and consists of two embryologically and functionally distinct lobes.

The function of the anterior lobe depends on the secretion by the HYPOTHALAMUS of certain ‘neuro-hormones’ which control the secretion of the pituitary trophic hormones. The hypothalamic centres involved in the control of speci?c pituitary hormones appear to be anatomically separate. Through the pituitary trophic hormones the activity of the thyroid, adrenal cortex and the sex glands is controlled. The anterior pituitary and the target glands are linked through a feedback control cycle. The liberation of trophic hormones is inhibited by a rising concentration of the circulating hormone of the target gland, and stimulated by a fall in its concentration. Six trophic (polypeptide) hormones are formed by the anterior pituitary. Growth hormone (GH) and prolactin are simple proteins formed in the acidophil cells. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinising hormone (LH) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) are glycoproteins formed in the basophil cells. Adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), although a polypeptide, is derived from basophil cells.

The posterior pituitary lobe, or neurohypophysis, is closely connected with the hypothalamus by the hypothalamic-hypophyseal tracts. It is concerned with the production or storage of OXYTOCIN and vasopressin (the antidiuretic hormone).

PITUITARY HORMONES Growth hormone, gonadotrophic hormone, adrenocorticotrophic hormone and thyrotrophic hormones can be assayed in blood or urine by radio-immunoassay techniques. Growth hormone extracted from human pituitary glands obtained at autopsy was available for clinical use until 1985, when it was withdrawn as it is believed to carry the virus responsible for CREUTZFELDT-JAKOB DISEASE (COD). However, growth hormone produced by DNA recombinant techniques is now available as somatropin. Synthetic growth hormone is used to treat de?ciency of the natural hormone in children and adults, TURNER’S SYNDROME and chronic renal insu?ciency in children.

Human pituitary gonadotrophins are readily obtained from post-menopausal urine. Commercial extracts from this source are available and are e?ective for treatment of infertility due to gonadotrophin insu?ciency.

The adrenocorticotrophic hormone is extracted from animal pituitary glands and has been available therapeutically for many years. It is used as a test of adrenal function, and, under certain circumstances, in conditions for which corticosteroid therapy is indicated (see CORTICOSTEROIDS). The pharmacologically active polypeptide of ACTH has been synthesised and is called tetracosactrin. Thyrotrophic hormone is also available but it has no therapeutic application.

HYPOTHALAMIC RELEASING HORMONES which affect the release of each of the six anterior pituitary hormones have been identi?ed. Their blood levels are only one-thousandth of those of the pituitary trophic hormones. The release of thyrotrophin, adrenocorticotrophin, growth hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinising hormone is stimulated, while release of prolactin is inhibited. The structure of the releasing hormones for TSH, FSH-LH, GH and, most recently, ACTH is known and they have all been synthesised. Thyrotrophin-releasing hormone (TRH) is used as a diagnostic test of thyroid function but it has no therapeutic application. FSH-LH-releasing hormone provides a useful diagnostic test of gonadotrophin reserve in patients with pituitary disease, and is now used in the treatment of infertility and AMENORRHOEA in patients with functional hypothalamic disturbance. As this is the most common variety of secondary amenorrhoea, the potential use is great. Most cases of congenital de?ciency of GH, FSH, LH and ACTH are due to defects in the hypothalamic production of releasing hormone and are not a primary pituitary defect, so that the therapeutic implication of this synthesised group of releasing hormones is considerable.

GALACTORRHOEA is frequently due to a microadenoma (see ADENOMA) of the pituitary. DOPAMINE is the prolactin-release inhibiting hormone. Its duration of action is short so its therapeutic value is limited. However, BROMOCRIPTINE is a dopamine agonist with a more prolonged action and is e?ective treatment for galactorrhoea.

Thyroid gland The functions of the thyroid gland are controlled by the pituitary gland (see above) and the hypothalamus, situated in the brain. The thyroid, situated in the front of the neck below the LARYNX, helps to regulate the body’s METABOLISM. It comprises two lobes each side of the TRACHEA joined by an isthmus. Two types of secretory cells in the gland – follicular cells (the majority) and parafollicular cells – secrete, respectively, the iodine-containing hormones THYROXINE (T4) and TRI-IODOTHYRONINE (T3), and the hormone CALCITONIN. T3 and T4 help control metabolism and calcitonin, in conjunction with parathyroid hormone (see above), regulates the body’s calcium balance. De?ciencies in thyroid function produce HYPOTHYROIDISM and, in children, retarded development. Excess thyroid activity causes thyrotoxicosis. (See THYROID GLAND, DISEASES OF.)... endocrine glands


A cyst-like swelling in the breast which forms as a result of obstruction in the milk-duct draining the swollen area.... galactocele


A very rare, recessively inherited disease, with an incidence of around one in 75,000 births. Its importance lies in the disastrous consequences of it being overlooked, and results from the de?ciency of an ENZYME essential for the metabolism of GALACTOSE. Normal at birth, affected infants soon develop jaundice, vomiting, diarrhoea, and fail to thrive on starting milk feeds. If the disorder remains unrecognised, liver disease, cataracts (see EYE, DISORDERS OF) and mental retardation result. Treatment consists of a lactose-free diet, and special lactose-free milks are now available.... galactosaemia


A constituent of lactose, galactose is a simple sugar that is changed in the liver to glucose. A rare genetic metabolic disease, GALACTOSAEMIA, results in infants being unable to achieve this conversion because the enzyme necessary for the reaction is absent.... galactose


Maidenhair tree. Ginkgo biloba. Sole survivor of its own genus. Seeds, leaves.

Keynotes: brain and lungs.

Constituents: terpenes, tannins, lignans, flavonoids, and gingkolide B which is a platelet activating factor (PAF).

Action: nutritive, tuberculostatic. A compound (BN 52021) from the tree antagonises bronchospasm and tends to resolve breathing difficulties. Circulatory stimulant. Increases brain blood flow, Peripheral vasodilator, Energy enhancer. (JAM, Vol 6, No 2)

Uses: Respiratory complaints, especially asthma. Inhibits platelet clumping: of value in coronary artery disease. Tinnitus. Intermittent claudication. Raynaud’s disease. Thrombosis. Cold hands and feet. Spontaneous bruising. Early stages of Alzheimer’s disease. Cerebral insufficiency in old age. Varicose veins. Some antitumor activity against sarcoma in mice recorded. Piles. Temporal arteritis. Cramp in the calves – walking-distance increased. Tired brain, impaired memory. Coronary artery disease. Hearing loss, depression, vertigo, headache. To increase resistance to adverse environmental factors. Chronic fatigue syndrome (ME). Subclinical neurosis. Headache. Depression. Impaired mental ability. Hangover. Preparations. Thrice daily. Large doses may be required.

Tea (leaves). 1 heaped teaspoon to each cup of water gently simmered 5 minutes. Dose: half-1 cup. Tablets/capsules. 250mg. Maintenance dose: one tablet or capsule increasing to two in acute cases. Chinese Medicine. “Seeds moisten the lungs, stop coughing, and strengthen the body.”

“I have seen a reduction in severity and frequency of asthma attacks and a marked reduction in use of brocho-dilating drugs by the use of Ginkgo.” (Brown D., Phytotherapy Review and Commentary, Townsend Letter to Doctors, October 1990 pp648-9)

German medicine. No drug interactions and very low levels of side-effects. Important remedy to the German Health Service at a cost of 286 million DM in 1989. (Kleijnen J. & Knipschild P. The Lancet 1992, 340, Nov 7)

Tincture. 2 tsp a.m. and p.m. ... ginkgo


See LIVER.... gall-bladder


See under GALL-BLADDER, DISEASES OF.... gall-stones


These are sexual forms of the malarial parasite that develop within red blood cells. The male gametocytes are known as microgametocytes and the female gametocytes are known as macrogametocytes.... gametocyte

Gamma Aminobutyric Acid

See GABA.... gamma aminobutyric acid

Gamma Rays

Short-wavelength penetrating electromagnetic rays produced by some radioactive compounds. More powerful than X-rays, they are used in certain RADIOTHERAPY treatments and to sterilise some materials.... gamma rays


Gamma-globulin describes a group of proteins present in the blood PLASMA. They are characterised by their rate of movement in an electrical ?eld, and can be separated by the process of ELECTROPHORESIS. Most gamma-globulins are IMMUNOGLOBULINS. Gamma-globulin injection provides passive or active immunity against HEPATITIS A. (See also GLOBULIN; IMMUNITY; IMMUNOLOGY.)... gamma-globulin

Gamete Intrafallopian Transfer (gift)

Another method of helping infertile couples. In over half of women diagnosed as infertile, the Fallopian tubes are normal, and in many it is unknown why they cannot conceive – although some have ENDOMETRIOSIS.

Eggs are obtained and mixed with the partner’s semen, then introduced into the woman’s Fallopian tubes for fertilisation to take place. The fertilised egg travels to the uterus where IMPLANTATION occurs and pregnancy proceeds. A variation of GIFT is zygote intrafallopian transfer (ZIFT) in which early development of the fertilised eggs happens in the laboratory before the young embryo is transferred to the Fallopian tubes. GIFT is best used in couples with unexplained infertility or with minor degrees of male or female cervical factor infertility. The success rate is about 17 per cent. (See also ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION.)... gamete intrafallopian transfer (gift)


Also known as Hurler’s syndrome, gargoylism is a rare condition due to lack of a speci?c ENZYME. It is a progressive disorder usually leading to death before the age of 10 years. The affected child is usually normal during the ?rst few months of life; mental and physical deterioration then set in. The characteristic features include coarse facial features (hence the name of the condition), retarded growth, chest deformity, sti? joints, clouding of the cornea (see EYE), enlargement of the liver and spleen, deafness, and heart murmurs, with mental deterioration. It occurs in about one in 100,000 births.... gargoylism

Gas Gangrene

See GANGRENE.... gas gangrene


Pain in the stomach... gastralgia

Garden Rue

Ruta chalepensis


San: Gucchapatra;

Hin: Pismaram, Sadab, Satari;

Ben: Ermul;

Mal: Aruta, Nagatali;

Tam: Aruvadam, Arvada;

Kan: Sadabu, Nagadali; soppu, Simesdanu;

Tel: Sadapa, Aruda

Importance: Common rue or Garden rue also known as Herb of Grace due to its service in the Roman Catholic Church for sprinkling the holy water among the congregation, is an aromatic perennial herb. The plant is useful in vitiated conditions of kapha and vata, strangury, fever, flatulence, colic, amenorrhoea, epilepsy and hysteria. The oil acts as a stimulant for uterine and nervous systems. The fresh leaves are used for rheumatalgia. The juice obtained from the leaves is given to children for helminthic infections and is good for odontalgia and otalgia (Warrier et al, 1996). The dried leaves, powdered and combined with aromatics, are given as a remedy for dyspepsia and with the fresh leaves a tincture is made which is used as an external remedy in the first stages of paralysis (Nadkarni, 1998).

Distribution: The plant is a native of South Europe and it is found in subtropical countries. It is commonly cultivated in Indian gardens.

Botany: Ruta chalepensis Linn.syn. R. graveolens Linn. var. angustifolia Sensu Hook. f. belongs to the family Rutaceae. It is an aromatic perennial herb growing upto 75cm height. Leaves are compound, shortly petiolate with ultimate segments oblong or obovate-oblong. Flowers are yellow. Fruits are capsules and shortly pedicelled (Warrier et al, 1996).

Agrotechnology: The plant is suited to areas which are about 1000m above mean sea level and with moderate rainfall and sunlight. The plant can be propagated either by seeds or stem cuttings. Seeds are to be sown in seedbeds. Stem cuttings of length 20-25cm are to be planted in polybags for rooting. About 3-4 months old seedlings can be transplanted to pots and harvested when plants attain 6-8 months age. In highlands land is to be ploughed to a fine tilth, mixed with organic manure and seedlings are to be transplanted at a spacing of 45cm between plants. Irrigation is essential during summer months. Regular weeding is to be done. The plant is not attacked by any serious pests and diseases. Harvesting commences from sixth month onwards. The economic part is the whole plant and the oil extracted from it (Prasad et al, 1997).

Properties and activity: Roots contain coumarins-xanthyletin and (-)-byakangelicin. The alkaloids are rutacridone-epoxide, gravacridonol and its monomethyl ether, gravacridonchlorine, furacridone, 1-hydroxy-3-methoxy-N-methylacridone, iso-gravacridonechlorine, dictamine, r-fragarine and skimmianine. Skimmianine is also present in leaves and stem. Leaves and stem also contain graveolinine (1-methyl-2(3’,4’-methylenedioxyphenol)-4-methoxy- quinoline). Aerial parts give coumarins bergapten, xanthotoxin and psoralen. Coumarin- imperatin has also been reported from the plant. Herb contains alkaloids such as kokusagenine, rutamine(methylgraveoline) and graveoline(1-methyl-2(3’,4’- methylenedioxyphenyl)-4-quinoline). Tissue culture of the plant gives furacridone alkaloids-1-hydroxyrutacridone-epoxide, rutagravin and gravacridonol. Gravacridondiol and its glucoside have been obtained from the root tissue culture. The essential oil from leaves, stem and root yielded aliphatic ketones including 2-nonanone (10-35%), undecyl-2-acetate (0.5-15%), 2-nonyl acetate (trace-10%), nonylacetate, nonanol, 2-nonylpropionate, 2- nonylpropionate, 2-undecanol and its esters. The oil from roots gave pregeijerene also.

The plant is spasmolytic which is due to the presence of bergapten, xanthotoxin, the essential oil and a coumarin. It is also antispasmodic, emmenagogue, irritant, abortifacient and anti-bacterial. Leaf is analgesic, antirheumatic, antihysteric and anthelmintic (Husain et al, 1992).... garden rue


The large double muscle which forms the chief bulk of the calf, and ends below in the tendo calcaneus.... gastrocnemius


A surgical operation to join the DUODENUM to a hole made in the STOMACH wall to circumvent an obstruction in the gut – for example, PYLORIC STENOSIS – or to improve the passage of food from the stomach into the duodenum.... gastroduodenostomy


Formerly H¾mophilus, this is an anaerobic bacteria that is a main contributor to bacterial vaginosis. It is sometimes sexually transmitted, but can stick around for years as a passive part of the vaginal flora, only to flare up. It seems to occur in up to a quarter of relatively monogamous women and in half of women with multiple male partners. As bacterial vaginosis, Gardnerella is one of the three main causes of vaginal discharges, along with Trichomonas and Candida albicans. Antibiotic therapy for male partners seems of only marginal value, and the distinguishing characteristic of the infection is nearly no Lactobacillus vaginal presence, the main part of the flora that retains the lactic acid and peroxide balance so important in a healthy vagina. Live culture yogurt, as both food and douches help the problem.... gardnerella

Gastrointestinal Tract

The passage along which the food passes, in which it is digested (see DIGESTION), and from which it is absorbed by lymphatics and blood vessels into the circulation. The tract consists of the mouth, pharynx or throat, oesophagus or gullet, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine, in this order. For details, see articles under these headings. The total length in humans is about 9 metres.... gastrointestinal tract


An endoscopic instrument (see ENDOSCOPE) for viewing the interior of the STOMACH. Introduced into the stomach via the mouth and OESOPHAGUS, the long ?exible instrument (also called an oesophagogastroduodenoscope) transmits an image through a ?breoptic bundle or by a small video camera. The operator can see and photograph all areas of the stomach and also take biopsy specimens when required. (See also FIBREOPTIC ENDOSCOPY.)... gastroscope


A health professional, who may be a medical practitioner, nurse or other professional, who has the first encounter with an individual and controls the individual’s entry into the health care system.... gatekeeper


One of the PROSTAGLANDINS administered vaginally as pessaries for the medical induction of late therapeutic ABORTION. Gemeprost also softens the cervix before surgical abortion, being particularly useful for women in their ?rst pregnancy. Prostaglandins induce contractions of the UTERUS while keeping blood loss to a minimum.... gemeprost

General Dental Council

A statutory body set up by the Dentists Act which maintains a register of dentists (see DENTAL SURGEON), promotes high standards of dental education, and oversees the professional conduct of dentists. Membership comprises elected and appointed dentists and appointed lay members. Like other councils responsible for registering health professionals, the General Dental Council now comes under the umbrella of the new Council for Regulatory Excellence, a statutory body. (See APPENDIX 7: STATUTORY ORGANISATIONS.)... general dental council

General Dental Services

See DENTAL SURGEON.... general dental services

General Practice

A form of practice in which medical practitioners provide a wide range of primary health care services to people.... general practice

Generic Drug

A medicinal drug that is sold under its o?cial (generic) name instead of its proprietary (patented brand) name. NHS doctors are advised to prescribe generic drugs where possible as this enables any suitable drug to be dispensed, saving delay to the patient and sometimes expense to the NHS. (See APPROVED NAMES FOR MEDICINES.)... generic drug


(Hebrew) Of the beginning; the first book of the Bible Genesies, Genesiss, Genessa, Genisa, Genisia, Genisis, Gennesis, Gennesiss... genesis

Genetic Fingerprinting

This technique shows the relationships between individuals: for example, it can be used to prove maternity or paternity of a child. The procedure is also used in FORENSIC MEDICINE whereby any tissue left behind by a criminal at the scene of a crime can be compared genetically with the tissue of a suspect. DNA, the genetic material in living cells, can be extracted from blood, semen and other body tissues. The technique, pioneered in Britain in 1984, is now widely used.... genetic fingerprinting

Genetic Screening

A screening procedure that tests whether a person has a genetic make-up that is linked with a particular disease. If so, the person may either develop the disease or pass it on to his or her o?spring. When an individual has been found to carry a genetically linked disease, he or she should receive genetic counselling from an expert in inherited diseases.

Genetic screening is proving to be a controversial subject. Arguments are developing over whether the results of such screenings should be made available to employers and insurance companies – a move that could have adverse consequences for some individuals with potentially harmful genetic make-ups. (See GENES; GENETIC DISORDERS.)... genetic screening

Genetic Disorders

These are caused when there are mutations or other abnormalities which disrupt the code of a gene or set of GENES. These are divided into autosomal (one of the 44 CHROMOSOMES which are not sex-linked), dominant, autosomal recessive, sex-linked and polygenic disorders.

Dominant genes A dominant characteristic is an e?ect which is produced whenever a gene or gene defect is present. If a disease is due to a dominant gene, those affected are heterozygous – that is, they only carry a fault in the gene on one of the pair of chromosomes concerned. A?ected people married to normal individuals transmit the gene directly to one-half of the children, although this is a random event just like tossing a coin. HUNTINGTON’S CHOREA is due to the inheritance of a dominant gene, as is neuro?bromatosis (see VON RECKLINGHAUSEN’S DISEASE) and familial adenomatous POLYPOSIS of the COLON. ACHONDROPLASIA is an example of a disorder in which there is a high frequency of a new dominant mutation, for the majority of affected people have normal parents and siblings. However, the chances of the children of a parent with the condition being affected are one in two, as with any other dominant characteristic. Other diseases inherited as dominant characteristics include spherocytosis, haemorrhagic telangiectasia and adult polycystic kidney disease.

Recessive genes If a disease is due to a recessive gene, those affected must have the faulty gene on both copies of the chromosome pair (i.e. be homozygous). The possession of a single recessive gene does not result in overt disease, and the bearer usually carries this potentially unfavourable gene without knowing it. If that person marries another carrier of the same recessive gene, there is a one-in-four chance that their children will receive the gene in a double dose, and so have the disease. If an individual sufferer from a recessive disease marries an apparently normal person who is a heterozygous carrier of the same gene, one-half of the children will be affected and the other half will be carriers of the disease. The commonest of such recessive conditions in Britain is CYSTIC FIBROSIS, which affects about one child in 2,000. Approximately 5 per cent of the population carry a faulty copy of the gene. Most of the inborn errors of metabolism, such as PHENYLKETONURIA, GALACTOSAEMIA and congenital adrenal hyperplasia (see ADRENOGENITAL SYNDROME), are due to recessive genes.

There are characteristics which may be incompletely recessive – that is, neither completely dominant nor completely recessive – and the heterozygotus person, who bears the gene in a single dose, may have a slight defect whilst the homozygotus, with a double dose of the gene, has a severe illness. The sickle-cell trait is a result of the sickle-cell gene in single dose, and sickle-cell ANAEMIA is the consequence of a double dose.

Sex-linked genes If a condition is sex-linked, affected males are homozygous for the mutated gene as they carry it on their single X chromosome. The X chromosome carries many genes, while the Y chromosome bears few genes, if any, other than those determining masculinity. The genes on the X chromosome of the male are thus not matched by corresponding genes on the Y chromosome, so that there is no chance of the Y chromosome neutralising any recessive trait on the X chromosome. A recessive gene can therefore produce disease, since it will not be suppressed by the normal gene of the homologous chromosome. The same recessive gene on the X chromosome of the female will be suppressed by the normal gene on the other X chromosome. Such sex-linked conditions include HAEMOPHILIA, CHRISTMAS DISEASE, DUCHENNE MUSCULAR


If the mother of an affected child has another male relative affected, she is a heterozygote carrier; half her sons will have the disease and half her daughters will be carriers. The sister of a haemophiliac thus has a 50 per cent chance of being a carrier. An affected male cannot transmit the gene to his son because the X chromosome of the son must come from the mother; all his daughters, however, will be carriers as the X chromosome for the father must be transmitted to all his daughters. Hence sex-linked recessive characteristics cannot be passed from father to son. Sporadic cases may be the result of a new mutation, in which case the mother is not the carrier and is not likely to have further affected children. It is probable that one-third of haemophiliacs arise as a result of fresh mutations, and these patients will be the ?rst in the families to be affected. Sometimes the carrier of a sex-linked recessive gene can be identi?ed. The sex-linked variety of retinitis pigmentosa (see EYE, DISORDERS OF) can often be detected by ophthalmoscopic examination.

A few rare disorders are due to dominant genes carried on the X chromosome. An example of such a condition is familial hypophosphataemia with vitamin-D-resistant RICKETS.

Polygenic inheritance In many inherited conditions, the disease is due to the combined action of several genes; the genetic element is then called multi-factorial or polygenic. In this situation there would be an increased incidence of the disease in the families concerned, but it will not follow the Mendelian (see MENDELISM; GENETIC CODE) ratio. The greater the number of independent genes involved in determining a certain disease, the more complicated will be the pattern of inheritance. Furthermore, many inherited disorders are the result of a combination of genetic and environmental in?uences. DIABETES MELLITUS is the most familiar of such multi-factorial inheritance. The predisposition to develop diabetes is an inherited characteristic, although the gene is not always able to express itself: this is called incomplete penetrance. Whether or not the individual with a genetic predisposition towards the disease actually develops diabetes will also depend on environmental factors. Diabetes is more common in the relatives of diabetic patients, and even more so amongst identical twins. Non-genetic factors which are important in precipitating overt disease are obesity, excessive intake of carbohydrate foods, and pregnancy.

SCHIZOPHRENIA is another example of the combined effects of genetic and environmental in?uences in precipitating disease. The risk of schizophrenia in a child, one of whose parents has the disease, is one in ten, but this ?gure is modi?ed by the early environment of the child.... genetic disorders

Genito-urinary Medicine

The branch of medicine that deals with the effects of SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES (STDS) on the URINARY TRACT, REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM and other systems in the body. The specialty overlaps with GYNAECOLOGY (women’s urinary and reproductive systems) and UROLOGY (men’s urinary and reproductive system).... genito-urinary medicine


All of an individual’s genetic information that is encoded in his or her CHROMOSOMES. It also means the genetic information carried by a pair of alleles which controls a particular characteristic. (See GENES.)... genotype


(pl. genera) The taxonomic category below Family, but above Species. A taxonomic grouping of closelyrelated species. A category of biological classification, see genera and Taxonomy.... genus

Geriatric Medicine

The branch of medicine specializing in the health and illnesses of old age and the appropriate care and services.... geriatric medicine


Now increasingly termed ‘medicine of the elderly’, this is a branch of medicine that deals with disorders and diseases associated with old age, and particularly their social consequences (see also AGEING).... geriatrics

Germ Layer

Any one of the three discrete varieties of body tissue that develop in the early stages of growth of the EMBRYO. Development of the layers can be followed throughout the embryo’s stages of growth and specialisation into the body’s full range of tissues and organs (see ECTODERM; ENDODERM; MESODERM).... germ layer


Causing destruction of micro-organisms... germicidal


A school of psychology based on the concept that an individual’s sense of wholeness is more valuable than a piecemeal approach to perception and behaviour. Founded in Germany early in the 20th century, the school’s practitioners regarded the whole as more than a sum of its parts. Aimed at resolving personal problems, the therapy increased subjects’ self-awareness of all aspects of themselves in their environment.... gestaltism

Ginkgo Biloba


Family: Ginkgoaceae.

Habitat: Native to China and Japan; cultivated in Indian gardens as an ornamental.

English: Maidenhair tree called Living Fossils (in India), Kew tree.

Action: Antagonizes bronchospasm, used as a circulatory stimulant, peripheral vasodilator.

Key application: Standardized dry extract—for symptomatic treatment of disturbed performance in organic brain syndrome within the regimen ofa therapeutic concept in cases of dementia syndromes— memory deficits, disturbance in concentration, depressive emotional conditions, dizziness, tinnitus and headache. (German Commission E, ESCOP, WHO.) As vasoactive and platelet aggregation inhibitor.

(The British Herbal Pharmacopoeia.) (For pharmocological studies in humans and clinical studies, see ESCOP.)

The majority of pharmacological studies and clinical trials have been conduced using a standardized extract which contains 24% flavonoid glyco- sides (Ginko flavone glycosides) and 6% terpenoids (ginkgolides and bilob- alide).

The extract increases tolerance to hypoxia and exhibits anti-ischaemic effect. It simultaneously improves the fluidity of blood, decreases platelet adhesion, decreases platelet and erythro- cyte aggregation and reduces plasma and blood viscosity. The extract protects erythrocytes from haemolysis. The extract also decreases the permeability of capillaries and protects the cell membrane by trapping deleterious free radicals.

The extract also increased cerebral blood flow in about 70% patients evaluated (patients between 30-50 year age had 20% increase from the base line, compared with 70% in those 50- to 70- year-olds).

A reversal of sexual dysfunction with concurrent use of ginkgo with antidepressant drugs has been reported. (Am J Psychiatry, 2000 157(5), 836837.)

The National Centre for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, USA, is conducting a 5-year study of 3000 people aged 75 and older to determine if ginkgo, 240 mg daily, prevents dementia or Alzheimer's disease.... ginkgo biloba


A collection of CELLS or an ORGAN with a specialised ability to make and secrete chemical substances such as enzymes and hormones essential for the normal functioning of the body. Glands are classi?ed into two groups: ENDOCRINE and EXOCRINE. The former secrete their products, hormones, straight into the bloodstream; the latter’s secretions are discharged through ducts. (These functional differences are the reason why glands have been de?ned as ductless and ducted.) Examples of endocrine glands are the adrenals, PITUITARY GLAND and THYROID GLAND. Exocrine glands include SEBACEOUS GLANDS (in the skin) and the SALIVARY GLANDS in the mouth whose enzymes start the digestion of food. The BREASTS or mammary glands are exocrine glands that secrete milk. Though strictly speaking not a gland, LYMPH nodes (part of the lymphatic system) are sometimes called that. While they do not produce secretions, lymph glands do release white blood cells, an essential part of the body’s defence system.... gland

Glasgow Coma Scale

A method developed by two doctors in Glasgow that is used to assess the depth of COMA or unconsciousness suffered by an individual. The scale is split into three groups – eye opening, motor response, and verbal response – with the level of activity within each group given a score. A person’s total score is the sum of the numbers scored in each group, and this provides a reasonably objective assessment of the patient’s coma state – particularly useful when monitoring people who have suffered a head injury. (See also PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE (PVS).)... glasgow coma scale


Also called neuroglia, this is the specialised connective tissue of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Providing support and nutrition to neurones (see NEURON(E)), glia comprises various cells including oligodendrocytes, astrocytes and ependymal cells. There are around ten times as many glial cells as neurons and they form about 40 per cent of the total volume of the brain and spinal cord, playing an essential role in the neurochemical transmission function of neurons (see BRAIN).... glia


A protein which, when it combines with haem, forms HAEMOGLOBIN – the molecule found in the red blood cell that carries oxygen and carbon dioxide.... globin


A term applied generally to any structures of ball shape, but especially to the sensation of a ball in the throat causing choking, which forms a common symptom of acute anxiety (globus hystericus).... globus


A small knot of blood vessels about the size of a grain of sand, of which around 1,000,000 are found in each of the two KIDNEYS, and from which the excretion of ?uid out of the blood into the tubules of the kidney takes place.... glomerulus


One of the two main groups of CORTICOSTEROIDS. CORTISOL, CORTISONE and corticosterone are part of this group and are essential for the body to utilise CARBOHYDRATE, FAT and PROTEIN – in particular, when the body is reacting to stress. Glucocorticoids occur naturally but can be synthesised, and they have strong anti-in?ammatory properties, being used to treat conditions in which in?ammation is a part.... glucocorticoids


The formation of sugar from amino acids in the LIVER.... gluconeogenesis

Glucose-tolerance Test

A way of assessing the body’s e?ciency at metabolising GLUCOSE. The test is used in the diagnosis of DIABETES MELLITUS. The patient is starved for up to 16 hours, after which he or she is fed glucose by mouth. The concentrations of glucose in the blood and urine are then measured at half-hour intervals over a period of two hours.... glucose-tolerance test


An ENZYME occurring in the KIDNEYS which catalyses the breakdown of glutamine (see AMINO ACIDS) to ammonia – a phase in the production of the metabolic waste product, UREA.... glutaminase


Three gluteal muscles form each buttock. The gluteus maximus is the large, powerful muscle that gives the buttocks their rounded shape. The remaining two muscles are the gluteus medius and gluteus minimus; together the three muscles are responsible for moving the thigh.... gluteus


Glycerin, or glycerol, is an alcohol, C3H8O3, which occurs naturally in combination with organic acids in the form of fats or triglycerides. It is a clear, colourless, thick liquid of sweet taste. It dissolves many substances, and absorbs water e?ectively.

Uses Glycerin has many and varied uses. Numerous substances, such as carbolic acid, tannic acid, alum, borax, boric acid and starch, are dissolved in it for application to the body. It is frequently applied along with other remedies to in?amed areas for its action in extracting ?uid and thus diminishing in?ammation.... glycerin


Another name for GLYCERIN.... glycerol

Goblet Cell

A columnar secretory cell occurring in the EPITHELIUM of the respiratory and intestinal tracts.

The cells produce the main constituents of MUCUS.... goblet cell


A hormone that stimulates the PITUITARY GLAND to secrete three hormones: gonadotrophic, luteinising and follicle-stimulating. Gonadorelin can be made arti?cially and given by intravenous injection. It is used to stimulate the OVARIES when treating infertile women, and to investigate suspected disease of the HYPOTHALAMUS. Analogues of the hormone (buserelin and goserelin) are chemically similar and can be used to suppress release of gonadorelin, so cutting the production of pituitary hormones. The two analogues are given to treat

ENDOMETRIOSIS, breast cancer (see BREASTS, DISEASES OF) and prostate cancer (see PROSTATE GLAND, DISEASES OF).... gonadorelin

Golden Seal

Hydrastis canadensis. N.O. Ranunculaceae.

Synonym: Orange Root, Yellow Root.

Habitat: This valuable plant appears, according to Coffin, to have been first discovered and used by the aborigines of North America. It is indigenous to that part of the world.

Features ? Golden Seal is found growing to a height of one to two feet in rich, moist and shady soils. The leaves are alternate, the lower one stalked, the upper one sessile. Both are unequally toothed, and have from three to seven acute lobes. White and red single terminal flowers bloom in April. The root is short, knotty with the bases of stems, and covered with many rootlets. The taste is very bitter, and the scent strong and unpleasant.

Part used ? Golden Seal was so named by the followers of Thomson, who first used the root about 1845, since when it has figured prominently in herbal practice.

Action: Tonic, alterative, and laxative.

Golden Seal has proved itself to be a very valuable remedy in digestive disorders and in debilitated conditions of mucous membranes. Its use is indicated in various gastric complaints, and it may be taken with advantage by most dyspeptics in doses of 10 grains of the powdered root.

Hydrastis is also given in conjunction with Lime flowers and Valerian to reduce blood pressure.... golden seal


Neisseria gonorrhoeae.... gonococcus

Gotu Kola

Meditation ... gotu kola


The exercise of political, economic and administrative authority in the management of an organization’s affairs at all levels.... governance

Gracilaria Lichenoides

(Linn.) Hary.

Habitat: Native to South America, particularly its north-western parts. Also cultivated in India.

English: Egyptian Cotton, Sea- Island Cotton.

Ayurvedic: Kaarpaasa.

Siddha/Tamil: Semparutthi.

Folk: Kapaasa.

Action: Root—emmenagogue, oxytocic, abortifacient, parturient, lactagogue. Seed and leaf— antidysenteric. Seed—galacto- gogue, pectoral, febrifuge. Seed oil—used externally for clearing spots and freckles from the skin. Leaf—hypotensive, an- tirheumatic. Flower—used in hypochondriasis and bronchial inflammations.

The seed contains 26.2-27.9% protein; 1.22-2.42 free gossypol.... gracilaria lichenoides


Estimate of the degree of malignancy of a neoplasm.... grade


The term applied to a piece of tissue removed from one person or animal and implanted in another, or the same, individual in order to remedy some defect. Skin grafts are commonly used, and arti?cial skin for grafting has recently been developed. Bone grafts are also used to replace bone which has been lost by disease: for example, a portion of rib is sometimes removed in order to furnish support for a spine weakened by disease, after removal of the damaged bone. Also, the bone of young animals is used to a?ord additional growth and strength to a limb-bone which it has been necessary to remove in part on account of disease or injury. Research is also underway on arti?cal bone. Vein grafts are used to replace stretches of arteries which have become blocked, particularly in the heart and lower limbs. The veins most commonly used for this purpose are the saphenous veins of the individual in question, provided they are healthy. An alternative is specially treated umbilical vein. (See SKINGRAFTING.)

When a replacement organ, such as kidney, heart or liver, is ‘grafted’ into someone’s body, it called a ‘transplant’ (see TRANSPLANTATION).... graft


Protection... grain


Gram’s Method is a staining procedure that separates bacteria into those that stain (positive) and those that don’t (negative). Gram-positive bugs cause such lovely things as scarlet fever, tetanus, and anthrax, while some of the gram negs can give you cholera, plague, and the clap. This is significant to the microbiologist and the pathologist; otherwise I wouldn’t worry. Still, knowing the specifics (toss in anaerobes and aerobes as well), you can impress real medical professionals with your knowledge of the secret, arcane language of medicine.... gram-positive/negative


One of several serotonin antagonists used to treat nausea and vomiting induced by CYTOTOXIC chemotherapy.... granisetron


These are a group of white blood cells that have many and well-pigmented granules, and derive from the bone marrow myeloblasts. The granules are sources of digestive, immunologic, and inflammatory proteins. The classic granulocytes are neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils, but one should also include mast cells. Also, macrophages, which start out as agranulocytic monocytes but get lots of granules when they grow up.... granulocytes

Graves’ Disease

See THYROID GLAND, DISEASES OF.... graves’ disease


Pregnant (see PREGNANCY AND LABOUR).... gravid

Green Tea

Green Tea comes with such a host of health benefits, that it’s called the ‘wonder herb’ by tea drinkers and medical practitioners alike. Drinking green tea lowers cancer risk and also inhibits carcinogenic in cigarettes and other compounds when imbibed. Green Tea contains potent antioxidants called polyphenols, which help suppress free radicals. Green tea also stops certain tumors from forming. Green tea lowers cholesterol and triglyceride levels and thereby promotes heart health. Green tea also lowers blood pressure, prevents and fights tooth decay and dental issues, and inhibits different viruses from causing illnesses.... green tea


See also Raisins, Wine.

Nutritional Profile Energy value (calories per serving): Moderate Protein: Low Fat: Low Saturated fat: Low Cholesterol: None Carbohydrates: High Fiber: Low Sodium: Low Major vitamin contribution: Vitamin A, vitamin C Major mineral contribution: Phosphorus

About the Nutrients in This Food Grapes are high in natural sugars, but even with the skin on they have less than one gram dietary fiber per serving. The most important nutrient in grapes is vitamin C. A serving of 10 green or red Thompson seedless grapes has 5.3 mg vitamin C (7 percent of the R DA for a woman, 6 percent of the R DA for a man). The tart, almost sour flavor of unripened grapes comes from natu- rally occurring malic acid. As grapes ripen, their malic acid content declines while their sugar content rises. R ipe eating grapes are always sweet, but they have no stored starches to convert to sugars so they won’t get sweeter after they are picked.

The Most Nutritious Way to Serve This Food Fresh and ripe.

Buying This Food Look for: Plump, well-colored grapes that are firmly attached to green stems that bend easily and snap back when you let them go. Green grapes should have a slightly yellow tint or a pink blush; red grapes should be deep, dark red or purple. Avoid: Mushy grapes, grapes with wrinkled skin, and grapes that feel sticky. They are all past their prime. So are grapes whose stems are dry and brittle. Characteristics of Different Varieties of Grapes Red grapes Cardinal  Large, dark red, available March–August Emperor  Large red with seeds. September–March Flame  Seedless, medium to large, red. June–August R ibier  Large, blue-black, with seeds. July–February Tokay  Large, bright red, seeds. August–November Queen  Large, bright to dark red, seeds. June–August White grapes Almeria  Large, golden. August–October Calmeria Longish, light green. October–February Perlette  Green, seedless, compact clusters. May–July Thompson Seedless, green to light gold. June–November Source: The Fresh Approach to Grapes (United Fruit & Vegetable Associat ion, n.d.).

Storing This Food Wrap grapes in a plastic bag and store them in the refrigerator. Do not wash grapes until you are ready to use them.

Preparing This Food To serve fresh grapes, rinse them under running water to remove debris, then drain the grapes and pick off stems and leaves. To peel grapes (for salads), choose Catawba, Concord, Delaware, Niagara, or Scup- pernong, the American varieties known as “slipskin” because the skin comes off easily. The European varieties (emperor, flame, Tokay, Muscat, Thompson) are more of a challenge. To peel them, put the grapes into a colander and submerge it in boiling water for a few seconds, then rinse or plunge them into cold water. The hot water makes cells in the grape’s flesh swell, stretching the skin; the cold bath makes the cells shrink back from the skin which should now come off easily.

What Happens When You Cook This Food See above.

How Other Kinds of Processing Affect This Food Juice. Red grapes are colored with anthocyanin pigments that turn deeper red in acids and blue, purple, or yellowish in basic (alkaline) solutions. As a result, red grape juice will turn brighter red if you mix it with lemon or orange juice. Since metals (which are basic) would also change the color of the juice, the inside of grape juice cans is coated with plastic or enamel to keep the juice from touching the metal. Since 2000, following several deaths attributed to unpasteurized apple juice contaminated with E. coli O157:H7, the FDA has required that all juices sold in the United States be pasteurized to inactivate harmful organ- isms such as bacteria and mold. Wine-making. Grapes are an ideal fruit for wine-making. They have enough sugar to pro- duce a product that is 10 percent alcohol and are acidic enough to keep unwanted micro- organisms from growing during fermentation. Some wines retain some of the nutrients originally present in the grapes from which they are made. (See wine.) Drying. See r aisins.

Medical Uses and/or Benefits Lower risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and some forms of cancer. Grape skin, pulp, and seed contain resveratrol, one of a group of plant chemicals credited with lowering cholesterol and thus reducing the risk of heart attack by preventing molecular fragments called free radicals from linking together to form compounds that damage body cells, leading to blocked arteries (heart disease), glucose-damaged blood vessels (diabetes), and unregulated cell growth (cancer). The juice from purple grapes has more resveratrol than the juice from red grapes, which has more resveratrol than the juice from white grapes. More specifically, in 1998, a team of food scientists from the USDA Agricultural Research Service identified a native American grape, the muscadine, commonly used to make grape juice in the United States, as an unusually potent source of resveratrol.... grapes

Gravel Root

Eupatorium purpureum. N.O. Compositae.

Synonym: Eupatorium purpureum is also called Gravel Weed and Queen of the

Meadow, from which the medicinal "Gravel Root" is obtained.

Habitat: Gravel Root is a native of the United States, and must not be confused with the English Queen of the Meadow or Meadowsweet (Spiraea ulmaria).

Features ? Our present subject is a member of the Boneset (Eupatorium perfoliatum) family, and sometimes reaches six feet in height at full growth. It is peculiar for a purple band about an inch broad round the leaf joint. Pale purple to white flowers bloom in August and September. The rhizome, as the medicinal "root" should more properly be termed, is hard and tough, up to an inch thick, with a nearly white wood and thin grey-brown bark. Short, lateral branches give off thin, tough root several inches long.

Part used ? Root.

Action: Diuretic and stimulant.

Gravel root is much prescribed for cases of stone in the bladder and certain other troubles of the kidneys and urinary apparatus. A decoction of 1 ounce of the root to 1 pint (reduced from 1 1/2 pints) of water is made, and taken in wineglass doses. Gravel root is also met with in nervine formulae, in which its tonic properties are recognised.

The American physio-medical or "Thomsonite" M.D., F. H. England, has said that Gravel Root "induces very little stimulation. It expends nearly all its influence on the kidneys, bladder and uterus. It probably influences the whole sympathetic nervous system. Its use promotes the flow of urine as scarcely anything else will."... gravel root


Senecio vulgaris. N.O. Compositae.

Common name originates from the Anglo-Saxon, meaning "ground glutton," a reference to the speed at which the plant spreads.

Habitat: A garden weed.

Features ? Erect, angular, branched stem as high as nine inches. Leaves sessile, oblong ; short, toothed lobes. Flowers small, yellow, with slender, black-tipped

involucral scales; florets tubular. Salty taste. Part used ? Herb.

Action: Diuretic, hepatic.

Relief of biliary pains in 2 ounce doses of the 1 ounce to 1 pint infusion. A

stronger infusion acts as a purgative and emetic.... groundsel

Group Practice

A formal association of three or more health practitioners or other health professionals providing health services. Income from the practice is pooled and redistributed to the members of the group according to some prearranged plan.... group practice

Green Chiretta

Andrographis paniculata


San: Bhunimbah, Kiratatiktah

Hin: Kakamegh, Kalpanath

Ben: Kalmegh

Mal: Nilaveppu, Kiriyattu Tam: Nilavempu Kan: Kreata

Importance: Kalmegh, the Great or Green Chiretta is a branched annual herb. It is useful in hyperdipsia, burning sensation, wounds, ulcers, chronic fever, malarial and intermittent fevers, inflammations, cough, bronchitis, skin diseases, leprosy, pruritis, intestinal worms, dyspepsia, flatulence, colic, diarrhoea, dysentery, haemorrhoids and vitiated conditions of pitta (Warrier et al, 1993). It is used to overcome sannipata type of fever, difficulty in breathing, hemopathy due to the morbidity of kapha and pitta, burning sensation, cough, oedema, thirst, skin diseases, fever, ulcer and worms. It is also useful in acidity and liver complaints (Aiyer and Kolammal, 1962). The important preparations using the drug are Tiktakagheta, Gorocandi gulika, Candanasava, Panchatiktam kasaya, etc. (Sivarajan et al, 1994). A preparation called “Alui” is prepared by mixing powdered cumin (Cuminium cyminum) and large cardamom (Amomum subulatum) in the juice of this plant and administered for the treatment of malaria (Thakur et al, 1989). It is also a rich source of minerals.

Distribution: The plant is distributed throughout the tropics. It is found in the plains of India from U.P to Assam, M.P., A.P, Tamil Nadu and Kerala, also cultivated in gardens.

Botany: Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Wall ex.

Nees belongs to the family Acanthaceae. It is an erect branched annual herb, 0.3-0.9m in height with quadrangular branches. Leaves are simple, lanceolate, acute at both ends, glabrous, with 4-6 pairs of main nerves. Flowers are small, pale but blotched and spotted with brown and purple distant in lax spreading axillary and terminal racemes or panicles. Calyx-lobes are glandular pubescent with anthers bearded at the base. Fruits are linear capsules and acute at both ends. Seeds are numerous, yellowish brown and sub-quadrate (Warrier et al,1993).

Another species of Andrographis is A. echioides (Linn.) Nees. It is found in the warmer parts of India. The plant is a febrifuge and diuretic. It contains flavone-echiodinin and its glucoside-echioidin (Husain et al, 1992).

Agrotechnology: The best season of planting Andrographis is May-June. The field is to be ploughed well, mixed with compost or dried cowdung and seedbeds of length 3m, breadth 1/2m and 15cm height are to be taken at a distance of 3m. The plant is seed propagated. Seeds are to be soaked in water for 6 hours before sowing. Sowing is to be done at a spacing of 20cm. Seeds may germinate within 15-20 days. Two weedings, first at one month after planting and the second at 2 month after planting are to be carried out. Irrigation during summer months is beneficial. The plant is not attacked by any serious pests or diseases. Flowering commences from third month onwards. At this stage, plant are to be collected, tied into small bundles and sun-dried for 4-5 days. Whole plant is the economic part and the yield is about 1.25t dried plants/ha (Prasad et al, 1997).

Properties and activity: Leaves contain two bitter substances lactone “andrographolid” and “kalmeghin”. The ash contains sodium chloride and potassium salts. Plant is very rich in chlorophyte. Kalmeghin is the active principle that contains 0.6% alkaloid of the crude plant. The plant contains diterpenoids, andrographolide, 14-deoxy-11-oxo-andrographolide, 14-deoxy-11,12-dihydroandrographolide, 14-deoxy andrographolide and neoandrographolide (Allison et al, 1968). The roots give flavones-apigenin-7,4-dio-O-methyl ether, 5-hydroxy-7,8,2’,3’- tetramethoxyflavone, andrographin and panicolin and -sitosterol (Ali et al, 1972; Govindachari et al, 1969). Leaves contain homoandrographolide, andrographosterol and andrographone.

The plant is vulnerary, antipyretic, antiperiodic, anti-inflammatory, expectorant, depurative, sudorific, anthelmintic, digestive, stomachic, tonic, febrifuge and cholagogue. The plant is antifungal, antityphoid, hepatoprotective, antidiabetic and cholinergic. Shoot is antibacterial and leaf is hypotensive(Garcia et al, 1980). This is used for the inflammation of the respiratory tract. In China, researchers have isolated the andrographolide from which soluble derivative such as 14-deoxy-11, 12-dehydro-andrographolide which forms the subject of current pharmacological and clinical studies. Apigenin 7,4’-O-dimethyl ether isolated from A. paniculata exhibits dose dependent, antiulcer activity in shay rat, histamine induced ulcer in guinea pigs and aspirin induced ulcers in rats. A crude substance isolated from methanolic extract of leaves has shown hypotensive activity. Pre-treatment of rats with leaf (500mg/kg) or andrographolide (5mg/kg) orally prevented the carbon tetrachloride induced increase of blood serum levels of glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase in liver and prevented hepatocellular membrane.... green chiretta


A popular term applied to any new formation in any part of the body. (See CANCER; CYSTS; GANGLION; TUMOUR.) For growth of children, see WEIGHT AND HEIGHT.... growth


A cuticular thickening of the dorsal wall of the spicular pouch in nematodes.... gubernaculum




Plaster of Paris used to stabilise and externally splint fractured bones. It is applied wet and moulded to the appropriate shape to immobilise the broken bone (see BONE, DISORDERS OF – Bone fractures.)... gypsum


Gyrus is the term applied to a convolution of the BRAIN.... gyrus

Hyperemesis Gravidarum

A rare condition (less than 0·2 per cent) of pregnancy, in which there is severe vomiting. If untreated it can result in severe dehydration, ketoacidosis (an excess of KETONE acids) and liver damage. More common in multiple pregnancy, it may recur in subsequent pregnancies.... hyperemesis gravidarum

Lethal Gene

A gene that produces a GENOTYPE which causes the death of an organism before that organism has reproduced – or which prevents it from reproducing. Lethal genes are usually RECESSIVE, so the organism will die only if both its ‘parents’ carry the gene. Should only one parent have the lethal gene, its consequences will be masked by the dominant ALLELE passed on by the normal parent.... lethal gene

Marriage Guidance

See RELATE MARRIAGE GUIDANCE.... marriage guidance

Meibomian Glands

Numerous glands within the tarsal plates of the eyelids. Their secretions form part of the tears. (See EYE.)... meibomian glands

Parotid Gland

One of the SALIVARY GLANDS. It is situated just in front of the ear, and its duct runs forwards across the cheek to open into the interior of the mouth on a little projection opposite the second last tooth of the upper row. The parotid gland is generally the ?rst of the salivary glands to become enlarged in MUMPS.... parotid gland

Human Genome

In simple terms, this is the genetic recipe for making a human being. GENOME is a combination of the words gene and chromosome, and a genome is de?ned as all the genetic material – known as deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA – in a cell. Most genes encode sequences of AMINO ACIDS, the constituents of proteins, thus initiating and controlling the replication of an organism. The identi?cation and characterisation of the human genetic puzzle have been a key bioscience research target. The Human Genome Project was launched in 1990 (and completed in 2003) to produce a full sequence of the three million base pairs that make up the human genome.

Carried out as two separate exercises – one by a privately funded American team; another by an international joint venture between tax-funded American laboratories, a charitably funded British one and several other smaller research teams from around the world – the ?rst results were announced on 26 June 2000. In February 2001 the privately funded American group, known as Celera Genomics, announced that it had identi?ed 26,558 genes. At the same time the Human Genome Project consortium reported that it had identi?ed 31,000. Allowing for margins of error, this gives a ?gure much lower than the 100,000 or more human genes previously forecast by scientists. Interestingly, genes were found to make up only 3 per cent of the human genome. The remaining 97 per cent of the genome comprises non-coding DNA which, though not involved in producing the protein-initiating genetic activity, does have signi?cant roles in the structure, function and evolution of the genome.

One surprise from the Project so far is that the genetic di?erences between humans and other species seem much smaller than previously expected. For example, the Celera team found that people have only 300 genes that mice do not have; yet, the common ancestor of mice and men probably lived 100 million years or more in the past. Mice and humans, however, have around twice as many genes as the humble fruit ?y.

Cells die out when they become redundant during embryonic development: genes also die out during evolution, according to evidence from the Genome Project – a ?nding that supports the constant evolutionary changes apparent in living things; the Darwinian concept of survival of the ?ttest.

Apart from expanding our scienti?c knowledge, the new information – and promise of much more as the Genome Project continues – should enhance and expand the use of genetic engineering in the prevention and cure of disease. Studies are in progress on the gene for a receptor protein in the brain which will shed light on how the important neurotransmitter SEROTONIN in the brain works, and this, for example, should help the development of better drugs for the treatment of DEPRESSION. Another gene has been found that is relevant to the development of ASTHMA and yet another that is involved in the production of amyloid, a complex protein which is deposited in excessive amounts in both DOWN’S (DOWN) SYNDROME and ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE.... human genome

Pineal Gland

A small reddish structure, 10 mm in length and shaped somewhat like a pine cone (hence its name), situated on the upper part of the midbrain (see BRAIN). Many theories have been expounded as to its function, but there is increasing evidence that, in some animals at least, it is affected by light and plays a part in hibernation and in controlling sexual activity and the colour of the skin. This it seems to do by means of a substance it produces known as MELATONIN. There is also growing evidence that it may play a part in controlling the circadian rhythms of the body – the natural variations in physiological activities throughout the 24-hour day.... pineal gland

Sebaceous Gland

Oil secreting glands, mostly clustered around hair follicles. The oil, sebum, is released into the oil glands from the disintegrated cytoplasm of shedding holocrine cells that line the alveolar surfaces. The nature of the secretion is a direct reflection of the state of the body’s lipid metabolism.... sebaceous gland

Sebaceous Glands

The minute glands situated alongside hairs and opening into the follicles of the latter a short distance below the point at which the hairs emerge on the surface. These glands secrete an oily material, and are especially large upon the nose, where their openings form pits that are easily visible. In the mouth the glands open directly on the mucosal surface. (See also SKIN.)... sebaceous glands

Sweat Glands

See SKIN.... sweat glands

Targeting / Target Population / Target Group

The group of persons for whom an intervention is planned. For example, the targeting of services to particular user groups.... targeting / target population / target group

Tulle Gras

A wound dressing of gauze impregnated with soft para?n to prevent it from sticking to the wound.... tulle gras


Ferula gummosa, Boiss. Gum-resin. Similar in action to Asafoetida. Rarely used in modern herbalism.

Constituents: volatile oil, gum, resin acids.

Action: antimicrobial against staphylococcus aureus; expectorant, carminative, antispasmodic.

Uses: Chronic infections of mucous surfaces. Lotion for infected wounds. An ingredient of the biblical incense of Exodus 30, 34.

Preparations: Liquid Extract: 5-10 drops, thrice daily, in water.

Powder: dose, 1-2g (root).

Ointment for wounds that refuse to heal. ... galbanum

Gastro-oesophageal Reflux Disease

See: REFLUX. ... gastro-oesophageal reflux disease


Pertaining to the organs of fluid excretion or reproduction. Genito-Urinary astringent – Horsetail. Genito-Urinary tonics – Beth root, Saw Palmetto, Damiana. Genito-Urinary relaxant – Black Willow. ... genito-urinary

Swan-ganz Catheter

(See also CATHETERS.) A ?exible tube with a double lumen and a small balloon at its distal end. It is introduced into a vein in the arm and advanced until the end of the catheter is in the right atrium (see HEART). The balloon is then in?ated with air through one lumen and this enables the bloodstream to propel the catheter through the right ventricle to the pulmonary artery. The balloon is de?ated and the catheter can then record the pulmonary artery pressure. When the balloon is in?ated, the tip is isolated from the pulmonary artery and measures the left atrial pressure. These measurements are important in the management of patients with circulatory failure, as under these circumstances the central venous pressure or the right atrial pressure is an unreliable guide to ?uid-replacement.... swan-ganz catheter


Painful from ill-fitting dentures or injury caused by new dentures, with soft sensitive gums. Same treatment as for GUMS, RECEDING. Leave out artificial teeth at night to allow gums to “breathe”. Sage tea as a mouth rinse – success reported. Coenzyme Vitamin Q10: 60mg daily. ... gums

Bartholin’s Glands

A pair of oval, peasized glands whose ducts open into the vulva (the folds of flesh that surround the opening of the vagina). During sexual arousal, these glands secrete a fluid to lubricate the vulval region. Infection of the glands causes bartholinitis.... bartholin’s glands

Basal Ganglia

Paired nerve cell clusters deep within the cerebrum (the main mass of the brain) and upper part of the brainstem.

The basal ganglia play a vital part in producing smooth, continuous muscular actions and in stopping and starting movement.

Any disease or degeneration affecting the basal ganglia and their connections may lead to the appearance of involuntary movements, trembling, and weakness, as occur in Parkinson’s disease.... basal ganglia

Endocrine Gland

A gland that secretes hormones directly into the bloodstream rather than through a duct. Examples include the thyroid gland, pituitary gland, ovaries, testes, and adrenal glands. (See also exocrine gland.)... endocrine gland


An anticonvulsant drug used either alone or with other anticonvulsants to treat some types of epilepsy. Common side effects include dizziness, unsteadiness, and fatigue.... gabapentin


A metallic element whose radioactive form is used in radionuclide scanning to detect areas of inflammation such as those that occur in cancers, abscesses, osteomyelitis, and sarcoidosis.... gallium

Gamete Intrafallopian Transfer

(GIFT) A technique for assisting conception (see infertility), which can only be used if a woman has normal fallopian tubes. In , eggs are removed from an ovary during laparoscopy and mixed with sperm in the laboratory before both are introduced into a fallopian tube. A fertilized egg may then become implanted in the uterus.... gamete intrafallopian transfer

Ganser’s Syndrome

A rare factitious disorder in which a person seeks, consciously or unconsciously, to mislead others about his or her mental state and may simulate symptoms of psychosis.... ganser’s syndrome


The study of the digestive system and the diseases and disorders affecting it.... gastroenterology

Gaucher’s Disease

A genetic disorder in which the lack of the enzyme glucocerebrosidase leads to accumulation of a fatty substance, glucosylceramide, in the liver, spleen, bone marrow, and, sometimes, in the brain.

It is treated by regular injections of the missing enzyme.... gaucher’s disease


An absorbent, open-weave fabric, usually made of cotton.

Sterilized gauze is often used as a dressing for wounds.... gauze


The process of feeding liquids through a nasogastric tube. (See feeding, artificial.) Gavage can also refer to hyperalimentation.gemfibrozil A drug that lowers the level of fats in the blood. Gemfibrozil is usually given to people with hyperlipidaemia after dietary measures have failed to reduce blood fat. Gemfibrozil may cause nausea and diarrhoea, and should not be taken by people with kidney or liver disease.... gavage

Generalized Anxiety Disorder

A psychiatric illness characterized by chronic and persistent apprehension and tension that has no particular focus. There may also be physical symptoms such as trembling, sweating, lightheadedness, and irritability. The condition can be treated with psychotherapy or with drugs such as beta blockers, sedatives or tranquillizers that relieve symptoms but do not treat the underlying condition.

(See anxiety; anxiety disorders.)... generalized anxiety disorder


The popular term used to describe any microorganisms that cause disease, such as viruses and bacteria. (See also germ cells.)... germ

Germ Cell Tumour

A growth comprised of immature sperm cells in the male testis or of immature ova in the female ovary. A seminoma is one type of germ cell tumour (see testis, cancer of).... germ cell tumour


A progestogen drug used with the oestrogen drug ethinylestradiol in low-strength combined oral contraceptives. Gestodene is reported to have a slightly higher risk of venous thromboembolism than older drugs.... gestodene

Glands – Swollen

Lymphadenitis. Non-infectious. Can be localised, e.g. armpit only, due to lymphatic drainage of a local inflammation or generalised due to systemic infection (AIDS) or some malignant conditions.

Symptoms. Swelling of glands of armpit, neck and groin.

Alternatives. Tea: combine equal parts: Clivers, Red Clover, Gotu Kola. 2 teaspoons to each cup boiling water; infuse 15 minutes. Dose: half-1 cup thrice daily.

Decoction. Formula. Equal parts, Yellow Dock, Plantain, Clivers, Liquorice root, 1oz to 1 pint water gently simmered 20 minutes. Half a cup thrice daily.

Powders. Formula. Bayberry 1; Echinacea 2; Poke root half; a trace of Cayenne. Dose: 500mg (two 00 capsules or one-third teaspoon) thrice daily.

Tinctures. Combine equal parts: Poke root and Echinacea. One 5ml teaspoon in water thrice daily.

Poke root. A leading remedy for the condition.

Agnus Castus. Swollen glands in young girls.

Dr Finlay Ellingwood: Liquid Extracts: equal parts, Blue Flag root and Poke root. 30-60 drops in water thrice daily.

Diet. See: DIET – GENERAL. See: LYMPHATICS. ... glands – swollen

Gilles De La Tourette’s Syndrome

A rare, inherited neurological disorder.

It starts in childhood with repetitive grimaces and tics.

Involuntary barks, grunts, or other noises may appear as the disease progresses.

In some cases, the sufferer has episodes of issuing foul language.

The syndrome is more common in males.

It is usually of lifelong duration, but antipsychotic drugs can help in some cases.... gilles de la tourette’s syndrome


The Latin name for the gums.... gingiva


The surgical removal of part of the gum margin.

Gingivectomy may be used to treat severe cases of gingival hyperplasia or to remove pockets of infected gum in advanced cases of periodontitis.... gingivectomy


An infection of horses caused by the bacterium PSEUDOMONAS MALLEI. In rare cases, it is transmitted to humans, causing symptoms including fever and general aches and pains. Ulcers may develop where bacteria entered the skin; if bacteria enters the lungs, pneumonia may occur. In severe cases, septicaemia may follow. Treatment is with antibiotics.... glanders

Guar Gum

From the Indian bean Chyamopsis tetragonobulus. A normaliser of carbohydrate intolerance. Previously used as an emulsifier and thickener in foods like yoghurt and ice-cream. When combined with water forms a sticky gel. Slows rate of entry of sugar into the blood, improving insulin sensitivity. Anti-hyperglycaemic and hypocholesterolaemic.

Guar has an effect upon sugar metabolism, blood fat levels, body weight and blood pressure. (Dr J. Tuomilehto, University of Turku, Finland) A study at Hammersmith Hospital, London, showed Guar efficacious in reducing blood sugar levels. Its cholesterol-lowering action is of benefit in diabetics.

Guar induces weight loss in obese subjects; reduces risk of kidney stone. Granules of the gum may be taken with water or sprinkled direct on food – fluid being taken at the meal to ensure swelling of the granules.

By slowing the rate of sugar absorption, it reduces the post-prandial peak in blood sugar level, making possible a reduction of insulin. Contra-indications: obstruction of the intestines and diseases of the gullet.

Guarina or Guarem, sachets: 5g unit dose sprinkled over food. Adults: one sachet daily, increasing if necessary to a maximum of 3 sachets. A preparation Glucotard is taken as dry minitablets, washed down in portions with a glass of water.

Alternative: Powdered Guar gum – 15 grams daily.

Note: Effectiveness for weight loss unproven. Guar gum may cause throat obstruction in rare cases and should be prescribed by a medical practitioner only.


Glomus Tumour

A small, bluish swelling in the skin, usually on a finger or toe near or under the nail, which is tender to touch and more painful if the limb is hot or cold.

The cause is overgrowth of the nerve structures that normally control blood flow and temperature in the skin.

The tumours are harmless but are surgically removed.... glomus tumour


Removal of all or part of the tongue.

Glossectomy may be performed to treat tongue cancer.... glossectomy


Speaking in an imaginary language that has no actual meaning or syntax. (See also neologism.)... glossolalia

Glossopharyngeal Nerve

The ninth cranial nerve.

This nerve performs both sensory and motor functions.

It conveys sensations, especially taste, from the back of the tongue, regulates secretion of saliva by the parotid gland, and controls movement of the throat muscles.... glossopharyngeal nerve

Herpes, Genital

 Venereal disease. Caused by Herpes simplex virus, type 2, (HSV2) which infects the skin and mucosa of the genital organs and anus. The strain is more virulent than HSV1 which attacks face and lips. Contagious. STD. Blisters appear 4-7 days after coitus. May be transmitted by mother to baby at delivery. The condition is often misdiagnosed as thrush. To dispel doubts, refer to urological department of nearest hospital. Evidence exists between genital herpes and cancer of the cervix. Clinical diagnosis should be confirmed by virus culture. Attacks are recurrent and self-infective.

Symptoms: redness, soreness, itching followed by blisters on the penis or vulva. Blisters ulcerate before crusting over. Lesions on anus of homosexual men.

Treatment by general medical practitioner or hospital specialist.

Alternatives. Sarsaparilla, Echinacea, Chaparral and St John’s Wort often give dramatic relief to itching rash. See entry: ECHINACEA.

Tea. Formula. Equal parts: Clivers, Gotu Kola, Valerian. One heaped teaspoon to each cup boiling water; infuse 5-10 minutes. Dose: 1 cup thrice daily.

Decoction. Combine: Echinacea 2; Valerian 1; Jamaican Dogwood 1. One heaped teaspoon to each cup water gently simmered 20 minutes. Half-1 cup thrice daily.

Tablets/capsules. Poke root. Valerian. Passion flower. St John’s Wort. Echinacea. Chaparral. Pulsatilla. Red Clover.

Powders. Formula. Echinacea 2; Valerian 1; Jamaica Dogwood 1. Dose: 500mg (two 00 capsules or one- third teaspoon) thrice daily.

Tinctures. Formula. Echinacea 2; Sarsaparilla 1; Thuja quarter; Liquorice quarter. Dose: 1-2 teaspoons thrice daily.

Topical. Apply any of the following 3, 4 or more times daily. Pulp or gel of Aloe Vera, Houseleek, Echinacea lotion. Garlic – apply slice of fresh corm as an antihistamine. Yoghurt compresses (improved by pinch of Goldenseal powder). Zinc and Castor oil (impressive record). Apply direct or on tampons. Diet. Porridge oats, or muesli oats.

Supplementation: same as for Shingles.

Prevention. Women should be advised to submit for an annual cytosmear. Information. Herpes Association, 41 North Road, London N7 9DP, UK. Send SAE. ... herpes, genital


A molecule that occurs naturally as a component of various substances in the body, including collagen. Glucosamine is also sold as a food supplement and is recommended to relieve symptoms of arthritis.... glucosamine

Glycosylated Haemoglobin

A form of haemoglobin that is bound to the sugar glucose. In most people, 3–8 per cent of haemoglobin is glycosylated. In people with diabetes mellitus, the level of glycosylated haemoglobin may be raised if treatment has not kept the blood glucose level within the normal range. Glycosylated haemoglobin levels indicate blood glucose levels over the preceding 3 months.... glycosylated haemoglobin

Golfer’s Elbow

A painful condition caused by inflammation of the epicondyle (bony prominence) on the inner elbow, at the site of attachment of some forearm muscles. Golfer’s elbow is caused by overuse of these muscles, which bend the wrist and fingers. Activities such as using a screwdriver or playing golf with a faulty grip can cause the condition. Treatment consists of resting the elbow, applying ice-packs, and taking analgesic drugs to relieve pain. If the pain is severe or persistent, injection of a corticosteroid drug into the area may help.... golfer’s elbow

Goodpasture’s Syndrome

A rare autoimmune disorder causing inflammation of the glomeruli in the kidney (see glomerulus) and the alveoli in the lungs, and anaemia. It is a serious disease; unless treated early it may lead to lifethreatening bleeding into the lungs and progressive kidney failure. The disease is most common in young men, but can develop at any age and in women. Sometimes, it responds to treatment with immunosuppressant drugs and plasmapheresis. People who have severe or repeated attacks require dialysis and, eventually, a kidney transplant.... goodpasture’s syndrome


The abbreviation for gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (see acid reflux).... gord


A synthetic drug chemically related to the hypothalmic hormone gonadorelin.

Goserelin is used to treat breast cancer and prostate cancer, fibroids, infertility, and endometriosis.

Adverse effects include loss of bone density after prolonged application.... goserelin

Graft-versus-host Disease

A complication of a bone marrow transplant in which immune system cells in the transplanted marrow attack the recipient’s tissues. Graft-versus-host (GVH) disease may occur soon after transplantation or appear some months later. The first sign is usually a skin rash. This may be followed by diarrhoea, abdominal pain, jaundice, inflammation of the eyes and mouth, and breathlessness.

GVH disease can usually be prevented by administration of immunosuppressant drugs. If the disease develops, it can be treated with corticosteroid drugs and immunosuppressant drugs such as ciclosporin In some cases, however, it can be difficult to control.... graft-versus-host disease


A type of white blood cell.... granulocyte

Granuloma Annulare

A harmless skin condition characterized by a circular, raised area of skin, which spreads outwards to form a ring.

The disorder occurs most commonly in children, usually on the hands.

The cause is unknown.

No treatment is necessary.

In most cases, the affected skin heals completely over a period of several months or years.... granuloma annulare


An unit of radiation dosage (see radiation unit).... gray

Growth Factor

Any of various chemicals involved in stimulating new cell growth and maintenance.

Some growth factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor, which stimulates the formation of new blood vessels, are important in the growth and spread of cancers.... growth factor

Lou Gehrig’s Disease

The most common type of motor neuron disease; also known as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.... lou gehrig’s disease

Pyogenic Granuloma

A common, noncancerous skin tumour that develops on exposed areas after minor injury. It can be removed surgically, by electrocautery, or by cryosurgery.... pyogenic granuloma

Skin Graft

A technique used to repair areas of lost or damaged skin that are too large to heal naturally, that are slow

to heal, or that would leave tethering or unsightly scars. A skin graft is often used in the treatment of burns or sometimes for nonhealing ulcers. A piece of healthy skin is detached from one part of the body and transferred to the affected area. New skin cells grow from the graft and cover the damaged area. In a meshed graft, donor skin is removed and made into a mesh by cutting. The mesh is stretched to fit the recipient site; new skin cells grow to fill the spaces in the mesh. In a pinch graft, multiple small areas of skin are pinched up and removed from the donor site. Placed on the recipient site, they gradually expand to form a new sheet of healthy skin. (See also skin flap.)... skin graft

Specific Gravity

The ratio of the density of a substance to that of water.... specific gravity

Transposition Of The Great Vessels

A serious form of congenital heart disease in which the aorta and pulmonary artery are transposed. Open heart surgery is needed to correct the defect.... transposition of the great vessels

Wegener’s Granulomatosis

A rare disorder in which granulomas (nodular collections of abnormal cells), associated with areas of chronic tissue inflammation due to vasculitis, develop in the nasal passages, lungs, and kidneys. It is thought that the condition is an autoimmune disorder (in which the body’s natural defences attack its own tissues). Principal symptoms include a bloody nasal discharge, coughing (which sometimes produces bloodstained sputum), breathing difficulty, chest pain, and blood in the urine. There may also be loss of appetite, weight loss, weakness, fatigue, and joint pains.

Treatment is with immunosuppressant drugs, such as cyclophosphamide or azathioprine, combined with corticosteroids to alleviate symptoms and attempt to bring about a remission.

With prompt treatment, most people recover completely within about a year, although kidney failure occasionally develops.

Without treatment, complications may occur, including perforation of the nasal septum, causing deformity of the nose; inflammation of the eyes; a rash, nodules, or ulcers on the skin; and damage to the heart muscle, which may be fatal.... wegener’s granulomatosis

Acorus Gramineus

Soland. ex Ait.

Family: Araceae.

Habitat: Native to Japan, occasionally met within Sikkim at an altitude of 1,800 m, in Khasi Hills up to 1,500 m.

Ayurvedic: Haimavati (white var. of Vachaa).

Action: Antispasmodic (used in abdominal colic). See A. calamus.... acorus gramineus

Adenitis Means Inflammation Of A Gland.

... adenitis means inflammation of a gland.

Ailanthus Glandulosa


Synonym: A. altissima (Mill.) Swingle

Family: Simaroubaceae.

Habitat: Native of China and Japan. Found in the hills of northern India up to an altitude of 2,400 m.

English: Tree of Heaven, Ailanto.

Ayurvedic: Aralu (related sp.).

Action: Bark—astringent, anti- spasmodic, parasiticidal, narcotic, cardiac depressant (exercises powerful depressing influence on nervous system similar to that of tobacco).

Leaves produce dermatitis; their accumulation in well-water produces chronic gastritis.

Many quassinoids and ailanthone derivatives are vermifuge and amoe- bicidal. Constituents of the bark and stem, particularly ailanthone, have an- timalarial activity in vitro against Plasmodium falciparum and in mice against P. berghei. (Alkaloids do not appear to have these properties.) Some quassinoids are antineoplastic, and are reported to have antileukaemic properties.

The rootbark is used in traditional Chinese medicine for dysentery and leucorrhoea. In Africa, rootbark is used in epilepsy.... ailanthus glandulosa

Alpinia Galanga


Family: Zingiberaceae.

Habitat: The Himalayas and southern region of western Ghats.

English: Greater Galangal.

Ayurvedic: Kulanjana, Sthuula- granthi, Sugandhaa, Ugragandhaa, Malaya Vachaa, Mahaabhari- Vachaa. Substitute for Raasnaa (Pluchea lanceolata).

Unani: Khulanjaan.

Siddha/Tamil: Perarattai.

Action: Rhizome—carminative (in dyspepsia), stomachic, circulatory stimulant, diaphoretic, anti- inflammatory.

Throughout southern India, the rhizome of Alpinia galanga is used as Raasnaa for rheumatism, intermittent fever, dyspepsia and respiratory ailments. (In the north, Vanda tessellata or Pluchea lanceolata is used as Raas- naa.)

EtOH extract of the plant shows anti-inflammatory activity. The ethano- lic extract also showed significant anti- ulcer activity in rats, which has been attributed to the antisecretory and cy- toprotective properties of the plant.

Major constituents of the essential oil are methyl cinnamate, cineole and d-pinene. In moderate doses, the oil exhibits antispasmodic action.

Unani physicians use A. galanga as a sex tonic. In mice, the drug caused a significant gain in the weight of sexual organs and increased sperm motility and sperm count.

Plants used as Raasnaa in Indian medicine: Alpinia galanga Willd. (Zingiberaceae) in southern India; Pluchea lanceolata C. B. Clarke (Compositae; Asteraceae) in Uttar Pradesh; Van- da roxburghii R. Br. (Orchidaceae) in eastern Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal; Blepharispermum subsessile DC. (Compositae; Asteraceae) in Madhya Pradesh; and Dodonaea viscosa (Linn.) Jacq. (Sapindaceae)inAndhraPradesh.

Dosage: Rhizome—1-3 g powder. Decoction—50-100 ml. (CCRAS.)... alpinia galanga

Anís Grande

See Anís de estrella.... anís grande

Atylosia Goensis


Synonym: A. barbata Baker Family: Papilionaceae; Fabaceae.

Habitat: Subtropical tract of Assam, Maharashtra and Kerala, up to 1050 m.

Ayurvedic: Maashaparni (substitute).

Siddha/Tamil: Peruvidukol.

Action: Febrifuge, antibilious, an- tirheumatic (used in consumption and swellings).... atylosia goensis

Angelica Glauca


Family: Umbelliferae; Apiaceae.

Habitat: Kashmir and Chamba in Himachal Pradesh, between 1,8003,700 m.

English: Angelica.

Ayurvedic: Choraka, Chorakaa, Kopanaa, Chorakaakhya, Nishaachara, Dhanhar, Taskara, Kshemaka.

Action: Root—cordial and stimulant, carminative (used in constipation), expectorant, diaphoretic.

The root contains furocoumarins, also dimeric, lingusticum lactone.

Dosage: Root—3-5 g powder. (CCRAS.)... angelica glauca

Apium Graveolens


Family: Umbelliferae; Apiaceae.

Habitat: Native to Europe; cultivated in northwestern Himalayas and in hills of Uttar Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh and southern India.

English: Celery.

Ayurvedic: Ajmodaa, Ajmoda, Ajmodikaa, Dipyaka.

Unani: Karafs.

Siddha/Tamil: Celery-keerai.

Folk: Ajmodaa.

Action: Anti-inflammatory (used in rheumatic disorders, inflammation of the urinary tract), diuretic, carminative, nervine, sedative, antiemetic, antispasmodic, antiseptic (used in bronchitis, asthma, as well as liver and spleen diseases), emmenagogue. Essential oil from seeds—tranquilizer, anticonvulsant, antifungal. Seeds are used in the treatment of chronic skin disorders including psoriasis.

Key application: As diuretic. (The British Herbal Pharmacopoeia.)

Celery yields an essential oil (3%), major constituent being d-limonene (50%) and phathalides and beta-seli- nene; coumarins, furanocoumarins (bergapten); flavonoids (apiin and api- genin). Alkaloid fraction of seeds showed tranquilizing activity in animals. The phthalides are sedative in mice and exhibit antiepileptic activity in rats and mice. The aqueous extract of the celery has been shown to reduce adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats, and to be hypotensive in patients as well as animals. The tincture of the plant exhibits drop in blood pressure accompanied by an increase in urine output.... apium graveolens

Astragalus Gummifer


Family: Fabaceae; Papilionaceae.

Habitat: Highlands of Asia Minor, Iran, Greece, Syria and Russia.

English: Tragacanth Gum.

Unani: Katiraa, Kataad (Gum)

Action: Demulcent, emollient (used for irritation of the internal mucosa, colitis, dry coughs), laxative. Mucilage used as an application to burns.

The gum contains polysaccharides and proteinaceous polysaccharides.

Tragacanthin is water-soluble, consisting of an arbinogalactan and traga- canthic acid. Bassorin is an insoluble methylated fraction (gel). The polysac- charides have been shown to have im- munostimulating activity (stimulation of phagocytosis and an increase in plasma cell counts of T-lymphocytes.

Although tragacanth increases weight of stool and decreases gastrointestinal transit time, it does not appear to affect cholesterol triglyceride or phospholipid levels as other soluble fibres do. (Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, 2007.)

Tragacanth has been shown to be active against a variety of tumours. It appears to inhibit growth of cancer cells.... astragalus gummifer

Benefits Of Gentian Tea

Gentian tea is a Chinese tea that has been recognized since many years for its medicinal properties. Gentian plant, also known as gentiana lutea, wild gentian or yellow gentian, grows mainly in pastures of the Alps and the Himalayas. The constituents of gentian tea are amarogentin, gentiopicroside and gentiobiose that are known for being very helpful in digestion, encouraging the flow of bile and aiding the intestines  to absorb  fat. How To Make Gentian Tea Gentian tea is usually made from the dry roots of gentian plant. To make your own gentian tea, add one teaspoon of chopped gentian root into a kettle and let the mix boil for at least 20 minutes. When the time is up, let it cool until it reaches the room temperature. Gentian tea has a bitter taste, which is the reason why many tea drinkers combine it with other herbs for a more pleasant taste. It is recommended to drink gentian tea 15-30 minutes before eating. Gentian Tea Benefits
  • Calms stomach ache and aids in better disgestion.
  • Increases food appetite.
  • Remedy for liver problems.
  • Stimulates blood circulation.
  • Alleviates fever and helps treating common cold and flu.
Gentian Tea Side Effects You should always consult your doctor before taking gentian, especially if you have stomach disorder, stomach ulcer or high blood pressure. Also, stop drinking gentian tea if you start experiencing symptoms such as:
  • Allergic reactions that include difficulty in breathing; swelled lips, tongue or face; hives.
  • Stomach irritation.
  • Nausea.
  • Vomiting.
  • Menstrual disorders.
Gentian tea makes a wonderful choice, having a lot of health benefits. Just make sure you read the possible side effects listed above in order not to experience any of them!... benefits of gentian tea

Calcium Gluconate

A salt of the element CALCIUM used to treat de?ciency of the mineral or to prevent osteoporosis (see BONE, DISORDERS OF). Tablets can be obtained without a doctor’s prescription. It is used intravenously to treat low calcium levels causing symptoms in newborn babies.... calcium gluconate

Chirodropus Gorilla

A multi-tentacled box-jellyfish present on the western coast of tropical Africa. Has the potential to cause human death, although none have been reported to date.... chirodropus gorilla

Artichoke, Globe

Nutritional Profile Energy value (calories per serving): Low Protein: Moderate Fat: Low Saturated fat: Low Cholesterol: None Carbohydrates: High Fiber: Low Sodium: Moderate to high Major vitamin contribution: Vitamin C Major mineral contribution: Potassium

About the Nutrients in This Food Globe artichokes are prickly plants with partly edible leaves enclosing a tasty “heart.” Their most important nutrients are vitamin C and iron. One medium boiled artichoke has 10.3 g dietary fiber, 8.9 mg vita- min C (12 percent of the R DA for a woman, 10 percent of the R DA for a man), and 0.7 mg iron (4 percent of the R DA for a woman, 9 percent of the R DA for a man). One-half cup artichoke hearts has 7.2 g dietary fiber, 6.2 mg vitamin C (8 percent of the R DA for a woman, 7 percent of the R DA for a man), and 0.5 mg iron (3 percent of the R DA for a woman, 6 percent of the R DA for a man). Raw globe artichokes contain an enzyme that interferes with protein digestion; cooking inactivates the enzyme.

The Most Nutritious Way to Serve This Food Cooked.

Diets That May Restrict or Exclude This Food * * *

Buying This Food Look for: Compact vegetables, heavy for their size. The leaves should be tightly closed, but the color changes with the season—bright green in the spring, olive green or bronze in the winter if they have been exposed to frost. Avoid: Artichokes with yellowed leaves, which indicate the artichoke is aging (the chloro- phyll in its leaves has faded so the yellow carotenes underneath show through).

Storing This Food Do refrigerate fresh globe artichokes in plastic bags. Do refrigerate cooked globe artichokes in a covered container if you plan to hold them longer than a day or two.

Preparing This Food Cut off the stem. Trim the tough outer leaves. Then plunge the artichoke, upside down, into a bowl of cold water to flush out debris. To remove the core, put the artichoke upside down on a cutting board and cut out the center. Slicing into the base of the artichoke rips cell walls and releases polyphenoloxidase, an enzyme that converts phenols in the vegetable to brown compounds that darken the “heart” of the globe. To slow the reaction, paint the cut surface with a solution of lemon juice or vinegar and water.

What Happens When You Cook This Food Chlorophyll, the green plant pigment, is sensitive to acids. When you heat a globe artichoke, the chlorophyll in its green leaves reacts with acids in the artichoke or in the cooking water, forming brown pheophytin. The pheophytin, plus yellow carotenes in the leaves, can turn a cooked artichoke’s leaves bronze. To prevent this reaction, cook the artichoke very quickly so there is no time for the chlorophyll to react with the acid, or cook it in lots of water to dilute the acids, or cook it with the lid off the pot so that the volatile acids can float off into the air.

How Other Kinds of Processing Affect This Food Canning. Globe artichoke hearts packed in brine are higher in sodium than fresh arti- chokes. Artichoke hearts packed in oil are much higher in fat. Freezing. Frozen artichoke hearts are comparable in nutritional value to fresh ones.

Medical Uses and/or Benefits Anti-inflammatory action. In 2006, a report in the Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan suggested that cynarin might be beneficial in lowering blood levels of cholesterol and that cynaropicrin, a form of cynarin found in artichoke leaves, might act as an anti-inflamma- tory agent, protecting the skin from sun damage, improving liver function, and reducing the effects of stress-related gastritis. Reduced levels of cholesterol. In 2008, researchers at the University of Reading (United King- dom) published a report in the journal Phytomedicine detailing the results of a 150-person study suggesting that an over-the-counter herbal supplement containing extract of globe arti- choke leaf lowers cholesterol in healthy people with moderately raised cholesterol readings. In the study, 75 volunteers were given 1,280 mg of the herbal supplement each day for 12 weeks; a control group got a placebo (a look-alike pill without the herbal supplement). At the end of the trial, those who took the artichoke leaf extract experienced an average 4.2 percent decrease in cholesterol levels, a result the researchers deemed “modest but significant.”

Adverse Effects Associated with This Food Contact dermatitis. Globe artichokes contain essential oils that may cause contact dermati- tis in sensitive people. Alterations in the sense of taste. Globe artichokes contain cynarin, a sweet tasting chemical that dissolves in water (including the saliva in your mouth) to sweeten the flavor of anything you eat next.

Food/Drug Interactions False-positive test for occult blood in the stool. The guaiac slide test for hidden blood in feces relies on alphaguaiaconic acid, a chemical that turns blue in the presence of blood. Arti- chokes contain peroxidase, a natural chemical that also turns alphaguaiaconic acid blue and may produce a positive test in people who do not have blood in the stool.... artichoke, globe

Autosomal Dominant Gene

See under GENETIC DISORDERS.... autosomal dominant gene

Balm Of Gilead

Love, Manifestations, Protection, Healing... balm of gilead

Bartholin’s Glands

Two small glands opening either side of the external vaginal ori?ce. Their secretions help to lubricate the vulva, when a woman is sexually aroused. The glands may become infected and very painful; sometimes an abscess develops and local surgery is required. Otherwise antibiotics, analgesics and warm baths are usually e?ective.... bartholin’s glands

Basal Ganglion

Grey matter near the base of the cerebral hemispheres, consisting of the corpus striatum (caudate nucleus and lenticular nucleus [globus pallidus and putamen]), claustrum, and amygdaloid nucleus (see BRAIN). The basal ganglia are involved in the subconscious regulation of voluntary movement, and disorders in this region cause DYSKINESIA.... basal ganglion

Chorionic Gonadotrophic

... chorionic gonadotrophic

Client Group

A category in a classification or typology of clients. Clients can be classified in various dimensions, e.g. by dependency level, by diagnosis.... client group

Blessed Thistle Tea Is Good For Health

Blessed Thistle tea is a medicinal beverage useful in treating a large array of ailments such as constipation, but not only. Blessed Thistle Tea description Blessed thistle was at first used in Ayurvedic medicine in India and Bhutan. It was introduced in Europe in the 1500s where it gained the title “blessed” for its use in treating plague. The blessed thistle is a weed with prickly leaves and yellow flowers surrounded by purple spikes, found mostly in North Africa, Western Asia and Southern Europe. The leaves, the flowers and the stem are used to prepare Blessed thistle tea. Blessed Thistle Tea brewing Blessed thistle tea can be prepared in the following way: douse about 1 to 3 dried blessed thistle herb in a cup of boiled water for 5 to 15 minutes. It can then be drunk three times a day before meals. Blessed Thistle Tea benefits Blessed Thistle tea has been successfully used to:
  • treat digestive problems, like gas, constipation and stomach upset
  • improve appetite
  • detoxify the body
  • support liver and gallbladder
  • stimulate menstrual flow
Blessed Thistle Tea side effects High doses of Blessed thistle tea can cause:
  • stomach irritation and vomiting
  • liver disease
  • gastrointestinal and liver problems and esophageal or nasal cancer
Blessed Thistle tea is a natural remedy to detoxify the body and thus, to enhance the immunity and support the normal functioning of the human organs.... blessed thistle tea is good for health

Buchu Tea Is Good For Digestion

Buchu Tea has a long healing history among the tribes of southern Africa , being effective for urinary tract infections. It also has diuretic, antispasmodic, tonic, antibacterial and stimulant properties. Buchu Tea description Buchu is a small, green, woody plant originating from South Africa. It possesses smooth, thick leaves that have a pungent aroma and fragrance. Buchu is grown for medicinal purposes, owing healing properties especially for the kidney, urinary tract and bladder. Buchu is also mixed with other herbs to alleviate coughs, colds and hangovers. Buchu tea is the resulting beverage from brewing the abovementioned plant. Buchu Tea brewing To prepare Buchu tea:
  • Immerse 2 teaspoons of dried buchu leaves into 18 ounces of boiling water.
  • Let the mixture soak for about 10 minutes.
  • Drink it slowly.
The resulting tea is tasty and may be consumed up to three times a day. Buchu Tea benefits Buchu tea has been successfully used to:
  • treat certain prostate disorders
  • regulate blood sugar
  • lower blood pressure
  • help digestion
  • eliminate flatulence and bloating
  • reduce inflammation, tightness and swelling of the joints
Buchu Tea side effects Studies proved that Buchu tea should not be consumed by pregnant women, because it may cause uterine contraction. Buchu tea is a healthy beverage well known for its medicinal action against flatulence and bloating. Due to its tasty flavor, it is also used as a treat.... buchu tea is good for digestion

Butternut Bark Tea Is Good Against Constipation

Butternut Bark tea has a long history in healing ailments like constipation, but not only. It is said that native Americans discovered its medicinal properties and used the plant to treat toothaches. Butternut Bark Tea description Butternut, or white walnut or oilnut, is a small tree, commonly found in the Midwestern and Northeastern regions of the United States. It grows on hillsides or streambanks. The butternut tree is valued for its nuts as well as for the lumber. To treat toothaches, Native Americans used the oil of the butternut tree. Medicinally, only the inner bark of the root is used. Butternut Bark tea is the resulting beverage from brewing the abovementioned plant. Butternut Bark Tea brewing To prepare Butternut Bark tea:
  • boil a teaspoon of the bark in a cup of water
  • let it steep for 3 to 5 minutes
Butternut Bark tea can also be purchased in powdered form and taken with cold water. Butternut Bark Tea benefits Butternut Bark tea has been successfully used to:
  • relieve constipation
  • expel parasites
  • help in the treatment of gallbladder disorders
  • help in the treatment of hemorrhoids
  • help against certain skin diseases
  • protect the liver
  • cleanse the blood
  • cleanse the colon
Butternut Bark Tea side effects Butternut Bark tea intakingis not recommended in case of gallstones. Also, pregnant and nursing women should ask their doctor before consuming it. Butternut Bark tea is a natural remedy against constipation and parasites, being also useful in case of skin diseases.... butternut bark tea is good against constipation

Clinical Practice Guideline

A systematically developed statement to assist practitioner and patient decisions about appropriate health care for one or more specific clinical circumstances.... clinical practice guideline

Cloth Of Gold

Understand Animal Languages... cloth of gold

Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment (cga)

A process which includes a multidimensional assessment of a person with increasing dependency, including medical, physical, cognitive, social and spiritual components. Can also include the use of standardized assessment instruments and an interdisciplinary team to support the process.... comprehensive geriatric assessment (cga)

Control Group

A group of participants that serves as the basis of comparison when assessing the effects of the intervention of interest that is given to the participants in the treatment group. Depending upon the circumstances of the trial, a control group may receive no treatment, a ‘usual’ or ‘standard’ treatment, or a placebo. To make the comparison valid, the composition of the control group should resemble that of the treatment group as closely as possible.... control group

Coronary Artery Vein Bypass Grafting (cavbg)

When coronary arteries, narrowed by disease, cannot supply the heart muscle with su?cient blood, the cardiac circulation may be improved by grafting a section of vein from the leg to bypass the obstruction. Around 10,000 people in the United Kingdom have this operation annually and the results are usually good. It is a major procedure that lasts several hours and requires the heart to be stopped temporarily, with blood circulation and oxygenation taken over by a HEART-LUNG MACHINE.... coronary artery vein bypass grafting (cavbg)

Cowper’s Glands

Also known as the bulbourethral glands, these are a pair of glands whose ducts open into the urethra at the base of the PENIS. They secrete a ?uid that is one of the constituents of the SEMEN which carries the spermatozoa and is ejaculated into the VAGINA during coitus (sexual intercourse).... cowper’s glands

Diagnosis-related Group

A system used for payment under prospective payment systems. It classifies treatments by diagnosis, measuring the relative complexity of a hospital procedure and accounting for the resources used in the procedure. The system accounts for principal diagnosis, secondary diagnosis, surgical procedures, age, sex and presence of complications.... diagnosis-related group

Diagnosis-related Group (drg)

1 Represents classes of hospital patients with similar clinical characteristics. DRGs form a clinical grouping system which describes hospital discharges according to medical condition. 2 A system used for payment under prospective payment systems. It classifies treatments by diagnosis, measuring the relative complexity of a hospital procedure and accounting for the resources used in the procedure. The system accounts for principal diagnosis, secondary diagnosis, surgical procedures, age, sex and presence of complications.... diagnosis-related group (drg)

Cadillo De Gato

Cockleburr (Xanthium strumarium).

Plant Part Used: Leaf, root.

Dominican Medicinal Uses: The leaf and root are traditionally prepared as a tea by decoction and taken orally for kidney, gallbladder, liver disorders and hepatitis.

Safety: No data on the safety of this plant has been identified in the available literature. Animal toxicity studies suggest that therapeutic use of this plant may be considered safe in moderation.

Laboratory & Preclinical Data: In animal studies the leaf extract has shown antitrypanosomal and cytotoxic effects and the fruit extract has exhibited CNS depressant and antidiabetic activity. In vitro, isolated plant constituents have shown anti-tumor, antimalarial and antimicrobial effects and the leaf extract has demonstrated cytotoxic effects.

* See entry for Cadillo de gato in “Part 3: Dominican Medicinal Plant Profiles” of this book for more information, including references.... cadillo de gato

Calamus Tea Is Good For Laryngitis

Calamus tea is a good remedy against a large array of ailments such as laryngitis, but not only. It has a good taste when drank and it can fight the desire for tobacco. Calamus Tea description Calamus is a perennial semi-aquatic plant that grows in wetlands. It is found in Europe, Russia, East and South Asia, and the United States and Canada. Its leaves and rhizomes have a strong scent, due to which Calamus is appreciated in the perfume industry. Calamus tea is the resulting beverage from brewing the abovementioned plant. Calamus Tea brewing To prepare Calamus tea:
  • pour a cup of boiling water on 2 teaspoonfuls of the calamus root
  • leave it to steep for about 10 to 15 minutes
Calamus tea is recommended to be drunk an hour before eating. Calamus Tea benefits Calamus tea has been successfully used to:
  • treat chest congestion
  • treat digestive problems (flatulence and bloating)
  • relieve stomach spasms
  • enhance the appetite
  • treat laryngitis
  • fight the desire for tobacco
  • fight fever
Calamus Tea side effects Calamus tea is not recommended to pregnant or nursing women. Calamus tea is a medicinal beverage efficient in dealing with stomach spasms, digestive problems and chest congestion.... calamus tea is good for laryngitis

Calotropis Gigantea

(Linn.) R.Br. ex.Ait.

Family: Asclepiadaceae.

Habitat: Throughout India.

English: Madar (white-flowered), Giant Milk-weed.

Ayurvedic: Alarka, Raajaarka, Shvetaarka, Vasuka, Mandaar, Bhaasvanmuula, Dinesh, Prab- haakara, Ravi, Bhaanu, Tapana.

Unani: Madaar, Aak.

Siddha/Tamil: Erukku.

Action: Flowers—stomachic, bechic, antiasthmatic. Milky juice— purgative (gastrointestinal irritant). Roots—used in lupus, tuberculous leprosy, syphilitic ulceration. Leaves—juice poisonous. Used in external swellings. All parts—used against bronchitis and asthma.

The leaf extract showed antitussive activity due to the presence of alkaloids and glycosides. The root contains gly- cosides 0.60-1.42% on dry basis. The latex contains akudarin. Flowers contain beta-amyrin and stigmasterol.

Dosage: Milky juice—500 mg; leaf, flower, root bark—3-5 g powder. (CCRAS.)... calotropis gigantea

Dioscorea Glabra


Family: Dioscoreaceae.

Habitat: Assam, Bengal, Bihar, Orissa and Andaman and Nicobar Islands.

Ayurvedic: Shankhaaluka.

Action: Tubers contain 77.7978.23% carbohydrates, 9.73-10.13% albuninoids.... dioscorea glabra

Dominant Gene

See GENETIC DISORDERS.... dominant gene

Dorsal Root Ganglia

These are swellings on the dorsal roots of spinal nerves just proximal to the union of the dorsal and ventral nerve roots. They are situated in the inter-vertebral foramina and contain the cell bodies of sensory neurones. (See SPINAL COLUMN; SPINAL CORD.)... dorsal root ganglia

Elaeodendron Glaucum


Cassine glauca (Rottb.)... elaeodendron glaucum


(Hebrew) From the fountain of gardens... en-gannim

Cereus Grandiflorus


Family: Cactaceae.

Habitat: Indian gardens.

English: Cereus, Night Blooming Cereus, Sweet Scented Cactus.

Folk: Nivadung Paanchkoni (Maharashtra).

Action: Fresh, young shoots—cardiac stimulant, anti-inflammatory.

The plant contains glucose, fructose, starch, amino acids and citric, fumar- ic, maleic, malonic and oxalic acids. Tyramine, a cardiotonic amine, can strengthen heart muscle action.

The flower, stem and young shoots of cereus can stimulate heart and dilate peripheral vessels, as well as stimulate spinal cord motor neurons. The reputed digitalis effect of cereus is claimed to be non-cumulative. (Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, 2007.)... cereus grandiflorus

Chloris Gayana


Family: Poaceae, Gramineae.

Habitat: Annual grass introduced into India from South Africa; cultivated in tropical and subtropical low-lying areas where rainfall is less than 125 cm.

English: Giant Rhodes, RhodesGrass.

Folk: Rhoolsoohullu (Karnataka).

Action: A proteinaceous factor, phytotrophin, isolated from the grass, was found to have antigenic properties similar to those of animal sex hormones and human chorionic gonadotrophin.

A related species, Chloris incompleta Roth., known as Bamnaa in Rajasthan and Mathania in Uttar Pradesh, has been equated with Ayurvedic classical herbs Manthaanakand Trnaaddhip. Another species, C. virgata Benth. & Hook. f., known as Gharaniyaa-ghass in Rajasthan, is used for the treatment of colds and rheumatism.... chloris gayana

Clematis Gouriana


Family: Ranunculaceae.

Habitat: Throughout India in plains.

English: Commercially known as Muurvaa.

Folk: Belkangu (used as substitute for Muurvaa in Maharashtra).

Action: Leaf and stem—vesicant, poisonous.

Aerial parts and roots contain a quaternary aporphine alkaloid, magnoflu- orine. The leaves yield protoanemonin, a fungitoxic compound.

A related species, C. napaulensis DC. is used in leprosy. C. recta (Upright Virgin’s Bower) is used in homoeopathic medicine for cancerous and foul ulcers; orally for rheumatic pains, varicose veins, gout and as a diuretic.... clematis gouriana

Clinical Guidelines

Systematically developed statements which assist clinicians and patients to decide on appropriate treatments for speci?c conditions. The guidelines are attractive to health managers and patients because they are potentially able to reduce variation in clinical practice. This helps to ensure that patients receive the right treatment of an acceptable standard. In England and Wales, the NATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR CLINICAL EXCELLENCE (NICE) is developing national guidelines with advice from health-care professionals and patients to improve clinical e?ectiveness of NHS care. Some doctors have reservations about guidelines because (1) health-care managers might use them primarily to contain costs; (2) in?exibility would discourage clinical innovations; (3) they could encourage litigation by patients. (See also HEALTH CARE COMMISSION; MEDICAL LITIGATION.)... clinical guidelines

Cochlospermum Gossypium


Synonym: C. religiosumc(Linn.) Alston.

Family: Cochlospermaceae.

Habitat: Andhra Pradesh, Karnata- ka, Tamil Nadu, Madhya Pradesh and Bihar; cultivated at Agartala in Tripura.

English: Golden Silk tree, White Silk Cotton tree.

Unani: Samagh, Kateeraa (substitute for gum tragacanth).

Siddha/Tamil: Kongilam (flower juice), Tanaku.

Action: Gum—cooling, sedative, bechic, useful in coughs, hoarse throat, diarrhoea, dysentery, scalding urine. Dried leaves and flowers—stimulant.

The leaves contain terpenoids, saponins and tannins. Flowers contain naringenin and beta-sitosteryl-gluco- side (0.3%). The gum, after hydrolysis, furnished a mixture of acidic oligosac- charides.... cochlospermum gossypium

Exopththalmic Goitre

Sometimes called Graves’ disease, this is a disorder in which there is overactivity of the thyroid gland, protrusion of the eyes, and other symptoms. (See HYPERTHYROIDISM.)... exopththalmic goitre

Female Genital Mutilation (fgm)

See CIRCUMCISION.... female genital mutilation (fgm)

Focus Group

A type of group discussion that is designed to elicit information about the wants, needs, viewpoints, beliefs and experiences of the intended audience. Focus groups can aid in better understanding the expressions and terminology commonly used by people in the audience, as well as their attitudes and beliefs about health care. They are useful for helping uncover the reasons behind people’s responses.... focus group


(Hebrew) One who is filled with loathing Gaale... gaal


(Hebrew) A trembling woman... gaash

Computer-generated Prescriptions

The Royal College of General Practitioners has issued guidelines on the use of computer-generated prescriptions for drugs other than controlled drugs. The guidelines include rules on giving the patient’s name, address and date of birth with the responsible prescribing doctor’s name at the bottom, along with his or her surgery address and telephone number. The prescription has to be signed by the doctor. Several other requirements are included to minimise the risk of prescription-tampering, fraud or the inclusion of identi?able con?dential information. Full details of the guidelines appear in the British National Formulary, published every six months.... computer-generated prescriptions

Corydalis Govaniana


Family: Papaveraceae.

Habitat: The West Himalayas, from Kashmir to Kumaon.

Ayurvedic: Bhootakeshi (a doubtful substitute for Bhootajataa, Nardostachys jatamansi DC.) Species of Selinum are also used as Bhootakeshi.

Action: Sedative, spasmolytic, hypotensive, nervine, antiseptic. Used in cutaneous and scrofulous affections, chronic fever and liver complaints.

The roots contain phthalide iso- quinoline alkaloids. In addition, stems and leaves contain tetrahydroproto- berberines.

A related species, C. solida, indigenous to Siberia, northern China and Japan, contains alkaloids including corydalmine, tetrahydropalmatine, protoberberine-type alkaloid lenticin. The alkaloids are analgesic and sedative and have been shown to work, at least in part, by blocking the dopamine receptors in the central nervous system.

The powdered rhizome of Corydalis possesses one-hundredth of the analgesic potency of morphine.... corydalis govaniana

Desmodium Gangeticum


Synonym: Hedysarum gangeticum Linn.

Family: Papilionaceae; Fabaceae.

Habitat: Ascending to 1,500 m on the Himalaya; common on lower hills and plains throughout India.

Ayurvedic: Shaaliparni, Shaalaparni, Sthiraa, Somyaa, Guhaa, Triparni, Vidaarigandha, Anshumati. Also used as Prshniparni. (Urariapicta Desv., Prshniparni, is used as a substitute for Shaalaparni.)

Siddha/Tamil: Pulladi, Sirupulladi Moovilai (root).

Folk: Sarivan.

Action: Root—antipyretic, diuretic, astringent (used in irritable bowel syndrome, diarrhoea and dysentery), anticatarrhal (used in post-natal care, chronic fever, cough, biliousness, vomiting), diuretic, anthelmintic, laxative and nervine tonic. Desmodium spp.: Roots—carminative, mildly purgative, stomachic, emmenagogue, diuretic. Leaves—galactagogue; a poultice of leaves is used for lumbago. Bark—used in diarrhoea and haemorrhages.

Roots afforded pterocarpanoids— gangetin, gangetinin, desmodin and several alkaloids. The aerial portion gave indole-3-alkylamines and their derivatives.

Gangetin showed significant anti- inflammatory activity in 50 and 100 mg/kg p.o. in rats.

Dosage: Root—5-10 g powder; 1020 g for decoction. (API Vol. III.)... desmodium gangeticum


(Hebrew) From the temple mound Gabbathah, Gabbathe, Gabatha, Gabbathia, Gabbathea, Gabathia, Gabathea... gabbatha


(Italian / Spanish) Feminine form of Gabriel, meaning “heroine of God” Gabriela, Gabriellia, Gabrila, Gabryela, Gabryella... gabriella


(Hebrew) Feminine form of Gabriel; heroine of God Gabriel, Gabriele, Gabriell, Gabriellen, Gabryel, Gabryelle, Gaby, Gabysia, Gavi, Gavra, Gavraila, Gavriella, Gavrielle, Gavrila, Gavrilla, Gavrina, Gabbe, Gabbi, Gabbie, Gabi, Gabby... gabrielle


(Hebrew) One who is lucky; fortunate Gadah... gada


(Armenian) From the mountain’s peak

Gadarah, Gadarra, Gadarine, Gadaryne, Gadarina, Gadaryna, Gadarrah, Gadareana, Gadariena, Gadareina... gadara


(Greek) Of the earth; in mythology, the mother of the Titans and the goddess of the earth

Gaia, Gaiana, Gaiea... gaea


(Gaelic) Woman from Ireland Gaela, Gaele... gael


(German) From a foreign land; a stranger... gaelle


(Italian) Woman from Gaeta Gaetanah, Gaetanna, Gaetannah, Gaetane, Gaetanne... gaetana


(Hebrew) Of the vine Gafnah, Gaphna, Gaphnah, Gefen, Gephen... gafna


(Native American) A motherly woman... gaho


(Hebrew) Form of Abigail, meaning “the source of a father’s joy” Gahl, Gaila, Gaile, Gaill, Gal, Gale, Galia, Gayel, Gayelle, Gayla, Gayle, Gayleen, Gaylene, Gayline, Gayll, Gaylla, Gaylle, Gaille... gail

Discover More About Earl Grey Tea

If you’re a fan of black tea, you must have heard of the Earl Grey tea. If not, this is your chance to find out all you need to know about this richly-flavored black tea. Read about its health benefits and side effects, as well. About Earl Grey tea Earl Grey tea is one of the most popular types of black tea, drunk by people all around the world. It has a refreshing, citrusy flavor thanks to the bergamot orange oil added in its composition. The bergamot orange is the fruit of a citrus tree which blooms during winter; it is commercially cultivated in Italy. The bergamot oil, which is responsible for the tea’s citrusy flavor, is extracted from the skin of the fruit. In America, it is sometimes misspelled as “Earl Gray”. However, this is not the generally accepted spelling of the tea’s name. The Earl Grey tea is often drank during breakfast or brunch. It makes a good team with different sweets and pastries.  It is also used to add flavor to various types of cakes. History of Earl Grey tea The Earl Grey tea is named after Charles Grey, 2nd Earl of Britain, who was Prime Minister during the 1830s. As to why it was named after him, one legend says that a Chinese merchant gave this tea to Lord Grey to show his gratefulness, as one of the lord’s men had saved his son from drowning. However, there are doubts related to the authenticity of this story, as Lord Grey had never been to China, and the Chinese hadn’t yet discovered about the use of bergamot oil as a tea ingredient. It is possible that, seeing as Earl Grey tea was discovered at the beginning of the 19th century, it was simply named after a politician who was quite well-known at that time. According to the Grey family, Lady Grey served Earl Grey tea to various guests. As it became more and more popular, she was asked if the Earl Grey tea could be sold. This is how it became a brand of the Twinings tea company. Varieties of Earl Grey tea Considering how popular the Earl Grey tea is, it isn’t surprising that there are currently quite a few varieties of this tea. One of the well-known varieties of Earl Grey tea is Lady Grey, named after Mary Elizabeth Grey, the wife of Lord Grey. Other flavors are added to the usual Earl Grey tea. Some varieties of Lady Grey include adding blue cornflower blossoms, lavender or Seville oranges. Another type of the Earl Grey tea is the Russian Earl Grey. To the usual ingredients, it adds citrus peels, vodka, and lemon grass. Other types of Earl Grey tea include flowers among its ingredients. One of them is the French Earl Grey, which uses rose petals. There are some types of Earl Grey tea where the usual black tea leaves are replaced with something else. One example is Earl Grey Green, where the bergamot oil is combined with green leaves instead of the black ones. Another example is Rooibos Earl Grey, possibly originating from Malaysia. In this case, the black leaves are replaced with Rooibos, a South-African herbal plant. Also, in various coffee shops and tea shops, you can find a drink called London Fog. It is a “tea latte” and its ingredients are Earl Grey tea, steamed milk and vanilla syrup. How to prepare Earl Grey Tea For a cup of Earl Grey tea, use one teaspoon of tea leaves, or one regular-sized teabag. Boil the water before pouring it into the cup, and then let it steep for about 5 minutes. Then, remove the tea leaves or teabag. Based on your preferences, you can add sugar, lemon or milk to your cup of Earl Grey tea. Benefits of Earl Grey Tea The Earl Grey tea comes with many health benefits, both thanks to the black tea leaves and the bergamot oil. First, the antioxidants in its composition strengthen your immune system. They help keep your body young and healthy, protecting it from various viruses. This is why people who have caught a cold or the flu, or simply have a fever, drink Earl Grey tea. The Earl Grey tea has a calming effect thanks to the bergamot oil in its composition. It helps improve your mood by fighting against anxiety, depression, stress, and mood swings. The bergamot oil in the Earl Grey tea also helps you with digestion. It’s useful when suffering from indigestion, nausea and colic. It is also recommended in the case of urinary tract infections and intestinal problems. Earl Grey tea also helps you maintain a good oral hygiene. It fights against tooth decay and oral infections, and keeps the cavities away. Side effects of Earl Grey tea Despite its many health benefits, consumption of Earl Grey tea can have a few side effects, as well. The caffeine found in the composition of Earl Grey tea can affect you negatively, especially if caffeine isn’t good for your body.  To some people it may induce anxiety and heart palpitations. It can also increase blood pressure, making it bad for people who already have a high blood pressure. Also, if you drink a large amount of Earl Grey tea for a long time and suddenly, you stop, you might experience caffeine withdrawal symptoms. They include headaches that can last for up to a week, difficulty in concentrating, nausea, depression and anxiety. Drinking a large amount of Earl Grey tea can lead to side effects, as well. You might end up suffering from headaches, loss of appetite, vomiting, diarrhea, insomnia, dizziness, and irregular heartbeats. Therefore, make sure you don’t drink more than six cups of any tea, including Earl Grey tea.   Stay healthy by drinking this rich and citrusy-flavored black tea, the Earl Grey tea. Keep an eye on the side effects, but don’t let them scare you, as there are many more health benefits. So relax and enjoy your cup of Earl Grey tea with some cookies!... discover more about earl grey tea


(Scottish) A petite woman Gayra, Gara, Gairia, Gairea, Gaera... gaira


(French / Scandinavian / Latin) A merrymaker; of the festive party / a singer / woman from Gaul

Galah, Galla, Gallah, Galia, Gallia, Gayla, Galea... gala


Promoting the flow of milk... galactogenic


Medicine that promotes secretion of milk... galactogogue


Excessive or spontaneous flow of milk... galactorrhea

Discover Oregon Grape Root Tea

If you want to try a special type of herbal tea, there’s Oregon grape root tea! It has a slightly bitter taste, but that shouldn’t discourage you. It also has plenty of health benefits which are bound to keep you healthy. Read to find out more about Oregon grape root tea! About Oregon Grape Root Tea Oregon grape root tea is made from the root of the Oregon grape. The plant is an evergreen shrub which grows along the North American west coast. The plant can grow up to 5m tall. The leaves are similar to those of holly, and the stems and twigs are thick and corky. The flowers are yellow-colored and bloom in late spring. The fruits are small, purplish-black, with a dusty appearance, and they contain large seeds. The Oregon grape is in no way related to normal grapes. The name of the tree comes from the similarity of its berries to the grapes’ berries. Constituents of Oregon Grape Root Tea It is not surprising that the root is used to make Oregon grape root tea. The root is actually the part of the tea which contains the most active constituents. A cup of Oregon grape root tea contains many alkaloids (berberine) and phytochemicals, as well as tannins. How to prepare Oregon Grape Root Tea It isn’t difficult to make a cup of Oregon grape root tea. Place one teaspoon of dried root in a cup filled with boiling water. Let it steep for about 10-15 minutes. Once the steeping time ends, remove the dried herbs from the cup. If Oregon grape root tea is too bitter for your taste, you can add honey or sugar to sweeten it. Oregon Grape Root Tea Benefits Thanks to its important constituents, Oregon grape root tea brings you many health benefits. First of all, Oregon grape root tea is used in the treatment for dyspepsia (indigestion) and diarrhea, and it helps you fight intestinal parasites. It also increases the speed to the flow of bile, which makes it useful in the treatment for gallbladder pain, gallstones, hepatitis, and jaundice. The alkaloids found in Oregon grape root tea help treat typhoid, tuberculosis in its early stage, and various digestive disorders. It can even help with small problems, such as stomach cramps and abdominal pains. It also works as a potential anti-carcinogenic, speeding up the recovery from chemotherapy and radiation therapies. Oregon grape root teacan work as a lymphatic and liver stimulating blood cleanser. It is good for your liver as it helps release stacked away iron from the liver into the blood stream. It might also help you fight tumors in the bladder and colon. Oregon grape root tea can help you even when it’s applied topically. It is useful when treating psoriasis, eczema, athlete’s foot, acne, and other fungal infections. It also helps in easing inflammation, irritation, and itching of the skin. Oregon Grape Root Tea Side Effects First, it’s not recommended that you drink Oregon grape root tea if you are pregnant. If you do, it might cause uterine contractions. It is also best that you not consume Oregon grape root tea if you’ve gotchronic gastrointestinal irritation or inflammation. It will only worsen the symptoms. Be careful with how much Oregon grape root tea you drink. Don’t have more than six cups of tea a day, and don’t drink for more than 7 consecutive days. If you drink too much Oregon grape root tea, you’ll get the following symptoms: headaches, loss of appetite, vomiting, diarrhea, insomnia, dizziness, and irregular heartbeats. Even if it has a slightly bitter taste, Oregon grape root tea shouldn’t be forgotten. Its many health benefits can help you, if needed.... discover oregon grape root tea

Echinochloa Crus-galli

(Linn.) Beauv.

Synonym: Panicum crus-galli Linn.

Family: Gramineae; Poaceae.

Habitat: Cultivated mainly in Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh.

English: Barnyard Millet.

Ayurvedic: Ambah Shyaamaaka.

Siddha/Tamil: Oathupul.

Folk: Samak

Action: Whole plant—used for diseases of the spleen and for checking haemorrhage.

The grains are rich in carbohydrates (3.474 wt %) and trace elements (Cu, Cd, Cr, Ni, Fe, Mn, Sn). The total protein content is 4.2 wt% and the total lipids 4.46%. A hormone, oestrogen, is reported from the lipid.

A polysaccharide extracted from the endosperm and composed of glucose was identified as a phytoglycogen.... echinochloa crus-galli


(Greek) One with a milky-white complexion; in mythology, a statue brought to life

Galateah, GalatSe, Galathea, Galatheah... galatea


(Hebrew) The mark of friendship Galeeda, Galyde, Galyda, Galeid, Galeida, Galied, Galieda, Galead, Galeada... galeed


(Greek) Feminine form of Galen; one who is calm and peaceful Galene, Galenah, Galenia, Galenea... galena

Discover The Spectacle Of Dragon Well Green Tea

One of the most popular drinks in China, Dragon Well tea is part of the green teas family, having an inviting and a toasty flavor. A truly enjoyable and spectacular cup of tea.

Description of Dragon Well tea

Dragon Well tea is a type of pan-fried green tea, most commonly named Longjing tea from Hangzhou, Zheijang province in China, where is produced mainly by hand. During the production process, the Dragon Well is dried under a wood-fired Chinese pan called “wok”. This process removes the green, grassy taste and also inhibits enzyme activity. Due to the widespread opinion in China that the Dragon Well tea has a cooling effect, its popularity significantly increases especially during the spring and summer seasons. Often called the national tea of China, Dragon Well tea is often served to head of states and foreign delegations during their visits in China. Presented as a tribute to many generations, it was given even to Richard Nixon during his memorable encounter with Mao Zedong. This tea is very popular because of its unique properties:  jade color, vegetative aroma, mellow chestnut flavor and singular shape. It has a buttery, nutty, rich texture and an enjoyable dry finish. Commonly, Dragon Well tea is graded using a scale of six levels from superior quality to low quality so it is advisable to chose wisely when you decide to buy it. When the flavor can barely be sensed, it is clear that you deal with a poor quality.

How to store the Dragon Well tea

If the tea is sealed, keep it in a freezer. Cover with a box to insulate from temperature change. In order to get warm, leave it to room temperature before opening. This prevents condensation. After opening the package of Dragon Well tea, it is best to keep it away from light, moisture, smell and heat in an airtight container.

Ingredients of Dragon Well tea

Like most green teas, the Dragon Well tea contains amino acids, vitamins, flavonoids, proteins, calcium, iron, fluorine, theine and has one of the highest concentrations of catechins among teas, second only to white teas.

How to brew Dragon Well tea

When it comes to brewing Dragon Well tea, the best choice is a clear glass teacup, so that you can see the beauty of the leaves as they dance and unfurl in the water. It is really spectacular. Quality of tea is related directly to the beauty of the buds. Glass is most suitable also because it disperses heat quickly and prevents over-steeping. If you see that the buds have reached the bottom, this means that the tea is ready to drink. You should infuse a small amount of leaves in high temperature water for as long as it takes. Pour hot water at approximately 80 - 90 degrees Celsius. Immerse until most of the tea buds has sink to the bottom of the glass and the tea liquor turns yellow. This will take 5 to 10 minutes for the first infusion. During soaking, the tea brings out a soft, pure aroma, a yellow-green color and a rich flavor. Decant and leave a small quantity as you may use it as the seed for the next infusion. Infuse for another 2 to 4 times with progressively shorter steeping time.

Health Benefits of Dragon Well tea

All tea comes from the same plant named Camellia sinensis. The method of production creates the different types of tea. Dragon Well tea contains the highest content of antioxidant compounds. Antioxidants are proven to fight against certain cancers, lower cholesterol levels and blood pressure, reduce the likely-hood of getting the flu and other infections, boosting the immune function of our body and help reduce the signs of aging. It is also a fat burning accelerator so let’s not forget its important benefits for diets. There’s also enough fluoride found in green tea to aid against plaque and other oral bacteria.

Side effects of Dragon Well tea

Like any other green tea, Dragon Well tea may have few side effects like restlessness, palpitations, insomnia, anxiety, irritability, increased heart rate, and elevated blood pressure due to the caffeine content. It may also cause pain in the stomach area or reduce the body’s absorption of iron by 25% so it is contraindicated to people with anemia, faintness, gastritis with hyperacidity, stomach and duodenal ulcer. In spite of few side effects, it is worth trying it and get to know its flavor. The spectacle of drinking this type of tea is truly unique and the flavor really satisfying.... discover the spectacle of dragon well green tea

Elaeocarpus Ganitrus

Roxb. ex G. Don.

Synonym: E. sphaericus K. Schum. Ganitrus sphaericus Gaertn.

Family: Elaeocarpaceae.

Habitat: West Bengal, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh, Western Ghats.

English: Utrasum Bead tree.

Ayurvedic: Rudraaksha, Panch- mukhi.

Siddha/Tamil: Rudraaksham.

Action: Fruit—used for epileptic fits and headache. Powdered fruits (0.5 g) mixed with warm water are given two/three times daily in asthma. Stem bark— hypoglycaemic.

The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India indicated the use of the seed in hypertension, insomnia, psychoneurosis and mental diseases.

The fruits contain palmitic, iso- palmitic, linoleic and myristic acids. Leaves gave alkaloids—rudrakine, (+)- elacocarpine and (+)-iso-elacocarpine; phenolics—quercetin, gallic acid and ellagic acid. EtOH (50%) extract of stem bark—hypoglycaemic. Aqueous extract of fruits—sedative, hy- potensive, spasmolytic, anticonvul- sant, choleretic, bronchodilatory and cardiostimulant.

The fruit of E. oblongus Mast. non- Gaertn., synonym E. glandulosus Wall. ex Merrill (Western Ghats) is used in mental disorders and tetanus.

Dosage: Seed—1-2 g. (API Vol. IV.)

Siddha/Tamil: Ruthracham, Pagumbar.

Folk: Rudirak, Bhutali.

Action: Bark—stomachic, antibil- ious. Used in haematemesis. Nut— antiepileptic, antirheumatic.

The leaves gave quercetin, kaempfer- ol, gallic acid and ethylgallate.... elaeocarpus ganitrus


(Hebrew) From the fountain Galie, Galice, Galit, Galy, Galey, Galee, Galeigh, Galea, Galeah... gali


(Arabic) The name of a Moorish princess

Galianah, Galianna, Galianne, Galiane, Galian, Galyana, Galyanna, Galyann, Galyane, Galyanne... galiana


Teucrium chamaedrys L. Herb, in flower.

Constituents: iridoid glycosides, tannins, volatile oil.

Action: anti-diarrhoea, anti-inflammatory, anti-rheumatism, antimicrobial, antiseptic (mild), stomach bitter, diaphoretic, brain tonic, antispasmodic. Has been associated with cases of liver disease and is not now used internally.

Uses: Summer diarrhoea in children, irritable bowel, acute dyspepsia, lack of appetite, chronic bronchitis, skin disorders, pyorrhoea and inflammation of the gums (tea used as a mouth wash). To induce weight loss in slimming diets. Travel sickness, cellulitis, flatulence. Gout.

Preparations: Average dose: 2-4g. Thrice daily. Tea. 1 teaspoon to each cup boiling water; infuse 15 minutes. Dose half a cup.

Liquid extract. Half-1 teaspoon in water.

Powder, capsules: 250mg. Dose: 2 capsules between meals.

Note: Given to facilitate weight loss it has been known to be hepatotoxic. Of historic interest only. ... germander


Rare white metal. Symbol: Ge. Atomic No 32. Plays an important role in all biochemical life. Found in traces in soil and Lourdes water. Present in certain foods and helps eliminate toxic metals from the body. Neutralises free radicals. Restores the body’s pH balance disturbed by highly ‘acid’ foods: meat, dairy products, refined foods and alcohol. Immune enhancer, mild analgesic and energy modulator.

The metal is claimed to have a beneficial effect on asthma, high blood pressure, Raynaud’s disease, heart and circulatory disorders. Believed to be a challenge to cancer cells and metastasis.

Source plants: Aloe Vera, Comfrey (Symphytum pereginum), Chlorella, Bandai udo (Aralia cordata) and Bandai Moss; Pearl Barley.

Ginseng becomes defenceless against viruses and bacteria where there exists a deficiency of Germanium in the soil. (Dr Kazuhike Asai, Tokyo, Japan)

Garlic is rich in this trace element. (Dr Uta Sandra Goodman) ... germanium

Gerson Cancer Therapy

GERSON CANCER THERAPY is described in A Cancer Therapy; Results of Fifty Cases, Gerson, Max; 3rd edition, 1977, Pub: The Gerson Institute Bonita, CA 92002, USA.

Basically, the therapy consists of a vegetarian diet with meals of vegetables, fruits and whole grains, fresh or freshly prepared. Drinking water is replaced by hourly, fresh, raw juices of vegetables and fruits. Refined, altered, denatured or enhanced foodstuffs are forbidden. The diet is sodium, chloride, fat and protein restricted. Supplemental potassium, iodine, thyroid and crude liver extract comprise the medical armamentarium. A repeatable choleretic, enemas of a solution of boiled coffee, is administered to lower serum toxin levels. Coffee is a potent enhancer of the carcinogen detoxifying enzyme system, glutathione S-translerase (Wattenburg). The Gerson cancer therapy reduces accumulated tissue sodium and chloride, promoting diuresis. Gerson Therapy Center: Hospital de Baja California, at La Gloria, Mexico

Diet. Lunch and dinner contain ample cooked food, mainly to act as a ‘blotter’ to the daily intake of 5.25 pints fresh raw fruit juices that are the backbone of the therapy. Ingredients of the juices include 41bs raw organic carrots a day, with no harm to the liver. (JAM, May 1991, p5. Beata Bishop on her recovery from metastasised malignant melanoma)

The Gerson therapy is based on the ‘holistic’ philosophy which states that cancer represents a clinical manifestation of an underlying toxic condition. Such condition should receive primary treatment that is lifestyle orientated. The theme is: detoxification through internal cleansing. The diet and supplements are re-inforced by ‘positive thinking’ and supported by meditation and emotional balance. ... gerson cancer therapy

Ginseng - American

Five-fingers. Panax quinquefolium L. Dried root. Keynote: stress with stomach symptoms.

Action: adaptogen, digestive relaxant, hypoglycaemic, aphrodisiac, old-age re-vitaliser.

Uses: Irritable or nervous stomach caused by pressure of work and other stresses. Lack of appetite. Low blood pressure. Sustains nerves and immune system in physical exhaustion and infection.

Preparations: Average dose: half-4 grams dried root. Thrice daily. Powder: made palatable in honey. ... ginseng - american


Lycopus europaeus. The European equivalent of the American plant Lycopus virginicus (Bugleweed). See: BUGLEWEED. ... gipsywort

Ephedra Gerardiana

Wall. ex Stapf.

Family: Ephedraceae.

Habitat: The drier regions of the temperate and alpine Himalayas from Kashmir to Sikkim from 2,350 to 5,350 m.

English: Ephedra (Ephedra sinica Stapf.)

Ayurvedic: Soma, Soma-valli (substitute).

Folk: Asmaaniyaa, Budaagur (Punjab); Tipat, Traani (Himalayan region).

Action: Circulatory stimulant, bron- chodilator, vasodilator, antiallergic, antiasthmatic (usualy given with expectorants), diaphoretic. Not prescribed with antidepressants.

Key application: Ephedra sinica— in diseases of the respiratory tract and mild bronchospasms. Also in acute coryza, allergic rhinitis and sinusitis. (German Commission E.) In the treatment of nasal congestion due to hay fever, allergic rhinitis, acute coryza, cold, sinusitis and as abronchodilator. (WHO.)

Contraindicated in anxiety, restlessness, high blood pressure, glucoma, impaired circulation of the cerebrum, adenoma of prostate with residual urine accumulation, pheochromocy- toma, thyrotoxicosis. (German Commission E.)

Ephedra is official in the national pharmacopoeias of China, Japan and Germany. The herb is listed in Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia. Only its isolated derivatives, ephedrine and ephedrine hydrochloride are official in Indian Pharmacopoeia.

Ephedrine is toxic at more than 300 mg in 1 day (Francis Brinker.)

Aerial parts yielded ephedrine and ephedroxane. Pseudoephedrine is the most active anti-inflammatory principle of Ephedra sp., it exhibited inhibitory action on a number of acute inflammations. Ephedroxane possesses a minor anti-inflammatory principle. Among the Indian species, Ephedra major, found in Lahul, contains over 2.56% alkaloids of which nearly three fourths is ephidrine. Ephedra gerardiana contains 1.22% total alkaloids and 0.68% ephedrine.

On 30 December 2003, the FDA banned ephedra products in the US.... ephedra gerardiana

Eucalyptus Globules


Family: Myrtaceae.

Habitat: Native to Australia; now cultivated mainly at the hill-stations of India.

English: Blue-Gum tree, Australian Gum tree.

Ayurvedic: Tilaparna, Tailaparna, Sugandhapatra, Haritaparna Neela- niryaasa, Tribhandi, Triputaa, Sar- alaa, Suvahaa, Rechani, Nishotraa.

Unani: Neelgiri oil.

Siddha/Tamil: Karpooramaram.

Action: Essential oil from leaves— antiseptic, antibiotic, antiviral, antifungal, antispasmodic, decon- gestant, antiasthmatic, expectorant, antirheumatic, diaphoretic. Used in chronic, bronchitis, migraine, congestive headache, neuralgia and ague, as an inhalant or internal medicine. Root—purgative.

Key application: Leaf tea for catarrhs of the respiratory tract. Oil used externally for rheumatic complaints, contraindicated internally in inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, bile ducts, and in severe liver diseases. (German Commission E.) Oil—internally as adjuvant treatment of chronic obstructive respiratory complaints, including bronchitis and bronchial asthma, also for symptomatic relief of colds and catarrh of the upper respiratory tract; externally for symptomatic treatment of colds and rheumatic complaints. (ESCOP.) Leaf—antiseptic. (The British Herbal Pharmacopoeia.)

E. globulus is the main commercial source of Eucalyptus leaf oil; yield is 2.12%; 1,8-cineole exceeds 70% (pharmaceutical grade oil requires a minimum cineole content of 70%).

Several potent euglobals, having closely related acyl-phloroglucinol- monoterpene (or sesquiterpene) structures, are isolated from the leaves and flower buds. These compounds showed strong granulation-inhibiting activity and inhibition of TPA induced EBV (Epstein-Barr Virus) activation.

Phloroglucin derivatives, isolated from leaves, showed better antiinflammatory activity than indomethacin.

Natural antioxidants have also been isolated from the plant.

Dosage: Leaf—50-100 ml infusion. (CCRAS.)... eucalyptus globules


(German) A haughty woman; one who is highborn

Galliena, Galiene, Galienne, Galyena, Galyene, Galyenne... galiena


(Hebrew) From the rolling hills Galilah, Gelila, Gelilah, Gelilia, Gelilya, Glila, Glilah, Galyla, Gelyla... galila


(Native American) An attractive young woman

Galilahie, Galilahy, Galilahey, Galilahee, Galilahea, Galilheah... galilahi


(Hebrew) From the sacred sea Galileigh, Galilea, Galiley, Galily, Galili, Galilie... galilee


(Russian) Form of Helen, meaning “the shining light” Galinah, Galyna, Galynah, Galeena, Galeenah, Galine, Galyne, Galeene, Galeane, Galeana... galina


Another name for BILE.... gall


(Hebrew) God has redeemed Galyah, Galochka, Galenka, Geulah, Geula... galya


(African) One who is pleased, pleasing

Gamadia, Gamadea, Gamadiya... gamada


(Hindi) Born into the nobility; having great dignity Gambhiri, Gambhirie, Gambhiria, Gambhirea, Gambheera, Gambheira, Gambhiera, Gambheara... gambhira

Game Meat

(Bison, rabbit, venison)

Nutritional Profile Energy value (calories per serving): Moderate Protein: High Fat: Low Saturated fat: High Cholesterol: Moderate Carbohydrates: None Fiber: None Sodium: Low Major vitamin contribution: B vitamins Major mineral contribution: Iron, zinc

About the Nutrients in This Food Like other animal foods, game meat has high-quality proteins with suf- ficient amounts of all the essential amino acids. Some game meat has less fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol than beef. All game meat is an excellent source of B vitamins, plus heme iron, the form of iron most easily absorbed by your body, and zinc. For example, one four-ounce serving of roast bison has 28 g protein, 2.7 g fat (1.04 g saturated fat), 93.7 mg cholesterol, 3.88 mg iron (25.8 percent of the R DA for a woman of childbearing age), and 4.1 mg zinc (27 percent of the R DA for a man). The Nutrients in Roasted Game Meat (4-ounce serving)

The Most Nutritious Way to Serve This Food With a food rich in vitamin C. Vitamin C increases the absorption of iron.

Diets That May Restrict or Exclude This Food Low-protein diet (for kidney disease)

Buying This Food In American markets, game meats are usually sold frozen. Choose a package with no leaks or stains to suggest previous defrosting.

Storing This Food Keep frozen game meat well wrapped in the freezer until you are ready to use it. The packaging protects the meat from oxygen that can change its pigments from reddish to brown. Freezing prolongs the freshness of the meat by slowing the natural multiplication of bacteria that digest proteins and other substances on the surface, converting them to a slimy film. The bacteria also change the meat’s sulfur-containing amino acids methionine and cystine into smelly chemicals called mercaptans. When the mercaptans combine with myoglobin, they produce the greenish pigment that gives spoiled meat its characteristic unpleasant appearance. Large cuts of game meat can be safely frozen, at 0°F, for six months to a year.

Preparing This Food Defrost the meat in the refrigerator to protect it from spoilage. Trim the meat to dispose of all visible fat, thus reducing the amount of fat and cholesterol in each serving. When you are done, clean all utensils thoroughly with hot soap and hot water. Wash your cutting board, wood or plastic, with hot water, soap, and a bleach-and-water solution. For ultimate safety in preventing the transfer of microorganisms from the raw meat to other foods, keep one cutting board exclusively for raw meats, fish, and poultry, and a second one for everything else. Finally, don’t forget to wash your hands.

What Happens When You Cook This Food Cooking changes the way meat looks and tastes, alters its nutritional value, makes it safer, and extends its shelf life. Browning meat before you cook it does not “seal in the juices,” but it does change the flavor by caramelizing proteins and sugars on the surface. Because meat’s only sugars are the Game Meat  

63 small amounts of glycogen in muscle tissue, we add sugars in marinades or basting liquids that may also contain acids (vinegar, lemon juice, wine) to break down muscle fibers and tenderize the meat. (NOTE : Browning has one minor nutritional drawback. It breaks amino acids on the surface of the meat into smaller compounds that are no longer useful proteins.) When meat is heated, it loses water and shrinks. Its pigments, which combine with oxygen, are denatured (broken into fragments) by the heat. They turn brown, the natural color of well-done meat. At the same time, the fats in the meat are oxidized, a reaction that produces a characteristic warmed-over flavor when the cooked meat is refrigerated and then reheated. Cooking and storing the meat under a blanket of antioxidants—catsup or a gravy made of tomatoes, peppers and other vitamin-C rich vegetables—reduces fat oxidation and lessens the warmed-over flavor. Meat reheated in a microwave oven is also less likely to taste warmed-over.

How Other Kinds of Processing Affect This Food Aging. Hanging fresh meat exposed to air in a cold room evaporates moisture and shrinks the meat slightly. At the same time, bacterial action on the surface of the meat breaks down proteins, producing an “aged” flavor. (See below, Food/drug interactions.) Curing. Salt-curing preserves meat through osmosis, the physical reaction in which liquids flow across a membrane, such as the wall of a cell, from a less dense to a more dense solu- tion. The salt or sugar used in curing dissolve in the liquid on the surface of the meat to make a solution that is more dense than the liquid inside the cells of the meat. Water flows out of the meat and out of the cells of any microorganisms living on the meat, killing the micro-organisms and protecting the meat from bacterial damage. Salt-cured meat is higher in sodium than fresh meat. Smoking. Hanging fresh meat over an open fire slowly dries the meat, kills microorgan- isms on its surface, and gives the meat a rich, smoky flavor. The flavor varies with the wood used in the fire. Meats smoked over an open fire are exposed to carcinogenic chemicals in the smoke, including a-benzopyrene. Artificial smoke flavoring is commercially treated to remove tar and a-benzopyrene.

Medical Uses and/or Benefits Treating and/or preventing iron deficiency. Without meat in the diet, it is virtually impossible for an adult woman to meet her iron requirement without supplements.

Adverse Effects Associated with This Food Increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Like all foods from animals, game meats are a source of cholesterol. To reduce the risk of heart disease, the National Cholesterol Education Project recommends following the Step I and Step II diets. The Step I diet provides no more than 30 percent of total daily calories from fat, no more than 10 percent of total daily calories from saturated fat, and no more than 300 mg of cholesterol per day. It is designed for healthy people whose cholesterol is in the range of 200 –239 mg/dL. The Step II diet provides 25– 35 percent of total calories from fat, less than 7 percent of total calories from saturated fat, up to 10 percent of total calories from polyunsaturated fat, up to 20 percent of total calories from monounsaturated fat, and less than 300 mg cho- lesterol per day. This stricter regimen is designed for people who have one or more of the following conditions: •  Existing cardiovascular disease •  High levels of low-density lipoproteins (LDLs, or “bad” cholesterol) or low levels of high-density lipoproteins (HDLs, or “good” cholesterol) •  Obesity •  Type 1 diabetes (insulin-dependent diabetes, or diabetes mellitus) •  Metabolic syndrome, a.k.a. insulin resistance syndrome, a cluster of risk fac- tors that includes type 2 diabetes (non-insulin-dependent diabetes) Food-borne illness. Improperly cooked meat contaminated with E. coli O157:H7 has been linked to a number of fatalities in several parts of the United States. In addition, meat con- taminated with other bacteria, viruses, or parasites poses special problems for people with a weakened immune system: the very young, the very old, cancer chemotherapy patients, and people with HIV. Cooking meat to an internal temperature of 140°F should destroy Salmo- nella and Campylobacter jejuni; to 165°F, E. coli, and to 212°F, Listeria monocytogenes. Decline in kidney function. Proteins are nitrogen compounds. When metabolized, they yield ammonia that is excreted through the kidneys. In laboratory animals, a sustained high-pro- tein diet increases the flow of blood through the kidneys, accelerating the natural age-related decline in kidney function. Some experts suggest that this may also occur in human beings.

Food/Drug Interactions Monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors. Meat “tenderized” with papaya or a papain powder can interact with the class of antidepressant drugs known as monoamine oxidase inhibi- tors. Papain meat tenderizers work by breaking up the long chains of protein molecules. One by-product of this process is tyramine, a substance that constructs blood vessels and raises blood pressure. M AO inhibitors inactivate naturally occurring enzymes in your body that metabolize tyramine. If you eat a food such as papain-tenderized meat, which is high in tyramine, while you are taking an M AO inhibitor, you cannot effectively eliminate the tyramine from your body. The result may be a hypertensive crisis.... game meat

Ferula Galbaniflua

Boiss. ex Buhse.

Synonym: F. gummosa Boiss.

Family: Umbelliferae; Apiaceae.

Habitat: Native to Persia. Occasionally grown North-Western Himalaya.

Unani: Gaosheer, Jawaasheer. (Galbanum has been wrongly equated with Gandhbirozaa, the oleo-resin of Pine.)

Action: Oleo-gum-resin—digestive stimulant, antispasmodic; used for flatulence and colic; as an expectorant; and as a uterine tonic.

Ferula gummosa contains resinuous substances (60%), major constituents being galbaresenic and galbanic acids; volatile oil (5-30%) containing mono- and sesquiterpenes, alcohols and acetates; azulenes; thiol esters; undeca- triens; resinic acids (30-40%); gums; umbelliferone.... ferula galbaniflua

Foxtail Grass

Setaria species

Description: This weedy grass is readily recognized by the narrow, cylindrical head containing long hairs. Its grains are small, less than 6 millimeters long. The dense heads of grain often droop when ripe.

Habitat and Distribution: Look for foxtail grasses in open, sunny areas, along roads, and at the margins of fields. Some species occur in wet, marshy areas. Species of Setaria are found throughout the United States, Europe, western Asia, and tropical Africa. In some parts of the world, foxtail grasses are grown as a food crop.

Edible Parts: The grains are edible raw but are very hard and sometimes bitter. Boiling removes some of the bitterness and makes them easier to eat.... foxtail grass

Fraxinus Griffithii


Family: Oleaceae.

Habitat: Arunachal Pradesh (Mishmi Hills).

Action: Toxic to CNS.

The extract of the bark and leaves are used as an adulterant of illegal opium and are sold in the black market in certain areas in Indonesia.

The bark contains an iridoid glu- coside, ligstroside, and the phenolic glucosides, syringin and sinapaldehyde glucoside.

Family: Oleaceae.

Habitat: F. excelsior Linn.—Great Britain, Europe and North America. F. hookery—Western Himalaya at 2,700-3,350 m.

English: European Ash, Weeping Ash.

Folk: Kum, Sum, Hum, Sinnun (Punjab, Kashmir).

Action: F. excelsior—laxative, antiinflammatory, febrifuge. The bark and leaves are used for arthritis and rheumatism.

The herb gave coumarin derivatives, including fraxin, fraxetin and fraxinol; flavonoids based on aesculetin, including aescin, also rutin and quercetin. A coumarin derivative is actively diuretic.

A saccharine exudate, manna, consisting principally of mannitol, is obtained by incising the stem barks of some Fraxinus sp. found in India. The manna of commerce is derived from F. ornus. F. hookery (bark)—astringent, febrifuge, bitter tonic. Leaves—cathartic.

Ash Bark is used, in decoction, in the treatment of intermittent fever and ague, as a substitute for Peruvian bark. Also used for treating obstructions of the liver and spleen and in rheumatism and arthritic affections.

Preparations of European Ash Bark showed an analgesic, anti-exudative and antiphlogistic action. (German Commission E.)

Habitat: Indigenous to the coasts of the Mediterranean from Spain to Smyrna.

English: Flake Manna.

Unani: Turanjeen.

Action: A children's laxative. Usually prescribed with other purgatives. (Not to be used in the presence of ileus.)

Key application: In constipation where an easier elimination and a soft stool are desirable; in animents such as anal fissures, haemorrhoids and post-rectal and surgery. (German Commission E.)

The exudation contains 40-90% mannitol, 10-15% stachyose and man- notriose, glucose, fructose.... fraxinus griffithii


The way in which an individual walks. Gait may be affected by inherited disorders; by illness – especially neurological disorders; by injury; or by drug and alcohol abuse. Children, as a rule, begin to walk between the ages of 12 and 18 months, having learned to stand before the end of the ?rst year. If a normal-sized child shows no ability to make movements by this time, the possibility of mental retardation must be borne in mind, and if the power of walking is not gained by the time the child is a year and a half old, RICKETS, CEREBRAL PALSY, or a malformation of the hip-joint must be excluded.

In hemiplegia, or PARALYSIS down one side of the body following a STROKE, the person drags the paralysed leg.

Steppage gait occurs in certain cases of alcoholic NEURITIS, tertiary SYPHILIS (tabes) and other conditions where the muscles that raise the foot are weak so that the toes droop. The person bends the knee and lifts the foot high, so that the toes may clear obstacles on the ground. (See DROP-FOOT.)

In LOCOMOTOR ATAXIA or tabes dorsalis, the sensations derived from the lower limbs are blunted, and consequently the movements of the legs are uncertain and the heels planted upon the ground with unnecessary force. When the person tries to turn or stands with the eyes shut, he or she may fall over. When they walk, they feel for the ground with a stick or keep their eyes constantly ?xed upon it.

In spastic paralysis the limbs are moved with jerks. The foot ?rst of all clings to the ground and then leaves it with a spasmodic movement, being raised much higher than is necessary.

In PARKINSONISM the movements are tremulous, and as the person takes very short steps, he or she has the peculiarity of appearing constantly to fall forwards, or to be chasing themselves.

In CHOREA the walk is bizarre and jerky, the affected child often seeming to leave one leg a step behind, and then, with a screwing movement on the other heel, go on again.

Psychologically based idiosyncracies of gait are usually of a striking nature, quite di?erent from those occuring in any neurological conditions. They tend to draw attention to the patient, and are worse when he or she is observed.... gait


Sperm or ova.... gametes

Galangal Tea

Mostly used as a spice in Thai cuisine, few people know that Galangal herb can also be used for a tasty tea due to its properties. Learn more about its interesting impact on your health. About Galangal tea Galangal (also known as galanga, blue ginger, laos) is an East Asian tropical shrub with lance-like leaves, iris-like flowers, and reddish brown, woody rhizomes, belonging to the ginger family. Widely used in the Asian cuisine, few people know that there are two main types, both called lengkuas or laos : Lesser galangal and Greater galangal also called Galanga or Temulawak. In its raw form, galangals have a stronger taste than common ginger. It can be found as fresh root, dried root or dried, ground powder, tea or tincture. Galangal rhizomes are rich in a complex of compounds such as resins, eugenol, volatile oil, galangol, as well as kaempferid, galangal, alpinin, and carbohydrates. Rhizomes are aromatic and pungent with a ginger-sour-lemon flavor. You can drink galangal tea at any time, during the day. How to brew Galagal tea In order to prepare a tasty tea, it is recommended to use the galangal root, dried or powdered. Infuse 1/2 teaspoon of powdered rhizome in one cup of boiling water, steep 10-15 minutess and drink up to 3 cups a day.  If you choose the root in the first brew, you can reuse it several times afterwards. Galangal tea has an amazing flavor, either sweetened or not. Benefits of Galangal tea Galangal tea is famous for easing digestive problems and in some Asian countries it is considered perfect for physical, mental and spiritual health and it is even believed to have aphrodisiac properties. Although galangal root is a little bitter, galangal tea relieves bloating, constipation, sluggish digestion, and gas. This tea can induce a deeply meditative state as well as powerful vivid dreams. It is even perfectly easy to fall asleep after drinking a cup of galangal tea. Galangal tea has been used for centuries for its tonic properties as it can instantly reduce fever and indigestion or ease stomach cramps, nausea and vomiting. It has been used for sea sickness, headaches, spleen enlargement, catarrh, bronchitis, rheumatism, foot pains, liver and gall bladder disorders, sore gums, as well as a respiratory and heart stimulant, and as a treatment for impotence. It is also used as a body deodorizer and breath cleanser. Side effects of Galangal tea Galangal tea inhibits the release and action of pancreatic lipase, so do not associate it with digestive enzymes. Like most teas, it has precautions when it comes to children and pregnant or breastfeeding women. Galangal tea is basically good for your health but do not exceed 3 cups a day if you want to benefit from its healthy properties.... galangal tea

Galium Aparine


Family: Rubiaceae.

Habitat: The Temperate Himalayas.

English: Goosegrass, Clivers, Cleavers, Catch Weed.

Action: Choleretic, stomachic, diuretic, refrigerant, lymphatic, alterative, antiscorbutic, detoxifier; non-steroidal anti-inflammatory used for enlarged lymph nodes, especially cervical neck nodes, cystic and nodular changes in the glands, modular goitre. Used as a cleansing drink for malignant conditions and skin disorders, including psoriasis.

Key application: As diuretic. (The British Herbal Pharmacopoeia.)

The plant contains iridoid monoter- penes (asperuloside), benzyl isoquino- line alkaloids (including protopine), beta-carbolin alkaloids (including harmine), quinazoline alkaloids and fla- vonoids (such as luteolin). Methanolic extract of the plant contains chloro- genic acid, scopoletin and rutin. The plant is reported to contain several sterols. The root contains anthraqui- nones.

Asperuloside can be chemically converted to prostanoid intermediates.... galium aparine

Galium Verum


Habitat: Kashmir, Lahul and other west Himalayan regions, at altitude of 2,000-3,000 m

English: Lady's Bedstraw, Cheese Rennet.

Action: Herb—diuretic, used for kidney stone, gravel, gout. Used topically for poorly healing wounds.

The plant contains the iridoids including asperuloside and galioside; flavonoid glycosides; quercetin-3-glu- coside, quercetin-7-glucoside, quer- cetin-3-rutinoside, luteolin-7-gluco- side; anthraquinone derivatives, including alizarin, and large amounts of salicylic acid. Its high organic acid content causes curdling of milk. The root contain n-alkanes.... galium verum

Gamgee Tissue

A surgical dressing composed of a thick layer of cotton-wool between two layers of absorbent gauze, introduced by the Birmingham surgeon, Sampson Gamgee (1828–1886). Gamgee tissue has been a registered trademark since 1911.... gamgee tissue


(Arabic) Form of Jamilah, meaning “a beautiful and elegant lady” Gameela, Gamela, Gamelia, Gamilah, Gameelah, Gamilia, Gamilla, Gamille, Gamelia, Gemila, Gemilla, Gemeela, Gemyla, Gameala, Gemeala... gamila


(Greek) The third letter of the Greek alphabet Gammah... gamma

Gamma Benzene Hexachloride

A drug that is used in the treatment of PEDICULOSIS and SCABIES.... gamma benzene hexachloride

Gall-bladder, Diseases Of

The gall-bladder rests on the underside of the LIVER and joins the common hepatic duct via the cystic duct to form the common BILE DUCT. The gall-bladder acts as a reservoir and concentrator of BILE, alterations in the composition of which may result in the formation of gallstones, the most common disease of the gallbladder.

Gall-stones affect 22 per cent of women and 11 per cent of men. The incidence increases with age, but only about 30 per cent of those with gall-stones undergo treatment as the majority of cases are asymptomatic. There are three types of stone: cholesterol, pigment and mixed, depending upon their composition; stones are usually mixed and may contain calcium deposits. The cause of most cases is not clear but sometimes gall-stones will form around a ‘foreign body’ within the bile ducts or gall-bladder, such as suture material. BILIARY COLIC Muscle ?bres in the biliary system contract around a stone in the cystic duct or common bile duct in an attempt to expel it. This causes pain in the right upper quarter of the abdomen, with nausea and occasionally vomiting. JAUNDICE Gall-stones small enough to enter the common bile duct may block the ?ow of bile and cause jaundice. ACUTE CHOLECYSTITIS Blockage of the cystic duct may lead to this. The gall-bladder wall becomes in?amed, resulting in pain in the right upper quarter of the abdomen, fever, and an increase in the white-blood-cell count. There is characteristically tenderness over the tip of the right ninth rib on deep inhalation (Murphy’s sign). Infection of the gall-bladder may accompany the acute in?ammation and occasionally an EMPYEMA of the gall-bladder may result. CHRONIC CHOLECYSTITIS A more insidious form of gall-bladder in?ammation, producing non-speci?c symptoms of abdominal pain, nausea and ?atulence which may be worse after a fatty meal.

Diagnosis Stones are usually diagnosed on the basis of the patient’s reported symptoms, although asymptomatic gall-stones are often an incidental ?nding when investigating another complaint. Con?rmatory investigations include abdominal RADIOGRAPHY – although many gall-stones are not calci?ed and thus do not show up on these images; ULTRASOUND scanning; oral CHOLECYSTOGRAPHY – which entails a patient’s swallowing a substance opaque to X-rays which is concentrated in the gall-bladder; and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) – a technique in which an ENDOSCOPE is passed into the duodenum and a contrast medium injected into the biliary duct.

Treatment Biliary colic is treated with bed rest and injection of morphine-like analgesics. Once the pain has subsided, the patient may then be referred for further treatment as outlined below. Acute cholecystitis is treated by surgical removal of the gall-bladder. There are two techniques available for this procedure: ?rstly, conventional cholecystectomy, in which the abdomen is opened and the gall-bladder cut out; and, secondly, laparoscopic cholecystectomy, in which ?breoptic instruments called endoscopes (see FIBREOPTIC ENDOSCOPY) are introduced into the abdominal cavity via several small incisions (see MINIMALLY INVASIVE SURGERY (MIS)). Laparoscopic surgery has the advantage of reducing the patient’s recovery time. Gall-stones may be removed during ERCP; they can sometimes be dissolved using ultrasound waves (lithotripsy) or tablet therapy (dissolution chemotherapy). Pigment stones, calci?ed stones or stones larger than 15 mm in diameter are not suitable for this treatment, which is also less likely to succeed in the overweight patient. Drug treatment is prolonged but stones can disappear completely after two years. Stones may re-form on stopping therapy. The drugs used are derivatives of bile salts, particularly chenodeoxycholic acid; side-effects include diarrhoea and liver damage.... gall-bladder, diseases of


(Hebrew) Of the daring and valorous people

Gammadym, Gammadeem, Gammadeam... gammadim


The proprietary name for a synthetic insecticide which is a formulation of benzene hexachloride. It is active against a large range of insects and pests, including mosquitoes, ?eas, lice, cockroaches, house-?ies, clothes moths, bed-bugs, ants, and grain pests.... gammexane


(Hebrew) Lady of the gardens Ganah, Ganna, Gannah, Ganit, Ganet, Ganice, Ganya... gana


(Indian) In mythology, a princess who blindfolded herself when she married a blind man

Gandharie, Gandhary, Gandharey, Gandharee, Gandharea, Gandhareah... gandhari


(singular: ganglion) Colonies of neurons outside the brain and spinal cord sometimes acting to control local functions. These are little affected by normal stress conditions. (Example: the solar plexus, made of two separate ganglions.)... ganglia


(English) In Arthurian legend, Merlin’s sister

Ganeida, Ganeyda, Ganeeda, Ganeada... ganieda


(Basque) A victorious woman Garaytz, Garaetz, Garatz... garaitz


(Welsh) Resembling a stork... garan


(Basque) One who is pure; clean Garbie, Garby, Garbey, Garbee, Garbea, Garbeah... garbi


(Spanish) Refers to the ceremonial purification

Garbinah, Garbyna, Garbeena, Garbine, Garbyne, Garbeene, Garabina, Garabine... garbina


Rummaging through and cleaning out herbs; sorting.... garble

Garcinia Cambogia


Synonym: G. gummi-gutta (Linn.) Robs.

Family: Guttiferae; Clusiaceae.

Habitat: Western Ghats and Nilgiris.

English: Gamboge tree.

Ayurvedic: Vrkshaamla (allied species), Kokam (var.).

Siddha/Tamil: Kodakkapuli.

Action: Fruit rind—used in rickets and enlargement of spleen, in skeletal fractures.

The plant contains iso-prenylated polyphenols—cambogin and cambo- ginol. The fruit contains about 30% acid (dry weight basis), which is essentially (-)-hydroxycitric acid (HCA). HCA is a potent inhibitor of ATP citrate lyase, the enzyme that produces acetyl CoA for both fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis.

Taking Garcinia fruit rind extract orally does not seem to help decrease weight, satiety, fat oxidation or energy expenditure in obese people. Some researchers are of the view that garcinia inhibits the supply of fatty acids without affecting adipose conversion. (Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, 2007.)

Latex gave benzophenone derivatives, camboginol and cambogin.... garcinia cambogia

Garcinia Cowa


Synonym: G. kydia Roxb.

Family: Guttiferae; Clusiaceae.

Habitat: Tropical forests of Assam, Bengal, Orissa and the Andamans.

Ayurvedic: Paaraavata, Kowaa.

Folk: Kaphal (Nepal), Kujithekera (Assam).

Action: Sun-dried slices of the fruit are used in dysentery. The latex is used as febrifuge. Gum-resin— drastic cathartic (may produce nausea and vomiting).

The fruits from Assam contain: total soluble solids 9.8, titrable acidity 4.7, total sugars 3.8% and vitamin C 8.64 mg/g

The latex gave xanthones, cowanin, cowanol, cowaxanthone and norcow- anin.

The bark contains cowanin, cow- anol, cowaxanthone and rubraxan- thone.

Cawanol and cowaxanthone are reported to exhibit moderate antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus au- reus.... garcinia cowa


(English) One who works the earth Gardener, Gardie, Gardi, Gardiner, Gardea, Gardeah, Gardy, Gardey... gardner


Gargle; it is often used for sore throat, cough and inflammation of the gums or mouth. This remedy can be prepared as an infusion of medicinal plant(s) or as a mixture of the fresh plant juice and other ingredients such as salt (sal), baking soda (soda bicarbonato) or honey (miel de abeja); this preparation is typically used only as a gargle and is not swallowed. Similar terms: buche (mouthwash) and enjuague (mouthrinse).... gárgara


Gargling is a process by which various substances in solution are brought into contact with the throat without being swallowed. The watery solutions used for the purpose are called gargles. Gargles are used in the symptomatic treatment of infections of the throat: for example, ‘sore throat’, pharyngitis and tonsillitis.... gargles


(Indian) A woman of importance Garimah, Garyma, Gareema, Garymah, Gareemah, Gareama, Gareamah, Gariema, Gariemah, Gareima, Gareimah... garima

Garcinia Hanburyi

Hook. f.

Family: Guttiferae; Clusiaceae.

Habitat: Evergreen forests of Assam and Khasi Hills.

English: Siam Gamboge.

Ayurvedic: Kankushtha; Kaalakushtha, Tamaala.

Unani: Usaar-e-revand.

Action: Gum-resin—drastic hydragogue, cathartic; used for dropsical conditions. Toxic. The gum-resin contains 70-75% resins consisting mainly of alpha- and beta-garcinolic acids with gambogic acids; about 20-25% gum.

Gambogic acid, morellic acid and isomorellic acid are toxic constituents of the gum-resin.... garcinia hanburyi

Garcinia Indica


Synonym: G. Purpurea Roxb.

Family: Guttiferae; Clusiaceae.

Habitat: Evergreen forests of Western Ghats from Konkan southwards and in Goa. Also cultivated in southern districts of Maharashtra and on lower slopes of Nilgiris.

English: Kokam Butter tree, Mangosteen Oil tree.

Ayurvedic: Vrkshaamla, Tintidika, Chukra, Amlavrkshak, Kokam, Amsula.

Siddha/Tamil: Murgal.

Folk: Kokam.

Action: Fruit—antiscorbutic, cholagogue, cooling, antibilious, emollient and demulcent. A syrup from the fruit juice is given in bilious affections. Bark—astringent, Oil or Kokam Butter—used for dysentery and diarrhoea with mucus. Applied externally to ulcerations, fissures of lips, chapped skin and skin diseases.

The fruit rind contain a polyiso- prenylated phenolic pigment, garci- nol and its isomer isogarcinol, along with (-)-hydroxycitric acid, cyanidin- 3-glucoside and cyanidin-3-sambubio- side. L-leucine and DNP-L-leucine hy- drochloride have been reported from the leaves.

EtOH (50%) extract of aerial parts exhibited semen coagulant and CNS depressant activity.

Kokum butter contains fatty acids— palmtic 2.0, stearic 57.5, oleic 39.0, linoleic 1.3 and others 0.2%.

Dosage: Fruit—10-20 ml juice; root bark—40-80 ml decoction. (CCRAS.)... garcinia indica

Garcinia Mangostana


Family: Guttiferae; Clusiaceae.

Habitat: Native to Malaysia. Now cultivated mainly on lower slopes of the Nilgiris.

English: Mangosteen, Dodol.

Siddha/Tamil: Sulambuli, Mangusta.

Folk: Mangustaan.

Action: Fruit—antileucorrhoeic, astringent, antifungal, antibacterial; used in cystitis, diseases of the genitourinary tract, diarrhoea, tropical dysentery and fevers. Pericarp—used externally for eczema and other skin diseases. Leaves—anti-inflammatory, anti- immunosuppressive, antiprotozoal, antimicrobial.

The plant contains anthocyanin gly- cosides, a benzophenone, maclurin and several prenylated and related xan- thones. The leaves contain terpenoids, xanthones and long chain hydrocarbons.

The pericarp (fruit hull) contains the xanthone derivatives, mangostin, nor- mangostin, beta-mangostin, gamma- mangostin, isomangostin as major constituents.

Mangostin, isolated from the rind of fruit, inhibited primary and secondary responses to adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats. Mangostin, isoman- gostin and mangostin triacetate exhibited pronounced anti-inflammatory activity in rats both by i.p. and oral routes.

Mangostin also produced antiulcer activity in rats.

Mangostin and some of its derivatives produced CNS depression, characterized by ptosis, sedation and decreased motor activity.

Gamma-mangostin showed more potent radical scavenging and antioxi- dant activity than BHA.... garcinia mangostana

Garcinia Morella

(Gaertn) Desv.

Synonym: G. pictoria Roxb.

Family: Guttiferae; Clusiaceae.

Habitat: Throughout southern India, also in Assam and West Bengal, up to 1,000 m

English: Indian Gamboge.

Ayurvedic: Kankushtha, Tamaal, Taapichha, Ushaare-revand.

Siddha/Tamil: Iravakhinni.

Action: Gum-resin—hydragogue, cathartic, anthelmintic. Used in dropy and amenorrhoea. Causes nausea, vomiting and griping in large doses.

The gum contains morellin, neo- morellin, beta-guttiferin and alpha- guttiferin and their derivatives. The heartwood gave morelloflavone. Seed coat gave morellin, isomorellin and their neo derivatives which exhibited antibacterial and antiprotozoal activity.

Dosage: Gum-resin—50-125 mg. (CCRAS.)... garcinia morella


(French) Decorated with a wreath of flowers

Garlande, Garlanda, Garldina, Garldyna, Garldena... garland


(English) Resembling the dark-red


Garnette, Granata, Grenata, Grenatta... garnet


(French) One who protects others Garan, Garen, Garin, Garion, Garon, Garran, Garren, Garrin, Geron... garron


(Russian) One who is well-behaved Gashah, Gashia, Gashea, Gashiah, Gasheah... gasha


(Spanish) One who is treasured Gasparah, Gasparra, Gasparrah... gaspara

Garcinia Pedunculata


Family: Guttiferae; Clusiaceae.

Habitat: Forests of northeast Bengal, sporadic in NEFA, Manipur and upper Assam

Ayurvedic: Amlavetasa. Vetasaamla.

Folk: Thaikala (Bengal).

Action: Antiscorbutic, astringent, cooling, cardiotonic, emollient. Used in anorexia, dyspepsia, colic, liver and spleen diseases difficult micturition. Cough and other respiratory disorders, ulcers and skin diseases.

Dry fruits (pericarp) contain the benzophenones, pedunculol, garcinol and cambogin.

The heartwood gave benzophenone and xanthone.

Dosage: Fruit—5-10 ml juice. (CCRAS.)... garcinia pedunculata

Garcinia Xanthochymus

Hook. f. ex T. And.

Synonym: G. tinctoria (DC.) W. F. Wt.

Family: Guttiferae; Clusiaceae.

Habitat: The lower hill forests of Eastern Himalayas, Peninsular India, Orissa, Maharashtra and the Andamans.

English: Egg tree.

Ayurvedic: Tamaal (var.), Vrk- shaamla (var.).

Siddha/Tamil: Kulavi, Malaippachai, Mukki, Tamalam

Folk: Amsul (Maharashtra).

Action: Fruit—anthelmintic, improves appetite. Also used as a car- diotonic. Fruit gave xanthochymol and isoxanthymol (polyprenylat- ed benzophenone derivatives), flavones and xanthones.... garcinia xanthochymus

Gastric Cirri

Hair-like appendages in the stomach of most cubozoan jellyfish. They contain nematocysts and aid in digestion.... gastric cirri

Gastric Lavage

A method of gastric decontamination used in the treatment of poisoning. It is not used routinely. Lavage involves the passage of a lubricated tube via the mouth and OESOPHAGUS into the stomach. Patients are positioned on their side with the head lower than the feet. A small quantity of ?uid (300 ml) is passed into the stomach and the contents then drained out (by gravity) by lowering the end of the tube. This is repeated until the solution is clear of particulate matter. The procedure should be done only by an experienced health professional.... gastric lavage

Gardenia Gummifera

Linn. f.

Synonym: G. arborea Roxb. G. inermis Dietr.

Family: Rubiaceae.

Habitat: Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu.

English: Gummy Cape Jasmine.

Ayurvedic: Venupatrikaa, Naadi- hingu, Hingushivaatikaa. Hingu- patrikaa, Hingupatri (also equated with Ferula Jaeschkeana Vatke).

Unani: Dikaamaali.

Siddha/Tamil: Dikkamalli, Kambil, Sinna Kambil.

Action: Gum—carminative, antispasmodic, stimulant, diaphoretic, anthelmintic, antiseptic, expectorant. Given to children in nervous disorders and diarrhoea due to dentition.

The gum yielded flavones, including gardenin, de-Me-tangeretin and nevadensin; wogonins, isoscutellarein, apigenin and de-MeO-sudachitin.

Dosage: Gum—250-500 mg. (CCRAS.)... gardenia gummifera

Gardenia Jasminoides


Synonym: G. florida Linn. G. augusta Merrill.

Family: Rubiaceae.

Habitat: Native to China and Japan; cultivated in Indian gardens.

English: Cape Jasmine.

Ayurvedic: Gandharaaja.

Siddha/Tamil: Karinga.

Action: Plant—cathartic, antispasmodic, anthelmintic, antiperiodic. Root—antidysenteric. Also used in dyspepsia and nervous disorders. Fruits—used in gastric hyperacidity, constipation, cholestasis, internally and externally for inflammation and as a tranquilizer.

The plant contains iridoid glycosides—geniposide 56.03, genipin 1.72, gardenoside 2.16 and geniposidic acid 1.79 mg/g The stem and root contain oleanolic acid, D-mannitol and stig- masterol. The leaves contain an anti- fungal compound, cerbinal.

Geniposide is an important active principle of the fruit. The fruit also contain the carotenoids, crocin and crocetin. Aqueous and methonalic extracts of the fruit exhibited antioxidant activity due to the presence of geniposide and crocin; crocin was more potent than geniposide.

The extract as well as geniposide caused a remarkable decrease in GOT, GPT and ALP activities. They also produced a significant decrease in the level of total cholesterol in the serum of CCl4-induced and D-galactosamine- intoxicated rats. The crude extract as well as geniposide exhibited protective effect against induced hyperbiliru- binemia by effectively lowering serum bilirubin.... gardenia jasminoides

Gardenia Latifolia


Family: Rubiaceae.

Habitat: Throughout the greater part of India, mostly in dry forests.

English: Boxwood Gardenia.

Ayurvedic: Parpataki.

Siddha/Tamil: Kumbay, Perungam- bil.

Folk: Paaparaa, Ban-pindaalu.

Action: Bark—used in skin diseases.

The stem bark contains hederage- nin, D-mannitol, sitosterol and siaresi- nolic, episiaresinolic, oleanolic and spinosic acid.... gardenia latifolia

Gardenia Resinifera


Synonym: G. lucida Roxb.

Family: Rubiaceae.

Habitat: Central India and Deccan Peninsula.

Ayurvedic: Naadihingu (related species), Jantuka.

Unani: Dikaamaali.

Siddha/Tamil: Kambil, Kumbai, Dikkamalli.

Action: Gum—antimicrobial, anthelmintic; used in skin diseases. Gum gave flavonoids—gardenins, wagonin derivatives, de-Me- tangeretin, nevadensin, hexacosyl- p-coumarate. See G. gummifera.... gardenia resinifera


Pain in the stomach... gastrodynia

Gastroesophageal Reflux

The involuntary regurgitation of stomach contents or surface acids into the throat, with heartburn; it can be simple or serious.... gastroesophageal reflux

Gardenia Turgida


Synonym: Ceriscoides turgida Roxb.

Family: Rubiaceae.

Habitat: Throughout the greater part of India, up to 1,360 m

Ayurvedic: Mahaapindi, Karahaata, Kharahaara. (Bark is sold as Bhaargi.) Thanella.

Siddha/Tamil: Nanjundam, Malan- garai.

Action: Root—used as a remedy for indigestion in children. Fruits— used in affections of the mammary glands. Pounded pulp is applied to forehead in fever.

The bark and wood gave beta-sitos- terol, hederagenin, Me-esters of olea- nolic and gypsogenic acids. Root gave gardnins.

Saponins from bark decreased formation of histamine and may find use in asthma. (Market drug is expectorant and weak spasmolytic, but was not found effective in asthma.)... gardenia turgida

Garuga Pinnata


Family: Burseraceae.

Habitat: Throughout India, up to 1,000 m on the hills.

English: Grey Downy Balsam.

Ayurvedic: Paaranki, Kharpata. (Kinkiraata, Karnikaara, Mri- galindika are doubtful synonyms.)

Siddha/Tamil: Karre Vembu, Arunelli.

Folk: Ghogar, Toon.

Action: Fruit—stomachic. Leaf— astringent, antiasthmatic. Bark— antidiabetic.

The leaves and stem bark contain sterols, sitosterol, stigmasterol and campesterol; fatty acids; aliphatic compounds; a mixture of long chain esters; along with tannins and waxes. The leaves also contain garu- garin and amentoflavone. Gum-resin contains alpha-amyrin, butyrospermol and dammarandiol.

Aqueous and ethanolic extract of the leaves exhibit anti-inflammatory and antiallergic activities.... garuga pinnata

Gastro-oesophageal Reflux

A disorder in which the contents of the STOMACH back up into the OESOPHAGUS because the usual neuromuscular mechanisms for preventing this are intermittently or permanently failing to work properly. If persistent, the failure may cause oesophagitis (see OESOPHAGUS, DISEASES OF). If a person develops HEARTBURN, regurgitation, discomfort and oesophagitis, the condition is called gastro-oesophageal re?ux disease (GORD) and sometimes symptoms are so serious as to warrant surgery. Gastrooesophageal re?ux is sometimes associated with HIATUS HERNIA.

Gastro-oesophageal disease should be diagnosed in those patients who are at risk of physical complications from the re?ux. Diagnosis is usually based on the symptoms present or by monitoring the production of acid using a pH probe inserted into the oesophagus through the mouth, since lesions are not usually visible on ENDOSCOPY. Severe heartburn, caused by the lining of the oesophagus being damaged by acid and PEPSIN from the stomach, is commonly confused with DYSPEPSIA. Treatment should start with graded doses of one of the PROTON PUMP INHIBITORS; if this is not e?ective after several months, surgery to remedy the re?ux may be required, but the effects are not easily predictable.... gastro-oesophageal reflux

Gastrodia Tea

Gastrodia Tea has been known in traditional Chinese medicine for being a beneficial herbal tea. The root of gastrodia herb is popular for its analgesic, sedative, antispasmodic and carminative properties while the stem is known for its tonic and aphrodisiac properties. Gastrodia (gastrodia elata) grows in parts of Asia, Japan, China, North Korea and Siberian region. Gastrodia plant can be recognized by its orange leafless stem that can grow about 2 meters in height. The constituents of gastrodia roots include 4-Hydroxybenzaldehyde and gastrodine. How To Make Gastrodia Tea If you want to make gastrodia tea out of dried roots, start by boiling 1-1.5 grams of roots for about 20-25 minutes. Then let the tea cool off for about 7 minutes, strain and drink. If you are using the powdered form of gastrodia, just place a handful of powder in a cup of boiled water. Let it steep for about 5 minutes. Gastrodia Tea can be taken twice a day. Gastrodia Tea Benefits
  • Combats pains caused by headaches and rheumatoid arthritis.
  • Helps fight dizziness and vertigo.
  • Helpful against epilepsy and tetanus.
  • Works as a sedative being used in treating insomnia.
  • Reduces general fatigue.
Gastrodia Tea Side Effects
  • Can cause skin allergies.
  • Pregnant and breastfeeding women should avoid drinking gastrodia tea.
  • Gastrodia Tea may interact with the effects of some medications.
All in all, Gastrodia Tea is a healthy tea that can really improve your health! Just read the side effects listed below, in order not to experience them!... gastrodia tea


Ulceration of the stomach... gastrohelcosis


Enlargement of the stomach... gastromegaly


Any disease of the stomach... gastropathy

Gastrovascular Cavity

The digestive system of the cnidarian, consisting of the stomach and its connecting canals which perform a similar task to vascular system of higher orders.... gastrovascular cavity


(Hebrew) Refers to the pomegranate press... gath-rimmon

Gaucher’s Disease

A disease characterised by abnormal storage of LIPID, particularly in the SPLEEN, central nervous system, BONE MARROW, and LIVER. This results in enlargement of the spleen and the liver – particularly of the former – and ANAEMIA. It runs a chronic course. Diagnosis is usually by skin ?broblast glucocerebrosidase assay. Death often results from PNEUMONIA or bleeding. Infantile Gaucher’s often presents with marked neurological signs of rigid neck DYSPHAGIA, CATATONIA, hyper-re?exia and low IQ. The disease can now be treated with enzyme replacement using alglucerase. The annual cost per patient is substantial – several thousand pounds.... gaucher’s disease

Gaultheria Fragrantissima


Family: Ericaceae.

Habitat: Central and Eastern Himalayas, Khasi Hills, Western Ghats, the Nilgiris and Travancore.

English: Fragrant Wintergreen, Indian Wintergreen. (Wintergreen oil is obtained from G. procumbens Linn., a native of America.)

Ayurvedic: Gandhapuura, Gandha- puurna.

Siddha/Tamil: Kolakkaai.

Action: Leaves—stimulant, carminative, diuretic, antiseptic. Oil (in the form of liniment or ointment)— applied externally in rheumatism, sciatica and neuralgia. The plant is strongly irritant.

The leaves gave hyperoside (quer- cetin-3-galactoside), ursolic acid, beta- sitosterol and essential oil containing methyl salicylate as a major constituent. The yield of oil from Assam plants contains 99.14% methyl salicy- late. Heptyl aldehyde, present in the low boiling fraction of the oil, brought about the regression of tumours in mice and dogs.... gaultheria fragrantissima


(Indian) A fair-skinned woman Gaurie, Gaury, Gaurey, Gauree, Gaura, Gaurea, Gaureah... gauri


(Latin) Feminine form of Gavin; resembling the white falcon; woman from Gabio

Gavinah, Gaveena, Gaveenah, Gavyna, Gavynah, Gavenia, Gavenea, Gaveana, Gaveanah, Gaviena, Gavienah, Gaveina, Gaveinah... gavina


(American) A bright woman full of joy

Gaynelle, Gaynel, Gaynele, Gaynella, Gaynela... gaynell


(Welsh) One with smooth and fair skin

Gaynora, Gaenor, Gaynoria, Gaenora, Gayner... gaynor


(Hebrew) From the valley of sun Gayoria, Gayorea... gayora


(Hebrew) Having great strength Gazah, Gazza, Gazzah... gaza


(Latin) As graceful as a gazelle Gazellah, Gazela, Gazelah, Gazelle, Gazele... gazella


(Hebrew) Of the cut stone Giza, Gizah, Gisa, Gisah... gazit


(Hebrew) From the hill Gebah, Gebba, Gebbah... geba


(Hebrew) Of the natural boundary Gebale, Geball, Gebala, Geballa... gebal


(Hebrew) From the fortress Gederah, Gedera, Gederoth, Gederothee, Gederotha... geder


(Norse) In mythology, a goddess and prophetess Gefjon, Gefyon, Gefn... gefjun


(Hebrew) From the valley of visions Gehazie, Gehazy, Gehazey, Gehazee, Gehazea, Gehazeah... gehazi


(Hebrew) One who brings joy to others

Geela, Geelah, Geelan, Geilah, Geiliya, Geiliyah, Gelisa, Gellah, Gella... geila


(Greek) One who is always joking and laughing

Gelasiah, Gelasea, Gelaseah, Gelazia, Gelaziah, Gelazea, Gelazeah... gelasia


(Italian) Resembling the jasmine flower

Gelsominah, Gelsomeena, Gelsomyna, Gelsomeana, Gelsey, Gelsi, Gelsy, Gelsie, Gelsee, Gelsea, Gelseah... gelsomina


(Latin) The twins; the third sign of the zodiac

Gemineye, Gemyni, Gemella, Gemelle, Gemina, Gemyna, Gemeena... gemini


(Latin) As precious as a jewel Gemmalyn, Gemmalynn, Gem, Gema, Gemmaline... gemma

Gelidium Amansii


Family: Gelidaceae, Rhodophyceae.

Habitat: Indigenous to Japan.

English: Agar Agar, Japanese Isinglass. (Dried mucilaginous extract.)

Folk: Agar-Agar.

Action: Bulk-laxative. Agar-Agar does not increase peristaltic action. Its action is similar to that of cellulose of vegetable foods which aids the regularity of the bowel movement. (Often made into an emulsion with liquid paraffin for use in constipation.)

Most agars consist of two major polygalactoses, the neutral agarose and the sulphonated polysaccharide agaropectin, with traces of amino acids and free sugars.

Agar contains a large amount of pectin which may precipitate when exposed to alcohol. (Sharon M Herr.)... gelidium amansii

Gender Identity Disorders

Gender identity is the inner sense of masculinity or femininity, and gender role is an individual’s public expression of being male, female, or a ‘mix’ (androgynous). Most people have no di?culty because their gender identity and role are congruous. A person with a gender identity disorder, however, has a con?ict between anatomical sex and gender identity.

Gender is determined by a combination of genetic and environmental factors, in which the in?uence of family upbringing is an important factor. When physical sexual characteristics are ambiguous, the child’s gender identity can usually be established if the child is reared as being clearly male or female. Should, however, the child be confused about its sexual identity, the uncertainty may continue into adult life. Transsexuals generally experience con?icts of identity in childhood, and such problems usually occur by the age of two years. In this type of identity disorder, which occurs in one in 30,000 male births and one in 100,000 female births, the person believes that he or she is the victim of a biological accident, trapped in a body different from what is felt to be his or her true sex.

Treatment is di?cult: psychotherapy and hormone treatment may help, but some affected individuals want surgery to change their body’s sexual organs to match their innately felt sexual gender. The decision to seek a physical sex change raises major social problems for individuals, and ethical problems for their doctors. Surgery, which is not always successful in the long term, requires careful assessment, discussion and planning. It is important to preclude mental illness; results in homosexual men who have undergone surgery are not usually satisfactory. Advice and information may be obtained from Gender Identity Consultancy Services.... gender identity disorders

Gene Expression

The full use of the information in a gene via transcription and translation leading to production of a protein.... gene expression

Gene Testing

See GENETIC SCREENING.... gene testing


Comprising similar species; a rank between Family and Species.... genera

General Hospital

A hospital providing a variety of services, including medicine and surgery, to meet the general medical needs of the community it serves.... general hospital

General Liability Insurance

Insurance which covers the risk of loss for most accidents and injuries to third parties (the insured and its employees are not covered) which arise from the actions or negligence of the insured, and for which the insured may have legal liability, except those injuries directly related to the provision of professional health care services (the latter risks are covered by professional liability insurance).... general liability insurance

General Medical Council (gmc)

A statutory body of elected and appointed medical practitioners and appointed lay members with the responsibility of protecting patients and guiding doctors in their professional practice. Set up by parliament in 1858 – at the request of the medical profession, which was concerned by the large numbers of untrained people practising as doctors – the GMC is responsible for setting educational and professional standards; maintaining a register of quali?ed practitioners; and disciplining doctors who fail to maintain appropriate professional standards, cautioning them or temporarily or permanently removing them from the Medical Register if they are judged un?t to practise.

The Council is funded by doctors’ annual fees and is responsible to the Privy Council. Substantial reforms of the GMC’s structure and functions have been and are still being undertaken to ensure that it operates e?ectively in today’s rapidly evolving medical and social environment. In particular, the Council has strengthened its supervisory and disciplinary functions, and among many changes has proposed the regular revalidation of doctors’ professional abilities on a periodic basis. The Medical Register, maintained by the GMC, is intended to enable the public to identify whom it is safe to approach to obtain medical services. Entry on the Register shows that the doctor holds a recognised primary medical quali?cation and is committed to upholding the profession’s values. Under revalidation requirements being ?nalised, in addition to holding an initial quali?cation, doctors wishing to stay on the Register will have to show their continuing ?tness to practise according to the professional attributes laid down by the GMC.

Once revalidation is fully established, there will be four categories of doctor:

Those on the Register who successfully show their ?tness to practise on a regular basis.

Those whose registration is limited, suspended or removed as a result of the Council’s disciplinary procedures.

Those who do not wish to stay on the Register or retain any links with the GMC.

Those, placed on a supplementary list, who do not wish to stay on the main Register but who want to retain a formal link with the medical profession through the Council. Such doctors will not be able to practise or prescribe.... general medical council (gmc)

General Optical Council

The statutory body that regulates the professions of ophthalmic OPTICIAN (optometrist) and dispensing optician. It promotes high standards of education and professional conduct and was set up by the Opticians Act 1958.... general optical council

Generation Effect

Variations in health status that arise from the different causal factors to which each birth cohort in the population is exposed as the environment and society change. Each consecutive birth cohort is exposed to a unique environment that coincides with its life span.... generation effect

Generic Benchmark

See “benchmark”.... generic benchmark

Generic Drug Substitution

Generic drugs have been licensed as equivalent to brand name drugs. Generics are usually less expensive and they may be substituted by the dispenser.... generic drug substitution


(Spanish) One who is giving, generous

Generosah, Generose, Generosia, Generosea, Genera... generosa

General Practitioner (gp)

A general practitioner (‘family doctor’; ‘family practitioner’) is a doctor working in primary care, acting as the ?rst port of professional contact for most patients in the NHS. There are approximately 35,000 GPs in the UK and their services are accessed by registering with a GP practice – usually called a surgery or health centre. Patients should be able to see a GP within 48 hours, and practices have systems to try to ensure that urgent problems are dealt with immediately. GPs generally have few diagnostic or treatment facilities themselves, but can use local hospital diagnostic services (X-rays, blood analysis, etc.) and can refer or admit their patients to hospital, where they come under the supervision of a CONSULTANT. GPs can prescribe nearly all available medicines directly to their patients, so that they treat 90 per cent of illnesses without involving specialist or hospital services.

Most GPs work in groups of self-employed individuals, who contract their services to the local Primary Care Trust (PCT) – see below. Those in full partnership are called principals, but an increasing number now work as non-principals – that is, they are employees rather than partners in a practice. Alternatively, they might be salaried employees of a PCT. The average number of patients looked after by a full-time GP is 1,800 and the average duration of consultation about 10 minutes. GPs need to be able to deal with all common medical conditions and be able to recognise conditions that require specialist help, especially those requiring urgent action.

Until the new General Medical Services Contract was introduced in 2004, GPs had to take individual responsibility for providing ‘all necessary medical services’ at all times to their patient list. Now, practices rather than individuals share this responsibility. Moreover, the contract now applies only to the hours between

8.00 a.m. and 6.30 p.m., Mondays to Fridays; out-of-hours primary care has become the responsibility of PCTs. GPs still have an obligation to visit patients at home on weekdays in case of medical need, but home-visiting as a proportion of GP work has declined steadily since the NHS began. By contrast, the amount of time spent attending to preventive care and organisational issues has steadily increased. The 2004 contract for the ?rst time introduced payment for speci?c indicators of good clinical care in a limited range of conditions.

A telephone advice service, NHS Direct, was launched in 2000 to give an opportunity for patients to ‘consult’ a trained nurse who guides the caller on whether the symptoms indicate that self-care, a visit to a GP or a hospital Accident & Emergency department, or an ambulance callout is required. The aim of this service is to give the patient prompt advice and to reduce misuse of the skills of GPs, ambulance sta? and hospital facilities.

Training of GPs Training for NHS general practice after quali?cation and registration as a doctor requires a minimum of two years’ post-registration work in hospital jobs covering a variety of areas, including PAEDIATRICS, OBSTETRICS, care of the elderly and PSYCHIATRY. This is followed by a year or more working as a ‘registrar’ in general practice. This ?nal year exposes registrars to life as a GP, where they start to look after their own patients, while still closely supervised by a GP who has him- or herself been trained in educational techniques. Successful completion of ‘summative assessment’ – regular assessments during training – quali?es registrars to become GPs in their own right, and many newly quali?ed GPs also sit the membership exam set by the Royal College of General Practitioners (see APPENDIX 8: PROFESSIONAL ORGANISATIONS).

A growing number of GP practices o?er educational attachments to medical students. These attachments provide experience of the range of medical and social problems commonly found in the community, while also o?ering them allocated time to learn clinical skills away from the more specialist environment of the hospital.

In addition to teaching commitments, many GPs are also choosing to spend one or two sessions away from their practices each week, doing other kinds of work. Most will work in, for example, at least one of the following: a hospital specialist clinic; a hospice; occupational medicine (see under OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH, MEDICINE AND DISEASES); family-planning clinics; the police or prison services. Some also become involved in medical administration, representative medicopolitics or journalism. To help them keep up to date with advances and changes in medicine, GPs are required to produce personal-development plans that outline any educational activities they have completed or intend to pursue during the forthcoming year.

NHS GPs are allowed to see private patients, though this activity is not widespread (see PRIVATE HEALTH CARE).

Primary Care Trusts (PCTs) Groups of GPs (whether working alone, or in partnership with others) are now obliged by the NHS to link communally with a number of other GPs in the locality, to form Primary Care Trusts (PCTs). Most have a membership of about 30 GPs, working within a de?ned geographical area, in addition to the community nurses and practice counsellors working in the same area; links are also made to local council social services so that health and social needs are addressed together. Some PCTs also run ambulance services.

One of the roles of PCTs is to develop primary-care services that are appropriate to the needs of the local population, while also occupying a powerful position to in?uence the scope and quality of secondary-care services. They are also designed to ensure equity of resources between di?erent GP surgeries, so that all patients living in the locality have access to a high quality and uniform standard of service.

One way in which this is beginning to happen is through the introduction of more overt CLINICAL GOVERNANCE. PCTs devise and help their member practices to conduct CLINICAL AUDIT programmes and also encourage them to participate in prescribing incentive schemes. In return, practices receive payment for this work, and the funds are used to improve the services they o?er their patients.... general practitioner (gp)


(African) From the garden of paradise

Genete, Geneta, Genette, Genett, Genetta... genet


Humans possess around 30,000 genes which are the biological units of heredity. They are arranged along the length of the 23 pairs of CHROMOSOMES and, like the chromosomes, therefore come in pairs (see GENETIC CODE). Human beings have 46 chromosomes, comprising two sex chromosomes and 44 autosomes, but there is also a mitochondrial chromosome outside the cell nucleus (see CELLS) which is inherited from the mother.

Half of a person’s genes come from the father and half from the mother, and this mix determines the o?spring’s characteristics. (A quarter of a person’s genes come from each of the four grandparents.) Genes ful?l their functions by controlling the manufacture of particular proteins in the body. The power that genes have to in?uence the body’s characteristics varies: broadly, some are dominant (more powerful); others are recessive (less powerful) whose functions are overridden by the former. Genes are also liable to change or mutate, giving the potential for the characteristics of individuals or their o?spring to be altered. (See GENETIC CODE; GENETIC DISORDERS; GENE THERAPY; HUMAN GENOME.)... genes


(French) Of the juniper tree Genever, Genevia, Genevra, Genevre, Genovefa, Genoveffa, Genoveva, Ginebra, Gena, Ginevre... geneva


(French) Of the race of women; the white wave

Genavieve, Geneve, Geneveeve, Genevie, Genivee, Genivieve, Gennie, Genny, Genoveva, Genoveva, Genica, Genna, Genae, Genaya, Genowefa, Ginerva, Ginebra, Ginessa, Ginevra... genevieve


(Latin) Resembling the broom plant

Genistah, Geneesta, Ginista, Genysta, Ginysta, Gynysta, Geneasta, Geneista, Geniesta... genista


(Japanese) Of the ruling clan Genji, Genjy, Genjey, Genjee, Genjea... genji

Genmaicha Tea

Genmaicha Tea is a savoury Japanese traditional green tea, having a light yellow colour and a sweet nutty flavour resulting from the combination with roasted brown rice. Originally drunk by poor Japanese people who were unable to purchase a sufficient amount of tea leaves and used it as a filler, Genmaicha Tea is now a beverage consumed by everyone. The legend says that a slave accidentally dropped rice in his samurai master’s tea while it was brewing and he was consequently beheaded. But the master was delighted with the result and named the tea Genmaicha in the honour of the departed worker. Genmaicha Tea brewing In order to brew Genmaicha Tea, it is recommended to use water heated at an 80 to 85 degrees Celsius temperature. The steeping time should not exceed five minutes and is generally resumed at three minutes, but it is often believed that one minute of brewing suffices. Genmaicha Tea can be served both hot and cold without minimizing its unique roasted aroma. Genmaicha Tea Health Benefits Genmaicha Tea provides a wide variety of health benefitsdue to its antioxidant properties, which are completely retained despite the amount of brown rice it contains, which is relatively low. These antioxidants improve the immune system function, lower the risk of cardiovascular disease and prevent cell damage caused by free radicals. Genmaicha Tea has also been proven to improve joint and bone strength and is therefore beneficial and effective for people who suffer from arthritis or rheumatism. Furthermore, Genmaicha Tea is also recommended for people who suffer from diabetes because it considerably increases the activity of insulin and reduces the glucose level in the organism. This particular tea is also extremely effective in the weight loss process - studies show that the consumption of Genmaicha Tea accelerates the burning of fats. It is recommended to drink two or three cups of tea daily. When to drink Genmaicha Tea Genmaicha Tea can be used as a replacement for coffee, but it is best when consumed in the afternoon because it maintains the energy level up, it keeps you alert and relaxed at the same time due to its content of theanine, an amino acid which affects the brain’s neurotransmitters and thus promotes concentration. Genmaicha Tea side effects The possible side effects ofGenmaicha Tea consumption include those related to caffeine intake, such as nausea, stomach upset, nervousness or insomnia. However, Genmaicha Tea brings numerous benefits for the metabolism of tea drinkers, contributing to a balanced lifestyle and enhancing the energy levels.... genmaicha tea

Genito-urinary Tract

This consists of the KIDNEYS, ureters (see URETER), URINARY BLADDER and URETHRA – and, in the male, also the genital organs.... genito-urinary tract


(Hebrew) From the garden of riches... gennesaret

Gentiana Kurroo


Family: Gentianaceae.

Habitat: Kashmir and North-West Himalayas.

English: Himalayan Gentian, Indian Gentian Root.

Ayurvedic: Traayamaana, Traayanti, Traayanta, Traayantikaa, Neelkan- thi, Anujaa, Girijaa, Girishaanujaa, Balbhra, Paalani. (Paakhaanabheda is a wrong synonym)

Unani: Ghaafis.

Action: Sialagogue, digestant, appetite-stimulant, antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory, emmenagogue. Used for alkalosis, feeble digestion in the elderly from gastric acid deficiency (increases gastric juices without altering PH); also used for jaundice, nausea, vomiting, travel sickness, diarrhoea, malaria and nervous exhaustion. (In Chinese medicine, Gentiana sp., known as Longdan, are used for jaundice, hepatitis, urinary tract infections, pruritis and eczema.)

Key application: Gentiana lutea— internally, for digestive disorders, such as lack of appetite, fullness and flatulence (German Commission E, WHO), for anorexia following illness and dyspepsia (ESCOP). The British Herbal Compendium approves gentian for lack of appetite, anorexia, atonic dyspepsia, gastrointestinal atony, and as antiemetic. The British Herbal Pharmacopoia recognizes it as a bitter tonic.

The rhizome and roots of G. Kur- roo contain iridoid glycoside; major component was identified as 6'- cinnamoylcatalpol.

The rhizomes and roots of Picro- rhiza kurrooa Royle ex Benth., found in the Himalayas, have similar properties and uses and are mixed or substituted for those of G. kurroo.

Gentiana lutea (Yellow Gentian) is a native of Europe and Asia Minor and is imported into India. The most important constituents of the drug are secoiridoid bitter compounds, amaro- gentin and gentiopicroside, together with traces of swertiamarin and sweroside. The roots also contain alkaloids, gentianine and gentioflavine, xanthones, and bitter oligosaccharides, gentiobiose and gentianose.

Amarogentin, gentiopicrin, swer- tiamarin, sioeroside (iridoid monoter- penes) are toxic constituents.

Gentiana tenella Rottb., synonym Gentianella tenella H. Smith and G. decumbens Linn.f. occur at high altitudes in the Himalayas, and are used as substitutes for gentian. G. tenella is known as Kadu in Kashmir and Titaa in Punjab. The rhizome is used as Traayamaana in Ayurvedic medicine.

The flowering tops of G. olivieri Griseb., synonym G. dahurica Fisch., used in Unani medicine as Gul-e- Ghaafis, are imported into India from Persia.

Dosage: Root—1-3 g powder. (CCRAS.)... gentiana kurroo


(English) Woman with a high social standing

Gentri, Gentrey, Gentrie, Gentree, Gentrea, Gentreah... gentry

Geophila Repens

(Linn.) I. M. Johnson.

Synonym: G. reniformis D. Don.

Family: Rubiaceae.

Habitat: Assam, Western Ghats and Andaman Islands.

Folk: Karintakaali (Kerala).

Action: Properties are similar (though inferior) to those of Ipeac (Cephaelis ipecacuanha A. Rich.).... geophila repens


(Greek) From the state of Georgia; feminine form of George; one who works the earth; a farmer Georgeann, Georgeanne, Georgina, Georgena, Georgene, Georgetta, Georgette, Georgiana, Georgianna, Georgianne, Georgie, Georgienne, Georginah, Georgine, Georgyann, Georgyanne, Georgyana, Giorgia, Giorgina, Giorgyna, Georgitte, Georgeina, Georgejean, Georjette, Gigi, Geegee... georgia


(German) Feminine form of Gerald; one who rules with the spear Geralda, Geraldeen, Geraldene, Geraldina, Geralyn, Geralynn, Geralynne, Gerdene, Gerdine, Geri, Gerianna, Gerianne, Gerilynn, Gerri, Gerrilyn, Gerroldine, Gerry, Giralda, Gerica, Gericka, Gerika, Girelda, Geraldeane, Geraldeana... geraldine

Geranium Nepalense


Synonym: G. affine W. & A.

Family: Geraniaceae.

Habitat: Temperate Himalayas, Kashmir, Khasi Hills and the Nilgiris.

English: Nepal Geranium, Nepalese Crane's Bill.

Ayurvedic: Bhanda, Bhandaa.

Folk: Ratanjot (var.), Roel (Kashmir).

Action: Astringent, styptic, used in renal diseases, diarrhoea, internal and external bleeding. Also used topically for ulcers and haemorrhoids.

The plant gave geraniin, kaempferol- 7-rhamnoside and kaempferitrin. The leaves gave tannins.

EtOH (50%) extract of the plant exhibited hypotensive activity.

A gastrointestinal-contracting cho- line-like substance has been isolated from var. thumbergii and is found useful for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders such as gastroptosis.... geranium nepalense

Geranium Robertianum


Family: Geraniaceae.

Habitat: Western Himalayas from Kashmir to Garhwal at 2,0002,700 m.

English: Herb-Robert Geranium.

Action: Haemostatic, astringent, antidiarrhoeic, styptic, antidiabetic.

The herb has a disagreeable odour and a bitter, saline and astringent taste. Applied externally as a resolvent to tumours.

In Western herbal, the herb is used for diarrhoea, to improve functioning of liver and gallbladder and to prevent the formation of calculi.

The herb contains several flavonoids including rutin. A ethanolic extract can inhibit the growth of E. coli, P. aeruginosa and S. aureus.... geranium robertianum

Geranium Wallichianum

D. Don ex Sweet.

Family: Geraniaceae.

Habitat: Western Himalayas from Kashmir to Kumaon at 2,3503,700 m.

English: Wallich Crane's Bill.

Ayurvedic: Ratanjot (substitute).

Folk: Laal Jadi, Laal Jahri. Kaoashund (Kashmir).

Action: Astringent.

The root stocks sometimes substituted for those of Coptis teeta Wall.; contain 25-32% tannins and 18% nontannins.... geranium wallichianum


(English) Feminine form of Gerard; one who is mighty with a spear Gerarda, Gerardina, Gerardyne, Gererdina, Gerardyna, Gerrardene, Gerhardina, Gerhardine, Gerhardyna, Gerhardyne, Gerwalt, Gerwalta, Gerardeane, Gerardeana... gerardine


(Scandinavian) One who is guarded; protected

Gerde, Gerda, Gerdie, Gerdi, Gerdy, Gerdey, Gerdee, Garda, Geerda, Gjerta, Gerdea, Gerdeah... gerd

Geriatric Assessment

Multidimensional, interdisciplinary, diagnostic process used to quantify an older individual’s medical, psychosocial and functional capabilities and problems, with the intention of arriving at a comprehensive plan for therapy and long-term follow-up.... geriatric assessment

Geriatric Assessment Team

See “aged care assessment team”.... geriatric assessment team

Geriatric Care

Care of older persons that encompasses a wide range of treatments from intensive care to palliative care.... geriatric care

Geriatric Centre

A facility specializing in services for older persons which include acute care, geriatric assessment, rehabilitation, medical and nursing services, therapy services and residential care.... geriatric centre


(Hebrew) From the mountains Gerizima, Gerizime, Gerizimia, Gerizimea, Gerizym, Gerizyme, Gerizyma, Gerizymea, Gerizymia... gerizim


(Latin) Feminine form of Germain; one who is sisterly; woman from Germany

Germana, Germane, Germayn, Germayne, Germanna, Germaina, Germayna, Germaene, Germaena... germaine


See MICROBIOLOGY.... germs


(Scandinavian) As precious as a jewel

Gersemie, Gersemy, Gersemey, Gersemee, Gersemea, Gersemeah... gersemi


(German) One who is strong with a spear

Geertruide, Geltruda, Geltrudis, Gert, Gerta, Gerte, Gertie, Gertina, Gertraud, Gertrud, Gertruda, Gertrudis, Gerty, Gertraude, Gertmda, Gertrudes, Gertrut, Gertea, Gerteah... gertrude


(Hebrew) Form of Jerusha, meaning “a faithful wife” Gerushah, Geruscha, Garusha, Garuscha... gerusha


(Hebrew) From the bridge Geshura, Geshure, Geshuria, Geshurea, Geshuri, Geshurie, Geshuree, Geshurea, Geshureah, Geshury, Geshurey... geshur


(English) Form of Jessica, meaning “the Lord sees all”

Gess, Gessa, Gessaca, Gessaka, Gessalin, Gessalyn, Gesse, Gesseca, Gessey, Gessie, Gessika, Gesirae, Geslyn, Gessika, Gessicka, Geziree, Gessalynn, Gessamae, Gessana, Gessandra, Gesselyn, Gezeree, Gessi, Gessilyn, Gessina, Gesslyn, Gesslynn, Gessy, Gessye, Gesimae... gessica


(Hebrew) Worker of the oil press

Gethsemanie, Gethsemana, Gethsemani, Gethsemaney, Gethsemany, Gethsemanee, Gethsemanea... gethsemane

Geum Urbanum

auct. non Linn.

Family: Rosaceae.

Habitat: The temperate Himalayas from Kashmir to Kumaon at 3,0003,700 m Grows wild in Europe and Great Britain.

English: Avens Root, Herb Bennet, Wood Avens.

Action: Astringent, styptic, stomachic, febrifuge.

The herb and root was used in Europe in chronic dysentery, diarrhoea and intermittent fevers. In India, an infusion of the rootstock is used as sudorific in fevers, ague, chills and catarrh.

Eugenol is present in the root stock in combination with vacianose as phenolic glycoside gein. The rootstock contains tannins (30-40%).

A related species, G. elatum Wall., is found in the Himalayas from Kashmir to Sikkim It is used for dysentery and diarrhoea.... geum urbanum


(Hebrew) From the farm Gevah, Gevia, Gevea, Geviah, Geveah... geva


(Hebrew) A highborn daughter Gevirah, Gevyra, Gevyrah, Geveera, Geveerah, Geviera, Gevierah, Geveira, Geveirah, Geveara, Gevearah... gevira


(Spanish) Refers to the doctrine of Incarnation

Gezanah, Gezanna, Gezania, Gezanea, Gezane, Gizana, Gizane, Gizania, Gizanea... gezana


(Hebrew) From the cliffs Gezera, Gezeria, Gezerea, Gezerah, Gezere... gezer


(Arabic) A beautiful young girl Ghadah, Ghadda, Ghaddah, Ghayda, Ghaydah... ghada


(Arabic) One who smells sweet Ghaliyah, Ghaleeya, Ghaleeyah, Ghaleya, Ghaleyah, Ghaleaya, Ghaleayah... ghaliya


(African) One who is precious Ghalyelah, Ghalyella, Ghalyele, Ghalyelle... ghalyela


(Arabic) As graceful as a gazelle Ghazalah, Ghazalla, Ghazaala, Ghazalia, Ghazalea, Ghazallah, Ghazaliah, Ghazaleah... ghazala


(French) Born of the sweet oath Ghislayne, Ghislane, Ghislaina, Ghislayna, Ghislana, Gislaine, Gislayne, Gislane, Guilaine, Guiliaine... ghislaine


(Italian) Resembling a pearl Ghitah, Gheeta, Ghyta, Gheata, Gheita, Ghieta... ghita


(Arabic) Of the trees’ branches Ghusune, Ghusoon, Ghusoone... ghusun


(Italian) Resembling the hyacinth Giacynta, Giacenta, Gacenta, Gacynta, Gacinta, Giacintha, Giacyntha, Giancinta, Giancinte, Gyacinta, Gyacenta, Gyacynta... giacinta


(Italian) Feminine form of John; God is gracious

Geonna, Gia, Giana, Ginara, Gianina, Gianella, Giannina, Gionna, Gianetta, Giannine, Ginetta, Ginette, Ginnette, Gianara, Geona, Geovana... gianna

Giardia Duodenalis

An intestinal flagellate protozoa of humans and other animals causing giardiasis which mayoften present as a long-lasting, chronic malabsorptive diarrhoea. Syn. include G. intestinalis and G. lamblia.... giardia duodenalis


(Hebrew) From the high house Gibbethona, Gibbethonia, Gibbethonea, Gibbethone... gibbethon


(Hebrew) From the hill town Gibea, Gibia, Gibiah, Gibeon, Gibeona, Gibeonea, Gibeonia, Gibeoneah, Gibiya, Gibiyah... gibeah


(Hebrew) Of the stream or river Gihona, Gihonah, Gihonia, Gihonea, Gihoniah, Gihoneah... gihon


(Hebrew) One who is forever joyous Gilah, Gilia, Gili, Gilala, Gilal, Gilana, Gilat, Gilit, Geela, Geelah, Gilla, Gillah... gila


(German) Feminine form of Gilbert; of the bright pledge; a hostage Gilbertha, Gilberthe, Gilbertina, Gilbertine, Gill, Gillie, Gilly, Gilberte, Gilbertyna, Gilbertyne, Gilberteena, Gilberteene, Gilbarta, Gilbarte, Gilen, Gijs... gilberta


(Hebrew) From the boiling springs Gilboah, Gylboa, Gylboah... gilboa


(English) The golden child Gildah, Gilde, Gildie, Gildy, Gildi, Gildey, Gildee, Gildan, Gildana, Gildane, Gylda, Gyldan, Gildea, Gildeah... gilda


(Celtic) A woman in the service of the Lord Gildes, Gildys... gildas


(Hebrew) From the mountain of testimony... gilead

Gilles De La Tourette’s Syndrome

Also known as Tourette’s syndrome, this is a hereditary condition of severe and multiple tics (see TIC) of motor or vocal origin. It usually starts in childhood and becomes chronic (with remissions). With a prevalance of one in 2,000, a dominant gene (see GENES) with variable expression may be responsible. The disorder is associated with explosive vocal tics and grunts, occasionally obscene (see COPROLALIA). The patient may also involuntarily repeat the words or imitate the actions of others (see PALILALIA). HALOPERIDOL, pimozide (an oral antipsychotic drug similar to CHLORPROMAZINE hydrochloride) and clonidine are among drugs that may help to control this distressing, but fortunately rare, disorder.... gilles de la tourette’s syndrome


(Latin) One who is youthful Ghilian, Ghiliane, Ghillian, Gilian, Giliana, Gillan, Gillianna, Gillianne, Gillyanne, Gillien, Gillienne, Gillot... gillian


(African) Daughter born to royalty; a princess

Gimbyah, Gimbiya, Gimbeya, Gimbaya, Gimbiyah, Gimbayah, Gimbeyah... gimbya


(Norse) From the most beautiful place on earth

Gimli, Gimlie, Gimly, Gimley, Gimlee, Gimleigh, Gimlea, Gimleah, Gymle, Gymli, Gymlie, Gymleigh, Gymley, Gymly, Gymlee, Gymlea... gimle


(Hebrew) From the valley of sycamores... gimzo


(Italian / English) A silvery woman / form of Eugenia, meaning “a wellborn woman”; form of Jean, meaning “God is gracious”

Geana, Geanndra, Geena, Geina, Gena, Genalyn, Geneene, Genelle, Genette, Ginamaria, Gineen, Ginelle, Ginette, Gin... gina


(Italian) As delicate as a flower Ginatah, Ginatta, Ginatia, Ginatea, Ginatiah, Ginateah... ginata

Ginger Tea

Ginger is an energizer and a stimulator. Drinking ginger tea both stimulates and soothes the digestive system. Ginger has been known to aid people experiencing nausea. Arthritic people have found ginger tea helpful since it has anti-inflammatory properties.... ginger tea


(Norse) In mythology, the abyss that gave birth to all living things... ginnungagap


(English) Form of Virginia, meaning “one who is chaste; virginal” Ginnee, Ginnelle, Ginnette, Ginnie, Ginnilee, Ginna, Ginney, Ginni, Ginnea... ginny


Love, Wishes, Healing, Beauty, Protection, Lust... ginseng


(Italian) A delightful daughter Gyoconda, Geoconda... gioconda


(Italian) One who brings joy Gioya... gioia

Ginger, Wild

Asarum canadense. N.O. Aristolochiaceae.

Synonym: Canadian Snake Root.

Habitat: Woods and shady places in North America.

Features ? Imported rhizome, slender, about four inches long by one-eighth inch thick, quadrangular, greyish to purplish brown, wrinkled ; fracture short; rootlets whitish. Pungent, bitter taste.

Part used ? Rhizome.

Action: Stimulant, carminative, expectorant, diaphoretic.

As a carminative in digestive and intestinal pains, and as a stimulant in colds and amenorrhea resulting therefrom. An infusion of 1/2 ounce of the powdered rhizome to 1 pint boiling water is taken hot for stimulative purposes, and blood warm as a carminative. Dose of the dry powder, 20 to 30 grains.

Practitioners of the American Physio-Medical School hold that this root exerts a direct influence upon the uterus, and prescribe it as a parturient when nervous fatigue is observed.... ginger, wild


(Italian) Resembling the bird of


Gionah, Gionna, Gyona, Gyonna, Gionnah, Gyonah, Gyonnah... giona


(Italian) Feminine form of Jordan; of the down-flowing river Giordanah, Giordanna, Giordannah... giordana


(Italian) Feminine form of John; God is gracious

Geovana, Geovanna, Giavanna, Giovana, Giovani, Giovanni, Giovanie, Giovanee, Giovaney, Giovany, Giovanea... giovanna

Girardinia Heterophylla


Synonym: G. diversifolia (Link) Eriss.

Family: Urticaceae.

Habitat: Temperate and sub-tropical Himalayas from Kashmir to Sikkim, and in Assam and Khasi hills.

English: Himalayan Nettle.

Ayurvedic: Vrishchikaa.

Folk: Bichhuu-booti, Awaa, Chikri.

Action: Leaves—decoction is given in fevers; applied externally to swollen joints, also as a paste for headache. (Due to stringing hair, the plant causes dermatitis and is known as Bichhuu.)

The leaves contain 5-OH-trypta- mine and histamine, also AC-choline.

The plant gave beta-sitosterol.... girardinia heterophylla


(French) Of God’s promise; a hostage

Ghisele, Ghisella, Gisela, Giselda, Gisele, Gisella, Giza, Gizela, Gizella, Gizelle, Gisel, Gisilberhta, Gisselle, Gisli, Gizi, Gizike, Gizus... giselle


(Hindi / Hebrew) A beautiful song / a good woman

Gitah, Geeta, Geetah, Gitika, Gatha, Gayatri, Gitel, Gittel, Gutka... gita


(Spanish) A gypsy woman Gitanah, Gitanna, Gitannah, Gitane... gitana


(Indian) An offering of songs Gitanjalie, Gytanjaly, Gitanjalee, Gytanjalee, Gitanjaly, Gytanjaly, Gitanjaley, Gytanjaley, Gitanjalea, Gytanjalea... gitanjali


(Anglo-Saxon) A gift from God Githah... githa


(Gaelic) From of Bridgette, meaning “a strong and protective woman” Gittah, Gitte, Gitteh... gitta


(Hebrew) One who works the wine press

Gitaim, Gittaima, Gittaym, Gittayma, Gitaym, Gittaem, Gittaema, Gitaem... gittaim


(Italian) Form of Judith, meaning “woman from Judea” Giudytta, Guidita, Guidyta, Guiditta... giuditta


(Italian) Form of Julia, meaning “one who is youthful; daughter of the sky” Giula, Giuliana, Giulietta, Giullia, Guilia, Guilie... giulia

Ginseng Tea

Used for centuries in Asian medicine as a cure for almost anything, nowadays Ginseng tea is consumed around the world due to its important health benefits. Read more about its origin, various types, benefits and side effects.

More about Ginseng tea

Ginseng is an herbaceous perennial plant with fleshy roots that grows in the forest and is native to parts of Asia and North America. Nowadays there are many types of Ginseng, cultivated in various parts of the world. However, there are two main types of Ginseng : Oriental ginseng and American ginseng. Ginseng tea is made from the juicy roots of the plant. Sometimes, the leaves can also be used but they are less important than the root. The root contains most of the essential nutrients. Ginseng root can be used in two ways : fresh or dried. You can buy it as a whole, sliced, powder like or directly as teabags. Ginseng tea has a reputation of being a strong aphrodisiac, especially for men. Included in teas or in other medicines, it is often used to treat ejaculation problems. The tea is considered as an overall tonic for the whole body enhancing vitality. The taste of Ginseng tea is very particular. Many people think it can be a sharp, earthy with a strong aftertaste. However, for people with an acidic condition, it can taste very bitter indeed.

How to brew Ginseng tea

If we refer to the drink, you should know that one cup of ginseng tea is equivalent to one tea bag, one teaspoon of ginseng tea cut, two to three grams of ginseng, or five to eight slices of ginseng. Add the necessary amount of ginseng to a cup of hot water. Let it infuse for four to five minutes. You can leave it longer as well, but you should know that the longer you allow the ginseng to stay in the water, you will get a stronger tea. For a better taste, you may also add honey or other natural sweeteners like for example citrus fruits or even mix together with other types of teas. Later on, you can also reuse the slices or the tea bag that you used previously for one or two extra cups of ginseng tea. If you drink ginseng tea for the first time, it is advisable to prepare the ginseng tea initially for no more than five minutes. Give yourself time to get familiar with its taste at first. Alternatively, you can boil three cups of water, add eight to ten ginseng slices then let them boil for fifteen to twenty minutes. Drain the tea and let it cool. The ginseng tea can be served warm or cold as an iced ginseng tea. Store the tea in the refrigerator. For best results, ginseng tea should be consumed in cycles, such as three weeks on and one week off. Ginseng tea should not be drunk for more than three months at a time.

Health Benefits of Ginseng tea

Ginseng tea has traditionally been seen as a “cure-all” for many types of ailments. This tea has many health benefits like:
  • Boosting the appetite
  • Improving the digestion
  • Aiding in respiration
  • Rejuvenating the body
  • Reducing physical and mental stress
  • Enhancing sexual virility and libido especially for men
  • Reducing the symptoms of arthritis and asthma
  • Lessening the effects of diabetes, Crohn’s disease and TMJ syndrome
  • Counteracting headaches and diarrhea
  • Strengthening the immune system
  • Fighting the fatigue
  • Reducing bad cholesterol
  • Boosting blood circulation

Side Effects of Ginseng tea

The side effects of ginseng tea have always been disputed. It may react with some medications or pre-existing conditions. Avoid drinking this type of tea during pregnancy or nursing, and do not take it for longer than three months in a row. Ginseng tea should not be taken with other herbs which stimulates the nervous system or with oral diabetes medications. Ginseng tea should be avoided by those with psychological conditions. People suffering for hypertension, or high blood pressure or those who are taking other stimulants should consult their physician before drinking ginseng tea. Ginseng tea is not suitable for children. Although sometimes the side effects of the ginseng tea are still a subject of debate, if you take into consideration the precautions, drinking it from time to time will surely have a tonic effect on your body as it proved its qualities along the centuries. Drink it during breakfast to boost up your day.... ginseng tea

Gironniera Reticulata


Synonym: G. cuspidata Kurz.

Family: Ulmaceae.

Habitat: Northeastern parts of India and in Deccan Peninsula.

Siddha/Tamil: Kodaittani.

Folk: Narakyaa-ood (Maharashtra, Indian bazar).

Action: Blood-purifier in itch and cutaneous eruptions; mixed with lemon juice, applied externally.

The wood contains a skatole and silica (0.86-1.2%).

Family: Aizoaceae.

Habitat: Drier parts of Northern and Western India and Deccan Peninsula.

Ayurvedic: Elavaaluka (var.). (Prunus cerasus Linn., Rosaceae, is the accepted source of Elavaaluka.)

Folk: Baalu-ka-saag, Morang, Sareli.

Action: Anthelmintic. Fresh herb is used for taenia.

The plant contains triacontane, do- triacontane, myristone, sugars, and flavonoids.... gironniera reticulata


(Italian) Feminine form of Justin; one who is just and fair Giustina, Giustyna, Giustinea, Giusteena, Giustiniah, Giustineah... giustinia


(Turkish) A mysterious woman Gizim, Gizam, Gizym, Gizema, Gizima, Gizyma, Gizama... gizem


(Norse) In mythology, a frost giantess... gjalp


(English) From the meadow in the woods

Glayd, Glayde, Glaid, Glaide, Glaed, Glaede... glade


(Welsh) Form of Claudia, meaning “one who is lame”

Gladdis, Gladdys, Gladi, Gladis, Gladyss, Gwladys, Gwyladyss, Gleda, Glad, Gladdie, Gladdy, Gladdi, Gladdey, Gladdea, Gladdee... gladys


(Welsh) As precious as jewel Glaine, Glaina, Glayne, Glayna, Glaen, Glayn, Glaene, Glaena... glain


(Welsh) From the seashore Glann... glan


(Greek) In mythology, a woman murdered by Medea... glauce


(Welsh) One who is good and fair Glinda, Glynda, Glennda, Glynae... glenda


(Gaelic) From the valley between the hills

Gleana, Gleneen, Glenene, Glenine, Glen, Glenn, Glenne, Glennene, Glennette, Glennie, Glyn, Glynn, Glynna, Ghleanna... glenna


The term applied to the shallow socket on the shoulder-blade into which the HUMERUS ?ts, forming the shoulder-joint.... glenoid


(Welsh) A holy woman Glenice, Glenis, Glennice, Glennis, Glennys... glenys


A type of brain tumour arising from tissue. It grows rapidly, destroying brain cells and causing a progressive loss of brain function. The patient suffers from headache as a result of raised cranial pressure, eventually vomiting regularly and becoming increasingly drowsy. The prognosis is poor and palliative treatment is required as surgical removal, radiotherapy and chemotherapy are not e?ective.... gliobastoma


See SULPHONYLUREAS.... gliquidone

Global Budgeting

A limit on total health care spending for a given unit of population, taking into account all sources of funds.... global budgeting

Glinus Lotoides


Synonym: Mollugo lotoides (L.) O. Kuntze. M hirta Thumb.

Family: Molluginaceae; Aizoaceae.

Habitat: Throughout the plains and lower ghats of India in river beds.

Siddha/Tamil: Siru seruppadai. Folk: Gandhi-buuti.

Action: Plant—antidiarrhoeal, antibilious, diuretic. Decoction is given in piles.

The plant gave pentacyclic triterpe- noid sapogenins; a mixture ofbeta-and gamma-sitosterol, oleanolic acid, mol- lugogenol and its constituents. Aerial parts gave vitexin and vicenin.... glinus lotoides

Glomerular Filtration Rate (gfr)

Each of the two KIDNEYS ?lters a large volume of blood – 25 per cent of cardiac output, or around 1,300 ml – through its two million glomeruli (see GLOMERULUS) every minute. The glomeruli ?lter out cell, protein, and fat-free ?uid which, after reabsorption of certain chemicals, is excreted as urine. The rate of this ultra?ltration process, which in health is remarkably constant, is called the glomerular ?ltration rate (GFR). Each day nearly 180 litres of water plus some small molecular-weight constituents of blood are ?ltrated. The GFR is thus an indicator of kidney function. The most widely used measurement is CREATININE clearance and this is assessed by measuring the amount of creatinine in a 24-hour sample of urine and the amount of creatinine in the plasma; a formula is applied that gives the GFR.... glomerular filtration rate (gfr)


See KIDNEYS, DISEASES OF.... glomerulitis


(Latin) A renowned and highly praised woman

Glaura, Glaurea, Glora, Glorea, Gloree, Glorey, Gloreya, Glori, Gloriana, Gloriane, Glorianna, Glorianne, Gloribel, Gloribell, Glorie, Glorra, Glorria, Glory, Glorya, Gloryan, Gloryanna, Gloryanne, Gloriann, Gloriosa... gloria

Gloriosa Superba


Habitat: Throughout tropical India, up to 2,350 m on the hills.

English: Glory Lily, Super Lily, Tiger's Claws.

Ayurvedic: Laangali, Laangaliki, Laangalaki, Laanglaahva, Indra- pushpi, Agnishikhaa, Anantaa, Vishaalyaa, Halini, Sirikramaa, Shukrapushpikaa, Vahnimukhi, Garbhanut, Garbhapaatani. Kali- haari (Costus specious Koen., is also used as Kalihaari), Kalikaari.

Siddha/Tamil: Kalappankizhangu.

Action: Tuberous root—anti- inflammatory, alterative, an- thelmintic, antileprotic. Used for piles, swollen joints, parasitical affections of skin. Fresh juice of plant—uterine stimulant.

The root contain colchicine 0.230.3%. Colchicine and its derivatives are present in tubers, seeds and flowers.

The seeds are used as raw material for preparing drugs for gout. They are considered a rich source of colchicine and gloriosine.

The herb is a gastrointestinal irritant.

Dosage: Detoxified tuberous root— 125-250 mg. (API Vol. III.)... gloriosa superba

Glossocardia Bosvallia


Synonym: G. linearifolia Cass.

Family: Compositae; Asteraceae.

Habitat: Plains of Northern and Western India and Deccan Peninsula.

Ayurvedic: Parpata (substitute). (Fumaria parvifolora Linn., Hedyotis corymbosa (L.) Lam synonym Oldenlandia corymbosa Linn., Mollugo cerviana (L.) Ser., Justicia procumbens Linn., Polycarpea corymbosa Lam are also used as Parpata for fevers.)

Siddha: Parapalanamu.

Action: Used as emmenagogue.

The essential oil from the plant is antimicrobial, that from flowers an- thelmintic.... glossocardia bosvallia


The glossopharyngeal nerve is the ninth cranial nerve, which in the main is a SENSORY nerve, being the nerve of taste in the posterior third of the tongue and the nerve of general sensation for the whole upper part of the throat and middle ear. It also supplies the PAROTID GLAND and one of the muscles on the side of the throat.... glossopharyngeal

Glucose-6-phosphate Dehydrogenase

An ENZYME that performs an essential function in the metabolism of CARBOHYDRATE. A de?ciency in this enzyme – acronym G6PD – results in the breakdown of ERYTHROCYTES (HAEMOLYSIS), usually in the presence of oxidants (see OXIDANT) such as infections or drugs. The de?ciency disorder is a hereditary condition in which the enzyme is absent. The condition, characterised by pallor, rigors and pain in the loin, is divided into African, European (including FAVISM) and Oriental types. Sufferers should avoid substances that trigger haemolysis. Acute episodes are best treated symptomatically.... glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase

Glory Lily

Gloriosa superba


San: Langali, Visalya, Agnishika,Shakrapushpi, Garbhaghatini

Hin: Kalihari

Mal: Menthonni

Tam: Akkinichilam

Pan: Kariari

Guj: Dudhiya vachnag

Kan: Nangulika Mar: Nagakaria

Ben: Bishalanguli Ori: Dangogahana

Tel: Adavinabhi

Importance: Glory lily is a glabrous herbaceous climber which yields different types of troplone alkaloids of medicinal importance. The major alkaloids are colchicine , 3-demethyl colchicine and colchicoside. There is another alkaloid gloriosine which promises to be even more effective than colchicine in plant breeding for inducing polyploidy. The genus has importance in the ornamental horticulture due to its bright flowers and wiry climbing stem.

The roots and rhizomes are used in traditional system of medicine. Its abortifacient and antipyretic properties have been mentioned in ancient classics “Charaka”. The name Garbhaghatini is due to this abortifacient activity. They are useful in the treatment of inflammations, ulcers, scrofula, hemorrhoids, pruritus, dyspepsia, helminthiasis, flatulence, intermittent fevers and debility. The root is given internally as an effective antidote against cobra poison. A paste of the root is also used as an anodyne; applications in bites of poisonous insects, snake bites, scorpion sting, parasitic skin diseases and leprosy (Nadkarni,1954; Chaudhuri and Thakur; 1994).

Distribution: The plant is distributed throughout tropical India upto an altitude of 2500m and in Andaman islands. It is also cultivated in tropical and South Africa, Madagaskar, Indonesia and Malasia. It is reported to be cultivated in some parts of Europe. In India it was cultivated in RRL, Jammu in 1960s. Recently it was taken up by Indian Council of Agricultural Research(ICAR). Cultivation of the plant is mostly confined to the Southern states of India besides its collection from wild sources.

Botany: Gloriosa superba Linn. belongs to Liliaceae family. It is a glabrous climbing herb with tuberous root stock grows over hedges and small trees. Stem is 6m long which grows to a height of 1.2-1.5m before the stem branches. Leaves are simple, alternate or whorled, sessile, ovate-lanceolate, 17x4.5cm, tip elongating into a spirally coiled tendril, base cordate and margin entire. Flowers are large in terminal racemes; perianth segments 6, linear, flexuosus and deflexed, basal half bright yellow, upper half red; stamens 6; ovary glabrous, 3-celled. Fruits are capsules, linear-oblong, upto 6.8cm long, 3 equal lobes, one or two lobes shorter in malformed fruits; green dried to pale and then black colour, dehisced into three sections. Seeds are oval in shape, testa spongy, embryo cylindric, 30-150 seeds per capsule, pale orange attached to the sutures. Tubers are cylindric, large, simple, ‘V’ shaped with the two limps equal or unequal in lenth pointed towards end brownish externally and yellowish internally. (Narain, 1977)

Agrotechnology: This is a rainy season plant and sprouts well in warm, humid and tropical conditions. It should be grown in sun as the plants in shade become weedy and thin and move towards light. G. superba is a shallow rooted plant and grows well in a variety of soils either clay or sand through out India. It grows well in a light porous soil with good drainage. For vigorous growth, greater blooms and strong tuber, a mixture of soil, sand and compost manure is recommended. The propagation is mainly by tubers, by division of rhizomes. Seeds remain dormant for 6-9 months and due to hard seed coat, about 20-30 days are required for germination and seeds may take 3-4 years before it matures to flower. Treatment of seeds by gibberellin(1-3 ppm) resulted in higher yield of colchicine in the plant and higher production of tubers. In tissue culture, young sprouts are cultured on Murashige and Skoog’s medium (Msb) supplemented with kinetin (1-4 mg/l). Direct regeneration of the explants are obtained.

The seeds and rhizomes are sown usually in the last week of June to mid July. The rhizomes are planted by splitting carefully into two from their ‘V’ shaped joints (two buds being at the extreme end of each rhizome) in lines 20cm apart at a distance of 20cm (while seeds are sown in lines at a distance of 4-6cm apart). They are watered regularly when the plants are growing. After green shoots appear 2-3 showers are weekly. The irradiation of the plant at 42% natural sunlight intensity increased the production of tuber and colchicine. They usually takes 6-10 weeks to flower after sprouting and then set on fruits. The fruits ripen at the end of October and after that aerial shoot eventually dies, leaving the fleshy tubers underground. The tubers are dug out with great care. An individual plant produces 50g tubers on an average. The average yield is approximately 4000-5000kg of rhizomes and 1000 kg of seed per hectare. The content of colchicine is usually 0.358% and 1.013% in tubers and seeds, respectively.

Post harvest technology: Lixivation of the material is done with 70% ethyl alcohol. Concentrated under vacuum to one third of its volume and extracted with chloroform for colchicine and related substances-concentration of the aqueous phase to syrup which is extracted 6-8 times with a mixture of CHCl3 - alcohol (4:1) to yield colchicoside.

Properties and activity: The flowers, leaves and tubers contain colchicine, superbin, N-formyl deacetyl colchicine, demethyl colochicine and lumicolchicine. Tubers also contain gloriosine. Leaves in addition, contain chelidonic acid, 2-hydroxy 6-methoxy benzoic acid and -sitosterol glucoside. Colchicine, demethyl colchicine and colchicoside have been reported from seeds. Rhizome is oxytocic, anticancerous, antimalarial, stomachic, purgative, cholagogue, anthelmintic, alterative, febrifuge and antileprotic. Leaf is antiasthmatic and antiinflammatory. Root shows antigonorrhoeic and antibiotic activity. This plant has poisonous effect to enviroment and livestock. The toxic properties are due to presence of alkaloids chiefly colchicine (Clewer et al, 1915).... glory lily

Glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase (g6pd) Deficiency

A deficiency in the enzyme G6PD resulting in a haemolytic anaemia. This haemoglobinopathy contraindicates the use of the 4-aminoquinolines such as primaquine for the radical treatment of benign tertian and ovale tertian malaria.... glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase (g6pd) deficiency

Glue Sniffing

See SOLVENT ABUSE.... glue sniffing


An amino acid (see AMINO ACIDS) which, along with aspartate, is a major excitatory chemical neurotransmitter – method of communication between neurones (see NEURON(E)) – in the central nervous system. The two amino acids are found in the cortex and cerebellum of the BRAIN and in the SPINAL CORD.... glutamate


The region of the buttock and the structures situated in it, such as the gluteal muscles (see GLUTEUS), arteries, and nerves.... gluteal

Glycine Max


Synonym: G. soja Sieb. & Zucc. G. hispida Maxim.

Family: Papilionaceae; Fabaceae.

Habitat: Native to South East Asia; now cultivated as pulse crop mainly in Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Naga Hills, Mainpur and Kashmir.

English: Soybean, Soya.

Folk: Soyabean, Raam Kurthi, Bhat.

Action: Used as a protein supplement. (Products include fortified wheat flour, soymilk, snack foods, cooking oil.)

Key application: Soy lecithin (phos- pholipids extracted from the seeds of G. max)—used for moderate disturbances of fat metabolism, especially hypercholesterolaemic (if dietary measures are not sufficient). (German Commission E.)

Soybean is rich in protein, oil and minerals, but low in carbohydrates. It also contains water-and fat-soluble vitamins. The major portion of soy protein is composed of glycinin and beta- conglycinin.

Wheat flour can be fortified with full-fat or defatted soyflour for balancing it in essential amino acids, lysine and methionine.

Soy saponins are divided into three groups according to their respective type of aglycon, soyasapogenol A, B and E. Saponin A and AB group fraction protects the liver against antioxi- dation and improved lipid metabolism in the injured liver.

Administration of a small peptide derived from soybean showed antifatigue, antiobesity and hypoglycaemic activity in mice.

Feeding soy protein to hamsters, consistently, resulted in significantly reduced incidence of gallstones.

In studies of experimental carcino- genesis in animals, soybean isoflavones exhibited protective effect in 65% animals.... glycine max


A pre?x meaning of the nature of, or containing, sugar.... glyco


Compounds comprising a PROTEIN and a CARBOHYDRATE, such as mucins, mucoid and amyloid.... glycoproteins

Glycosmis Pentaphylla

(Retz.) DC.

Synonym: G. arborea (Roxb.) A. DC.

G. cochinchinensis Gamble. Limonia pentaphylla Retz.

Family: Rutaceae.

Habitat: Peninsular India and Andaman Islands. Cultivated in gardens.

Ayurvedic: Vana-nimbuukaa, Ashwa-shaakhota.

Siddha/Tamil: Konji, Amam, Kula-pannai.

Folk: Bana-Nimbu, Paanal (Kerala).

Action: Plant—bechic, anti- anaemic, antirheumatic. Root— anti-inflammatory. Leaf—used in Jaundice and liver disorders, eczema and other skin affections. Leaf and root—vermifuge, febrifuge. A paste of the wood is applied externally to pimples.

Leaf extract from a Sri Lankan plant yielded the alkaloids arborine, skim- mianine and arborinine. The steam distillate of leaves showed significant antifungal activity.... glycosmis pentaphylla

Glycosylated Haemoglobin (hba1c)

This forms a small proportion of the total HAEMOGLOBIN in the blood. It di?ers from the major component, HbA, in that it has a glucose group attached. The rate of synthesis of HbA1c is a function of the blood-glucose concentration, and since it accumulates throughout the life span of the red blood cell – normally 120 days – the concentration of HbA1c is related to the mean blood-glucose concentration over the past 3–4 months. It is thus a useful indicator of medium-term diabetic control (see DIABETES MELLITUS) – a good target range would be a concentration of 5–8 per cent. When interpreting the HbA1c level, however, it is important to remember that wide ?uctuations in blood-glucose concentration, together with ANAEMIA or a reduced ERYTHROCYTES life span, may give misleading results.... glycosylated haemoglobin (hba1c)


(Welsh) From the narrow valley Glennis, Glinnis, Glinyce, Glinys, Glinyss, Glynae, Glynice, Glynnis, Glynnes... glynis

Gmelina Arborea


Synonym: Premna arborea Roth.

Family: Verbenaceae.

Habitat: Throughout India, up to 1,700 m on the hills and in Andaman Island; also grown in gardens.

English: Candahar tree, White Teak.

Ayurvedic: Gambhaari, Kaash- mari, Kaashmarya, Sarvatobhadraa, Bhadra, Mahaabhadraa, Sadaab- hadraa, Madhuparnikaa, Sriparni, Pitarohini, Hiraa, Bhadraparni, Trishati.

Siddha/Tamil: Kattanam, Kumizham

Action: Leaf—demulcent, bechic. Used for removing foetid dis charges from ulcers. Root— stomachic, laxative, antibilious, demulcent, galactagogue. Bark— anticephalalgic. Root and bark— febrifuge.

The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia ofIn- dia recommends the use of the bark and stem in inflammatory diseases and oedema; the fruit in dysuria and haem- orrhagic diseases.

The heartwood contains lignans, ar- borone, 7-oxodihydrogmelinol, pau- lownin acetate and epieudesmin; me- trans-p-methoxycinnamate and trans- p-hydroxycinnamic acid.

Alcoholic extract of stem bark showed anti-inflammatory activity comparable to phenylbutazone.

Dosage: Root, root bark—20-30 g for decoction. (API Vol. I.)

The leaves show antibiotic activity against E. coli and Staphylococcus aureus.... gmelina arborea

Gnaphalium Luteo-album


Family: Asteraceae.

Habitat: Throughout India, ascending up to 3,350 m in the Himalayas.

English: Jersey Cudweed, Cotton Weed, Cat's Foot, Everlasting Flower.

Folk: Bal-raksha.

Action: Leaves—astringent, haemostatic, vulnerary. The tomentum is applied as counter- irritant in gout, also used as tinder.... gnaphalium luteo-album

Gnida Glauca

(Fresen.) Gilg.

Synonym: G. eriocephalus Meis. Lasiosiphon glaucus Fresen. L. eriocephalus (Meisner) Decne.

Habitat: Western Ghats.

Action: Leaf—anti-inflammatory; used for contusions and swellings. Plant—vesicant.

The plant contains bicoumarins, lysocephalin and lasiocrin; a coumarin glucoside, crioside, and a bicoumarin glycoside, eriocephaloside. The plant also gave ingiresinol, syringin, gen- kwanin and its glycoside, beta-sitos- terol and its glucoside.... gnida glauca

Glycyrrhiza Glabra


Family: Papilionaceae; Fabaceae.

Habitat: Native to the Mediterranean regions. Now grown in Punjab, Jammu and Kashmir and South India.

English: Licorice, Liquorice.

Ayurvedic: Yashtimadhu, Mad- huyashtyaahvaa, Madhuli, Mad- huyashtikaa, Atirasaa, Madhurasaa, Madhuka, Yastikaahva, Yashtyaah- va, Yashti, Yashtika, Yashtimadhuka. Klitaka (also equated with Indigofera tinctoria). (Klitaka and Klitanakam were considered as aquatic varieties of Yashtimadhu.)

Unani: Asl-us-soos, Mulethi. Rubb-us-soos (extract).

Siddha/Tamil: Athimathuram.

Action: Demulcent, expectorant, antiallergic, anti-inflammatory, spasmolytic, mild laxative, antistress, antidepressive, antiulcer, liver protective, estrogenic, em- menagogue, antidiabetic. Used in bronchitis, dry cough, respiratory infections, catarrh, tuberculosis; genitourinary diseases, urinary tract infections; abdominal pain, gastric and duodenal ulcers, inflamed stomach, mouth ulcer. Also used for adrenocorticoid insufficiency.

Key application: In catarrh of the upper respiratory tract and gastric, duodenal ulcers. (German Commission E, ESCOP, WHO.)

The British Herbal Compendium indicates the use of liquorice for bronchitis, chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer, rheumatism and arthritis, adrenocor- ticoid insufficiency, and to prevent liver toxicity. Indian Herbal Pharmacopoeia recognizes its use as an anti- inflammatory and antiulcer agent.

The main chemical constituent of liquorice is glycyrrhizin (about 29%), a triterpene saponin with low haemolytic index. Glycyrrhetinic (gly- cyrrhetic) acid (0.5-0.9%), the agly- cone of glycyrrhizin is also present in the root. Other active constituents of liquorice include isoflavonoids, chal- cones, coumarins, triterpenoids and sterols, lignans, amino acids, amines, gums and volatile oils.

Hypokalemia is the greatest threat when liquorice preparations high in glycyrrhizin are prescribed for prolonged periods. Liquorice causes fluid retention. Patients should be placed on a high potassium and low sodium diet. Special precautions should be taken with elderly patients and patients with hypertension or cardiac, renal or hepatic disease.

A special liquorice extract known as DGL (deglycyrrhizinated liquorice) is used in the treatment of peptic ulcer. Oral liquorice preparations, containing glycyrrheti- nic acid, are used for the treatment of viral infections—viral hepatitis, common cold. Topical preparations, containing glycyrrhetinic acid, are used for herpes, eczema, psoriasis.

In Japan, a preparation of glycyrrhi- zin, cysteine and glycine is used by injection for the treatment of acute and chronic hepatitis.

Dosage: Root—2-4 g powder. (API Vol. I.)... glycyrrhiza glabra

Gmelina Asiatica


Synonym: G. parvifolia Roxb.

Family: Verbenaceae.

Habitat: South India; planted in gardens in Maharashtra and West Bengal.

English: Small Cashmere tree.

Ayurvedic: Gambhaari (related species), Gopabhadra, Vikarini.

Siddha/Tamil: Kumizham

Action: Root and leaf—demulcent, alterative, blood purifier (used in venereal diseases), anticatarrhal, astringent, antirheumatic.

The plant contains lignans of the furofuran series.... gmelina asiatica

Gnetum Montanum


Synonym: G. scandens Roxb. in part.

Family: Gnetaceae.

Habitat: Tropical Himalayas from Nepal to Bhutan, Assam and Meghalaya.

English: Joint Fir.

Siddha/Tamil: Anapendu, Peiodal (G. ula.)

Action: Seed oil—antirheumatic. Plant— antiperiodic. Leaves— piscic.

The stem-wood yielded bergenin, acetophenone and stilbene derivatives.

G. ula Brongn. non-Karst is found in evergreen forests of Western and Eastern Ghats up to 1,800 m.... gnetum montanum


A general or specific objective towards which to strive. An ultimate desired state towards which actions and resources are directed.... goal

Goat Weed

Goat weed helps enhance both blood testosterone and sperm production in animals. In human men, this herb is known to promote both sperm production and the male sex drive. It also helps in some cases of impotence. In women, this herb helps ease fatigue and postmenopausal hypertension.... goat weed

Goats Rue

Healing, Health ... goats rue


(Irish) Form of Abigail, meaning “the source of a father’s joy” Gobnait, Gobnat, Gubnat, Gobnayt, Gobnate, Gobynet, Gobinette, Gobynette... gobinet


(German) Feminine form of Godfrey; having the peace of God Godfredya, Gotfreya, Godafrid, Godajryd... godfreya


(English) Gift from God Godivah, Godgifu, Godyva, Godyvah... godiva

Goiter, Exophthalmic

The physical symptoms often associated with Grave’s disease or thyrotoxicosis, with an inflamed, sometimes enlarged thyroid gland and, most noticeably, protruding eyes.... goiter, exophthalmic

Goat`s Rue Tea

Goat’s Rue Tea is a popular tea known for being an aphrodisiac, helping with male impotence. It is a perennial shrub that grows in parts of Europe, Eastern Russia, Iran and Asia. Goat’s rue (galega officinalis) has green leaves that are made up of lance-shaped leaflets and has pink flowers that grow in spikes. The constituents of goat’s rue are galegine, saponins, tannins, bitters, grlycosides, alkaloids and chromium. How To Make Goat’s Rue Tea To brew goat`s rue tea, place 1 teaspoon of the dried goat’s rue leaves and stems in 1 cup of boiled water. Let the mix steep for about 15 minutes and after that, strain it into your cup. You can drink Goat’s Rue Tea twice a day. Goat’s Rue Tea Benefits
  • It is considered safe for breastfeeding women to drink Goat`s RueTea since it is said that it facilitates the proper flow of breast milk. However, consult your doctor before drinking this tea.
  • Helps treat several bladder problems.
  • Helpful in the treatment of diabetes since it can lower blood sugar.
  • Regulates menstruation.
  • Helpful in treating snakebites and intestinal parasites.
  • Alleviates fever.
  • Helps treating rheumatism.
Goat’s Rue Tea Side Effects
  • Stop drinking Goat’s Rue Tea if you are experiencing nausea, vomiting or sweating.
  • It may interfere with the effects of some medications.
  • Avoid over-consumption!
Goat’s Rue Tea is an excellent tea, with many health benefits, being used especially as an aphrodisiac!... goat`s rue tea


(Hebrew) One who has been exiled Golana, Golanah, Golane, Golanne... golan

Gold Salts

These are used in the treatment of RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS. Gold may be administered in various forms – for example, sodium aurothiomalate. It is injected in very small doses intramuscularly and produces a reaction in the affected tissues which leads to their scarring and healing. Aurano?n is a gold preparation that can be given orally; if no response has been achieved within six months the drug should be stopped. It is less e?ective than gold given by intramuscular injection. If gold is administered in too large quantities, skin eruptions, albuminuria (see PROTEINURIA), metallic taste in the mouth, JAUNDICE, and feverishness may be produced, so that it is necessary to prolong a course of this remedy over many months in minute doses. Routine blood and urine tests are also necessary in order to detect any adverse or toxic e?ect at an early stage.... gold salts


(English) Resembling the precious metal

Goldarina, Goldarine, Goldee, Goldi, Goldie, Goldina, Goldy, Goldia, Goldea, Golds... golda

Golden Monkey Tea

Golden Monkey tea is a rare and savourless type of black tea, benefic in treating diseases and maintaining a good physical and mental shape. Golden Monkey Tea description Golden Monkey tea is a type of black tea, originating from the Chinese provinces Fujian and Yunnan. It is considered to be the finest black tea from the abovementioned provinces, due to its chocolate flavor, and honey peach notes. According to the legend, its name is related to its appearance: the leaves resemble monkey paws. In ancient times, Golden Monkey tea was consumed by local overlords and Taipans. This tea was rare and the Taipans drank every ounce of tea claiming that it provided them “the agility and sexual prowess of the patriarch of a golden monkey troop”. Golden Monkey Tea brewing Golden Monkey tea could be brewed in two ways: hot or cold. Hot tea brewing method:
  • Bring cold water to a rolling boil.
  • Place 1 teaspoon of tea for each cup into the teapot.
  • Pour the boiling water into the teapot.
  • Cover the teapot and let it steep between 3 and 7 minutes according to taste (the longer the soaking time the stronger the tea). Milk and sugar could be added.
Cold tea brewing method  (to prepare 1 liter/quart):
  • Place 6 teaspoons of tea into a teapot or heat resistant pitcher.
  • Pour 1 1/4 cups of boiled water over the tea. Steep it for about 5 minutes.
  • Quarter fill a serving pitcher with cold water.
  • Pour the tea into the serving pitcher straining the leaves.
  • Add ice and top up the pitcher with cold water.
  • Sugar could be added.
Golden Monkey Tea benefits Like any type of black tea, Golden Monkey tea contains a high content of antioxidants, benefic in fighting free radicals which are responsible for tumors growth and cancer spreading. But also, Golden Monkey tea has a good proven action over:
  • digestive system
  • stressful moods
  • senses
  • metabolic processes
Golden Monkey Tea side effects Golden Monkey tea has few acknowledged side effects. The majority are related to its content of caffeine, which may rarely cause diarrhea or the syndrome of upset stomach. In case of medication intaking, it is advisable to speak with the physician regarding the safety usage and recommended daily allowance of this tea. It is indicated that pregnant women drink Golden Monkey tea in small quantities, so as not to consume more than 300 mg of caffeine per day. Golden Monkey tea, part of the black teas family, is successfully preserving their health benefits and could be easily included in the daily health ritual to gain an impressive stamina.... golden monkey tea


(Welsh) Born on a bright day Goleudydd, Goleu, Gwenddydd... goleuddydd

Golfer’s Elbow

A term applied to a condition comparable to tennis elbow. It is not uncommon in the left elbow of right-handed golfers who catch the head of their club in the ground when making a du? shot.... golfer’s elbow

Goldenrod Tea

Goldenrod Tea has been known for its effect in treating kidney disorders. Goldenrod (solidago gigantean) is a yellow colored plant that can reach 3 feet in height. It is frequented by many types of crawling insects and butterflies and the seeds are being dispersed depending on the wind. The plant grows in North American woodlands, dunes and rocks. The constituents of goldenrod tea are saponins, tannins, flavonoids and essential oils. How To Make Goldenrod Tea If you want to brew Goldenrod Tea, place 2-3 teaspoons of dried herb in a cup of boiling water. Let the mix steep for 10-15 minutes. You can drink goldenrod tea twice or three times a day! Goldenrod Tea Benefits
  • Helpful in the treatment of kidney and bladder stones.
  • Alleviates sore throat.
  • Relieves inflammation of the urinary tract.
  • Eases whooping cough.
  • Helps in the treatment of arthritis and rheumatism.
Goldenrod Tea Side Effects
  • Pregnant and breastfeeding women should avoid drinking Goldenrod Tea.
  • Can cause allergic reactions for people who are sensitive to some herbal plants.
  • Can cause fluid retention.
  • Might make the body accumulate more sodium, increasing blood pressure.
  • May interact with the effects of some medications, so make sure you always consult your doctor before drinking goldenrod tea or any type of herbal teas.
Goldenrod Tea makes an excellent choice, being very effective in treating many disorders! Just make sure you read the side effects listed above and make sure you won’t experience them!... goldenrod tea


Gonadotrophins, or gonadotrophic hormones, are hormones that control the activity of the gonads (i.e. the testes and ovaries). In the male they stimulate the secretion of TESTOSTERONE and the production of spermatozoa (see SPERMATOZOON); in the female they stimulate the production of ova (see OVUM) and the secretion of OESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE. There are two gonadotrophins produced by the PITUITARY GLAND. CHORIONIC GONADOTROPHIC HORMONE is produced in the PLACENTA and excreted in the urine.... gonadotrophins


A small hydroid found aro und the world. It is usually innocuous, but in one small area of the northern Honshu island of Japan, and in a similar area on the opposite side of the Sea of Japan around Vladivostock, a sting causes severe systemic symptoms very similar to the Irukandji syndrome. Similar to Irukandji stings, Gonionemus stings occur in epidemics with more in some years than others. It has not caused a proven death, although some unproven deaths have been claimed in the past.... gonionemus


A bacterium of the species responsible for the sexually transmitted disease GONORRHOEA.... gonococci

Gonotrophic Stage

The condition of female mosquitoes during blood ingestion, ovarian development, leading to oviposition.... gonotrophic stage

Good Medical Practice

Guidelines for doctors on the provision of good medical care laid down by the GENERAL MEDICAL COUNCIL (GMC).... good medical practice


(Slavic) Feminine form of Goran; woman from the mountain Gorayne, Goraine, Gorain, Gorayn, Gorana, Goranna, Gorania, Goranea, Goraen, Goraene, Goraena... gorane


(Welsh) One who brings joy to others

Gorawenne, Gorawin, Gorawyn, Gorawinne, Gorawynne, Gorawenn, Gorawinn, Gorawynn... gorawen


(Serbian / Scottish) A proud woman / one who is heroic Gordanah, Gordanna, Gordania, Gordaniya, Gordanea, Gordannah, Gordaniah, Gordaniyah, Gordaneah... gordana


(Irish) Woman of sorrow Gormghlaithe, Gormley, Gormly, Gormlie, Gormli, Gormlee, Gormleigh... gormghlaith


Protection, Money... gorse

Gossypium Arboreum


Family: Malvaceae.

Habitat: Cultivated all over India as a fibre plant.... gossypium arboreum


(Swedish) Having great strength Gotah, Gote, Goteh, Gotilda, Gotilde, Gotild... gota

Gordonia Obtusa


Family: Theaceae.

Habitat: Konkan and Western Ghats.

Folk: Miyili, Atangi, Ola, Nagette, Thorilla (Tamil Nadu).

Action: Leaves—stomachic, appetizer.

Leaves contain 0.04% alkaloid and tannic acid. The bark contains ellagic acid and coumarin.

English: Tree Cotton, Desi Cotton.

Ayurvedic: Kaarpaasi.

Siddha/Tamil: Sempartthi (Red Cotton), Sivappuparutthi.

Folk: Kapaasa.

Action: Seed—anticatarrhal (used in consumption), antigonorrhoeic (used in gleet and chronic cystitis). Root—febrifuge. Plant (especially leaf)—uterine stimulant.

The glands contain 35-50% gossy- pol, a polyphenolic toxic compound. Seeds contain 18.5-25.4% protein, 0.57-2.38% free gossypol. Gossypol is a male contraceptive. At an initial dose of 20 mg/day orally for 3 months, followed by 50-60 mg weekly maintenance dose, sperm motility is reduced initially as it inhibits important enzymes of metabolic pathways thus affecting availability of enzyme to spermatozoa. Subsequently sperm production is blocked.

Gossypol is reported to cause a transient weakness early in therapy, hy- pokalaemia and changes in ECG among other side effects.

Gossypol also assists menstrual flow and effectively inhibits eggs implantation.

Gossypol and its derivatives have been shown to have significant antimicrobial activity as well as wound healing effect. It is reported to kill herpes virus.... gordonia obtusa

Gossypium Herbaceum


Family: Malvaceae.

Habitat: Cultivated mainly in Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka.

English: Asiatic Cotton, Levant Cotton, Uppam Cotton.

Ayurvedic: Kaarpaasa, Kaarpaasi, Kaarpaasaka, Rakta-Kaarpaasa, Shona-Kaarpaasa, Samudraantaa, Tuula, Pichu, Bhaaradwaaji, Tundikeri.

Unani: Pambahdaanaa. (Seed.)

Siddha/Tamil: Paruttikkootam

Action: Root bark—diuretic, oxytocic. Bark—emmenagogue, haemostatic. Seed—demulcent, laxative, expectorant, abortifacient, galactagogue, nervine, anticepha- lalgic.

The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia ofIn- dia recommends the seed oil for toning up the breast.

The seed contains 21.3-25.2% protein, free gossypol 0.82-1.96%.

Dosage: Seeds, devoid of lint—3- 6 g powder. (API Vol. I.)... gossypium herbaceum

Gotu Kola Tea

Gotu Kola Tea has been known for centuries in India due to its incredible medicinal properties. Gotu kola herb it is also known as Indian Pennywort and it has been recognized all over the world as a botanical medicine since 1884. The herb grows in tropical areas , having green, long stalked leaves with a smooth texture and palmate netted leaves. The main constituents of gotu kola are triterpenoid saponins and sapogenins that give the herb anti-viral, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, circulatory stimulant and diuretic properties. How To Make Gotu Kola Tea To brew Gotu Kola Tea, you will have to boil about one and a half teaspoon of dried gotu kola herb in a kettle for a few minutes. Let it steep for about 5 minutes and then, by using a strainer, pour the tea into your cup. If you prefer, you can sweeten it with sugar or honey. Gotu Kola Tea Benefits
  • Enhances brain and memory functions.
  • Being an antibacterial, helps the body fight bacteria.
  • Overcomes stress and fatigue.
  • Improves blood flow and prevents blood clots.
  • Helps relieve hemorrhoids.
  • Eases anxiety, acting as a sedative for the central nervous system.
  • Can help in treating ulcers.
  • Effective in treating common cold and flu.
  • Gotu Kola Tea can be safe for pregnant women ONLY when applied on skin for treating stretch marks.
Gotu Kola Tea Side Effects
  • Gotu Kola Tea might cause liver damage in some people.
  • Although Gotu Kola Tea is safe to apply on skin for treating stretch marks associated with pregnancy, pregnant and breastfeeding women shouldn’t drink Gotu Kola Tea.
  • Gotu Kola Tea may cause too much sleepiness if it is combined with medications used during a surgery. Make sure you don’t drink Gotu Kola Tea at least 2 weeks before a scheduled surgery.
Gotu kola tea makes an excellent choice, having many health benefits. Try not to drink more than 2-3 cups of this tea per day and make sure you won’t experience its side effects!... gotu kola tea


(Basque) Feminine form of Gotzon; a messenger of God; an angel Gotzonie, Gotzoni, Gotzona, Gotzonia, Gotzonea, Gotzonee, Gotzony, Gotzoney... gotzone


Protection ... gourd


(Latin) Having God’s favor; in mythology, the Graces were the personification of beauty, charm, and grace Gracee, Gracella, Gracelynn, Gracelynne, Gracey, Gracia, Graciana, Gracie, Graciela, Graciella, Gracielle, Gracija, Gracina, Gracious, Grata, Gratia, Gratiana, Gratiela, Gratiella, Grayce, Grazia, Graziella, Grazina, Graziosa, Grazyna, Graca, Graciene, Gracinha, Gradana, Gechina, Gratiane, Grazinia, Gricie, Graci, Graece... grace

Grace Period

A period past the due date of an insurance premium, during which coverage may not be cancelled.... grace period

Gouania Leptostachya


Synonym: G. tiliaefolia Lam.

Family: Rhamnaceae.

Habitat: Sub-Himalayan region from Kangra eastwards and in parts of Assam, Bengal, Bihar, Orissa and Andhra Pradesh.

Folk: Batvaasi (Nepal), Batvaasi (Bengal), Bitkil-chaand (Bihar).

Action: Leaves—used in poultices for sores. Bark—used for washing hair for destroying vermin.

The bark and root contain saponin. The leaves of a related species, Goua- nia microcarpa DC., found in Peninsular India from Konkan southwards, gave a triterpenic acid, along with tetratriacontanoic acid.... gouania leptostachya


(Latin) Form of Grace, meaning “having God’s favor” Gracee, Gracey, Graci... gracie


(Greek) In mythology, the personification of old age Graiae... graeae

Graft Versus Host Disease (gvhd)

A condition that is a common complication of BONE MARROW transplant (see TRANSPLANTATION). It results from certain LYMPHOCYTES in the transplanted marrow attacking the transplant recipient’s tissues, which they identify as ‘foreign’. GVHD may appear soon after a transplant or develop several months later. The condition, which is fatal in about a third of victims, may be prevented by immunosuppressant drugs such as ciclosporin.... graft versus host disease (gvhd)


(Irish) One who loves and is loved Graine, Grainnia, Grania, Graynne, Grayne, Graynia, Graenne, Graene, Graenia... grainne

Grains Of Paradise

Lust, Luck, Love, Money, Wishes ... grains of paradise

Gram’s Stain

Bacteria can be stained with an iodine-based chemical dye called Gram’s stain (after the scientist who discovered the technique). Different bacteria react di?erently to exposure to the stain. Broadly, the bacterial specimens are stained ?rst with gentian violet, then with Gram’s stain, and ?nally counterstained with a red dye after a decolorising process. Bacteria that retain the gentian stain are called gram-positive; those that lose it but absorb the red stain are called gram-negative. Some species of staphylococcus, streptococcus and clostridium are gram-positive, whereas salmonella and Vibrio cholerae are gram-negative.... gram’s stain


(Spanish) From the Moorish kingdom Granadda, Grenada, Grenadda... granada

Grangea Maderaspatana


Synonym: Artemisia maderaspatana Linn.

Family: Compositae; Asteraceae.

Habitat: Throughout the greater part of India.

Ayurvedic: Aakaarakarabha substitute (doubtful).

Siddha/Tamil: Maasipathri.

Folk: Mastaru, Mukhatari, Maachipatri (Maharashtra).

Action: Leaf—stomachic, antispas- modic, sedative, emmenagogue, deobstruent, antiseptic. Used in amenorrhoea.

Aerial parts of the plant afforded clerodane derivatives. Presence of phytol, lupeol, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, a phenylalanine derivative, hardwicki- ic acid, strictic acid and butenolides, is reported. Aura amide was also isolated from the aerial parts.

A mixture of flavonoids extracted from the aerial parts exhibited oestro- genicity and anti-implantation activity in mice. A crude extract of the plant exhibited strong cytotoxic activity.... grangea maderaspatana

Granny Flat / Annex

A permanent or temporary residence which adjoins a family home to enable older people to maintain independent living while remaining close to the family. May be newly built or converted.... granny flat / annex


Small masses of formative cells containing loops of newly formed blood vessels which spring up over any raw surface, as the ?rst step in the process of healing of wounds. (See ULCER; WOUNDS.)... granulations


Fertility, Garden Magic, Mental Powers, Money ... grape

Grapefruit Peel Tea

Grapefruit Peel Tea is known for many years due to its antibacterial and antifungal properties. As the name suggests, grapefruit peel tea is made from the peel of the grapefruit, the white portion under the rind, which is very rich in antioxidants that help strengthen your immune system. It also contains pectin and fiber, substances that help lower the bad cholesterol levels in the body. How To Make Grapefruit Peel Tea You can make Grapefruit Peel Tea by mincing the white rind of the fruit and placing it in about 8 cups of boiled water. Let the mix boil for about 2 minutes and after that, let it steep for 15 minutes. Keep in mind that grapefruit peel tea has a bitter taste and you might consider sweeten it with honey or sugar. Grapefruit Peel Tea Benefits
  • Helps remove toxins from the body.
  • Clears the respiratory tract.
  • Lowers bad cholesterol.
  • Provides relaxation.
  • Helps fight allergies.
  • Strong allied in the treatment of some digestive and bladder problems.
Grapefruit Peel Tea Side Effects
  • Pregnant or breastfeeding women should avoid drinking Grapefruit Peel Tea.
  • Grapefruit peel tea may interact with the effects of some medications, so make sure you always consult your doctor before drinking grapefruit peel tea.
  • Try not to drink excessive amounts of Grapefruit Peel Tea if you have breast cancer or a higher than usual risk of developing breast cancer.
All in all, Grapefruit Peel Tea can be a healthy start for your day, giving you the energy that you need due to its many vitamins. Just keep in mind its side effects and try to avoid as much as you can experiencing them!... grapefruit peel tea


Psychic Powers, Protection... grass

Gray Or Grey Literature

Research reports that are not found in traditional peer-reviewed publications, such as government agency monographs, symposium proceedings and unpublished reports.... gray or grey literature


(Scottish) Feminine form of Gregory; one who is alert and watchful Grear, Grier, Gryer... greer


(Latin) Feminine form of Gregory; one who is alert and watchful Gregoriana, Gregorijana, Gregorina, Gregorine, Gregorya, Gregoryna, Gregorea, Gregoriya... gregoria


(Norse) In mythology, a frost giantess... greip


(German) Resembling a pearl Greeta, Gretal, Grete, Gretel, Gretha, Grethe, Grethel, Gretna, Gretta, Grette, Grietje, Gryta, Gretchen, Gredel... greta


(Norse) One who is peaceful; in mythology, a frost giantess Gryd... grid


(Norse) In mythology, a witch Grimhilde, Grimhilda, Grimild, Grimilda, Grimilde... grimhild


(German) A gray-haired battle- maid; one who fights the dark battle Gricelda, Gricely, Grisel, Griseldis, Grisella, Griselle, Griselly, Grishelda, Grishilde, Grissel, Grizel, Grizelda, Gryselde, Gryzelde, Griselde, Grisjahilde, Giorsal, Gnishilda, Grizela, Grizzel, Gryselda... griselda

Graptophyllum Picum

(L.) Griff.

Synonym: G. hortense Nees. Justica picta L.

Family: Acanthaceae.

Habitat: A native to Polynesia; introduced into Indian gardens.

English: Caricature Plant.

Folk: Kaalaa-aduusaa (Maharashtra). Ysjudemaram (Tamil Nadu).

Action: Leaves—emollient and resolvent; applied to swellings and ulcers. (Used as a substitute for Adhatoda vasica).... graptophyllum picum

Gravel Root Tea

Gravel Root Tea is known for its diuretic, astringent and anti-inflammatory properties. Gravel root (eupatorium purpureum) is a perennial plant that can grow up to 5 feet tall, having pointed oblong leaves and small pink flowers. It grows in North America, from southern Canada through Florida. The main constituents of gravel root are tannins, flavonoids and bitter principles. How To Make Gravel Root Tea To brew Gravel Root Tea, you will need to boil 1 teaspoon of gravel root in a cup of water. Let the mix stand for about 10 minutes. Optionally you can add sugar or honey, depending on your preferences. Gravel root tea can be drank 3 times a day! Gravel Root Tea Benefits
  • Helps prevent the formation of kidney and bladder stones.
  • Effective in treating gout.
  • Relieves fever by encouraging sweating.
  • Treats various urinary problems.
  • Helps relieve constipation.
  • Reduces stomach acidity.
  • In some cases, it can act as an anti-inflammatory, reducing swelling.
Gravel Root Tea Side Effects
  • Due to the fact that Gravel Root Tea contains chemicals called hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs), it may block blood flow and cause liver damage.
  • Pregnant women should avoid drinking Gravel Root Tea since it can produce birth defects. Also, if you are breastfeeding, do not drink gravel root tea, because the chemicals (PAs) can affect the breast-milk and harm the baby.
  • Do not apply gravel root on wounds or broken skin. The chemicals can be absorbed quickly through broken skin and can lead to dangerous body-wide toxicity.
Gravel Root Tea makes and excellent choice, having a lot of health benefits. Just make sure you avoid drinking too much gravel root tea in order to stay away from its side effects!... gravel root tea

Grewia Asiatica

auct. non L. Synonym: G. subinaequalis DC.Family: Tiliaceae.

Habitat: Extensively cultivated in India.Ayurvedic: Parushaka, Parusha.Unani: Phaalsaa.Siddha/Tamil: Palisa, Thadachi.

Action: Fruit—stomachic, astringent, cooling. Bark—demulcent. Root bark—antirheumatic. Leaf— used in pastular eruptions.The bark contains taraxasterol, beta- sitosterol, erythrodiol; lupeol, betulin, lupenone, friedelin; alpha-amyrin. The heartwood gave beta-sitosterol. Quer- cetin, kaempferol and their glycosides were also obtained from the leaves.Ripe fruits are rich in vitamin A and C; threonine, phosphoserine, serine and taurine are the dominant amino acids in the juice. The fruits also contain sodium 22, potassium 1250, and calcium 260 ppm Fruits also gave pelargonidin-3, 5- diglucoside, quercetin, quercetin-3-0- beta-D-glucoside, naringenin and 7-0- beta-D-glucoside.The stem bark exhibited antifertility activity.Dosage: Ripe fruit—20-50 ml juice. (CCRAS.)... grewia asiatica


(German) Woman from the gray woodland

Griswalde, Grizwalda, Grizwalde, Griswald, Grizwald... griswalda

Greater Ammi

Ammi majus


Importance: Greater Ammi, also known as Bishop’s weed or Honey plant is an annual or biennial herb which is extensively used in the treatment of leucoderma (vitiligo) and psoriasis. The compounds responsible for this are reported to be furocoumarins like ammoidin (xanthotoxin), ammidin (imperatorin) and majudin (bergapten) present in the seed. Xanthotoxin is marketed under the trade name “Ox soralen” which is administered orally in doses of 50 mg t.d. or applied externally as 1% liniment followed by exposure of affected areas to sunlight or UV light for 2 hours. It is also used in “Suntan lotion”. Meladinine is a by-product of Ammi majus processing, containing both xanthotoxin and imperatorin sold in various formulations increases pigmentation of normal skin and induces repigmentation in vitiligo. Imperatorin has antitumour activity. Fruit or seed causes photosensitization in fouls and sheep.

Distribution: The plant is indigenous to Egypt and it grows in the Nile Valley, especially in Behira and Fayoom. It is also found in the basin of the Mediterranean Sea, in Syria, Palestine, Abyssinia, West Africa, in some regions of Iran and the mountains of Kohaz (Ramadan, 1982). It grows wild in the wild state in Abbottabad, Mainwali, Mahran and is cultivated in Pakistan. The crop was introduced to India in the Forest Research Institute, Dehra Dun, in 1955 through the courtesy of UNESCO. Since then, the crop has been grown for its medicinal fruit in several places in Uttar Pradesh, Gujarat, Kashmir and Tamil Nadu.

Botany: Ammi majus Linn. belongs to the family Apiaceae (Umbelliferae). A. visnaga is another related species of medicinal importance. A. majus is an annual or beinnial herb growing to a height of 80 to 120 cm. It has a long tap root, solid erect stem, decompound leaves, light green alternate, variously pinnately divided, having lanceolate to oval segments. Inflorescence is axillary and terminal compound umbels with white flowers. The fruits are ribbed, ellipsoid, green to greenish brown when immature, turning reddish brown at maturity and having a characteristic terebinthinate odour becoming strong on crushing with extremely pungent and slightly bitter taste.

Agrotechnology: Ammi is relatively cold loving and it comes up well under subtropical and temperate conditions. It does not prefer heavy rainfall. Though the plant is biennial it behaves as an annual under cultivation in India. A mild cool climate in the early stages of crop growth and a warm dry weather at maturity is ideal. It is cultivated as a winter annual crop in rabi season. A wide variety of soils from sandy loam to clay loam are suitable. However, a well drained loamy soil is the best. Waterlogged soils are not good. Being a hardy crop, it thrives on poor and degraded soils.

The plant is seed propagated. Seeds germinate within 10-12 days of sowing. The best time of sowing is October and the crop duration is 160-170 days in north India. Crop sown later gives lower yield. The crop can be raised either by direct sowing of seed or by raising a nursery and then transplanting the crop. Seed rate is 2 kg/ha. The land is brought to a fine tilth by repeated ploughing and harrowing. Ridges and furrows are then formed at 45-60 cm spacing. Well decomposed FYM at 10-15 t/ha and basal fertilisers are incorporated in the furrows. Seeds being very small are mixed with fine sand or soil, sown in furrows and covered lightly with a thin layer of soil. A fertilizer dose of 80:30:30 kg N, P2O5 and K2O/ha is generally recommended for the crop while 150:40:40 kg/ha is suggested in poor soils for better yields. The furocoumarin content of Ammi majus is increased by N fertiliser and the N use efficiency increases with split application of N at sowing, branching and at flowering. For obtaining high yields it is essential to give one or two hoeings during November to February which keeps down the weeds. If winter rains fail, one irrigation is essential during November to January. As the harvesting season is spread over a long period of time, two irrigations during March and April meets the requirements of the crop (Chadha and Gupta, 1995).

White ants and cut worms are reported to attack the crop which can be controlled by spraying the crop with 40g carbaryl in 10 l of water. Damping off and powdery mildew are the common diseases of the crop. Seed treatment with organomercuric compounds is recommended for damping off. To control powdery mildew the crop is to be sprayed with 30g wettable sulphur in 10 l of water whenever noticed.

The crop flowers in February. Flowering and maturity of seed is spread over a long period of two months. The primary umbels and the early maturing secondary umbels are the major contributors to yield. A little delay in harvesting results in the shattering of the seed which is the main constraint in the commercial cultivation of the crop and the main reason for low yields in India. Sobti et al (1978) have reported increased yield by 50 - 60% by the application of planofix at 5 ppm at flower initiation and fruit formation stages. The optimum time of harvest is the mature green stage of the fruit in view of the reduced losses due to shattering and maximum contents of furocoumarins. The primary umbels mature first within 35-45 days. These are harvested at an interval of 2-4 days. Later, the early appearing secondary umbels are harvested. Afterwards, the entire crop is harvested, stored for a couple of days and then threshed to separate the seeds. The seed yield is 900-1200 kg/ha.

Postharvest technology: The processing of seed involves solvent extraction of powdered seeds, followed by chilling and liquid extraction and chromatographic separation after treatment with alcoholic HCl. Bergapten, xanthotoxin and xanthotoxol can be separated. Xanthotoxol can be methylated and the total xanthotoxin can be purified by charcoal treatment in acetone or alcohol.

Properties and activity: Ammi majus fruit contains amorphous glucoside 1%, tannin 0.45%, oleoresin 4.76%, acrid oil 3.2%, fixed oil 12.92%, proteins 13.83% and cellulose 22.4%. This is one of the richest sources of linear furocoumarins. Ivie (1978) evaluated the furocoumarin chemistry of taxa Ammi majus and reported the presence of xanthotoxin, bergapten, imperatorin, oxypencedanin, heraclenin, sexalin, pabulenol and many other compounds. Furocoumarins have bactericidal, fungicidal, insecticidal, larvicidal, moluscicidal, nematicidal, ovicidal, viricidal and herbicidal activities (Duke, 1988).... greater ammi

Greater Galangal

Alpinia galanga


San:Sugandhamula, Rasna;

Hin:Kulainjan; Mal:Aratta, Chittaratha;


Guj: Kolinjan;

Kan: Dumba-rasmi; Mar: Kosht-Kulinjan;

Tel: Pedda-dumparash-tram

Importance: The greater galangal, Java galangal or Siamese ginger is a perennial aromatic rhizomatous herb. This plant is cultivated for its rhizome in tropical areas of south and East India. Because of the presence of essential oil, the rhizomes are used in bronchial troubles and as a carminative. They are also useful in vitiated conditions of vata and kapha, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammations, stomatopathy, pharyngopathy, cough, asthma, hiccough, dyspepsia, stomachalgia, obesity, diabetes, cephalagia, tubercular glands and intermittent fevers. It is one of the ingredients of medicated “Pan” used for removing the foul smell of the mouth and getting relief in throat inflammation. In Ayurveda, “Rasna-saptak-kwath” and “Rasna-adikamath” are used as antiinflammatory decoctions. In Unani, it is an ingredient of aphrodisiac preparations, “Majun Mugawivi ma Mumsik”, “Majun Samagh”, and antispasmodic nervine tonic “Majun Chobchine” and “Lubab Motadil”. It is also used in “Arq Pan” as a cardiac stimulant and carminative.

Distribution: The Java galangal is mainly distributed in Eastern Himalayas and South-West India. This is very common in West Bengal, Bihar, Assam, Kerala, Karnataka and throughout the Western Ghats. It is cultivated also in these places. They are also found in countries like Sri Lanka and Malaya.

Botany: Alpinia galanga (Linn.) Willd. belongs to the family Zingiberaceae. It is a perennial herb, about 2m high with lower portion covered with smooth leaf sheaths. The leaves are broadly lanceolate, 30-60cm long and 10-15cm broad. The flowers are arranged in erect, terminal panicles. composed of numerous spreading dichotomous branches each with two to six, pale greenish-white faintly fragrant flowers. Fruits 1.25 cm long, oblong, constricted in the middle or even pear shaped, three sided and deep orange red in colour. Seeds are ash coloured, three angled, finely striated towards the hilum. Both the seeds and rhizomes have pungent aroma.

Apinia calcarata (Linn.) Willd is another species of the genus with much medicinal importance. It is shorter in stature but stronger in aroma than Alpinia galanga.

Agrotechnology: Siamese Ginger comes up well in tropical climate. It grows on a wide range of climates and soils. Well drained hilly areas and places of 1400m high altitude are good for its cultivation. This is commercially propagated vegetatively by rhizomes. The field should be ploughed to a good tilth. All the stones and pebbles should be removed. Organic manures at 10t/ha are applied during land preparation. Seedbeds are prepared with 1m breadth, 2m length and 15cm height. Small pits are made at 25cm spacing above the seedbeds and 5cm long rhizomes are planted. Seedbeds are covered with dried leaves. It is irrigated immediately after planting. Regular weeding is needed during the initial stages of crop growth. This is cultivated also as an intercrop in coconut or rubber plantations. Rhizomes are dug out after cutting the top portions when the crop reaches 1.5-2 years of maturity. The average yield is 10-15 tonnes of fresh rhizomes/ha and the driage is 25-30%. The collected rhizomes are washed and cut into pieces of 5cm long and dried in sun for 4 days before sale.

Properties and activity: The rhizome contains tannins and flavonoids, some of which have been identified as kaempferide, galangin and alpinin. Seeds contain 1’-acetoxychavicol acetate and 1’-acetoxy eugenol acetate, antiulcer principles caryophyllenols I and II, n-pentadecane, 7-heptadecane and fatty acid methyl esters. Rhizomes yield essential oil containing methyl cinnamate, cineole and d-pinene and sesquiterpenoids. Fresh rhizome yielded 18 monoterpenoids of which -pinene, -pinene and limonene as major compounds and 17 oxygen containing monoterpenoids with cineol, terpinen-4-o1, and -terpineol as minor compounds.

The rhizomes are bitter, acrid, thermogenic, aromatic, nervine tonic, stimulant, revulsive, carminative, stomachic, disinfectant, aphrodisiac, expectorant, broncho-dilator, antifungal, febrifuge, antiinflammatory and tonic. Rhizome is CVS and CNS active, diuretic, hypothermic. Seed is antiulcerative. Rhizome spray in ether, over a space showed high knock down values against houseflies. Alcohol (50%) extract of rhizome is anti-amphetaminic. Unani physicians consider it good for impotence.... greater galangal

Grewia Hirsuta


Synonym: G. polygama Mast.

Family: Tiliaceae.

Habitat: Sub-Himalayan tract from the Indus to Nepal up to 1,500 m, also in hills of Bihar, Orissa and Tamil Nadu.

Ayurvedic: Naagabalaa, Gud- sharkaraa.

Siddha/Tamil: Tavadu.

Folk: Gulshakari.

Action: Fruit and root—diuretic, antidiarrhoeal. Roots and leaves, crushed with sugar candy, are prescribed for spermatorrhoea.

Dosage: Root—50-100 ml decoction. (CCRAS.)... grewia hirsuta

Group Home

A house in which people have their own rooms but there are communal facilities. Staff may live in to offer support.... group home

Group Senior Assisted Housing

See “assisted living facility”.... group senior assisted housing


(Greek) In mythology, a beast representing strength, protection, and vigilance

Gryfon, Griffin, Griffon, Gryffin... gryphon


(Spanish) From the valley of wolves

Godalupe, Gwadalupe... guadalupe


See Guácima.... guazuma


(Swedish) One who is unspoiled Gudney, Gudni, Gudnie, Gudne, Gudnee, Gudnea, Gudneah... gudny


(Scandinavian) A battlemaiden Gudren, Gudrid, Gudrin, Gudrinn, Gudruna, Gudrunn, Gudrunne, Guthrun, Guthrunn, Guthrunne... gudrun


(Italian) One who acts as a guide Geeda, Geida, Gieda, Geada, Gwyda, Gwida... guida


A direction or principle representing current or future rules of policy and clinical practice. Generally a comprehensive guide to problems and approaches in any field of activity. Guidelines are more specific and more detailed than guiding principles, on which they are based.... guideline

Guiding Principle

A general rule that can be used as a guide, for example, to develop and implement policies, to set up a managerial process or to organize primary health care in communities.... guiding principle

Green Tea Or The Wonder Drug

Green tea is considered a “wonder drug” because of its healthy contribution in human diets. Its antioxidant properties fight successfully against cancer, but not only. Green tea description Green tea is made from Camellia sinensis, an Asian plant, originating from China, Japan and South Korea. Oolong tea and black tea are prepared from the same plant as the green tea. A special feature of this type of tea is the ability to block the natural process of fermentation: after being picked, its leaves are steamed, dried and then rolled, thus blocking fermentation. Due to its constituents, it acts as an antioxidant, diuretic, cerebral and fattening burning stimulator, and also as a cancer protector. Green tea has been the subject of many scientific and medical studies so as to determine its health benefits. It seems that regular green tea drinkers may have a lower risk of developing heart diseases and certain types of cancer. There are several types of green tea available on the market: Bancha Tea, Chun Hao Tea , Dao Ren Tea , Dragonwell Tea , Genmaicha Tea , Gunpowder , Gyokuro Tea , Hojicha Tea , Kai Hua Long Ding Tea, Kukicha Tea , Matcha Tea , Sencha Tea , White Monkey Tea. Green Tea brewing To prepare green tea, use: two grams of tea per 100ml of water, or one teaspoon of green tea per five ounce cup. Green tea steeping time varies from thirty seconds to two, three minutes. The temperature differs as well, from 140°F to 190°F. Consumers recommend that lower-quality green teas to be steeped hotter and longer and higher-quality teas to be steeped cooler and shorter. In case of steeping the green tea too hot or too long, the resulting beverage is bitter and astringent. Green Tea benefits Green Tea lowers the risk of cancer. Studies have shown the green tea’s contribution against tumors growth, due to its high content of antioxidants, able to fight free radicals which are responsible for cancer spreading. Green Tea lowers the risk of stroke and heart diseases. The formation of blood clots (or thrombosis) is the main cause of the heart attacks and strokes. Green Tea has been acknowledged to exhibit abnormal blood clot formation. Green Tea lowers blood pressure. Green Tea is proven to block the effects of an enzyme secreted by the kidneys, considered to be one of the main causes of hypertension. Green Tea prevents tooth decay. Dental plaque and bacterial colonies that occur on the tooth surfaces and cause tooth decay can be inhibited by one of the compounds of the green tea. Also, this beverage has been shown to be effective against fighting gum diseases. Green Tea inhibits viruses Studies revealed that green tea can kill certain bacteria and staphs. It blocks the development of several viruses such as viral hepatitis. Green tea has also been successful in:
  • Slowing early aging;
  • Diets;
  • The treatment of physical or intellectual fatigue;
  • Treating fast cold and flu recovery;
  • Preventing allergenic reactions;
  • Balancing body fluids;
  • Improving the immune function of the epidermis;
  • Preventing and mending arthritis;
  • Improving bone structure
Green Tea side effects Green tea is not recommended to patients suffering from high blood pressure, gastric acid secretion, gastritis and ulcer. Due to the amount of caffeine contained, scientists advise a reduced consumption of green tea for pregnant and nursing women. Also, this tea should not be drunk after 5 p.m., because the consumption may lead to insomnia, palpitations and agitation. Green tea is a well known beverage, especially due to its medicinal contribution to a large array of diseases such as arthritis, heart diseases and several types of cancer.... green tea or the wonder drug

Grewia Populifolia


Synonym: G. tenax (Forsk.) Aschers & Schwf.

Family: Tiliaceae.

Habitat: Cultivated in Punjab, Sind, Rajasthan and Western India, down to the Nilgiri Hills.

Ayurvedic: Gaangeru(ki). Substitute for Gulshakari (Naagabalaa).

Siddha/Tamil: Achhu.

Folk: Gangeran.

Action: See G. hirsuta.

The stem bark contains triterpe- noids.

Dosage: Root—10-20 ml juice; 50100 ml decotion. (CCRAS.)... grewia populifolia


(English) In Arthurian legend, Guinevere’s sister Gwenhwyfach, Gwenhwyvach... guinevak


(Welsh) One who is fair; of the white wave; in mythology, King Arthur’s queen

Guenever, Guenevere, Gueniver, Guenna, Guennola, Guinever, Guinna, Gwen, Gwenevere, Gweniver, Gwenn, Gwennie, Gwennola, Gwennora, Gwennore, Gwenny, Gwenora, Gwenore, Gwyn, Gwynn, Gwynna, Gwynne, Guanhamara, Guanhumora, Gvenour, Gwenhwyfar, Gwenhwyvar, Gwenhyvar, Gwenifer, Gwennor, Gwenyver... guinevere


(Italian) Feminine form of Guiseppe; the Lord will add Giuseppyna, Giuseppa, Giuseppia, Giuseppea, Guiseppie, Guiseppia, Guiseppa, Giuseppina... guiseppina


(Babylonian) In mythology, a goddess Gulah, Gulla, Gullah... gula

Grewia Sclerophylla

Roxb. ex G. Don.

Synonym: G. scabrophylla Roxb. G. obliqua auct. non-Juss.

Family: Tiliaceae.

Habitat: Sub-Himalayan tract and outer hills from Kumaon to Bhutan up to 1,200 m and in Assam

Ayurvedic: Parushaka (related species), Dhanvana (related species)

Siddha/Tamil: Kattu Kadali.

Folk: Jangali Phaalsaa.

Action: Root—emollient, bechic. Used in irritable conditions of the intestines and bladder.... grewia sclerophylla

Grewia Tiliaefolia


Family: Tiliaceae.

Habitat: Upper Gengetic plain, Bihar, Bengal, Central and Peninsular India.

English: Dhaman.

Ayurvedic: Dhanvana, Dhanur- vriksha.

Siddha/Tamil: Tarra, Unnu, Sadachi.

Folk: Dhaamin, Dhaaman.

Action: Bark—antidysenteric. Stem bark—semen coagulant. Plant— used in fractures.

The roots and bark gave triterpe- noids.

A related species, Grewia optiva, found in sub-Himalayan tract at 5002,000 m, is also known as Dhaaman.... grewia tiliaefolia

Grewia Villosa


Family: Tiliaceae.

Habitat: Punjab, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu.

English: Tamthar.

Siddha/Tamil: Kullai.

Folk: Dhohan (Rajasthan), Jalidar (Punjab), Kharamati (Maharashtra).

Action: Root—antidiarrhoeal. Root and bark—used in genitourinary infections, syphilis and smallpox.

The methanol extract of the roots contain beta-carboline alkaloids, harman, harmine, harmol, harmalol and harmaline.

The roots are also used to treat cough.... grewia villosa


(Arabic) Resembling the rose Gulaab, Gul... gulab


(German) Feminine form of Wilhelm; determined protector Guglielma, Guillelmina, Guillielma, Gulielmina, Guillermina... gulielma


(Arabic) Resembling the pomegranate Gulinare, Gulinear, Gulineir, Gulinara, Gulinaria, Gulinarea... gulinar


(Norse) In mythology, a dark goddess

Gullveiga, Gullveige, Gulveig, Gulveiga, Gulveige... gullveig


(Arabic) From the gardens Gulzare, Gulzaar, Gulzara, Gulzaria, Gulzarea, Gulshan, Gulshana, Gulshania, Gulshanea... gulzar


West Indian elm (Guazuma ulmifolia).

Plant Part Used: Root.

Dominican Medicinal Uses: Leaf: decoction, orally, for cough, common cold and flu symptoms. Bark: multi-herb decoction, orally, for menstrual disorders, fibroids, ovarian cysts, menopausal symptoms.

Safety: Leaf: considered safe when used appropriately; low toxicity of shown in animal and clinical studies. No information on safety of the bark.

Contraindications: No information on safety of leaf or bark in children and pregnant or lactating women.

Laboratory & Preclinical Data: In vivo: antidiabetic, hypoglycemic (bark extracts).

In vitro: antibacterial, antiprotozoal and antioxidant (organic plant extracts); antisecretory (bark extract); enzyme inhibition (bark extracts).

* See entry for Guácima in “Part 3: Dominican Medicinal Plant Profiles” of this book for more information, including references.... guácima

Guaiacum Officinale


Family: Zygophyllaceae.

Habitat: Introduced from the West Indies; grown as an ornamental.

English: Lignum Vitae, Tree-of-life, Pockwood tree.

Ayurvedic: Jivadaaru, Loha- Kaashtha.

Unani: Chob-hayaat.

Folk: Loha-lakkar.

Action: Antirheumatic, anti- inflammatory, mild laxative, diuretic, diaphoretic, fungistatic (During the sixteenth century it was used as a cure for syphilis.)

Key application: As a supportive therapy for rheumatic complaints. (German Commission E.) The British Herbal Pharmacopoeia reported anti-inflammatory activity in the resin.

Several triterpene saponins, sapo- genins and prosapogenins have been isolated from different parts of the plant.

A triterpenoidal saponin, isolated from the flowers, showed activity against Gram-negative bacteria. (The herb is used as a additive to mouth washes.)... guaiacum officinale


Senna (Senna alata).

Plant Part Used: Leaf, flower.

Dominican Medicinal Uses: Leaves: decoction, orally, for blood-cleansing, infection, diarrhea, parasites; topically as a wash for skin disease and paño.

Safety: Considered safe for therapeutic use when administered appropriately; relatively low toxicity shown in animal studies; avoid prolonged or excessive use.

Contraindications: Intestinal obstruction, gastro-intestinal inflammatory disease, anal prolapse, hemorrhoids, pregnancy, lactation, children < 12 y, abdominal pain or appendicitis of unknown origin.

Drug Interactions: Diuretics, cardiac glycosides.

Laboratory & Preclinical Data: In vivo: bovine dermatophilosis treatment (leaf extract).

In vitro: anti-inflammatory (leaf extract), antimicrobial (leaf and bark extracts), platelet aggregation inhibition (leaf constituent).

* See entry for Guajabo in “Part 3: Dominican Medicinal Plant Profiles” of this book for more information, including references.... guajabo


Soursop (Annona muricata).

Plant Part Used: Leaf, fruit.

Dominican Medicinal Uses: Leaf: tea, orally, for common cold, flu, musculoskeletal injury, menopausal symptoms, nervousness/anxiety; externally as a bath for fever in children. Fruit: eaten, diuretic and fever-reducing.

Safety: Fruits are commonly consumed; reports of toxicity from ingestion of leaves in humans; contradictory results from animal toxicity studies; possibly implicated in atypical parkinsonism in the Caribbean.

Laboratory & Preclinical Data: In vivo: antioxidant (stem bark alcohol extract).

In vitro: human serotonin receptor binding activity, antiviral (HSV-1), cytotoxic in cancer cells, molluscicidal in schistosomiasis vector (plant extracts and constituents).

* See entry for Guanábana in “Part 3: Dominican Medicinal Plant Profiles” of this book for more information, including references.... guanábana

Gums, Diseases Of

See MOUTH, DISEASES OF; TEETH, DISEASES OF.... gums, diseases of


(Norse) A battlemaiden Gunhilde, Gunilda, Gunilla, Gunna, Gunnel, Gunnhilda, Gunda, Gunnef, Gunnhild, Gunnhildr... gunhilda


(Norse) In mythology, the daughter of Suttung... gunnlod


(Hebrew) Resembling a young lioness Gurie, Guriele, Gurielle, Gurice, Gurit, Gury, Gurey, Guree, Gureah, Gurea... guri


(English) Form of Augusta, meaning “venerable; majestic” Gussi, Gussy, Gussey, Gussee, Gustela, Gustella, Gustel, Gustele, Gustelle, Gusty, Gussea, Gusseah... gussie


(Swedish) Feminine form of Gustave; from the staff of the gods Gustavah, Gustha, Guusa, Gustaafa, Gusta, Gust... gustava


(Welsh) Born during the spring Gwanwynn, Gwanwynne, Gwanwin, Gwanwinn, Gwanwinne, Gwanwen, Gwanwenn, Gwanwenne... gwanwyn


(Welsh) Born with the morning light... gwawr


(Welsh) One who is fair; of the white ring

Guendolen, Guendolin, Guendolinn, Guendolynn, Guenna, Gwen, Gwenda, Gwendaline, Gwendalyn, Gwendolen, Gwendolene, Gwendolin, Gwendoline, Gwendolynn, Gwendolynne, Gwenna, Gwenette, Gwenndolen, Gwenni, Gwennie, Gwenny, Gwyn, Gwyndolyn, Gwynn, Gwynna, Gwynne, Gwenn, Gwynda, Gwendoloena, Gwendelyn, Gwendi, Guennola, Gwener, Gwenllian, Gwylan, Gwyndolen, Gwyndolin... gwendolyn


Pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan).

Plant Part Used: Leaf, root, seed (bean).

Dominican Medicinal Uses: Seeds: cooked as a legume for nutrition. Leaf: poultice, applied externally for arthritis and joint pain. Root: strong decoction, to induce abortion.

Safety: Seeds widely consumed and generally considered safe; plant extracts have shown toxic effects in animal studies; more information needed to determine safety of plant in humans.

Laboratory & Preclinical Data: In vitro: antibacterial, antimicrobial, antigonorrheal (leaf extracts); antimalarial (root constituents); antisickling (seed extract).

* See entry for Guandúl in “Part 3: Dominican Medicinal Plant Profiles” of this book for more information, including references.... guandúl

Guarana Tea

Guarana tea has been recognized by generations of people from the Amazon as being an energy booster and a strong helper for those with cognitive problems. Guarana is a climbing plant that grows in the Amazon and in the tropical forests of Brazil. Its seeds are mostly used as a caffeine substitute in energy drinks. The constituents of guarana plant are caffeine (guarana tea contains 2.5 times the amount of caffeine than coffee) and traces of theophylline and thebromine (commonly used as stimulants). How To Make Guarana Tea You can make guarana tea by boiling 2 grams of crushed guarana seeds in 250 ml of water. Let it boil for about 10 minutes then wait for it to cool down a little bit. Then, by using a trainer to catch the guarana seeds, pour the tea into your cup. Optionally, sweeten it with sugar or honey. Guarana Tea Benefits
  • Guarana tea may be effective in treating headaches, but only as a short-term treatment, according to the University of Colorado Denver College of Pharmacy.
  • Enhances memory, alertness and other cognitive capacities.
  • Boosts energy and alleviates depression.
  • Treats chronic diarrhea.
Guarana Tea Side Effects The side effects of guarana tea are associated with over consumption. If you drink too much guarana tea you may experience the same side effects that you can have when drinking too much coffee, such as:
  • Anxiety
  • Trembling
  • Hyperactivity
  • Frequent urination
  • Palpitation
Needless to say, pregnant and breastfeeding woman should not drink guarana tea! All in all, do not drink more than 3 cups of guarana tea per day! This way your body gets the exact amount of caffeine that it needs and you can be sure you would not experience its side effects!... guarana tea


Divi divi (Caesalpinia coriaria).

Plant Part Used: Fruit (dried seed pod).

Dominican Medicinal Uses: Fruit (dried seed pod): decoction, gargle or mouthwash, for sore throat, tonsillitis, toothache, oral inflammation or infection; decoction, douche, for vaginal infection, inflammation of the ovaries, venereal disease, menstrual disorders, pelvic pain and cleansing the reproductive system; decoction, orally, fever, inflammation and infection.

Safety: Unknown; no information found.

Clinical, Laboratory & Preclinical Data: No data identified in the literature. See Brasil for information on closely related species.

* See entry for Guatapanál in “Part 3: Dominican Medicinal Plant Profiles” of this book for more information, including references.... guatapanál


Lignum vitae (Guaiacum officinale).

Plant Part Used: Stem, wood.

Dominican Medicinal Uses: Stem, wood: tincture, orally, for upper respiratory tract infections, skin ailments, arthritis and venereal disease; tincture, externally, for arthritis, rheumatism, joint pain (also orally in small amount); decoction, externally, to prevent hair loss.

Safety: Considered safe is used appropriately; adverse effects include skin rash, diarrhea, gastroenteritis and intestinal colic.

Laboratory & Preclinical Data: In an animal study of a closely related Guaiacum species, the following effects were shown: anti-inflammatory and hypoglycemic.

* See entry for Guayacán in “Part 3: Dominican Medicinal Plant Profiles” of this book for more information, including references.... guayacán

Guazuma Ulmifolia


Synonym: G. tomentosa H. B. & K.

Family: Sterculiaceae.

Habitat: Native to tropical America. Cultivated as a roadside shade tree in warmer parts of the country

English: Bastard Cedar.

Ayurvedic: Pundraaksha, Rudraak- shi (fake Rudraaksha).

Siddha: Rudraksham and allied names are misnomers for this plant. (Rukraaksha is equated with Elaeocarpus ganitrus Roxb.)

Action: Fruit—anticatarrhal (used in bronchitis). Bark—demulcent, sudorific. Used in skin diseases. Seed—astringent, carminative, antidiarrhoeal.

The plant gave kaempferol gly- cosides. Leaves contain octacosanol and taraxerol-OAC, friedelin-3-alpha- OAC, 3 beta-ol and beta-sitosterol. Bark contains friedelin, betulin and beta-sitosterol.... guazuma ulmifolia


(Welsh) One who is blessed with happiness

Gweneth, Gwenith, Gwenyth, Gwineth, Gwinneth, Gwinyth, Gwynith, Gwynna, Gwynne, Gwynneth, Gwenneth, Gwynedd, Gwennan... gwyneth

Gymnema Hirsutum

Wight & Arn.

Family: Asclepiadaceae.

Habitat: Southern parts of Uttar Pradesh adjoining Madhya Pradesh, also in Bihar and Western Ghats.

Folk: Gurmaar (related species).

Action: Leaf—when chewed, temporarily paralyses the sense of taste for sweet and bitter substances. Plant—used as stomachic, bechic, expectorant, and in male impotency, poor lactation.

The leaves contain gymnemic acid.... gymnema hirsutum

Guettarda Speciosa


Family: Rubiaceae.

Habitat: Native to tropical America; occurs in tidal forests of South India and in Andaman Islands. (An extract of flowers, resembling rose-water, in sold in Travancore markets.)

Action: Bark—used in chronic dysentery; also applied to wounds and abscesses.

Siddha/Tamil: Pey Ellu, Uch Ellu.

Folk: Raam-til, Kaalaa Til, Sargujaa.

Action: Oil from seed—an- tirheumatic.

The seeds yield an oil (33%), a mixture of triglycerides, lauric, palmitic, palmitoleic, stearic, oleic, linoleic and arachidic acids. The unsaponifiable matter is a mixture of stigmasterol, n- triacontane and lupeol. Seeds contain lysine.... guettarda speciosa

Gunpowder Tea - A Popular Chinese Green Tea

Gunpowder tea is a Chinese tea made in Zhejiang Provence, China. It’s a form of green tea made out of withered, steamed, rolled and dried leaves. The name of gunpowder tea was given due to the fact that the small leaves which are tightly rolled into small round pellets, look like gunpowder. Gunpowder tea, like most green teas, comes from the Camellia Sinensis plant, which is a small leaved bush with many stems that can reach to almost 3 meters. There are many types of gunpowder tea, judging by the type of the leaves:
  • Pingshui gunpowder which is the most common type, has larger pellets and a more powerful flavor. It is sold as Temple of Heaven Gunpowder.
  • Formosa Gunpowder which is grown in Taiwan. Its fragrance is very close to the Taiwanese oolong tea.
  • Ceylon Gunpowder is produced at high altitudes in Sri Lanka.
Brewing Gunpowder Tea There are many ways to brew gunpowder tea, but the most handy and common preparation is by putting 1 tablespoon of gunpowder leaves for every 5 ounces of water. The gunpowder must be steeped up to 1-2 minutes into water, boiled at 160 degrees. After that, it can be streamed and served. It is not recommended to put milk or sweeteners in it such as honey or sugar, since the tea already has a soft honey flavor. What does Gunpowder Tea contain? Gunpowder tea, since it is classified as a green tea, it shares all of the components of classic green tea, mainly antioxidant ingredients such as green tea catechins (GTC). The importance of antioxidants is very high since they find and eliminate disease-causing free radicals that can develop cancer or even damage the DNA structure. Benefits of Gunpowder Tea Because antioxidants fight free-radicals, the gunpowder tea helps maintaining your general health.
  • It helps fight cancer due to the fact that antioxidants neutralize and reduce the damage that free radicals can cause to cells.
  • Prevents type II diabetes due to the fact that green tea may improve insulin sensibility and glucose tolerance.
  • It can also be used for treating loose digestion or indigestion. The antioxidants help reduce inflammations that are associated with ulcerative colitis and Chron’s disease.
  • Heals wounds and controls bleeding because of the strong fluoride content.
  • Slows aging process.
Gunpowder Tea side effects The general side effects that gunpowder tea can have are the same as the ones normal green tea present, such as nausea or stomach ache. Since it has caffeine,gunpowder tea can cause insomnia, nervousness or irritability, so avoid drinking it in the evening or before bed. Also it can cause iron deficiency, which is why people who take iron supplements are strongly advised not to drink any type of green tea, or to drink it at least 2 hours before taking the supplements or 4 hours after taking them. All in all, gunpowder tea has more benefits for your health than side effects.  It is good to drinkgunpowder tea, because it helps your immune system and provides you with all the vitamins you need in order to stay healthy.... gunpowder tea - a popular chinese green tea


(English) A wanderer; a nomad Gipsee, Gipsey, Gipsy, Gypsi, Gypsie, Gypsey, Gypsee, Gipsi, Gipsie, Gipsea, Gypsea... gypsy


(English) One who is treasured Gythah... gytha


(African) One who is at peace Gzifah, Gzyfa, Gzyfah, Gziffa, Gziffah, Gzyffa, Gzyffah... gzifa

Health Gain

A measure of improved health outcome following an intervention.... health gain

Health Goal

An ultimate desired state of health towards which actions and resources are directed.... health goal

Hour-glass Stomach

The term given to the X-ray appearance of a stomach which is constricted in its middle part due either to spasm of the stomach muscle or to contraction of scar tissue from a gastric ulcer.... hour-glass stomach


Gymnema sylvestre


San: Mesasrngi, Madhunasini;

Hin: Gudmar, Merasimgi;

Ben: Merasingi;

Mal: Chakkarakolli, Madhunasini;

Tam: Sirukurumkay, Sakkaraikkolli;

Kan: Kadhasige;

Tel: Podapatra; Mar: Kavali

Importance: Gymnema, Australian Cowplant, Small Indian Ipecacuanha or Periploca of the woods is a woody climber. It is reported to cure cough, dyspnoea, ulcers, pitta, kapha and pain in the eyes. The plant is useful in inflammations, hepatosplenomegaly, dyspepsia, constipation, jaundice, haemorrhoids, strangury, renal and vesical calculi, helminthiasis, cardiopathy, cough, asthma, bronchitis, intermittent fever, amenorrhoea, conjuctivitis and leucoderma. The fresh leaves when chewed have the remarkable property of paralysing the sense of taste for sweet and bitter substance for some time (Warrier et al, 1995). The drug is described as a destroyer of madhumeha (glycosuria) and other urinary disorders. Root has long been reputed as a remedy for snakebite. Leaves triturated and mixed with castor oil are applied to swollen glands and enlargement of internal viscera as the liver and spleen (Nadkarni, 1954). The drug is used to strengthen the function of heart, cure jaundice, piles, urinary calculi, difficult micturition and intermittent fevers (Sharma,1983). The drug enters into the composition of preparations like Ayaskrti, Varunadi kasaya, Varunadighrtam, Mahakalyanakaghrtam, etc. They suppress the activity of taste of tongue for sweet taste and for this reason it was considered that it destroys sugar, hence the name Madhunashini or Gurmar and has been prescribed as an anti-diabetic. The crude drug as well as its dried aqueous extract is mainly used in bronchial troubles.

Distribution: It is a tropical climber. It mainly grows in Western Ghats, Konkan, Tamil Nadu and some parts of Bihar. The plant is cultivated in plains of India but the drug is mainly important from Afghanistan and Iran.

Botany: Gymnema sylvestre (Retz.)R. Br. syn. Asclepias germinata Roxb. belonging to the family Asclepiadaceae is a large, woody much branched climber with pubescent young parts. Leaves are simple, opposite, elliptic or ovate, more or less pubescent on both sides, base rounded or cordate. Flowers are small, yellow and arranged in umbellate cymes. Fruits are slender and follicles are upto 7.5cm long (Warrier et al, 1995).

Two allied species, G. hirsutum found in Bundelkh and Bihar and Western Ghats and G. montanum growing wild in Eastern Ghats and Konkan are also used for the same purpose and are also called “Gurmar” (Thakur et al, 1989).

Agrotechnology: The plant can be propagated both by seeds and stem cuttings. Seedlings are to be raised in polybags. Pits of size 50cm cube are to be taken, filled with 10kg dried cowdung or FYM and covered with topsoil. On these pits about 3-4 months old seedlings are to be transplanted from polybags. Trailing can be facilitated by erecting poles and tying the plants to the poles. The plant will attain good spread within one year. Regular weeding, irrigation and organic manure application are beneficial. The plant is not attacked by any serious pests or diseases. Leaves can be collected from the first year onwards at an internal of one week. This can be continued for 10-12 years. Fresh or dried leaves can be marketed (Prasad et al, 1997).

Properties and activity: Nonacosane and hentriacontane were isolated from the hexane extract of leaves. An attempt to isolate nitrogenous compounds led to the isolation of amino acids such as leucine, iso-leucine, valine, allanine and - amynobutyric acid. Isolation of trimethyl amine oxide was of particular interest. An alkaloid gynamine which is a trace constituent was isolated and identified (Sinsheimer et al, 1967). Antisweet constituent of the leaves has been found to be a mixture of triterpene saponins. These have been designated as gymnemic acids A,B,C and D which have the gymnemagenin and gymnestrogenins as the aglycones of gymnemic acid A and B and gymnemic acid C and D respectively. These are hexahydroxy triterpenes the latter being partially acylated. The sugar residues are glucuronic acid and galacturonic acid while ferulic and angelic acids have been attached as the carboxylic acid.

Chewing of leaves reduces sensitivity to sweet substances. Effects of gymnema extracts had been variable. While verifying the effect of G. sylvestre leaves on detoxification of snake venom, it has been reported that a toxic component of venom ATP and gymnemate bind at the same site inhibiting venom ATP-ase. The active principles which have been identified as glycosides (7 gymnemic acids) suggest that the topical and selective anaesthetic effect of the plant might result from the competition of the receptor sites between glycosides and the sweet substances (Warren et al, 1969). The leaves are antidiabetic and insulinotropic. Gymnemic acid is antiviral. The plant is bitter, astringent, acrid, thermogenic, antiinflammatory, anodyne, digestive, liver tonic, emetic, diuretic, stomachic, stimulant, anthelmintic, alexipharmic, laxative, cardiotonic, expectorant, antipyretic and uterine tonic.... gymnema

Legal Guardianship

Power, conferred by legal authority, to control an indivdual’s affairs in relation to medical or other care.... legal guardianship

Lilium Giganteum


Family: Liliaceae.

Habitat: Temperate Himalayas from Kumaon and Garhwal to Sikkim, Khasi and Aka hills and Manipur at altitudes of 1,200-3,000 m.

Folk: Gaayotraa (Jaunsar).

Action: Leaves—used as an external cooling applications to alleviate pains of wounds and bruises.... lilium giganteum

Gymnema Montanum

Hook. f.

Guizotia abyssinica Cass.

Family: Compositae; Asteraceae.

Habitat: Native to tropical Africa. Cultivated in Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Orissa.

English: Nigerseed.

Family: Asclepidaceae.

Habitat: Western Ghats from Konkan southwards.

Folk: Gurmaar (related species).

Action: See G. sylvertre.

The leaves contain gymnemic acid.... gymnema montanum

Gymnema Sylvestre

B. Br.

Family: Asclepiadaceae.

Habitat: Central and Peninsular India.

English: Australian Cow Plant, Ipecacuanha (Indian).

Ayurvedic: Meshashringi, Meshav- ishaanikaa, Meshavalli, Chhaagal- shrngi. Ajashringi (also equated with Dolichandrone falcata and Pergularia extensa).

Unani: Gurmaar Buuti.

Siddha/Tamil: Kannu Minnayam- kodi, Passaam, Shirukurinja.

Action: Leaf—antidiabetic. Stimulates the heart and circulatory system, activates the uterus. Used in parageusia and furunculosis. Plant—diuretic, antibilious. Root— emetic, expectorant, astringent, stomachic.

Gymnemagenin, the main sapoge- nin in the leaves, yielded 3.9-4.6% of total gymnemic acids.

Gymnemic acids are antisweet principles and exhibit inhibitory effect on levels of plasma glucose.

The extract of dried leaves, given to diabetic rats at a dose of 20 mg/day per rat for 8 weeks, was found to bring about blood glucose homoeostasis by increasing serum insulin levels. Increased glycoprotein level and the resultant nephropathy, retinopathy and micro-and macro-angiopathy were also controlled.

The leaf extract (25-100 mg/kg), when orally administered to experimentally induced hyperlipidaemic rats for 2 weeks, reduced the elevated serum triglyceride and total cholesterol in a dose-dependent manner. The efficacy and antiatherosclerotic potential of the extract (100 mg/kg) were comparable to that of a lipid lowering agent, clofibrate.

In homoeopathy, a drug obtained from the leaves and roots is prescribed for both diabetes mellitus and insipidus Gymnemic acid is reported to inhibit melanin formation in vitro. It also inhibits dental plaque formation.

Dosage: Root, leaf-3-5 g powder; 50-100 ml decoction. (CCRAS.)... gymnema sylvestre

Gymnema Tea - The Destroyer Of Sugar

Gymnema tea is known for its sugar killing properties. Gymnema (gymnema sylvestre) is a woody plant that grows mainly in the forests of central and southern India. The plant climbs on bushes and trees, has elliptical leaves and small flowers with a yellow corolla. Gymnema is also known as the “destroyer of sugar”. In ancient times, some physicians noticed that chewing gymnema leaves can suppress the taste of sugar. Currently, gymnena is being administrated in India to those who suffer from diabetes, for increasing insulin levels and controlling the blood sugar levels. The constituents of gymnema tea are gymnemic acid, parabin, glucose and carbohydrates. How To Make Gymnema Tea Brewing gymnema tea is a very simple process. You can make it by combining dried gymnema leaves with green tea loose leaf and placing them into boiled water. Let the mix steep for about 5-7 minutes. The more you let it steep, the more intensified the flavor will be. Gymnema Tea Benefits
  • Helps reducing blood sugar levels.
  • Is a strong allied in the process of weight loss.
  • May help treat swollen glands.
  • Has anti-inflammatory properties.
  • Helps treating snakebites.
  • Reduces the craving for sugar.
Gymnema Tea Side Effects
  • Pregnant and breastfeeding women should not drink gymnema tea. Not enough is known about consuming gymnema tea during pregnancy so, it is better to avoid it.
  • Gymnema tea may interfere with blood sugar control during and after surgical procedures.
Ass you can see, gymnema tea has a lot of health benefits. Just make sure you stay away from its side effects and, also, avoid over-consumption! No more than 1-2 cups of gymnema tea per day!... gymnema tea - the destroyer of sugar

Mainstream Housing / General Needs Housing

Housing not specifically designed for a particular user group.... mainstream housing / general needs housing

Malpighia Glabra


Family: Malpighiaceae.

Habitat: Native to tropical America; cultivated in gardens as hedge.

English: Barbados Cherry, Acerola.

Action: Fruits—used in dysentery, diarrhoea and liver disorders. Fruits are rich in ascorbic acid (1,000-4,000 mg/100 g of edible pulp). The bark contains about 26% tannin. Fruits of Brazilian plant gave alpha-carotene, beta-carotene and beta-cryptoxanthine.... malpighia glabra

Mean, Geometric

A measure of central tendency. The average of a set of data measured on a logarithmic scale.... mean, geometric

Medicinal Plants Glossary

Medicinal Plants Glossary

[catlist id=7 numberposts=100 pagination=yes instance=2 orderby=title order=asc]

... medicinal plants glossary

Mehlis’s Glands

A unicellular gland in cestodes, which encircles the ootype. Its function is not known.... mehlis’s glands

Gymnosporia Spinosa

(Forsk.) Fiori.

Synonym: G. Montana (Roth) Benth.

Maytenus senegulensis Exell. M. emarginata Ding Hou.

Family: Celastraceae.

Habitat: Throughout the drier parts of India.

Ayurvedic: Vikankata (substitute) Sruva-Vrksha (substitute), Vyaaghrapaadi.

Siddha/Tamil: Kattangi, Nandunarai, Valuluvai.

Folk: Baikal.

Action: Plant—antispasmodic. Root—used in gastroenteritis and dysentery.

The bark is ground to a paste and applied with mustard oil to kill lice in the hair. A decoction of leafy twigs is used as a mouth wash to relieve toothache.

The leaves contain celacinnine, al- pha-and beta-amyrin, beta-amyrone, beta-sitosterol and its 3'-O-glucoside and kaempferol. The extracts of the plant show cytotoxic effect on some cancers. An ointment, prepared by mixing leaf ash and purified butter, is used for sores.... gymnosporia spinosa

Gynandropsis Gynandra

(Linn.) Briq.

Synonym: G. pentaphylla DC. Cleome gynandra Linn.

Family: Capparidaceae.

Habitat: Throughout warmer parts of India.

Ayurvedic: Tilaparni (white var.), (Pita or yellow-flowered var. is equated with Cleome viscosa Linn.), Ajagandhaa, Pashugandhaa, Ugragandhaa, Puutigandhaa, Barbaraka. Suuryaavartta has been equated with G. pentaphylla DC.

Siddha/Tamil: Thaivelai, Nalvelai.

Action: Leaves and seeds—used in the same way as mustard. Bruised leaves—rubefacient and vesicant, used as counter-irritant in headache, neuralgia, rheumatic affections. Roots—decoction, febrifuge. Seeds—anthelmintic; externally counter-irritant. Applied as poultice to sores with maggots. An infusion is given for coughs.

The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia ofIn- dia recommended the use of the seed in chlorsis, chronic obstructive jaundice and enlarged prostate.

The seeds are reported to contain cleomin, hexacosanol, free beta-sitos- terol and kaempferol; also glucosino- lates.

Alcoholic extract of the whole plant exhibited anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan-induced inflammation in rats.

The medicinal properties of the seeds are attributed to the presence of cleomin. Seeds also contain 1% tannins.

Dosage: Seed—1-3 g powder. (API Vol. I.) Leaf—50-100 ml decoction. (CCRAS.)... gynandropsis gynandra

Gynocardia Odorata


Synonym: Hydnocarpus odorata Landl.

Family: Flacourtiaceae.

Habitat: Eastern Himalayas, Khasi Hills and Sikkim.

Ayurvedic: Chaalmograa (substitute). Tuvaraka (var.) (Controversial synonyms.)

Unani: Tukhm-e-Biranj Mograa.

Folk: Chaaval-mungari.

Action: Oil from seed used in psoriasis, eczema, scrofula, gout, rheumatic affections.

A triterpenoid ketolactone, odolac- tone, has been isolated from the plant. The fruit pulp is used as piscic. The seeds of G. odorata were formerly, erroneously, thought to be the source Chaalmograa oil of commerce obtained from the seeds of Hydnocar- pus kurzii, used in leprosy. Gynocardia oil does not contain chaulmoogric or hydnocarpic acid.... gynocardia odorata

Gynura Pseudo-china

(L.) DC.

Synonym: G. nudicaulis Arn.

Family: Asteraceae, Compositae.

Habitat: Eastern Himalaya, Sikkim, Assam, and Western Ghats in Tamil Nadu and Kerala.

Action: Plant—emollient, resolvent. Used as a poultice in erysipelas and for tumours in the breast. Root—used both externally and internally for enhancing blood circulation especially when blue spots and blotches result from blows. The powdered root, mixed with tea, is given to parturient women. Leaves—used for poulticing pimples. The juice is used asa gargle for inflammations of the throat.... gynura pseudo-china

Minority Ethnic Group

People who share a cultural heritage which is different from the majority ethnic culture. See also “ethnicity”; “culture”.... minority ethnic group

Nominal Group Technique

A face-to-face group judgement technique in which participants generate silently, in writing, responses to a given question/problem; responses are collected and posted, but not identified by author, for all to see; responses are openly clarified, often in a round robin format; further iterations may follow; and a final set of responses is established by voting/ranking.... nominal group technique

Notonia Grandiflora


Family: Compositae; Asteraceae.

Habitat: Konkan,Western Ghats, Deccan and hills of South India.

English: Common Fleshy Rag-weed.

Siddha/Tamil: Mosakathu-thalai.

Folk: Waandar-Roti, Gaidar (Maharashtra).

Action: Plant—feebly aperient. Used externally for pimples.... notonia grandiflora

Oregon Grape

Money, Prosperity... oregon grape

Other Disorders Of The Gall-bladder

These are rare. POLYPS may form and, if symptomatic, should be removed. Malignant change is rare. CARCINOMA of the gall-bladder is a disease of the elderly and is almost exclusively associated with gall-stones. By the time such a cancer has produced symptoms, the prognosis is bleak: 80 per cent of these patients die within one year of diagnosis. If the tumour is discovered early, 60 per cent of patients will survive ?ve years.... other disorders of the gall-bladder

Gyokuro Tea Health Benefits

Gyokuro tea is said to be the finest type of green tea. It is largely consumed for its health properties, but also for its unique taste. Its ingredients balance the diet in a harmonious way. Gyokuro tea description Gyokuro tea, or in translation “Jewel Dew”, is a fine type of green tea. It has a deep green colour and a rich seaweed and mellow taste flavor. Itscomponentsare theanine, caffeine, tannin and vitamin C. Theanine provides the tea’s flavor, caffeine its bitterness, and tannin its astringency. Gyokuro tea’s high quality and price are related to the unusual growing techniques. The tea is made only with the earliest leaf buds of the April/May harvest. The aforementioned tea is grown under shade cover for 20 days before harvesting begins. It is considered the best of the Japanese teas and offers consumers a refreshing experience. How to prepare Gyokuro tea Gyokuro tea is advisable to be drunk alone, without mixing it with milk or sugar. Occasionally, one can only serve it with a piece of dark chocolate. It seems that its leaves can be eaten, being soft and healthy.
  • Use good quality water to prepare a good Gyokuro tea
  • The optimal brewing temperature is between 122 F and 140 F degrees.
  • First, preheat the cups or the teapot, because pouring the moderately warm tea into a cold cup changes its temperature.
  • Pour some of the boiled water into the tea kettle and wait one or two minutes.
  • Add the leaves and the remaining water.
  • Use 2 table spoons of tea to approx. 4-5 ounces of water.
  • Brewing time is between two and three minutes. While brewing, don’t mix, stir or shake the tea. Try to leave enough room for the leaves to expand.
Gyokuro tea benefits Due to its high content of antioxidants, Gyokuro tea reduces the risk of cancer. It can fight the free radicals responsible for the growth of tumors. This type of tea has a large contribution in making cells less likely to be affected by mutations. There have been instances in which it helped to cell recovery. Gyokuro tea can be successfully used to:
  • stimulate the metabolism
  • burn off  calories
  • lower cholesterol
  • protect against various cardiovascular diseases
  • soothe and relax the mind
  • enhance cognition and alertness
  • improve concentration
  • keep one energetic
  • prevent dental plaque, bacterial infections and dental decay
  • freshen your breathe
  • protect against bacteria
Gyokuro tea side effects In case of large intakes of Gyokuro tea, insomnia may appear, especially to consumers already suffering from a sleep pattern disorder. Agitation and anxiety are other side effects caused by the content of caffeine. Children, people with heart medical problems and pregnant women are normally told to avoid Gyokuro tea or to drink it in limited quantities. Gyokuro tea contains a great quantity of antioxidants and caffeine that better people’s daily activities by enhancing their state of mind and well-being.  ... gyokuro tea health benefits

Herniaria Glabra


Family: Illecebraceae.

Habitat: Throughout Europe. Introduced into Indian gardens.

English: Rupture-Wort.

Action: Plant—astringent, diuretic, antimicrobial, anticatarrhal. An infusion is used principally for bladder complaints for ruptures.

The plant gave a flavonic glycoside, rutoside; coumarins, herniarin and umbelliferone, and saponins.

A related species, H. hirsuta L. (Himalaya, from Kashmir to Kumaon up to 3,000 m) gave umbelliferone, scopo- letin and herniarin.... herniaria glabra

Herpes Genitalis

An infection of the genitals (see GENITALIA) of either sex, caused by HERPES SIMPLEX virus type

2. It is mostly acquired as a result of sexual activity; some cases are caused by simplex type

1. After initial infection the virus lies latent in the dorsal nerve root ganglion (of the spinal cord) which enervates the affected area of the skin. Latent virus is never cured and reactivation results in either a recurrence of symptoms or in asymptomatic shedding of the virus which then infects a sexual partner. Around 30,000 cases of genital herpes are reported annually from clinics dealing with SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES (STDS) in England, but there are also many unrecognised (by either patient or doctor) infections. Patients may have a history of painful attacks of ulceration of the genitals for many years before seeking medical advice. All patients with a ?rst episode of the infection should be given oral antiviral treatment, and those who suffer more than six attacks a year should be considered for suppressive antiviral treatment. ACICLOVIR, valaciclovir and famciclovir are all e?ective antiviral drugs. If a woman in the ?nal three months of her pregnancy contracts herpes genitalis, this can have serious consequences for the baby as he or she will be at risk of herpes encephalitis after delivery.... herpes genitalis

Pericampylus Glaucus

(Lam.) Merill.

Family: Menispermaceae.

Habitat: Hill forests of Sikkim, Northern Bengal and Assam.

Folk: Baarak-kaant (Maharashtra), Goriaa-loti (Assam).

Action: Leaves—an infusion is used for asthma and high fever. Pounded leaves are applied in headache. The mucilage in water is used for arresting falling of hair.

The bark contains a non-toxic principle. The root is reported to contain a narcotic alkaloid.... pericampylus glaucus

Peucedanum Grande

C. B. Clarke.

Family: Umbelliferae; Apiaceae.

Habitat: Western Ghats and hills of Peninsular India.

Folk: Baaphali (Gujarat), Duku.

Action: Fruits—carminative, diuretic, stimulant. An infusion is used for gastric and intestinal troubles.

The seeds and roots gave imperatorin, byakangelicin and osthol. Seeds, in addition, gave phelopterin, colum- bianadin and byakangelicol.... peucedanum grande

Hojicha Tea - A Different Japanese Green Tea

Hojicha tea is a type of Japanese green tea which is made from the sun-grown Japanese green tea known as bancha, harvested from the tea plant later in the season.Hojicha tea is roasted in a porcelain pot over charcoal at a high temperature, fact that alters the leaf color from green to reddish-brown. Hojicha tea has been certified as organic by the government of Japan. Brewing Hojicha tea There are many ways of preparing Hojicha tea, depending on each and other person’s taste. For example, shorter infusions of Hojicha tea may produce a fresh flavor, while longer infusions are more developed and have a “nuttier” taste. For starters, heat the the teapot with boiling water. The heat of the water is the one that brings out the aroma of Hojicha tea, so it shouldn’t be boiled at more than 180°F (80 degrees Celsius). The next step is adding the tea inside the teapot, one tablespoon of tea for each serving, when the water has just boiled. Then, depending on the flavor that you want, let it steep between 30 - 90 seconds.  In the end, pour the tea into a cup, making sure to use all the water in the teapot. Hojicha tea is usually served after the evening meal or before bed since it has lower caffeine content than other green teas. Components of Hojicha tea The main components of Hojicha tea are, like most green teas, tannin, caffeine, theanine (which is an amino acid) and Vitamin C.  Hojicha tea is known for the low amounts of caffeine and tannin (less astringency), fact that makes the tea easier to drink in the evening and it is also more suitable for children and elders.  Since it lacks in caffeine, some people even drinkHojicha tea to replace coffee, or before bed for a deep and calm sleep. Hojicha tea benefits Hojicha tea has a lot of health benefits, even though the same process that removes the caffeine also reduces the antioxidants. Due to the fact that Hojicha tea is actually a green tea, it basically presents the same benefits as any other green tea:
  • Hojicha tea helps fighting against diseases caused by viruses or bacteria and strengthens the immune system.
  • Hojicha tea helps protect against cardiovascular diseases, tumors and it’s also an important element when it comes to cancer prevention.
  • Hojicha tea is a strong allied in the process of weight loss.
  • Hojicha tea gives an overall well-being and helps you relax.
 Hojicha tea side effects Hojicha tea, because of the low caffeine, tannin and theanine content doesn’t actually present any particular side effects. However, being a green tea you should be aware of the following side effects that may appear if it is not consumed properly:
  • You should not drinkHojicha tea when you are pregnant or breastfeeding.
  • If you suffer from anemia or iron deficiency. According to some studies, green tea extract reduces the absorption of iron by 25%.
  • It is advised not to drink green tea on an empty stomach since it could cause liver damage.
  • Avoid green tea if you have kidney disorders or stomach ulcers.
All in all, try not to drink more than 6 cups a day of Hojicha green tea. If you are a green tea drinker or if you just want to try a different tea taste, besides the herbal flavor that most green teas have, you should not miss Hojicha tea. The components of Hojicha tea helps improve your immune system and, generally, keeps you healthy. It’s perfect for cold winter days!  ... hojicha tea - a different japanese green tea

Indian Ginseng

Withania somnifera


San: Aswagandha, Varahakarni

Hin: Asgandh, Punir Mal: Amukkuram

Tam: Amukkira

Tel: Vajigandha

Mar: Askandha

Guj: Ghoda

Kan: Viremaddinagaddi

Importance: Indian ginseng or Winter cherry is an erect branching perennial undershrub which is considered to be one of the best rejuvenating agents in Ayurveda. Its roots, leaves and seeds are used in Ayurvedic and Unani medicines, to combat diseases ranging from tuberculosis to arthritis. The pharmacological activity of the plant is attributed to the presence of several alkaloids and withaniols. Roots are prescribed in medicines for hiccup, several female disorders, bronchitis, rheumatism, dropsy, stomach and lung inflammations and skin diseases. Its roots and paste of green leaves are used to relieve joint pains and inflammation. It is also an ingredient of medicaments prescribed for curing disability and sexual weakness in male. Leaves are used in eye diseases. Seeds are diuretic. It is a constituent of the herbal drug ‘Lactare’ which is a galactagogue.

Aswagandha was observed to increase cell-mediated immunity, prevent stress induced changes in adrenal function and enhance protein synthesis. Milk fortified with it increases total proteins and body weight. It is a well known rejuvenating agent capable of imparting long life, youthful vigour and intellectual power. It improves physical strength and is prescribed in all cases of general debility. Aswagandha powder (6-12g) twice a day along with honey and ghee is advised for tuberculosis in Sushruta Samhita. It also provides sound sleep (Prakash, 1997).

Distribution: Aswagandha is believed to have oriental origin. It is found wild in the forests of Mandsaur and Bastar in Mandhya Pradesh, the foot hills of Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh and western Himalayas in India. It is also found wild in the Mediterranean region in North America. In India it is cultivated in Madhya Pradesh, Rajastan and other drier parts of the country.

Botany: Aswagandha belongs to the genus Withania and family Solanaceae. Two species, viz, W. coagulans Dunal and W. somnifera Dunal are found in India. W. coagulans is a rigid grey under shrub of 60-120cm high. W. somnifera is erect, evergreen, tomentose shrub, 30-75cm in height. Roots are stout, fleshy, cylindrical, 1-2cm in diameter and whitish brown in colour. Leaves are simple, ovate, glabrous and opposite. Flowers are bisexual, inconspicuous, greenish or dull yellow in colour born on axillary umbellate cymes, comprising 5 sepals, petals and stamens each; the two celled ovary has a single style and a bilobed stigma. The petals are united and tubular. The stamens are attached to the corolla tube and bear erect anthers which form a close column or cone around the style. Pollen production is poor. The fruit is a small berry, globose, orange red when mature and is enclosed in persistent calyx. The seeds are small, flat, yellow and reniform in shape and very light in weight. The chromosome number 2n = 48.

The cultivated plants have sizable differences from the wild forms not only in their morphological characters but also in the therapeutical action, though the alkaloids present are the same in both (Kaul, 1957). Some botanists, therefore, described the cultivated plant distinct from wild taxa and have coined a new name W. aswagandha (Kaul, 1957) which is contested by Atal and Schwarting (1961).

Agrotechnology: Asgandh is a tropical crop growing well under dry climate. The areas receiving 600 to 750mm rainfall is best suited to this crop. Rainy season crop requires relatively dry season and the roots are fully developed when 1-2 late winter rains are received. Sandy loam or light red soils having a pH of 7.5- 8.0 with good drainage are suitable for its cultivation. It is usually cultivated on poor and marginal soils. Withania is propagated through seeds. It is a late kharif crop and planting is done in August. Seeds are either broadcast-sown or seedlings are raised in nursery and then transplanted. Seed rate is 10-12 kg/ha for broadcasting and 5kg/ha for transplanting. In direct sown crop plants are thinned and gap filling is done 25-30 days after sowing. Seeds should be treated with Dithane M-45 at 3g/kg of seeds before sowing. Seeds are sown in the nursery just before the onset of rainy season and covered with light soil. Seeds germinate in 6-7 days. When seedlings are six weeks old they are transplanted at 60cm in furrows taken 60cm apart. The crop is mainly grown as a rainfed crop on residual fertility and no manure or fertilizers are applied to this crop generally. However, application of organic manure is beneficial for realizing better yields. It is not a fertilizer responsive crop. One hand weeding 25-30 days after sowing helps to control weeds effectively. No serious pest is reported in this crop. Diseases like seedling rot and blight are observed. Seedling mortality becomes serious under high temperature and humid conditions. The disease can be minimized by use of disease free seeds and treatment with thiram or deltan at 3-4g/kg seed before sowing. Further, use of crop rotation, timely sowing and keeping field well drained also protect the crop. Spraying with 0.3% fytolan, dithane Z-78 or dithane M-45 will help controlling the disease incidence. Spraying is repeated at 15 days interval if the disease persists. Aswagandha is a crop of 150-170 days duration. The maturity of the crop is judged by the drying of the leaves and reddening of berries. Harvesting usually starts from January and continues till March. Roots, leaves and seeds are the economical parts. The entire plant is uprooted for roots, which are separated from the aerial parts. The berries are plucked from dried plants and are threshed to obtain the seeds. The yield is 400-500kg of dry roots and 50-75kg seeds per hectare.

Post harvest technology: The roots are separated from the plant by cutting the stem 1-2cm above the crown.

Roots are then cut into small pieces of 7-10cm to facilitate drying. Occasionally, the roots are dried as a whole. The dried roots are cleaned, trimmed, graded, packed and marketed. Roots are carefully hand sorted into the following four grades.

Grade A: Root pieces 7cm long, 1-1.5cm diameter, brittle, solid, and pure white from outside.

Grade B: Root pieces 5cm long, 1cm diameter, brittle, solid and white from outside.

Grade C: Root pieces 3-4cm long, less than 1cm diameter and solid. Lower grade: Root pieces smaller, hollow and yellowish from outside.

Properties and activity: Aswagandha roots contain alkaloids, starch, reducing sugar, hentriacontane, glycosides, dulcital, withaniol acid and a neutral compound. Wide variation (0.13-0.31%) is observed in alkaloid content. Majumdar (1955) isolated 8 amorphous bases such as withanine, somniferine, somniferinine, somnine, withananine, withananinine, pseudowithanine and withasomnine. Other alkaloids reported are nicotine, tropine, pseudotropine, 3, -tigloyloxytropane, choline, cuscudohygrine, anaferine, anahygrine and others. Free aminoacids in the roots include aspartic acid, glycine, tyrosine, alanine, proline, tryptophan, glutamic acid and cystine. Leaves contain 12 withanolides, alkaloids, glycosides, glucose and free amino acids. Berries contain a milk coagulating enzyme, two esterases, free amino acids, fatty oil, essential oil and alkaloids. Methods for alkaloid’s analysis in Asgandh roots have also been reported (Majumdar, 1955; Mishra, 1989; Maheshwari, 1989). Withania roots are astringent, bitter, acrid, somniferous, thermogenic, stimulant, aphrodisiac, diuretic and tonic. Leaf is antibiotic, antitumourous, antihepatotoxic and antiinflammatory. Seed is milk coagulating, hypnotic and diuretic.... indian ginseng

Indian Gooseberry

Phyllanthus emblica


San: Amalaka, Adiphala

Tel: Amalakam

Hin, Mar: Amla

Kan: Amalaka

Ben: Amlaki

Guj: Ambala


Tam: Nelli

Kas: Aonla

Importance: Indian gooseberry or emblic myrobalan is a medium sized tree the fruit of which is used in many Ayurvedic preparations from time immemorial. It is useful in haemorrhage, leucorrhaea, menorrhagia, diarrhoea and dysentery. In combination with iron, it is useful for anaemia, jaundice and dyspepsia. It goes in combination in the preparation of triphala, arishta, rasayan, churna and chyavanaprash. Sanjivani pills made with other ingredients is used in typhoid, snake-bite and cholera. The green fruits are made into pickles and preserves to stimulate appetite. Seed is used in asthma, bronchitis and biliousness. Tender shoots taken with butter milk cures indigestion and diarrhoea. Leaves are also useful in conjunctivitis, inflammation, dyspepsia and dysentery. The bark is useful in gonorrhoea, jaundice, diarrhoea and myalgia. The root bark is astringent and is useful in ulcerative stomatitis and gastrohelcosis. Liquor fermented from fruit is good for indigestion, anaemia, jaundice, heart complaints, cold to the nose and for promoting urination. The dried fruits have good effect on hair hygiene and used as ingredient in shampoo and hair oil. The fruit is a very rich source of Vitamin C (600mg/100g) and is used in preserves as a nutritive tonic in general weakness (Dey, 1980).

Distribution: Indian gooseberry is found through out tropical and subtropical India, Sri Lanka and Malaca. It is abundant in deciduous forests of Madhya Pradesh and Darjeeling, Sikkim and Kashmir. It is also widely cultivated.

Botany: Phyllanthus emblica Linn. syn. Emblica officinalis Gaertn. belongs to Euphorbiaceae family. It is a small to medium sized deciduous tree growing up to 18m in height with thin light grey, bark exfoliating in small thin irregular flakes. Leaves are simple, many subsessile, closely set along the branchlets, distichous light green having the appearance of pinnate leaves. Flowers are greenish yellow in axillary fascicles, unisexual; males numerous on short slender pedicels; females few, subsessile; ovary 3-celled. Fruits are globose, 1-5cm in diameter, fleshy, pale yellow with 6 obscure vertical furrows enclosing 6 trigonous seeds in 2-seeded 3 crustaceous cocci. Two forms Amla are generally distinguished, the wild ones with smaller fruits and the cultivated ones with larger fruits and the latter are called ‘Banarasi’(Warrier et al, 1995).

Agrotechnology: Gooseberry is quite hardy and it prefers a warm dry climate. It needs good sunlight and rainfall. It can be grown in almost all types of soils, except very sandy type. A large fruited variety “Chambakad Large“ was located from the rain shadow region of the Western Ghats for cultivation in Kerala. Amla is usually propagated by seeds and rarely by root suckers and grafts. The seeds are enclosed in a hard seed coat which renders the germination difficult. The seeds can be extracted by keeping fully ripe fruits in the sun for 2-3 days till they split open releasing the seeds. Seeds are soaked in water for 3-4 hours and sown on previously prepared seed beds and irrigated. Excess irrigation and waterlogging are harmful. One month old seedlings can be transplanted to polythene bags and one year old seedlings can be planted in the main field with the onset of monsoon. Pits of size 50 cm3 are dug at 6-8m spacing and filled with a mixture of top soil and well rotten FYM and planting is done. Amla can also be planted as a windbreak around an orchard. Irrigation and weeding are required during the first year. Application of organic manure and mulching every year are highly beneficial. Chemical fertilisers are not usually applied. No serious pests or diseases are generally noted in this crop. Planted seedlings will commence bearing from the 10th year, while grafts after 3-4 years. The vegetative growth of the tree continues from April to July. Along with the new growth in the spring, flowering also commences. Fruits will mature by December-February. Fruit yield ranges from 30-50kg/tree/year when full grown (KAU,1993).

Properties and activity: Amla fruit is a rich natural source of vitamin C. It also contains cytokinin like substances identified as zeatin, zeatin riboside and zeatin nucleotide. The seeds yield 16% fixed oil, brownish yellow in colour. The plant contains tannins like glucogallia, corilagin, chebulagic acid and 3,6-digalloyl glucose. Root yields ellagic acid, lupeol, quercetin and - sitosterol (Thakur et al, 1989).

The fruit is diuretic, laxative, carminative, stomachic, astringent, antidiarrhoeal, antihaemorrhagic and antianaemic.... indian gooseberry

Practice Guideline

Descriptive tool or standardized specification for care of an older person in a typical situation developed through a formal process that incorporates the best scientific evidence of effectiveness with expert opinion.... practice guideline

Public Good

A good or service whose benefits may be provided to a group at no more cost than that required to provide for one person. The benefits of the good are indivisible and individuals cannot be excluded. For example, a public health measure that eradicates smallpox protects all, not just those paying for the vaccination.... public good

Iris Germanica


English: Orris, Iridis Rhizome, German Iris.

Ayurvedic: Paarseeka Vachaa, Haimavati, Shveta Vachaa (also considered as Pushkarmuula), Baal-bach.

Action: Demulcent, antidiarrhoeal, expectorant. Extract of the leaf is used for the treatment of frozen feet.

Key application: In irritable bowel, summer diarrhoea in children, in stubborn cases of respiratory congestion. (Folk medicine.) (Claims negatively evaluated by German Commission E: "blood-purifying," "stomach-strengthening" and "gland-stimulating.")

The rhizomes gave triterpenes, beta- sitosterol, alpha-and beta-amyrin and isoflavonoids; an essential oil, about 0.1-2%, known as "Orris butter," consisting of about 85% myristic acid, with irone, ionone, methyl myris- tate. Isoflavonoids include irisolidone, irigenin and iridin. In volatile oil, chief constituents are cis-alpha and cis-gamma-irones. Triterpenes include iridal and irigermanal. Rhizomes also gave xanthones C. glucosylxanthones (Orris root is the root of Iris germanica. In homoeopathy, Iris versicolor is used.)

Related species ? I. florentina Linn.; I. pallida Lam.

Habitat: The Himalayas from Garhwal to Arunachal Pradesh at 2,400-3,600 m.

Folk: Karkar, Tezma (Punjab).

Action: Diuretic, spasmolytic, febrifuge; antidote for opium addiction.

The rhizomes contain isoflavones— iridin, iriskumaonin and its methyl ether, irisflorentin, junipegenin A and irigenin.... iris germanica

Jatropha Glandulifera


Family: Euphorbiaceae.

Habitat: South India and Bengal.

Ayurvedic: Vyaaghrairanda.

Siddha/Tamil: Adalai, Eliya- manakku.

Folk: Bagharenda, Jangali-erandi.

Action: Root and oil from seed— purgative. Oil—antirheumatic, antiparalytic. Used externally on ringworm and chronic ulcers. Root—used for glandular swellings.

Latex—applied to warts and tumours.

The plant contain alkannins (iso- hexenylnaphthazarins). The presence of alkannins in this plant (a member of Euphorbiaceae) should be considered as an exception.

The root gave jatropholone A, frax- etin and a coumarinolignan.

Dosage: Seed—50-100 mg powder. (CCRAS.)... jatropha glandulifera

Jatropha Gossypifolia


Family: Euphorbiaceae.

Habitat: Native to Brazil; cultivated as an ornamental.

English: Tua-Tua.

Ayurvedic: Rakta-Vyaaghrairanda.

Siddha/Tamil: Stalai.

Folk: Laal Bagharenda.

Action: Leaf and seed—purgative. Leaf—antidermatosis. Bark— emmenagogue. Seed—emetic. Seed fatty oil—used in paralytic affections, also in skin diseases.

The leaves contain triterpenes, a tri- hydroxy ketone and corresponding diosphenol. The root contains the diterpenes, jatropholone A and jat- rophatrione. A tumour-inhibitor ma- crocyclic diterpene, jatrophone, has been isolated from roots.

The seeds contain phorbol derivatives, jatropholones A and B, hydroxy- jatrophone and hydroxyisojatrophone.

Hot water extract of the plant exhibits antimalarial activity against Plasmodium falciparum.... jatropha gossypifolia

Justicia Gendarussa

Burm. f.

Synonym: Gendarussa vulgaris Nees.

Family: Acanthaceae.

Habitat: Throughout the greater part of India and Andaman Islands.

Ayurvedic: Krishna Vaasaa (blue var.), Nila-nirgundi, Krishna- nirgundi, Nila-manjari.

Siddha/Tamil: Karunochhi, Vadaikkuthi.

Action: Febrifuge, diaphoretic, emetic, emmenagogue. Infusion of leaves—given internally in cephalal- gia, hemiplegia and facial paralysis. Fresh leaves—used topically in oedema and rheumatism. Bark— emetic.

The leaves contain beta-sitosterol, an alkaloid, lupeol, friedelin and aromatic amines.... justicia gendarussa

Siberian Ginseng

Siberian ginseng restores balance to the body both biochemically and physically. it also helps your hypothalamus... siberian ginseng

Social Group

Any set of persons within society with particular demographic, economic or social characteristics.... social group

Striga Gesneroides


Synonym: S. orobanchioides Benth.

Family: Scrophulariaceae.

Habitat: Western Peninsular India.

Folk: Laal-giyaa.

Action: Used in diabetes (in folk medicine). Hypoglycaemic activity, not confirmed.... striga gesneroides

Support Group

A group of people who share a common bond (e.g. caregivers, patients, families of patients) who come together on a regular basis to share problems and experiences or keep in contact in other ways (e.g. the Internet).... support group

Kaempferia Galanga


Family: Zingiberaceae.

Habitat: Throughout the plains of India, cultivated in gardens.

Ayurvedic: Sugandha-vachaa, Chandramuula, Chandramuulikaa. (In Kerala, used as Karchura and Shathi.) (Kapurakachari is a different drug, equated with Hedychium spicatum.)

Siddha/Tamil: Kachoram.

Action: Tuber—stimulant, carminative, expectorant, diuretic used for respiratory ailments like cough, bronchitis and asthma.

The essential oil from rhizomes contain n-pentadecane, ethyl-p-methoxy cinnamate, ethyl cinnamate, carene, camphene, borneol, p-methoxysty- rene, p-methoxy cinnamate, p-meth- oxy-trans-cinnamic acid and cin namaldehyde. Insecticidal activity of the oil is attributed to ethyl cinna- mates. Ethyl-p-methoxy-cinnamate shows monoamine oxidase inhibitor activity and a cytotoxic principle (the rhizomes exhibit cytotoxic activity).

Leaves and flowers exhibit antiphlogistic and vitamin P activity. Ethyl-p- methoxy-trans cinnamate is the main compound in the root.... kaempferia galanga

Larix Griffithiana


Synonym: L. griffithii Hook. f. & Thoms.

Family: Pinaceae.

Habitat: The Himalayas from eastern Nepal to Bhutan at altitudes of 2,400-3,600 m.

English: Himalayan Larch, Sikkim Larch.

Folk: Boargasella, Binyi (Nepal).

Action: Balsam—antiseptic, hypermic.

Key application: Larix decidua Miller—in rheumatic and neuralgic discomforts, catarrhal diseases of the respiratory tract, furuncle (in the form of ointments, gels, emulsions and oils). (German Commission E.)

American Larch is equated with Larix laricina Koch., synonym L. americana Michx. It is known as Tamarac.

European Larch is equated with Lar- ix decidua Miller., synonym L. europea DC., Pinus larix L., Abies larix. It is known as Pine Larch.

The bark of American Larch contains 2-15% tannins. The bark of Larix dedidua is also astringent, balsamic and diuretic. It contains lig- nans; lariciresinol, liovil and secoiso- lariciresinol; 60-80% resins; essential oil, containing alpha- and beta-pinene, limonene, phellandrene, borneol as major constituents.... larix griffithiana

Leucaena Glauca


Synonym: L. leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit.

Family: Mimosaceae.

Habitat: The plains of India.

English: White Popinac, Lead tree.

Siddha/Tamil: Tagarai.

Folk: Vilaayati Baval Lasobaval (Gujarat).

Action: The bark and leaves contain 16.3 and 3% tannin respectively. Leaves also contain quercitrin (0.08%). The toxicity of the plant is due to an alkaloid leucenine or leucenol. Beta-and alpha-amino- propionic acid is reported to be identical with mimosine (from Mimosa pudica).

Seeds, in addition to a fatty oil (8.8%), also contain mucilage composed of mannans, glactans and xy- lans. Stachyose is also reported to be present in the seeds. (Heat treatment of leaves and seeds after moistening lowers the alkaloid content.)... leucaena glauca

Lippia Geminata

H. B. & K.

Synonym: L. alba (Mill.) N.E.Br. L. javanica (Burm.f.) Spreng.

Family: Verbenaceae.

Habitat: Bihar and Orissa to Assam; Madhya Pradesh, Nilgiris and Anaimalais up to 900 m in wet places and river banks.

Folk: Basula (Madhya Pradesh), Naagaa-aiari (Orissa).

Action: Leaves—stomachic and nervine. Essential oil—fungitoxic.

The essential oil from leaves contains citral, neral and geranial. Diterpenes, d- and l-limonene, l-piperitone, geranial. Diterpenes, d-and l-limonene, l- piperitone, lippone, a saturated ketone, d-alpha-pinene, dl-dihydrocarvone, citral and camphor have been identified in different samples.... lippia geminata


See also BRUXISM. Teeth-grinding occurs in children during sleep and is of no signi?cance unless really persistent. During the day it may be an attention-seeking device. There is no treatment for it.

In adults it is usually associated with stress or anxiety, but may be due to some local condition in the mouth such as an unsatisfactory ?lling. It may also be caused by certain drugs, including fen?uramine and LEVODOPA. If not controlled, it produces excessive wear of the enamel covering of the teeth. Treatment consists of alleviation of any condition in the mouth and any anxiety and stress.... teeth-grinding

Thiersch’s Graft

The term given to a method of SKIN-GRAFTING (see also GRAFT) in which strips of skin are shaved from a normal area and placed on a burned, injured or scarred area to be grafted.... thiersch’s graft

Thyroid Gland, Diseases Of

... thyroid gland, diseases of

Tricholepis Glaberrima


Family: Compositae; Asteraceae.

Habitat: Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Peninsular India.

Ayurvedic: Brahmadandi.

Action: Antiseptic (used in leucoderma), nervine tonic (used in seminal debility), urinary tract disinfectant. Root—bechic.

The plant contains betulin, spinas- terol, stigmasterol, stigma-7-enol and a triterpenoid—cycloart-23-en-3beta, 25-diol.... tricholepis glaberrima

Litsea Glutinosa

(Lour.) C. B. Robinson.

Synonym: L. sebifera Pers. L. chinensis Lam.

Family: Lauraceae.

Habitat: Punjab, Khasi Hills, Bengal, Assam and South India.

English: Common Tallow Lowrel.

Ayurvedic: Medaasaka.

Unani: Maidaa-lakdi, MaghaaseHindi.

Siddha/Tamil: Mushaippeyetti, Elumpurukki, Uralli.

Action: Leaf—antispasmodic and emollient. Bark—demulcent, emollient, astringent, antidiarrhoeal, anodyne. Root—decoction is used as an emmenagogue. Oil from berries—used in rheumatism. Essential oil—antibacterial, antifungal.

The bark is mucilaginous. The plant contains a polysaccharide. Leaves and stem contain aporphine al- kaloids—boldine, laurotetanine, acti- nodaphnine and their derivatives. The trunk bark gave sebiferine and litsefer- ine.

Boldine produced dose-dependent inhibition of induced microsomal peroxidation in experimental studies.

Dosage: Bark—3-5 g powder. (CCRAS.)... litsea glutinosa

Magnolia Grandiflora


Family: Magnoliaceae.

Habitat: Native to North America; found in the Himalayas and the Nilgiri hills up to 2,100 m.

English: Bull Bay, Great Laurel Magnolia, Southern Magnolia.

Ayurvedic: Him-Champaa.

Action: Bark—anti-inflammatory, stimulant, diaphoretic. Wood— toxic. Plant is used against cold, headache and stomach-ache. Leaf extract—fungitoxic.

The leaves gave germacanolide lactones, a guaianolide (magnograndio- lide, melampomagnolide A and B); the wood, quaternary aporphine alkaloids; bark, cyclocolorenone; root bark, eudesmanolides; seeds, phenolic constituents.

The sesquiterpene ketone, cyclocol- orenone, also found in leaves, shows antifungal activity.

Magnolia pterocarpa Roxb., synonym M. sphenocarpa Roxb. (Vana- Champaa), Dhulichampaa) bark contains sesamin, eudesmin, fargesin, imperatorin, dimethyl-terephthalate and beta-sitosterol. Powdered bark is used for fevers and cough.... magnolia grandiflora

Vetch, Giant

Fidelity... vetch, giant

Vitelline Glands

The glands which provide substances for the development of the egg and the formation of the shell in trematodes and cestodes.... vitelline glands

Witch Grass

Happiness, Lust, love, Exorcism... witch grass

Bear Grass

Yucca filamentosa. Carminative. For biliousness and temporal headache. Tea or tincture of flowers. ... bear grass

Breast, Guitar Nipple

Musician’s breast.

Alternatives:– External treatment. Lotion – few drops Tincture Arnica in eggcup of water. Aloe Vera or Comfrey cream. Marshmallow and Slippery Elm ointment. ... breast, guitar nipple

Burnet, Greater

Garden Burnet. Salad Burnet. Sanguisorba officinalis L. Herb.

Action: astringent tonic, anti-haemorrhagic. Mild antibacterial.

Uses: Irritable bowel, ulcerative colitis, excessive menstruation, gargle for throat infections.

Traditional: tea used as a wash for piles and anal irritation, or as a poultice for sores and wounds. Widely used in Chinese medicine.

Preparations: Thrice daily.

Tea: 2 teaspoons to each cup boiling water; infuse 5 minutes. Half-1 cup. Liquid extract: half-1 teaspoon in water.

Tincture BHP (1983) 1:5 in 45 per cent alcohol. Dose 2-8ml. ... burnet, greater

Ocimum Gratissimum


Family: Labiatae; Lamiaceae.

Habitat: Throughout India.

English: Shrubby Basil.

Ayurvedic: Vriddha Tulasi, Raam- Tulasi, Raan-Tulasi.

Siddha: Elumicha-Tulasi, Peria- Tulasi.

Action: Plant—used in neurological and rheumatic affections, in seminal weakness and in aphthae of children. Seed—used in cephalalgia and neuralgia. Essential oil— antibacterial, antifungal.

In homoeopathy, fresh mature leaves are used in constipation, cough, fever, nasal catarrh; also in gonorrhoea with difficult urination.

A heterotic hybrid 'Clocimum' (po- lycross of gratissimum) has been developed in India which yields 4.55.7% essential oil having a eugenol content up to 95%. Direct production of methyl eugenol and eugenol acetate from 'Clocimum' oil is reported.

Major constituents reported from 'Clocimum' oil are myrcene 8.87, eugenol 68.14, isoeugenol 13.88, methyl- eugenol 1.74%; other constituents are alpha- pinene, limonene, phellandrene, terpene 4-ol, alpha-terpineol, carveol, carvene, geranyl acetate, caryophyl- lone and caryophyllone oxide.

(At Regional Research Laboratory, CSIR, Jammu, a study was conducted Ocimum kilimandscharicum Guerke.

Synonym: O. camphora Guerke.

Family: Labiatae; Lamiaceae.

Habitat: Native of Kenya. Cultivated on a small scale in West Bengal, Assam, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Kerala and Dehr Dun.

English: Camphor Basil.

Ayurvedic: Karpura Tulasi.

Action: Plant—spasmolytic, antibacterial. Decamphorized oil— insecticidal, mosquito repellent.

Essential oil contains camphor, pi- nene, limonene, terpinolene, myrcene, beta-phellandrene, linalool, camphene, p-cymene, borneol and alpha-selinene. The Camphor content varies in different samples from 61 to 80.5%.... ocimum gratissimum

Orthosiphon Grandiflorus


Synonym: O. aristatus (Blume) Miq. O. spiralis (Linn.) Merrill O. stamineus Benth.

Family: Labiatae; Lamiaceae.

Habitat: Manipur, Naga and Lushai hills, Chota Nagpur, Western Ghats.

English: Kidney Tea Plant, Java Tea.

Folk: Mutri-Tulasi (Maharashtra).

Action: Leaves—diuretic, used in nephrosis and severe cases of oedema. An infusion of leaves is given as a specific in the treatment of various kidney and bladder diseases including nephrocirrhosis and phosphaturia, also in rheumatism and gout.

Key application: In irrigation therapy for bacterial and inflammatory diseases of the lower urinary tract and renal gravel. (German Commission E.) Flower tops and leaves (samples from Indonesia) contained methyl ri- pariochromene A. In another sample, leaves also yielded several phenolic compounds including lipophilic flavones, flavonol glycosides and caf- feic acid derivatives. Rosmarinic acid and 2,3-dicaffeoyl-tartaric acid (67% of total phenolics, 94.5% in hot water extract) were major compounds of caffeic acid derivatives.

The leaves also contain a high percentage (0.7-00.8) of potassium salts. Presence oforthosiphonin and potassium salts help in keeping uric acid and urate salts in solution, thus prevents calculi and other deposits. The leaf extract lowers blood sugar in diabetics, but not consistently.

Orthosiphon pallidus Royle, equated with the Ayurvedic herb Arjaka and Shveta-Kutherak and known as Ajagur and Naganda-baavari in folk medicine, is used for dysuria and colic.... orthosiphon grandiflorus

Pelargonium Graveolens


Family: Geraniaceae.

Habitat: Introduced into India in the Shevroy hills of Tamil Nadu; cultivated largely in the Nilgiri and Palni hills of Tamil Nadu.

English: Geranium.

Action: Oil—antifungal.

Geranium oil produced from the plant grown in the temperate region at high altitudes is rich in menthone, cit- ronellol, nerol and geraniol; while the oil produced from the plants grown at lower altitudes is rich in isomenthone, linalool and citronellyl formate.

Geranium oil and its constituents are reported to exhibit marginal an- titumour activity.

The oil also exhibits in vitro antifun- gal activity.... pelargonium graveolens

Chrysanthemum (golden)

Chrysanthellum americanum. Whole plant.

Action: choleretic, hepatic, circulatory stimulant.

Uses: Circulatory disorders, varicose veins, menstrual problems, to protect against hardening of the liver in alcohol consumers. Rheumatism, gout. Heavy legs.

Preparations: Tea: 1 teaspoon to each cup boiling water; infuse 15 minutes. Dose: half a cup thrice daily. Powder, capsules: 250mg. 3 capsules thrice daily before meals. (Arkocaps) ... chrysanthemum (golden)

Pinus Gerardiana


Family: Pinaceae.

Habitat: Northwest Himalayas from Garhwal eastwards at altitudes of 1,800-3,000 m.

English: Neosia Pine, Edible Pine, Chilgoza Pine.

Ayurvedic: Nikochaka. Unani: Chilgozaa.

Action: Kernels—stimulant, carminative, expectorant. Oil from seeds—externally used for wounds and ulcers.

The kernels gave protein 15.9, fat 49.9, carbohydrates 21.6 and mineral matter 2.9%. The mineral constituents include calcium 90.8, phosphorus 92.4 and iron 2.4 mg/100 g. Pectin is present to the extent of 1.73% (calculated as calcium pectate). Seed protein on hydrolysis gave amino acids—leucine, iso- leucine, valine, lysine, phenylalanine, tryptophan and methionine. The oil gave glycerides. The essential oil from oleoresin contains alpha-and beta-pi- nene as major constituents; other constituents are sesquiterpenes.... pinus gerardiana

Pisonia Grandis

R. Br.

Synonym: P. morindaefolia R. Br. ex Wt.

Family: Nyctaginaceae.

Habitat: Cultivated in gardens in Chennai and other places near the sea on both east and west coasts.

English: Lettuce tree.

Siddha/Tamil: Chandi keerai, Leechai kottai keerai, Nachu Kottai keerai.

Action: Fresh leaf—diuretic, used in inflammations (of elephantoid nature in legs and other parts). Root—purgative.

The plant gave octacosanol, beta- sitosterol, alpha-spinasterol, beta-si- tosterol-b eta-D-glucopyranoside, dul- citol and quercetin.

Karkata, Karkataakhya, Kuli- rashringaaya, Kuliravishaanikaa, Vakraa, Vishaani. Ajashringi (also equated with Gymnema sylvestre).

Unani: Kaakraasingi, Kakar.

Siddha/Tamil: Karkatagasingi.

Action: Gall—astringent, expectorant, antiasthmatic, antidysenteric, styptic.

Key application: In cough, bronchitis and dyspnoea. (The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India.)

The tetracyclic triterpenes, pistaci- gerrimones A, B and C have been isolated from the galls produced on the leaves.

Alpha-pinene 21.8, beta-pinene 16.2, alpha-phellandrene 15.5 and delta-carene 11% are major constituents of the essential oil extracted from galls. The oil is reported to exhibit CNS- depressant, antispasmodic, carminative and antibacterial, antiprotozoal, antiamoebic, anthelmintic activities.

Dosage: Gall—3-6 g powder. (API, Vol. I.)... pisonia grandis

Gamma Linolenic Acid (gla)

A polyunsaturated fatty acid; an essential ingredient in the body’s production of prostaglandins. Present naturally in mother’s milk. The body produces GLA from linoleic acid present in food as an essential fatty acid (EFA). Vital to growth, cell structure and cardiac health. Sources: Evening Primrose oil; Sunflower seed oil, Borage and Blackcurrant. Preparations from the fermentation of rotten carrots. Helps lower blood pressure and prevent cholesterol build-up in the blood. ... gamma linolenic acid (gla)

Gastric Reflux

See: REFLUX. GASTRIC ULCER. See: PEPTIC ULCER. ... gastric reflux

Gerard, John

 1545-1611. Elizabethan physician. Born at Nantwich, Cheshire. Writer of the famous herbal: “Anatomie of Plants” (1597) in which is revealed considerable scientific insight into the medicinal character of plants. Herbalist to James I. Shakespeare must have visited his garden in Holborn, subsidised by the King. Also a surgeon, becoming a Master of Chirurgy. He was one of the first to discover the ‘companionship of plants’, referring to the affinities and antipathies in the plant kingdom.

First to grow potatoes in England. His garden at Holborn, London, and now Fetter Lane, was then a village. ... gerard, john

Platycodon Grandiflorum

(Jacq.) A. DC.

Family: Campanulaceae.

Habitat: East Asia; introduced into India and cultivated in rockeries and borders.

English: Balloon Flower, Chinese Bell Flower.

Action: Expectorant and antitussive. Root—used to treat cough, tonsillitis and asthma, also to treat stomatitis, peptic ulcer and inflammatory diseases. (WHO.)

The major chemical constituents of the root are triterpene saponins. The root exhibits haemolytic action.... platycodon grandiflorum

Polygonum Glabrum


Family: Polygonaceae.

Habitat: Throughout India in marshy places, up to 1,900 m. in the hills.

Ayurvedic: Rakta-rohidaa (Gujarat).

Siddha/Tamil: Attalaree.

Action: Plant juice and rootstock— used in pneumonia, consumption, jaundice, fevers. Leaf— antispasmodic. Used for colic.

The leaves contain flavonoids— quercetin, rhamnetin, quercitrin, avic- ularin and rutin. Flowers contain pigments, delphinidin-3,5-diglucoside and cyanidin-3,5-diglucoside and quercetin.

The methanolic aqueous extract of the leaf gave a pure anthelmintic substance, a terpenoid (PGA). (The herb is used as an anthelmintic in Sudan.)... polygonum glabrum

Prostate Gland, Diseases Of

Disease of the PROSTATE GLAND can affect the ?ow of URINE so that patients present with urological symptoms.

Prostatitis This can be either acute or chronic. Acute prostatitis is caused by a bacterial infection, while chronic prostatitis may follow on from an acute attack, arise insidiously, or be non-bacterial in origin.

Symptoms Typically the patient has pain in the PERINEUM, groins, or supra pubic region, and pain on EJACULATION. He may also have urinary frequency, and urgency.

Treatment Acute and chronic prostatitis are treated with a prolonged course of antibiotics. Patients with chronic prostatitis may also require anti-in?ammatory drugs, and antidepressants.

Prostatic enlargement This is the result of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), causing enlargement of the prostate. The exact cause of this enlargement is unknown, but it affects 50 per cent of men between 40 and 59 years and 95 per cent of men over 70 years.

Symptoms These are urinary hesitancy, poor urinary stream, terminal dribbling, frequency and urgency of urination and the need to pass urine at night (nocturia). The diagnosis is made from the patient’s history; a digital examination of the prostate gland via the rectum to assess enlargement; and analysis of the urinary ?ow rate.

Treatment This can be with tablets, which either shrink the prostate – an anti-androgen drug such as ?nasteride – or relax the urinary sphincter muscle during urination. For more severe symptoms the prostate can be removed surgically, by transurethral resection of prostate (TURP), using either electrocautery or laser energy. A new treatment is the use of microwaves to heat up and shrink the enlarged gland.

Cancer Cancer of the prostate is the fourth most common cause of death from cancer in northern European males: more than 10,000 cases are diagnosed every year in the UK and the incidence is rising by 3 per cent annually.

Little is known about the cause, but the majority of prostate cancers require the male hormones, androgens, to grow.

Symptoms These are similar to those resulting from benign prostatic hypertrophy (see above). Spread of the cancer to bones can cause pain. The use of a blood test measuring the amount of an ANTIGEN, PROSTATE SPECIFIC ANTIGEN (PSA), can be helpful in making the diagnosis – as can an ULTRASOUND scan of the prostate.

Treatment This could be surgical, with removal of the prostate (either via an abdominal incision, total prostatectomy, or transurethrally), or could be by radiotherapy. In more advanced cancers, treatment with anti-androgen drugs, such as cyprotexone acetate or certain oestrogens, is used to inhibit the growth of the cancer.... prostate gland, diseases of

Psidium Guajava


Family: Myrtaceae.

Habitat: Native to Central America; cultivated chiefly in Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Bihar, Maharashtra, and Andhra Pradesh.

English: Guava

Ayurvedic: Peruka (non-classical), Amaruuda.

Siddha/Tamil: Koyya.

Action: Unripe fruit—antidiar- rhoeal. Leaves—used for dysentery, diabetes, cough and cold. Flowers— anthelmintic.

Guava juice may be helpful in regulating blood sugar in type 2 diabetes and syndrome X. (Sharon M. Herr.)

A residue obtained from methanolic fraction of unripe fruits was found to possess significant antidiarrhoeal activity. The fraction decreased gastric motility in an experimental animal model. The fraction was also found to inhibit significantly the growth of different strains of Shigella sp. and Vibrio cholerae.

In China and Taiwan, the leaf extract is administered for treating diarrhoea, dysentery, diabetes and inflammations. The leaf extract (containing quercetin) inhibits acetylcholine release in the gastro-intestinal tract which might account for us antidiarrhoeal activity. An extract of leaves with a little salt is given in relieve whooping cough.

In New Papua Guinea, decoction of new leaf tips is drunk to treat hepatitis.

Guava seed oil contains very higher proporation of linoleic acid (75.52%) than sunflower, groundnut, olive, soybean and coconut oil. The seeds from Pakistan yield 9.25% of a fatty oil.

Vitamin C content of the ripe fruit ranges from 100 to 1000 mg/100 g. It is highest in the skin and in the flesh next to it.

Psidium cattleyanum Sabine is equated with Straberry Guava and is known as Seemai Koyya in Tamil Nadu and Pahari Payaar in Bengal. The fruit contains vitamin C 15-44 mg/100 g.

Smaller var. of Guava is equated with Psidium guineense Sw. It is found in Tripura.... psidium guajava

Gerard House

Founded by Thomas Bartram, 1958, with formulae used with success in his busy practice as Consulting Medical Herbalist, Bournemouth, England. Objects: to spread knowledge of herbal medicine and to provide a reliable service of safe alternatives to drugs. Foundation named after John Gerard in the belief that the science of the herbalist makes an important contribution towards national health. ... gerard house

Punica Granatum


Family: Punicaceae.

Habitat: Native to Iran; but cultivated throughout India.

English: Pomegranate.

Ayurvedic: Daadima, Daadim- ba, Raktapushpa, Dantabijaa, Raktakusumaa, Lohitpushpaka.

Unani: Anaar, Roomaan, Gulnaar, Gulnaar Farsi.

Siddha/Tamil: Maathulai.

Action: Rind of fruit—astringent, stomachic, digestive. Used for diarrhoea, dysentery, colitis, dyspepsia and uterine disorders. Leaf—used in stomatitis (recommended by The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India). Fresh juice of fruit—refrigerant, cosive, antiemetic; given as an adjuvant in diarrhoea, dyspepsia, biliousness, inflammations of the stomach, palpitation, excessive thirst and fevers. Bark of stem and root—anthelmintic, febrifuge. Given for night sweats. Rind of fruit, bark of stem and root— antidiarrhoeal. Powdered flower buds—used in bronchitis.

The fruit rind (dried) contains up to 26, stem bark 10-25, root bark 28 and leaves 11% tannin.

The rind gave an ellagitannin (granatin B, leaves gave granatins A and B and punicafolin); punicalagin, puni- calin and ellagic acid. Pentose gly- cosides of malvidin and pentunidin have also been isolated from the rind. Rind extract showed significant hypo- glycaemic activity in mildly diabetic rats.

Seeds gave malvidin pentose glyco- side.

Flowers gave pelargonidin-3,5-di- glucoside; also sitosterol, ursolic acid, maslinic acid, asiatic acid, sitosterol- beta-D-glucoside and gallic acid.

Extracts of the whole fruit were highly active against Micrococcus pyo- genes var. aureus, E. coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa; also very effective against intestinal pathogenic bacilli.

Aqueous extract of the root was found to inhibit the activity of My- cobacterium tuberculosis 607.

The proanthocyanidins of pomegranate showed hypolipidaemic activity by their ability to enhance resistance of vascular wall preventing penetration of cholesterol into atherogenic lipopro- teins.... punica granatum

Red Ginseng Tea

Red Ginseng Tea is extracted from a human-shaped perennial plant originating from China and Korea, where its root has been used in traditional medicine for thousands of years. The Chinese considered that ginseng tea had the power to prolong life and cure a variety of diseases. Red ginseng teais obtained from the unpeeled dried ginseng root which has undergone a steaming process and thus turned reddish-brown. Red Ginseng Tea brewing The red ginseng tea steeping process requires a minimum of five minutes which allows the extraction of the best ingredients from the plant root with healing properties. The ideal brewing temperature is eighty degrees Celsius. It is best served with honey. Red Ginseng Tea health benefits For centuries, red ginseng tea has been used to raise mental alertness and avert tiredness. The root of the plant is full of beneficial minerals and vitamins, as well as essential oils and natural enzymes. Red ginseng tea has both a stimulating and calming effect on the mind, it reduces stress, it improves blood circulation, digestion and the respiratory function. In addition, the immune system is strenghtened. Red ginseng tea consumption is also related to an increased metabolic rate, which leads to a faster weight loss process. Furthermore, research shows that one of the health benefits of red ginseng tea includes its cancer-preventive properties and its potential ability to treat Lyme disease. Red Ginseng Tea side effects Red Ginseng Tea is generally known to have no or only mild side effects which are usually the result of excessive tea consumption - it is therefore advisable to have a moderate tea intake and to seek advice from a health expert first. Some of these side effects include insomnia, nausea, headaches, anxiety, high or low blood pressure, irregular heartbeat or digestive problems. It is not recommended to consume red ginseng tea along with other medication, because it can interact with it and lead to unpleasant side effects. The consumption of red ginseng tea should mainly be avoided by children, pregnant women, people with diabetes, blood pressure poblems or those affected by prostate, uterine, ovarian or breast cancer. Red Ginseng Tea is sweet, tasty and has a stimulating effect, giving you the boost you need throughout the day. You can now enjoy a delightful cup of tea and benefit from its tremendously positive effects.... red ginseng tea

Gladlax Tablets

Active Constituents: Aloes (Cape) BP 50.00mg. Pulverised Fennel (BHMA Master File 006/2) BHP (1983) 15.00mg. Pulverised Valerian BP 30.00mg. Pulverised Holy Thistle BHP (1983) (BHMA Master File 51/1) 60.00mg. A traditional herbal remedy for the relief of occasional or non-persistent constipation. Not for pregnancy or nursing mothers. (Gerard House) ... gladlax tablets

Gland Balancer

There are times when the endocrine orchestra fails to strike its normal note; when energies of life flow slowly and body tone is low. Such is when stimulation of the thyroid, pancreas, and adrenals by natural precursors of their hormones is helpful. The following has a hormone- effect and proves useful for general weakness, change of life, persistent fatigue, sterility, puberty and adolescence, frigidity, metabolic disorders:

Formula. Ginseng 2; Liquorice 1; Sarsaparilla 1; Ginger half; Kelp half. Dose – powders: half a teaspoon; tinctures 1-3 teaspoons; liquid extracts: 1-2 teaspoons; in water or honey thrice daily. ... gland balancer

Glauber Salts

One pinch Glauber salts in an early morning cup of tea, every day, was once taken as a preventative for gout. ... glauber salts

Glentona Herbal Blood Purifier

Popular blood tonic of the 1930s, 1940s and 1950s. Ingredients: Liquid Extract Liquorice 5 per cent, Infusion Gentian Co Conc 10 per cent, Infusion Senna Conc 5 per cent. And 25 per cent alcoholic extractive from Burdock 5 per cent, Red Clover 5 per cent, Queen’s root 2.5 per cent, Yellow Dock root 1.25 per cent, Poke root 2.5 per cent, Sarsaparilla 2.5 per cent. (Carter Bros) ... glentona herbal blood purifier

Reissantia Grahamii

(Wight) Ding Hou.

Synonym: Hippocratea grahamii Wight.

Pristimera grahamii A. C. Smith.

Family: Celastraceae; Hip- pocrateaceae.

Habitat: Konkan, and the South Andamans.

Folk: Danshir, Daushir, Lokhandi, Yesti, Zerwati (Maharashtra).

Action: Root—used for the treatment of respiratory affections, common cold and influenza.

The roots contain about twice the amount of pristimerin as in R. indica and show similar antibiotic properties. Pristimerin is found active against Streptococcus viridans, causative organism for sore throat and tonsilitis, and S. pyogenes.... reissantia grahamii

Relate Marriage Guidance

The idea of a marriage-guidance council came from a group of doctors, clergy and social workers who were concerned for the welfare of marriage. It is based upon two major concepts: that marriage provides the best possible way for a man and woman to live together and rear their children; and that the counsellors share a basic respect for the unique personality of the individual and his (or her) right to make his (or her) own decisions. The organisation consists of between 120 and 130 Marriage Guidance Councils throughout the country, comprising about 1,250 counsellors. These Councils are a?liated to Relate National Marriage Guidance, which is responsible for the selection, training and continued supervision of all counsellors. Anyone seeking help can telephone or write for an appointment. No fees are charged, but those receiving help are encouraged to donate what they can.... relate marriage guidance

Ruta Graveolens


Family: Rutaceae.

Habitat: Native to Mediterranean region; cultivated all over India.

English: Garden Rue.

Unani: Sudaab, Suddaab.

Siddha/Tamil: Aruvada.

Action: Herb—stimulating, antispasmodic, stomachic; irritant, abortifacient. Used as an emme- nagogue, in hysterical conditions, cough and croupy affections, colic and flatulence. Leaf—used in atonic amenorrhoea, menorrhoea and colic. Externally, used for sciatica, headache, muscular chest pain, bronchitis and arthritic conditions. (Fresh juice of leaves, internally, can lead to painful irritations of the stomach and intestines). Oil— antispasmodic, antiepileptic, em- menagogue, rubefacient. (Toxic in large doses.)

Ruta graveolens has been included among unapproved herbs by German Commission E.

The herb contains a volatile oil, with 2-undecanone (30.73) 2-nona- none (18.06), 2-nonyl acetate (11.03), psoralen (1.28) and bergapten and xan- thotoxin (7.24%); rutin (about 2%). The flavonoids include quercetin; cou- marins include bergapten, daphnore- tin, isoimperatorin, naphthoherniarin, psoralen, pangelin, rutamarin, rutarin, scopoletin and umbelliferone. Tissue culture of the plant gave furacridone alkaloids. Tissue culture of the root gave gravacridondiol and its glucoside.

The spasmolytic activity of the herb is attributed to the presence of bergapten, xanthotoxin and the essential oil. Anti-inflammatory and antitumour activity is due to rutin. The furo- coumarins are responsible for the herb's phototoxicity.

The herb is hepatotoxic, and is con- traindicated in kidney diseases and bleeding disorders. (Sharon M. Herr.) Maximum safe level is 0.001% for Rue and 0.0002% for the oil. (Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, 2007.)... ruta graveolens

Scutellaria Galericulata


Family: Labiatae; Lamiaceae.

Habitat: Kashmir at 1,500-2,400 m.

English: Skullcap (equated with S. lateriflora Linn.), Scurvy Grass.

Action: Central nervous relaxant and restorative, brain and CNS vasodilator, sedative, antispasmodic, anticonvulsive. Used for nervous stress, disturbed sleep, menstrual tension, headache, migraine, neurological and neurimotor conditions, epilepsy.

Roots, stem and flowers of S. galer- iculata gave flavonoids and their gly- cosides, chrysin-7-glucuronide, baica- lein, baicalin, apigenin, apigenin-7- glucoside and galeroside (baicalcin-7- beta-L-rhamnofuranoside). Cytotoxi- city of baicalin and baicalein (isolated from S. barbata D. Don synonym S. rivularis Wall.) has been investigated on human hepatoma cell lines, human liver cells and human pancreatic cancer line. (Chem Abstr, 121, 292196y, 1994.)

S. galericulata is used as an adulterant of S. lateriflora. (See also WHO monograph on Scutellaria grandiflora Adams.)

In Oriental medicine, Skullcap refers to S. baicalensis Georgi. It contains the flavonoids baicalin, baicalein, wogonin, skullcapflavones I and II in addition to other flavones. Baicalin exhibits anti-inflammatory and antiallergic properties.

S. baicalensis inhibited lipid perox- idation in rat liver and has been clinically tested in China; patients with chronic hepatitis showed improvement (above 70%) in various symptoms. (Potter's New Cyclopedia.)

According to The British Herbal Pharmacopoeia, S. lateriflora can be used as a mild sedative.... scutellaria galericulata

Glottis – Spasm Of

May be caused by a reflux from the stomach. Cramp bark.

Formula. Liquid Extracts: Goldenseal 1 drachm, Gelsemium 1 drachm, Stone root 2 drachms, Burdock 4 drachms. Water to 4oz. Dose: 1 teaspoon after meals, thrice daily. (W.W. Fraser, MD). Practitioner use. ... glottis – spasm of

Goat Disease

The disease (caseous lymphadenitis) attacks the lymphatic system and may spread to sheep and humans. Breaks out sporadically in goats imported from abroad. Those in close contact with infected animals are at risk.

Symptoms: loss of weight, wasting illness, skin abscesses.

Treatment. Tea: Aniseed 1; Senna leaf 1; Nettles 2. 2 teaspoons to each cup boiling water; infuse 10-15 minutes in covered vessel. 1 cup thrice daily. Add to each dose: 30 drops Tincture Echinacea. ... goat disease

Selenicereus Grandiflorus

Britton & Rose.

Synonym: Cereus grandiflorus Mill.

Family: Cactaceae.

Habitat: Indigenous to Mexico; introduced in Indian gardens.

English: Night-Blooming Cereus, Sweet-scented Cactus.

Ayurvedic: Visarpin, Mahaapushpa, Raatripraphulla.

Action: Flowers and tender shoots— cardiac stimulant and diuretic (used for irritable bladder and congested kidneys), central nervous system stimulant.

The plant contains alkaloids (including cactine) and flavonoids based on isorhamnetin.

Alkaloid, cactine is reported to have a digitalis-like activity on the heart. (Alcoholic extract is used in homoeopathy.)... selenicereus grandiflorus

Sesbania Grandiflora

(L.) Poir.

Synonym: Agati grandiflora Desv.

Family: Papilionaceae; Fabaceae.

Habitat: Native to tropical Asia; grown in Assam, Bengal, Punjab, Vadodara, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu.

English: Agati Sesban, Swamp Pea.

Ayurvedic: Agastya, Agasti, Munidrum, Munitaru, Muni, Vangasena, Vakrapushpa, Kumbha.

Siddha/Tamil: Agatti.

Action: Plant—astringent, antihistamine, febrifuge. Used for intermittent fevers, catarrh, cough, consumption, glandular enlargement.

The aqueous extract of flowers has been found to produce haemolysis of human and sheet erythrocytes even at low concentration due to methyl ester of oleanolic acid. Flowers also gave nonacosan-6-one and kaempferol-3- rutinoside.

The seed gave kaempferol-3,7-diglu- coside, (+)-leucocyanidin and cyani- din-3-glucoside. Seed also contains galactomannan.

A saponin present in the leaves on hydrolysis gave an acid sapogenin oleanoic acid, galactose, rhamnose and glucuronic acid. Besides saponin, the leaves contain an aliphatic alcohol, grandiflorol.

The bark contains gum and tannin. The red gum is used as a substitute for Gum arabic. An infusion of the bark is given in first stages of smallpox and other eruptive fevers (emetic in large doses).

Dosage: Whole plant—10- 20 ml juice; 50-100 ml decoction. (CCRAS.)... sesbania grandiflora


An operation in which large breaches of SKIN surface due to wounding, burns or ulceration are closed by TRANSPLANTATION of skin from other parts. There are three methods by which this is done. Most frequently the epidermis only is transplanted, using a method introduced by Reverdin and by Thiersch, and known by their names. For this purpose, a broad strip of epidermis is shaved o? the thigh or upper arm, after the part has been carefully sterilised, and is transferred bodily to the raw or ulcerated surface, or is cut into smaller strips and laid upon it. A second method is for small pieces of the skin in its whole thickness to be removed from the arm and thigh, or even from other people, and then implanted and bound upon the raw surface. (This method has the disadvantage that the true skin must contract at the spot from which the graft is taken, leaving an unsightly scar.) When very large areas require to be covered, a third method is commonly used. A large ?ap of skin, amply su?cient to cover the gap, is raised from a neighbouring or distant part of the body, in such a way that it remains attached along one margin, so that blood vessels can still enter and nourish it. It is then turned so as to cover the gap; or, if it be situated on a distant part, the two parts are brought together and ?xed in this position until the ?ap grows ?rmly to its new bed. The old connection of the ?ap is then severed, leaving it growing in its new place.

Researchers are having success in growing human skin in the laboratory for grafting on to people who have been badly burned and have insu?cient intact skin surface to provide an autologous graft (one provided by the recipient of the graft). Other techniques being researched are the use of specially treated shark skin and the production of arti?cial skin.... skin-grafting

Golden Fire

Salve for rheumatic joints, stiff muscles, lumbago, backache and to prepare the spine or skeleton for manipulation as in osteopathy.

Ingredients: Cayenne pods 2oz (or Tincture Capsicum 60 drops); Camphor flowers quarter of an ounce; Peppermint oil 20 drops; Cajuput oil 50 drops; Eucalyptus oil 20 drops; Beeswax 2oz. Sunflower seed oil 16oz.

Method: Gently heat Sunflower seed oil. If Cayenne pods, are used: add pods, steep for one and a half hours. Stir. Strain. Over gentle heat add wax stirring gently until dissolved. Add other ingredients (including Tincture Capsicum if used), stirring well. Pour into jars while fluid. ... golden fire


Mild pain-relieving balm for rheumatism, muscular aches and pains. Menthol BP 5 per cent; Camphor BP 2 per cent; Oil of Cajeput BPC ’79 2.5 per cent; Oil of Eucalyptus Ph.Eur. 2.5 per cent; Oil of Turpentine BP 8 per cent; Methyl Sal Ph.Eur. 10 per cent. (G.R. Lane) ... gonne

Grape Seed Oil

High in polyunsaturates. Contains nearly 75 per cent linoleic acid. Made from crushed seeds of white grapes. Contains more polyunsaturated fats than corn or sunflower oil. Used chiefly in cooking for coronary patients. ... grape seed oil

Grave’s Disease

Hyperactive thyroid gland. See: THYROID. ... grave’s disease

Greasy Skin

Blue Flag, Goldenseal, Queen’s Delight, Garlic. ... greasy skin

Green Health Cup

Feed into an electric juicer leaves of any one kind of leaf (Mint, Alfalfa, etc). For Green Multicup juice any number of different leaves: Alfalfa, Chard, Dandelion, Carrots, Parsley, Beet Greens, Filaree, Spinach, Celery, Mint, Kale. Discard stems.

Green drinks are important sources of chlorophyll, vitamins and minerals and are regarded as preventive medicine. ... green health cup

Smilax Glabra


Family: Liliaceae.

Habitat: Assam, Khasi and Garo Hills, eastwards to upper Burma, Indo-China and southern China.

Ayurvedic: Dweepaantara-Vachaa, Chobachini (bigger var.).

Action: Roots—used for syphilis, venereal diseases and sores, as a blood purifier.

Astilbin, 3-O-caffeoyl-shikimic, fer- ulic, palmitic, shikimic and succinic acids; engeletin, isoengeletin; glucose; daucosterol, beta-sitosterol, stigmas- terol are major constituents of the root.

Crude saponins, isolated from the plant, produced preventive effect on cholesterol-fed atherosclerosis in quails.

Ayurvedic: Maitri.

Unani: Ushbaa (wild species).

Folk: Ghot-vel (Maharashtra).

Action: Roots—used as a substitute for Hemidesmus indicus. Used for venereal diseases, urinary infections, rheumatism. Also used for dysentery. (S. perfoliata Lour., synonym S. prolifera Roxb. is used as a substitute for S. ovalifolia.)... smilax glabra

Spikenard Tea Great Benefits

Spikenard Tea is the best solution if you are suffering from asthma, coughs or headaches. Spikenard is a perennial bush with large, green leaves, red berries and greenish white flowers. It grows mainly on the American continent and it’s been used for medical purposes since the 15th century, when the Native Americans used it to treat childbirth pains or coughs. Spikenard Tea can also be turned into a very consistent balm to treat bone fractures, wounds and cuts. Spikenard Tea Properties Spikenard Tea has anti-inflammatory properties, so it’s an excellent remedy for topical pains, such as localized irritations or earache. It’s versatility towards any type of health condition makes Spikenard one of the most important herbs in the Native American alternative medicine. Spikenard Tea is rich in tannis, volatile oil and diterpene acids, which help your system restore its health and vitality. Spikenard Tea Benefits Spikenard Tea contains depurative and anti-septic substances, often being used to clean and sanitize the blood. However, its action areas are many: headaches, asthma, cough, gas, pains, deafness, gout, syphilis. Also, Spikenard Tea is a great tonic that can really work miracles in case you need to induce sweating. A decoction made of Spikenard can bring relief to menstrual pains, burn injuries and backaches. If you suffer from tuberculosis, a cup of Spikenard Tea every day can really make a difference. It’s also good for detoxifying your body, and a compress of Spikenard Tea, applied on an eczema, will calm down the pain and make the irritation disappear. In North America, Spikenard Tea has also a culinary use: people make jelly out of it, which, if you think about it, it’s not a bad idea at all! Who wouldn’t want a jar of jelly that can bring joy both to your tongue and your general health? How to make Spikenard Tea Infusion Preparing Spikenard Tea is very easy. Take a handful of spikenard roots and add it to the boiling water in the teapot and let it infuse for about 5 minutes. For more energy and better results, wait for another 5 minutes and drink it sugar free. You can drink it hot or keep it in your refrigerator for not more than a week. In time, the tea loses its curative properties and health benefits. It is better to prepare a new bottle of tea every 3 or 4 days. Spikenard Tea Side Effects When taken properly, Spikenard Tea has no side effects. However, make sure you are not allergic to any of its ingredients and don’t drink more than 4 cups a day. Spikenard Tea is a medicinal treatment and it can’t replace coffee, unlike other teas, such as spearmint tea. Spikenard Tea Contraindications Don’t take Spikenard Tea if you are pregnant and it’s best to avoid it if you are breast-feeding. If you are pregnant and still thinking about taking it, talk to your doctor first. Other than that, there’s no reason not to add Spikenard tea to your herbal treatments cabinet. Follow the instructions and enjoy the great benefits of this tea!... spikenard tea great benefits

Stephania Glabra


Family: Menispermaceae.

Habitat: Himalayas from Simla to Sikkim, Khasi Hills and Assam.

Ayurvedic: Used as Paathaa (Cissampelos pareira).

Folk: Gidaangu (Garhwal), Paahraa (Dehradun).

Action: Tubers—used in pulmonary diseases, asthma, intestinal, disorders and hyperglycaemia.

Alkaloid palmitine exhibits antibiotic activity; stepharine anti-cholines- terase, cycleanine anti-inflammatory and hyndarine sedative activity. Tetra- hydropalmatine produces sedative and anticonvulsant effects on animals (similar but weaker to that of chloropro- mazine). Alkaloids from rhizomes— hypotensive. Pronuciferine hydrochloride—spasmolytic. Root—hypogly- caemic, spasmolytic, CNS active, antimicrobial.... stephania glabra

Griping Pain

Acute pain in the abdominal cavity. Non-recurring.

Tea. Combine equal parts: Avens, Catmint, Thyme. 2 teaspoons to each cup boiling water; infuse 5 minutes. Half-1 cup freely.

Alternative: quarter of a teaspoon powdered Ginger, or Cinnamon in honey.

Enema: Catmint, Chamomile or Balm.


Persistent griping should be investigated. ... griping pain


Lithospermum officinale. Borage family. Part used: seeds and leaves. Action: anti-gonadotropic. Mild contraceptive.

Uses: Sometimes used as an alternative to The Pill. ... gromwell


See: COCILLANA. ... guarea


Commiphora mukul. Resin. Myrrh-like exudate.

Action: anti-inflammatory, anti-rheumatic, anti-cholesterol.

Uses: Internally: rheumatism, gout. Regulate cholesterol levels. Lumbago. Osteoarthritis. Preparations. Tincture: 1-5 drops in water, thrice daily.

Powder: two 300mg capsules thrice daily. (Arkocaps) ... gugulon

Tea For Gallbladder

Liver failure and gallbladder problems lead at times, which means that you’ll have small solid accumulations on your liver that could cause you pain and irritation. In order to treat gallbladder affections, doctors generally recommend a wide range of treatments, from pills to surgery. However, these affections are among the most painful and therefore you must treat them right. It’s true that alternative medicine fans suggest that you should try an herbal remedy before facing the scalpel, but this kind of treatment may not be adequate for you. How a Tea for Gallbladder Works Some practitioners actually prescribe herbal remedies for small gallbladder affections such as gallstones before sending you to the operating room. This proves that these teas can dissolve the stone and increase your liver and kidney function. However, remember this is a medical treatment and you need to be supervised when taking it in order to avoid unnecessary complications. Efficient Tea for Gallbladder A Tea for Gallbladder’s main purpose is to improve your liver and kidney functioning, by cleansing the urinary and digestive systems. Thanks to their active constituents, many of these teas have the ability to reconstruct your damaged cells or make your body produce some new ones. In any case, you’ll notice an improvement within weeks. If nothing seems to be working, however, talk to your doctor as soon as possible and don’t try to treat it at home! If you don’t know which Tea for Gallbladder fits best your needs, here’s a list to help you out: - Peppermint Tea – some say that this decoction will dissolve gallstones in no time. Aside from that, it’s one hundred percent safe and it will also help you in case you’re suffering from diarrhea, asthenia, anemia, headaches, stress, anxiety or sore throat. It has a pleasant taste and fragrance and it could successfully replace your morning coffee. - Green Tea – of course, let’s not forget the world’s richest tea! This Tea for Gallbladder contains the right amount of nutrients, enzymes and minerals so not only that it will flush all gallstones out of your system, but it will also heal the wounded cells and restore your general well being. Just don’t take it in case you’re experiencing menstrual and menopausal symptoms. - Lemon Tea – you can either make it from leaves or fruits. This Tea for Gallbladder will eliminate all unwanted affections and stop all infections from developing. Take a sip every 5 minutes for about an hour every day and enjoy this tea’s wonderful effect! Tea for Gallbladder Side Effects When taken properly, these teas are generally safe. However, don’t exceed the number of cups recommended per day in order to avoid other problems, such as stomach irritations, nausea, vomiting and even hallucination. If you’ve been taking one of these teas for a while and you feel that something’s not alright, ask for medical assistance immediately! Once you have the medical approval, choose a Tea for Gallbladder that seems right for you and enjoy its great benefits!... tea for gallbladder

Tea For Gout

Gout is a medical condition, characterized by recurrent attacks of acute inflammatory arthritis: a red, hot, swollen joint. The most commonly affected part is the joint at the base of the big toe. Gout is caused by elevated levels of uric acid in the blood: it crystallizes, and the crystals set down on joints, tendons, and the surrounding tissues. The treatment is based on anti-inflammatory drugs. In last decades, gout has increased in frequency due to the metabolic syndrome, longer life expectancy and changes in diet. How Tea for Gout works Tea for Gout usually reduces the inflammation of the joints, alleviating the discomfort associated with it. Efficient Teas for Gout Studies revealed that Nettle tea and Olive leaf tea are efficient in dealing with gout.  Also, Green tea , due to its anti-inflammatory action, is a good tea for gout. Nettle is a plant generally found in the Mediterranean areas. As tea, it is consumed in order to cover a large range of ailments: intestinal disorders, skin problems, urinary tract affections, but not only. Nettle beverage, as tea for gout, is used because of its ability to reduce inflammation. Nowadays, it can also counter arthritis, rheumatism, tendonitis and other disorders of the muscles and joints. To prepare Nettle tea, add a tablespoon of the dried roots and leaves in boiling water. Steep it for about 5-6 minutes. Strain it. Drink it warm, whenever you like. Olive leaf comes from the olive tree, originating from the Mediterranean regions. The olive fruit is green, having an oblong shape. It has a strong, astringent taste with salty and sour notes. Nowadays, this plant is best known for its anti-aging, immune-stimulating, and antibiotic action. As tea for gout, it reduces the inflammation. As well, Olive leaf tea increases blow flow by relaxing the arteries. To prepare Olive leaf tea, place 10 grams of olive leaves in a pan containing 2 quarts of boiling water. Let the mix stand for about 15 minutes. Strain it. Drink it twice a day. Tea for Gout: Side effects Teas for gout can cause side effects, if taken in large doses. Gout is largely spread and affects elder people, but not only. Patients suffering from this disease are recommended to drink teas for gout to mitigate the symptoms of the disease.... tea for gout

Gullet, Stricture Of.

See: OESOPHAGEAL STRICTURE.... gullet, stricture of.

Tea For Gallstones

Gallstones are solid accumulations that stick to your gallbladder due to impurities, kidney failure or other health problems. Usually, your doctor would prescribe a laser surgery to dissolve them, but many practitioners recommend an herbal treatment before sharpening their scalpels. You must also take into consideration the fact that the surgery is painful and expensive while the herbal treatment costs you nothing. How a Tea for Gallstones Works A Tea for Gallstones’ main goal is to trigger a positive response from your body and make it produce the enzymes necessary for the gallstones absorption. In order to do that, a Tea for Gallstones must contain the right amount of active constituents, such as acids, natural enzymes, tannins, nutrients and minerals (iron, sodium, manganese and magnesium are well known for their curative properties, especially when it comes to removing gallstones and other gallbladder affections). Efficient Tea for Gallstones When starting a treatment based on a Tea for Gallstones, you must keep in mind the fact that it must be both efficient and one hundred percent safe. Ingesting a small amount of tea every now and then will make your body produce all the necessary substances to fight the solid accumulations and heal the affected areas. However, drinking more tea than it’s advised will not make you healthy faster. Just take your time and wait for the treatment to be effective. If you don’t know which teas are good, here’s a list to choose from: - Green Tea –this Tea for Gallstones has all the ingredients necessary to sustain life, as the scientists have shown, so it’s good for a number of health problems, from sore throats to diabetes. Green Tea contains an elevated level of acids so it can dissolve your gallstones in no time. However, make sure you don’t take it if you’re experiencing menopausal or menstrual symptoms. - Milk Thistle Tea – contains an active ingredient called silymarin and it’s recommended for a wide range of affections which include gallstones and other kidney problems. However, don’t take more than 2 cups per day for a short time period (1 or 2 weeks) in order to avoid other health complications. - Globe Artichoke Tea – is very effective in all kidney problems, especially kidney failure and gallstones. This Tea for Gallstones contains antioxidants, such as caffeylquinic acids which has proven its curative properties in the past years. However, if you’re pregnant, you may want to talk to your doctor before making any move. Tea for Gallstones Side Effects When taken properly, these teas are generally safe. Exceeding the number of cups recommended per day, however, might lead to a series of health complications, such as diarrhea, constipation, headaches, skin rash and even vomiting. If you’ve been taking one of these teas for a while and you’ve noticed some unusual reactions, talk to your doctor as soon as possible! If you have the medical approval and there’s nothing that could interfere with your treatment, choose a Tea for Gallstones that fits best your needs and enjoy its great benefits!... tea for gallstones

Tectona Grandis

Linn. f.

Family: Verbenaceae.

Habitat: A tree occurring in Western Peninsula, Central India and Bihar.

English: Teak tree.

Ayurvedic: Shaaka, Bhuumisaha, Dwaaradaaru, Varadaaru, Kharach- hada, Saagawaan, Saagauna.

Siddha/Tamil: Thekku.

Action: Flower—used in bronchitis, biliousness and urinary discharges. Flower and seed—diuretic.

Wood—expectorant, anti-inflammatory, antibilious, anthelmintic. Used for inflammatory swellings.

Bark—astringent. Used in bronchitis. Root—used for anuria and retention of urine. Nut oil—used in the treatment of scabies and other skin diseases; also for promoting hair growth.

The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India recommends the heartwood in lipid disorders, also for treating threatened abortion.

The wood is rich in anthraquinones, naphthalene compounds and triter- penic and hemi-terpenic compounds.

The Leaves contain tectoleafqui- none. The bark contains 7.14% tannin. The seed oil contains linoleic acid (about 53%), along with lauric, myris- tic, palmitic, stearic, oleic, linolenic and arachidic acids. The kernels yield 44.5% of a fatty oil.

Dosage: Heartwood—3-6 g powder. (API, Vol. III.)... tectona grandis

Gunshot Wounds

To prevent suppuration and pyaemia – Marigold.

Internally: Marigold petal tea freely.

Externally: Marigold (Calendula) ointment, cream or fomentation with petals. During the Coup d’etat in Paris in 1849, a Dr Jahr saved many limbs with Marigold. Echinacea to allay infection. See entry: WOUNDS. ... gunshot wounds

Hair – Greying

Rinse hair with strong decoction of Rosemary, Red Sage or Oak bark: believed to temporarily allay greying of the hair.

Supplements: PABA, Vitamin B-complex, Kelp, Selenium, Zinc. ... hair – greying

In-growing Toenail

Nail grows into surrounding soft tissue causing inflammation and possible infection, usually of the big toe.

Causes: tight shoes, inadequate footcare, cutting nails, etc. Cut nails straight across and not in a curve. Topical. After thorough cleaning with soap and hot water, dab affected area with tincture Myrrh or tincture Goldenseal. Thin-down whole of the nail with a nail file after which affected border of nail can be easily cut. Fasten slice of Lemon on nail at night to soften. Bathe nail with strong sea-salt solution. Nelson’s Hypercal Cream. ... in-growing toenail

Lymph Glands

Traps in the lymphatic system that collect byproducts of body infection and which support the immune system in its role as body protector. ... lymph glands

Mountain Grape

Oregon grape. Berberis aquifolium, Pursh. French: Berberis. Spanish: Berberis. Italian: Berberi. Parts used: root, rhizome.

Constituents: isoquinoline alkaloids (berberine, hydrastine, etc).

Action: cholagogue, hepatic, alterative, anti-diarrhoeal.

Uses: similar to those of Barberry (Barberry vulgaris). Dyspepsia. Blood impurities. Skin diseases: especially eczema, psoriasis.

Preparations: Thrice daily.

Decoction. Quarter to half a teaspoon to each cup water simmered 20 minutes. Dose: half a cup.

Liquid extract: 10-30 drops in water. Powder: 1-2g. ... mountain grape

Tea For Good Health

A good health means that all your system works properly and that there’s nothing that could give you a hard time. Generally, people think that if nothing hurts, they have a very strong health, when the truth is that they can’t really tell what’s going on with their body. In order to make sure everything is fine, you have to see a specialist. However, if your health is in danger, there are some teas that could work miracles for you and your body. Just give them a try! How Tea for Good Health Works A Tea for Good Health’s main purpose is to ameliorate your affections and induce a state of calmness and well-being. However, these teas are very useful if you have a very deficient immune system or you’re very sensitive to a series of external factors which may cause you colds, flu or asthenia. If that is the case, a Tea for Good Health will make your body produce the necessary amount of enzymes and nutrients in order to restore your natural health. Aside from Green Tea and Yerba Mate Tea, few teas can be taken for any problem. Not many teas have the same number of active ingredients capable to sustain life, like these two teas have. Efficient Tea for Good Health When choosing a Tea for Good Health, you need to keep in mind the fact that you’re looking for a decoction that’s both efficient and safe. If you don’t know which teas are good to strengthen your immune system, here’s a list to choose from: - Ginger Tea – the well known Chinese tea has a lot of benefits in store for you. Some say that it also cures a lot of affections, such as stress, anxiety and sore throat. Ginger Tea has a pleasant taste; just make sure you use the right amount of herbs when preparing a decoction in order to avoid irritations of the stomach, diarrhea and intolerance to acid foods and drinks. - Peppermint Tea – it’s good for a series of conditions, starting with digestive tract diseases and ending with respiratory system affections. It has a pleasant taste and it’s also one hundred percent safe. You can also use it if you’re suffering from diarrhea, bloating, vomiting and nausea. - Chamomile Tea – the world’s greatest panacea can be used to treat and bring relief to almost any medical problem, from sore throats to diabetes and menstrual or menopausal pains. You may also give it a try in case you’re suffering from stress, anxiety, migraines or headaches. A Chamomile Tea compress will turn this great Tea for Good Health into a reliable disinfector. - Rooibos Tea – rich in vitamin C, this tea can be taken to treat any auto-immune deficiency, such as colds, flu, soreness, pleurisy or pulmonary edema. Just make sure you don’t take more than 2 cups per day in order to avoid other health complications. Tea for Good Health Side Effects When taken properly, these teas are generally safe. However, high dosages may lead to a number of problems such as diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, upset stomach or even hallucinations. If you’ve been taking one of these teas for a while and you’re experiencing some unusual reactions from your body, talk to a specialist as soon as possible. Talk to an herbalist or ask your doctor before starting any kind of herbal treatment and be well informed of the risks. If you have your doctor’s ok on the matter and there’s nothing that could interfere with your herbal treatment, choose a Tea for Good Health that seems right for you and enjoy its wonderful benefits!... tea for good health

Thymus Gland

The thymus gland was given its name by Galen in the second century AD because of its resemblance to a bunch of thyme ?owers. It has two lobes and lies in the upper part of the chest. The centre (cortex) resembles LYMPHOID TISSUE and is made up of masses of small round cells called thymocytes (see THYMOCYTE; LYMPHOCYTE). The medulla is more loosely cellular and consists of a stroma which contains far fewer lymphocytes than are in the cortex.

The thymus gland is a vital part of the immunological system. Stem cells (see STEM CELL) from the BONE MARROW come to the thymus where they develop into immunologically competent cells. There are two distinct populations of lymphocytes. One is dependent on the presence of the thymus (Tlymphocytes); the other is independent of the thymus (B-lymphocytes). Both are concerned with immune responses (see IMMUNITY). The T-lymphocyte is a cell which in the absence of antigenic stimulation (see ANTIGEN) circulates through the blood, lymph nodes and back into the circulation again over a period of more than ten years. It performs a policing role, awaiting recognition of foreign material which it is able to identify as such. It reacts by multiplication and transformation and these are the ingredients of the immune response. B-lymphocytes are produced in the bone marrow and are concerned with the production of the circulating humoral ANTIBODIES.

The most common clinical disorder associated with abnormality of the thymus is MYASTHENIA GRAVIS. Ten per cent of patients with myasthenia gravis will have a tumour of the thymus, whilst the remainder will have in?ammatory changes in the thymus called thymitis.... thymus gland

Apocrine Gland

A gland that discharges cellular material in addition to the fluid it secretes. The term is usually applied to the type of sweat glands that appear in hairy body areas after puberty. (See also eccrine gland.)... apocrine gland

Bleeding Gums

See gingivitis.... bleeding gums

Tea For Good Skin

Good skin is something we all want. Even if you’re a man or a woman, black heads or acne are really bothering you. If that is the case, you have definitely tried a lot of pharmaceutical and cosmetic products and nothing seemed to be working. Alternative medicine recommends a number of teas and decoctions that will make your skin smoother than ever. All you have to do is commit to this treatment and maintain an adequate skin hygiene. How Tea for Good Skin Works It’s important to know that not only acne can deteriorate your natural glow. There are also a number of affections that can stain your skin, such as liver or kidney failure, eczema or skin rash due to allergies. Smoke will age you before time, wrinkling your mouth area and your forehead. Also, you may want to change your pillow case more often, in order to keep allergens and microbes away from your face. A Tea for Good Skin’s main purpose is to clear your skin through its antiseptic ingredients and nourish the damaged areas. Efficient Tea for Good Skin When choosing a Tea for Good Skin, you need to pick the ones with the highest antifungal and antiseptic properties. You can either drink the tea or use it as a face cleanser. In case you don’t know which teas are adequate, here’s a list we made for you: - Chamomile Tea – thanks to its antibacterial and antiseptic properties, Chamomile Tea is a great help when it comes to skin treatments. Both the pharmaceutical and the cosmetic companies have included Chamomile on their must have list of ingredients. A cup of tea per day will restore your skin’s natural glow while also improving your general health. - Oolong Tea - contains half the amount of caffeine that other teas contain. You can drink it daily or use it as a compress to apply it on your affected areas. This is probably the most effective Tea for Good Skin and also the safest. If you haven’t tried it yet, now would be a good time! - Black Tea – this wonderful Tea for skin improves your vascular activity and enhances your epithelial cells production. Pay attention, though: don’t take it if you’re on your period or experiencing some menopausal pains in order to avoid complication! - White Tea – also a good nutrient, White Tea can improve your general health, not just your skin. It’s best not to combine it with other tea, though. White Tea can have a negative reaction when mixed with green tea or black tea. You can also use a decoction or White Tea tinctures in order to treat your localized injuries. Tea for Good Skin Side Effects When taken properly, these teas are perfectly safe. Just make sure you don’t exceed the number of cups recommended per day in order to avoid complications such as diarrhea or constipation. Other than that, there’s no reason not to try a face cleanser based on a Tea for Good skin! However, if you’re not sure about it yet, talk to a dermatologist or to an herbalist. Don’t take a Tea for Good Skin if you’re pregnant, breastfeeding, on blood thinners, anticoagulants or preparing for a major surgery. If there’s nothing that could interfere with your herbal treatment, choose a Tea for Good Skin that fits you best and enjoy its wonderful benefits!... tea for good skin

Blood Glucose

The level of glucose in the blood. Abnormally high blood glucose (sometimes called sugar) levels are an indication of diabetes mellitus. (See also hyperglycaemia; hypoglycaemia.)... blood glucose

They Generally Heal Without Treatment Child Abuse

The maltreatment of children.

Child abuse may take the form of physical injury, sexual abuse, emotional mistreatment, and/or neglect; it occurs at all levels of society.

Being deprived or ill-treated in childhood may predispose people to repeat the pattern of abuse with their own children.

Children who are abused or at risk of abuse may be placed in care while the health and social services decide on the best course of action.... they generally heal without treatment child abuse

Child Guidance

A multidisciplinary diagnosis and advice team service for children suffering from emotional or behavioural problems in children. Indications of problems include poor performance at school, disruptive or withdrawn behaviour, lawbreaking, and drug abuse.

Child guidance professionals include psychiatrists, psychologists, and psychiatric social workers. For young children, play therapy may be used for diagnosis. Older children may be offered counselling, psychotherapy, or group therapy. Family therapy may be used in cases where there are difficulties between the child and 1 or both parents.... child guidance

Eccrine Gland

A type of sweat gland.... eccrine gland

Tea For Lucid Dreams

Having a lucid dream means dreaming while being aware of the fact that you are dreaming. However, many people become lucid in the middle of the dream or, on the contrary, fall lose reality contact after being lucid at first. Although traditional medicine can’t be very helpful in these cases, alternative medicine has a few tricks up its sleeve. How a Tea for Lucid Dreams Works A Tea for Lucid Dreams’ main purpose is to make you recall what you have dreamed by calming your nervous system and improving your memory function. These teas are good for a number of other diseases, such as memory loss, headaches or migraines. However, talk to an herbalist or to your doctor before starting any kind of herbal treatment in order to make sure everything will be alright. Efficient Tea for Lucid Dreams In order to work properly, a Tea for Lucid Dreams needs to be both very efficient and one hundred percent safe (since lucid dreams are not exactly a medical problem, you may want to avoid developing one). A tea that is rich in antioxidants, nutrients, tannins, volatile oils and minerals (sodium, magnesium, iron, manganese) would be very adequate. You may want to avoid teas with a large amount of acid agents (they could cause stomach pain). If you don’t know which teas could be useful for lucid dreams, here’s a list for guidance: - Green Tea – contains all the ingredients necessary to sustain life, so it’s useful for a wide range of ailments, not just lucid dreams. If you’re suffering from infertility, anemia, asthenia, loss of appetite, digestive tract complaints or nervous system failure, this decoction could also be useful. However, you must avoid it at all costs if you’re experiencing some menstrual or menopausal symptoms. The same advice if you’re pregnant (it may cause uterine contractions and therefore miscarriage). - Valerian Tea – was been used as a sleep aid since ancient times, when the Romans and the Greeks took it before going to bed. This Tea for Lucid Dreams, thanks to its active compounds, is a mild sedative and could also work miracles on your nervous system. However, you need to make sure that you don’t exceed the number of cups recommended per day in order to avoid hallucinations, tiredness or even death. - Chamomile Tea – of course, the world’s greatest panacea shouldn’t be left aside. If you’re having trouble remembering your dreams, try a cup of Chamomile Tea before you go to bed! This Tea has a great fragrance and a pleasant smell. Plus, it’s one hundred percent safe so you can drink as much as you want. Tea for Lucid Dreams Side Effects When taken according to specifications, these teas are generally safe. However, exceeding the number of cups recommended per day may lead to a number of health problems, such as diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, upset stomach or even death! If you’ve been taking one of these decoctions for a while and you’re experience a negative response from your body, ask for medical assistance right away! Don’t take a Tea for Lucid Dreams if you’re pregnant, breastfeeding, on blood thinners or anticoagulants. The same advice in case you’re preparing for a surgery. If your doctor says it’s ok to start an herbal treatment, choose a tea that fits best your requirements and enjoy its wonderful benefits!  ... tea for lucid dreams

Trianthema Govindia

Buch.-Ham ex G. Don.

Synonym: T. pentandra auct. non Linn.

Family: Aizoaceae.

Habitat: The plains from Punjab to Bihar, extending southwards to Karnataka.

Ayurvedic: Varshaabhu (related species).

Action: Plant—astringent in stomach diseases, deobstruent, abortifacient.

The root and stems contain hentri- acontane, hentriacontanol, beta-sitos- terol glucoside, stigmasterol glucoside and nonacos-1-en-4-one.... trianthema govindia

Trigonella Foenum-graecum