The meaning of the symbols of dream, dictionary/ seen in a dream.


A pathologic accumulation of air in tissues or organs... emphysema


A noncontagious inflammatory disease of the skin with much itching and burning... eczema


Gross lymphatic edema of the limbs leading to hypertrophy... elephantiasis


Inflammation of the small intestines.... enteritis


An attack of convulsion associated with hypertension in pregnancy... eclampsia


Ecstasy refers to a morbid mental condition, associated with an extreme sense of wellbeing, with a feeling of rapture, and temporary loss of self-control. It often presents as a form of religious obsession, with a feeling of direct communication with God, saintly voices and images being perceived. In milder cases the patient may preach as though with a divine mission to help others. Ecstasy may occur in happiness PSYCHOSIS, SCHIZOPHRENIA, certain forms of EPILEPSY, and abnormal personalities.

The term is also a street drug name for an amphetamine derivative, 3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine or MDMA, increasingly used as a ‘recreational’ drug. It is classi?ed as a class A drug under the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971. MDMA is structurally similar to endogenous CATECHOLAMINES and produces central and peripheral sympathetic stimulation of alpha and beta ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS. It is taken into nerve terminals by the serotonin transporter and causes release of the NEUROTRANSMITTER substances serotonin and dopamine. Following this, SEROTONIN depletion is prolonged. As serotonin plays a major part in mood control, this leads to the characteristic ‘midweek depression’ experienced by MDMA users.

Several fatalities in young people have been attributed to adverse reactions resulting from MDMA use/abuse and possibly accompanying alcohol consumption. The principal effects are increase in pulse, blood pressure, temperature and respiratory rate. Additional complications such as cardiac ARRHYTHMIA, heatstroke-type syndrome, HYPONATRAEMIA and brain haemorrhage may occur. There is also concern over possible effects on the mental concentration and memory of those using ecstasy.

Management of patients who get to hospital is largely symptomatic and supportive but may include gastric decontamination, and use of DIAZEPAM as the ?rst line of treatment as it reduces central stimulation which may also reduce TACHYCARDIA, HYPERTENSION and PYREXIA.... ecstasy


A drug capable of prolonging life indefinitely... elixir


A blockage of blood vessels either by blood clot, fat or air; see gas embolism.... embolism


Accumulation of pus in a body cavity... empyema


Inflammation of the brain and spinal cord due to infection... encephalitis


Confined to a limited geographic or ecologic niche.... endemic


The presence of endometrial tissue outside of the uterus. The endometrium is the mucus membrane inner lining of the uterus, with glandular cells and structural cells, both responding to estrogen by increasing in size (the proliferative phase), the first responding to progesterone (the secretory phase); if there is endometrial tissue outside of the uterus, the tissue expands and shrinks in response to the estrus cycle, but the normal shedding of the menstrual phase can be difficult. The most common type of endometriosis is found in the fallopian tubes; the abnormal fallopian endometrial tissue can shed and drain into the uterus, but it hurts! It’s funny, but little tiny ducts, like the ureters, bile ducts, and fallopian tubes really cramp. The colon and uterus are big muscular tubes and, when cramped up, cause rather strong pain. When one of those little bitty things gets tenesmus, your face gets white (or light tan), you start to sweat, shiver, and revert to a fetal position. Endometriosis that occurs around the ovaries or inside the belly and therefore can NEVER drain is a purely physical and medical condition, but fallopian presence of endometrium usually reaches its peak in the early thirties. It can be helped by ensuring a strong estrogen and progesterone balance, thereby decreasing the tendency to form clots in the tubes, and to experience severe cramps every month... endometriosis


Involuntary voiding of urine... enuresis


Usually a protein made by the body to make chemical reactions take place at a faster rate or to cause a colour change in a laboratory test.... enzyme


A group of cases of a specific disease or illness clearly in excess of what one would normally expect in a particular geographic area. There is no absolute criterion for using the term epidemic; as standards and expectations change, so might the definition of an epidemic, e.g. an epidemic of violence.... epidemic


The study of the various factors influencing the occurrence, distribution, prevention and control of disease, injury and other health-related events in a defined population. Epidemiology utilizes biology, clinical medicine, and statistics in an effort to understand the etiology (causes) and course of illness and/or disease. The ultimate goal of the epidemiologist is, not merely to identify underlying causes of a disease, but to apply findings to disease prevention and health promotion.... epidemiology


An affection of the nervous system resulting from excessive or disordered discharge of cerebral neurons... epilepsy


Bleeding from the nose... epistaxis


An inflammatory disease generally affecting the face marked by a bright redness of the skin... erysipelas


Inula helenium. N.O. Compositae.

Synonym: Aunee, Scabwort.

Habitat: Moist meadows and pasture land.

Features ? The stem. growing up to three feet, is branched, furrowed, and downy above; egg-shaped, serrate leaves embrace the stem. The calyx is also egg-shaped and leafy, and the flowers, blooming in July and August, are large, solitary and terminal, brilliantly yellow in colour. The root is light grey, hard, horny and cylindrical. The whole plant is similar in appearance to the horseradish, its taste is bitter and acrid, and the odour reminiscent of camphor.

Part used ? Root.

Action: Diaphoretic, expectorant and diuretic.

In combination with other remedies it is made up into cough medicines, and can be of service in pulmonary disorders generally. Skillfully compounded, slight alterative and tonic qualities are noticed. Wineglass doses are taken of a 1 ounce to 1 pint (reduced) decoction.

These modest present-day claims for Elecampane are far exceeded by Culpeper's exuberance. In his view, the root "warms a cold and windy stomach or the pricking therein, and stitches in the side caused by the spleen; helps the cough, shortness of the breath, and wheezing of the lungs. . . . Profitable for those that have their urine stopped. . . . Resisteth poison, and stayeth the venom of serpents, as also of putrid and pestilential fevers, and the plague itself." When we are also told by the same author that it kills and expels worms, fastens loose teeth, arrests dental decay, cleanses the skin from morphew, spots and blemishes, we realize in what esteem Elecampane was held in the seventeenth century! But here again germs of truth are hidden among manifold exaggerations.... elecampane


Causing vomiting... emetic


Softening... emollient


Any degenerative brain disease... encephalopathy


In?ammation of the lining, valves and muscle of the HEART. The main causes are bacterial and virus infections and rheumatic fever, and the condition occurs most often in patients whose ENDOCARDIUM is already damaged by congenital deformities or whose immune system has been suppressed by drugs. Infection may be introduced into the bloodstream during dental treatment or surgical procedures, especially on the heart or on the gastrointestinal system. The condition is potentially very serious and treatment is with large doses of antibiotic drugs. (See HEART, DISEASES OF.)... endocarditis


From within the body, either a native function or the product of the extended colony...normal flora in the colon are considered endogenous.... endogenous


In?ammation of the mucous membrane lining the womb. (See UTERUS, DISEASES OF.)... endometritis


Toxin released when certain bacterial species (especially the Gram negative rods) die. Symptoms not specific to the bacterial specie s (eg endotoxic shock in Gram negative rod septicaemias).... endotoxin


Introduction of ?uid into the RECTUM via the

Percutaneous nephroscope used for examining the interior of the kidney. It is passed into the pelvis of the kidney through a track from the surface of the skin. (The track is made with a needle and guide wire.) Instruments can be passed through the nephroscope under direct vision to remove calculi.

ANUS. Enemas may be given to clear the intestine of faeces prior to intestinal surgery or to relieve severe constipation. They may also be used to give barium for diagnostic X-rays as well as drugs such as CORTICOSTEROIDS, used to treat ULCERATIVE COLITIS. The patient is placed on his or her side with a support under the hips. A catheter (see CATHETERS) with a lubricated end is inserted into the rectum and warmed enema ?uid gently injected. Disposable enemas and miniature enemas, which can be self-administered, are widely used; they contain preprepared solution.... enema

Enteric Fever

Typhoid and Paratyphoid. Septicaemic diseases caused by Salmonella typhi and Salmonella paratyphi.... enteric fever


A group of conditions having the characteristic elevation of eosinophils. These somewhat mysterious granulocytic leukocytes (white blood cells filled with cottage cheese) are definitely involved in parasite resistance, seem to initiate strong inflammation under some conditions, can facilitate clotting by inhibiting heparin, yet also are a part of the process of healing and inflammation control as an infection winds down. Eosinophilia is on one hand an inherited condition associated with atopic dermatitis (common, relatively benign, and irritating as hell), but, when acquired from chemical contact, drug reaction or spontaneously surfaced auto-immune response, it can destroy muscles, nerve, lungs, even kill. It caused the notorious string of chemical reactions that was triggered by tainted Japanese tryptophan.... eosinophilia


Redness of the skin due to dilatation of dermal blood vessels. It may be transient or chronic, localised or widespread, and it can be blanched by pressure. Erythema may be caused by excessive exposure to heat or ultraviolet light, or by in?ammation of the skin due to infection, DERMATITIS, and various allergic reactions – for example, to drugs. It may be emotional (e.g. as in ?ushing), mediated by the autonomic nervous system.

Erythema ab igne is a ?xed redness of the skin caused by chronic exposure to heat from a domestic ?re or radiator.

Erythema pernio (See CHILBLAIN.) Redness induced by spasm of the skin arterioles due to cold. It affects the hands, feet or calves in winter. The red swollen areas are cooler than normal.

Erythema nodosum A singular pattern of red, tender nodules occurring on the shins, often lasting several weeks. It may be caused by a streptococcal throat infection, primary tuberculosis, SARCOIDOSIS, or may be drug-induced.

Erythema multiforme is an acute allergic eruption of the extremities characterised by circular areas of erythema, purpura and blistering, which resolve over two or three weeks, caused by infections or drugs. In severe forms the mucous membranes of the eyes, mouth and genitalia may be involved.

Erythema infectiosum is an acute contagious disease of children caused by a parvo-virus (see PARVOVIRUSES). In young children a bright erythema of the face gives a ‘slapped cheek’ appearance.

... erythema


See Eucalipto.... eucalyptus


A deliberate act undertaken by one person with the intention of either painlessly putting to death or failing to prevent death from natural causes in cases of terminal illness or irreversible coma of another person. The term comes from the Greek expression for “good death”.... euthanasia


Arising from the outside; the opposite of endogenous... exogenous


An outgrowth from a bone: it may be due to chronic in?ammation, constant pressure or tension on the bone, or tumour-formation. (See BONE, DISORDERS OF.)... exostosis


A toxin secreted by certain bacterial species or strains into the surrounding medium during growth. Often cause clinical features very specific to the disease (eg tetanus, diphtheria, cholera). Exotoxins secreted by enteric organisms often termed ‘enterotoxins’.... exotoxin


Aiding the secretion of the mucous membrane of the air passages and the removal of fluid by spitting... expectorant

Life Expectancy

The average number of years of life remaining to a person at a particular age based on a given set of age-specific death rates, generally the mortality conditions existing in the period mentioned.... life expectancy

Air Embolism

A bubble of air in a blood vessel that affects the ?ow of blood from the heart. Air may enter the circulation after injury, infusions into the venous circulation, or surgery. The victim suffers breathlessness, chest discomfort, and acute heart failure.... air embolism


The development of a discoloured skin patch resulting from escape of blood into the tissues just under the skin, often from bruising.... ecchymosis


Strengthening Spells ... echinacea


Genus of cestodes which includes the hydatid tapeworms, Echinococcus granulosus, E. multilocularis, E. vogeli and E. oligarthrus.... echinococcus


The use of ultrasonics (see ULTRASOUND) for the purpose of examining the HEART. By thus recording the echo (hence the name) from the heart of ultrasound waves, it is possible to study, for example, the movements of the heart valves as well as the state of the interior of the heart. Safe, reliable and painless, the procedure cuts the need for the physically interventionist procedure of CARDIAC CATHETERISATION.... echocardiography


Echolalia is the meaningless repetition, by a person suffering from mental deterioration, of words and phrases addressed to him/her.... echolalia


A term that means widening, usually referring to a disorder of a duct bearing secretions from a gland or organ (e.g. mammary duct ectasia).... ectasia


The outer tissues of an organism from which nerve, gland and nematocyst cells will develop.... ectoderm


See EYE, DISORDERS OF.... ectropion

Ectopic Pregnancy

An ectopic pregnancy most commonly develops in one of the FALLOPIAN TUBES. Occasionally it may occur in one of the OVARIES, and rarely in the uterine cervix or the abdominal cavity. Around one in 200 pregnant women have an ectopic gestation. As pregnancy proceeds, surrounding tissues may be damaged and, if serious bleeding happens, the woman may present as an ‘abdominal emergency’. A life-threatening condition, this needs urgent surgery. Most women recover satisfactorily and can have further pregnancies despite the removal of one Fallopian tube as a result of the ectopic gestation. Death is unusual. This disorder of pregnancy may occur because infection or a previous abdominal injury or operation may have damaged the normal descent of an ovum from the ovary to the womb. The ?rst symptoms usually appear during the ?rst two months of pregnancy, perhaps before the woman realises she is pregnant. Severe lower abdominal pain and vaginal bleeding are common presenting symptoms. Ultrasound can be used to diagnose the condition and laparoscopy can be used to remove the products of conception. (See PREGNANCY AND LABOUR.)... ectopic pregnancy


Lacking teeth: this may be because teeth have not developed or because they have been removed or fallen out.... edentulous


The passage of ?uid through the walls of a blood vessel into a tissue or body cavity. It commonly occurs as a result of in?ammation or damage to the blood vessel. A pleural e?usion may occur in heart failure (as a result of increased blood pressure in the veins forcing out ?uid) or as a result of in?ammation in the lung tissue (PNEUMONIA). E?usions may also develop in damaged joints.... effusion


The expulsion of SEMEN from the PENIS during ORGASM. The stimulation of sexual intercourse (coitus) or masturbation produces a spinal re?ex action that causes ejaculation. As well as containing spermatozoa (male germ cells), the semen comprises several constituents arising from COWPER’S GLANDS, the PROSTATE GLAND, the testicles and seminal vesicles (see TESTICLES) and these are discharged in sequence. (See also PREMATURE EJACULATION.)... ejaculation


Sambucus nigra. N.O. Caprifoliaceae.

Synonym: Black Elder. European Elder.

Habitat: Woods and hedges throughout Europe.

Features ? This familiar small tree, twelve to twenty feet high, has young branches containing light, spongy pith, with a bark that is light grey and corky externally. The leaves are opposite, deep green and smooth. Creamy-white, flat-topped masses of flowers bloom in July, to be followed by the decorative, drooping bunches of purplish-black, juicy berries. Country folk aptly limit our English summer when they say that it does not arrive until the Elder is in full blossom, and ends when the berries are ripe!

Part used ? Flowers.

Action: Diaphoretic, emollient, alterative, diuretic.

These properties of the flowers are obtained from infusions of 1 ounce to

1 pint of water in wineglass doses. It is used, often in conjunction with Peppermint and Yarrow, chiefly for the reduction of feverish colds, but inflamed conditions of the eyes are also found to yield to bathing with the warm Elder flower infusion. Although the medicinal qualities are weaker in the berries than in the flowers, the popular Elder berry wine is widely used as part of the treatment for colds and influenza.

An ointment made from the leaves has been of help to sufferers from chilblains.... elder


The use of an electrically heated needle or loop to destroy diseased or unwanted tissue. Benign growths, warts and polyps can be removed with this technique.... electrocautery


A method of sealing blood vessels using heat generated by high-frequency electric current through ?ne needles or a surgical knife. The procedure is used during surgery to close newly cut vessels. It can also be used to stop nosebleeds and to remove vascular deformities such as naevi (see NAEVUS).... electrocoagulation


The migration of charged particles between electrodes. A simple method of electrophoresis, known as paper electrophoresis, has been introduced to analyse PROTEIN in body ?uids. This method consists in applying the protein-containing solution as a spot or a streak to a strip of ?lter paper which has been soaked in bu?er solution and across the ends of which a potential di?erence is then applied for some hours. Comparison is made between ?lter strips of normal ?uids and that of the patient under investigation. Identi?cation and quanti?cation of proteins in the blood are possible using this method.... electrophoresis




Wasting of body tissues. Thin (same as cachexia).... emaciation


Surgical removal of a clot or EMBOLUS to clear an obstruction in an artery (see ARTERIES, DISEASES OF). The obstruction may be cleared by inserting a balloon (Fogarty) catheter (see CATHETERS) into the blood vessel or by surgical incision through the arterial wall. Embolectomy may be a life-saving operation when a patient has a PULMONARY EMBOLISM.... embolectomy


Substances – for example, air, AMNIOTIC FLUID, blood clot, fat or foreign body – that are carried by the blood from a vessel (or vessels) in one part of the body to another part where the matter lodges in a blood vessel causing a blockage (see EMBOLISM).... embolus


The FETUS in the womb prior to the end of the second month.... embryo


The study of the growth and development of an EMBRYO and subsequently the FETUS from the fertilisation of the OVUM by the SPERMATOZOON through the gestational period until birth. Embryology is valuable in the understanding of adult anatomy, how the body works and the occurrence of CONGENITAL deformities.... embryology


A sudden unexpected onset of illness or injury which requires immediate care.... emergency


Emesis means VOMITING.... emesis


The facility to understand and be sympathetic to the feelings and thoughts of another individual. Empathy in the therapist is an essential component of successful psychotherapy and is a valuable characteristic in anyone who is a member of a caring profession.... empathy


Based directly on experience, e.g. observation or experiment, rather than on reasoning alone.... empirical


In?ammation of the substance of both brain and spinal cord.... encephalomyelitis


Surgical reopening of an artery obstructed by ATHEROMA. If a blood clot is present, the re-boring process is called thromboendarterectomy. Restored patency allows arterial blood supply to restart. The carotid arteries and arteries to the legs are those most commonly operated on.... endarterectomy


The study of the endocrine system, the substances (hormones) it secretes and its disorders (see ENDOCRINE GLANDS.)... endocrinology


The inner tissues of an organism.... endoderm


The mucous membrane which lines the interior of the UTERUS.... endometrium


Peptides (see PEPTIDE) produced in the brain which have a pain-relieving action; hence their alternative name of opiate peptides. Their name is derived from endogenous MORPHINE. They have been de?ned as endogenous opiates or any naturally occurring substances in the brain with pharmacological actions resembling opiate alkaloids such as morphine. There is some evidence that the pain-relieving action of ACUPUNCTURE may be due to the release of these opiate peptides. It has also been suggested that they may have an antipsychotic action and therefore be of value in the treatment of major psychotic illnesses such as SCHIZOPHRENIA.... endorphins


A tube-shaped instrument inserted into a cavity in the body to investigate and treat disorders. It is ?exible and equipped with lenses and a light source. Examples of endoscopes are the CYSTOSCOPE for use in the bladder, the GASTROSCOPE for examining the stomach and the ARTHROSCOPE for looking into joints (see also FIBREOPTIC ENDOSCOPY).... endoscope


The epididymus is the tube which receives the ducts of the testicle; in acute bacterial infection it becomes swollen and painful. The cause may be invasion from an infected bladder or urethra. Symptoms: difficulty in passing urine, painful scrotum.

Indicated: antibacterials. Pulsatilla (American Dispensary)

Alternatives. Teas. Cornsilk, Marshmallow leaves.

Decoction. Marshmallow root.

Tablets/capsules. Pulsatilla, Saw Palmetto. Echinacea. Goldenseal.

Powders. Formula. Equal parts, Saw Palmetto, Pulsatilla, Black Willow, pinch of Cayenne. Dose: 500mg (two 00 capsules or one-third teaspoon) 3-4 times daily.

Liquid extracts. Alternatives. (1) Formula: equal parts: Black Willow, Echinacea, Pulsatilla. Dose: 30- 60 drops. (2) Echinacea 2; Saw Palmetto 2; Thuja 1. Dose: 30-60 drops. 3-4 times daily.

Topical. Scrotal ice packs. Cold Dogwood poultice. ... epididymitis


The membrane lining various vessels and cavities of the body, such as the pleura (lining the lung), the pericardium (lining the heart), the peritoneum (lining the abdomen and abdominal organs), the lymphatic vessels, blood vessels, and joints. It consists of a ?brous layer covered with thin ?at cells, which render the surface perfectly smooth and secrete the ?uid for its lubrication.... endothelium


The event during pregnancy when the presenting part of the baby, usually the head, moves down into the mother’s pelvis. (See PREGNANCY AND LABOUR.)... engagement


An operation by which an arti?cial opening is formed into the intestine and joined to another part of the intestine or brought to the exterior via the abdominal wall.... enterostomy


A type of toxin (see TOXINS) that causes in?ammation of the intestinal lining and results in vomiting and diarrhoea (see FOOD POISONING).... enterotoxin


Infection with Enterobius vermicularis, the threadworm (or pinworm as it is known in the USA). It is the most common of all the intestinal parasites in Britain, and the least harmful. The male is about 6 mm (••• inch) in length and the female about 12 mm (••• inch) in length. Each resembles a little piece of thread. These worms live in considerable numbers in the lower bowel, affecting children particularly. They usually cause no symptoms but can result in great irritation round the anus or within the female genitalia, especially at night when the female worm emerges from the anus to lay its eggs and then die. The most e?ective form of treatment is either viprynium embonate or piperazine citrate, which needs to be taken by the whole family. Bedclothes must then be laundered.... enterobiasis


See EYE, DISORDERS OF.... entropion


Any cell in the body with granules in its substance that stain easily with the dye, eosin. Granulocytes which form about 2 per cent of the white cells of the blood are eosinophils.... eosinophil


An alkaloid (see ALKALOIDS) derived from a species of Ephedra or prepared synthetically. A BRONCHODILATOR, it was once widely used to treat asthma, but has now been superseded by the much safer (and more e?ective) selective beta-2-adrenoceptor stimulants (see ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS). Ephedrine is a constituent of several decongestant cold and cough remedies available to the general public.... ephedrine


The protuberance above a CONDYLE at the end of a bone with an articulating joint – for example, at the bottom of the humerus, the bone of the upper arm.... epicondyle


The outer layer of the SKIN, which forms the protective covering of the body.... epidermis


Genus of dermatophyte fungi associated with tinea or ringworm in humans.... epidermophyton


An oblong body attached to the upper part of each TESTICLE, composed of convoluted vessels and ducts, that connects the VASA EFFERENTIA to the VAS DEFERENS. Sperm cells produced in the testis pass along the epididymis, maturing as they go, to be stored in the seminal vesicles until EJACULATION occurs. The epididymis may be damaged by trauma or infection resulting sometimes in sterility. Cysts may also occur.... epididymis

Epidural Anaesthesia

See ANAESTHESIA.... epidural anaesthesia


A leaf-like piece of elastic CARTILAGE covered with mucous membrane, which stands upright between the back of the tongue and the glottis, or entrance to the LARYNX. In the act of swallowing, it prevents ?uids and solids from passing o? the back of the tongue into the larynx.... epiglottis


Acute epiglottitis is a septicaemic illness which includes an acute in?ammatory OEDEMA of the EPIGLOTTIS, due to Haemophilus in?uenzae. It progresses very rapidly and a child can be dangerously ill or even die within hours of onset. Once recognised, however, it is easily and successfully treated by immediate transfer to hospital for emergency intubation and ventilation and use of antibiotics and steroids. Fortunately it is now very rare as a result of the introduction of haemophilus vaccine into the primary vaccination course of infants. (See LARYNGOTRACHEO-BRONCHITIS.)... epiglottitis




Inadequate drainage of tears in the eyes with the result that they ‘over?ow’ down the cheeks. The condition is caused by an abnormality of the tear ducts which drain away the normal secretions that keep the eyeball moist (see EYE).... epiphora


See BONE – Growth of bones.... epiphysis


A cut made in the PERINEUM to enlarge the vaginal opening and facilitate childbirth during a di?cult birth when the baby’s head (or in a breech delivery, the buttocks) is making slow progress down the birth canal, or when forceps have to be applied. (See PREGNANCY AND LABOUR.)... episiotomy


An inherited abnormality of the PENIS in which the opening of the URETHRA is on the upper surface instead of at the end of the organ. Surgical correction carried out in infancy has a high success rate.... epispadias


Epithelioma is a tumour of malignant nature arising in the EPITHELIUM covering the surface of the body. (See CANCER.)... epithelioma


Epithelium is the cellular layer which forms the epidermis on the skin, covers the inner surface of the bowels, and forms the lining of ducts and hollow organs, like the bladder. It consists of one or more layers of cells which adhere to one another, and is one of the simplest tissues of the body. It is of several forms: for example, the epidermis is formed of scaly epithelium, the cells being in several layers and more or less ?attened. (See SKIN.) The bowels are lined by a single layer of columnar epithelium, the cells being long and narrow in shape. The air passages are lined by ciliated epithelium: that is to say, each cell is provided with ?agellae (lashes) which drive the ?uid upon the surface of the passages gradually upwards.... epithelium

Epstein Barr Virus

The virus that causes glandular fever or infectious MONONUCLEOSIS. It is similar to the viruses that cause herpes and is associated with BURKITT’S LYMPHOMA. It has been suggested as precipitating some attacks of MYALGIC ENCEPHALOMYELITIS (ME), also known as CHRONIC FATIGUE SYNDROME (CFS).... epstein barr virus


The rigid state of the PENIS when it responds to sexual stimulus. An erection is necessary for e?ective penetration of the VAGINA. As a result of sexual arousal, the three cylinders of erectile tissue in the penis become engorged with blood, lengthening, raising and hardening the penis. Muscles surrounding the blood vessels contract and retain the blood in the penis. Erections also occur during sleep and in young boys. Inability to have or maintain an erection is one cause of IMPOTENCE (see also SILDENAFIL CITRATE).... erection


A combination of CALCIFEROL and vitamin D2 (see APPENDIX 5: VITAMINS) given to prevent or cure RICKETS, a de?ciency disorder caused by the lack of calcium and vitamin D in the diet.... ergocalciferol


An active constituent of ergot, it has a powerful action in controlling the excessive bleeding from the UTERUS which may occur after childbirth. The o?cial British Pharmacopoeia preparation is ergometrine maleate.... ergometrine


One of the alkaloids in ergot. In the form of ergotamine tartrate it is usually given orally to treat MIGRAINE, but treatment carries a risk and should be medically supervised.... ergotamine


Eruption, or rash, means an outbreak, in a scattered form, upon the surface of the skin. The skin is usually raised and red, or it may be covered with scales, or crusts, or vesicles containing ?uid. Eruptions di?er in appearance: for example, the eruption of MEASLES is always distinguishable from that of CHICKENPOX. But the same disease may also produce di?erent eruptions in di?erent people; or in the same person in di?erent states of health; or even on di?erent parts of the body at one time.

Eruptions may be acute or chronic. Most of the acute eruptions belong to the exanthemata (see EXANTHEM): that is, they are bright in col-our and burst out suddenly like a ?ower. These are the eruptions of SCARLET FEVER, measles, German measles (see RUBELLA), SMALLPOX and chickenpox. In general, the severity of these diseases can be measured by the amount of eruption. Some eruptions are very transitory, like nettle-rash, appearing and vanishing again in the course of a few hours. (See also SKIN, DISEASES OF.)... eruption


A super?cial mild infection of the skin caused by CORYNEBACTERIA. It produces pink or slightly brown ?aky areas of skin usually on the upper inner thighs or axillae. Toe clefts may be affected with thickened, white, macerated skin. The affected areas ?uoresce coral pink under ultraviolet light. CLOTRIMAZOLE or KETOCONAZOLE cream clears the rash rapidly. Very extensive erythrasma responds to oral ERYTHROMYCIN given for seven days.... erythrasma


One of the MACROLIDES, it has an antibacterial spectrum similar, but not identical, to that of penicillin. The drug is a valuable alternative for patients who are allergic to penicillin. Erythromycin is used for respiratory infections, including spread within a family of WHOOPINGCOUGH, and also CHLAMYDIA, LEGIONNAIRE’S DISEASE, SYPHILIS and enteritis caused by CAMPYLOBACTER. It is also used with neomycin when preparing for bowel surgery. Though often active against penicillin-resistant staphylococci, these bacteria are now sometimes resistant to erythromycin. The drug may be given orally, intravenously or topically (for acne).... erythromycin


Hard adherent crust caused by tissue killed by heat, chemicals or disease.... eschar


A rare in?ammation of the skin which causes universal itching. The skin is red, thickened and scaly. It is also called generalised exfoliative dermatitis (see SKIN, DISEASES OF). It may complicate chronic eczema (see DERMATITIS) or PSORIASIS, particularly in men, in the second half of life. It may also result from HYPERSENSITIVITY to a drug, such as gold injections used in RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS. Rarely, it may be a manifestation of T-cell LYMPHOMA.

Universal in?ammation of the skin may cause heart failure, particularly in elderly people with pre-existing heart disease. It may lead to HYPOTHERMIA due to excessive heat loss from the skin and protein de?ciency caused by the shedding of large quantities of skin scales containing keratin. Rarely, these complications can be fatal.

Treatment depends on the cause, but in eczematous erythroderma, oral CORTICOSTEROIDS (PREDNISOLONE) in full dosage may be needed.... erythroderma


Ethambutol is a synthetic drug, often included in the treatment regimen of TUBERCULOSIS when the infection is thought to be resistant to other drugs. The main side-effects are visual disturbances, chie?y loss of acuity and colour blindness. Such toxic effects are more common when excessive dosages are used, or the patient has some renal impairment, in which case the drug should be avoided – as it should be in young children.... ethambutol


Ethanol is another name for ethyl alcohol. (See ALCOHOL.)... ethanol


A colourless, volatile, highly in?ammable liquid, formed by the action of sulphuric acid on alcohol. Ether boils below body temperature and therefore rapidly evaporates when sprayed over the skin. Dissolving many substances such as fats, oils and resins better than alcohol or water, it is used in the preparation of many drugs. Formerly used as an anaesthetic, it has been replaced by safer and more e?cient drugs.... ether


A highly active oestrogen – about 20 times more active than STILBOESTROL; it is active when given by mouth. (See OESTROGENS.)... ethinylestradiol


A drug used in the treatment of the form of EPILEPSY known as petit mal.... ethosuximide


A feeling of well-being. This may occur normally; for instance, when someone has passed an examination. In some neurological or psychiatric conditions, however, patients may have an exaggerated and quite unjusti?ed feeling of euphoria. This is then a symptom of the underlying condition. Euphoria may also be drug-induced – by drugs of addiction or by therapeutic drugs such as CORTICOSTEROIDS.... euphoria


The descriptive term for a person with a normally functioning THYROID GLAND, or someone who has had successful treatment for an underactive (hypothyroid) or overactive (hyperthyroid) gland.... euthyroid

Evidence-based Medicine

The process of systematically identifying, appraising and using the best available research ?ndings, integrated with clinical expertise, as the basis for clinical decisions about individual patients. The aim is to encourage clinicians, health-service managers and consumers of health care to make decisions, taking account of the best available evidence, on the likely consequences of alternative decisions and actions. Evidence-based medicine has been developing internationally for the past 25 years, but since around 1990 its development has accelerated. The International COCHRANE COLLABORATION ?nds and reviews relevant research. Several other centres have been set up to look at the clinical application of research results, including the Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine in Oxford.... evidence-based medicine

Exchange Transfusion

A method of treating newborn infants with HAEMOLYTIC DISEASE. Blood is taken out of the baby through the umbilical vein and is replaced with the same quantity of blood from a donor that is compatible with the mother’s blood. The procedure is repeated several times to get rid of damaged cells while maintaining the infant’s blood volume and keeping its red cell count constant. (See also TRANSFUSION.)... exchange transfusion

Excimer Laser

A type of laser that is used to remove thin sheets of tissue from the surface of the cornea (see EYE), thus changing the curvature of the eye’s corneal surface. The procedure is used to excise diseased tissue or to correct myopia (see REFRACTION), when it is known as photorefractive keratectomy or lasik.... excimer laser


An inert substance added to a prescription in order to make the remedy as prescribed more suitable in bulk, consistence, or form for administration.... excipient


Removal of tissue.... excision


Excoriation means the destruction of small pieces of the surface of skin or mucous membrane.... excoriation


The process by which the residue of undigested food in the gastrointestinal tract (faeces) and the waste products of the body’s metabolism – mainly as urine via the kidneys, but also as sweat from the skin, and water and carbon dioxide from the lungs – are eliminated.... excretion


An activity requiring physical exertion. Everyone should take regular exercise: this keeps muscles in tone, maintains the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM in good shape, helps to keep weight at an optimum level and promotes relaxation and sleep. When an individual is at rest, the heart’s output is 5 litres of blood per minute. When running at 12 km (7••• miles) per hour, this rises to around 25 litres, obliging the heart and lungs to operate more e?ciently and speeding up the metabolism of food to provide the necessary energy. Lack of exercise by children may lead to faulty posture and ?abby muscles; in adults it results in an increase in weight and poorly functioning respiratory and cardiovascular system, with an increased chance of heart disease later in life. Adolescents and adults, participating regularly in sporting activities, should train regularly, preferably under expert supervision, to ensure that they do not place potentially damaging demands on their cardiovascular, respiratory and musculoskeletal systems. Those wanting to participate in demanding sports would be wise to have a medical examination before embarking on training programmes (see SPORTS MEDICINE).... exercise


The separation, in layers, of pieces of dead bone or skin.... exfoliation


Public ?aunting of a person’s characteristics. Also a term describing the public exposure of genitals to another person, regarded as a form of sexual deviation, colloquially called ‘?ashing’.... exhibitionism

Exocrine Gland

A gland that secretes its products through a duct to the surface of the body or of an organ. The sweat glands in the skin and the salivary glands in the mouth are examples. The secretion is set o? by a hormone (see HORMONES) or a NEUROTRANSMITTER.... exocrine gland


The term applied to a congenital HERNIA formed by the projection of abdominal organs through the UMBILICUS.... exomphalos


Exophthalmos, or PROPTOSIS, refers to forward displacement of the eyeball and must be distinguished from retraction of the eyelids, which causes an illusion of exophthalmos. Lid retraction usually results from activation of the autonomic nervous sytem. Exophthalmos is a more serious disorder caused by in?ammatory and in?ltrative changes in the retro-orbital tissues and is essentially a feature of Graves’ disease, though it has been described in chronic thyroiditis (see THYROID GLAND, DISEASES OF). Exophthalmos commonly starts shortly after the development of thyrotoxicosis but may occur months or even years after hyperthyroidism has been successfully treated. The degree of exophthalmos is not correlated with the severity of hyperthyroidism even when their onset is simultaneous. Some of the worst examples of endocrine exophthalmos occur in the euthyroid state and may appear in patients who have never had thyrotoxicosis; this disorder is named ophthalmic Graves’ disease. The exophthalmos of Graves’ disease is due to autoimmunity (see IMMUNITY). Antibodies to surface antigens on the eye muscles are produced and this causes an in?ammatory reaction in the muscle and retroorbital tissues.

Exophthalmos may also occur as a result of OEDEMA, injury, cavernous venous THROMBOSIS or a tumour at the back of the eye, pushing the eyeball forwards. In this situation it is always unilateral.... exophthalmos


Drugs which are claimed to help the removal of secretions from the AIR PASSAGES – although there is no convincing evidence that they do this. A simple expectorant may, however, be a useful placebo. Most preparations are available without a doctor’s prescription and pharmacists will advise on which might be helpful for particular patients with dry or congestive coughs.... expectorants


Expectoration means either material brought up from the chest by the AIR PASSAGES, or the act by which it is brought up.... expectoration


(1) A term used in BEHAVIOUR THERAPY to describe a method of treating fears and phobias (see PHOBIA). The subject is confronted by the circumstances that he or she fears, either gradually or suddenly, with the aim of defusing the fear or phobia.

(2) The term is also a colloquialism for public exposure by a man of his genitals to achieve sexual grati?cation.... exposure


A concentrate of dried, less volatile aromatic plant part obtained by solvent extraction with a polar solvent... extract

Extrapyramidal System

This is a complex part of the nervous system, extending from the cortex to the medulla in the BRAIN, from which emerge descending spinal pathways which in?uence voluntary motor activity throughout the body. Although the normal functions of the system are poorly understood, there are characteristic signs of an extrapyramidal LESION. These include disturbance of voluntary movements, notably slowness and ‘poverty’ of movement; disturbance of muscular tone, which may be increased or decreased; and involuntary movements, such as a tremor, irregular jerking movements, or slow writhing movements.

Diseases There are several diseases that result from lesions to the extrapyramidal system, of which the most common is PARKINSONISM. Others include WILSON’S DISEASE, KERNICTERUS, CHOREA and ATHETOSIS.... extrapyramidal system


A person who is outgoing, enjoys mixing with others and looks for fresh activities to take part in. Tends to act emotionally rather than intellectually.... extrovert


The process in which some of the constituents of the blood pass slowly through the walls of the small vessels in the course of in?ammation, and also means the accumulation resulting from this process. For example, in PLEURISY the solid, rough material deposited on the surface of the lung is an exudation.... exudation


Euphrasia. officinalis. N.O. Scrophulariaceae.

Synonym: Birdeye, Brighteye.

Habitat: Plentiful on commons, heaths, and in meadows, as well as on sea cliffs, but varies considerably in growth and development with the richness of the soil.

Features ? The stems are four to six inches long, and under suitable soil conditions, branched below. The lower leaves are opposite each other, and alternate higher up the stem, small, dark green, lanceolate or nearly rhomboid above, deeply cut, proceeding directly from the stem. The flowers are small, axillary, and range in hue between white and purple, while some are delicately variegated with yellow. The taste is bitter, salty and slightly astringent.

Action: Astringent and tonic.

This herb, as its name indicates, is valued mainly as an application in

inflammation and weakness of the eyes, and is frequently combined with Golden Seal to make an excellent lotion for this purpose. A large pinch of the herb should be infused with sufficient boiling water for each application. The eyebath should be freshly filled for each eye, care being taken to strain thoroughly before using the tepid lotion.

Euphrasia is also employed externally to arrest hemorrhages.... eyebright

Genetic Engineering

Genetic engineering, or recombinant DNA technology, has only developed in the past decade or so; it is the process of changing the genetic material of a cell (see CELLS). GENES from one cell – for example, a human cell – can be inserted into another cell, usually a bacterium, and made to function. It is now possible to insert the gene responsible for the production of human INSULIN, human GROWTH HORMONE and INTERFERON from a human cell into a bacterium. Segments of DNA for insertion can be prepared by breaking long chains into smaller pieces by the use of restriction enzymes. The segments are then inserted into the affecting organism by using PLASMIDS and bacteriophages (see BACTERIOPHAGE). Plasmids are small packets of DNA that are found within bacteria and can be passed from one bacterium to another.

Already genetic engineering is contributing to easing the problems of diagnosis. DNA analysis and production of MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES are other applications of genetic engineering. Genetic engineering has signi?cantly contributed to horticulture and agriculture with certain characteristics of one organism or variant of a species being transfected (a method of gene transfer) into another. This has given rise to higher-yield crops and to alteration in colouring and size in produce. Genetic engineering is also contributing to our knowledge of how human genes function, as these can be transfected into mice and other animals which can then act as models for genetic therapy. Studying the effects of inherited mutations derived from human DNA in these animal models is thus a very important and much faster way of learning about human disease.

Genetic engineering is a scienti?c procedure that could have profound implications for the human race. Manipulating heredity would be an unwelcome activity under the control of maverick scientists, politicians or others in positions of power.... genetic engineering

Health Education

Constructed communication of knowledge to improve health literacy and improve skills in order to advance individual and community health.... health education

Premature Ejaculation

A disorder in which EJACULATION of semen occurs before or immediately after the penis penetrates the vagina during sexual intercourse. The most common sexual problem in men, persistent premature ejaculation may have psychological causes, although many adolescents and some adults experience it occasionally. Sexual counselling may help to alleviate the condition.... premature ejaculation


An effect, other than the intended one, produced by a preventive, diagnostic or therapeutic procedure or regimen.... side-effect


A complication of pregnancy (see PREGNANCY AND LABOUR), of unknown cause, which in severe cases may proceed to ECLAMPSIA. It is characterised by HYPERTENSION, renal impairment, OEDEMA, often with PROTEINURIA and disseminated intravascular coagulation. It usually occurs in the second half of pregnancy – mild cases (without proteinuria) occurring in about 10 per cent of pregnancies, severe cases in about 2 per cent. Predisposing factors include a ?rst pregnancy, or pregnancy by a new partner; a family history of pre-eclampsia, hypertension, or other cardiovascular disorders; and preexisting hypertension or DIABETES MELLITUS. Increased incidence with lower socio-economic class may be linked to diet or to failure to attend for antenatal care. Although less common in smokers, fetal outlook is worse. Multiple pregnancy and HYDATIDIFORM MOLE, together with hydrops fetalis (see HAEMOLYTIC DISEASE OF THE NEWBORN), predispose to early and severe pre-eclampsia.

Treatment Severe pre-eclampsia is an emergency, and urgent admission to hospital should be arranged. Treatment should be given to control the hypertension; the fetal heart rate carefully monitored; and in very severe cases urgent CAESAREAN SECTION may be necessary.... pre-eclampsia

Pulmonary Embolism

The condition in which an embolus (see EMBOLISM), or clot, is lodged in the LUNGS. The source of the clot is usually the veins of the lower abdomen or legs, in which clot formation has occurred as a result of the occurrence of DEEP VEIN THROMBOSIS (DVT) – THROMBOPHLEBITIS (see VEINS, DISEASES OF). Thrombophlebitis, with or without pulmonary embolism, is a not uncommon complication of surgical operations, especially in older patients. This is one reason why nowadays such patients are got up out of bed as quickly as possible, or, alternatively, are encouraged to move and exercise their legs regularly in bed. Long periods of sitting, particularly when travelling, can cause DVT with the risk of pulmonary embolism. The severity of a pulmonary embolism, which is characterised by the sudden onset of pain in the chest, with or without the coughing up of blood, and a varying degree of SHOCK, depends upon the size of the clot. If large enough, it may prove immediately fatal; in other cases, immediate operation may be needed to remove the clot; whilst in less severe cases anticoagulant treatment, in the form of HEPARIN, is given to prevent extension of the clot. For some operations, such as hip-joint replacements, with a high risk of deep-vein thrombosis in the leg, heparin is given for several days postoperatively.... pulmonary embolism

Status Epilepticus

Repeated epileptic ?ts (see EPILEPSY) with no return to consciousness between them. Breathing stops between each ?t and the body is deprived of oxygen which causes damage to the brain. Urgent medical attention is required to control the condition, or the patient may suffer permanent brain damage.... status epilepticus

Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy


Scrapie. Notifiable disease. Fatal disease in the nervous system of cattle, unknown before 1985. Microscopic holes appear in the brain giving a spongiform appearance, but with little inflammation. Can spread from one animal to another: sheep, goats, deer, mules, mink, hamsters, mice, pigs and monkeys. Cause: not a virus. Animals itch and scrape themselves against trees or posts for relief. May spread from animals to humans, with brain infection after the character of polio.

Symptoms. (Human). Speech impairment, short-term-memory-loss, difficulty in controlling body movements. Zinc deficiency.

Treatment. Hospitalisation.

Suggested treatment for human infection, unproven.

Tinctures. Echinacea 5; Black Cohosh 3; Yarrow 2; Senna leaf 1.2-3 teaspoons in water (or cup hot Yarrow tea) 3-4 times daily. For headache: Gelsemium.

Supplement: Zinc.

To be treated by a general medical practitioner or hospital specialist. ... bovine spongiform encephalopathy


Severe throbbing pain inside the ear, usually due to pressure from a blocked Eustachian tube or a respiratory infection. The condition may be treated by herbal antibiotics, antihistamines or nasal decongestants. Simple earache may resolve itself without inflammation from the inside and pus formation. Where pai persists more than 24 hours a practitioner’s opinion should be sought.

Before the practitioner comes: instil into the ear: few drops Onion or Garlic juice, Houseleek, Aloe Vera or Plantain juice; oils of Mullein, St John’s Wort or Almond. Moistened Chamomile flower sachet; apply to ear to ease pain.

Feverfew. A traditional way to relieve was to hold the ear over hot steaming Feverfew tea.

Supportive: A number of strong yawns while pinching the nostrils and blowing the nose vigorously may free obstruction and normalise pressure on both sides of the drum. Hot foot baths divert blood from the head and reduce pain. ... earache


ERGOT of rye. Secale. Claviceps purpurea, Tulasne.

Constituents: indole alkaloids, tyramine, acetylcholine.

Action: abortifacient, parturient, haemostatic, hypertensive, uterine stimulant, oxytocic. Uses. Obstetrics.

Difficult childbirth. Applied to excite uterine contractions in the third stage of labour. Preparations. Liquid Extract. BPC 1954, dose, 0.6 to 1.2ml.

Registered medical practitioner only. ... ergot

Heat Exhaustion

Collapse of the circulation from exposure to excessive heat. Possible in the presence of diarrhoea, vomiting or excessive sweating (dehydration) or alcohol consumption.

Symptoms: heavy sweating, failure of surface circulation, low blood pressure, weakness, cramps, rapid heartbeat, face is pale, cool and moist. Collapse. Recovery after treatment is rapid.

Alternatives. Cayenne pepper, or Tincture Capsicum, to promote peripheral circulation and sustain the heart. Prickly Ash bark restores vascular tone and stimulates capillary circulation. Bayberry offers a diffusive stimulant to promote blood flow, and Cayenne to increase arterial force.

Decoction. Combine equal parts Prickly Ash and Bayberry. 1 teaspoon to each cup water gently simmered 20 minutes. Half a cup (to which 3 drops Tincture Capsicum, or few grains red pepper is added). Dose: every 2 hours.

Tablets/capsules. Prickly Ash. Bayberry. Motherwort. Cayenne.

Tinctures. Formula. Prickly Ash 2; Horseradish 1; Bayberry 1. 15-30 drops in water every 2 hours. Traditional. Horseradish juice or grated root, in honey.

Life Drops. ... heat exhaustion

Lupus Erythematosus

Auto-immune disease – antibody to DNA. Non-tubercula. Two kinds: (1) discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE) and (2) systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). DLE occurs mostly in middle-aged women, but SLE in young women. Activity may be followed by period of remission. The condition may evolve into rheumatic disease.

Symptoms (SLE): Loss of appetite, fever. Weight loss, weakness. Thickened scaly red patches on face (butterfly rash). May invade scalp and cause loss of hair. Sunlight worsens. Anaemia. Joint pains. Enlarged spleen. Heart disorders. Kidney weakness, with protein in the urine. Symptoms worse on exposure to sunlight. Low white blood cell count. Many patients may also present with Raynaud’s phenomenon while some women with silicone breast implants may develop lupus.

Treatment. Anti-virals. Alteratives. Anti-inflammatories, anticoagulants. Alternatives. Teas: Lime flowers, Gotu Kola, Ginkgo, Aloe Vera, Boneset.

Decoctions: Burdock. Queen’s Delight. Helonias.

Tablets/capsules. Echinacea. Blue Flag root. Wild Yam. Ginkgo.

Formula. Dandelion 1; Black Haw 1; Wild Yam half; Poke root half. Dose: Liquid Extracts: one 5ml teaspoon. Tinctures: two 5ml teaspoons. Powders: 500mg (two 00 capsules or one-third teaspoon). Thrice daily.

Topical. Sunlight barrier creams: Aloe Vera, Comfrey. Horsetail poultice. Garlic ointment. Castor oil packs.


Supplements. Calcium pantothenate, Vitamin A, Vitamin E, Selenium.

Note: The disorder is frequently misdiagnosed as rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis or ME. Lupus antibodies have been linked with premature heart disease in women and transient strokes. ... lupus erythematosus

Bat Ears

The term commonly applied to prominent ears. The condition may be familial, but this is by no means the rule. Strapping the ears ?rmly back has no e?ect and is merely an embarrassment to the child. Where the patient wishes it, the condition can be recti?ed by plastic surgery.... bat ears

Biomechanical Engineering

The joint utilisation of engineering and biological knowledge to illuminate normal and abnormal functions of the human body. Blood ?ow, the reaction of bones and joints to stress, the design of kidney dialysis machines, and the development of arti?cial body parts are among the practical results of this collaboration.... biomechanical engineering

Creeping Eruption

Creeping eruption is a skin condition caused by the invasion of the skin by the larvae of various species of nematode worms. It owes its name to the fact that as the larva moves through and along the skin it leaves behind it a long creeping thin red line. (See STRONGYLOIDIASIS.)... creeping eruption

Dental Emergencies

See TEETH, DISORDERS OF.... dental emergencies


(Egyptian) A dark beauty Eboni, Ebonee, Ebonie, Ebonique, Eboney, Ebonea, Eboneah... ebony


Eburnation is a process of hardening and polishing which takes place at the ends of bones, giving them an ivory-like appearance. It is caused by the wearing away, in consequence of OSTEOARTHRITIS, of the smooth plates of cartilage which in health cover the ends of the bones.... eburnation


Tending to increase contractions of the uterus and thus facilitate childbirth... ecbolic

Economic Evaluation

A feasibility study which recognizes the interrelationship of capital cost, recurrent cost, investment and return, and lifecycle costs for individual facilities and services.... economic evaluation


In debilitated or immunodepressed subjects, staphylococcal IMPETIGO or folliculitis (in?ammation of hair follicles [see SKIN]) may become ulcerated. This is called ecthyma and is seen in vagrants, drug addicts, and individuals with AIDS/HIV or uncontrolled DIABETES MELLITUS.... ecthyma


Ectopic means out of the usual place. For example, the congenital displacement of the heart outside the thoracic cavity is said to be ectopic. An ‘ectopic gestation’ means a pregnancy outside of the womb (see ECTOPIC PREGNANCY).... ectopic

Ectopic Beat

A heart muscle contraction that is outside the normal sequence of the cardiac cycle (see HEART). The impulse is generated outside the usual focus of the SINOATRIAL NODE. Also known as extrasystoles, ectopic beats are called ventricular if they arise from a focus in the ventricles and supraventricular if they arise in the atria. They may cause no symptoms and the affected subject may be unaware of them. The beat may, however, be the result of heart disease or may be caused by NICOTINE or CAFFEINE. If persistent, the individual may suffer from irregular rhythm or ventricular ?brillation and need treatment with anti-arrhythmic drugs.... ectopic beat


Eclipta prostrata


San: Bhrngarajah, Tekarajah;

Hin: Bhamgra, Mocakand, Babri;

Ben: Kesutthe, Kesraj;

Mal: Kannunni, Kayyonni, Kayyunnni;

Tam: Kayyantakara, Kaikeri;

Kan: Kadiggagaraga;

Tel: Guntagalijeran; Arab: Kadim-el-bint

Importance: Eclipta is one of the ten auspicious herbs that constitute the group dasapuspam which is considered to destroy the causative factors of all unhealthy and unpleasant features and bestow good health and prosperity. The members of this group cure wounds and ulcers as well as fever caused by the derangement of the tridosas - vata, pitta and kapha. It is used in hepatitis, spleen enlargements, chronic skin diseases, tetanus and elephantiasis. The leaf promotes hair growth and use as an antidote in scorpion sting. The root is used as an emetic, in scalding of urine, conjuctivitis and as an antiseptic to ulcers and wound in cattle. It is used to prevent abortion and miscarriage and also in cases of uterine pains after the delivery. The juice of the plant with honey is given to infants for expulsion of worms. For the relief in piles, fumigation with Eclipta is considered beneficial. A decoction of the leaves is used in uterine haemorrhage. The paste prepared by mincing fresh plants has got an antiinflammatory effect and may be applied on insect bites, stings, swellings and other skin diseases. In Ayurveda, it is mainly used in hair oil, while in Unani system, the juice is used in “Hab Miskeen Nawaz” along with aconite, triphala, Croton tiglium, Piper nigium, Piper longum, Zingiber officinale and minerals like mercury, sulphur, arsenic, borax, etc. for various types of pains in the body. It is also a constituent of “Roghan Amla Khas” for applying on the hair and of “Majun Murrawah-ul-arwah”.

Distribution: This plant is widely distributed in the warm humid tropics with plenty of rainfall. It grows commonly in moist places as a weed all over plains of India.

Botany: Eclipta prostrata (Linn) Linn. syn. E. alba Hassk. is an annual, erect or postrate herb, often rooting at nodes. Leaves are sessile, 2.5-7.5cm long with white appressed hairs. Floral heads are 6-8 mm in diameter, solitary and white. Fruit is an achene, compressed and narrowly winged. Sometimes, Wedelia calendulacea, which resembles Eclipta prostrata is used for the same purpose.

Properties and activity: The leaves contain stigmasterol, -terthienylmethanol, wedelolactone, dismethylwedelolactone and dismethylwedelolactone-7-glucoside. The roots give hentriacontanol and heptacosanol. The roots contain polyacetylene substituted thiophenes. The aerial part is reported to contain a phytosterol, -amyrin in the n-hexane extract and luteolin-7-glucoside, -glucoside of phytosterol, a glucoside of a triterpenic acid and wedelolactone in polar solvent extract. The polypeptides isolated from the plant yield cystine, glutamic acid, phenyl alanine, tyrosine and methionine on hydrolysis. Nicotine and nicotinic acid are reported to occur in this plant.

The plant is anticatarrhal, febrifuge, antidontalgic, absorbent, antihepatic, CVS active, nematicidal, ovicidal and spasmolytic in activity. The alcoholic extract of entire plant has been reported to have antiviral activity against Ranikhet disease virus. Aqueous extract of the plant showed subjective improvement of vision in the case of refractive errors. The herbal drug Trefoli, containing extracts of the plant in combination with others, when administered to the patients of viral hepatitis, produced excellent results.... eclipta


Ectromelia means the absence of a limb or limbs, from congenital causes.... ectromelia


Fluid retention by the body causing swelling and discomfort... edema


The term applied to vessels which convey away blood or a secretion from a body part, or to nerves which carry nerve impulses outwards from the nerve-centres. (Opposite: AFFERENT.)... efferent


See Berenjena.... eggplant


Nutritional Profile Energy value (calories per serving): Moderate Protein: High Fat: High Saturated fat: Moderate Cholesterol: High Carbohydrates: Low Fiber: None Sodium: Moderate to high Major vitamin contribution: Vitamin A, riboflavin, vitamin D Major mineral contribution: Iron, calcium

About the Nutrients in This Food An egg is really three separate foods, the whole egg, the white, and the yolk, each with its own distinct nutritional profile. A whole egg is a high-fat, high-cholesterol, high-quality protein food packaged in a high-calcium shell that can be ground and added to any recipe. The proteins in eggs, with sufficient amounts of all the essential amino acids, are 99 percent digestible, the standard by which all other proteins are judged. The egg white is a high-protein, low-fat food with virtually no cholesterol. Its only important vitamin is riboflavin (vitamin B2), a vis- ible vitamin that gives egg white a slightly greenish cast. Raw egg whites contain avidin, an antinutrient that binds biotin a B complex vitamin for- merly known as vitamin H, into an insoluble compound. Cooking the egg inactivates avidin. An egg yolk is a high-fat, high-cholesterol, high-protein food, a good source of vitamin A derived from carotenes eaten by the laying hen, plus vitamin D, B vitamins, and heme iron, the form of iron most easily absorbed by your body. One large whole egg (50 g/1.8 ounce) has five grams fat (1.5 g satu- rated fat, 1.9 g monounsaturated fat, 0.7 g polyunsaturated fat), 212 mg cholesterol, 244 IU vitamin A (11 percent of the R DA for a woman, 9 percent * Values are for a whole egg. of the R DA for a man), 0.9 mg iron (5 percent of the R DA for a woman, 11 percent of the R DA for a man) and seven grams protein. The fat in the egg is all in the yolk. The protein is divided: four grams in the white, three grams in the yolk.

The Most Nutritious Way to Serve This Food With extra whites and fewer yolks to lower the fat and cholesterol per serving.

Diets That May Restrict or Exclude This Food Controlled-fat, low-cholesterol diet Low-protein diet

Buying This Food Look for: Eggs stored in the refrigerated dair y case. Check the date for freshness. NOTE : In 1998, the FDA and USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) proposed new rules that would require distributors to keep eggs refrigerated on the way to the store and require stores to keep eggs in a refrigerated case. The egg package must have a “refrigera- tion required” label plus safe-handling instructions on eggs that have not been treated to kill Salmonella. Look for: Eggs that fit your needs. Eggs are graded by the size of the yolk and the thick- ness of the white, qualities that affect appearance but not nutritional values. The higher the grade, the thicker the yolk and the thicker the white will be when you cook the egg. A Grade A A egg fried sunny side up will look much more attractive than a Grade B egg prepared the same way, but both will be equally nutritions. Egg sizes ( Jumbo, Extra large, Large, Medium, Small) are determined by how much the eggs weigh per dozen. The color of the egg’s shell depends on the breed of the hen that laid the egg and has nothing to do with the egg’s food value.

Storing This Food Store fresh eggs with the small end down so that the yolk is completely submerged in the egg white (which contains antibacterial properties, nature’s protection for the yolk—or a developing chick embryo in a fertilized egg). Never wash eggs before storing them: The water will make the egg shell more porous, allowing harmful microorganisms to enter. Store separated leftover yolks and whites in small, tightly covered containers in the refrigerator, where they may stay fresh for up to a week. Raw eggs are very susceptible to Salmonella and other bacterial contamination; discard any egg that looks or smells the least bit unusual. Refrigerate hard-cooked eggs, including decorated Easter eggs. They, too, are suscep- tible to Salmonella contamination and should never be left at room temperature.

Preparing This Food First, find out how fresh the eggs really are. The freshest ones are the eggs that sink and lie flat on their sides when submerged in cool water. These eggs can be used for any dish. By the time the egg is a week old, the air pocket inside, near the broad end, has expanded so that the broad end tilts up as the egg is submerged in cool water. The yolk and the white inside have begun to separate; these eggs are easier to peel when hard-cooked. A week or two later, the egg’s air pocket has expanded enough to cause the broad end of the egg to point straight up when you put the egg in water. By now the egg is runny and should be used in sauces where it doesn’t matter if it isn’t picture-perfect. After four weeks, the egg will float. Throw it away. Eggs are easily contaminated with Salmonella microorganisms that can slip through an intact shell. never eat or serve a dish or bever age containing r aw fr esh eggs. sa lmonella is destroyed by cooking eggs to an inter nal temper atur e of 145°f ; egg-milk dishes such as custar ds must be cooked to an inter nal temper atur e of 160°f. If you separate fresh eggs by hand, wash your hands thoroughly before touching other food, dishes, or cooking tools. When you have finished preparing raw eggs, wash your hands and all utensils thoroughly with soap and hot water. never stir cooked eggs with a utensil used on r aw eggs. When you whip an egg white, you change the structure of its protein molecules which unfold, breaking bonds between atoms on the same molecule and forming new bonds to atoms on adjacent molecules. The result is a network of protein molecules that hardens around air trapped in bubbles in the net. If you beat the whites too long, the foam will turn stiff enough to hold its shape even if you don’t cook it, but it will be too stiff to expand natu- rally if you heat it, as in a soufflé. When you do cook properly whipped egg white foam, the hot air inside the bubbles will expand. Ovalbumin, an elastic protein in the white, allows the bubble walls to bulge outward until they are cooked firm and the network is stabilized as a puff y soufflé. The bowl in which you whip the whites should be absolutely free of fat or grease, since the fat molecules will surround the protein molecules in the egg white and keep them from linking up together to form a puff y white foam. Eggs whites will react with metal ions from the surface of an aluminum bowl to form dark particles that discolor the egg-white foam. You can whip eggs successfully in an enamel or glass bowl, but they will do best in a copper bowl because copper ions bind to the egg and stabilize the foam.

What Happens When You Cook This Food When you heat a whole egg, its protein molecules behave exactly as they do when you whip an egg white. They unfold, form new bonds, and create a protein network, this time with molecules of water caught in the net. As the egg cooks, the protein network tightens, squeez- ing out moisture, and the egg becomes opaque. The longer you cook the egg, the tighter the network will be. If you cook the egg too long, the protein network will contract strongly enough to force out all the moisture. That is why overcooked egg custards run and why overcooked eggs are rubbery. If you mix eggs with milk or water before you cook them, the molecules of liquid will surround and separate the egg’s protein molecules so that it takes more energy (higher heat) to make the protein molecules coagulate. Scrambled eggs made with milk are softer than plain scrambled eggs cooked at the same temperature. When you boil an egg in its shell, the air inside expands and begins to escape through the shell as tiny bubbles. Sometimes, however, the force of the air is enough to crack the shell. Since there’s no way for you to tell in advance whether any particular egg is strong enough to resist the pressure of the bubbling air, the best solution is to create a safety vent by sticking a pin through the broad end of the egg before you start to boil it. Or you can slow the rate at which the air inside the shell expands by starting the egg in cold water and letting it warm up naturally as the water warms rather than plunging it cold into boiling water—which makes the air expand so quickly that the shell is virtually certain to crack. As the egg heats, a little bit of the protein in its white will decompose, releasing sulfur that links up with hydrogen in the egg, forming hydrogen sulfide, the gas that gives rot- ten eggs their distinctive smell. The hydrogen sulfide collects near the coolest part of the egg—the yolk. The yolk contains iron, which now displaces the hydrogen in the hydrogen sulfide to form a green iron-sulfide ring around the hard-cooked yolk.

How Other Kinds of Processing Affect This Food Egg substitutes. Fat-free, cholesterol-free egg substitutes are made of pasteurized egg whites, plus artificial or natural colors, flavors, and texturizers (food gums) to make the product look and taste like eggs, plus vitamins and minerals to produce the nutritional equivalent of a full egg. Pasteurized egg substitutes may be used without additional cooking, that is, in salad dressings and eggnog. Drying. Dried eggs have virtually the same nutritive value as fresh eggs. Always refrigerate dried eggs in an air- and moistureproof container. At room temperature, they will lose about a third of their vitamin A in six months.

Medical Uses and/or Benefits Protein source. The protein in eggs, like protein from all animal foods, is complete. That is, protein from animal foods provides all the essential amino acids required by human beings. In fact, the protein from eggs is so well absorbed and utilized by the human body that it is considered the standard by which all other dietary protein is measured. On a scale known as biological value, eggs rank 100 ; milk, 93; beef and fish, 75; and poultry, 72. Vision protection. The egg yolk is a rich source of the yellow-orange carotenoid pigments lutein and zeaxanthin. Both appear to play a role in protecting the eyes from damaging ultraviolet light, thus reducing the risk of cataracts and age-related macular degeneration, a leading cause of vision of loss in one-third of all Americans older than 75. Just 1.3 egg yolks a day appear to increase blood levels of lutein and zeaxanthin by up to 128 percent. Perhaps as a result, data released by the National Eye Institute’s 6,000-person Beaver Dam ( Wisconsin) Eye Study in 2003 indicated that egg consumption was inversely associated with cataract risk in study participants who were younger than 65 years of age when the study started. The relative risk of cataracts was 0.4 for people in the highest category of egg consumption, compared to a risk of 1.0 for those in the lowest category. External cosmetic effects. Beaten egg whites can be used as a facial mask to make your skin look smoother temporarily. The mask works because the egg proteins constrict as they dry on your face, pulling at the dried layer of cells on top of your skin. When you wash off the egg white, you also wash off some of these loose cells. Used in a rinse or shampoo, the pro- tein in a beaten raw egg can make your hair look smoother and shinier temporarily by filling in chinks and notches on the hair shaft.

Adverse Effects Associated with This Food Increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Although egg yolks are high in cholesterol, data from several recent studies suggest that eating eggs may not increase the risk of heart disease. In 2003, a report from a 14-year, 177,000-plus person study at the Harvard School of Public Health showed that people who eat one egg a day have exactly the same risk of heart disease as those who eat one egg or fewer per week. A similar report from the Multiple R isk Factor Intervention Trial showed an inverse relationship between egg consumption and cholesterol levels—that is, people who ate more eggs had lower cholesterol levels. Nonetheless, in 2006 the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute still recommends no more than four egg yolks a week (including the yolk in baked goods) for a heart-healthy diet. The American Heart Association says consumers can have one whole egg a day if they limit cholesterol from other sources to the amount suggested by the National Cholesterol Education Project following the Step I and Step II diets. (Both groups permit an unlimited number of egg whites.) The Step I diet provides no more than 30 percent of total daily calories from fat, no more than 10 percent of total daily calories from saturated fat, and no more than 300 mg of cholesterol per day. It is designed for healthy people whose cholesterol is in the range of 200 –239 mg/dL. The Step II diet provides 25– 35 percent of total calories from fat, less than 7 percent of total calories from saturated fat, up to 10 percent of total calories from polyunsaturated fat, up to 20 percent of total calories from monounsaturated fat, and less than 300 mg cho- lesterol per day. This stricter regimen is designed for people who have one or more of the following conditions: •  Existing cardiovascular disease •  High levels of low-density lipoproteins (LDLs, or “bad” cholesterol) or low levels of high-density lipoproteins (HDLs, or “good” cholesterol) •  Obesity •  Type 1 diabetes (insulin-dependent diabetes, or diabetes mellitus) •  Metabolic syndrome, a.k.a. insulin resistance syndrome, a cluster of risk fac- tors that includes type 2 diabetes (non-insulin-dependent diabetes) Food poisoning. Raw eggs (see above) and egg-rich foods such as custards and cream pies are excellent media for microorganisms, including the ones that cause food poisoning. To protect yourself against egg-related poisoning, always cook eggs thoroughly: poach them five minutes over boiling water or boil at least seven minutes or fry two to three minutes on each side (no runny center) or scramble until firm. Bread with egg coating, such as French toast, should be cooked crisp. Custards should be firm and, once cooked, served very hot or refrigerated and served very cold. Allergic reaction. According to the Merck Manual, eggs are one of the 12 foods most likely to trigger the classic food allergy symptoms: hives, swelling of the lips and eyes, and upset stomach. The others are berries (blackberries, blueberries, raspberries, strawberries), choco- late, corn, fish, legumes (green peas, lima beans, peanuts, soybeans), milk, nuts, peaches, pork, shellfish, and wheat (see wheat cer ea ls).

Food/Drug Interactions Sensitivity to vaccines. Live-virus measles vaccine, live-virus mumps vaccine, and the vac- cines for influenza are grown in either chick embryo or egg culture. They may all contain minute residual amounts of egg proteins that may provoke a hypersensitivity reaction in people with a history of anaphylactic reactions to eggs (hives, swelling of the mouth and throat, difficulty breathing, a drop in blood pressure, or shock).... eggs

Elastic Tissue

CONNECTIVE TISSUE which contains a profusion of yellow elastic ?bres. Long, slender and branching, these ?bres (made up of elastin, an albumin-like PROTEIN) ensure that the elastic tissue is ?exible and stretchable. The dermis layer of the skin, arterial walls and the alveolar walls in the LUNGS all contain elastic tissue.... elastic tissue


Electrocochleography is a method of recording the activity of the cochlea, the part of the inner ear concerned with hearing. (See EAR.)... electrocochleography


The use of short-wave electric currents to destroy the roots of hairs (see SKIN) and so remove unwanted hair from the skin surface. If used by a trained operator, the procedure is safe, but care must be taken in the vicinity of the eyes and, as electrolysis of hair on the legs is such a lengthy process, it is best avoided there.... electrolysis


In my context, acids, bases, and salts that contribute to the maintenance of electrical charges, membrane integrity, and acid-alkaline balance in the blood and lymph.... electrolytes

Electron Microscope

See MICROSCOPE.... electron microscope


See DEAD, DISPOSAL OF THE.... embalming

Embryo Transfer

Embryo transfer is the process whereby the initial stages of procreation are produced outside the human body and completed in the uterus or womb. The procedure is also known as ‘embryo transplantation’ and ‘in vitro fertilisation’ (IVF). It consists of extracting an ovum (or egg) from the prospective mother’s body and placing this in a dish where it is mixed with the male partner’s SEMEN and special nutrient ?uids. After the ovum is fertilised by the sperm it is transferred to another dish containing a special nutrient solution. Here it is left for several days while the normal early stages of development (see FETUS) take place. The early EMBRYO, as it has then become, is then implanted in the mother’s uterus, where it ‘takes root’ and develops as a normal fetus.

The ?rst ‘test-tube baby’ – to use the popular, and widely used, term for such a child – was born by CAESAREAN SECTION in England on 25 July 1978. Many other children conceived in this manner have since been born, and, though only 10 per cent of women conceive at the ?rst attempt, the overall success rate is improving. Embryo transplantation and research are controversial procedures and in many countries, including the UK, are controlled by legislation. Embryo transfer and research using embryos are regulated by the Human Fertilisation & Embryology Authority (see ASSISTED CONCEPTION; APPENDIX 7: STATUTORY ORGANISATIONS).... embryo transfer


A drug used in the treatment of invasive intestinal or extraintestinal amoebiasis caused by Entamoeba histolytica. No longer widely used due to it’s toxicity. Dehydroemetine is also effectiv e and is somewhat less toxic.... emetine


A discharge. The term is commonly used to describe the orgasmic ?ow of SEMEN from the erect PENIS that occurs during sleep. Described as a nocturnal emission or, colloquially, as a ‘wet dream’, it is a common event in late PUBERTY.... emission


This is a proprietary brand of topical cream (the abbreviation stands for Eutectic Mixture of Local Anaesthetics). EMLA has revolutionised the care of children in hospital in the last decade by allowing blood-taking, lumbar puncture and other invasive procedures to be conducted relatively painlessly. It is applied to the skin and covered. After one hour the skin is anaesthetised.... emla


Medicine intended to restore the mensus... emmenagogue


The normal condition of the EYE as regards refraction of light rays. When the muscles in the eyeball are completely relaxed, the focusing power is accurately adjusted for parallel rays, so that vision is perfect for distant objects.... emmetropia


Mental arousal that the individual may ?nd enjoyable or unpleasant. The three components are subjective, physiological and behavioural. The instinctive fear and ?ee response in animals comprises physiological reaction – raised heart rate, pallor and sweating – to an unpleasant event or stimulus. The loving relationship between mother and child is another wellrecognised emotional event. If this emotional bond is absent or inadequate, the child may suffer emotional deprivation, which can be the trigger for behavioural problems ranging from attention-craving to aggression. Emotional problems are common in human society, covering a wide spectrum of psychological disturbances. Upbringing, relationships or psychiatric illnesses such as anxiety and DEPRESSION may all contribute to the development of emotional problems (see MENTAL ILLNESS).... emotion


See TEETH.... enamel


A naturally occurring brain PEPTIDE, the effects of which resemble those of MORPHINE or other opiates (see ENDORPHINS; ENKEPHALINS).... encephalin


A TUMOUR formed of cartilage.... enchondroma


Enclosed within a bladder-like wall. The term is applied to parasites, collections of pus, etc., which are shut o? from surrounding tissues by a membrane or by adhesions.... encysted


In?ammation of the inner coat of an artery. (See ARTERIES, DISEASES OF.)... endarteritis


A thin membrane consisting of ?at endothelial cells; it lines the four chambers of the HEART and is continuous with the lining of arteries and veins. The endocardium has a smooth surface which helps the blood to ?ow easily. The valves at the openings of the heart’s chambers are made from folded-up membranes. In?ammation of the endocardium is called ENDOCARDITIS.... endocardium

Endocrine Glands

Organs whose function it is to secrete into the blood or lymph, substances known as HORMONES. These play an important part in general changes to or the activities of other organs at a distance. Various diseases arise as the result of defects or excess in the internal secretions of the di?erent glands. The chief endocrine glands are:

Adrenal glands These two glands, also known as suprarenal glands, lie immediately above the kidneys. The central or medullary portion of the glands forms the secretions known as ADRENALINE (or epinephrine) and NORADRENALINE. Adrenaline acts upon structures innervated by sympathetic nerves. Brie?y, the blood vessels of the skin and of the abdominal viscera (except the intestines) are constricted, and at the same time the arteries of the muscles and the coronary arteries are dilated; systolic blood pressure rises; blood sugar increases; the metabolic rate rises; muscle fatigue is diminished. The super?cial or cortical part of the glands produces steroid-based substances such as aldosterone, cortisone, hydrocortisone, and deoxycortone acetate, for the maintenance of life. It is the absence of these substances, due to atrophy or destruction of the suprarenal cortex, that is responsible for the condition known as ADDISON’S DISEASE. (See CORTICOSTEROIDS.)

Ovaries and testicles The ovary (see OVARIES) secretes at least two hormones – known, respectively, as oestradiol (follicular hormone) and progesterone (corpus luteum hormone). Oestradiol develops (under the stimulus of the anterior pituitary lobe – see PITUITARY GLAND below, and under separate entry) each time an ovum in the ovary becomes mature, and causes extensive proliferation of the ENDOMETRIUM lining the UTERUS, a stage ending with shedding of the ovum about 14 days before the onset of MENSTRUATION. The corpus luteum, which then forms, secretes both progesterone and oestradiol. Progesterone brings about great activity of the glands in the endometrium. The uterus is now ready to receive the ovum if it is fertilised. If fertilisation does not occur, the corpus luteum degenerates, the hormones cease acting, and menstruation takes place.

The hormone secreted by the testicles (see TESTICLE) is known as TESTOSTERONE. It is responsible for the growth of the male secondary sex characteristics.

Pancreas This gland is situated in the upper part of the abdomen and, in addition to the digestive enzymes, it produces INSULIN within specialised cells (islets of Langerhans). This controls carbohydrate metabolism; faulty or absent insulin production causes DIABETES MELLITUS.

Parathyroid glands These are four minute glands lying at the side of, or behind, the thyroid (see below). They have a certain e?ect in controlling the absorption of calcium salts by the bones and other tissues. When their secretion is defective, TETANY occurs.

Pituitary gland This gland is attached to the base of the brain and rests in a hollow on the base of the skull. It is the most important of all endocrine glands and consists of two embryologically and functionally distinct lobes.

The function of the anterior lobe depends on the secretion by the HYPOTHALAMUS of certain ‘neuro-hormones’ which control the secretion of the pituitary trophic hormones. The hypothalamic centres involved in the control of speci?c pituitary hormones appear to be anatomically separate. Through the pituitary trophic hormones the activity of the thyroid, adrenal cortex and the sex glands is controlled. The anterior pituitary and the target glands are linked through a feedback control cycle. The liberation of trophic hormones is inhibited by a rising concentration of the circulating hormone of the target gland, and stimulated by a fall in its concentration. Six trophic (polypeptide) hormones are formed by the anterior pituitary. Growth hormone (GH) and prolactin are simple proteins formed in the acidophil cells. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinising hormone (LH) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) are glycoproteins formed in the basophil cells. Adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), although a polypeptide, is derived from basophil cells.

The posterior pituitary lobe, or neurohypophysis, is closely connected with the hypothalamus by the hypothalamic-hypophyseal tracts. It is concerned with the production or storage of OXYTOCIN and vasopressin (the antidiuretic hormone).

PITUITARY HORMONES Growth hormone, gonadotrophic hormone, adrenocorticotrophic hormone and thyrotrophic hormones can be assayed in blood or urine by radio-immunoassay techniques. Growth hormone extracted from human pituitary glands obtained at autopsy was available for clinical use until 1985, when it was withdrawn as it is believed to carry the virus responsible for CREUTZFELDT-JAKOB DISEASE (COD). However, growth hormone produced by DNA recombinant techniques is now available as somatropin. Synthetic growth hormone is used to treat de?ciency of the natural hormone in children and adults, TURNER’S SYNDROME and chronic renal insu?ciency in children.

Human pituitary gonadotrophins are readily obtained from post-menopausal urine. Commercial extracts from this source are available and are e?ective for treatment of infertility due to gonadotrophin insu?ciency.

The adrenocorticotrophic hormone is extracted from animal pituitary glands and has been available therapeutically for many years. It is used as a test of adrenal function, and, under certain circumstances, in conditions for which corticosteroid therapy is indicated (see CORTICOSTEROIDS). The pharmacologically active polypeptide of ACTH has been synthesised and is called tetracosactrin. Thyrotrophic hormone is also available but it has no therapeutic application.

HYPOTHALAMIC RELEASING HORMONES which affect the release of each of the six anterior pituitary hormones have been identi?ed. Their blood levels are only one-thousandth of those of the pituitary trophic hormones. The release of thyrotrophin, adrenocorticotrophin, growth hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinising hormone is stimulated, while release of prolactin is inhibited. The structure of the releasing hormones for TSH, FSH-LH, GH and, most recently, ACTH is known and they have all been synthesised. Thyrotrophin-releasing hormone (TRH) is used as a diagnostic test of thyroid function but it has no therapeutic application. FSH-LH-releasing hormone provides a useful diagnostic test of gonadotrophin reserve in patients with pituitary disease, and is now used in the treatment of infertility and AMENORRHOEA in patients with functional hypothalamic disturbance. As this is the most common variety of secondary amenorrhoea, the potential use is great. Most cases of congenital de?ciency of GH, FSH, LH and ACTH are due to defects in the hypothalamic production of releasing hormone and are not a primary pituitary defect, so that the therapeutic implication of this synthesised group of releasing hormones is considerable.

GALACTORRHOEA is frequently due to a microadenoma (see ADENOMA) of the pituitary. DOPAMINE is the prolactin-release inhibiting hormone. Its duration of action is short so its therapeutic value is limited. However, BROMOCRIPTINE is a dopamine agonist with a more prolonged action and is e?ective treatment for galactorrhoea.

Thyroid gland The functions of the thyroid gland are controlled by the pituitary gland (see above) and the hypothalamus, situated in the brain. The thyroid, situated in the front of the neck below the LARYNX, helps to regulate the body’s METABOLISM. It comprises two lobes each side of the TRACHEA joined by an isthmus. Two types of secretory cells in the gland – follicular cells (the majority) and parafollicular cells – secrete, respectively, the iodine-containing hormones THYROXINE (T4) and TRI-IODOTHYRONINE (T3), and the hormone CALCITONIN. T3 and T4 help control metabolism and calcitonin, in conjunction with parathyroid hormone (see above), regulates the body’s calcium balance. De?ciencies in thyroid function produce HYPOTHYROIDISM and, in children, retarded development. Excess thyroid activity causes thyrotoxicosis. (See THYROID GLAND, DISEASES OF.)... endocrine glands


The ?uid that ?lls the membranous labyrinth of the inner ear (see EAR).... endolymph

Erythema Nodosum

Appearance of red oval nodules on the skin, later passing from red to brown. Onset sudden. Infection is usually streptococcal for which Myrrh and Goldenseal are specific. Non- infective. Lesions are preceded by sore throat. Stony-hard nodules break down to discharge pus. Symptoms: lesions mostly on shins and forearms; fatigue, aching joints and muscles, sometimes fever. Much physical activity stimulates out-cropping.

Tre atme nt. Bedrest where necessary. Treat underlying cause which may be ulcerative colitis, tuberculosis, toxicity from The Pill, drug reactions.

Alternatives:– Tea. Red Clover, Gotu Kola, Clivers. Combine. 1 heaped teaspoon to each cup boiling water; infuse 5-10 minutes; half-1 cup thrice daily.

Tablets/capsules. Blue Flag root, Devil’s Claw, Poke root, Seaweed and Sarsaparilla, Wild Yam. Formula. Burdock 1; Dandelion 2; Sarsaparilla 1. Dose – Powders: 500mg (two 00 capsules or one-third teaspoon). Liquid Extracts: 1 teaspoon. Tinctures: 2 teaspoons. Thrice daily in water.


Note: Erythema nodosum associated with Crohn’s disease, more frequently recognised in childhood. ... erythema nodosum


Examination of a body cavity – for example, PLEURAL CAVITY, GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, BILE DUCT and URINARY BLADDER – using an ENDOSCOPE in order to diagnose or treat a disorder in the cavity. The development of endoscopy has reduced the need for major surgery, as many diagnostic procedures can be performed with an endoscope (as can MINIMALLY INVASIVE SURGERY (MIS)). The development of ?bre optics (the transmission of light along bundles of glass or plastic ?bres) has greatly advanced the practice of endoscopy and hospitals now routinely run endoscopy clinics on an out-patient basis, often without the necessity for a general anaesthetic.... endoscopy


A measure or indicator chosen for determining an effect of an intervention.... endpoint


Peptides (see PEPTIDE) that have a pain-killing e?ect similar to that of ENDORPHINS. Produced by certain nerve endings and in the brain, enkephalins (also spelt encephalins) are also believed to act as a sedative and mood-changer.... enkephalins


Abnormal retraction of the eye into its socket: for example, when the sympathetic nerve in the neck is paralysed.... enophthalmos


See AMOEBA.... entamoeba


Another name for COLIC.... enteralgia


pertaining to the small intestines.... enteric


A description of tablets covered in material that allows them to pass through the stomach and enter the intestine unaltered. Drugs coated in this way are those whose action is reduced or stopped by acid in the stomach.... enteric-coated

Enteral Feeding

In severely ill patients, the metabolic responses to tissue damage may be su?cient to cause a reduction of muscle mass and of plasma proteins. This state of CATABOLISM may also impair the immune response to infection and delay the healing of wounds. It is probable that as many as one-half of patients who have had a major operation a week previously show evidence of protein malnutrition. This can be detected clinically by a loss of weight and a reduction in the skinfold thickness and arm circumference. Biochemically the serum-albumin (see ALBUMINS) concentration falls, as does the LYMPHOCYTE count. The protein reserves of the body fall even more dramatically when there are SEPSIS, burns, acute pancreatitis or renal failure.

The purpose of enteral feeding is to give a liquid, low-residue food through a naso-gastric feeding tube. It has the advantage over parenteral nutrition that the septic complications of insertion of CATHETERS into veins are avoided. Enteral feeding may either take the form of intermittent feeding through a large-bore naso-gastric tube, or of continuous gravity-feeding through a ?ne-bore tube.

A number of proprietary enteral foods are available. Some contain whole protein as the nitrogen source; others – and these are called elemental diets – contain free amino acids. DIARRHOEA is the most common problem with enteral feeding and it tends to occur when enteral feeding is introduced too rapidly or with too strong a preparation.... enteral feeding


A HERNIA of the bowel.... enterocele


A hormone derived from the mucosal lining of the small intestine which inhibits the movements and secretion of the stomach.... enterogastrone


The ENZYME secreted in the DUODENUM and jejunum (see INTESTINE) which converts the enzyme, trypsinogen, secreted by the PANCREAS, into TRYPSIN. (See also DIGESTION.)... enterokinase


A proprietary analgesic drug taken by inhalation and comprising half nitrous oxide and half oxygen. It is valuable in providing relief to casualties who are in pain, as it provides analgesia without making them unconscious. Entonox is also used in obstetric practice to ease the pains of childbirth.... entonox


All that which is external to the individual, including physical, biological, social, cultural and other factors.... environment

Environmental Medicine

The study of the consequences for people’s health of the natural environment. This includes the effects of climate, geography, sunlight and natural vegetation.... environmental medicine

Epicanthic Fold

A vertical skinfold that runs from the upper eyelid to the side of the nose. These folds are normal in oriental races but uncommon in others, although babies may have a temporary fold that disappears. Folds are present in people with DOWN’S (DOWN) SYNDROME.... epicanthic fold


The region lying in the middle of the ABDOMEN over the stomach.... epigastrium


Removal of hair by the roots. (See DEPILATION.)... epilation


In?ammation of an epiphysis (see BONE – Growth of bones).... epiphysitis


A cytotoxic anthracycline antibiotic drug used in the treatment of solid tumours, acute LEUKAEMIA and LYMPHOMA. It is related structurally to DOXORUBICIN and is given intravenously, and by instillation into the URINARY BLADDER to treat bladder cancer under specialist supervision.... epirubicin


The most super?cial layer of the sclera of the EYE. It sometimes becomes in?amed (episcleritis) but the condition usually clears without treatment.... episclera


The period in which a health problem or illness exists, from its outset to its resolution.... episode


(1) Stopping a ?ow or discharge of, for example, blood from a wound. (2) In genetics the term describes a type of gene action (see GENES) where a gene is able to block the action of another one.... epistasis


A species, structure or disorder named after a particular individual, customarily the one who ?rst described or discovered it. The use of eponyms has been widespread in medicine, but more descriptive – and so more practical – terms are replacing them.... eponym


Epulis is a term applied to any tumour connected with the jaws. (See MOUTH, DISEASES OF.)... epulis


The principle by which all persons or things under consideration are treated in the same way.... equality




A broad science involving the application of psychological and physiological principles to the study of human beings in relation to their work and working surroundings. It includes the design of buildings, machinery, vehicles, and anything else with which people have contact in the course of their work.... ergonomics


A sterol found in yeasts and fungi and in plant and animal fat. Under the action of sunlight or ultraviolet rays it produces vitamin D2. The substance produced in this way is known as calciferol, and is used for the prevention and cure of RICKETS and OSTEOMALACIA. A similar change in the ergosterol of the skin is produced when the body is freely exposed to sunlight. Calciferol is probably not so active as, and di?ers chemically from, the vitamin D occurring in ?sh-liver oils. (See APPENDIX 5: VITAMINS.)... ergosterol


See ERGOT POISONING.... ergotism


A term to describe those parts of the body – for example, the mouth, breasts and genitals – which, when stimulated, result in the individual’s sexual arousal.... erogenous


Erosion means a process of gradual wearing down of structures in the body. The term is applied to the e?ect of tumours, when they cause destruction of tissue in their neighbourhood without actually growing into the latter: for example, an ANEURYSM may erode bones in its neighbourhood. The term is also applied to minute ulcers – for example, erosions of the stomach, caused by extreme acidity of the gastric juice.

Dental erosion is the loss of tooth substance due to a cause other than decay or trauma. This is usually as a result of the presence of acid; for example, frequent vomiting or the excessive intake of citrus fruits. The teeth appear very smooth and later develop saucer-shaped depressions.... erosion


The emotional nature and characteristics of sexual arousal. This may occur as a result of visual, auditory or physical stimuli and also as a result of sexually oriented memories or imaginings.... eroticism


Eructation, or belching, is the sudden escape of gas or of portions of half-digested food from the stomach up into the mouth.... eructation


Eryngium maritimum. N.O. Umbelliferae.

Synonym: Commonly known as Sea Holly and Sea Eryngo.

Habitat: The plant is seen only on the sand dunes of the sea shore.

Features ? A pale greenish-blue bloom is characteristic of the erect, smooth stem, which grows to nearly one foot. Stiff, wavy, roundish leaves are roughly divided into three short, broad lobes, with beautiful veins and sharp teeth at the margins. Root leaves have stalks, but those from the stem are sessile. Blooming from July to September, the bright, pale blue flowers form a dense, round head at the end of

branches. The blackish-brown roots, long, thin arid cylindrical, are topped with the bristly remnants of the leaf stalks, and have a sweetish, mucilaginous taste.

Part used ? The root is the only part of the plant recognised in herbalism.

Action: Eryngo root is a diaphoretic, diuretic and expectorant.

It is mostly prescribed for bladder disorders, such as difficult and painful micturation, and also forms part of the treatment for uterine irritation.

Richard Lawrence Hool, of the British and American Physio-Medical Association, advises it in "sluggishness of the liver with uric acid accumulations," prepared as follows:

"Sea Holly 1 ounce

Wild Carrot 1 ounce.

"Boil in 1 1/2 pints of water down to 1 pint; strain, and take a wineglassful four times a day. In cases of jaundice take:

"Sea Holly 1 ounce

Barberry bark 1/2 ounce

"Boil in 1 quart of new milk for 10 minutes. Strain, and take two wineglassfuls every three hours." He adds ? "Most obstinate cases have been known to yield to this remedy in from 7-to 14 days."... eryngo

Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate

See ESR.... erythrocyte sedimentation rate


The protein, produced mainly in the kidney, that is the major stimulus for the production of ERYTHROCYTES, or red blood corpuscles. It is used when treating ANAEMIA dure to end-stage kidney failure and in premature newborns with anaemia. (See also BLOOD.)... erythropoietin


A caustic substance that creates a mass of dead cells or scab... escharotic


The generic name for the group of gram-negative, usually motile, rod-shaped BACTERIA that can ferment CARBOHYDRATE. They occur naturally in the intestines of humans and some animals. E. coli, which ferments lactose, is not normally harmful but some varieties, particularly E. coli O157, cause gastrointestinal infections which may be severe in old people. E. coli is also used in laboratory experiments for genetic and bacteriological research.... escherichia


A condition in which the ?ngers or toes, or even larger portions of the limbs, become purple and bloated in appearance, and very painful. In people suffering from the condition – which is not a common one – the attacks come and go, being worse in summer (unlike chilblains), and worse on exertion or when the affected parts are warmed or allowed to hang down. The condition may appear without apparent cause, but is often associated with vascular diseases, such as HYPERTENSION and POLYCYTHAEMIA VERA. It aso occurs in association with certain diseases of the central nervous system, and in cases of metallic poisoning

(e.g. arsenic, mercury and thallium). Treatment is unsatisfactory but aspirin provides sympomatic relief.... erythromelalgia


(American) A perfumed woman Essince, Esense, Esince, Essynce, Esynce... essence

Essential Fatty Acids

Three acids – arachidonic, linolenic and tinoleic – which are essential for life, but which the body cannot produce. They are found in natural vegetable and ?sh oils and their functions are varied. EFAs have a vital function in fat metabolism and transfer and they are also precursors of PROSTAGLANDINS.... essential fatty acids

Ethics Committee

A committee that can have a number of roles in relation to ethics. For example, it may develop policy relative to the use and limitation of treatment; serve as a resource for individuals and their families regarding options for terminal illness; or assess research projects with respect to the appropriate application of ethical principles.... ethics committee

Ethyl Chloride

A ?ammable, colourless liquid that is extremely volatile, and rapidly produces freezing of a surface when sprayed upon it. Now occasionally used to deaden pain for small and short operations, ethyl chloride was once used as an inhalant general anaesthetic for brief operations, and to induce ANAESTHESIA in patients in whom the anaesthesia is subsequently to be maintained by some other anaesthetic such as nitrous oxide or ether.... ethyl chloride


Within most cultures, care of the sick is seen as entailing special duties, codi?ed as a set of moral standards governing professional practice. Although these duties have been stated and interpreted in di?ering ways, a common factor is the awareness of an imbalance of power between doctor and patient and an acknowledgement of the vulnerability of the sick person. A function of medical ethics is to counteract this inevitable power imbalance by encouraging doctors to act in the best interests of their patients, refrain from taking advantage of those in their care, and use their skills in a manner which preserves the honour of their profession. It has always been accepted, however, that doctors cannot use their knowledge indiscriminately to ful?l patients’ wishes. The deliberate ending of life, for example, even at a patient’s request, has usually been seen as alien to the shared values inherent in medical ethics. It is, however, symptomatic of changing concepts of ethics and of the growing power of patient choice that legal challenges have been mounted in several countries to the prohibition of EUTHANASIA. Thus ethics can be seen as regulating individual doctor-patient relationships, integrating doctors within a moral community of their professional peers and re?ecting societal demands for change.

Medical ethics are embedded in cultural values which evolve. Acceptance of abortion within well-de?ned legal parameters in some jurisdictions is an example of how society in?uences the way in which perceptions about ethical obligations change. Because they are often linked to the moral views predominating in society, medical ethics cannot be seen as embodying uniform standards independent of cultural context. Some countries which permit capital punishment or female genital mutilation (FGM – see CIRCUMCISION), for example, expect doctors to carry out such procedures. Some doctors would argue that their ethical obligation to minimise pain and suffering obliges them to comply, whereas others would deem their ethical obligations to be the complete opposite. The medical community attempts to address such variations by establish-ing globally applicable ethical principles through debate within bodies such as the World Medical Association (WMA) or World Psychiatric Association (WPA). Norm-setting bodies increasingly re?ect accepted concepts of human rights and patient rights within professional ethical codes.

Practical changes within society may affect the perceived balance of power within the doctor-patient relationship, and therefore have an impact on ethics. In developed societies, for example, patients are increasingly well informed about treatment options: media such as the Internet provide them with access to specialised knowledge. Social measures such as a well-established complaints system, procedures for legal redress, and guarantees of rights such as those set out in the NHS’s Patient’s Charter appear to reduce the perceived imbalance in the relationship. Law as well as ethics emphasises the importance of informed patient consent and the often legally binding nature of informed patient refusal of treatment. Ethics re?ect the changing relationship by emphasising skills such as e?ective communication and generation of mutual trust within a doctor-patient partnership.

A widely known modern code is the WMA’s International Code of Medical Ethics which seeks to provide a modern restatement of the Hippocratic principles.

Traditionally, ethical codes have sought to establish absolutist positions. The WMA code, for example, imposes an apparently absolute duty of con?dentiality which extends beyond the patient’s death. Increasingly, however, ethics are perceived as a tool for making morally appropriate decisions in a sphere where there is rarely one ‘right’ answer. Many factors – such as current emphasis on autonomy and the individual values of patients; awareness of social and cultural diversity; and the phenomenal advance of new technology which has blurred some moral distinctions about what constitutes a ‘person’ – have contributed to the perception that ethical dilemmas have to be resolved on a case-by-case basis.

An approach adopted by American ethicists has been moral analysis of cases using four fundamental principles: autonomy, bene?cence, non-male?cence and justice. The ‘four principles’ provide a useful framework within which ethical dilemmas can be teased out, but they are criticised for their apparent simplicity in the face of complex problems and for the fact that the moral imperatives implicit in each principle often con?ict with some or all of the other three. As with any other approach to problem-solving, the ‘four principles’ require interpretation. Enduring ethical precepts such as the obligation to bene?t patients and avoid harm (bene?cence and non-male?cence) may be differently interpreted in cases where prolongation of life is contrary to a patient’s wishes or where sentience has been irrevocably lost. In such cases, treatment may be seen as constituting a ‘harm’ rather than a ‘bene?t’.

The importance accorded to ethics in daily practice has undergone considerable development in the latter half of the 20th century. From being seen mainly as a set of values passed on from experienced practitioners to their students at the bedside, medical ethics have increasingly become the domain of lawyers, academic philosophers and professional ethicists, although the role of experienced practitioners is still considered central. In the UK, law and medical ethics increasingly interact. Judges resolve cases on the basis of established medical ethical guidance, and new ethical guidance draws in turn on common-law judgements in individual cases. The rapid increase in specialised journals, conferences and postgraduate courses focused on ethics is testimony to the ever-increasing emphasis accorded to this area of study. Multidisciplinary practice has stimulated the growth of the new discipline of ‘health-care ethics’ which seeks to provide uniformity across long-established professional boundaries. The trend is to set common standards for a range of health professionals and others who may have a duty of care, such as hospital chaplains and ancillary workers. Since a primary function of ethics is to ?nd reasonable answers in situations where di?erent interests or priorities con?ict, managers and health-care purchasers are increasingly seen as potential partners in the e?ort to establish a common approach. Widely accepted ethical values are increasingly applied to the previously unacknowledged dilemmas of rationing scarce resources.

In modern debate about ethics, two important trends can be identi?ed. As a result of the increasingly high pro?le accorded to applied ethics, there is a trend for professions not previously subject to widely agreed standards of behaviour to adopt codes of ethical practice. Business ethics or the ethics of management are comparatively new. At the same time, there is some debate about whether professionals, such as doctors, traditionally subject to special ethical duties, should be seen as simply doing a job for payment like any other worker. As some doctors perceive their power and prestige eroded by health-care managers deciding on how and when to ration care and pressure for patients to exercise autonomy about treatment decisions, it is sometimes argued that realistic limits must be set on medical obligations. A logical implication of patient choice and rejection of medical paternalism would appear to be a concomitant reduction in the freedom of doctors to carry out their own ethical obligations. The concept of conscientious objection, incorporated to some extent in law (e.g. in relation to abortion) ensures that doctors are not obliged to act contrary to their own personal or professional values.... ethics


Also known as disodium etidronate, this is one of a group of substances called biphosphates used mainly to treat PAGET’S DISEASE OF BONE. The drug is given orally and, when combined with calcium carbonate (Didrone®), it is used to treat osteoporosis (see under BONE, DISORDERS OF) and to prevent bone loss in postmenopausal women, especially if hormone replacement therapy (HRT – see under MENOPAUSE) is not appropriate.... etidronate


Etiology, or AETIOLOGY, means the group of conditions which form the cause of any disease.... etiology


The study and cultivation of conditions that may improve the human race, in particular the detection and elimination of genetic disease.... eugenics


A man whose testes (see TESTICLE) have been removed or seriously damaged so that he is unable to produce male hormones and thus is sterile. A male castrated before puberty will have a feminine appearance and underdeveloped secondary sexual characteristics. The term was historically used to describe boys, castrated to make them suitable for working in harems, or boy singers, castrated to retain their higher-register voices (castrati singers).... eunuch


Purification, Protection ... euphorbia


A device for extracting ?uid from a cavity. In its basic form it comprises a hollow ?exible bulb attached (using a valve system) to a tube inserted into the cavity. Another valve leads to the discharge tube. One use of an evacuator is to empty the urinary bladder of extraneous material during surgery for removal of CALCULI or for PROSTATECTOMY.... evacuator


A process that attempts to determine, as systematically and objectively as possible, the relevance, effectiveness and impact of activities in the light of their objectives. Several varieties of evaluation can be distinguished, e.g. evaluation of structure, process and outcome.... evaluation


Extrusion of the abdominal VISCERA or internal organs, usually as the result of serious injury. (Usually described as disembowelment when deliberately carried out by one person on another.) In surgery the term refers to part-removal of the viscera, and in OPHTHALMOLOGY it is an operation to remove the contents of the eyeball (see also EYE).... evisceration


Rash caused by a systemic infection. Several childhood infections – for example, MEASLES and RUBELLA – have characteristic exanthemata.... exanthem


When used in neurophysiology, the term means the triggering of a conducted electrical impulse in the membrane of a muscle cell or the nerve ?bre controlling it.... excitation


Waste material, especially FAECES.... excreta


Also called expiration, this is the act of breathing air from the lungs out through the bronchi, trachea, mouth and nose. (See also RESPIRATION.)... exhalation


Also known as a proptometer. An instrument used to measure the extent of protrusion of the eyeball – a development that occurs in certain disorders such as GOITRE, TUMOUR, OEDEMA, injuries, orbital in?ammation or cavernous venous thrombosis (a blood clot in the cavernous sinus in the base of the skull behind each eye). (See EXOPHTHALMOS.)... exophthalmometer


(1) Breathing out air from the lungs.

(2) The act of dying.... expiration


A surgical operation to investigate the cause of a patient’s illness.... exploration


The total removal of a growth, organ or tissue by surgery.... extirpation


Extra- is the Latin pre?x meaning outside of, or in addition – such as extracapsular, meaning outside the capsule of a joint, and extrasystole, meaning an additional contraction of the heart.... extra


Extension is the process of straightening or stretching a limb. When used in the natural sense, it involves the contraction of the muscles opposing those used in FLEXION. In cases of fractured limbs (see BONE, DISORDERS OF – Bone fractures), extension is employed during the application of splints, in order to reduce the displacement caused by the fracture, and prevent movement of the broken ends of bone. It is e?ected by gently and steadily pulling upon the part of the limb beyond the fracture. Extension of a more permanent type is used in the after-treatment of some fractures, as well as in diseases of the spine, by placing the patient upon an inclined bed and a?xing weights to his or her lower limbs, or to his or her head by means of adhesive plaster or of straps.... extension


An adjective that describes an object or event outside a cell. An example is extracellular ?uid, the medium surrounding a cell.... extracellular


Outside the DURA MATER, the outermost of the three membranes that cover the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD. The extradural or epidural space is the space between the vertebral canal and the dura mater of the spinal cord. (See ANAESTHESIA

– Local anaesthetics: epidural.)... extradural


Extrasystole is a term applied to premature contraction of one or more of the chambers of the heart. A beat of the heart occurs sooner than it should do in the ordinary rhythm and is followed by a longer rest than usual before the next beat. In an extrasystole, the stimulus to contraction arises in a part of the heart other than the usual. Extrasystoles often give rise to an unpleasant sensation as of the heart stumbling over a beat, but their occurrence is not usually serious.... extrasystole


An escape of ?uid from the vessels or passages which ought to contain it. Extravasation of blood due to tearing of vessel walls is found in STROKE, and in the commoner condition known as a bruise. Extravasation of urine takes place when the bladder or the URETHRA is ruptured by a blow on the abdomen or on the crutch (PERINEUM), or torn in a fracture of the pelvis. Intravenous infusions frequently extravasate.... extravasation


See EYE.... eyeball

Hepatic Encephalopathy

A neuropsychiatric syndrome caused by disease of the LIVER, and occurring most often in patients with CIRRHOSIS – see also LIVER, DISEASES OF; it also occurs in acute form in acute failure of liver function. The disorder is believed to be the result of biochemical disturbance of brain function, because the condition is reversible and pathological changes in brain tissue are rarely found. The patient’s intellect, personality, emotions and consciousness are altered but neurological signs may or may not be identi?ed. Apathy, confusion, drowsiness, sometimes CONVULSIONS, speech disturbance and eventually COMA mark the progress of the condition. The principles of treatment are to remove the precipitating causes. These include: URAEMIA; sedative, antidepressant and hypnotic drugs; gastrointestinal bleeding; too much protein in the diet; infection; and trauma (including surgical operations).... hepatic encephalopathy

Physical Examination

That part of a patient’s consultation with a doctor in which the doctor looks, feels (palpates) and listens to (auscultates) various parts of the patient’s body. Along with the history of the patient’s symptoms, this enables the doctor to assess the patient’s condition and decide whether an immediate diagnosis is possible or whether laboratory or imaging investigations are needed to reach a diagnosis. A full physical examination may take 30 minutes or more. Physical examination, along with certain standard investigations, is done when a person attends for a ‘preventive’ check-up of his or her state of health.... physical examination

Pseudoxanthoma Elasticum

This is a hereditary disorder of elastic tissue. Degenerating elastic tissue in the skin produces lesions which look like soft yellow papules. Elastic tissue in the eye and blood vessels is also involved, giving rise to visual impairment, raised blood pressure and haemorrhages.... pseudoxanthoma elasticum

Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (me)

A syndrome in which various combinations of extreme fatiguability, muscle pain, lack of concentration, panic attacks, memory loss and depression occur. Its existence and causes have been the subject of controversy re?ected in the variety of names given to the syndrome: CHRONIC FATIGUE SYNDROME (CFS), post-viral fatigue syndrome, Royal Free disease, epidemic neuromyasthenia and Icelandic disease. ME often follows virus infections of the upper respiratory tract or gut, but it is not clear whether this is an association or cause-ande?ect. It may occur in epidemics or as individual cases. Physical examination shows no evidence of diagnosable disease and there is no diagnostic test – diagnosis usually being made by excluding other possible disorders. The sufferer usually recovers in time, although sometimes recovery may take many months or even years. The most severely affected may be bedridden and may need tube-feeding. There is no speci?c curative treatment, but symptomatic treatment such as resting in the early stages may help. Some experts believe that the illness has a psychological element, and sufferers have been treated with COGNITIVE BEHAVIOUR THERAPY. In 1998 the Chief Medical O?cer set up a multidisciplinary working group, including patients, to consider possible cures and treatments for ME/CFS. The report (2002) concluded that the disorder should be recognised as chronic and treatable, but there was no clear agreement on cause(s) and treatment(s). Meanwhile research continues, including a programme by the Centre of Disease Control in Atlanta, USA. Su?erers may ?nd it helpful to consult the ME Association.... myalgic encephalomyelitis (me)

Restriction Enzyme

An endonuclease ENZYME, extracted from BACTERIA, that is used to cut DNA into short segments – a process essential in GENETIC ENGINEERING.... restriction enzyme

Side Effects

Unwanted effects of a drug or treatment.... side effects

Spongiform Encephalopathy

A disease of the neurological system caused by a PRION. Spongy degeneration of the BRAIN occurs with progressive DEMENTIA. Known examples of the disorder in humans are CREUTZFELDT-JAKOB DISEASE (CJD) and KURU. Among animals, scrapie in sheep and BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY (BSE) are caused by slow viruses. The latter has occurred as an outbreak in cattle over the past decade or so, probably as a result of cattle being fed processed o?al from infected animals. Some people have developed a form of CJD from eating infected beef.... spongiform encephalopathy

Succus Entericus

Intestinal Juice. These are enzyme-rich secretions produced by the lining of the upper small intestines. Apparently the enzymes produced compensate for any pancreatic enzymes that are deficient for that particular meal.... succus entericus

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (sle)

See separate dictionary entry.... systemic lupus erythematosus (sle)

Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

More accurately called complex partial seizures, this is a type of EPILEPSY in which the abnormal cerebral activity originates in the temporal lobe of the BRAIN. It is characterised by hallucinations of smell and sometimes of taste, hearing, or sight. There may be disturbances of memory, including déjà vu phenomena. AUTOMATISM may occur, but consciousness is seldom lost.... temporal lobe epilepsy

Trace Elements

Chemical elements that are distributed throughout the tissues of the body in very small amounts and are essential for the nutrition of the body. Nine such elements are now recognised: cobalt, copper, ?uorine, iodine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, selenium and zinc.... trace elements

Tennis Elbow

The medical name for this condition is epicondylitis. The condition is characterised by pain and tenderness on the outside of the elbow and is the result of in?ammation in the TENDON that attaches the muscles which extend the elbow to the HUMERUS bone. Epicondylitis can be the result of playing a lot of tennis or other racquet sports, gardening, ‘do it yourself’ work, or any activity that constantly pulls the tendon at its point of attachment. Lifting heavy objects aggravates the condition. Treatment is resting the arm, ANALGESICS and/or NON-STEROIDAL ANTI-INFLAMMATORY DRUGS (NSAIDS). Sometimes ULTRASOUND therapy may promote healing, but persistent severe pain may necessitate the local injection of CORTICOSTEROIDS. Rarely, surgery may be recommended to release the tendon.... tennis elbow

Vasa Efferentia

E?erent seminal ducts of the testis (see TESTICLE); these carry SEMEN from the testis to the head of the EPIDIDYMIS.... vasa efferentia

Vacuum Extractor

Also called a ventouse. The idea of the glass suction cup applied to the emerging head of the baby to assist in delivery was ?rst considered by Younge in 1706, but it was not until 1954 that the modern (ventouse) vacuum extractor was introduced. The value of the ventouse as against the FORCEPS has been disputed in di?erent clinics, the former being less popular in the UK. Indications are similar for the use of obstetric forceps. Even if the OCCIPUT is not in the anterior position, the extractor may still be applied; many obstetricians would choose forceps or perform manual rotation of the fetus in such cases.

In cases of prolongation of the ?rst stage of labour, the ventouse may be used to accelerate dilatation of the cervix – provided that the cervix is already su?ciently dilated to allow application of the cup. The ventouse cannot be applied to the breech or face; in urgent cases of fetal distress the operation takes too long, and forceps delivery is preferred. There is some doubt about its safety when used on premature babies; many obstetricians feel that forceps delivery reduces the risk of intracranial haemorrhage. The vacuum extractor, while resulting in a slower delivery than when forceps are used, has a lower risk of damage to the mother’s birth canal. (See PREGNANCY AND LABOUR – Some complications of labour.)... vacuum extractor

Zollinger-ellison Syndrome

A rare disorder in which severe peptic ulcers recur in the stomach and duodenum (see DUODENAL ULCER; STOMACH, DISEASES OF). It is caused by a tumour in the PANCREAS that produces a hormone, GASTRIN, which stimulates the stomach and duodenum to produce excess acid: this causes ulceration. Treatment is by surgery.... zollinger-ellison syndrome


Middle ear inflammation. See: OTITIS MEDIA. External ear inflammation. See: OTITIS EXTERNA. Glue ear. See: OTITIS MEDIA, SECRETORY FORM. ... ears


A medication in which an oil is suspended in water with the addition of an emulsifier. Quillaia bark (Soap bark), Lecithin, Acacia or other gum. A convenient way of applying oils to the skin, aiding penetration. Drying and cooling. Usually one part oil to ten parts water. ... emulsion



ERUPTION. A lesion on the skin, red and raised above the surface. See appropriate skin disease. ERUCTATION. See: REFLUX. ... erotomania


The circular membrane that separates the outer ear from the middle ear. The eardrum vibrates in response to sound waves, conducting the sound to the inner ear through the ossicles.... eardrum


An antifungal drug used as a cream for fungal skin infections (see athlete’s foot; tinea), and in cream or pessary form to treat vaginal candidiasis. Skin irritation is a rare side effect.... econazole

Otitis Externa

Swimmer’s ear. Inflammation of the outer ear.

Causes: fungal or bacterial infections acquired when swimming, scratching with dirty fingernails, diabetes mellitus, eczema or excessive sweating.

Symptoms: earache, itching, discharge, moderate deafness.

Alternative Treatment:– Tea. Combine equal parts: Nettles, Clivers, Red Clover. 1-2 teaspoons to each cup boiling water; infuse 5-15 minutes. 1 cup thrice daily.

Tablets/capsules. Echinacea. Blue Flag. Garlic. Poke root. Red Clover. Devil’s Claw. Thuja.

Powders. Combine parts: Echinacea 2; Blue Flag 1; Thuja quarter; Liquorice quarter. Dose: 500mg (two 00 capsules or one-third teaspoon) thrice daily.

Tinctures. Combine parts: Echinacea 2; Devil’s Claw 1; Goldenseal quarter; Liquorice quarter. Dose: 1-2 teaspoons, thrice daily.

Evening Primrose. 4 × 500mg capsules daily.

Cider Vinegar: 2-3 teaspoons in glass water, 2-3 times daily.

Topical. Dry conditions: Jojoba oil, Mullein oil. Evening Primrose oil.

Moist suppurative conditions: Goldenseal Drops (see entry).

Simple inflammation without discharge: warm drops Houseleek juice. Pack external ear with saturated cotton wool.

Diet and supplements: same as for otitis media. ... otitis externa


A parasite that lives in or on its host’s skin and derives nourishment from the skin or by sucking the host’s blood. Various lice, ticks, mites, and some types of fungi are occasional ectoparasites of humans.... ectoparasite


See ECG.... electrocardiography

Electroconvulsive Therapy

See ECT.... electroconvulsive therapy


See EEG.... electroencephalography


A substance whose molecules dissociate into its constituent ions when dissolved or melted.... electrolyte


See EMG.... electromyography


The deliberate obstruction of a blood vessel in order to stop

internal bleeding or to cut off the blood supply to a tumour. In the latter case, the technique can relieve pain; cause the tumour to shrivel, making surgical removal easier; or stop the tumour from spreading. Embolization can also be used to block flow through vascular abnormalities such as haemangiomas both in the skin and the internal organs. A catheter is introduced into a blood vessel near the one to be blocked and the embolus that will block the vessel is released through the catheter. Emboli are made of materials such as bloodclotting agents or silicone.... embolization


A medication rubbed into the skin in order to relieve muscular or joint pain.... embrocation

Emergency Contraception

See contraception, emergency.... emergency contraception


An ACE inhibitor drug used to treat hypertension and heart failure.... enalapril


A yellow or brown secretion, also called cerumen, produced by glands in the outer ear canal. Some people produce so much wax that it regularly obstructs the canal. Excess earwax may produce a sensation of fullness in the ear and partial deafness. Prolonged blockage may irritate the canal.Wax that causes blockage or irritation may come out after being softened with oil. Otherwise, it should be removed by a doctor. This is usually done, after wax is softened, by syringing of the ears. eating disorders Illnesses characterized by obsessions with weight and body image. Eating disorders are most common in young adolescent females but can affect males. In anorexia nervosa, patients, despite being painfully thin, perceive themselves as fat and starve themselves. Binge-eating followed by self-induced vomiting is a major feature of bulimia, although, in this disorder, weight may be normal. Both conditions may occur together. In morbid obesity, there is a constant desire to eat large quantities of food.... earwax


A type of neural tube defect that results in defects of the brain rather than of the spinal cord, as occurs in spina bifida.... encephalocele


A type of soiling in which children pass normal faeces in unacceptable places after the age at which bowel control is normally achieved. The cause of encopresis is usually an underlying behavioural problem.... encopresis

Endocrine Gland

A gland that secretes hormones directly into the bloodstream rather than through a duct. Examples include the thyroid gland, pituitary gland, ovaries, testes, and adrenal glands. (See also exocrine gland.)... endocrine gland


The hinge joint formed where the lower end of the humerus meets the upper ends of the radius and ulna. The elbow is stabilized by ligaments at the front, back, and sides. It enables the arm to be bent and straightened, and the forearm to be rotated through almost 180 degrees around its long axis without more than very slight movement of the upper arm.

Disorders of the elbow include arthritis and injuries to the joint and its surrounding muscles, tendons, and ligaments. Repetitive strain on the tendons of the muscles of the forearm, where they attach to the elbow, can result in an inflammation that is known as epicondylitis. There are 2 principle types of epicondylitis: tennis elbow and golfer’s elbow. Alternatively, a sprain of the ligaments may occur. Olecranon bursitis develops over the tip of the elbow in response to local irritation. Strain on the joint can produce an effusion or traumatic synovitis. A fall on to the hand or on to the elbow can cause a fracture or dislocation.elderly, care of the Appropriate care to help minimize physical and mental deterioration in the elderly. For example, failing vision and hearing are often regarded as inevitable in old age, but removal of a cataract or use of a hearing-aid can often improve quality of life. Isolation or inactivity leads to depression in some elderly people. Attending a day-care centre can provide social contact and introduce new interests.

Many elderly people are cared for by family members. Voluntary agencies can often provide domestic help to ease the strain on carers. Sheltered housing allows independence while providing assistance when needed. Elderly people who have dementia or physical disability usually require supervision in a residential care or hospital setting. (See also geriatric medicine.)... elbow


The branch of dentistry concerned with the causes, prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disease and injury affecting the nerves and pulp in teeth and periapical tissues in the gum.

Common endodontic procedures are root-canal treatment and pulpotomy.... endodontics

Endometrial Ablation

A treatment for persistent menorrhagia (heavy menstrual blood loss) that involves endoscopic examination of the uterus (see endoscopy) and removal of the uterus lining, the endometrium, by diathermy or laser.... endometrial ablation

Endometrial Cancer

See uterus, cancer of.... endometrial cancer


Overfilling of the breasts with milk. Engorgement is common a few days after childbirth. It causes the breasts and nipples to become swollen and tender, and can make breastfeeding difficult. The problem can be relieved by expressing milk.... engorgement

Entrapment Neuropathy

A condition, such as carpal tunnel syndrome, in which local pressure on a nerve causes muscle pain, numbness, and weakness in the area that the nerve supplies.... entrapment neuropathy


A rare brain tumour of the glioma type that occurs most often in children.... ependymoma

Epidermolysis Bullosa

A group of rare, inherited conditions, varying widely in severity, in which blisters appear on the skin after minor injury or occur spontaneously. The conditions can be diagnosed by a skin biopsy. There is no specific treatment. The outlook varies from gradual improvement in mild cases to progressive serious disease in the most severe cases.... epidermolysis bullosa


An alternative name for adrenaline.... epinephrine


A localized patch of inflammation affecting the outermost layers of the sclera (white of the eye) immediately underneath the conjunctiva. The condition usually occurs for no known reason, mainly affecting middle-aged men. In some cases, it is a complication of rheumatoid arthritis. The inflammation may cause a dull, aching pain and there may be photophobia. The disorder usually disappears by itself in a week or so but may recur. Symptoms may be relieved by using eye-drops or ointment containing a corticosteroid drug.... episcleritis


A genetically engineered preparation of the hormone erythropoietin, which is produced by specialized cells in the kidneys and stimulates the bone marrow to make red blood cells. Epoetin may be used for treating anaemia resulting from the lack of erythropoetin that occurs in kidney failure. It is also used for anaemia occurring in chronic disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis and itching associated with uraemia.... epoetin


Another name for a red blood cell (see blood cells).... erythrocyte


An alternative term for a convergent squint.... esotropia


Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (see lithotripsy).... eswl

Evening Primrose Oil

An oil that is extracted from the seeds of the plant

OENOTHERA BIENNIS, commonly known as the evening primrose. The oil contains an anti-inflammatory substance called gamolenic acid, and is believed by some to be of benefit in treating eczema and premenstrual syndrome.... evening primrose oil


A turning outwards. The term is used medically to describe a type of ankle injury or deformity in which the foot is turned outwards.... eversion


The surgical removal of all organs and soft tissue in a body cavity, usually to arrest the growth of a cancer. It is sometimes used in ophthalmology when the eye and the contents of the eye orbit are removed.... exenteration

Eustachian Tube

The passage that runs from the middle ear into the back of the nose, just above the soft palate. The tube acts as a drainage channel from the middle ear and maintains hearing by opening periodically to regulate air pressure. The lower end of the tube opens during swallowing and yawning, allowing air to flow up to the middle ear, equalizing the air pressure on both sides of the eardrum.

When a viral infection such as a cold causes blockage of the eustachian tube, equalization cannot occur, resulting in severe pain and temporary impairment of hearing. A person with a blocked eustachian tube who is subjected to rapid pressure changes may suffer from barotrauma. Glue ear or chronic otitis media may occur if the tube is blocked, preventing adequate drainage from the middle ear. These conditions, which often result in partial hearing loss are more common in children. This is partly because their adenoids are larger and more likely to cause a blockage if they become infected and partly because children’s eustachhian tubes are shorter than those of adults.... eustachian tube

Ewing’s Sarcoma

A rare malignant form of bone cancer. It arises in a large bone, usually the femur, tibia, humerus, or a pelvic bone, and spreads to other areas at an early stage. The condition is most common in children aged 10–15. An affected bone is painful and tender. It may also become weakened and fracture easily. Other symptoms include weight loss, fever, and anaemia.

The sarcoma is diagnosed by X-rays and a biopsy.

If cancer is found, the whole skeleton is examined by X-rays and radionuclide scanning, and the lungs viewed by CT scanning, to determine if, and how far, the cancer has spread.

Treatment is with radiotherapy and anticancer drugs.

If the cancer has not spread, the outlook is good.... ewing’s sarcoma


A term for a divergent squint.... exotropia


A fold of tissue at the upper or lower edge of an eye socket.

The eyelids are held in place by ligaments attached to the socket’s bony edges.

They consist of thin plates of fibrous tissue (called tarsal plates) covered by muscle and a thin layer of skin.

The inner layer is covered by an extension of the conjunctiva.

Along the edge of each lid are two rows of eyelashes.

Immediately behind the eyelashes are the openings of the ducts leading from the meibomian glands, which secrete the oily part of the tear film.

The lids act as protective shutters, closing as a reflex action if anything approaches the eye.

They also smear the tear film across the cornea.... eyelid

Golfer’s Elbow

A painful condition caused by inflammation of the epicondyle (bony prominence) on the inner elbow, at the site of attachment of some forearm muscles. Golfer’s elbow is caused by overuse of these muscles, which bend the wrist and fingers. Activities such as using a screwdriver or playing golf with a faulty grip can cause the condition. Treatment consists of resting the elbow, applying ice-packs, and taking analgesic drugs to relieve pain. If the pain is severe or persistent, injection of a corticosteroid drug into the area may help.... golfer’s elbow

Myalgic Encephalomyelitis

Also known as (see chronic fatigue syndrome).... myalgic encephalomyelitis

Out-of-body Experience

A feeling of leaving one’s body and observing oneself from another dimension.

The experience, which is thought to be due to disturbance of brain function, is reported by some patients following a general anaesthetic or a medical emergency.... out-of-body experience

Positron Emission Tomography


PET scanning.... positron emission tomography

Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation

See TENS.... transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation

Wernicke’s Encephalopathy

See Wernicke–Korsakoff syndrome.... wernicke’s encephalopathy


estimated *glomerular filtration rate. Most estimates in clinical practice are based on the serum creatinine, age, gender, and race, with or without body weight Examples are the *Cockcroft-Gault formula and MDRD eGFR (modification of diet in renal disease study method of estimating glomerular filtration rate).... egfr

Essential Oil

a volatile oil derived from an aromatic plant. Essential oils are used in various pharmaceutical preparations.... essential oil

Abuta Tea: Healing Effects

Abuta tea is a complex type of tea, used at first only by midwives to treat different childbirth issues. Now, it is widely-appreciated due to its therapeutic value. About Abuta Tea Abuta is a high-climbing vine, originating from South Africa and being widely known for its efficiency in treating women’s ailments. The plant has woody stems and extremely long roots. Its leaves are heart-shaped and have a waxy texture. The seeds are flat, the flowers grow in panicles, whereas its fruits are bright red, turning black when they are ripened. Practitioners of nowadays medicine have been acknowledged using derivatives of some of the constituents of abuta to block neuromuscular activity during surgery. Extracts of the same plant are included in pharmaceutical products for medical applications. Abuta tea gained its reputation as the brew used by midwives, especially in South America. It is thought to help fighting hemorrhage that may threaten a miscarriage. In Indian Ayurvedic medicine, Abuta tea is believed to have anti-fertility properties. Brewing Abuta Tea Abuta tea can be intaken in the form of capsules or tincture. It can be brewed in the following way:
  • boil the dried roots of the plant ( 20 to 25 minutes)
  • allow the mix to steep (5 minutes)
  • drink it slowly
Abuta Tea benefits Abuta Teais successfully used to:
  • fight kidney stones and bladder infections
  • alleviate fever
  • counter jaundice
  • ease symptoms of arthritis and rheumatism
  • fight gonorrhea
  • treat anemia
Abuta tea is given to women to help ease childbirth. It is also efficient in alleviating the unpleasant menstrual problems. Abuta Tea side effects High doses ofAbuta teacombined with other medications, may lead to respiratory problems. It is not recommended to pregnant or breastfeeding women. Abuta tea is benefic to treat a large array of diseases, being also recommended as an excellent blood depurative.... abuta tea: healing effects

Accident And Emergency Medicine

Accident and Emergency Medicine is the specialty responsible for assessing the immediate needs of acutely ill and injured people. Urgent treatment is provided where necessary; if required, the patient’s admission to an appropriate hospital bed is organised. Every part of the UK has nominated key hospitals with the appropriately trained sta? and necessary facilities to deal with acutely ill or injured patients. It is well-recognised that prompt treatment in the ?rst hour or so after an accident or after the onset of an acute illness – the so-called ‘golden hour’ – can make the di?erence between the patient’s recovery and serious disability or death.

A&E Medicine is a relatively new specialty in the UK and there are still inadequate numbers of consultants and trainees, despite an inexorable rise in the number of patients attending A&E departments. With a similar rise in hospital admissions there is often no bed available immediately for casualties, resulting in backlogs of patients waiting for treatment. A major debate in the specialty is about the likely need to centralise services by downgrading or closing smaller units, in order to make the most e?cient use of sta?.

See accident and emergency medicine

Acute Life-threatening Event (alte)

See ALTE.... acute life-threatening event (alte)

Adverse Event / Reaction

Any undesirable or unwanted consequence of a preventive, diagnostic or therapeutic procedure.... adverse event / reaction

Agrimonia Eupatoria

auct non L.

Synonym: A. pilosa Hook.f. non Ledeb.

A. pilosa Ledeb. var. nepalensis (D. Don) Nakai

Family: Rosacae.

Habitat: The Himalayas from Kashmir to West Bengal at 9003,000 m, and in Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland and Meghalaya.

English: Agrimony, Stickle Wort.

Unani: Ghaafis.

Folk: Belu.

Action: Astringent, anti- inflammatory, hepatic, cholagogue, diuretic, mild haemostatic, antibacterial. Used for irritations and infections of the intestinal tract, gallbladder diseases, hyperacidity, colic, urinary disorders (bed- wetting, incontinence), sluggish liver, mucus membrane inflammations; externally for ulcerated and discharging skin, psoriasis and seborrhoic eczemas.

Key application: In mild, nonspecific, acute diarrhoea and in inflammation of oral and pharyngeal mucosa; as astringent. (German Commission E, The British Herbal Pharmacopoeia.)

The herb contains condensed tannins up to 8%, coumarins, flavonoids (glucosides of luteolin, apigenin and quercetin), polysaccharides, volatile oil. Luteolin 7-glucoside shows a chole- gogic action. Aqueous extracts inhibited Mycobacterium tuberculosis, also strains resistant to streptomycin and p-aminosalicylate. Essential oil is antibacterial, active against Bacillus sub- tilis.

The ethanolic extracts of the herb are used for their antiviral properties. (Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, 2007.)

Coumarins interact with anticoagulants, and drugs that increase the risk of bleeding Furanocoumarin content increase photosensitivity. (Sharon M. Herr.)... agrimonia eupatoria

Alpha (i) Error

See “Type I error”.... alpha (i) error

Amphicome Emodi


Family: Bignoniaceae.

Habitat: Temperate Himalaya from Kashmir to Kumaon at 600-2700 m.

Folk: Kaur (Kashmir).

Action: Plant—febrifuge; used as a substitute for Swertia chirayita.

An iridoid glycoside named amph- icoside is reported from the plant.... amphicome emodi

Ailanthus Excelsa


Family: Simaroubaceae.

Habitat: Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Orissa and southern India.

English: Tree of Heaven, Maharukh.

Ayurvedic: Aralu, Katvanga, Dirghavranta, Puutivrksha, Bhallu- ka. (Mahaanimba is a synonym of Melia azedarach Linn.)

Siddha: Perru, Perumaruttu, Peruppi.

Action: Bark—bitter, astringent, febrifuge, anthelminitic, antispas- modic, expectorant (used in asthma, bronchitis). Also used for dysentery as a substitute for Holarrhena antidysenterica.

Bark and leaves—used as tonic in debility, especially after childbirth. Leaves—used as adulterant for Ad- hatoda zeylanica leaves.

Along with other therapeutic applications, The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India indicates the use of stembark in high fevers and giddiness.

The bark contains several quassi- noids including ailanthone derivatives. They exhibit antitumour activity against P-388 lymphocytic leukaemia and are cytotoxic against KB test system.

Dosage: Stembark—1-3 g (API Vol. III.) Decoction—50-100 ml. (CCRAS.)... ailanthus excelsa

Altingia Excelsa


Family: Altingiaceae.

Habitat: Assam and Arunachal Pradesh.

English: Storax, Oriental Sweet Gum.

Ayurvedic: Shilaarasa, Turushka, Silhaka (substitute for Liquidamber orientalis, Hamamelidaceae).

Siddha/Tamil: Neriyurishippal.

Action: Resin—carminative, stomachic, antiscorbutic expectorant, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, antistress, hepatoprotective. Externally used in scabies and leucoderma.

The ethyl acetate extract of the root of A. excelsa was studied for antistress effect in a variety of biological models of stress; also in stress-induced ulcers and CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity. Antistress was the most significant pharmacological property of the Storax.... altingia excelsa

Andrographis Echioides


Family: Acanthaceae.

Habitat: Warmer parts of India. Folk: Ranchimani (Maharashtra).

Action: Febrifuge, diuretic.

The plant contains a flavone, echio- dinin, and its glucoside, echioidin. EtOH (50%) extract of the plant exhibited diuretic activity in animal studies.... andrographis echioides

Anecdotal Evidence

Evidence derived from descriptions of cases or events rather than systematically collected data that can be submitted to statistical tests.... anecdotal evidence

Anís De Estrella

Chinese star anise (Illicium verum).

Plant Part Used: Fruit, seed.

Dominican Medicinal Uses: The fruits or seeds are traditionally prepared as a decoction and taken orally for flatulence, headache, indigestion, stomach ache, upper respiratory tract infection and cleansing the intestines.

Safety: The fruit is generally considered safe for human consumption in small amounts and is widely used as a culinary spice. When taken in excessive quantities, isolated compounds from the fruit have shown neurotoxic effects in animal studies. Caution is advised due to possible adulteration with the highly poisonous look-alike, Japanese star anise (Illicium anisatum).

Contraindications: Avoid use in small children due to potential contamination with misidentified toxic look-alike. Caution and avoidance is advised in patients with a history of convulsive disorders including epilepsy due to case reports of seizures associated with internal use of the tea. Caution advised in patients prior to surgery due to potential risk of increased bleeding.

Drug Interactions: Anticoagulants, antiplatelet medications and NSAIDS: based on animal studies in mice, star anise increases cytochrome P450 dependent 7-ethoxycoumarin O-deethylase activity which may affect the metabolism of these drugs.

Clinical Data: No human clinical trials evaluating this plant species have been identified in the available literature.

Laboratory & Preclinical Data: The following biological activities of this plant have been demonstrated in laboratory and preclinical studies using in vitro or animal models: antiangiogenic, antibacterial, antimicrobial, insecticidal, neurotropic and sepsis prevention.

* See entry for Anís de estrella in “Part 3: Dominican Medicinal Plant Profiles” of this book for more information, including references.... anís de estrella

Anís Estrellada

See Anís de estrella.... anís estrellada

Asthma, Extrinsic

Asthma triggered by pollen, chemicals or some other external agent.... asthma, extrinsic

Australian Encephalitis

An arboviral disease in Australia transmitted by mosquitoes.... australian encephalitis

B Endorphin

A naturally occurring painkiller which is produced by the PITUITARY GLAND as part of a pro-hormone (pre-pro-opianomelanocortin). It is an agonist at opioid receptors, and its release is stimulated by pain and stress. (See ENDORPHINS.)... b endorphin

Beta (i) Error

See “Type II error”.... beta (i) error

Blepharis Edulis


Synonym: B. persica (Burm.f.) Kuntze.

Family: Acanthaceae.

Habitat: Punjab and western Rajasthan.

English: Acanthus.

Ayurvedic: Utangana, Kaamavridhi, Chatushpatri, Ucchataa (equated with Scirpus or Cyperus sp. during the classical period; with Shveta Gunjaa, Abrus sp. during the medieval period.)

Unani: Utangan.

Folk: Karadu (Maharashtra).

Action: Roots—diuretic. Used for urinary discharges and dys- menorrhoea. Seeds—deobstruent, resolvent, diuretic (used in strangury and sexual debility). Powdered plant is applied locally on infections of the genitals and on burns.

Key application: Seed in dysuria and impotency. (The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India.)

A benzoxazine glucoside, blephar- in, has been isolated from seeds, and a saponin, which on hydrolysis gave lupeol.

Dosage: Dried seed—3-6 g powder. (API Vol. IV.)... blepharis edulis

Blumea Eriantha


Family: Compositae; Asteraceae.

Habitat: Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Kerala.

Ayurvedic: Kukundara (var.).

Unani: Kakarondaa.

Folk: Nirmudi (Maharashtra).

Action: Juice of the herb— carminative. A warm infusion of leaves is given as a sudorific, while a cold infusion is considered diuretic and emmenagogue. The oil possesses significant antibacterial and antifungal properties. The oil also shows insecticidal activity.

The essential oil contains 95% ketones, the chief constituent of which are d-carvotanacetone and l-tetrahydro- carvone and an alcohol.

The plant contains a flavonol, cri- anthin (isolated from the flowers). It is identical to artemetin, isolated from Artemisia absinthium.... blumea eriantha

Bugleweed Tea For Endocrine Issues

Bugleweed Tea  is an important ingredient in the field of modern alternative medicine because it proved its efficiency against thyroid problems, as well as breast pain. Bugleweed Tea description Bugleweed is a low-growing flowering plant from the mint family, native to Europe. It is also known as sweet bugle and it grows in marshlands. The bugleweed has oval-shaped leaves which resemble spinach leaves. Bugleweed flowers grow in clusters and have a pink to blue color. This plant has a fresh, mild, mint-like aroma. The leaves and flowers are used for medicinal purposes. Bugleweed tea is the resulting beverage from brewing the abovementioned plant. Bugleweed Tea brewing To prepare Bugleweed tea:
  • add one teaspoonful of dried bugleweed herbs to a cup of boiling water
  • allow the mixture to steep for 10-15 minutes
Bugleweed tea may be drunk three times a day. Also, it can be applied topically either as tincture or as poultice. Bugleweed Tea benefits Bugleweed tea has been successfully used to:
  • treat hyperthyroidism
  • alleviate cyclic breast pain in women by moderating estrogen levels
  • sedate and calm the nerves
  • suppress cough and fighting tuberculosis and other disorders of the lungs
  • moderate a rapid heart rate
  • remove excess fluid in the body and promote better circulation
  • accelerate the healing of bruises and other wounds (when applied topically)
Bugleweed Tea side effects Bugleweed tea should not be consumed by pregnant or nursing women. Bugleweed tea is a herbal remedy for a large array of diseases, being best known for its healing properties against hyperthyroidism, breast pain and lungs disorders.... bugleweed tea for endocrine issues

Capital Expenditure

Expenditure for the acquisition, replacement, modernization or expansion of facilities or equipment which, under generally accepted accounting principles, is not properly chargeable as an expense of operation and maintenance.... capital expenditure

Clinical Event

Services provided to patients (history-taking, physical examination, preventive care, tests, procedures, drugs, advice) or information on clinical condition or on patient state used as a patient outcome.... clinical event

Community Empowerment

Involves individuals acting collectively to gain greater influence and control over the determinants of health and the quality of life in their communities. Community empowerment is an important goal in community action for health.... community empowerment

Community Equipment

See “aid”.... community equipment

Continuing Education

Formal education obtained by a health professional after completing his/her degree and full-time postgraduate training.... continuing education

Cost-effectiveness Analysis

A form of analysis that seeks to determine the costs and effectiveness of a health intervention compared with similar alternative interventions to determine the relative degree to which they will obtain the desired health outcome(s).... cost-effectiveness analysis


The extent to which financial resources are being used as well as possible.... cost-efficiency

Casearia Esculenta


Synonym: C. ovata (Lamk) Willd. C. zeylanica (Gaertn.) Thw.

Family: Samydaceae; Flacourtiaceae

Habitat: Peninsular India, up to 1,800 m.

Ayurvedic: Saptachakraa.

Siddha/Tamil: Kakkaipilai, Kilar, Kottargovai.

Folk: Saptrangi (root and root bark).

Action: Root—antidiabetic (used in milder chronic diabetic cases), astringent, liver tonic. Frequently adulterated with the roots of Salacia chinensis Linn. and S. macrosperma Wight.

The crude aqueous extract of the roots has shown hypoglycaemic activity.

The root gave leucopelargonidin, beta-sitosterol, dulcitol, a flavonoid and arabinose.... casearia esculenta

Casuarina Equisetifolia


Family: Casuarinaceae.

Habitat: Cultivated in coastal regions of Peninsular India.

English: Casuarina, She-Oak, Australian or Whistling Pine, Beefwood.

Ayurvedic: Jhaau, Vilaayati Jhaau.

Siddha/Tamil: Savukku.

Action: Bark—astringent, an- tidiarrhoeal. Leaf—antispasmodic, used in colic. Aerial parts— hypoglycaemic.

The plant contains kaempferol gly- coside, quercetin glycoside, cupressu- flavone, tannins, shikimic acid, quinic acid, amino acids, sugars.... casuarina equisetifolia

Cichorium Endivia


Family: Compositae; Asteraceae.

Habitat: Native to the Mediterranean region, cultivated mainly in Northern India.

English: Succory, Endive.

Unani: Kaasani, Bustaani (Baaghi).

Action: Plant—antibilious. Root— demulcent, febrifuge, diuretic; used in dyspepsia; as a tonic for liver and digestive system. Milder than C. intybus.

Roots contain sesquiterpene lac- tones.

See C. intybus.... cichorium endivia

Colocasia Esculenta

(Linn.) Schott.

Synonym: C. antiquorum Schott.

Family: Araceae.

Habitat: Cultivated throughout India.

English: Taro, EdibleYam.

Ayurvedic: Pindaaluka, Aaluki.

Siddha/Tamil: Chaembu, Shaeppam- kizhangu.

Folk: Arvi, Ghuiyaa.

Action: Juice from petiole—styptic, rubefacient. Juice of corn—used in alopaecia.

The leaves contain flavones, api- genin and luteolin, also anthocyanins. Leaves cause severe irritation in mouth. Cooked leaves are a source of dietary fibre for diabetics helping in lowering post-prandial blood glucose level. A significant increase in total lipids, total cholesterol and triglyceride levels was observed in hypercholesterolaemic rats when fed with dried leaf powder.

The pressed juice of the petioles is used as an astringent and styptic. All parts of the plant show an acridity. The acridity is removed by boiling and by addition of baking soda.

From the tubers two dihydroxys- terols, besides beta-sitosterol and stig- masterol, have been isolated. Five novel aliphatic compounds have been reported. Trypsin inhibitors are isolated from the tubers.

The total amino acids recorded in the tubers range from 1380 to 2397 mg/ 100 g. The lysine concentration was relatively low. Besides starch, the tubers contain natural polysaccharides with 56% neutral sugars and 40% anionic components. Steamed corms contain 30% starch and 3% sugar.... colocasia esculenta

Diarrhoeal Episode

Conventionally defined as beginning with the first 24-hour period that meets the definition of diarrhoea and ending with the last diarrhoeal day that is followed by at least two consecutive days that do not meet the definition of diarrhoea.... diarrhoeal episode

Disability-adjusted Life Expectancy

A modification of conventional life expectancy to account for time lived with disability. It is the number of healthy years of life that can be expected on average in a given population. It is generally calculated at birth, but estimates can also be prepared at other ages. It adjusts the expectation of years of life for the loss on account of disability, using explicit weights for different health states.... disability-adjusted life expectancy

Discoid Lupus Erythematosus (dle)

See under LUPUS.... discoid lupus erythematosus (dle)

Durable Power Of Attorney (enduring Power Of Attorney)

A written legal document in which a person appoints another individual to act as his/her agent for the purposes of health care decision-making in the event that he/she is unable or unwilling to make such decisions. See also “advance directive”.... durable power of attorney (enduring power of attorney)


(Anglo-Saxon) A fertile woman; one who bears children... eacnung


(English) One who is prosperous; wealthy

Eadah, Eadia, Eadea, Eadiah, Eadeah, Eadda, Eaddah... eada


(German) A joyous friend... eadaion


(Anglo-Saxon) From the rich fortress

Eadburgah, Edburga, Eadburgia, Eadburgea, Edburgia, Edburgea... eadburga


(Anglo-Saxon) One who is blissful Eadignys, Eadygnys, Edignes, Edygnes, Edygnys... eadignes

Corallocarpus Epigaeus

Benth. ex Hook. f.

Family: Cucurbitaceae.

Habitat: Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh and Peninsular India.

Ayurvedic: Shukanaasaa, Nahikaa, Katunaahi, Paataala-garudaa.

(Cocculus hirsutus is used as Paataala-garudi).

Siddha/Tamil: Kollankovai, Aaakaasagarudam.

Action: Laxative. Root used during later stages of dysentery and chronic mucous enteritis; also in syphilitic rheumatism. The herb shows no apparent effect on acute dysentery.

The root contains a bitter principle allied to bryonin.... corallocarpus epigaeus

Council For Healthcare Regulatory Excellence

In 2002 the UK government set up this new statutory council with the aim of improving consistency of action across the eight existing regulatory bodies for professional sta? involved in the provision of various aspects of health care. These bodies are: General Medical Council; General Dental Council; General Optical Council; Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain; General Chiropractic Council; General Osteopathic Council; Health Professions Council; and Nursing and Midwifery Council.

The new Council for Healthcare Regulatory Excellence will help to promote the interests of patients and to improve co-operation between the existing regulatory bodies – providing, in e?ect, a quality-control mechanism for their activities. The government and relevant professions will nominate individuals for this overarching council. The new council will not have the authority to intervene in the determination by the eight regulatory bodies of individual ?tness-to-practise cases unless these concern complaints about maladministration.... council for healthcare regulatory excellence

Cuscuta Epithymum


Family: Convolvulaceae.

Habitat: A parasitic climber, occuring in Europe, Asia, South Africa.

English: Lesser Doddar, Hellweed, Devil's Guts.

Ayurvedic: Aakaashvalli, Amarvalli, Amarvela.

Unani: Aftimoon.

Folk: Sitammapogunalu (Telugu).

Action: Hepatic, laxative, carminative.

The parasitic plant accumulates alkaloids from the host plant. It contains flavonoids, including kaempferol and quercetin, hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives. Cuscutalin (1%) and cus- cutin (0.02%) are main active principles of the plant. Seeds contain amar- velin, resins, oil (3%) and reducing sugars.

Used in urinary, spleen and liver disorders.... cuscuta epithymum

Cyperus Esculentus

Linn. Family: Cyperaceae.

Habitat: Indigenous to West Asia and North Africa; occurring scattered from Punjab to Nilgiri hills as a grass-like sedge. English: Earth Almond, Chufa, Rush Nut, Tiger Nut. (Tuber is called Nut.) Ayurvedic: Chichoda.Folk: Chichodaa, Kaseru (Punjab). Also equated with Naagaramustaka.

Action: A digestive tonic (used for indigestion, flatulence, colic, diarrhoea, dysentery); promotes diuresis and menstruation. The juice is taken for treating ulcers of the mouth and gums.Tiger Nut is used in debility and as a nervine tonic due to its high crude lipid and carbohydrate contents and fairly good essential amino acid composition.... cyperus esculentus

Dioscorea Esculenta


Synonym: D. aculeata Linn. D. faciculata Roxb. D. spinosa Roxb ex Wall.

Family: Dioscoreaceae.

Habitat: Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Orissa, Bengal, Assam and the Andamans.

English: Lesser Yam, Karen Potato.

Ayurvedic: Madhvaaluka.

Siddha/Tamil: Musilam, Valli kilangu, Siruvalli Kilangu.

Folk: Suthani.

Action: Tubers are starchy and free from dioscorine, contain 71.29% carbohydrates, 10.82% albuminoids.... dioscorea esculenta


(Anglo-Saxon) Born into royalty Eadlinn, Eadlinne, Eadline, Eadlyn, Eadlynn, Eadlynne, Eadlina, Eadlyna, Eadlen, Eadlenn, Eadlenne... eadlin


(American) One who stands out Eadrian, Eadriann, Edriane, Edriana, Edrianna... eadrianne


(Gaelic) One who is devoted to God

Ealasayd, Ealasaida, Ealasayda... ealasaid


(Irish) Born into the nobility Ealgah, Ealgia, Ealgea, Ealgiah, Ealgeah... ealga


(Scottish) Woman from the East Earah, Earra, Earrah, Earia, Earea, Earie, Eari, Earee, Eary, Earey... eara


(English) A great leader Earlah... earla


(English) Feminine form of Earl; a noble woman; a great leader Earlena, Earlene, Earlina, Earlyne, Earlyna, Earleene, Earleena, Earleane, Earleana, Earleine, Earleina, Earliene, Earliena... earline


(American) Daughter born prematurely

Earli, Earlie, Earley, Earlee, Earleigh, Earlea, Earleah... early

Early Intervention

Action at an early stage of a disease or social process.... early intervention

Diospyros Ebenum


Synonym: D. hebecarpa A. Cunn ex Benth.

Family: Ebenaceae.

Habitat: Orissa and South India.

English: Ebony Persimmon, Malabar Ebony, Ceylon Ebony.

Ayurvedic: Tinduka.

Unani: Aaabnuus.

Siddha/Tamil: Acha-Thumbi.

Action: Plant—astringent, attenuant, lithontriptic.

The heartwood contains 2 beta- naphthalhydes, 2 naphthoic acid derivatives; ceryl alcohol, betulin, alpha- amyrin, ursolic acid, baurenol and stigmasterol. The leaves contain ur- solic acid, alpha-amyrin, betulin and lupeol.... diospyros ebenum

Diospyros Embryopteris


Synonym: D. peregrina (Gaertn.) Gurke D. malabarica (Desr.) Kostel.

Family: Ebenaceae.

Habitat: Throughout India in shady wet places and near streams.

English: Gaub Persimmon, Riber Ebony

Ayurvedic: Tinduka, Tinduki, Sphu- urjaka, Kaalaskandha, Asitkaaraka. Nilasaara.

Unani: Tendu.

Siddha/Tamil: Tumbika, Kattatti.

Action: Fruit and stem bark— astringent. Infusion of fruits—used as gargle in aphthae and sore throat. Fruit juice—used as application for wounds and ulcers. Oil of seeds— given in diarrhoea and dysentery Ether extract of fruit—antibacterial. Bark—astringent and styptic, used in menorrhagia, diarrhoea, dysentery and intermittent fevers.

A paste is applied to boils and tumours. The ethyl acetate extract showed antistress and anti-ulcerogenic activity. It also prevented hepatotoxi- city and leucocytosis in experimental animals.

The bark contains betulinic acid, myricyl alcohol, triterpenoids and sa- ponin. The leaves gave beta-sitosterol, betulin and oleanolic acid. Fruit pulp and seeds contain lupeol, betulin, gallic acid, betulinic acid, hexacosane, hex- acosanol, sitosterol, beta-D-glucoside of sitosterol and a triterpene ketone.

Stem bark—antiprotozoal, antiviral, hypoglycaemic, semen-coagulant. Stems yielded nonadecan-7-ol-one.

Dosage: Bark—50-100 ml decoction. (CCRAS.)... diospyros embryopteris


(English) A noble young woman

Eathelreda, Eathellredia, Eathellredea, Eathelredia, Eathelredea, Ethelreda, Ethellreda... eathellreda


(English) Having the strength of the tide

Ebbah, Ebby, Ebbie, Ebbee, Ebbi, Ebbey, Ebbe, Ebb, Ebbea, Ebbeah... ebba


(American) A pretty woman Ebann, Ebanne, Ebbann, Ebbanne... ebban


(Hebrew) A servant in the king’s house... ebed-melech


(Hebrew) The stone of aid ... ebenezer


(Hebrew) One who moves beyond... eber


(African) One who shows mercy Eberre, Ebera, Eberia, Eberea, Eberria, Eberrea, Ebiere, Ebierre... ebere


(English) Feminine form of Ebert; wielding the shining sword Ebertha, Ebertah, Ebyrta, Ebyrtha, Ebirta, Ebirtha... eberta


One of the severe African viral haemorrhagic fevers.... ebola

Ebola Virus Disease

Ebola virus disease is another name for VIRAL HAEMORRHAGIC FEVER. The ebola virus is one of the most virulent micro-organisms known. Like the marburg virus (see MARBURG DISEASE), it belongs to the ?lovirus group which originates in Africa. Increased population mobility and wars have meant that the infection occasionally occurs elsewhere, with air travellers developing symptoms on returning home.

Treatment As the disease can be neither prevented nor cured, treatment is supportive, with strict anti-infection procedures essential as human-to-human transmission can occur via skin and mucous-membrane contacts. Incubation period is 5–10 days. Fever with MYALGIA and headache occur initially, often accompanied by abdominal and chest symptoms. Haemorrhagic symptoms soon develop and the victim either starts to improve in the second week or develops multi-organ failure and lapses into a coma. Mortality ranges from 25 to 90 per cent.... ebola virus disease


(Cornish) Born during the month of April

Ebrell, Ebrele, Ebrelle, Ebriel, Ebriell, Ebriele, Ebrielle... ebrel


(Welsh) Born in April Ebrille, Ebril, Evril, Evrill, Evrille... ebrill


(Hebrew) One who secures passage

Ebrona, Ebronna, Ebronnah, Ebronia, Ebronea, Ebroniah, Ebroneah... ebronah


(Greek) Form of Catherine, meaning “one who is pure; virginal” Ecaterinah, Ecateryna, Ecatereena, Ekaterina, Ekateryna, Ekatereena, Ecterine, Ecterina, Ecteryne, Ecteryna... ecaterina

Discover More About Earl Grey Tea

If you’re a fan of black tea, you must have heard of the Earl Grey tea. If not, this is your chance to find out all you need to know about this richly-flavored black tea. Read about its health benefits and side effects, as well. About Earl Grey tea Earl Grey tea is one of the most popular types of black tea, drunk by people all around the world. It has a refreshing, citrusy flavor thanks to the bergamot orange oil added in its composition. The bergamot orange is the fruit of a citrus tree which blooms during winter; it is commercially cultivated in Italy. The bergamot oil, which is responsible for the tea’s citrusy flavor, is extracted from the skin of the fruit. In America, it is sometimes misspelled as “Earl Gray”. However, this is not the generally accepted spelling of the tea’s name. The Earl Grey tea is often drank during breakfast or brunch. It makes a good team with different sweets and pastries.  It is also used to add flavor to various types of cakes. History of Earl Grey tea The Earl Grey tea is named after Charles Grey, 2nd Earl of Britain, who was Prime Minister during the 1830s. As to why it was named after him, one legend says that a Chinese merchant gave this tea to Lord Grey to show his gratefulness, as one of the lord’s men had saved his son from drowning. However, there are doubts related to the authenticity of this story, as Lord Grey had never been to China, and the Chinese hadn’t yet discovered about the use of bergamot oil as a tea ingredient. It is possible that, seeing as Earl Grey tea was discovered at the beginning of the 19th century, it was simply named after a politician who was quite well-known at that time. According to the Grey family, Lady Grey served Earl Grey tea to various guests. As it became more and more popular, she was asked if the Earl Grey tea could be sold. This is how it became a brand of the Twinings tea company. Varieties of Earl Grey tea Considering how popular the Earl Grey tea is, it isn’t surprising that there are currently quite a few varieties of this tea. One of the well-known varieties of Earl Grey tea is Lady Grey, named after Mary Elizabeth Grey, the wife of Lord Grey. Other flavors are added to the usual Earl Grey tea. Some varieties of Lady Grey include adding blue cornflower blossoms, lavender or Seville oranges. Another type of the Earl Grey tea is the Russian Earl Grey. To the usual ingredients, it adds citrus peels, vodka, and lemon grass. Other types of Earl Grey tea include flowers among its ingredients. One of them is the French Earl Grey, which uses rose petals. There are some types of Earl Grey tea where the usual black tea leaves are replaced with something else. One example is Earl Grey Green, where the bergamot oil is combined with green leaves instead of the black ones. Another example is Rooibos Earl Grey, possibly originating from Malaysia. In this case, the black leaves are replaced with Rooibos, a South-African herbal plant. Also, in various coffee shops and tea shops, you can find a drink called London Fog. It is a “tea latte” and its ingredients are Earl Grey tea, steamed milk and vanilla syrup. How to prepare Earl Grey Tea For a cup of Earl Grey tea, use one teaspoon of tea leaves, or one regular-sized teabag. Boil the water before pouring it into the cup, and then let it steep for about 5 minutes. Then, remove the tea leaves or teabag. Based on your preferences, you can add sugar, lemon or milk to your cup of Earl Grey tea. Benefits of Earl Grey Tea The Earl Grey tea comes with many health benefits, both thanks to the black tea leaves and the bergamot oil. First, the antioxidants in its composition strengthen your immune system. They help keep your body young and healthy, protecting it from various viruses. This is why people who have caught a cold or the flu, or simply have a fever, drink Earl Grey tea. The Earl Grey tea has a calming effect thanks to the bergamot oil in its composition. It helps improve your mood by fighting against anxiety, depression, stress, and mood swings. The bergamot oil in the Earl Grey tea also helps you with digestion. It’s useful when suffering from indigestion, nausea and colic. It is also recommended in the case of urinary tract infections and intestinal problems. Earl Grey tea also helps you maintain a good oral hygiene. It fights against tooth decay and oral infections, and keeps the cavities away. Side effects of Earl Grey tea Despite its many health benefits, consumption of Earl Grey tea can have a few side effects, as well. The caffeine found in the composition of Earl Grey tea can affect you negatively, especially if caffeine isn’t good for your body.  To some people it may induce anxiety and heart palpitations. It can also increase blood pressure, making it bad for people who already have a high blood pressure. Also, if you drink a large amount of Earl Grey tea for a long time and suddenly, you stop, you might experience caffeine withdrawal symptoms. They include headaches that can last for up to a week, difficulty in concentrating, nausea, depression and anxiety. Drinking a large amount of Earl Grey tea can lead to side effects, as well. You might end up suffering from headaches, loss of appetite, vomiting, diarrhea, insomnia, dizziness, and irregular heartbeats. Therefore, make sure you don’t drink more than six cups of any tea, including Earl Grey tea.   Stay healthy by drinking this rich and citrusy-flavored black tea, the Earl Grey tea. Keep an eye on the side effects, but don’t let them scare you, as there are many more health benefits. So relax and enjoy your cup of Earl Grey tea with some cookies!... discover more about earl grey tea


(English) Resembling an eagle Earnah, Earnia, Earnea, Earniah, Earneah... earna


(English) A powerful young woman Earrick, Earrik, Earrica, Earrika, Earricka... earric


(German) Woman of the earth Ertha, Earthe, Erthe... eartha


(American) Born during the religious holiday

Eastere, Eastre, Eastir, Eastar, Eastor, Eastera, Easteria, Easterea... easter


(American) A wholesome woman Eastan, Easten, Eastun, Eastyn... easton


(English) Noble woman of the waterfall

Eathelyn, Eathelinn, Eathelynn, Eathelina, Eathelyna, Ethelin, Ethelyn, Eathelen, Eathelena... eathelin

Eating Disorders

The term ‘eating disorders’ covers OBESITY, feeding problems in childhood, anorexia nervosa, and bulimia nervosa. The latter two are described here.

Anorexia nervosa Often called the slimmer’s disease, this is a syndrome characterised by the loss of at least a quarter of a person’s normal body weight; by fear of normal weight; and, in women, by AMENORRHOEA. An individual’s body image may be distorted so that the sufferer cannot judge real weight and wants to diet even when already very thin.

Anorexia nervosa usually begins in adolescence, affecting about 1–2 per cent of teenagers and college students at any time. It is 20 times more common among women than men. Up to 10 per cent of sufferers’ sisters also have the syndrome. Anorexia may be linked with episodes of bulimia (see below).

The symptoms result from secretive self-starvation, usually with excessive exercise, self-induced vomiting, and misuse of laxatives. An anorexic (or anorectic) person may wear layers of baggy clothes to keep warm and to hide the ?gure. Starvation can cause serious problems such as ANAEMIA, low blood pressure, slow heart rate, swollen ankles, and osteoporosis. Sudden death from heart ARRHYTHMIA may occur, particularly if the sufferer misuses DIURETICS to lose weight and also depletes the body’s level of potassium.

There is probably no single cause of anorexia nervosa. Social pressure to be thin seems to be an important factor and has increased over the past 20–30 years, along with the incidence of the syndrome. Psychological theories include fear of adulthood and fear of losing parents’ attention.

Treatment should start with the general practitioner who should ?rst rule out other illnesses causing similar signs and symptoms. These include DEPRESSION and disorders of the bowel, PITUITARY GLAND, THYROID GLAND, and OVARIES.

If the diagnosis is clearly anorexia nervosa, the general practitioner may refer the sufferer to a psychiatrist or psychologist. Moderately ill sufferers can be treated by COGNITIVE BEHAVIOUR THERAPY. A simple form of this is to agree targets for daily calorie intake and for acceptable body weight. The sufferer and the therapist (the general practitioner or a member of the psychiatric team) then monitor progress towards both targets by keeping a diary of food intake and measuring weight regularly. Counselling or more intensely personal PSYCHOTHERAPY may help too. Severe life-threatening complications will need urgent medical treatment in hospital, including rehydration and feeding using a nasogastric tube or an intravenous drip.

About half of anorectic sufferers recover fully within four years, a quarter improve, and a quarter remain severely underweight with (in the case of women) menstrual abnormalities. Recovery after ten years is rare and about 3 per cent die within that period, half of them by suicide.

Bulimia nervosa is a syndrome characterised by binge eating, self-induced vomiting and laxative misuse, and fear of fatness. There is some overlap between anorexia nervosa and bulimia but, unlike the former, bulimia may start at any age from adolescence to 40 and is probably more directly linked with ordinary dieting. Bulimic sufferers say that, although they feel depressed and guilty after binges, the ‘buzz’ and relief after vomiting and purging are addictive. They often respond well to cognitive behaviour therapy.

Bulimia nervosa does not necessarily cause weight loss because the binges – for example of a loaf of bread, a packet of cereal, and several cans of cold baked beans at one sitting – are cancelled out by purging, by self-induced vomiting and by brief episodes of starvation. The full syndrome has been found in about 1 per cent of women but mild forms may be much more common. In one survey of female college students, 13 per cent admitted to having had bulimic symptoms.

Bulimia nervosa rarely leads to serious physical illness or death. However, repeated vomiting can cause oesophageal burns, salivary gland infections, small tears in the stomach, and occasionally dehydration and chemical imbalances in the blood. Inducing vomiting using ?ngers may produce two tell-tale signs – bite marks on the knuckles and rotten, pitted teeth.

Those suffering from this condition may obtain advice from the Eating Disorders Association.... eating disorders

Ecballium Elaterium

A. Rich.

Family: Cucurbitaceae.

The leaves, flowers and roots yield orientin, vitexin and their isoflavones.

Habitat: Mediterranean region and Western Asia.

English: Squirting Cucumber.

Ayurvedic: Kantaki Indravaaruni (non-classical).

Folk: Kateri Indryaayana, Kitran.

Action: Hydragogue; employed for the evacuation of dropsy, especially in nephritic patients. Root—used to treat skin diseases and parasitic scalp diseases; also for scirrhous eruptions.

Roots, leaves and fruits yield cucur- bitacins C, D, E, G, H and I. Fruit juice gave cucurbitacins B, L and R and their derivatives. Cucurbitacins (tetra- cyclic triterpene glycosides) are toxic constituents of the fruit.... ecballium elaterium

Ecbolium Linneanum


Synonym: E. viride (Forsk.) Alston. Justica ecbolium Linn.

Family: Acanthaceae.

Habitat: Northeastern Peninsular India.

English: Blue Fox Tail Nail Dye.

Siddha/Tamil: Nilambari.

Action: Plant—used in gout and dysuria; decoction of leaves for stricture. Roots—given in jaundice, menorrhagia and rheumatism.... ecbolium linneanum


(Greek) In mythology, a monster with the head of a nymph and the body of a serpent

Echidnia, Echidnea, Ekidna, Eckidna, Ekidnea, Eckidnea... echidna


(Greek) Sound returned; in mythology, a nymph who pined away to nothing, leaving only the sound of her voice Ekko, Ekho, Eko, Ecco, Ekow, Ecko... echo

Echinochloa Colonum

(Linn.) Link.

Synonym: Panicum colonum Linn.

Family: Gramineae; Poaceae.

Habitat: Cultivated in Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Bihar and Andhra Pradesh.

English: Shama millet.

Ayurvedic: Varaka.

Siddha/Tamil: Karumpul, Varsanam- pillu.

Folk: Jangali sawuk, Shamaa, Saanvaa.

Action: Diuretic.

The protein content of the dehusked millet is higher when compared to rice. Except for lysine all other essential amino acids are present in fair quantity. The grains are a rich source of zinc and iron.... echinochloa colonum

Echinochloa Crus-galli

(Linn.) Beauv.

Synonym: Panicum crus-galli Linn.

Family: Gramineae; Poaceae.

Habitat: Cultivated mainly in Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh.

English: Barnyard Millet.

Ayurvedic: Ambah Shyaamaaka.

Siddha/Tamil: Oathupul.

Folk: Samak

Action: Whole plant—used for diseases of the spleen and for checking haemorrhage.

The grains are rich in carbohydrates (3.474 wt %) and trace elements (Cu, Cd, Cr, Ni, Fe, Mn, Sn). The total protein content is 4.2 wt% and the total lipids 4.46%. A hormone, oestrogen, is reported from the lipid.

A polysaccharide extracted from the endosperm and composed of glucose was identified as a phytoglycogen.... echinochloa crus-galli

Echinochloa Frumentacea


Synonym: Panicumfrumentaceum Roxb.

Family: Gramineae; Poaceae.

Habitat: Cultivated mainly in Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh.

English: Japanese Barnyard Millet.

Ayurvedic: Shyaamaaka.

Siddha: Kudrraivali pillu (Tamil).

Folk: Shamaa, Saanvaa.

Action: Plant—cooling and digestible, considered useful in biliousness and constipation.

The millet has a well balanced amino acid composition, but is deficient in lysine. Glutelin is the major constituent of protein.... echinochloa frumentacea

Echinops Echinatus


Family: Compositae; Asteraceae.

Habitat: Throughout India.

English: Globe-Thistle, Camel's Thistle.

Ayurvedic: Utkantaka, Uttundaka, Brahmadandi.

Folk: Uunta-Kateraa.

Action: Alterative, diuretic, nerve tonic (used in hoarse cough, dyspepsia, scrofula, hysteria.)

Aerial parts of the plant contain alkaloids, echinopsine, echinopsidine and echinozolinone. Taraxasterol acetate, isolated from the plant, is a potent anti-inflammatory constituent; the ethanolic extract of the whole plant is more effective when administered parenterally than orally. Api- genin and its derivatives, echinacin and echinaticin show antifungal activity.... echinops echinatus

Ecological Area

A well defined geographical area, for example a tropical rain forest, characterised by certain assemblages of plants and animals (including insects).... ecological area

Economy Of Care

Costs are the measure of the economic function of care. Total costs and unit costs are the basic indicators.... economy of care


Ecto- is a pre?x meaning on the outside.... ecto


Echoviruses, of which there are more than 30 known types, occur in all parts of the world. Their full name is Enteric Cytopathogenic Human Orphan (ECHO – hence the acronym). They are more common in children than in adults, and have been responsible for outbreaks of MENINGITIS, common-cold-like illnesses, gastrointestinal infections, and infections of the respiratory tract. They are particularly dangerous when they infect premature infants, and there have been several outbreaks of such infection in neonatal units, in which premature infants and other seriously ill small babies are nursed. The virus is introduced to such units by mothers, sta? and visitors who are unaware that they are carriers of the virus.... echoviruses


The name commonly applied to the American School Physicians, a distinct group of Medical Doctors who trained in their own schools, and were licensed as M.D.s. They specialized in low-tech, nonhospital rural health care...the famous country doc with a black bag. Besides standard medical procedures, they used a more wholistic approach to disease, sometimes terming themselves Vitalists. They were the most sophisticated of the many movements that arose in response to the almost maniac medical practices of the first half of the 19th century, especially in the United States, where, as always, medicine was philosophically invasive and heroic (often a wonderment to visiting physicians from Paris or London) The Eclectics flourished and grew out of the settlement and usurpment of the Ohio and Missouri Valleys, with a sparse population and no organized hospitals, relied on methods that were not invasive (unless emergencies dictated), used therapies that relied on strengthening natural resistance (no hospitals, just someone’s sod hut) and made particular care to explain and prepare the family or neighbors for THEIR part in caring for the patient...long after the physician left. Scudder, John King, Felter, Ellingwood and Clyce Wilson were some of the more famous Eclectics, and John Uri Lloyd was the most famous pharmacist/pharmacologist within the profession. The Eclectic movement lasted from 1840 to 1937...when the only remaining medical school, unwilling to change to a Flexner Curriculum (as had the other survivors) closed its doors in Cincinnati. Long operating in a tradition of radical, populist and anti­establishment philosophy, they were unable to get any public funding, were unable to ally themselves with full universities (and share faculty and funding), and were unable to expand their teaching facilities with only a base of tuition income. They lost the licensing wars and are no more. Their tradition was exported by practitioners in Germany and Mexico, and the German Eclectics, transformed by that peculiar culture into wild-eyed Nature Curists such as Ehret, Mausert and Lust, started the nucleus for the Naturopathic movement in Yellow Springs, Ohio (next-door to Goddard College) in 1947, helping to found the initial form of the National College of Naturopathic Medicine...10 years after, and 50 miles away from the last Eclectic Medical School. Without benefit of Tanna Leaves or Charleton Heston and an armful of pickled mummy-organs, Eclectecism was reborn into the body of Naturopathy. See: THOMSONIANS... eclectics

Eclipta Alba

(Linn.) Hassk.

Synonym: E. prostrata Roxb.

Family: Compositae; Asteraceae.

Habitat: Throughout India, up to 2,000 m on the hills.

English: Trailing Eclipta Plant.

Ayurvedic: Bhringaraaja, Bhringa, Bhringaja, Bhrngaaraka, Bhrngaara, Maarkava, Kesharaaja, Keshranjana.

Siddha/Tamil: Karisalaankanni.

Folk: Bhangaraa.

Action: Deobstruent, antihepato- toxic, anticatarrhal, febrifuge. Used in hepatitis, spleen enlargements, chronic skin diseases. Leaf—promotes hair growth. Its extract in oil is applied to scalp before bed time in insomnia. The herb is also used as an ingredient in shampoos.

Key application: As hepatoprotec- tive. (Indian Herbal Pharmacopoeia; The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India.)

The herb should be dried at room temperature under shade. Its active principles are lost due to aerial oxidation during sun drying or drying under reduced pressure below 40°C. The herb contains wedelolactone and demethyl- wedelolactone, which showed a dose- dependenteffectagainstCCl4, d-galac- tosamine- or phalloidin-induced cyto- toxicity in primary cultured rat hep- atocytes, and exhibited potent anti- hepatotoxic property. The whole plant shows effect on liver cell regeneration. Immunoactive property has been observed against surface antigen of hepatitis B-virus. The plant is also reported to be effective in the treatment of peptic ulcer, inflammatory diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, diseases of the gallbladder and skin infections.

Aqueous extract of leaves exhibits myocardial depressant and hypoten- sive activity (unrelated to cholinergic and histaminergic effects).

The roots are very rich in thio- phene acetylenes. Thiophene derivatives show activity against nematodes.

Dosage: Whole plant—3-6 ml fresh juice; 13-36 g for decoction. (API Vol. II.)... eclipta alba


A thumbnail description of the somatotype who is dominated by the ectoderm, specifically the skin, nervous system, and endocrine glands. Less arcane, a tall and thin person, with long limbs, narrow chest, and a somewhat oversensitive nervous system.... ectomorph


(Gaelic) A queenly woman; one who is noble

Edaleen, Edaleene, Edalena, Edaleena, Edalyne, Edalyna, Edaline, Edalina, Ediline, Edilyne, Edilina, Edilyna, Edaleana, Edaleane... edalene


(Irish) Feminine form of Aidan; one who is fiery; little fire Edanah, Edanna, Ena, Ethna, Eithna, Etney, Eideann, Eidana, Eidanna, Eithne, Edaena, Edayna... edana


(German) Form of Hedwig, meaning “suffering strife during war” Eddah, Edwige, Edwig, Edwiga... edda


(Scottish) Woman from Edinburgh Edeene, Edeena, Edeenia, Edeenea, Edine, Edina, Edean, Edeana, Edyne, Edyna... edeen


(German) A clever woman Edell, Edele, Edelle... edel


Invisibility, Bullet-Proofing... edelweiss


(Hebrew) Place of pleasure; in the Bible, the first home of Adam and Eve Edenia, Edan, Edin, Edon... eden


(English) The spoils of war; one who is joyous; a treasure Edythe, Edytha, Eda, Edee, Edie, Edita, Edelina, Eadgyth, Ede, Edeline, Edelyne, Edelyna, Edit, Editta, Edyt, Edytta, Edyta, Edyte, Edyth, Eydie... edith


(Egyptian) In mythology, another name for Wadjet, a snake goddess... edjo


(English) A woman of the nobility Edlynn, Edlynne, Edlyne, Edlin, Edlinn, Edlen, Edlenne, Edla... edlyn


(English) Feminine form of Edmund; a wealthy protector Edmonda, Eadmunda, Eadmonda, Edmundia, Edmundea, Edmundiya, Edmanda, Eadmanda, Edmee, Edmi, Edmie, Edmy, Edmey... edmunda


(Hebrew) One who brings pleasure; a delight

Ednah, Edena, Edenah... edna


(Teutonic) A woman of good humor Edoliah, Edolea, Edoleah, Edoli, Edolie, Edoly, Edoley, Edolee, Edoleigh... edolia


(English) A powerful and mighty woman

Edrah, Edrea, Edreah, Edria, Edriah... edra


(American) A joyful woman Edreana, Edreann, Edreanne, Edreane, Edrean... edreanna


(Hebrew) A woman of great strength... edrei


(American) An old-fashioned woman

Edrinah, Edryna, Edrynah, Edreena, Edreenah... edrina


(Anglo-Saxon) A prosperous ruler Edriss, Edrisse, Edrys, Edryss, Edrysse... edris


(American) One who is plain Edsell, Edsele, Esdelle, Edzel, Edzell, Edzelle, Edzele... edsel


(American) A wealthy woman Edshun... edshone


Ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid is used to treat poisoning with metals such as lead and strontium. One of the CHELATING AGENTS, EDTA is used in the form of sodium or calcium salts. The stable chelate compounds resulting from the treatment are excreted in the urine.... edta


(Portugese) Feminine form of Edward; a wealthy protector Eduardia, Eduardea, Edwarda, Edwardia, Edwardea, Eduardina, Eduardyna, Edwardina, Edwardyna... eduarda


(Basque) Feminine form of Edur; woman of the snow Edurna, Edurnia, Edurnea, Edurniya... edurne


(Latin) In mythology, the protector goddess of children Edussa, Educa, Edulica, Edulisa... edusa


(English) Feminine form of Edwin; one who is wealthy in friendship Edwinna, Edwyna, Edwynna, Eadwina, Eadwyna, Edwena, Edwenna, Eddie, Eddy, Eddey, Eddee, Eddea, Eddi... edwina


A drug known as a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, used in the treatment of HIV infection in combination with other antiretroviral drugs (see VIRUSES; AIDS/HIV). It should not be used in patients with severe kidney impairment or liver damage. Pregnant women and older people should not take efavirenz. The drug has a wide range of side-effects.... efavirenz


(English) A warrior who is as strong as a bear Eferhilde, Eferhilda... eferhild


The result of a cause.... effect

Effective / Effectiveness

The degree to which a treatment plan, programme or project has achieved its purpose within the limits set for reaching its objective. For example, an expression of the desired effect of a programme, service or institution in reducing a health problem or improving an unsatisfactory health situation.... effective / effectiveness


(Greek) A talented songstress Effemey, Effemi, Effemie, Effemee, Effemea... effemy


The extent to which a specific intervention, procedure, regimen or service produces a beneficial result under ideal conditions.... efficacy

Efficient / Efficiency

The extent to which the specific resources used to provide a specific intervention, procedure, regimen or service of known efficacy and effectiveness are minimized.... efficient / efficiency

Effort Syndrome

Also known as Da Costa’s syndrome, this is a condition in which symptoms occur, such as palpitations and shortness of breath, which are attributed by the patient to disorder of the heart. There is no evidence, however, of heart disease, and psychological factors are thought to be of importance. (See PSYCHOSOMATIC DISEASES.)... effort syndrome


(African) Born on a Friday Efiah, Efea, Efeah, Effia, Effea... efia


(Hebrew) My God is bountiful Efrata, Efratia, Efratea... efrat


(Greek) A maiden with a pretty face Efterpie, Efterpy, Efterpey, Efterpee, Efterpea, Efterpeah... efterpi


(American) A wholesome woman Egann, Egen, Egun, Egon... egan


(English) Feminine form of Egbert; wielding the shining sword Egbertha, Egbertina, Egbertyna, Egberteena, Egbertyne, Egberteene, Egbertine... egberta


(Latin) A wise counselor; in mythology, a water nymph

Egeriah, Egerea, Egereah, Egeriya, Egeriyah... egeria


(Hebrew) Resembling a heifer Egla, Eglon, Eglona, Eglia, Egliah, Eglea, Egleah... eglah


(Hebrew) Of the two ponds Eglaima, Eglaimia, Eglaimea, Eglayma, Eglaymia, Eglaymea, Eglaem, Eglaema, Eglaemia, Eglaemea... eglaim


(English) Resembling the sweet- brier flower

Eglantyne, Eglanteene, Eglantina, Eglantyna, Eglanteena, Eglanteane, Eglanteana, Eglantiene, Eglantiena, Eglanteina, Eglanteine... eglantine


(Basque) Of the sunshine Eguskyne, Eguskeene, Eguskina, Eguskyna, Eguskeena, Eguskeane, Eguskeana, Eguskiene, Eguskiena, Eguskeine, Eguskeina... eguskine


(Hebrew) From the land of pyramids and the Nile Egipt... egypt


(American) A yellow-haired woman

Egzanthe, Egzantha, Egzanthia, Egzanthea, Egzanthiya, Egzanthya... egzanth

Ehretia Buxifolia


Synonym: Carmona microphylla (Lam.) G. Don.

Family: Ehrethiaceae.

Habitat: Common in dry scrub forests of the Deccan Peninsula.

Siddha/Tamil: Kuruvingi, Kattuvet- tilai.

Folk: Pala.

Action: Root—alterative in cachexia and syphilis; an antidote to vegetable poisoning. Dried leaves—pectic and stomachic.

The plant contains microphyllone. EtOH (50%) extract of aerial parts showed low anti-inflammatory and cardiovascular activities.... ehretia buxifolia


(Gaelic) Form of Evelyn, meaning “a birdlike woman” Eibhlin, Eihhlin... eibhlhin


(Greek) In mythology, a sea nymph Eidotheah, Eidothia, Eidothiah... eidothea


(Gaelic) Form of Evelyn, meaning “a birdlike woman”

Eila, Eileene, Eilena, Eilene, Eilin, Eilleen, Eily, Eilean, Eileane, Eileine, Eilein, Eilien, Eiliene, Eilyn, Eilyne... eileen


(Greek) In mythology, goddess of childbirth

Eileithyea, Eilithia, Eileithia, Eileithiya... eileithyia


(Welsh) Feminine form of Eluned; an idol worshipper

Elined, Eiluneda, Elineda, Eluned, Eluneda... eiluned


(Welsh) One with a fair brow Eilwenne, Eilwin, Eilwinne, Eilwyn, Eilwynne... eilwen


(Greek) Form of Irene, meaning “a peaceful woman”

Eireen, Eireene, Eiren, Eir, Eireine, Eirein, Eirien, Eiriene, Eirean, Eireane, Eiryn, Eiryne... eirene


(Greek) A peaceful woman Eiress, Eiris, Eiriss, Eirys, Eiryss... eires


(Welsh) One who is bright and beautiful

Eiriann, Eiriane, Eiriana, Eirianne, Eirianna... eirian


(Scandinavian) Born of new healing Eirney, Eirni, Eirnie, Eirnee, Eirnea, Eirneah... eirny

Eisenmenger Syndrome

A condition in which the subject suffers from a defect in one of the dividing walls (septum) of the HEART and this is accompanied by PULMONARY HYPERTENSION. The defect allows blood low in oxygen to ?ow from the right to the left side of the heart and be pumped into the aorta, which normally carries oxygenated blood to the body. The patient has a dusky blue appearance, becomes breathless and has a severely restricted exercise tolerance. There is an increase in red blood cells as the body attempts to compensate for the lowered oxygen delivery. The condition may be avoided by early surgical repair of the septal defect, but once it is evident, surgery may not be possible.... eisenmenger syndrome

Ehretia Laevis

Roxb. var. aspera (Willd.) C.B. Clarke.

Synonym: E. aspera Willd. E. obtusifolia Hochst. ex DC.

Family: Ehretiaceae.

Habitat: Throughout India, also grown along roadsides.

Ayurvedic: Charmi-vrksha.

Siddha/Tamil: Addula.

Folk: Chamror (Punjab). Kuptaa, Datarangi (Maharashtra.)

Action: Root—used in venereal diseases. A decoction of bark is used internally and as gargle in throat infections.

The plant contains tannins, saponins and allantoin, and monomethyl ethers of cyclitols. Leaves yielded a pyrrolizidine alkaloid, creatinine. arsenic effectively. It can be used in purification of silver-containing waste water, also for the treatment of low- level liquid radioactive wastes and mercurial waste water. The plant has a strong capacity for removing phenol. Biomass of non-living dried water Hyacinth roots showed high absorption of copper from aqueous solutions.

The plant exhibits antifungal activity against Candida albicans.... ehretia laevis

Eichhornia Crassipes

Solms Laub.

Synonym: E. speciosa Kunth.

Family: Pontederiaceae.

Habitat: Native to tropical South America; naturalized all over India.

English: Water-Hyacinth, Bengal Terror, Blue Devil, The Million Dollar Weed.

Ayurvedic: Wrongly equated with Jalakumbhi (Pistia stratiotes Linn., Tropical Duckweed.)

Siddha/Tamil: Akasa thammarai.

Action: Flower—antifungal. Used in skin diseases.

The plant gave stigmasterol, roots gibberellins, flowers delphinidin glu- coside.

The leaves contain a good amount of protein (18% on dry wt basis). The content of water soluble pectins in leaf, petiole and root is: 1.3-5.8,1.5-7.2 and 1.0-2.5% respectively.

Research shows that Water-Hyacinth can be used as a source to remove minerals, organic substances and even heavy metals like Cd, Cr, Cu, Zn and Ni present as pollutants from domestic or industrial effluents. It can also remove... eichhornia crassipes


(Indian) A devoted woman Ekantah, Eckanta, Ecanta, Eckantah, Ecantah... ekanta


(Hebrew) One who is firmly rooted Eckron, Ecron... ekron

Elaeocarpus Ganitrus

Roxb. ex G. Don.

Synonym: E. sphaericus K. Schum. Ganitrus sphaericus Gaertn.

Family: Elaeocarpaceae.

Habitat: West Bengal, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh, Western Ghats.

English: Utrasum Bead tree.

Ayurvedic: Rudraaksha, Panch- mukhi.

Siddha/Tamil: Rudraaksham.

Action: Fruit—used for epileptic fits and headache. Powdered fruits (0.5 g) mixed with warm water are given two/three times daily in asthma. Stem bark— hypoglycaemic.

The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India indicated the use of the seed in hypertension, insomnia, psychoneurosis and mental diseases.

The fruits contain palmitic, iso- palmitic, linoleic and myristic acids. Leaves gave alkaloids—rudrakine, (+)- elacocarpine and (+)-iso-elacocarpine; phenolics—quercetin, gallic acid and ellagic acid. EtOH (50%) extract of stem bark—hypoglycaemic. Aqueous extract of fruits—sedative, hy- potensive, spasmolytic, anticonvul- sant, choleretic, bronchodilatory and cardiostimulant.

The fruit of E. oblongus Mast. non- Gaertn., synonym E. glandulosus Wall. ex Merrill (Western Ghats) is used in mental disorders and tetanus.

Dosage: Seed—1-2 g. (API Vol. IV.)

Siddha/Tamil: Ruthracham, Pagumbar.

Folk: Rudirak, Bhutali.

Action: Bark—stomachic, antibil- ious. Used in haematemesis. Nut— antiepileptic, antirheumatic.

The leaves gave quercetin, kaempfer- ol, gallic acid and ethylgallate.... elaeocarpus ganitrus

Elaeodendron Glaucum


Cassine glauca (Rottb.)... elaeodendron glaucum


(Welsh) Resembling a fawn Elayn, Elaen... elain


(French) Form of Helen, meaning “the shining light”

Ellaine, Ellayne, Elaina, Elayna, Elayne, Elaene, Elaena, Ellaina... elaine


(Hebrew) Feminine form of Elam; a secretive woman

Elamah, Elamma, Elamia, Elamea, Elamiah, Elameah... elama


(Hebrew) From the oak tree Elanna, Elanah, Elanie, Elani, Elany, Elaney, Elanee, Elan, Elanea, Elaneah... elana


Family of snakes which includes poisonous snakes with fixed front fangs such as the cobras, the mambas and the Australian Tiger snakes.... elapidae

Elaeocarpus Serratus


Synonym: E. cuneatus Wt.

Family: Elaeocarpaceae.

Habitat: Eastern Himalayas and Western Ghats up to 1,000 m. English: Wild Olive tree, Ceylon Olive.

Ayurvedic: Rudraaksha (var.). Siddha/Tamil: Uttraccham, Ulankarei.

Action: Leaf—antirheumatic. Fruit—antidysenteric. Aerial parts—CVS and CNS active.

The leaves gave ellagic acid, myric- itrin, myricetin and mearnsetin. Fruit pulp gave citric acid and D-galactose. It contains pectin (2.57% fresh weight basis).... elaeocarpus serratus

Elaeocarpus Tuberculatus


Family: Celastraceae.

Habitat: Throughout India, also planted as an ornamental.

Ayurvedic: Krishnamokshaka.

Siddha/Tamil: Selluppaimaram.

Folk: Kaalaa-mokhaa, Ratangaruur. Jamrasi (gum).

Action: Astringent, anti- inflammatory, emetic.

The bark and the leaves contain 813.5 and 8-15% tannin respectively.

Powdered leaves have a sternutatory action and are used as snuff to relieve headache and as a fumigatory in hysteria (in folk medicine it is believed that the smoke wards off ghosts.)

Fresh root bark is rubbed into a paste with water and applied to swellings. A cold water extract of the crushed roots is used as an emetic (fatal in overdoses).

Family: Elaeocarpaceae.

Habitat: Western Ghats from Kanara southwards. Ayurvedic: Rudraaksha (var.).... elaeocarpus tuberculatus


(Latin) A high-spirited woman Elatah, Elatta, Elattah, Elatia, Elatea, Elatiah, Elateah... elata


(Hebrew) From the grove of trees Elathe, Elatha, Elathia, Elathea... elath


(English) Form of Alberta, meaning “noble and bright”

Elburta, Elbyrta, Elbirta, Elbertina, Elbertine, Elbrette, Elberte, Elberteen, Elbertyna, Elbertyne... elberta


(Italian) Form of Hilda, meaning “a battlemaiden; a protector” Elde, Eldi, Eldie, Eldee, Eldy, Eldey, Eldea, Eldeah... elda

Elder Care

See “aged care”.... elder care


(Greek) A gift of the sun Eleadora, Eldorah, Eldorra, Eldoria, Eldorea... eldora


(Greek) Woman of the sea Eldorise, Eldoriss, Eldorisse, Eldorys, Eldoryss, Eldorysse... eldoris


(English) Feminine form of Eldred; one who provides wise counsel Eldredah, Eldrida, Eldridah, Eldryda, Eldrydah, Eldride, Eldrede, Eldreada, Eldreadah... eldreda


(American) One who is forthright Eleaci, Eleacy, Eleacey, Eleacee, Eleacea... eleacie


(Greek) Form of Helen, meaning “the shining light”

Eleanora, Eleni, Eleonora, Eleonore, Elinor, Elnora, Eleanore, Elinora, Elenora, Elenore, Eilidh, Eilinora, Eilinore, Eilionoir, Eilionoira, Elie, Elienor, Elienora, Eleinor, Eleinora, Elinore, Ellinor, Ellnora, Ellinora, Ellenor, Ellenora, Ellie, Elly, Elli, Ellee... eleanor


A method of recording movements of the eyes, which is of value in assessing the function of the retina (see EYE.)... electro-oculography


Sambucus canadensis

Description: Elderberry is a many-stemmed shrub with opposite, compound leaves. It grows to a height of 6 meters. Its flowers are fragrant, white, and borne in large flat- topped clusters up to 30 centimeters across. Its berrylike fruits are dark blue or black when ripe.

Habitat and Distribution: This plant is found in open, usually wet areas at the margins of marshes, rivers, ditches, and lakes. It grows throughout much of eastern North America and Canada.

Edible Parts: The flowers and fruits are edible. You can make a drink by soaking the flower heads for 8 hours, discarding the flowers, and drinking the liquid.


All other parts of the plant are poisonous and dangerous if eaten.... elderberry

Elderberry Tea - A Natural Flu Fighter

Elderberry tea is commonly known as a remedy for flu or cold. This miraculous shrub has many other benefits for your health and can be used in many forms even for wines or sweets. About Elderberry tea Originally native to Europe and Western Africa, elderberry is a bush with white flowers and clusters of berries that are purplish to black in color. The best type of elderberry is considered to be the sambucus nigra, because it is truly the only safe type. Other types can be poisonous (especially stems and leaves) so be careful when you pick it yourself or when you buy it from stores. The elderberry flowers and fruits are usually used to prepare teas, wine, jams, pies and syrups and are sometimes used as flavoring for soft drinks. The elderberry plant is also sometimes used as an ornamental plant. Elderberry tea is rich in vitamin C and has high levels of flavonoids, anthocyanin, sambucin, sambunigrin and potassium nitrate, along with sugars. Only dried white flowers are used to prepare the tea which has a delicate tasty flavor. How to prepare Elderberry tea For a delicious cup of Elderberry tea, take 3 teaspoons of dried flowers and combine them with a cup of boiling water. Let them steep for approximately 10 minutes. Cool, strain and enjoy it afterwards. The same procedure must be followed if you use teabags, but use only 1. Drink it up to three times a day to treat flu or other respiratory conditions. If you add honey, its benefits will be doubled. Benefits of Elderberry tea Elderberry tea has lots of benefits especially when it comes to flu or fever. It helps relieving respiratory conditions caused by a buildup of mucus or phlegm, such as colds, bronchitis, and asthma problems. It clears the system out, lowers fever and eases flu symptoms. Elderberry tea also acts as an antioxidant protecting the body against aging free radicals thanks to the flavonoids contained. It has also a detoxifying effect helping the liver and kidneys to process and remove toxins from the body. Elderberry tea may help in the treatment of various types of allergies. Elderberry tea may be helpful in the quick recovery of patients with eruptive diseases caused by viruses like measles and chicken pox. It is also recommended in the treatment of arthritic and rheumatic pain. Side effects of Elderberry tea Although Elderberry tea is considered generally safe, it can occasionally generate  some side effects like gastrointestinal upset. Please keep in mind that it is always a good idea to ask your physician’s opinion before taking this tea if you are pregnant or breastfeeding. As you can see, Elderberry tea has many benefits for your health and as long as you have chosen the right type and you do not exceed 3 cups a day you can drink it with no worries.... elderberry tea - a natural flu fighter

Electromyography (emg)

The recording of electrical activity in a muscle using electrodes placed in the ?bres. The procedure is used to diagnose muscle and nerve disorders and to assess recovery in certain types of paralysis.... electromyography (emg)


One of the negatively charged subatomic particles distributed around a positive nucleus (positron) to form an atom. (See RADIOTHERAPY.)... electron

Electrical Injuries

These are usually caused by the passage through the body of an electric current of high voltage owing to accidental contact with a live wire or to a discharge of lightning. The general effects produced are included under the term electric shock, but vary greatly in degree. The local effects include spasmodic contraction of muscles, fracture of bones, and in severe cases more or less widespread destruction of tissues which may amount simply to burns of the skin or may include necrosis of masses of muscle and internal organs. Fright due to the unexpectedness of the shock, and pain due to the sudden cramp of muscles, are the most common symptoms and in most cases pass o? within a few minutes. In more severe cases – especially when the person has remained in contact with a live wire for some time, or has been unable to let go of the electrical contact owing to spasmodic contraction of the muscles – the effects are more pronounced and may include concussion or compression of the brain (see BRAIN, DISEASES OF). In still more severe cases, death may ensue either from paralysis of the respiration or stoppage of the heart’s action. If prompt measures are taken for treatment, the victim can often be resuscitated.

In Britain there are an average of 110 deaths a year from electrocution, half of these occurring in the home.

Treatment No electrical apparatus or switch should be touched by anyone who is in metallic contact with the ground, such as through a metal pipe, especially, for example, from a bath. The ?rst action is to break the current. This can sometimes be done by turning o? a switch. If the victim is grasping or in contact with a live wire, the contact may be severed with safety only by someone wearing rubber gloves or rubber boots; but as these are not likely to be immediately available, the rescuer’s hands may be protected by a thick wrapping of dry cloth, or the live wire may be hooked or pushed out of the way with a long wooden stick such as a broom-handle. If the injured person is unconscious, and especially if breathing has stopped, arti?cial respiration should be applied as described in APPENDIX 1: BASIC FIRST AID – Electrocution. When the patient begins to breathe again, he or she must be treated for shock and professional help obtained urgently.... electrical injuries

Electrocardiogram (ecg)

A record of the variations in electric potential which occur in the HEART as it contracts and relaxes. Any muscle in use produces an electric current, but when an individual is at rest, the main muscular current in the body is that produced by the heart. This can be recorded by connecting the outside of the body by electrodes with an instrument known as an electrocardiograph. The patient is connected to the electrocardiograph by leads from either the arms and legs or di?erent points on the chest. The normal electrocardiogram of each heartbeat shows one wave corresponding to the activity of the atria and four waves corresponding to the phases of each ventricular beat. Various readily recognisable changes are seen in cases in which the heart is acting in an abnormal manner, or in which one or other side of the heart is enlarged. This record therefore forms a useful aid in many cases of heart disease (see HEART, DISEASES OF). The main applications of the electrocardiogram are in the diagnosis of myocardial infarction and of cardiac ARRHYTHMIA.


A method of recording the electrical activity of the heart muscles. Electrodes from a recording machine (electrocardiograph) are placed on the skin of the chest wall, arms and legs. The record of the electrical changes is called an ECG (electrocardiogram). The number of electrodes used depends on the complexity of the heart disorder being monitored. The procedure can be done in hospital, doctors’ surgeries and the patient’s home, and should not cause any discomfort.

In certain circumstances – for example, where a person has had bouts of chest pain – an exercise ECG may be performed under medical supervision. The patient walks on a treadmill while the ECG is recorded continuously.... electrocardiogram (ecg)

Electroconvulsive Therapy (ect)

A controversial but sometimes rapidly e?ective treatment for cases of severe DEPRESSION, particularly where psychotic features are present (see PSYCHOSIS), or in high-risk patients such as suicidal or post-partum patients. ECT is only indicated after antidepressants have been tried and shown to be ine?ective; the full procedure of treatment should be explained to the patient, whose consent must be obtained.

Before treatment, the patient will have been fasted for at least eight hours. After checking for any potential drug ALLERGY or interactions, the patient is given a general anaesthetic and muscle relaxants. Depending on the side of the patient’s dominance, either unilateral (on the side of the non-dominant hemisphere of the BRAIN) or bilateral (if dominance is uncertain,

e.g. in left-handed people) positioning of electrodes is used. Unilateral ECT has the advantage of being associated with less anterograde AMNESIA. When the current passes, the muscles will contract for approximately 10 seconds, with further tonic spasms lasting up to a minute. The patient should then be put in the COMA or recovery position and observed until fully conscious. Up to 12 treatments may be given over a month, improvement usually showing after the third session. Widely used at one time, the treatment is now given only rarely. It can be extremely frightening for patients and relatives and is not recommended for children.... electroconvulsive therapy (ect)

Electronic Monitoring Devices

Electronically driven equipment that will constantly monitor the physiological status of patients and the effects of medical intervention on that status. Such devices should relieve hospital sta? of time-consuming ‘human monitoring’ procedures and in some instances will enable patients to carry monitoring devices during their daily living activities. An example would be the regular assessment of blood-sugar concentration in subjects with DIABETES MELLITUS or the routine checking on the blood or tissue concentrations of administered drugs.... electronic monitoring devices

Electroencephalography (eeg)

In the BRAIN there is a regular, rhythmical change of electric potential, due to the rhythmic discharge of energy by nerve cells. These changes can be recorded graphically and the ‘brain waves’ examined – a procedure introduced to medicine in the 1920s. These records

– electroencephalograms – are useful in DIAGNOSIS: for example, the abnormal electroencephalogram occurring in EPILEPSY is characteristic of this disease. The normal waves, known as alpha waves, occur with a frequency of 10 per second. Abnormal waves, with a frequency of 7 or fewer per second, are known as delta waves and occur in the region of cerebral tumours and in the brains of epileptics. An electroencephalogram can assess whether an individual is awake, alert or asleep. It may also be used during surgery to monitor the depth of unconsciousness in anaesthetised patients.... electroencephalography (eeg)


An electroretinogram is the record of an electrical response of visual receptors in the retina (see EYE), which can be measured with corneal electrodes.... electroretinogram


(Greek) An independent woman; one who is free

Eleftheriah, Eleftherea, Elefthereah, Elefteria, Elefteriah, Elefterea, Eleftereah, Elepheteria, Elephteria... eleftheria


(American) A lasting beauty Elegey, Elegi, Elegie, Elegee, Elegea... elegy


(American) Resembling a star Elec, Eleck... elek


(Greek) Of the fiery sun; in mythology, the daughter of Agamemnon Electra, Elecktra... elektra


(Spanish) Form of Helen, meaning “the shining light”

Elenah, Eleena, Eleenah, Elyna, Elynah, Elina, Elinah, Eleni, Elenie, Elene, Eleene, Elenitsa, Eleyn, Elenea, Eleneah... elena

Eleocharis Dulcis


Synonym: E. plantaginea R. Br. E. tuberosa Schult.

Family: Cyperaceae.

Habitat: Widely cultivated in China. Sold in Kolkata under the name Singapuri Keysur.

English: Chinese Water Chestnut.

Ayurvedic: Shringaataka (substitute), Kasheruka (substitute).

Action: Tuber—antidysenteric, antileucorrhoeic, antibacterial.

The juice expressed from the tuber shows antibiotic activity against Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli and Aer- obacter aerogenes. The antibiotic principle has been designated as puchiin.

In ethanolic extract, hexacosanoic acid, 5 alpha-stigmastane-3, 6-dione, betulin and tricin were present. It also contained beta-sitosterol and stigmas- terol. applied to ulcers and eczema. Roots—given to patients with heart and liver affections; topically in rheumatism. Root and leaf— used in dysuria and other urethral complaints. An infusion of the whole plant is used to stimulate diuresis, reduce fever and to eliminate bladder stones. The decoction is also used in peptic ulcers, swelling or pain in stomach. Plant is also used in piles and scabies.

The plant contains germacranolide dilactones. Hydroxylated germacano- lides, molephantin and molephantinin, exhibited cytotoxic and antitumour properties.

The plant also gave epifriedelanol, lupeol, stigmasterol, triacontan-l-ol and dotriacontan-l-ol.... eleocharis dulcis


(Hebrew) God is my light Eleorah, Eleoria, Eleorea, Eliora, Elioria, Eliorea, Elora, Eloria, Elorea... eleora


(Welsh) Having smooth skin Elerie, Elery, Elerey, Eleree, Elerea... eleri


(English) One who heals others Eletheah, Elethia, Elethiah, Elethiya, Elethiyah, Eletheya, Eletheyah, Elthia, Elthea... elethea


(Latin) A shining woman Elettrah, Eletra, Eletrah... elettra


(English) Form of Alexis, meaning “helper and defender of mankind” Elexi, Elexia, Elexina, Elexine, Elexus, Elexys, Elix, Elexa, Elexea, Elexeah, Elexie, Elexy, Elexey, Elexee... elexis


(American) A small girl; resembling an elf

Elfyn, Elfan, Elfun, Elfee, Elfy, Elfey, Elfea, Elfie, Elfi, Elfe... elfin


(Greek) A peaceful ruler; a good advisor

Elfridah, Elfreda, Elfredah, Elfryda, Elfrydah, Elfrieda, Elfriedah, Elfreida, Elfreidah, Elfreada, Elfreadah... elfrida


(Anglo-Saxon) Wielding an elf’s spear Elgan, Elgana, Elgania, Elganea... elga


(Hebrew) The Lord answers our prayers

Eleana, Eli, Elia, Eliane, Elianna, Elianne, Eliann, Elyana, Elyanna, Elyann, Elyan, Elyanne, Elyane... eliana


(German) One who is noble Elicah, Elicka, Elika, Elyca, Elycka, Elyka, Elsha, Elsje... elica


(English) Resembling a winged creature

Elidah, Elyda, Eleeda, Eleda, Elieda, Eleida, Eleada... elida


(Hebrew) Loved by God Elidada, Elidade, Elydad, Elydada, Elydade... elidad


Criteria for entitlement to services or benefits.... eligibility

Eligibility Criteria

An explicit statement of the conditions under which persons are admitted to a study.... eligibility criteria


(Hebrew) God will judge Elikah, Elyka, Elicka, Elycka, Elica, Elyca... elika

Elettaria Cardamomum


Family: Compositae; Asteraceae.

Habitat: Throughout warmer parts of India.

Ayurvedic: Mayura-shikhaa, Gojihvaa. (Actinopteris dichotoma Bedd. and Celosia cristata Linn. are also used as Mayura-shikhaa. Anchusa strigosa Lebill., and other Boraginaecae sp. are used as Gojihvaa.)

Siddha/Tamil: Yaanaichhuvadi.

Folk: Mayurjuti, Maaraajuti.

Action: Plant—astringent, cardiac tonic, diuretic, mucilaginous, emmolient (used in dysuria, diarrhoea, dysentery. Leaves—

Family: Zingiberaceae.

Habitat: Cultivated either as pure plantation crop, or as subsidiary to coffee and arecanut in hilly forests regions of Western Ghats in Karnataka and Kerala, and in parts of Madurai, the Nilgiris and Tirunelveli in Tamil Nadu.

English: Lesser Cardamom.

Ayurvedic: Elaa, Sukshmailaa, Kshudrailaa, Bhrngaparnikaa, Tutthaa, Draavidi, Prithvikaa, Triputaa, Truti, Upkunchikaa.

Unani: Heel Khurd.

Siddha/Tamil: Yelakkai, Ilam.

Action: Carminative antiemetic, stomachic, orexigenic, anti-gripe, antiasthmatic, bechic, Oil— antispasmodic, antiseptic. Used for flatulence, loss of appetite, colic, bronchitis, asthma. Paste used as balm for headache, husk for rheumatism.

Key application: In dyspepsia; also as cholagogue. (German Commission E.)

The seeds yield an essential oil (611% dry basis). The major constituents are, 1,8-cineole and alpha-terpinylace- tate, with limonene, alpha-terpineol, sabinene and linalool. The seeds contain palmitic and oleic as dominant fatty acids, besides linoleic and linolenic acids, along with alpha-tocopherol, desmosterol and campesterol.

The extracts of cardamom cause a significant decrease in gastric secretion after 3 h of treatment. The effect of methanol extract is primarily observed as decreased pepsin output.

Terpineol and acetylterpineol, the active principles of cardamom seeds, showed greater penetration enhancing capacities than Azone which was used as a comparative penetration enhancer for the diffusion of Pred- nisolone through mouse skin in vitro.

Volatile components exhibit antimicrobial activity. The oil inhibits afla- toxin synthesis.

The cardamom seed can trigger gallstone colic (spasmodic pain) and is not recommended for self-medication in patients with gallstone. (German Commission E, PDR, Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, 2007.)

Dosage: Seed of dried fruit—1-2 g powder. (API Vol I.)... elettaria cardamomum

Eleusine Coracana


Family: Gramineae; Poaceae.

Habitat: A grain crop of Karnataka; also grown on large scale in Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra.

English: Finger Millet, African millet, Ragi.

Ayurvedic: Madhuuli, Markata- hasta-trna.

Siddha/Tamil: Ragi, Kezhvaregu.

Action: Seeds—cooling, astringent. Nutritive value of ragi is higher than that of rice and equal to that of wheat. White ragi is superior to the pigmented type. A nourishing food for infants, growing children, expectant mothers and aged people. Ragi is considered an ideal food for diabetics because of slow release of sugars to the body. A decoction of leaves and stems is drunk to ease vaginal bleeding.

The protein content of ragi is 813%, with P 250, Fe 7.6, thiamine 0.18— and riboflavin 0.1 mg/100 g. Ragi has high glycemic index value. It reduced plasma cholesterol, total serum cholesterol and LDL cholesterol by 9% each, and triglycerides by 15%, and increased HDL cholesterol, thus exhibited a sig- nificantbeneficial effect on plasma profile. The lipemic index for ragi is 55, taking isocaloric wheat-supplemented background diet (control) at 100.... eleusine coracana


(Hebrew) Delivered by God Eliphala, Eliphall, Eliphalla, Eliphelet, Elipheleta... eliphal


(Hebrew) God has judged Elishafat, Elyshaphat, Elyshafat... elishaphat


(Hebrew) God’s promise; in the Bible, the wife of Aaron Elishebah, Elishyba, Elisheeba, Elysheba, Elysheeba, Elyshyba... elisheba


(Slavic) An honest woman; one who is truthful

Elishka, Elyska, Elyshka... eliska


(Latin) The chosen one Elitah, Elyta, Elytah, Eleta, Eletah, Elitia, Elitea, Electa, Elekta... elita


(Latin) A superior woman... elite


(Hebrew) My God is bountiful ® Elisabet, Elisabeth, Elisabetta, Elissa, Eliza, Elizabel, Elizabet, Elsa, Elspeth, Elyza, Elsbeth, Else, Elsie, Elsy, Elza, Elizabetta, Elizaveta, Elizavet, Elisamarie, Elisavet, Elisaveta, Eilis, Elisheva, Elishia, Ellisif, Els, Elzbieta, Erzebet, Erzsebet, Elzira, Erihapeti, Erssike, Erzsi, Erzsok... elizabeth


(German) A noble and kind woman Elka, Elkie, Elki, Elkee, Elkey, Elkea, Elkeah... elke


(German) From a foreign land ® Elle, Ellee, Ellesse, Elli, Ellia, Ellie, Elly, Ela, Ellea, Elleah... ella


(American) A coy woman Ellane, Ellann... ellan

Eleusine Indica


Family: Gramineae, Poaceae.

Habitat: Australia, North America; throughout the warmer parts of the world. In India, in wet plains and low hills and pasture grounds.

English: Crowfoot Grass, Crab Grass.

Ayurvedic: Nandimukha (var.).

Folk: Nandiaa (Orissa), Mahaar Naachni (Maharashtra), Thippa Ragi (Tamil Nadu).

Action: Used for biliary disorders. In Vietnamese traditional medicine, a decoction of the whole plant is used as stomachic, diuretic, febrifuge, and in sprains.

Aerial parts contain vitexin, 3-O- beta-D-glucopyranosyl-beta-sitosterol and its 6'-O-palmitoyl derivatives. of intoxication. Used for abdominal pains, nausea, bleeding nose. Fresh plants from Uttaranchal gave 0.4% essential oil having dehydroelsholtzia ketone 88.7% as the main constituent, followed by humulene 2.4% and caryophyllene 0.9% (the oil composition of the species which grow in Japan and Kashmir is different.)

Plant contains linarin, apigenin and 7-O-glucosides of apigenin and lute- olin.

The Japanese species, used for hangovers, gave compounds including tri- terpenoids, steroids and flavonoids.

Elsholtzia blenda Benth., synonym Perilla elata D. Don, is also equated with Ban-Tulasi. Major constituent of the essential oil is geranyl acetate. Other constituents are p-cymene, sa- binene, borneol, geraniol, linalyl acetate, fernesol, limonene, linalool, cit- ronellol, thymol and nerolidol.... eleusine indica


(African) A dairy farmer Ellemah, Elema, Elemma, Ellemma, Elemah... ellema


(English) Form of Helen, meaning “the shining light”

Elin, Elleen, Ellena, Ellene, Ellyn, Elynn, Elen, Ellin... ellen


(American) One who is decisive Elender, Ellandar, Elandar... ellender


(Anglo-Saxon) A woman known for her courage... ellenweorc


(English) Form of Hilary, meaning “a cheerful woman; bringer of joy” Ellerey, Elleri, Ellerie, Elleree, Ellerea, Ellereah... ellery


(Greek) A shining woman Elletrah, Eletra, Eletrah... elletra


(English) Resembling a little elf Ellett, Ellete, Elette, Elete, Elletta, Elleta, Eleta, Ellet, Elet... ellette


(Indian) From the cave temples... ellora


(American) A shining and gracious woman

Ellianne, Ellyanna, Ellianna, Ellyann, Elliann, Ellyan, Ellian... ellyanne


(English) Feminine form of Elijah; the Lord is my God

Ellecia, Ellice, Ellisha, Ellison, Elyce, Ellesse, Ellis... ellyce


(German) Having God’s protection Elmah... elma


(Armenian) Resembling a diamond Elmaz, Elmes, Elmis, Elmez, Elmiz... elmas


(Teutonic) One who is widely known

Elminah, Elmeena, Elmeenah, Elmyna, Elmynah, Elmine, Elmyne, Elmeene, Elmeina, Elmeinah, Elmiena, Elmienah, Elmeana, Elmeanah... elmina


(English) Form of Almira, meaning “a princess; daughter born to royalty” Elmirah, Elmyra, Elmeera, Elmiera, Elmeira, Elmeara, Elmyrah, Elmeerah, Elmierah, Elmeirah, Elmearah... elmira


(Spanish) A wealthy foreigner Elodiah, Elodea, Elodeah, Elodie, Elodi, Elodee, Elody, Elodey... elodia


(Latin) One who is trustworthy Eloinia, Eloinea, Eloine, Eloyna, Eloyne, Eloynea... eloina


(Latin) Form of Louise, meaning “a famous warrior”

Eloise, Eloiza, Eloisee, Eloize, Eloizee... eloisa


(African) Loved by God Elona, Elonna, Elonia, Elonea, Eloniah, Eloneah... elon


(Greek) Feminine form of Elpidius; filled with hope

Elpidah, Elpyda, Elpeeda, Elpieda, Elpeida, Elpeada, Espe, Elpydah, Elpeedah, Elpiedah, Elpeidah, Elpeadah... elpida


(Spanish) A shining woman Elpidiah, Elpidea, Elpideah, Elpie, Elpee, Elpea, Elpi, Elpy, Elpey, Elpidiya, Elpidiyah... elpidia


(German) A great ruler Elricah, Elrika, Elrikah, Elryca, Elrycah, Elryka, Elrykah, Elrick, Elryck... elrica


(Anglo-Saxon) Of the willow tree Elswith, Elswythe, Elswithe... elswyth


(Hebrew) A God-fearing woman Elteke, Elteckeh, Eltecke... eltekeh


(American) A spontaneous woman Elten, Eltan, Eltin, Eltyn, Eltun... elton


(Irish) A friend of the elves Elva, Elvie, Elvina, Elvinia, Elviah, Elvea, Elveah, Elvyna, Elvyne, Elvin, Elveen, Elvine, Elfie, Elfi, Elvena, Elvene, Elvan, Elivina, Elwina, Elweena, Elwnya, Elwin, Elwinne, Elwyn, Elwynne... elvia


(Latin) A truthful woman; one who can be trusted

Elvera, Elvita, Elvyra, Elvirah, Elvyrah, Elwira... elvira


(Latin) One who is blissful; in mythology, refers to the land of the dead Elysiah, Elysea, Elyseah... elysia

Elsholtzia Cristata


Synonym: E. ciliata (Thunb.) Hyland.

Perilla polystachya D. Don.

Family: Labiatae; Lamiaceae.

Habitat: The Himalayas and Assam up to 3,000 m, introduced into the Nilgiris (Tamil Nadu).

Ayurvedic: Ajagandhaa (controversial synonym).

Folk: Ban-Tulasi, Bovai, Phoot- Kanda.

Action: Carminative, stomachic, astringent. Leaf—diuretic, antipyretic. Neutralizes after effects... elsholtzia cristata

Elytraria Crenata


Synonym: E. acaulis Lindau. Tubiflora acaulis Kuntze.

Family: Acanthaceae.

Habitat: The Deccan Peninsula, extending northwards to eastern Himalayas.

Folk: Patharchattaa, Dasmori. (Also known as Shat-muuli.)

Action: Leaves—decoction prescribed in fever, also in venereal diseases. Root—used in mammary tumours and abscesseses, pneumonia and infantile diarrhoea. Plant infusion is used as a cough remedy for infants.... elytraria crenata

Embelia Ribes

Burm. f.

Family: Myrsinaceae.

Habitat: Throughout India.

English: Embelia.

Ayurvedic: Vidanga, Krmighna, Krmihara, Krmiripu, Chitratandula, Jantughna, Jantunaashana, Vella, Amogha.

Unani: Baobarang, Barang Kaabuli.

Siddha/Tamil: Vaayuvidangam.

Action: Ascaricidal, anthelmintic, carminative, diuretic, astringent, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, febrifuge. Used in diseases of chest and skin. Active principles are found to be oestrogenic and weakly progestogenic. Root—bechic, antidiarrhoeal. Seed—spermicidal, oxytocic, diuretic. The plant is also used for its blood purifying properties. It is an ingredient in cough syrups, preparations for anaemia, genitourinary tract infections, diarrhoea and diseases of the liver.

Embelin, isolated from the berries, shows significant anti-implantation and post-coital antifertility activity. (Successful trials have been carried out at the National Institute of Immunology, New Delhi on human beings.) It is found to be a potential male antifer- tility agent. Spermatogenesis has been impaired and sperm count reduced to the level of infertility. The antisper- matogenic changes are found to be reversible without any toxic effects.

Aqueous and EtOH extract of the fruit—anthelmintic against earthworms. Fruit powder (200 mg/kg), taken with curd on empty stomach, expelled tapeworm within 6-24 h. The treatment was also found effective in giardiasis. EtOH (50%) of the plant was found slightly active against E.coli. Di-salts of embelin—an- thelmintic. Amino salts exhibited less side effects than embelin. The effect of di-isobutyl amino derivatives lasted up to 10 h, also showed anti-inflammatory, hypotensive and antipyretic activities.

Berries gave quinones—embelin, ra- panone, homoembelin, homorapnone and vilangin.

Dosage: Fruit—5-10 g powder. (API Vol. I.)... embelia ribes

Embelia Robusta

C. B. Clarke, non-Roxb.

Synonym: E. tsjeriam-cottam A. DC.

Family: Myrsinaceae.

Habitat: Throughout greater part of India.

Ayurvedic: Vidanga (allied species) Substitute for Embelia ribes.

Folk: Baayabirang.

Action: Fruit—antispasmodic, carminative, anthelmintic, antibacterial. Powdered fruit—used in dysentery. Plant—used in weak pulse rate.

EtOH (50%) extract of aerial parts exhibit slightly hypotensive activity. Stem contains embelin. See Embelia ribes.... embelia robusta


(English) A low-burning fire Embar, Embir, Embyr... ember


(Spanish) A respected lady Emberatrise, Emberatreece, Emberatreese, Emberatryce, Emberatryse, Emberatrice... emberatriz


(American) A pretty young woman Emberlie, Emberlee, Emberleigh, Emberly, Emberley, Emberlea... emberli


(American) As precious as a beautiful jewel

Emberlyn, Emberlyne, Emberlynne, Emberline, Emberlin, Emberlinn, Emberlinne, Emberlen, Emberlenn, Emberlenne... emberlynn


(Norse) From the elm tree; in mythology, the first woman... embla

Emblica Officinalis


Synonym: Phyllanthus emblica Linn.

Family: Euphorbiaceae.

Habitat: Native to tropical Southeast Asia; distributed throughout India; also planted in public parks.

English: Emblic, Indian gooseberry.

Ayurvedic: Aaamalaki, Aaamalaka, Dhaatri, Kaayasthaa, Amoghaa, Amritaphala, Amla, Aaamalaa, Dhaatriphala, Vayasyaa, Vrshya, Shiva, Hattha.

Unani: Aamalaa, Amlaj.

Siddha/Tamil: Nellikkaai, Nelli.

Action: Fruit—antianaemic, anabolic, antiemetic, bechic, astringent, antihaemorrhagic, antidiarrhoeal, diuretic, antidiabetic, carminative, antioxidant. Used in jaundice, dyspepsia, bacillary dysentery, eye trouble and as a gastrointestinal tonic. Juice with turmeric powder and honey is prescribed in diabetes insipidus. Seed—antibilious, antiasthmatic. Used in bronchitis. Bark—astringent. Leaf—juice is given in vomiting.

A decoction of powdered pericarp is prescribed for paptic ulcer.

Key application: As an antacid. (Indian Herbal Pharmacopoeia.).

The fruit is an important source of vitamin C, minerals and amino acids. The edible fruit tissue contains protein concentration threefold and vitamin C (ascorbic acid) concentration 160-fold than those of apple. The fruit also contains considerably higher concentration of most minerals and amino acids than apple.

The fruit gave cytokinine-like substances identified as zeatin, zeatin ribo- side and zeatin nucleotide; suspension culture gave phyllembin. Phyllem- bin exhibits CNS depressant and spasmolytic activity, potentiates action of adrenaline and hypnotic action of Nembutal.

The leaves contain gallic acid (10.8 mg/g dry basis), besides ascorbic and music acid. The methanol extract of the leaves is found to be effective in rat paw inflammation.

The bark contains tannin identified as mixed type of proanthocyanidin.

The fruit contains superoxide dis- mutase 482.14 units/g fresh weight and exhibits antisenescent (anti-aging) activity. Fruit, juice, its sediment and residue are antioxidant due to gallic acid. EtOH (50%) extract—antiviral.

Aqueous extract of the fruit increases cardiac glycogen level and decreases serum GOT, GPT and LDH in rats having induced myocardial necrosis.

Preliminary evidence suggests that the fruit and its juice may lower serum cholesterol, LDL, triglycerides and phospholipids without affecting HDL levels and may have positive effect on atherosclerosis. (Eur J clin Nutr, 42, 1988, 939-944; PhytotherRes, 14, 2000, 592-595.)

An aqueous extract of the fruit has been reported to provide protection against radiation-induced chromosomal damage in both pre-and postirradiation treatment. The fruit is reported to enhance natural killer cell activity and antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity in mice bearing Dalton's lymphoma ascites tumour. The extract of the fruit and ascorbic acid prevented hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic effects induced by lead and aluminium. The toxicity could be counteracted to a great extent by the fruit extract than by an amount of ascorbic acid alone equivalent to that contained in fruits. (The fruit can be used as a dietary supplement to counteract prolonged exposure to metals in population in industrial areas.)

The fruits are reported to activate trypsin (proteolytic enzyme) activity.

The fruits can be used as coagulant in the treatment of water and can purify low turbidity water.

The fruits can be consumed safely all round the year.

Dosage: Fresh fruit—10-20 g; pulp juice—5-10 ml. (API Vol. I.)... emblica officinalis


To moisten and rub... embrocate


Embrocations are mixtures, usually of an oily nature, intended for external application in cases of rheumatism, sprains, and other painful conditions. Their action is due mainly to the massage employed in rubbing in the embrocations, in part to the counter-irritant action of the drugs which they contain. (See LINIMENTS.)... embrocations

Embryo Research

When a woman is treated for infertility it is necessary to nurture human embryos for a few days (until the ?rst cell divisions of the fertilised egg have occurred) in a specialised laboratory. More eggs are fertilised than are usually needed because not all fertilisations are successful. Surplus embryos may be frozen for use in later attempts to implant an embryo in the womb. Research has been done on very early embryos but the practice is controversial and some countries have either forbidden it or imposed tight restrictions. In the UK such research is controlled by the government Human Fertilisation & Embryology Authority (see ASSISTED CONCEPTION).... embryo research


(American) A kind and caring woman

Emell, Emel, Emele, Emella, Emela... emelle


(Latin) Born into a wealthy family Emene, Emina, Emine, Emeena, Emeene... emena


(Irish) One who is swift; in mythology, the woman who possessed the six gifts of womanhood Emyr, Emir... emer

Emergency Alarm

A system allowing an older person to be linked for up to 24 hours a day to a central service which can offer help in an emergency.... emergency alarm

Emergency Service

Service provided in response to the perceived individual need for immediate treatment or care.... emergency service

Emergent Condition

A condition requiring immediate medical attention.... emergent condition


An emetic is a substance which induces VOMITING (emesis). Emetics were previously used for gut decontamination in the treatment of poisoning but are now considered obsolete. This is because the e?cacy of emesis as a means of gut decontamination is unproved; there is a delay between administration and actual emesis, during which time continued absorption of the poison may occur; and some emetics have effects other than vomiting which may mask the clinical features of the ingested poison. The most commonly used emetic was syrup of ipecacuanha (ipecac). Salt (sodium chloride) water emetics were also used but there are many cases of fatal HYPERNATRAEMIA resulting from such use and salt water emetics should never be given. The most common method of gut decontamination currently used is the administration of activated CHARCOAL.... emetics


(Japanese) A child blessed with beauty Emyko... emiko

Emilia Sonchifolia

(L.) DC.

Family: Compositae; Asteraceae.

Habitat: Throughout India, ascending to 1,350 m in the hills.

Ayurvedic: Shash-shruti (non- classical).

Unani: Hirankhuri.

Folk: Sadamandi.

Action: Plant—sudorific, febrifuge, antiseptic. Used in infantile tympanitis and bowel complaints. Root—antidiarrhoeal. Leaf—used for otitis media under medical supervision.

The aerial parts contain pyrrolizi- dine alkaloids, senkirkine and doro- nine. Presence of simiaral, beta-sitos- terol, stigmasterol, palmitic and tria- contannic acids is also reported.... emilia sonchifolia


(Latin) An industrious and hardwork- ® ing woman

Emilee, Emilie, Emilia, Emelia, Emileigh, Emeleigh, Emeli, Emelie, Emelee, Emiley, Emalei, Emilei, Emalee, Emalia, Emely, Emelye, Emele, Emere, Emera, Emmly, Emilea, Emileah... emily


(Hebrew) Of a terrifying people... emims


(German) One who is complete; a ® universal woman

Emmy, Emmajean, Emmalee, Emmi, Emmie, Emmaline, Emelina, Emeline, Emaline, Emmalyn, Emmeline, Em, Emiline, Emelyn, Emelin, Emlyn... emma


(Hebrew) Feminine form of Emmanuel; God is with us Emmanuella, Emmanuele, Emmanuelle, Emunah, Emanuela, Emanuele, Emanuelle, Emanuella, Eman, Emman, Emmuna, Emann... emmanuela


(Hebrew) From the place of hot baths

Emmaws, Emmas... emmaus


(German) One who is womanly... emme


(American) A universal ruler Emmilou, Emmielou, Emylou, Emilou, Emielou... emmylou


Emollients are substances which have a softening and soothing e?ect upon the skin. They include dusting powders such as French chalk, oils such as olive oil and almond oil, and fats such as the various pharmacopoeial preparations of para?n, suet, and lard. Glycerin is also an excellent emollient.

Uses They are used in various in?ammatory conditions such as eczema (see DERMATITIS), when the skin becomes hard, cracked, and painful. They may be used in the form of a dusting powder, an oil or an ointment.... emollients

Empirical Methods

Research based on critical evaluation through observation or experimentation, not opinion or speculation.... empirical methods


The study of the diseases of travellers or Travel Medicine.... emporiatics

Empowerment For Health

A process through which people gain greater control over decisions and actions affecting their lives. It is the process by which disadvantaged individuals or groups acquire the knowledge and skills needed to assert their rights.... empowerment for health


(English) A gift from God Emsly, Emsli, Emslie, Emslee, Emsleigh, Emslea, Emsleah... emsley


Emulsions are oil-in-water or water-in-oil dispersions. Therapeutic emulsions (creams) require an added stabilising substance.... emulsions


(American) One who is happy and beautiful

Emmylinda, Emylynda, Emmilinda, Emmilynda, Emilinda, Emilynda... emylinda


(Hebrew) From the fountain of calves... en-eglaim


Taking action in partnership with individuals or groups to empower them, through the mobilization of human and material resources, to promote and protect their health.... enabling


(Spanish) Refers to the Incarnation festival... encarnacion


A form of cancer which, to the naked eye, resembles the tissue of the brain.... encephaloid


A contact between an individual and a care provider.... encounter


(Irish) A flighty woman Endeh, Ende, Enda... endah


(American) A magical woman Endiah, Endea, Endeah, Endie, Endi, Endee, Endy, Endey... endia

Encephalopathy (bse)

Known colloquially as ‘mad cow disease’, this is a fatal and untreatable disease. Along with scrapie in sheep and CREUTZFELDT-JACOB DISEASE (CJD) in humans, BSE belongs to a class of unusual degenerative diseases of the brain known as transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. The disease is caused by abnormal PRION proteins, which are resistant to cellular degradation. These abnormal prion proteins accumulate in and eventually cause the death of nerve cells, both in the spinal cord and the brain. The rare human disease CJD occurs throughout the world and is of three types: sporadic, iatrogenic (see IATROGENIC DISEASE) and inherited.

Since the BSE epidemic in cattle developed in the UK in the 1980s, however, a new variant of CJD has been identi?ed and is believed to be the result of consumption of the meat of BSE-infected cattle. Studies in transgenic mice have con?rmed that BSE caused variant CJD. The new variant has affected younger people and may have a shorter incubation period. If this incubation period turns out to be the same as for the other types of CJD, however, it could be 2005– 2010 before the peak of this outbreak is reached. Over 148 people had died, or were dying, from variant CJD in the UK by the year 2005.

The appearance of BSE in cattle is believed to have been caused by a gene mutation (see GENETIC DISORDERS), although whether this mutation ?rst occurred in cattle or in some other animal remains uncertain. Although the ?rst case of BSE was o?cially reported in 1985, the ?rst cattle are thought to have been infected in the 1970s. BSE spread to epidemic proportions because cattle were fed meat and bone meal, made from the o?al of cattle suffering from or incubating the disease. Mother-to-calf transfer is another likely route of transmission, although meat and bone meal in cattle feed were the main cause of the epidemic. The epidemic reached its peak in 1992 when the incidence of newly diagnosed cases in cattle was 37,545.

A two-year UK government inquiry into the BSE epidemic concluded that BSE had caused a ‘harrowing fatal disease in humans’, and criticised o?cials for misleading the public over the risk to humans from BSE. Consequently, a compensation package for patients and relatives was made available. Meanwhile, a ban on the export of UK beef and restrictions on the type of meat and products made from beef that can be sold to the public were put in place. Although initially thought to be a problem primarily con?ned to the UK, several other countries – notably France, Germany, Spain, Switzerland and the United States – have also discovered BSE in their cattle.... encephalopathy (bse)


Lust, Love... endive


Pre?x meaning situated inside.... endo

Endogenous Budding

Inward development from the germinal layer of a hydatid resulting in the formation of a daughter cyst or brood capsule.... endogenous budding


Preferring to feed indoors.... endophagic


Preferring to rest indoors.... endophilic


(Hebrew) From the fountain Endorah, Endoria, Endorea, Endor, Endore, Endoriah, Endoreah, Endorra, Endorrah... endora


See: POLYCYTHAEMIA VERA. ... erythraemia


European Scientific Cooperative for Phytotherapy. Established June 1989 by representatives of six European associations for phytotherapy. To advance the scientific status of phytomedicines (herbs) and to assist with harmonisation of their regulatory status at the European level. Represents about 1500 active members (physicians, pharmacists and scientists), many tens of thousands of prescribers and practitioners and many millions of consumers. This represents about 30 per cent of the entire pharmaceutical market.

Aims and objects. To develop a coordinated scientific framework to assess phytopharmaceuticals. To promote acceptance of phytopharmaceuticals, especially within the therapy of general medical practitioners. To support and initiate clinical and experimental research in phytotherapy. To improve and extend the international accumulation of scientific and practical knowledge.

National associations represented.

Federal Republic of Germany: Gesellschaft fu?r Phytotherapie e.V.

The Netherlands: Nederlandse Vereniging voor Fytotherapie.

Belgium: Socie?te? Belge de Phytothe?rapie, Belgische Vereniging voor Phytotherapie. France: Institut Francais de Phytothe?rapie.

United Kingdom: British Herbal Medicine Association.

Switzerland: Schweizerische Medizinische Gesellschaft fu?r Phytotherapie.

The Scientific Committee, with two delegates from each member country, has embarked on a programme of compiling proposals for European monographs on the medicinal uses of plant drugs. This task is expected to take about ten years to complete.

In preparing monographs the Committee assesses information from published scientific literature together with national viewpoints as expressed by delegates or included in the results of national reviews. Leading researchers on specific plant drugs are invited to relevant meetings and their contributions substantially assist the Committee’s work. Draft monographs prepared by the Scientific Committee are circulated for appraisal and comment to an independent Board of Supervising Editors, which includes eminent academic experts in the field of phytotherapy.

The monographs are offered to regulatory authorities as a means of harmonising the medicinal uses of plant medicines within the EC and in a wider European context. Phytotherapy (Herbalism) makes an important contribution to European medicine. ... escop

Essiac Tea

See: CANCER – STOMACH AND INTESTINES. ETIOLOGY. The cause of a specific disease. ... essiac tea


See: WAHOO. ... euonymus

European Journal Of Herbal Medicine

Published three times a year by The National Institute of Medical Herbalists, 9 Palace Gate, Exeter, Devon, England EX1 1JA. Material of high quality on all subjects relevant to the practice of herbal medicine, creating a forum for sharing information and opinion about developments in the field, including scientific, professional and political issues of importance to the medical herbalist. ... european journal of herbal medicine

Evans, William C. (b.pharm.,, Ph.d., F.r. Pharm. S)

Formerly Reader in Phytochemistry, Department of Pharmacy, University of Nottingham. Research interests: secondary metabolites of the Solanaceae and Erythroxylaceae. Principal author of Trease and Evans’ Pharmacognosy. Visiting lecturer, School of Phytotherapy (Herbal Medicine). ... evans, william c. (b.pharm.,, ph.d., f.r. pharm. s)

Exfoliative Disease

See: DERMATITIS. ... exfoliative disease



Eyes  - Night Blindness

Inability to see at night or in imperfect light due to a deficiency of visual purple (rhodopsin) in the rods at the back of the eye due to low level Vitamin A. Night myopia usually affects people during twilight. “One in five people are not fit to drive at night.” May occur in glaucoma and other eye disorders. Other causes: old age, free radical damage.

Alfalfa tea freely.

Of value: Kelp, Irish Moss, Iceland Moss.

Diet. Vitamin A foods, carrots, bilberries, Cod Liver oil.

Supplements. Vitamin A, Beta-carotene. C (2g), E (400iu). B-complex, B2, Niacin, Zinc. ... eyes  - night blindness

Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography (ercp)

This is a procedure in which a catheter (see CATHETERS) is passed via an ENDOSCOPE into the AMPULLA OF VATER of the common BILE DUCT. The duct is then injected with a radio-opaque material to show up the ducts radiologically. The technique is used to diagnose pancreatic disease as well as obstructive jaundice.... endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ercp)

Endotracheal Catheters Are Used To Pass

down the TRACHEA into the lungs, usually in the course of administering anaesthetics (see under ANAESTHESIA).

Eustachian catheters are small catheters that are passed along the ?oor of the nose into the Eustachian tube in order to in?ate the ear.

Nasal catheters are tubes passed through the nose into the stomach to feed a patient who cannot swallow – so-called nasal feeding.

Rectal catheters are passed into the RECTUM in order to introduce ?uid into the rectum.

Suprapubic catheters are passed into the bladder through an incision in the lower abdominal wall just above the pubis, either to allow urine to drain away from the bladder, or to wash out an infected bladder.

Ureteric catheters are small catheters that are passed up the ureter into the pelvis of the kidney, usually to determine the state of the kidney, either by obtaining a sample of urine direct from the kidney or to inject a radio-opaque substance preliminary to X-raying the kidney. (See PYELOGRAPHY.)

Urethral catheters are catheters that are passed along the urethra into the bladder, either to draw o? urine or to wash out the bladder.

It is these last three types of catheters that are most extensively used.... endotracheal catheters are used to pass

Endotracheal Intubation

Insertion of a rubber or plastic tube through the nose or mouth into the TRACHEA. The tube often has a cu? at its lower end which, when in?ated, provides an airtight seal. This allows an anaesthetist to supply oxygen or anaesthetic gases to the lungs with the knowledge of exactly how much the patient is receiving. Endotracheal intubation is necessary to undertake arti?cial ventilation of a patient (see ANAESTHESIA).... endotracheal intubation

Enduring Power Of Attorney

See “durable power of attorney”.... enduring power of attorney


(Spanish) One who is praised Enedinah, Enedeena, Enedeenah, Enedeana, Enedeanah, Enedyna, Enedynah... enedina


A volatile inhalational anaesthetic similar to HALOTHANE but less potent and less likely to have toxic effects on the LIVER.... enflurane


(Hebrew) From the fountain of goats

Engedie, Engedy, Engedey, Engedea, Engedeah, Engedee... engedi


(German) Feminine form of Engel; a heavenly messenger; an angel Engelia, Engelea, Engelina, Engelyna, Engeleena, Engeleana, Engella... engela


(German) A luminous angel Engelberta, Engelberthe, Engelberte, Engelbertine, Engelbertina, Engelberteena, Engelberteen, Engelbertyna, Engelbertyne... engelbertha


(Spanish) A graceful woman Engraciah, Engracea, Engraceah... engracia

English Breakfast Tea

English Breakfast Tea is a mixture of black teas originating from Assam, Ceylon and Kenya and was invented in Scotland in the 19th century. This blend is an established breakfast custom in England, having an invigorating and energizing aroma which is the perfect way to start the day. English Breakfast Tea - when and how to drink it As the name suggests, the tea is associated with a particular moment of the day, but it is generally consumed on any occasion. It can be served with milk or other additives in order to suit your personal preference. Do not pour the milk first; this could result in an unpleasant aroma. How to brew English Breakfast Tea Before pouring boiling water into your cup to make the infusion, the pot should ideally be already warmed with hot water. Allow your English Breakfast Tea brewing three to five minutes in order to attain the desired results, according to the preferred taste. Do not steep it for too long, because it will turn slightly bitter. If you want a stronger aroma, add more tea leaves. Health benefits of English Breakfast Tea English breakfast Tea contains high amounts of beneficial nutrients which can prevent cardiovascular diseases, improve oral health by reducing dental caries and lower the risk of cancer. It can be used as a replacement for coffee because it contains a sufficient amount of caffeine to provide the daily necessary dose. Furthermore, it contains no calories and it can be extremely effective in the weight loss process if you are on a diet because the beverage reduces the cholesterol levels. English Breakfast Tea side effects The only reported side effects of English Breakfast Tea consumption are those associated with caffeine consumption, such as anxiety. For people who find it hard to tolerate the caffeine, there are a number of decaffeinated alternatives. The strong and smooth taste of English Breakfast Tea, sweetened or not, will complement your meal at any moment throughout the day! The refreshing aroma of this extremely popular black tea is guaranteed to turn it into a personal favourite for any tea lover.... english breakfast tea

Enhydra Fluctuans


Family: Compositae; Asteraceae.

Habitat: Hills of Bihar, West Bengal and Assam.

English: Marsh Herb, Water Cress.

Ayurvedic: Hil-mochikaa.

Folk: Harakuch.

Action: Leaf—antibilious, laxative, demulcent, antidermatosis. Used in dyspepsia, diseases of the nervous system and cutaneous affections.

The plant is a good source of beta- carotene (3.7-4.2 mg/100 g fresh basis) which is lost during cooking. Used as a leafy vegetable.... enhydra fluctuans

Enicostemma Littorale

auct. non-Bl.

Synonym: E. hyssopifolium (Willd) I. C. Verdoorn. E. axillare (Lam.) Raynal. Exacum hyssopifolium Willd. Adenema hyssopifolium G. Don.

Family: Gentianaceae.

Habitat: Throughout India, from Punjab and Gangetic Plain to Kanyakumari up to 500 m.

English: Indian Gentian.

Ayurvedic: Naagjhvaa, Maamajjaka, Naahi, Tikshnapatra.

Unani: Naai, Naahi.

Siddha/Tamil: Vellargu.

Folk: Chhotaa Chirayataa.

Action: Bitter tonic, carminative, blood purifier, antirheumatic, anti-inflammatory, antipsychotic, anthelmintic, cardiostimulant.

The plant is used as a substitute for Swertia chirayita, and is reported to be effective against malaria. The plant contains ophelic acid which is also present in chiretta as a hydrolytic product of chiratin. The root extract showed antimalarial activity both in vitro and in vivo.

Whole plant gave alkaloids—gen- tianine, erythrocentaurin, enicoflavine and gentiocrucine; flavonoids—api- genin, genkwanin iso-vitaxin, swer- tisin, saponarin and 5-O-glucoside derivatives of sylwertisin and isoswer- tisin; glucosides—swertiamarin, a tri- terpene betulin. Swertisiode exhibited hypotensive activity.

The plant extracts inhibited carrage- enan-induced oedema and its anti- inflammatory activity was found comparable to that of hydrocortisone.

Enicostema verticellatum Blume, the smallar var. ofKiryaata, is also equated with Vellargu (Siddha/Tamil).

Dosage: Whole plant—3-5 g powder; 50-100 ml decoction. (CCRAS.)... enicostemma littorale


(Welsh) One who gives life Enide, Enit, Enite, Enyd, Enyde... enid


(Greek) The ninth-born child Enneah, Ennia, Enniah... ennea


(Irish) From the market town Enniss, Ennisse, Ennys, Ennyss, Ennysse... ennis

Enjoy A Cup Of Reishi Tea!

If you haven’t tried reishi tea until now, you should get some. Made from a “cure-all” herb, reishi tea has plenty of health benefits and helps you stay healthy with every gulp. About Reishi Tea Reishi tea is made form reishi, which is considered the best and most superior of all Chinese herbs. Reishi is a polypore mushroom which can be found growing in dark forests, on deciduous trees and logs. It is soft, corky, and flat, and has a conspicuous red-varnished cap, kidney-shaped, and with pores underneath it. It is classified based on its color and shape, and each variety protects and nourishes a different body organ. The classification is the following: white (lungs and skin), purple (joints), red (heart), green (liver), black (brain and kidney), and yellow (spleen). How to prepare Reishi Tea For a cup of reishi tea, you need about 5 grams of dried reishi mushroom herbs. Add them to the necessary amount of water for one cup and boil for about 10 minutes. Then, let the mixture steep for 2-3 hours, before you strain it to remove the herbs. If you don’t like the taste too much or you think it’s too bitter, you can add honey or fruit juice to sweeten it. Reishi Tea Constituents Reishi tea gets many of its health benefits thanks to the active constituents found in the reishi mushroom - the tea’s main ingredient. Some of them include triterpenes (ganoderic acids), polysaccharides, alkaloids, lactones, mannitol and coumarin. Also, reishi tea has various vitamins, proteins, and minerals. Reishi Tea Benefits Reishi tea is an important element in the fight against cancer. It helps by enhancing the human ability to fight abnormal cells and, consequently, it can improve the synthesis of proteins and nucleic acid. It also protects the cells against further damage, and it helps alleviate the pain and discomfort caused by chemotherapy. Drinking reishi tea will keep the heart diseases away, as it lowers bad cholesterol levels and blood pressure. It helps strengthen the immune system, and it will also slow down the aging process by nurturing the cells in your body. Not only is reishi tea good for your immune system, but it also helps your nervous system. This tea is bound to help you relax, by soothing the mind and sedating the nerves. It will also help you sleep properly during the night. You can drink reishi tea if you’ve got problems with coughing or asthma. It protects your liver, therefore it is recommended to persons who suffer from acute and chronic hepatitis. Besides this, it also helps with diabetes, skin allergy, and duodenal ulcers. Reishi Tea Side Effects You might have an allergic reaction to reishi tea. If you end up with an upset stomach, or you feel your mouth, nose and/or throat dry, you might have an allergic reaction. Stop drinking reishi tea and contact your doctor, just in case. Other side effects you might get when drinking reishi tea include dizziness, nosebleeds, sore bones, gastrointestinal distress, or irritated skin. It is best not to drink reishi tea if you’re taking blood thinning medication (aspirin, warfarin). The tea might intensify the effects of the medicine. It is also considered that this tea may interfere with immunosuppressive drugs or even organ transplants.   According to the Chinese, the reishi mushroom is a plant which can bring “the dying back to life”. Reishi tea has quite similar properties too, as it comes with many health benefits. This should encourage you to drink reishi tea every day!... enjoy a cup of reishi tea!

Enjoy Prickly Ash Tea

If you feel like drinking an herbal tea with plenty of health benefits, you should try prickly ash tea. Even if the taste is bitter, the tea is bound to help you stay healthy. Find out more about it in this article! About Prickly Ash Tea Prickly ash tea is made from the bark of the prickly ash. The plant is also known as Devil’s Walkingstick, Hercules’s Club or Prickly Elder. The plant grows in the eastern parts of North America. Prickly ash is a tall shrub, usually reaching 6m in height. It has a stem with large leaves, 70-120cm long. The flowers bloom in late summer; they’re small and creamy-white. Also, the fruits are a small, purple-black berry. How to make Prickly Ash Tea It’s easy to make prickly ash tea. Boil the necessary amount of water and add a teaspoon of chopped bark for each cup of tea. Let it steep for 5-7 minutes; then, strain in order to remove the herbs. If it tastes too bitter for you, you can sweeten the tea with milk, honey or fruit juices. Prickly Ash Tea Benefits Prickly ash tea gets important active constituents from the bark of its plant. These include chelerythin alkaloids, tannins, lignans, resins, and volatile oils. You can drink prickly ash tea if you’ve got toothaches, abdominal pains (or any other chronic pains) or diarrhea. It is also used in killing intestinal parasites, and treating arthritis and rheumatism. It is also useful in treating circulation problems and lowering blood pressure. You can drink it if you’ve got a cold or a sore throat. Prickly ash tea can also be combined with other ingredients, for different health benefits. Combined with ginger, it alleviates chronic abdominal pains, and treats nausea and vomiting caused by long-term illnesses. It can also be combined with coptis or Oregon grape root in order to treat symptoms caused by roundworms. Prickly Ash Tea side Effects It is best not to drink prickly ash tea if you’re pregnant or breast feeding. It’s not quite sure how it can affect the baby, but it might, so it’s better to stop drinking it during these periods. Be careful with the amount of tea you drink if you’ve got low blood pressure. Prickly ash tea helps lower the blood pressure, so it might end up causing some harm (hypotension). Also, if you drink this tea while taking medication (aspirin, warfarin, heparin, tinzaparin), the combination might lead to bleeding and bruising. Also, don’t drink prickly ash tea if you’ve got stomach or intestinal problems: ulcerative colitis, peptic ulcer disease, gastroesophageal reflux, Crohn’s disease, irritable bowel syndrome, infections, and other digestive tract conditions. It’s bound to make your stomach and intestinal problems worse. Also, dopn’t drink this tea if you’ve got a fever with profuse sweating. Despite its bitter taste, you should give prickly ash tea a chance, especially thanks to its health benefits. As an herbal tea, it’s bound to keep you healthy!... enjoy prickly ash tea

Enjoy A Cup Of Rose Petal Tea

It you want to drink a special type of herbal tea, try the rose petal tea. It is aromatic, with a pleasant taste, and you’re bound to enjoy it. It also has important health benefits. Find out more about rose petal tea! About Rose Petal Tea Rose petal tea is made from the petals of a flower most adored by many women: the rose. This woody perennial plant has over 100 species which grow in Asia, Europe, North America, and northwest Africa. Roses grow as a group of erect shrubs, acting like climbing plants. Its stems often have small, sharp thorns. The leaves are oval-shaped with sharply-toothed edges, and they’re about 10cm long. The fruit is called rosehip; it is ripe from late summer to autumn, and it is edible. The flowers usually have 5 petals with two distinct lobes; they are usually pink, white, red, or yellow. You can make tea both from the rose petals and from the rose’s fruit, the rosehip. How to prepare Rose Petal Tea When making rose petal tea, first make sure that the petals you use are free of pesticides. Roses from gardens and flower shops are usually treated with pesticides, and shouldn’t be used to make rose petal tea. To enjoy rose petal tea, add about two handfuls of properly washed and dry rose petals to a pot with water for three cups of tea. Leave the pot over medium heat for 5 minutes, or until the petals have lost their original color, becoming darker. Stream to remove the petals and sweeten, if necessary, with honey or fruit juice. Rose Petal Tea Components Rose petal tea gets many active components from the rose petals: cyclic monoterpene alcohols, geraniol, citronellol and nerol are just a few important ones. It also includes long-chain hydrocarbons (nonadecane, heneicosane). These active components lead to the many health benefits rose petal tea has. Rose Petal Tea Benefits Rose petal tea helps strengthen your immunity, and can be part of the treatment for colds. It is useful if you’ve got a fever, a runny nose, a sore throat, or bronchial congestion. Also, it helps clean your body of toxins. Drinking rose petal tea can help during menstrual periods, if you’ve got a heavy menstrual flow. It can also reduce menstrual cramps, and helps regulate your period. Rose petal tea is often used to treat diarrhea and dysentery. It can also help you fight against depression, fatigue and insomnia. Rose petal tea also acts as a digestive aid, as it protects the gastrointestinal tract. It is often used to treat constipation, gastroenteritis, diarrhea, and dysentery; the tea also nourishes the gastric mucosa. You can drink rose petal tea to treat urinary tract infections, as well. Rose Petal Tea Side Effects No important side effects of rose petal tea have been noted. Still, it is considered best not to drink more than 5 cups of tea a day. If you drink too much, you might get some of these symptoms: headaches, loss of appetite, vomiting, diarrhea, insomnia, dizziness, and irregular heartbeats. Spoil yourself with a delicious cup of rose petal tea! Not only will you enjoy its taste, but its health benefits, as well.... enjoy a cup of rose petal tea


(English) One who is careful... enore


(Spanish) Feminine form of Henry; ruler of the house

Enrika, Enricka, Enryca, Enryka, Enrichetta, Enrichette, Enriqua, Enriqueta, Enriquetta... enrica


An individual enrolled in a health plan and, therefore, entitled to receive the health services the plan provides.... enrollee


(American) An emotional woman Ensli, Ensley, Ensly, Enslee, Enslea, Ensleigh... enslie

Entada Scandens

auct. non-Benth.

Synonym: E. phaseoloides Merrill. E. pursaetha DC. Mimosa entada Linn.

Family: Momosaceae.

Habitat: Eastern Himalayas, hills of Bihar, Orissa and South India.

English: Garbee Bean, Mackay Bean, Elephant Creeper.

Ayurvedic: Gil.

Siddha/Tamil: Chillu, Vattavalli.

Folk: Gil-gaachh.

Action: Seed—carminative, anodyne, spasmolytic bechic, anti-inflammatory, anthelmintic, antiperiodic. Used in liver complaints, glandular swellings, debility, skin diseases. The seed, stems and bark are poisonous. A paste of the seeds is applied locally for inflammatory glandular swellings. The juice of wood and bark is used as an external application for ulcers. The leaves are reported to be free from the toxic saponins. After soaking in water and roasting toxic principles can be removed from the white kernels of the seeds.

The seeds gave saponins of entagenic acid; a triterpenoid glucoside entanin; beta-sitosterol, alpha-amyrin, querce- tin, gallic acid, cyamidin chloride, lu- peol and a saponin mixture which gave prosapogenin A. Entanin exhibits anti- tumour activity. It inhibits Walker 256 tumours in rats without deaths.

Entadamide A (the sulphur-containing amide from the seed) is a 5-lipo-xygenase inhibitor and is found to be effective in the treatment of bronchial asthma. The bark is used for hair wash.

Entagenic acid, a sapogenin of entada saponin IV, imparts antifungal activity to the bark.... entada scandens

Enjoy Celandine Tea

Celandine tea is one of the many herbal teas available all around the world. While it has a bitter taste, it is still a valuable beverage thanks to its many health benefits. Find out more about celandine tea! About Celandine Tea Celandine tea is made from the plant called greater celandine, also known as tetterwort in Europe. It is an herbaceous perennial plant which can be found in Europe, western Asia and North America. The greater celandine has an erect stem with a height between 30 and 120cm. The leaves are quite long (around 30cm), lobed and crenate. The flowers are yellow, with four petals and two sepals; they bloom from late spring till the end of summer. The plant also has a pod-like fruit with an unpleasant odor and a bitter taste. How to prepare Celandine Tea For a cup of celandine tea, add half a teaspoon of chopped celandine herbs to a cup of freshly boiled water. Let it steep for about 10 minutes. Once the steeping time is done, strain to remove the herbs and the tea is done. If you think the taste is too bitter for your liking, you can add honey or fruit juice (lemon, for example). Celandine Tea Benefits Celandine tea gets many active constituents from the greater celandine. Some of them include berberine, sanguinarine, chelidonine, protopine, coptisine, and stylopine. Celandine tea, especially in combination with other herbs, is quite beneficial for your stomach. It can be combined with peppermint leaf, German chamomile, caraway, licorice, clown’s mustard plant, lemon balm, angelica, and milk thistle. The mixture helps with dyspepsia, as it reduces the severity of acid reflux, stomach pains, cramping, nausea, and vomiting. You can drink celandine tea if you’ve got problems with gallstones. It increases bile production and therefore flushes out gallstones. It also helps with jaundice, scurvy, and gout. Celandine tea can also help if you’ve got a toothache or high blood pressure. It is often used to treat whooping cough, bronchitis, and arthritis. Also, if you’ve got an irregular menstruation, celandine tea can help regulate it. Celandine tea can also be used topically. It is useful when it comes to various skin problems, for example warts, blister rashes or scabies. Celandine Tea Side Effects Celandine tea has a few side effects, as well. It is recommended not to drink celandine tea if you are pregnant or breastfeeding. It isn’t known just how much harm it can do, but it might affect the baby. Therefore, it is safer not to consume it during these periods. Celandine tea might increase the flow of bile. In some cases, if a large quantity is consumed, it might cause blockage of the bile duct. Also, you shouldn’t drink celandine tea if you know you’ve got liver problems. In some cases, it might cause hepatitis. Be careful with the amount of celandine tea you drink, as well. It is recommended not to drink more than six cups of celandine tea a day. If you do, it might cause more harm than good. Some of the symptoms you might get include: headaches, loss of appetite, vomiting, diarrhea, dizziness, and irregular heartbeats.   Celandine tea is recommended as an everyday tea. It has important health benefits and very few side effects. Despite its bitter taste, give it a try!... enjoy celandine tea

Enterobius Vermicularis

A small nematode parasite of humans. Also known as pinworm, threadworm or seatworm. Infection often associated with anal pruritis, especially in children.... enterobius vermicularis


A condition in which, owing to a lax condition of the mesenteries (see MESENTERY) and ligaments which support the intestines, the latter descend into the lower part of the abdominal cavity.... enteroptosis


A family of VIRUSES which include the POLIOMYELITIS, COXSACKIE and ECHO (see ECHOVIRUSES) groups of viruses. Their importance lies in their tendency to invade the central nervous system. They receive their name from the fact that their mode of entry into the body is through the gut.... enteroviruses

Enjoy Periwinkle Tea

If you like herbal teas, there are lots of types you can try - one of them is periwinkle tea. Like most herbal teas, it has a slightly bitter taste, but it also has important health benefits. Read to find out more about periwinkle tea! About Periwinkle Tea Periwinkle tea is made from the vinca plant, an herbaceous plant which can be found in Europe, northwest Africa and southwest Asia. Vinca plant has long, trailing stems that grow near the ground, touching it. The branches can reach about half a meter in height. The leaves are evergreen and, opposite, the flowers are salverform, with 5 vilet (and sometimes white) petals connected together at the base. Two species of the plant are often cultivated as ornamental plants. However, in some parts of Australia, New Zealand, and the United States, it has spread too much, becoming an invasive plant. Interestingly, it is said that the plant protects you from voodoo magic. Periwinkle Tea constituents Vinca plants have lots of constituents which are transferred to periwinkle tea, as well. Periwinkle tea is rich in alkaloids that come from the vinca plant. It has at least 86 different alkaloids. Some of them are: vincamine, vinpocetine, vinblastine, vincristine, alstonine, ajmalicine, leurocristine, and reserpine. How to prepare Periwinkle Tea For a cup of periwinkle tea, you need a teaspoon of dried herbs. Pour boiling water into the cup and let it steep for 10-15 minutes. Once the steeping time is done, strain to remove the herbs and your cup of periwinkle tea is done. If the taste is too bitter for you, you can sweeten the tea by adding honey or fruit juice to your cup. Periwinkle Tea Benefits Thanks to the many constituents derived from the vinca plant, periwinkle tea has lots of important health benefits. Periwinkle tea plays an important role in the fight against cancer. It is often recommended in the treatment for leukemia, Hodgkin’s disease, malignant lymphomas, neuroblastoma, Wilm’s tumor and Kaposi’s sarcoma. Drinking periwinkle tea will help lower blood sugar levels and blood pressure, as well as improve blood circulation. You can drink periwinkle tea during menstruation if you’ve got an excessive blood flow. It should help in such situations. This tea is also useful in treating diarrhea, colitis and diabetes. You can use periwinkle tea to treat mouth sores and bleeding gums; it acts as a good mouth rinse. It can help you with headaches and memory loss problems and it enhances your memory. It also has calming effects, helping you with anxiety and nervousness. Periwinkle tea can be used topically, as well. You can wet a cloth with tea and use it to stop wounds from bleeding. You can also put it on the skin to treat wasp stings or on the eye if you’ve got an eye infection. Periwinkle Tea Side Effects With so many health benefits, periwinkle tea has to have a few side effects too. Here are some which you have to be careful with. If you’ve got kidney, liver or lung diseases, you should avoid drinking periwinkle tea. Also you should not drink it if you’ve got low blood pressure, or if you’re constipated. Pregnant women shouldn’t drinkperiwinkle tea, as it may lead to birth defects or even miscarriages. Also, it is best to stay away from this tea if you’re breast feeding; even in this case, it might affect the baby. It is best to stop drinking periwinkle tea before a surgery. It can lower blood pressure and it might lead to problems during and after the surgery. Check with your doctor and make sure you’re safe to drink periwinkle tea after a surgery. It is also recommended that you not drink more than 4 cups of periwinkle tea. Besides the usual symptoms (low blood pressure and constipation) you might also get other symptoms: headaches, loss of appetite, insomnia, dizziness, and irregular heartbeats. Drinking periwinkle tea can help you a lot, with its many health benefits. Don’t forget about the side effects, though. As long as you make sure it’s safe to drink periwinkle tea, you can happily drink it!... enjoy periwinkle tea


A leaf with a straight, untoothed margin.... entire


The injection of a venom into the tissues by teeth, spines, miniature harpoons (nematocysts) or drills. c.f. bite and sting.... envenomation

Environmental Health Officer

A local-authority health o?cial specially quali?ed in aspects of environmental health such as clean air, food hygiene, housing, pollution, sanitation and water supplies. He or she is responsible for running the authority’s environmental health department and, when epidemiological advice is needed, the relevant public-health physician acts in a consultative capacity (see EPIDEMIOLOGY; PUBLIC HEALTH).... environmental health officer

Environmental Manipulation

Making temporary changes to the environment with the objective of reducing vector abundance.... environmental manipulation

Environment And Health

Environment and Health concerns those aspects of human health, including quality of life, that are determined by physical, biological, social and psychosocial factors in the environment. The promotion of good health requires not only public policies which support health, but also the creation of supportive environments in which living and working conditions are safe, stimulating and enjoyable.

Health has driven much of environmental policy since the work of Edwin Chadwick in the early 1840s. The ?rst British public-health act was introduced in 1848 to improve housing and sanitation with subsequent provision of puri?ed water, clean milk, food hygiene regulations, vaccinations and antibiotics. In the 21st century there are now many additional environmental factors that must be monitored, researched and controlled if risks to human health are to be well managed and the impact on human morbidity and mortality reduced.

Environmental impacts on health include:


air pollution

water pollution

dust •odours

contaminated ground

loss of amenities



animal diseases

Environmental risk factors Many of the major determinants of health, disease and death are environmental risk factors. Some are natural hazards; others are generated by human activities. They may be directly harmful, as in the examples of exposure to toxic chemicals at work, pesticides, or air pollution from road transport, or to radon gas penetrating domestic properties. Environmental factors may also alter people’s susceptibility to disease: for example, the availability of su?cient food. In addition, they may operate by making unhealthy choices more likely, such as the availability and a?ord-ability of junk foods, alcohol, illegal drugs or tobacco.

Populations at risk Children are among the populations most sensitive to environmental health hazards. Their routine exposure to toxic chemicals in homes and communities can put their health at risk. Central to the ability to protect communities and families is the right of people to know about toxic substances. For many, the only source of environmental information is media reporting, which often leaves the public confused and frustrated. To bene?t from public access to information, increasingly via the Internet, people need basic environmental and health information, resources for interpreting, understanding and evaluating health risks, and familiarity with strategies for prevention or reduction of risk.

Risk assessment Environmental health experts rely on the principles of environmental toxicology and risk assessment to evaluate the environment and the potential effects on individual and community health. Key actions include:

identifying sources and routes of environmental exposure and recommending methods of reducing environmental health risks, such as exposure to heavy metals, solvents, pesticides, dioxins, etc.

assessing the risks of exposure-related health hazards.

alerting health professionals, the public, and the media to the levels of risk for particular potential hazards and the reasons for interventions.

ensuring that doctors and scientists explain the results of environmental monitoring studies – for example, the results of water ?uoridation in the UK to improve dental health.

National policies In the United Kingdom in 1996, an important step in linking environment and health was taken by a government-initiated joint consultation by the Departments of Health and Environment about adding ‘environment’ as a key area within the Health of the Nation strategy. The ?rst UK Minister of State for Public Health was appointed in 1997 with responsibilities for health promotion and public-health issues, both generally and within the NHS. These responsibilities include the implementation of the Health of the Nation strategy and its successor, Our Healthy Nation. The aim is to raise the priority given to human health throughout government departments, and to make health and environmental impact assessment a routine part of the making, implementing and assessing the impact of policies.

Global environmental risks The scope of many environmental threats to human health are international and cannot be regulated e?ectively on a local, regional or even national basis. One example is the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident, which led to a major release of radiation, the effects of which were felt in many countries. Some international action has already been taken to tackle global environmental problems, but governments should routinely measure the overall impacts of development on people and their environments and link with industry to reduce damage to the environment. For instance, the effects of global warming and pollution on health should be assessed within an ecological framework if communities are to respond e?ectively to potential new global threats to the environment.... environment and health

Environmental Modification

Making permanent changes to the environment with the objective of reducing vector abundance.... environmental modification


(Hebrew) Filled with grace... enye


(Greek) In mythology, a war goddess... enyo

Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (elisa)

This is a sensitive method for measuring the quantity of a substance. An antibody to the substance is prepared along with an ENZYME which binds to the antibody and which can be accurately measured using colour changes that occur as a result of the chemical reaction.... enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa)


(Gaelic) Resembling the violet flower

Eoland, Eolanda, Eolandia, Eolandea... eolande

Eosinophilic Enteritis

A disease in patients presenting with severe abdominal colic, evanescent small bowel obstruction and a peripheral blood eosinophilia. Zoonotic hookworms, e.g. Ancyclostoma caninum, are believed to be the causative agent, as described by Dr John Croese and others from northern Queensland.... eosinophilic enteritis


(Hebrew) A lovely and fair woman Epaphroditus... epaphras


See Apasote.... epazote


(Hebrew) Woman of sorrow Epha, Ephia, Ephea, Ephiah, Epheah... ephah

Ephedra Gerardiana

Wall. ex Stapf.

Family: Ephedraceae.

Habitat: The drier regions of the temperate and alpine Himalayas from Kashmir to Sikkim from 2,350 to 5,350 m.

English: Ephedra (Ephedra sinica Stapf.)

Ayurvedic: Soma, Soma-valli (substitute).

Folk: Asmaaniyaa, Budaagur (Punjab); Tipat, Traani (Himalayan region).

Action: Circulatory stimulant, bron- chodilator, vasodilator, antiallergic, antiasthmatic (usualy given with expectorants), diaphoretic. Not prescribed with antidepressants.

Key application: Ephedra sinica— in diseases of the respiratory tract and mild bronchospasms. Also in acute coryza, allergic rhinitis and sinusitis. (German Commission E.) In the treatment of nasal congestion due to hay fever, allergic rhinitis, acute coryza, cold, sinusitis and as abronchodilator. (WHO.)

Contraindicated in anxiety, restlessness, high blood pressure, glucoma, impaired circulation of the cerebrum, adenoma of prostate with residual urine accumulation, pheochromocy- toma, thyrotoxicosis. (German Commission E.)

Ephedra is official in the national pharmacopoeias of China, Japan and Germany. The herb is listed in Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia. Only its isolated derivatives, ephedrine and ephedrine hydrochloride are official in Indian Pharmacopoeia.

Ephedrine is toxic at more than 300 mg in 1 day (Francis Brinker.)

Aerial parts yielded ephedrine and ephedroxane. Pseudoephedrine is the most active anti-inflammatory principle of Ephedra sp., it exhibited inhibitory action on a number of acute inflammations. Ephedroxane possesses a minor anti-inflammatory principle. Among the Indian species, Ephedra major, found in Lahul, contains over 2.56% alkaloids of which nearly three fourths is ephidrine. Ephedra gerardiana contains 1.22% total alkaloids and 0.68% ephedrine.

On 30 December 2003, the FDA banned ephedra products in the US.... ephedra gerardiana

Ephedra Tea - The Energy Tea

With a reputation of an energy tea, Ephedra tea was taken by athletes and it is the subject of many controversies. Learn more about other benefits of this kind of tea. About Ephedra tea Ephedra, also known as Ma huang in Chinese, has been used in Chinese traditional medicine for centuries to treat cold related conditions. Botanically called Ephedra sinica, this is an evergreen shrub native to Asia. The plant’s leaves and stems are harvested, dried and then sold as teas, tinctures, extracts or tablets. The stems of ephedra have pungent and bitter taste and also diaphoretic, diuretic, pectoral, vasoconstrictive and vasodilative properties. The main chemical constituents in ephedra are ephedrine and pseudoephedrine which work by stimulating the nervous system, dilating bronchial tubes, elevating blood pressure, and increasing heart rate. Due to these effects, ephedra became a favorite for athletes as it is believed that the herb enhances athletic performance. Several incidences of adverse effects and even death that may have been caused by excessive consumption of ephedra and ephedra supplements led the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to ban the sale of ephedra supplements in the United States in 2004. Currently, ephedra is still a subject of debate, especially when it comes to athletes in international competitions and anti-doping testes. However, don’t avoid Ephedra tea as it has important benefits as well. Ephedra tea preparation Ephedra tea can be made by placing about 10 grams of ephedra herb in 2 cups of water and let it boil for 10 minutes. Filter out the herbs before drinking the Ephedra tea. Ephedra tea benefits Here are several health benefits attributed to Ephedra tea. Ephedra Tea may alleviate respiratory ailments such asthma, colds, coughs and hay fever, as well as various allergic symptoms. Ephedra Tea may help expel exterior pathogens and regulate the proper functioning of the lungs. Ephedra Tea, taken in a regulated and supervised manner, may be effective for short-term weight loss, often associated with caffeine. Taken in a regulated and supervised manner, it stimulates the central nervous system may help boost energy and enhance alertness. Ephedra tea side effects Excessive use of Ephedra tea can cause dizziness, irregular heartbeat, seizures, strokes and even death. This tea is not recommended during pregnancy, breastfeeding and to persons with high blood pressure or heart disease. Ephedra tea should not be used as an energy booster, sports or diet aid or in combination with any stimulant such as caffeine as it may lead to unwanted side effects. In spite of these side effects, you can occasionally drink a cup of Ephedra tea, but first ask your current practitioner and pay attention to overdose.... ephedra tea - the energy tea


The technical term for FRECKLES.... ephelides


See EPHELIDES.... ephelis


(Hebrew) Bound by blood... ephes-dammim


(Hebrew) From the desired place... ephesus


(Hebrew) An open-minded woman... ephphatha


(Hebrew) One who is fruitful Ephrata, Ephratia, Ephratea, Ephrath, Ephratha, Ephrathia, Ephrathea... ephratah


(Hebrew) Follower of Epicurus Epicureana, Epicureane... epicurean

Epidemic Polyarthritis

Disease common in Australia and caused by the Ross River Virus, an arbovirus transmitted by mosquitoes.... epidemic polyarthritis

Epidermoid Carcinoma

Squamous cell carcin oma; cancer of squamous epithelium.... epidermoid carcinoma


(Spanish) Proof of our love Epifaniah, Epifanea, Epifaneah, Epifaina, Epifainah, Epifayna, Epifaynah... epifania


The science of how the activity of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid, which is the fundamental genetic material of cells) can be altered semi-permanently by chemical processes rather than by natural MUTATION. Genes contain instructions for making proteins. The natural process of implementing these instructions – gene expression – can be altered by chemical groups attaching themselves to the chemical bases that make up a strand of DNA. This, in turn, affects the generation of proteins from the genes so tagged. Some chemical groups can even stop a gene from being expressed. Recently, research in Australia showed that such a chemically induced alteration could be inherited, at least in mice. This points to the possibility that inherited epigenetic characteristics could cause ‘inherited diseases’ in the same way that natural genetic mutations do. These developments suggest that epigenetics will be an important part of genetic studies and research. Not all geneticists, however, believe that this developing aspect of genetics is so important and this debate will continue.... epigenetics


Maldevelopment of the FETUS in which the deformed remains of one twin are united to the upper jaw of the other.... epignathus


(Greek) In mythology, the wife of Asclepius Epyone... epione


An air plant, growing on or with other plants but not in any way parasitic.... epiphyte

Episode Of Care

The description and measurement of the various health care services and encounters rendered in connection with an identified injury or period of illness.... episode of care


Any disease in animals which di?uses itself widely. The term corresponds to the word EPIDEMIC as applied to human beings. In plague, for example, an epizoötic in rats usually precedes the epidemic in human beings.... epizoötic


(Celtic) In mythology, goddess of horses

Eponah, Eponna, Eponia, Eponea, Eponnah, Eponiah, Eponeah... epona


(Greek) One who is lively Eppey, Eppi, Eppie, Eppee, Eppea... eppy

Epsom Salts

The popular name for magnesium sulphate, which was used as a saline purgative.... epsom salts


An antiplatelet drug, best given under the supervision of a specialist. It inhibits the aggregation of PLATELETS in the blood that occurs in THROMBUS formation, and is used with HEPARIN and ASPIRIN to prevent early myocardial infarction (heart attack – see HEART, DISEASES OF) in patients with unstable ANGINA PECTORIS.... eptifibitide

Equine Oestrogens

See OESTROGENS.... equine oestrogens


See “aid”.... equipment

Equisetum Arvense


Family: Equisetaceae.

Habitat: The Himalayas at high altitudes.

English: Field Horsetail.

Ayurvedic: Ashwa-puchha (non- classical).

Action: Haemostatic, haemopoietic, astringent, diuretic. Used for genitourinary affections (urethritis, enuresis, cystitis, prostatitis), internally as an antihaemorrhagic and externally as a styptic.

The ashes of the plant are beneficial in acidity of the stomach and dyspepsia.

Key application: Internally in irrigation therapy for post-traumatic and static inflammation, and for bacterial infections and inflammation of the lower urinary tract and renal gravel.

The British Herbal Compendium reported weak diuretic, haemostyptic, vulnerary and mild leukocytosis causing actions.

The haemostatic substance has been shown to act orally, it has no effect on blood pressure and is not a vasoconstrictor.

The herb contains 10-20% minerals, of which over 66% are silicic acids and silicates; alkaloids, including nicotine, palustrine and palustrinine; flavonoids, such as iso-quercitrin and equicertin; sterols, including cholesterol, isofucosterol, campesterol; a sa- ponin equisitonin, dimethyl-sulphone, thiaminase and aconitic acid. Diuretic action of the herb is attributed to its flavonoid and saponin constituents, Silicic acid strengthens connective tissue and helps in healing bones.... equisetum arvense

Equity Of Care

Fair treatment of needs, regarding both the distribution of services and allocation of resources.... equity of care


(American) The great equalizer Equoiah, Ekoia, Ekoiah, Equowya, Equowyah, Ekowya, Ekowyah... equoia


(German) An honorable woman Eramanna, Eramanah, Eramane, Eramann, Eramanne... eramana


(Greek) As delicate as a spring flower

Erantha, Eranth, Eranthia, Eranthea... eranthe


(Spanish) Filled with happiness Eraseme, Erasyma, Erasyme, Erasima, Erasime... erasema


(Greek) A friendly young woman Erasmah, Erasmia, Erasmea... erasma


(African) A peaceful woman... erasta


(Greek) In mythology, the muse of lyric poetry... erato

Erb’s Paralysis

Erb’s paralysis is a form of paralysis of the arm due to stretching or tearing of the ?bres of the brachial nerve plexus. Such damage to the brachial plexus may occur during birth, especially when the baby is unusually large, and it is found that the arm lies by the side of the body with elbow extended, forearm pronated, and the ?ngers ?exed. The infant is unable to raise the arm.... erb’s paralysis


(American) One who is frank Erciliah, Ercilea, Ercileah, Ercilya, Ercilyah, Erciliya, Erciliyah... ercilia


(Hebrew) A heavenly messenger; an angel

Erela, Erelia, Erelea, Ereliah, Ereleah... erelah


(Spanish) Daughter born into royalty

Erendirah, Erendiria, Erendirea, Erendyra, Erendyria, Erendyrea, Erendeera, Erendiera, Erendeira, Erendeara... erendira


(Welsh) An admirable woman... eres

Ergot Poisoning

Ergot poisoning, or ergotism, occasionally results from eating bread made from rye infected with the fungus, Claviceps purpurea. Several terrible epidemics (St Anthony’s Fire), characterised by intense pain and hallucinations, occurred in France and Germany during the Middle Ages (see ERYSIPELAS). Its symptoms are the occurrence of spasmodic muscular contractions, and the gradual production of gangrene in parts like the ?ngers, toes and tips of the ears because of constriction of blood vessels and therefore the blood supply.... ergot poisoning


(Greek) A sweet and kind woman Erianthe, Erianthia, Erianthea... eriantha


(Scandinavian / Latin) Feminine form of Eric; ever the ruler / resembling heather Erika, Ericka, Erikka, Eryka, Erike, Ericca, Erics, Eiric, Eirica... erica

Erigeron Canadensis


Family: Compositae; Asteraceae.

Habitat: Punjab, Upper Gangetic Plain, Assam, Western Ghats and Western Himalayas.

English: Canadian Fleabane.

Ayurvedic: Jaraayupriya, Makshikaa-visha, Palit (non- classical).

Action: Astringent, haemostatic, antirheumatic, diuretic. Used for diarrhoea, kidney disorders, bronchitis and for bleeding piles, wounds, bruises. Essential oil— used in bronchial catarrh and cystitis.

The extracts of the plant gave ses- quiterpenes, beta-santalen, beta-hima- chalene, cuparene, alpha-curcumene, gamma-cadinene.

The petroleum ether and ethanolic extracts of aerial parts exhibit significant anti-inflammatory activity.

Aqueous extract of powdered plant produces fall in blood pressure, depresses the heart and increases respiration in animals.

The essential oil, obtained from aerial parts in Japan, is found to contain 47 volatile compounds of which 91.0% are terpenoids. The leaves contain cumu- lene derivatives.

For preparing plant extract as a drug, the volatile oil is removed from a hot aqueous extract and the residue is filtered and concentrated to 24% or 60% of dry matter content. The 6% dry matter extract contains flavones 0.83, tannins 0.52, reducing sugars 6.37 and total sugars 12.6%. The extract is anti- inflammatory, analgesic, bactericidal and fungicidal.... erigeron canadensis


(Japanese) A child with a collar Eryko... eriko


(Greek) A devoted protector Erimenthe, Erimenthia, Erimenthea... erimentha


(Gaelic) Woman from Ireland Erienne, Erina, Erinn, Erinna, Erinne, Eryn, Eryna, Erynn, Erea, Erie, Errin... erin


(Greek) In mythology, the Furies... erinyes

Eriobotrya Japonica


Family Rosaceae.

Habitat: Native to China; now cultivated mainly in Saharanpur, Dehradun, Muzaffarnagar, Meerut, Kanpur, Bareilly districts of Uttar Pradesh, Amritsar, Gurdaspur and Hoshiarpur districts of Punjab.

English: Loquat, Japanese Medlar.

Ayurvedic: Lottaaka (non-classical).

Unani: Lokaat.

Siddha: Ilakotta, Nokkotta (Tamil).

Action: Leaves—used in China and India for the treatment of diabetes mellitus and skin diseases. Fruit— sedative, antiemetic. Flower— expectorant.

The plant contains lipopolysaccha- rides (LPS), which exhibit antirheu- matic activity. LPS is also found useful for treating diabetes mellitus and lowering high cholesterol level. The ethanolic extract of the leaves showed anti-inflammatory activity on carra- geenan-induced oedema in rats and significant hypoglycaemic effect in normal rabbits like the standard drug tolbutamide. The sesquiterpene gly- coside and polyhydroxylated triterpe- noids showed a marked inhibition of glycosuria in genetically diabetic mice; also reduced blood glucose level in nor- moglycaemic rats. The hypoglycaemic effect is mediated through the release of insulin from pancreatic beta cells.

The leaves gave ionone-derived gly- cosides and triterpenes. Maslinic and ursolic acids have also been isolated. Maslinic acid possesses significant anti-inflammatory activity. It also exhibits inhibitory effect on histamine- induced contraction in isolated ileum of guinea pig.

Hot aqueous extract of the leaves showed hepatoprotective activity experimentally.

The leaves yield an essential oil containing nerolidol (61-74%).

The presence of an antifungal compound, eriobofuran, is also reported.

The methanolic extract of the plant exhibits antioxidant and radical scavenging activity.... eriobotrya japonica


(Greek) In mythology, the mother of Alcmaeon Eriphile, Erifyle, Erifile... eriphyle


(Greek) In mythology, goddess of discord

Eriss, Erisse, Erys, Eryss, Erysse... eris


(Hebrew) Resembling a flower Erithe, Eritha, Erithia, Erithea... erith


(Irish) A playful young woman Erlah... erla


(Spanish) Form of Hermelinda, meaning “bearing a powerful shield” Erline, Erleena, Erleene, Erlyne, Erlyna, Erlene, Erlena, Erleana, Erleane, Erleina, Erleine, Erliena, Erliene... erlina


(Hebrew) An angelic woman Erlinde, Erlynd, Erlynde, Erlinda, Erlynda... erlind


(German) One who is complete; universal

Ermah, Ermelinda, Ermalinda, Ermelinde, Ermalinde, Ermintrude, Ermyntrude... erma


(Latin) A wealthy woman Ermeen, Ermeena, Ermina, Ermyne, Ermyna, Ermeane, Ermeana, Ermie, Ermee, Ermi, Ermea, Ermy, Ermey... ermine


(German) Feminine form of Ernest; one who is determined; serious Ernesta, Ernestine, Ernesha, Erna, Ernestyne, Ernestyna, Ernesztina, Earnestyna, Earnestina, Earnesteena, Emesta, Emestina, Emestine, Emesteena, Emestyna, Emesteene, Emestyne, Enerstina, Enerstine, Enerstyne, Enerstyna, Enersteen, Enersteena, Earnesteana, Ernesteana, Enersteana... ernestina


An agent causing increased nasal discharge... errhine


(Scottish) Feminine form of Erskine; from the highest point Erskinah, Erskyna, Erskeena, Erskeana, Erskena, Erskeina, Erskiena... erskina

Eruca Sativa


Family: Cruciferae; Brassicaceae.

Habitat: Cultivated in Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Delhi and Madhya Pradesh.

English: Rocket-Salad.

Ayurvedic: Tuvari, Tuvarikaa, Shveta-sursaa, Bhuutaghna, Darad- harsha, Siddaartha.

Unani: Jirjeer, Taraamiraa.

Folk: Safed Sarson.

Action: Tender leaf—stimulant, stomachic, diuretic, antiscorbutic, rubefacient. Seed—vesicant, antibacterial.

Seeds and fresh plant gave glu- coerucin (4-methylthiobutyl glucosi- nolate); leaves yielded iso-rhamnetin- 3-glucoside and iso-rhamnetin. The volatile oil of the seeds contains isoth- iocyanate derivatives. The oil at 0.004 and 0.008 ml/kg exhibits diuretic activity. The ethanolic extract of the seeds is diuretic at 20 and 40 mg/kg Seeds are used to induce vomiting in place of ipecac.

Crude juice of the plant inhibited E. coli, S. typhi and B. subttis.

For eating purposes, the plant should be gathered before flowering; for medicinal use when in flower.... eruca sativa

Ervataemia Coronaria


Synonym: E. divaricata (L.) Alston. Tabernaemontana coronaria R.Br.

Family: Apocynaceae.

Habitat: Throughout the sub- Himalayan tract from Garhwal eastwards to Assam and Bengal, extending southwards to North Circars.

English: East Indian Rosebay.

Ayurvedic: Nandivrksha, Tagar.

Siddha/Tamil: Nandiyaavattam.

Action: Topically anodyne; chewed for relief of toothache; administered as a vermicide. Various parts of the plant are used in the indigenous system of medicine for skin diseases and cancer.

The plant from Sri Lanka and Pakistan contains several indole alkaloids, including voacristine.

Isovoacristic hydrochloride caused bradycardia in frogs and rabbits. The decoction of leaves exhibits antihypertensive and diuretic activity. Taberson- ine, reported in the flowers, showed hypotensive effect on anaesthetized cats.

The most abundant alkaloids in stem cortex are tabernaemontanine, dregamine and 20-epi ervatamine.... ervataemia coronaria


(English) Feminine form of Erwin; friend of the boar Erwinna, Erwinah, Erwyne, Erwyna, Erwnynna, Earwina, Earwine, Earwyn, Earwyna, Earwinna, Earwynna, Erwena, Erwenna, Erwene... erwina

Erycibe Paniculata


Family: Convolvulaceae.

Habitat: Throughout India, common in Uttar Pradesh.

Ayurvedic: Ashoka-rohini (non- classical).

Siddha/Tamil: Unamkodi.

Action: Bark—anticholerin. Ripe fruit eaten in constipation. Pounded root prescribed internally in fever. Bark is used in cholera.

EtOH (50%) extract of aerial parts exhibit diuretic and hypotensive activity.... erycibe paniculata

Eryngium Caeruleum


Family: Umbelliferae; Apiaceae.

Habitat: Kashmir and Western Himalayas.

Folk: Pahaari Gaajar, Dudhali (Punjab), Saleli-misri.

Action: Root—nervine, stimulant, haematinic, diuretic, diaphoretic, expectorant. Ash of the plant— antiseptic, anti-inflammatory (used in haemorrhoids).

Leaves and flowers contain d-man- nitol. Underground parts yield saponins.... eryngium caeruleum

Eryngium Foetidum


Family: Umbelliferae; Apiaceae.

Habitat: Assam up to 1,700 m, found as a garden plant in Dehra Dun.

Folk: Brahma-Dhaniyaa, Jangali Gaajar (var.).

Action: Root—stomachic. Plant— galactagogue, diuretic. Fresh leaves are used as a vegetable and flavouring agent.

Hot aqueous extract of the plant possesses anticonvulsant property. The ethanolic extract (50%) of aerial parts showed cardiovascular, diuretic and antistrychnine activity. The plant is CVS an CNS active and hypothermic.

Sea Holly, found in sandy soils near the sea in Britain and Europe, is equated with Eryngium maritimum Linn.

The root possesses diuretic and anti- inflammatory properties and is used for urinary tract infections (urethritis, cystitis, polyurea, renal colic, prostatic affections).

The root gave coumarins, saponins, flavonoids, plant acids and polyphe- nolic acids. Saponins are haemolytic, rosmarinic acid is known for its anti- inflammatory activity.... eryngium foetidum


(Greek) In mythology, one of the Hesperides

Erythia, Erythea, Eritheia, Erithia, Erithea... erytheia

Erythroblastosis Fetalis

See HAEMOLYTIC DISEASE OF THE NEWBORN.... erythroblastosis fetalis


A series of nucleated cells in the bone marrow that go through various stages of development until they form ERYTHROCYTES. They may appear in the blood in certain diseases.... erythroblasts

Erythraea Roxburghii

G. Don.

Synonym: Centaurium roxburghii (G. Don) Druce.

Family: Gentianaceae.

Habitat: Sub-tropical and temperate regions.

Ayurvedic: Kiraat-tikta (related species), Yavatiktaa (related species) (A substitute for Swertia chirayita.)

Folk: Khet-chiraayataa.

Key application: Erythraea centaurium—in loss of appetite and peptic discomfort. (German Commission E.)... erythraea roxburghii

Erythrina Indica


Synonym: E. variegata Linn. var. orientalis (Linn.) Merril.

Family: Papilionaceae; Fabaceae.

Habitat: Grown as an ornamental.

English: Indian Coral tree.

Ayurvedic: Paaribhadra, Paarib- hadraka, Paarijaataka, Mandaara, Dadap. Kantaki-palaasha, Kant- kimshuka, Raktapushpa; Nimba- taru. (Erythrina suberosa Roxb. is also equated with Paaribhadra.)

Siddha/Tamil: Kaliyanamurukkan.

Folk: Farhad.

Action: Leaf—cathartic, diuretic, antiseptic, anti-inflammatory. Applied externally for dispersing venereal buboes. Bark—antibilious, anthelmintic, febrifuge, astringent, expectorant. (E. variegata is an adulterant to the Ayurvedic drug Rohitaka.) Different parts of the plant are used as nervine sedative, antiepileptic, astringent, antiasthmatic and antiseptic. Bark is used in liver ailments, fever and rheumatism.

A number of tetracyclic alkaloids have been isolated from the plant.

The alkaloids showed a muscle relaxant activity and increased the sedative effects of hexabarbital. The alkaloids extracted from the leaves are reported to have anti-inflammatory activity. Bark alkaloids are neuromus- cular blocking, smooth muscle relaxant, CNS depressant, hydrocholeretic and anticonvulsant. The bark contains 0.05% alkaloids.

The root extracts exhibited antimicrobial activity in vitro against Staphy- lococcus aureus and Mycobacterium smegmatis.

The seeds of many of the species of Erythrina contain alkaloids with curare-like activity. Clinical trials on biologically standardized beta-ery- throidine hydrochloride and dihydro- beta-erythroidine hydrochloride have shown promising results in the treatment of conditions involving certain types of muscular rigidity.

Dosage: Stem bark—6-12 g powder; 12-24 g for decoction. (API Vol. II.)... erythrina indica

Erythrina Stricta


Family: Papilionaceae; Fabaceae.

Habitat: Assam, Manipur, West Bengal and South India.

Ayurvedic: Muraa (controversial).

Siddha/Tamil: Mullu-murukku.

Action: Bark—antibilious, an- tirheumatic, febrifuge, antiasth- matic, antiepileptic, antileprotic. Flowers—antidote to poison. In Assam, the juice of the root bark is given to children in threadworm infection.

The plant gave tetracyclic alkaloids— (+)-erythraline and (+)-erythrinine.... erythrina stricta


The biconcave red blood cells that carry oxygen from the lungs to the tissues, and return carbon dioxide (see also RESPIRATION). They have an excess of membrane, some of which may be lost in various disorders, as a result of which they become progressively more spherical and rigid. Erythrocytes, which have no nuclei, are formed during ERYTHROPOEISIS from ERYTHROBLASTS in the BONE MARROW, and each mm3 of blood contains 5 million of them. They are by far the largest constituent among the blood cells and they contain large amounts of the oxygen-carrier HAEMOGLOBIN. They have a life of about 120 days after which they are absorbed by macrophages (see MACROPHAGE), the blood’s scavenging cells. Most components of the erythrocytes, including the red pigment haemoglobin, are re-used, though some of the pigment is broken down to the waste product BILIRUBIN.... erythrocytes


The process by which ERYTHROCYTES or red blood cells are produced. The initiating cell is the haemopoietic stem cell from which an identi?able proerythroblast develops. This goes through several stages as a normoblast before losing its nucleus to become an erythrocyte. This process takes place in the blood-forming bone-marrow tissue.... erythropoeisis


(Spanish) A black-haired beauty Esbellda, Ezbelda, Ezbellda, Esbilda, Ezbilda... esbelda

Escort Services

Transportation for older adults to services and appointments. May use buses, taxis, volunteer drivers, or van services that can accommodate wheelchairs and persons with other special needs.... escort services

Erythroxylum Coca


Family: Erythroxylaceae.

Habitat: Indigenus to Peru and Bolivia, introduced and experimentally cultivated in Assam, West Bengal, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Kerala.

English: Coca, Cocaine Plant.

Siddha/Tamil: Sivadari.

Action: Mydriatic and toxic. (Coca leaf extract, after removing cocaine, is used as a flavouring agent for soft drinks. Maximum use level: 0.055%.) Coca leaves contain a large number of alkaloids including cocaine, tropa- cocaine, cinnamoylcocaine, truxillines and benzoylecgonine. (alkaloid content varies from 0.5 to 1.5%). The bark and seeds also contain cocaine.

Coca is subject to restrictions in most countries.

Not to be confused with Cocoa seed (Theobroma cacao.)... erythroxylum coca

Erythroxylum Monogynum


Synonym: E. indicum (DC.) Bedd.

Family: Erythroxylaceae.

Habitat: South India, up to 1,000 m.

English: Bastard Sandal, Red Cedar.

Ayurvedic: Kattuchandanam (Kerala).

Siddha/Tamil: Devadaram.

Folk: Gandh-giri (Maharashtra).

Action: Leaf—diaphoretic, stimulant, diuretic, stomachic. A decoction is used for malarial fever. Bark and wood—febrifuge.

The wood yields diterpenes, including monogynol, OH-ogynol, devada- rool; d-hibaene, its epoxide and an olefinic hydrocarbon.

Biological activity of the plant is hypothermic and CNS active.... erythroxylum monogynum


(American) A warm and caring woman

Essdey, Esdee, Esdea, Esdy, Esdey, Esdi, Esdie, Esday, Esdai, Esdae, Esdaye... esdey


(Hebrew) A quarrelsome woman Eseka, Esekia, Esekea... esek


(Turkish) Of the wind... esen


Another name for PHYSOSTIGMINE.... eserine


(African) An exuberant woman Esha... eshah


(Indian) One who searches for the truth

Eshanah, Eshanna, Eshania, Eshanea, Eshannah, Eshaniah, Eshaneah... eshana


(Hebrew) From the valley of grapes Eshcole, Eshcola, Eshcoll, Eshcolle, Eshcolla... eshcol


(African) Giver of life Eshey, Eshay, Esh, Eshae, Eshai... eshe


(American) One who is full of life Eshay, Eshaye, Eshae, Eshai, Eshe... eshey


(Hebrew) From the narrow pass Eshtaole, Eshtaola... eshtaol


(Hebrew) An obedient child Eshtemoah, Eshtemo... eshtemoa


(African) One who is pure; a maiden Esiankikie, Esiankiky, Esiankyky, Esiankikey, Esiankykey, Esiankikee, Esiankikea, Esiankikeah... esiankiki


(African) God has heard Esiname, Esynam, Esinama, Esynama, Esinamia, Esinamea... esinam


(Spanish) One who shows mercy Eskamah, Eskamia, Eskamea, Eskame, Eskam... eskama

Esmarch’s Bandage

A rubber bandage which is applied to a limb before surgery from below upwards, in order to drive blood from the limb. The bandage is removed after an in?ated pneumatic TOURNIQUET has been placed round the limb; the operation can then proceed.... esmarch’s bandage


(French) One who is esteemed Esmai, Esmae, Esmay, Esmaye, Esmee... esme


(Spanish) Resembling a prized emerald

Esmerald, Esmeralde, Ezmeralda, Ezmerald, Ezmeralde, Emerald, Esmeraude, Ezmeraude, Esmerelda, Ezmerelda, Emeralda, Emeraude, Emelda, Esma... esmeralda


(English) Filled with happiness Esnee, Esney, Esnea, Esni, Esnie, Esny... esne


The dense, muscular tube, 9 to 10 inches long, that extends from the back of the throat (pharynx) to the stomach.... esophagus


(Spanish) Filled with hope Esperanzah, Esperanzia, Esperanze, Esperanzea, Esperansa, Esperansah, Esperansia, Esperanse, Esperansea... esperanza

Essential (benign) Hypertension

See HYPERTENSION.... essential (benign) hypertension

Essential Amino Acids

See INDISPENSABLE AMINO ACIDS.... essential amino acids

Essential Drugs

Any of the therapeutic substances considered indispensable for the rational care of the vast majority of diseases in a given population.... essential drugs


(African) A child of the people Essienne, Esien, Esienne... essien


(Italian) Woman from the East Estah, Easta, Estia, Estea, Eastia, Eastea... esta


(Spanish) Feminine form of Stephen; crowned with laurel Estefani, Estefania, Estefanie, Estefany, Estefaney, Estefanee, Estebana, Estebania, Estephanie, Estephani, Estephany, Estephaney, Estephanee, Esteva... estefana


(Latin) Resembling a star Estela, Estelle, Estelita, Estrella, Estrellita, Estee, Essie, Estralita, Estrela, Eustella... estella


An organic compound formed from an alcohol and an acid by the removal of water.... ester


(Spanish) One who is adorned Estevinah, Esteveena, Esteveenah, Estevyna, Estevynah, Esteveana, Esteveanah, Estevana, Estevanah... estevina


(Spanish) A shining woman Estheliah, Esthelea, Estheleah, Esthelya, Esthelyah, Estheliya, Estheliyah... esthelia


(Persian) Resembling the myrtle leaf Ester, Eszter, Eistir, Eszti... esther


(Spanish) A bright woman Estherida, Estheryta, Estheryda... estherita


(French) An esteemed woman... estime


(Norse) Form of Astrid, meaning “one with divine strength” Estread, Estreed, Estrad, Estri, Estrod, Estrud, Estryd, Estrida, Estrik, Estred... estrid


(Welsh) Form of Isolda, meaning “a woman known for her beauty” Eseult, Eseut, Esold, Esolda, Esolt, Esolte, Esota, Esotta, Esotte, Esoud, Esoude, Eyslk... esyilt


(Irish) In mythology, a sun goddess Eteen, Eteyn, Etine, Etaina, Eteena, Eteyna, Etina, Etaine, Etayn, Etayne, Etaen, Etaene... etain


(Hebrew) A strong and dedicated woman

Etanah, Etanna, Etannah, Etania, Etanea, Ethana, Ethanah, Ethania, Ethanea, Ethanna... etana


(Hebrew) One who is focused Etany, Etanie, Etani, Etanee, Etanea... etaney


See also Tefanoquine. An anti-relapse drug used to prevent relapses in malaria due to Plasmodium vivax or P. ovale. When used with a chemotherapeutic drug such as chloroquine for these malaria species, it thus can achieve a radical cure.... etaquine


(Native American) One who is wealthy; prosperous

Eteniah, Etenea, Eteneah, Eteniya, Eteniyah... etenia


(American) Lasting forever Eternitie, Eterniti, Eternitey, Eternitee, Eternyty, Eternyti, Eternytie, Eternytee, Eternytea, Eternitea... eternity

Ethacrynic Acid

A potent diuretic, with a rapid onset, and a short duration (4–6 hours), of action. (See THIAZIDES; DIURETICS.)... ethacrynic acid


(Hebrew) Of the fortress Ethama, Ethame, Ethamia, Ethamea... etham


(German) A noble woman Etel, Etilka, Eth, Ethelda, Ethelde, Etheld, Ethelinde, Ethelind, Ethelinda... ethel

Etherified Starch

Along with DEXTRAN and GELATIN, this is a substance with a large molecular structure used to treat shocked patients with burns (see BURNS AND SCALDS) or SEPTICAEMIA in order to expand and maintain their blood volume. Like other plasma substitutes, this form of starch can be used as an emergency, short-term treatment for severe bleeding until blood for transfusion is available. Plasma substitutes must be used with caution in patients who have heart disease or impairment of their kidney function. Patients should be monitored for hypersensitivity reactions and for changes in their BLOOD PRESSURE (see SHOCK).... etherified starch


(Anglo-Saxon) Daughter born into royalty

Etheswithe, Etheswith, Etheswytha, Etheswyth, Etheswythe... etheswitha

Ethics (of Care)

The basic evaluative principles which (should) guide “good” care. Principles typically refer to respect for, and the dignity of, human beings. Basic dimensions are “autonomy” (respect for self determination), “well-being” (respect for happiness, health and mental integrity) and “social justice” (justifiable distribution of scarce goods and services). More specifically, ethics of care refer to ethical standards developed for the care professions which are designed to implement ethical principles in the practice of care provision.... ethics (of care)

Ethics Committees

(In the USA, Institutional Review Boards.) Various types of ethics committee operate in the UK, ful?lling four main functions: the monitoring of research; debate of di?cult patient cases; establishing norms of practice; and publishing ethical guidance.

The most common – Local Research Ethics Committees (LRECs) – have provided a monitoring system of research on humans since the late 1960s. Established by NHS health authorities, LRECs were primarily perceived as exercising authority over research carried out on NHS patients or on NHS premises or using NHS records. Their power and signi?cance, however, developed considerably in the 1980s and 90s when national and international guidance made approval by an ‘appropriately constituted’ ethics committee obligatory for any research project involving humans or human tissue. The work of LRECs is supplemented by so-called ‘independent’ ethics committees usually set up by pharmaceutical companies, and since 1997 by multicentre research ethics committees (MRECs). An MREC is responsible for considering all health-related research which will be conducted within ?ve or more locations. LRECs have become indispensable to the conduct of research, and are doubtless partly responsible for the lack of demand in the UK for legislation governing research. A plethora of guidelines is available, and LRECs which fail to comply with recognised standards could incur legal liability. They are increasingly governed by international standards of practice. In 1997, guidelines produced by the International Committee on Harmonisation of Good Clinical Practice (ICH-GCP) were introduced into the UK. These provide a uni?ed standard for research conducted in the European Union, Japan and United States to ensure the mutual acceptance of clinical data by the regulatory authorities in these countries.

Other categories of ethics committee include Ethics Advisory Committees, which debate dif?cult patient cases. Most are attached to specialised health facilities such as fertility clinics or children’s care facilities. The 1990s have seen a greatly increased interest in professional ethics and the establishment of many new ethics committees, including some like that of the National Council for Hospice and Specialist Palliative Care Services which cross professional boundaries. Guidance on professional and ethical standards is produced by these new bodies and by the well-established ethics committees of regulatory or representative bodies, such as the medical and nursing Royal Colleges, the General Medical Council, United Kingdom Central Council for Nursing, Midwifery and Health Visiting, British Medical Association (see APPENDIX 8: PROFESSIONAL ORGANISATIONS) and bodies representing paramedics and professions supplementary to medicine. Their guidance ranges from general codes of practice to detailed analysis of single topics such as EUTHANASIA or surrogacy.

LRECs are now supervised by a central body

– COREC ( ethics committees


A bone in the base of the SKULL which separates the cavity of the nose from the membranes of the brain. It is a spongy bone with numerous cavities or sinuses.

Suppuration in the ethmoidal sinuses is sometimes responsible for in?ammation in neighbouring parts such as the eye.... ethmoid


(Irish) A graceful woman Ethnah, Eithne, Ethne, Eithna, Eithnah... ethna


(Irish) A puzzle piece Ethneah, Ethnia, Ethniah... ethnea


A social group within a cultural and social system that shares complex traits of religious, linguistic, ancestral and/or physical characteristics.... ethnicity

Ethnographic Research

The collection of extensive narrative data on many variables over an extended period of time in a naturalistic setting in order to gain insights not possible using other types of research. For this type of research, observations are undertaken at particular points of time. Data would include observations, recordings and interpretations of what is seen.... ethnographic research


A colourless, ?ammable gas occasionally used as an inhalant anaesthetic.... ethylene


See ANABOLIC STEROIDS.... ethyloestrenol

Etiology / Etiologic

Causes or causality, usually applying to disease.... etiology / etiologic


(French) Resembling a star... etoile


An intravenous agent for inducing general ANAESTHESIA prior to surgery or other procedures that require patients to be unconscious. When the drug is injected intravenously, pain sometimes occurs, but this can be minimised by premedication with an opioid analgesic (see ANALGESICS).... etomidate


(Japanese) A delightful child... etsuko


(American) Ruler of the house Ettah, Etti, Ettie, Etty, Ettey, Ettee, Ettea, Etteah... etta


Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus).

Plant Part Used: Leaf, essential oil.

Dominican Medicinal Uses: Leaf: infusion or decoction, orally or inhaled vapor, for asthma, common cold, flu-like symptoms, congestion, cough and pulmonary infection.

Safety: Leaves considered safe for internal and external use if administered appropriately; essential oil is highly toxic if taken internally and may cause allergic reaction when administered topically; vapor inhalation may transmit fungal spores.

Contraindications: Young children and infants (inhalation or topical administration my lead to respiratory disorders); gastro-intestinal inflammatory conditions (internal use may irritate mucosa), history of allergy or hypersensitivity to eugenol (essential oil constituent).

Drug Interactions: Antidiabetic drugs (may potentiate effect), barbiturates (may decrease effect), pyrrolizidine-containing herbs (may exacerbate hepatotoxic effects).

Laboratory & Preclinical Data: In vivo: anti-inflammatory, bronchitis treatment (essential oil).

In vitro: antibacterial, antioxidant (essential oil)

* See entry for Eucalipto in “Part 3: Dominican Medicinal Plant Profiles” of this book for more information, including references.... eucalipto

Eucalyptus Globules


Family: Myrtaceae.

Habitat: Native to Australia; now cultivated mainly at the hill-stations of India.

English: Blue-Gum tree, Australian Gum tree.

Ayurvedic: Tilaparna, Tailaparna, Sugandhapatra, Haritaparna Neela- niryaasa, Tribhandi, Triputaa, Sar- alaa, Suvahaa, Rechani, Nishotraa.

Unani: Neelgiri oil.

Siddha/Tamil: Karpooramaram.

Action: Essential oil from leaves— antiseptic, antibiotic, antiviral, antifungal, antispasmodic, decon- gestant, antiasthmatic, expectorant, antirheumatic, diaphoretic. Used in chronic, bronchitis, migraine, congestive headache, neuralgia and ague, as an inhalant or internal medicine. Root—purgative.

Key application: Leaf tea for catarrhs of the respiratory tract. Oil used externally for rheumatic complaints, contraindicated internally in inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, bile ducts, and in severe liver diseases. (German Commission E.) Oil—internally as adjuvant treatment of chronic obstructive respiratory complaints, including bronchitis and bronchial asthma, also for symptomatic relief of colds and catarrh of the upper respiratory tract; externally for symptomatic treatment of colds and rheumatic complaints. (ESCOP.) Leaf—antiseptic. (The British Herbal Pharmacopoeia.)

E. globulus is the main commercial source of Eucalyptus leaf oil; yield is 2.12%; 1,8-cineole exceeds 70% (pharmaceutical grade oil requires a minimum cineole content of 70%).

Several potent euglobals, having closely related acyl-phloroglucinol- monoterpene (or sesquiterpene) structures, are isolated from the leaves and flower buds. These compounds showed strong granulation-inhibiting activity and inhibition of TPA induced EBV (Epstein-Barr Virus) activation.

Phloroglucin derivatives, isolated from leaves, showed better antiinflammatory activity than indomethacin.

Natural antioxidants have also been isolated from the plant.

Dosage: Leaf—50-100 ml infusion. (CCRAS.)... eucalyptus globules


(Slavic) A generous woman Eudlinah, Eudleena, Eudleenah, Eudleana, Eudleanah, Eudlyna, Eudlynah... eudlina


(Greek) One who is esteemed Eudociah, Eudocea, Eudoceah, Eudokia, Eudokea, Eudosia, Eudosea, Eudoxia, Eudoxea... eudocia


(Greek) A good gift Eudorah, Eudoria, Eudorea, Eudoriah, Eudoreah... eudora


(Greek) Feminine form of Eugene; a wellborn woman

Eugena, Eugenie, Eugina, Eugyna, Eugynia, Eugynie, Eugeni, Evgenia, Eugenea, Eugeny, Eugeney, Eugenee... eugenia


A cell that has a NUCLEUS bounded by a membrane and with chromosomes containing DNA, RNA and proteins. The cell divides by MITOSIS and also contains MITOCHONDRIA. Animals, plants and cellular organisms made up of this type of cell are included in the biological superkingdom of Eukaryote.... eukaryote

Eucalyptus Tea

Did you know that eucalyptus leaves are the favourite food of koala bears? Having a pungent scent and antimicrobial properties, eucalyptus is a well known remedy for sinusitis and other respiratory ailments. It is also used successfully in aromatherapy. About Eucalyptus Tea Eucalyptus is one of the quickest growing tree species on the planet and it is derived from the grayish-green, leathery leaves of the tree botanically known as Eucalyptus globulus, also called the “blue gum tree” or “Australian fever tree.” Native to Tasmania, the eucalyptus tree grows in subtropical zones worldwide. The leaves contain eucalyptol, as well as tannins, caffeic and gallic acids, also found in green tea, along with flavonoids and antioxidants. Eucalyptus is antiseptic, antiviral, antifungal and antispasmodic with expectorant and decongestant properties. Eucalyptus is primarily valuable for its leaves, which are used to make an essential oil, eucalyptus tea and compresses. If you want to enhance the scent of the leaves, due to the aromatic oils that are contained inside, all you have to do is break or crush them, and then this will be released. You can prepare eucalyptus tea either using dry or fresh leaves. However, Eucalyptus tea made of dried eucalyptus leaves has lost most of its healing power. Instead, it’s best to cut small branches with a few dozen fresh leaves and keep them in a vase with water to prevent drying. How to make Eucalyptus Tea To make eucalyptus tea, pour 1 cup of boiled water over up to 1/2 teaspoon of the dried eucalyptus leaves. Cover and steep for 10 minutes, then strain. You can sweeten with honey and drink up to 2 - 3 cups a day. If you want to use fresh leaves, take a single one, chop it, add hot water and let it steep for about 4-6 minutes - then add honey or brown sugar. The bits of leaf should then be strained and discarded. Take care not to ingest the eucalyptus oil directly, as it is extremely strong and somewhat volatile. Then drink in small sips while hot. Benefits of Eucalyptus Tea Some studies pointed out that drinking eucalyptus tea may help increase insulin production and lower blood sugar level. You can gargle this tea when you have throat infections, or use it as a mouthwash as its antiseptic and antibacterial properties fight bad breath. Eucalyptus tea, when rubbed in the chest area, may relieve bronchitis, asthma and colds. When inhaled, the steam from the eucalyptus tea can help alleviate chest infections and a host of respiratory and pulmonary ailments like colds, emphysema, whooping cough and asthma. Applied topically, the tea may produce healthier looking skin. A compress with eucalyptus tea is effective in treating painful joints, minor burns and sore muscles. Side effects of Eucalyptus Tea Side effects from eucalyptus tea are rare; nausea, vomiting and diarrhea have been reported. Consult your doctor before using eucalyptus tea. If you are pregnant, breastfeeding, if you have inflammation of the kidneys or that of the gastrointestinal tract, bile duct disease, liver disease or low or high blood pressure, don’t drink eucalyptus tea. Eucalyptus is a tree with many benefits and uses. Eucalyptus tea can easily be included in a healthy life style, especially when it is used to treat certain ailments.... eucalyptus tea

Eugenia Uniflora


Family: Myrtaceae.

Habitat: Native to South America; cultivated in gardens; now naturalized in some parts of In dia at medium elevations under sub-tropical conditions.

English: Pitaanga, Surinam Cherry.

Action: Fruit—used as a source of carotenoids (225.9 mcg/g) and provitamin A (991 RE/100g). Leaves—diuretic, antirheumatic, antifebrile. Used for lowering blood pressure, blood cholesterol, uric acid level, also for reducing body weight. Essential oil— digestive, carminative.

The leaves gave flavonoids, querci- trin, quercetin, myricitrin and myrice- tin as major constituents.

The bark contains 28.5% tannins.... eugenia uniflora


(Greek) Well-spoken Eulalia, Eulia, Eula, Eulah, Eulallia, Eulalea, Eulaleah, Eulalee, Eulaleigh, Eulaly, Eulaley, Eulali... eulalie

Eulaliopsis Binata

(Retz.) C. E. Hubbard.

Synonym: Pollinidium angustifolium Haines.

Family: Gramineae; Poaceae.

Habitat: Many parts of North India. English: Baib grass, Sabai grass. Ayurvedic: Balvaja. Folk: Bhaabar.

Action: Diuretic. Used for treating lithiasis.

EtOH (50%) extract of the plant is sasmogenic.... eulaliopsis binata


(American) A fair woman Eulande, Euland, Eulandia, Eulandea... eulanda


(Greek) The wolf ruler; ruler of all Euleigh, Eule, Eulie, Euli, Euly, Euley... eulee

Eulophia Campestris


Family: Orchidaceae.

Habitat: Throughout greater part of India, mostly in the plains.

Ayurvedic: Amrita, Sudhaa-muuli, Munjaataka (Salep var.) Saalam- misri (substitute). Munjaataka and Saalam-misri have been equated with Orchis latifolia Linn. of the same family.

Action: Tubers—used in stamatitis, purulent cough and as a cardiac and nervine tonic. Also used in scrofulous diseases and dyscrasia. Used a substitute for Salep.... eulophia campestris

Eulophia Herbacea


Family: Orchidaceae.

Habitat: Western Himalayas, Bengal and Western parts of Deccan Peninsula.

English: Salep (var.).

Ayurvedic: Munjaataka (substitute), Saalam-misri (substitute).

Action: Tubers—used as a substitute for Salep.... eulophia herbacea

Eulophia Nuda


Family: Orchidaceae.

Habitat: Tropical Himalayas from Nepal eastward to Assam, and in Deccan from Konkan southwards.

Ayurvedic: Baalakanda, Amarkan- da, Maalaakanda.

Folk: Ambarkanda (Maharashtra).

Action: Tubers—used for bronchitis, diseases due to vitiated blood, tumours, scrofulous glands. Also used as vermifuge.

The tubers yield two phenanthrene derivatives, eulophiol and nudol, along with n-hexacosyl alcohol and lupeol.... eulophia nuda

Eulophia Pratensis


Synonym: E. ramentaceae Lindl. ex Wt.

Family: Orchidaceae.

Habitat: Pasture lands of Deccan from Konkan southwards.

English: Salep (var.).

Folk: Sataavari (Maharashtra).

Action: Tuber—used for scrofulous glands.... eulophia pratensis


(Greek) One who conquers Eunise, Eunyce, Eunis, Euniss, Eunyss, Eunysse... eunice


(Greek) In mythology, goddess of order

Eunomiah, Eunomea, Eunomeah, Eunoma, Eunomah... eunomia


(Hebrew) A traveling woman Euodia, Euodeas, Euodea... euodias

Euonymus Tingens


Family: Celastraceae.

Habitat: Tropical Himalayas from Simla to Bhutan between 2,150 and 3,200 m, and in Assam.

English: Spindle Wood, Wahoo. (Euonymus atropurpureus, found in Eastern and Central USA and Canada, is equated with Wahoo and Spindle tree.

Ayurvedic: Bhillotaka.

Folk: Chopra, Mermahaul, Kunku, Barphali.

Action: Cholagogue, laxative, diuretic, circulatory stimulant. Used for constipation, torpidity of liver, gall bladder disorders, jaundice and dyspepsia. Bark is used in diseases of the eye.

Key application: Bark—as laxative.

(The British Herbal Pharmacopoeia.)

The plant yielded triterpenes—epi- friedelinol, taraxerol, dulcitol, pris- timerin and tingenins A and B. Pris- timerin exhibited antitumour activity.

Only bark and root bark is used medicinally. The seeds are poisonous.

Toxic constituents of E. atropur- pureus are furan-a-carboxylic acid; d- phenyl-glucosone (sterol glucoside); euatroside; euatromonoside (steroid glycosides). (Francis Brinker.)... euonymus tingens

Eupatorium Cannabinum


Family: Compositae; Asteraceae.

Habitat: The temperate Himalayas up to 3,600 m and in Khasi Hills between 1,000 and 2,000 m.

English: Hemp Agrimony, Water Hemp, Hemp Eupatorium.

Folk: Bundaar (Maharashtra), Tongollati (Assam).

Action: Diuretic, cathartic, anti-tumoral. Used under strict medical supervision for blood impurities and tumours. Internal administration is not advised unless the hepatotoxic alkaloids are shown to be absent from the sample.

The herb contains volatile oil (about 0.5%); sesqiterpene lactones, the major one being eupatoriopicrin; flavonoids, pyrrolizidine alkaloids; immunoactive polysaccharides.

Eupatoriopicrin has shown to be cy- tostatic as well as cytotoxic; it delayed transplanted tumour growth in mice in a dose-dependent manner.

An aqueous extract of the plant exhibited anti-necrotic activity against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepato- toxicity in rats. The effect is attributed to the presence of flavonoids, rutoside, hyperoside and quercetin; phenolic acids, caffeic and chlorogenic; and not due to the presence of eupatoriopicrin.

Acrylic acid and the lactic, malic and citric acids, present in the plant, also exhibited protective effect against acute toxicity induced by ethanol in mice.

The polysaccharides have immuno- stimulatory activity and enhance phagocytosis in a number of immunolog- ical tests. The leaf oil is reported to exhibit fungicidal effect.

A related species, Eupatorium odorum Linn., is known as Gondri in Ori- ssa.... eupatorium cannabinum


(Greek) One who speaks well Euphemiah, Euphemea, Euphemeah, Euphemie, Euphemi, Euphemy, Euphemey, Euphemee, Effie, Effi, Effy, Effey, Effee, Ephie, Ephi, Ephy, Ephey, Ephee, Eppie... euphemia

Euphorbia Pilosa


Family: Euphorbiaceae.

Habitat: Western Himalayas from Garhwal, westwards to Kashmir.

Ayurvedic: Saatala, Saptalaa. (Substitute).

Action: Purgative, emetic. Root— used in fistulous sores.

Prostratin, isolated from the roots of var. cornigeria Hook. f., was found to be pro-inflammatory.... euphorbia pilosa

Euphorbia Thomsoniana


Family: Euphorbiaceae.

Habitat: Kashmir, above 2,350 m.

Ayurvedic: Hiyaavali, Svarnakshiri (also equated with Argemone mexicana L., Papaveraceae.), Kanchanakshiri, Pitadugdhaa, Katuparni.

Folk: Hiravi (Kashmir). Titari (Himachal Pradesh).

Action: Root—purgative. Latex— used in eruptions and other skin diseases.... euphorbia thomsoniana

Eupatorium Triplinerve


Synonym: E. ayapana Vent.

Family: Compositae; Asteraceae.

Habitat: Native to Brazil; naturalized in many parts of India; grown in gardens of Maharashtra.

English: Ayapana Tea.

Ayurvedic: Vishalyakarani, Ayaapaana.

Siddha/Tamil: Ayapanai.

Folk: Ayapani (Maharashtra).

Action: Cardiac stimulant, laxative, emetic, expectorant, bechic, antiscorbutic, alterative. Used in ague, also in dyspepsia. Leaf— anticholerin, haemostatic.

The leaves contain ayapanin and ayapin, with pronounced haemostatic properties. The leaves also contain carotene and free vitamin C (25 mg/ 100 g); there is 100% increase in vitamin C content on frying the leaves in oil.

A aqueous extract of dried leaves and shoots exhibits cardiac stimulant activity, increasing the force of the heartbeat but diminishing its frequency.

The plant is comparable to chamo- mile (Anthemis sp.).... eupatorium triplinerve

Euphorbia Antiquorum


Family: Euphorbiaceae.

Habitat: The warmer regions of India; often cultivated for hedges.

English: Triangular Spurge.

Ayurvedic: Snuhi (Substitute), Vajra-kantaka, Vajratundi

Siddha/Tamil: Chathurakkali.

Folk: Tridhaari, Tidhaaraa Sehunda.

Action: Latex—purgative. Applied on burns. Plant—used in dropsy, anasarca, sores, venereal sores, syphilis; also in dysentery, bronchitis, asthma. Root—anthelmintic. Fresh stems—used for skin sores and scabies. A decoction of stems is given in gout.

The stems yielded friedelan-3 alpha- ol and 3 beta-ol, taraxerol and taraxe- rone. The roots yielded taraxerol. Latex gave beta-amyrin, cycloartenol, euphol (70%) and alpha-euphorbol.... euphorbia antiquorum

Euphorbia Dracunculoides


Family: Euphorbiaceae.

Habitat: Throughout India in the plains and low hills.

Ayurvedic: Saatalaa, Saptalaa, Sapralaa, Viduraa, Charmasaahvaa, Charmakashaa.

Unani: Thuhar.

Siddha/Tamil: Tillakada, Thusimul- lai.

Folk: Titali.

Action: Fruit—removes warts topically. Plant extract—cholinergic. The aerial parts are used as a vegetable for maintaining smooth and regular movement of bowels.

The alcoholic and aqueous extracts of aerial parts showed significant action on gastro-intestinal motility in rats. The activity is more pronounced in alcoholic extract than in aqueous extract.

The extract of air-dried plant exhibits cholinergic action and direct stimulation of different muscle preparations. Plant gave euphorbol, surcose, glycosides, sterols and kaempferol.

Dosage: Root—3-5 g powder. (CCRAS.)... euphorbia dracunculoides

Euphorbia Hirta


Synonym: E. pilulifera auct. non Linn.

Family: Euphorbiaceae.

Habitat: Throughout warmer regions of India.

English: Euphorbia, Australian Asthma Weed, Pill-bearing Spurge.

Ayurvedic: Dudhi, Dudhikaa, Naagaarjuni, Vikshirini.

Unani: Dudhi Khurd.

Siddha/Tamil: Amman pachharisi.

Action: Pectoral, antiasthmatic, antispasmodic. Used for asthma, laryngitis, chronic nasal and bronchial catarrh; diarrhoea, dysentery, intestinal parasitosis Also used in postnatal complaints, failure of lactation. Latex— vermifuge. Used in diseases of urinogenitory tract.

The herb contains several terpenes, anthocyanins, alcohols and steroids. Aerial parts also gave shikimic acid, choline, L-inositol and free sugars.

Antiasthmatic activity is attributed to choline and shikimic acid. Shikimic acid and choline showed relaxant and contracting properties on guinea-pig ileum.

The aqueous extract of the herb exhibited sedative, anxiolytic, analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory activities; exerted an inhibitory effect on platelet aggregation.

Quercitrin is reported to be responsible for antidiarrhoeal activity.

Methanolic extract of the leaves exhibits antibacterial and antifungal activities.

Dimeric hydrolysable tannins, eu- phorbains, have been isolated from the plant.... euphorbia hirta


Producing a sense of bodily comfort and well-being and the absence of pain or distress... euphoriant


Drugs which induce a state of EUPHORIA or well-being.... euphoriants


(Hebrew) From the great river Euphratees, Eufrates, Eufratees... euphrates


(Greek) Woman of good cheer; in mythology, one of the three Graces Euphrosyna, Euphrosine, Euphrosina, Euphroseen, Euphroseena, Euphroseane, Euphroseana... euphrosyne

Euphorbia Hypericifolia

Auct. Non Linn.

Synonym: E. indica Lam.

Family: Euphorbiaceae.

Habitat: Throughout warmer regions of India, up to 1,500 m in the Himalaya.

Ayurvedic: Dugdhikaa.

Action: Plant—used in colic, diarrhoea and dysentery. Leaf— astringent, antidysenteric, antileuc- orrhoeic (also used in menorrhagia).

The plant contains taraxerol, oc- tacosanol, campesterol, stigmasterol, beta-sitosterol, quercetin, quercitrin, ellagic acid, rhamnetin-3-galactoside, rhmnetin-3-rhamnoside and kaempferol.... euphorbia hypericifolia

Euphorbia Neriifolia

Auct. Non Linn.

Synonym: E. ligularia Roxb.

Family: Euphorbiaceae.

Habitat: Grown as a field and boundary fence and as curious on rockeries in gardens.

English: Holy Milk Hedge, Dog's Tongue.

Ayurvedic: Snuhi, Samant-dugdhaa, Sehunda, Singhtunda, Snuk, Gudaa, Sudhaa, Vajra, Vajjri, Vajjradram, Thuuhar.

Siddha/Tamil: Ielaikkali, Perumbu- kalli.

Action: Latex—purgative, diuretic, antiasthmatic, expectorant, rube- facient. Used in ascites, polyuria, anasarca, chlorosis, tympanitis; externally on warts, cutaneous eruptions, scabies, unhealthy ulcers.

A succus compounded of equal parts of the juice and simple syrup is said to be used for giving relief in asthma.

The triterpenoids, euphol, 24-meth- ylenecycloartenol, euphorbol hexa- cosonate, glut-5 (10)-en-1-one, glut-5- en-3 beta-yet-acetate, taraxerol, friede- lan-3 alpha-ol and -3 beta-ol have been reported from the plant.... euphorbia neriifolia

Euphorbia Nivulia


Family: Euphorbiaceae.

Habitat: Northern and central India, often planted in dry areas.Ayurvedic: Snuhi (substitute), Patra-Snuhi.Siddha/Tamil: Kalli, Naga-kalli.

Action: Latex—used for treating jaundice, dropsy, enlargement of liver and spleen; colic; syphilis, leprosy; applied to haemorrhoids. Coagulated latex is used for bronchitis. Leaf—juice is used as a purgative. Warmed in mustard oil, applied in cold and headache.The latex gave cycloart-25-en-3 beta-ol, and cyclolaudenol; stem contained cyclolaudenol and sitosterol; leaves gave sitosterol. (None of these triterpenes have been reported from E. neriifolia.) These triterpenes exhibited antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and E. coli.

... euphorbia nivulia

Euphorbia Resinifera


Family: Euphorbiaceae.

Habitat: Native to Morocco.

English: Euphorbium.

Unani: Farfiyuun, Afarbiyuun.

Action: A drastic purgative, irritant, vesicant and toxic, proinflammatory. Internal use of the drug has been abandoned.

Dried latex gave diterpene esters; derivatives of 12-deoxyphorbol, which are pro-inflammatory, tumour promoting and cause platelet aggregation; exhibit co-carcinogenic activity.... euphorbia resinifera

Euphorbia Royleana


Family: Euphorbiaceae.

Habitat: Western Himalaya from Kumaon to Nepal.

Ayurvedic: Snuhi, Snuk, Sehunda, Gudaa (Substitutes.) (Adhogudaa of Ayurvedic medicine and Bana- muuli of folk medicine have been equated with Euphorbia acaulis Rox.)

Unani: Thuuhar

Folk: Thor, Surai.

Action: Latex—cathartic, anthelmintic.

The latex yield euphol, cycloeu- calenol, an inseparable mixture of four tetra-and four tri-esters of macrocyclic diterpene ingenol, octacosanol, tetra- cosanol, beta-sitosterol, stigmasterol, alpha-amyrin and campesterol. The plant gave ingenol.

The latex is a valuable source of in- genol esters. Ingol is a macrocyclic diterpene and is of therapeutic interest due to its antileukemic properties. Fractionation of the latex gave ingol- 12-acetate and 8-tigloyl-12-acetate. The acylation of ingol-12-acetate yielded derivatives which inhibit the growth of the basophilic leukaemia cells in rats.... euphorbia royleana


(Greek) In mythology, a Gorgon Euryle, Euraile, Eurale, Eurael, Euraele... eurayle


(Greek) In mythology, the mother of Minos... europa


(Greek) In mythology, a sea goddess and mother of Pallas, Perses, and Astraios

Eurybiah, Eurybea, Eurybeah, Euryba, Eurybah... eurybia


(Greek) In mythology, wife of Orpheus

Euridice, Eurydyce, Euridyce... eurydice


(Greek) In mythology, the mother of the Graces Eurynomie, Eurynomi, Eurynomey, Eurynomee, Eurynomy, Eurynomea, Eurynomeah... eurynome

Eustachian Tubes

The passages, one on each side, leading from the throat to the middle ear. Each is about 38 mm (1••• inches) long and is large at either end, though at its narrowest part it only admits a ?ne probe. The tubes open widely in the act of swallowing or yawning. The opening into the throat is situated just behind the lower part of the nose, so that a catheter can be passed through the corresponding nostril into the tube for in?ation of the middle ear. (See also EAR; NOSE.)... eustachian tubes

Euphorbia Thymifolia


Family: Euphorbiaceae.

Habitat: Smaller var., equated with E. thymifolia, is found in tropical plains and low hills of India, ascending to 1,750 m. Bigger var., E. pilulifera/E. hirta Linn. is found in warmer parts of India from Punjab eastwards, and southwards to Kanyakumari.

Ayurvedic: Dudhi (smaller var.), Dugdhikaa, Naagaarjuni, Swaaduparni.

Siddha/Tamil: Sittrapaladi.

Action: Plant—antispasmodic, bronchodilator, antiasthmat- ic (used in bronchial asthma), galactagogue (also used for spermatorrhoea). Root—used in amenorrhoea. Latex—used in ringworm, dandruff. Leaf, seed and latex—purgative. A decoction of the plant, with honey, is given to treat haematuria.

Aerial parts gave epitaraxerol, n- hexacosanol, euphorbol, two derivatives of deoxyphorbol-OAC, 24-meth- ylene cycloartenol and quercetin galactoside. Co-carcinogenic activity is due to phorbol derivatives. The plant exhibits antimicrobial activity due to alkaloids.

Dosage: Whole plant—10-20 g paste. (CCRAS.)

Family: Euphorbiaceae.

Habitat: Native to Africa; naturalized in the warmer parts of India.

English: Milk-Bush, Milk Hedge, Indian tree Spurge, Aveloz, Petroleum Plant

Ayurvedic: Saptalaa, Saatalaa.

Siddha/Tamil: Tirukalli.

Folk: Angulia-thuuhar.

Action: Purgative, emetic, antiasthmatic, bechic. Used for whooping cough, asthma, dyspepsia, biliousness, jaundice, enlargement of spleen, leucorrhoea. Latex—applied externally on warts.

Used as a purgative and for rheumatism and neuralgia. Stem bark—used for gastralgia, colic, asthma.

The latex contains an ingol ester besides triterpenoids, euphorbinol and cycloeuphordenol.

Presence of a number of ingenol and phorbol esters (diterpenoids), and tri- terpenoids are reported from the plant. The stem gave hentriacontane, hentri- acontanol, beta-sitosterol, Me-ellagic and ellagic acids and kaempferol glu- coside.

The latex is a weak tumour promoter.... euphorbia thymifolia

Euphoria Longan


Family: Sapindaceae.

Habitat: South India, Assam and Bengal.

Ayurvedic: Aakshiki (non-classical).

Siddha/Tamil: Puvatti, Shempuvan.

Folk: Aashaphala (Bengal), Naag- lichi (Assam).

Action: The aril of the fruit is used in prescriptions of Chinese traditional medicine for treating insomnia, neurosis, palpitation, amnesia and anaemia.

It has been found to ameliorate the impaired learning process in mice.

An aqueous extract of the fruit pulp showed stimulating effect on superoxide dimutase activity in red blood cells of mice., indicating its possible use in delaying the aging process.

The seeds contain antimutagens, amino-hydroxy-hexynoic acid, hypo- glycin A (which causes hypoglycaemia) and amino-hydroxy-heptynoic acid.... euphoria longan

Euphrasia Simplex

D. Don.

Synonym: E. officinalis Linn.

Family: Scrophulariaceae.

Habitat: The Temperate Himalaya from Kashmir to Sikkim, from 1,350 to 4,000 m.

English: Eyebright.

Action: Plant—astringent, antiallergic, bechic, anticatarrhal.

Key application: Externally as lotions, eye-baths, poultices, for eye complaints associated with inflammatory conditions, and as a preventive measure against mucus of the eyes, "glued" and inflammed eyes. (Traditional uses mentioned by German Comission E.)

Orally, Eyebright is used to treat allergies, common cold, bronchial conditions and sinusitis. Ophthalmic application is not recommended. Eye- bright has been used in a British herbal tobacco product, which was smoked for cold and chronic bronchial conditions.

Aerial parts showed presence of phenol, carboxylic acid, flavones and methyl flavone derivatives. Plant gave quercetin glucoside, diosmetin, kaem- pferol, caffeic and ferulic acids, stig- masterol and beta-sitosterol. Iridoid glycosides, including aucubin, are also present. Tannins include both condensed and hydrolysable gallic acid type.... euphrasia simplex


(Greek) Feminine form of Eustace; having an abundance of grapes Eustaciah, Eustacea, Eustaceah, Eustatia, Eustatiah... eustacia


(Latin) A calm and tranquil child... eustada


(Greek) In mythology, muse of lyric poetry... euterpe


(American) A hardworking woman Eveniah, Evenea, Eveneah, Eveniya, Eveniyah... euvenia


(Polish) One who is pious Euzebiah, Euzebea, Euzebeah, Euzeba, Euzebiya, Euzebiyah... euzebia


Evacuant is a name for a purgative medicine (see LAXATIVES).... evacuant

Euryale Ferox


Family: Nymphaeaceae.

Habitat: Kashmir, Bihar, Rajasthan, Assam, Manipur, Tripura, Bengal and Uttar Pradesh, in lakes and ponds.

English: Gorgan Nut, Fox Nut.

Ayurvedic: Makhaann, Paaniyapha- la, Padma-bijaabha, Ankalodya.

Unani: Makhaanaa.

Action: Seed—deobstruent, astringent, nervine tonic. Used in spermatorrhoea and sexual affections (restrains seminal gleet) and debility.

Edible parts of the seeds gave the following values: moisture 12.8, protein 9.7, fat 0.1, mineral matter 0.5, carbohydrates 76.9, calcium 0.02, and phosphorus 0.09%; iron 1.4 mg/100 g.... euryale ferox


(Greek) In mythology, daughter of Poseidon and mother of Iamus Evadine, Evadna, Euadne, Euadna, Euadine... evadne


(American) A famous giver of life Evaluise, Evalouisa, Eva Louise... evalouise


(English) Feminine form of Evan; God is gracious

Evanah, Evanna, Evannah, Evania, Evanea, Evaniya, Evanee, Evani, Evanie, Evany, Evaney, Evin, Evyn, Evina, Evyna, Evinna, Evynna, Eavan, Eavana, Eavani, Eavanie, Eavanee, Evaneah... evana


(Greek) A bringer of good news Evangela, Evangeline, Evangelyn, Evangelia, Evangelyna, Evangelea, Evangeleena, Evangeleina, Evangeliena, Evangeleana... evangelina


(Greek) Resembling a flower Evanthe, Evantha, Evanthia, Evanthea, Evanthie, Evanthi, Evanthy, Evanthey, Evanthee... evanth


(German) A birdlike woman Evaleen, Evalina, Evaline, Evalyn, Evelin, Evelina, Eveline, Evelyne, Evelynn, Evelynne, Evie, Evlynn, Ewelina... evelyn


(American) A great huntress Everild, Everilda, Everhilde, Everhild, Everhilda... everilde



Evidence-based Care

The conscientious, explicit and judicious use of current best evidence in making decisions about the care of individuals. This approach must balance the best external evidence with the desires of the individual and the clinical expertise of health care providers.... evidence-based care

Evidence-based Decision-making

In a policy context, evidence-based decision-making is the application of the best available scientific evidence to policy decisions about specific treatments or care, as well as changes in the delivery system.... evidence-based decision-making


(French) One who loves nature Evleen, Evleene, Evlean, Evleane, Evlene, Evlyn, Evlyne... evline

Evolvulus Nummularius


Family: Convolvulaceae.

Habitat: A weed of grassy lawns.

Ayurvedic: Aakhukarni, Muusaakarni (substitute for Merremia emarginata (Burm. f.) Hallier f., synonym Ipomoea reniformis Choisy).

Folk: Muusaakaani, Chhinipatra (Bihar).

Action: Weak sedative, anthelmintic.... evolvulus nummularius


(French) Form of Yvonne, meaning “a young archer”

Evon, Evonna, Evony, Evonie, Evoney, Evonee, Evoni, Evonea, Evoneah... evonne

Ewing’s Sarcoma

An uncommon but very malignant cancer of the bone in children and young adults, the condition was ?rst identi?ed as being di?erent from OSTEOSARCOMA by Dr J Ewing in 1921. It usually occurs in the limbs or pelvis and soon spreads to other parts of the body. Treatment is by RADIOTHERAPY and CYTOTOXIC drugs. Since the use of the latter, the number of patients who survive for ?ve years or more has much improved.... ewing’s sarcoma


An uninterrupted process of change from one condition, form or state to another. In biological evolution, all varieties of living things are seen as having developed by inheritable, incremental changes from unicellular structures to complex organisms such as humankind. Although the likelihood of some form of evolution had been postulated by scientists in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, the prime contribution to the development of biological evolutionary doctrine came from the British scientist, Charles Darwin, who argued in his book The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection (1859) that natural selection resulted in the survival of the ?ttest organisms. The precise biological mechanism of evolution was not unravelled until the 20th century, with the discovery of CHROMOSOMES and GENES and the development of the science of genetics. Charles Darwin’s theory was based on his studies of the varied and unique animal life in the Galapagos Islands in the 19th century. He believed that the diversity of life on the planet could be ascribed to the combined effects of random variation in living things, inherited by succeeding generations.... evolution

Evolvulus Alsinoides


Synonym: E. hirtus Lam. E. angustifolius Roxb. Convolvulus alsinoides L.

Family: Convolvulaceae.

Habitat: Throughout India, as a common weed in open and grassy places; ascending to 2,000 m in the Himalayas.

Ayurvedic: Shankapushpi (blue- flowered var., Convolvus pluricaulis: white-flowered var.)

Unani: Shankhaahuli.

Siddha/Tamil: Vishnukrandi (blue-flowered), Shivakrandi (white-flowered).

Action: Brain tonic, an aid in conception, astringent, antidysen- teric. Leaf—antiasthmatic. Used in nervine affections (epilepsy, insanity, spermatorrhoea), and duodenal ulcers, also for uterine affections. Flowers—used for uterine bleeding and internal haemorrhages. A decoction of the herb is given as a blood purifier.

The plant contains alkaloid evolvine, beta-sitosterol, stearic, oleic, linoleic acids, pentatriacontane and triacon- tane. The alkaloid evolvine exhibited powerful stimulant activity on respiration and blood pressure (possibly analeptic).

Aqueous extract of the petal showed antifungal property.... evolvulus alsinoides

Exacum Bicolor


Synonym: E. tetragonum Roxb. E. perrottetii Griseb.

Family: Gentianaceae.

Habitat: Upper Gangetic plains and tropical Himalaya, also in South India.

Ayurvedic: Ava-chiraayataa (bigger var. of chiraayataa).

Folk: Titakhana, Uudakiraayita (Maharashtra).

Action: Stomachic,febrifuge, antifungal, bitter tonic.

The leaves gave apigenin, luteolin, vanillic, p-hydroxybenzoic, protocate- chuic and p-coumaric acids.

A related species. Exacum pedun- culatum L., found throughout India, ascending up to 1,000 m, is also used as a substitute for Swertia chirayita and Gentiana lutea. Pounded plant is applied externally in rheumatism and gout. It also gave luteolin, diosmetin and phenolic acids.... exacum bicolor


(Spanish) One who is lifted up... exaltacion

Excision Biopsy

A biopsy of a lesion for the purposes of diagnosis in which the whole lesion is exc ised.... excision biopsy



Excretory Pore

An opening of the excretory system, normally situated on the ventral side at the anterior part of the body (e.g. in trematode miracidia).... excretory pore

Excoecaria Agallocha


Family: Euphorbiaceae.

Habitat: The coastal and tidal forests of India.

English: Blinding tree.

Siddha/Tamil: Kampetti, Tillai, Agil, Ambala-vrksham.

Folk: Gevaa, Huraa (Maharashtra). Gangawaa.

Action: Latex—antileprotic. The latex blisters the skin and is reported to cause blindness if it enters the eye. The juice, boiled in oil, is applied in rheumatism, paralysis and leprosy.

The leaves are toxic and contain gallo tannins (0.616 mg/g dry weight). Fresh twigs and bark contain a piscici- dal component. The latex is biocidal.... excoecaria agallocha

Exit Traps

Devices typically placed over doors and windows of houses or animal shelters to catch mosquitoes leaving these buildings.... exit traps


(Hebrew) Of the great deliverance Exodis, Exodas, Exodos, Exodys... exodus

Exogenous Budding

Outward or external development from the germinal layer of a larval cestode.... exogenous budding

Exogonium Purga


Synonym: Ipomoea purga Hayne.

Family: Convolvulaceae.

Habitat: Native to Amercia. Grows in Southern and Eastern India.

English: Jalap.

Unani: Jalaapaa.

Action: Tuber—drastic hydr- agogue cathartic, acts briskly, causes watery evacuations. Overdoses produce hypercatharsis. Contraindicated in inflammatory conditions of the bowels. (The roots of Operculina turpethum synonym Ipomoea turpethum are used as a substitute for jalap.)... exogonium purga


Preferring to feed outdoors.... exophagic


Preferring to rest outdoors.... exophilic

Exopththalmic Goitre

Sometimes called Graves’ disease, this is a disorder in which there is overactivity of the thyroid gland, protrusion of the eyes, and other symptoms. (See HYPERTHYROIDISM.)... exopththalmic goitre


A form of treatment in which the cure of the patient is left mainly to nature, while the physician simply watches for any unsatisfactory developments or symptoms, and relieves them if they occur.... expectant

Expectation Of Life

The average number of years an individual of a given age is expected to live if current mortality rates continue to apply. See “life expectancy”.... expectation of life

Experience Rating

A method of adjusting health plan premiums based on historical utilization data.... experience rating

Experimental Study

A study in which conditions are under the direct control of the investigator.... experimental study

Expired Air Resuscitation

The use of expired (used) air blown from a rescuer into the airway and lungs of an unconscious victim who is not breathing, sufficient to sustain his life.... expired air resuscitation

Explanatory Study

A study where the main objective is to explain, rather than merely describe, a situation by isolating the effects of specific variables and understanding the mechanisms of action.... explanatory study


The removal of blood from the body. This may occur as the result of a serious accident in which the victim bleeds extensively. Rarely, it may happen that bleeding becomes uncontrollable during an operation.... exsanguinate

Extended Care Facility (ecf)

A facility that offers sub-acute care, providing treatment services for people requiring inpatient care who do not currently require continuous acute care services, and admitting people who require convalescent or restorative services or rehabilitative services or people with terminal disease requiring maximal nursing care.... extended care facility (ecf)


In surgery, the procedure to transfer an organ from its normal place in the body to the skin surface. It may be temporary or permanent. A common example is when the intestine is brought to the abdominal surface as a COLOSTOMY: this may be permanent because of serious disease in the lower part of the COLON, or temporary to allow a disorder in the colon to be treated.... exteriorisation

External Cardiac Compression

Compression of the outside of the sternum and ribs, effectively emptying and filling the heart to push blood through arteries to supply oxygen to the body - particularly to the brain.... external cardiac compression

External Validity

See “validity”.... external validity


(1) In behavioural psychology, the lessening of a conditioned re?ex that occurs when it is not regularly reinforced. An example is in the treatment of unsatisfactory behaviour such as violence, when by preventing the individual from enjoying the rewards of violent acts – namely, the attention he or she attracts – the conditioned re?ex that is part of the cycle of violence is reduced in strength.

(2) Elimination of life or of a biological species.... extinction

Extra Care Sheltered Housing

Housing where there is additional support (such as the provision of meals and extra communal facilities) to that usually found in sheltered housing. Sometimes called ‘very sheltered housing’.... extra care sheltered housing

Extracto De Malta

Malt extract; contains alcohol; sometimes added to herbal preparations.... extracto de malta


Extracts are preparations, usually of a semi-solid consistency, containing the active parts of various plants extracted in one of several ways. In the case of some extracts, the juice of the fresh plant is simply pressed out and puri?ed; in the case of others the active principles are dissolved out in water, which is then to a great extent driven o? by evaporation. Other extracts are similarly made by the help of alcohol, and in some cases ether is the solvent.... extracts

Extrasensory Perception (esp)

An alleged way of perceiving current events (clairvoyance), future events (precognition) or the thoughts of other people (telepathy). ESP has never been scienti?cally proven and does not involve the use of any known senses.... extrasensory perception (esp)


A premature contraction of the heart. It can be caused by nervousness, indigestion, a tired and enlarged heart - anything up to overt organic heart disease.... extrasystoles

Extrauterine Pregnancy

See ECTOPIC PREGNANCY.... extrauterine pregnancy


(1) Originating outside the body.

(2) An extrinsic muscle is one whose origin is some way from the part of the body it acts upon

– for example, the muscles controlling the movement of the eyeball which are attached to the bony orbit in which the eye sits.... extrinsic


The feral and congested fluids built up in a bruise or infection. Unlike a transudate, which is merely edema from lymphatic congestion, exudates contain dead cells, erythrocytes, white blood cells and often pus.... exudates


(Native American) A superior woman Eyotah, Eyotta, Eyottah... eyota


(Native American) One who is great Eyotee, Eyoti, Eyotie, Eyotea, Eyoty, Eyotey... eyote


(Hebrew) One who is helpful Ezrah, Ezruh... ezra


(American) A healthy woman Ezzah, Ezzia, Ezziah, Ezzea, Ezzeah... ezza

Fagopyrum Esculentum


Family: Polygonaceae.

Habitat: Native to Central Asia; now grown as minor grain-crop in hilly regions of North India and the Nilgiris.

English: Buckwheat.

Ayurvedic: Kotu.

Folk: Kutu, Phaapar.

Action: Used for treating fragile capillaries, chilbains and for strengthening varicose veins. Used at a supporting herb for treating high blood pressure. Rutin is obtained from fresh or dried leaves and flowers. (Rutin is used in a variety of haemorrhagic conditions.)

The seed are commonly used in colic, choleraic diarrhoea and abdominal obstructions. Root decoction is used in rheumatic pains, lung diseases and typhoid; juice in urinary disorders. In China, used in pulmonary sepsis.

The plant is used as a venous and capillary tonic, and for alleviating venous stasis and vericose veins.

It is a potential source of rutin (yield 3-5%). The leaves and blossoms contain most of the rutin (80-90%).

Quercetin caused significant decrease in ulcer index in acute gastric ulcer with respect to control group in rats. Quercetin, rutin or kaempferol inhibited, in dose-dependent manner, gastric damage produced by acidified- ethanol in rats.

The plant also gave hyperoside and anthracene derivatives.

Buckwheat is a good source of lysine and other amino acids. The flour is reported to repress exogenous hy- percholesterolemia and promotes accumulation of triglyceride in the liver of rats.

Seed oil exhibits antimicrobial activity against Bacillus anthrasis, E.coli and Salmonella paratyphi.

Whole plant, dried or green, can cause photosensitization.... fagopyrum esculentum

Fibreoptic Endoscopy

A visualising technique enabling the operator to examine the internal organs with the minimum of disturbance or damage to the tissues. The procedure has transformed the management of, for example, gastrointestinal disease. In chest disease, ?breoptic bronchoscopy has now replaced the rigid wide-bore metal tube which was previously used for examination of the tracheo-bronchial tree.

The principle of ?breoptics in medicine is that a light from a cold light source passes down a bundle of quartz ?bres in the endoscope to illuminate the lumen of the gastrointestinal tract or the bronchi. The re?ected light is returned to the observer’s eye via the image bundle which may contain up to 20,000 ?bres. The tip of the instrument can be angulated in both directions, and ?ngertip controls are provided for suction, air insu?ation and for water injection to clear the lens or the mucosa. The oesophagus, stomach and duodenum can be visualised; furthermore, visualisation of the pancreatic duct and direct endoscopic cannulation is now possible, as is visualisation of the bile duct. Fibreoptic colonoscopy can visualise the entire length of the colon and it is now possible to biopsy polyps or suspected carcinomas and to perform polypectomy.

The ?exible smaller ?breoptic bronchoscope has many advantages over the rigid tube, extending the range of view to all segmental bronchi and enabling biopsy of pulmonary parenchyma. Biopsy forceps can be directed well beyond the tip of the bronchoscope itself, and the more ?exible ?breoptic instrument causes less discomfort to the patient.

Fibreoptic laparoscopy is a valuable technique that allows the direct vizualisation of the abdominal contents: for example, the female pelvic organs, in order to detect the presence of suspected lesions (and, in certain cases, e?ect their subsequent removal); check on the development and position of the fetus; and test the patency of the Fallopian tubes.


Gas Embolism

A blockage of a blood vessel by air or gas, usually caused when a diver ascends too rapidly, when the air expands, causing rupture of the lung tissues which then allows the air into the blood stream. It often results in death due to air bubbles occluding the blood vessels supply the brain (cerebral gas embolism).... gas embolism

Gene Expression

The full use of the information in a gene via transcription and translation leading to production of a protein.... gene expression

Generation Effect

Variations in health status that arise from the different causal factors to which each birth cohort in the population is exposed as the environment and society change. Each consecutive birth cohort is exposed to a unique environment that coincides with its life span.... generation effect

Goiter, Exophthalmic

The physical symptoms often associated with Grave’s disease or thyrotoxicosis, with an inflamed, sometimes enlarged thyroid gland and, most noticeably, protruding eyes.... goiter, exophthalmic

Golfer’s Elbow

A term applied to a condition comparable to tennis elbow. It is not uncommon in the left elbow of right-handed golfers who catch the head of their club in the ground when making a du? shot.... golfer’s elbow

Habenaria Edgeworthii

Hook. f. ex Collett.

Family: Orchidaceae.

Habitat: Outer range of Western Himalayas from Punjab to Kumaon.

Ayurvedic: Riddhi. (Tubers of Eulophia nuda Lindl. and Dioscorea bulbifera are also used as Riddhi.)

Action: Nervine and cardiac tonic.... habenaria edgeworthii

Health And Safety Executive (hse)

The statutory body in Britain responsible for the health and safety of workers. The address of the HSE can be found in APPENDIX 7: STATUTORY ORGANISATIONS.... health and safety executive (hse)

Health Expectancy

A population-based measure of the proportion of the expected life span estimated to be healthful and fulfilling, or free of illness, disease and disability.... health expectancy

Health Promotion Evaluation

An assessment of the extent to which health promotion actions achieve a “valued” outcome.... health promotion evaluation

Healthy Life Expectancy

See “disability-adjusted life expectancy”.... healthy life expectancy

Home Medical Equipment

Equipment, such as hospital beds, wheelchairs and prosthetics, provided by an agency and used at home.... home medical equipment

Human Fertilisation & Embryology Act 1990

See ASSISTED CONCEPTION.... human fertilisation & embryology act 1990

Human Fertilisation & Embryology Authority (hfea)

See ASSISTED CONCEPTION.... human fertilisation & embryology authority (hfea)

Hypertensive Encephalopathy

A complication of severe HYPERTENSION, this serious but uncommon condition is characterised by neurological symptoms which include transient verbal and visual disturbances, PARAESTHESIA, disorientation, ?ts and sometimes loss of consciousness. It also affects the eyes, causing PAPILLOEDEMA. Haemorrhages may occur in the brain, usually in the area of the BASAL GANGLIA. Neurological symptoms can usually be treated e?ectively by controlling the patient’s hypertension.... hypertensive encephalopathy

Indian Potato Or Eskimo Potato

Claytonia species

Description: All Claytonia species are somewhat fleshy plants only a few centimeters tall, with showy flowers about 2.5 centimeters across.

Habitat and Distribution: Some species are found in rich forests where they are conspicuous before the leaves develop. Western species are found throughout most of the northern United States and in Canada.

Edible Parts: The tubers are edible but you should boil them before eating.... indian potato or eskimo potato

Hymenodictyon Excelsum


Synonym: H. orixense (Roxb) Mobb.

Family: Rubiaceae.

Habitat: Central India and Western Peninsula.

Ayurvedic: Bhramar-chhalikaa, Ugragandhaa (a confusing synonym). Bhringa-vrksha (provisional synonym).

Siddha/Tamil: Sagappu, Vellei Kadambu, Peranjoli.

Folk: Bhaulan, Bhramarchhali, Bhuurkunda.

Action: Bark—astringent, febrifuge, antiperiodic (especially for tertian ague).

The stem bark contains scopoletin and its apioglucoside, hymexelsin (yield 0.12%). The presence of glucose, fructose, galactose and several amino acids, alanine, arginine, cystine, glycine, leucine; besides fatty acids, beta-sitosterol and stigmasterol is also reported from the bark.

Roots contain several quinones.... hymenodictyon excelsum

Indigofera Enneaphylla


Synonym: I. linnaei Ali.

Family: Fabaceae.

Habitat: The Himalayas up to 1,200 m and in plains of India.

English: Trailing indigo.

Ayurvedic: Vaasukaa.

Siddha/Tamil: Cheppunerinjil.

Folk: Hanumaan-buuti, Bhui-nila.

Action: Juice of the plant— antiscorbutic, diuretic, alterative. The plant, boiled with oil, is applied to burns. A decoction is given in epilepsy and insanity.

The plant contains two unsaturat- ed hydrocarbons—indigoferin and en- neaphyllin. The seeds contain 37.8% protein, also yield lipids (4.4%) containing palmitic and oleic acid. The toxicity of the plant is attributed to a non-protein amino acid, indospicine (6-amidino-2-aminohexanoic acid). (Consumption of the plant produces a neurological syndrome, known as Birdsville disease, in horses. The toxic- ity is greatly reduced when the material is chopped and dried.)

The aerial parts gave 3-nitropropa- noyl esters of D-glucose.... indigofera enneaphylla

Ion Exchange Resins

Synthetic organic substances, capable of exchanging ions – cationic or anionic – from the contents of the intestine. Originally used in the prevention of OEDEMA, they have been superseded in this role by the modern DIURETICS, and are now used chie?y in the treatment of HYPERKALAEMIA. They are usually taken by mouth or as an ENEMA.... ion exchange resins

Ipomoea Eriocarpa

R. Br.

Synonym: I. hispida Roem. & Schult.

I. sessiliflora Roth.

Family: Convolvulaceae.

Habitat: Throughout India.

Ayurvedic: Aakhukarni (related species), Sheetavalli (provisional synonym).

Folk: Nikhari, Bhanwar (Punjab).

Action: Antirheumatic, anticepha- lalgic, antiepileptic and antileprotic.

The plant is boiled in oil and used as an application for rheumatism, headache, epilepsy, fevers, ulcers, leprosy. The seeds are reported to contain a resin similar to that present in the seeds of Ipomoea nil.... ipomoea eriocarpa

Iris Ensata


Family: Iridaceae.

Habitat: Temperate Northwestern Himalaya at 1,500-2,700 m. and from Kashmir to Himachal Pradesh. Often grown in gardens.

Ayurvedic: Paarseeka Vachaa, Haimavati, Shveta Vachaa, Baalbach.

Unani: Irsaa, Sosan, Iris.

Folk: Marjal, Unarjal (Kashmir).

Action: Used in diseases of the liver.

Aerial parts contain xanthone gly- cosides; C-glycoside of apigenin and phenolic acids. Roots contain ceryl alcohol.

Natural irones, the main constituent of Orris oil, are obtained from different species of Iris. The laccases, obtained from Iris species and other plants are used in hair cosmetic preparations, as an oxidizing agent in oxidative hair dyes and permanent hair wave-setting compositions. The root extracts of Iris species are used in cosmetic preparations for the prevention of skin roughness and ageing.... iris ensata

Jacksonian Epilepsy

See EPILEPSY.... jacksonian epilepsy

Japanese Encephalitis

A flavivirus, related to Murray Valley virus (see Australian Encephalitis). Rice paddybreeding Culicine mosquitoes, Culex tritaeniorhyehus, often transmit the disease. Mosquitoes are largely zoophilic. Occasionally Aedes spp and Anopholines implicated in transmission. Disease consists of prodrome, encephalitis and recovery (or death on average in 7%). Affects mostly children less than five years of age and leaves sequelae. A vaccination is available.... japanese encephalitis

Jenner, Edward

Edward Jenner was an English country practitioner (1749–1823). He had noticed that cowpox, which milkmaids caught from cattle, gave these women immunity from the scourge of SMALLPOX. In 1796 he transformed this observation into the medical technique of VACCINATION, innoculating a country boy with matter from the arm of a milkmaid infected with cowpox. Despite hostility from some doctors, Parliament voted him a grant of £10,000 for a society to promote vaccination and the technique spread worldwide, giving bene?t to an immense number of people.... jenner, edward

Life Everlasting

Longevity, Health, Healing... life everlasting

Juncus Effusus


Synonym: J. communis E. Mey.

Family: Juncaceae.

Habitat: Eastern Himalayas and Khasi Hills.

English: Rush, Matting Rush.

Action: Pith—antilithic, discutient, diuretic, depurative, pectoral. Root—diuretic, especially in strangury.

The leaves gave flavonoids, lutcoline- 7-glucoside, diosmin and hesperidin; aerial parts gave phenolic constituents, effusol and juncusol. Juncusol is antimicrobial. A dihydrodibenzoxepin, isolated from the plant, showed cyto- toxic activity.... juncus effusus

Lasiosiphon Eriocephalus


Family: Thymelaceaceae.

Habitat: Deccan and Western Ghats, from Konkan southwards to Kerala at altitudes of 1,200-2,500 m.

Siddha: Nachinaar (Tamil).

Folk: Raamethaa (Maharashtra).

Action: Barkandleaves—poisonous. Plant—vesicant. Leaves are applied to swellings and contusions.

The stem bark and seeds contain a xanthone glycoside, lasioside and a biscoumarin, lasiocephatin.... lasiosiphon eriocephalus

Lettsomia Elliptica


Synonym: Argyreia elliptica (Wight) Choisy.

Family: Convolvulaceae.

Habitat: Chota Nagpur, Orissa, Deccan, Karnataka, Anaimalai Hills and Western Ghats from Konkan southwards to Kerala.

English: Silverweed.

Siddha/Tamil: Unnayangodi.

Folk: Khedari, Bond vel (Maharashtra).

Action: Leaves—a paste is applied externally in cough and quinsy.... lettsomia elliptica

Luffa Echinata


Family: Cucurbitaceae.

Habitat: Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Bengal and Gujarat.

English: Bristly Luffa.

Ayurvedic: Devadaali, Devataadaka, Jimuuta, Garaagari, Kothaphala.

Siddha/Tamil: Panibira.

Folk: Bandaal (Varanasi).

Action: Fruit—purgative (intensely bitter and fibrous). An infusion is given in biliary and intestinal colic; also in nephritis and chronic bronchitis.

The fruit contains chrysoeriol and its glycosides as principal flavonoids. Seeds contain cucurbitacin B, triter- pene alcohols, and a saponin with olea- nolic acid as sapogenin.

The alcoholic and ether extracts of the plant showed protection against CCl4-induced hepatic injury in rats. The aqueous extract of fruits is beneficial in jaundice as it significantly lowered serum bilirubin level in chlorpromazine-induced jaundice in rats and human patients. The ethano- lic extract (50%) of the plant exhibited hypoglycaemic activity.

The yellow-flowered var. of De- vadaali (Eastern Himalayas, Sikkim, Bihar, Bengal) is equated with Luffa graveolens Roxb.

Dosage: Fruit—1-3 g powder. (CCRAS.)... luffa echinata

Luvunga Eleutherandra

Dalz in part.

Family: Rutaceae.

Habitat: The western part of Peninsular India, from Konkan southwards to Anaimalai and Travancore hills, up to an altitude of 1,000 m.

Ayurvedic: Lavanga-lataa (var.).

Folk: Kokilaa (Bengal).

Action: See Luvunga scandens.... luvunga eleutherandra

Medical Dictionary

Medical Dictionary

[catlist id=11 numberposts=100 pagination=yes instance=2 orderby=title order=asc]

... medical dictionary

Medical Error

An error or omission in the medical care provided to an individual. Medical errors can occur in diagnosis, treatment, preventive monitoring or in the failure of a piece of medical equipment or another component of the medical system. Often, but not always, medical errors result in adverse events such as injury or death. See also “malpractice”; and “incidence monitoring and reporting”.... medical error

Minority Ethnic Group

People who share a cultural heritage which is different from the majority ethnic culture. See also “ethnicity”; “culture”.... minority ethnic group

National Electronic Library For Health

This National Health Service initiative went online in November 2000. It aims to provide health professionals with easy and fast access to best current knowledge from medical journals, professional group guidelines, etc. Unbiased data can be accessed by both clinicians and the public.... national electronic library for health

Nhs Executive

The top management body in the health service. It is part of the Department of Health.... nhs executive

Lycopersicon Esculentum


Synonym: Solanum lycopersicum Linn.

Family: Solanaceae.

Habitat: Cultivated in many parts of India.

English: Tomato, Love Apple.

Unani: Tamaatar.

Action: Mild aperient, blood purifier, cholagogue, digestive. Used in homoeopathy for treating rheumatic conditions, colds, chills, digestive disorders, diabetes, obesity, leucorrhoea, metrorrhagia.

Tomato is a powerful deobstruent. It promotes flow of bile; mildly laxative, especially when taken raw. Tomato stimulates torpid liver and kidneys and helps to wash away toxins. Tomato is recommended for diabetics. It is a major dietary source of carotenoid lycopene.

Tomato juice inhibits carcinogenic N-nitrosocompound formation chiefly in the stomach. Most of the inhibition of formation of N-nitrosomorpholine by phenolic fraction of tomato juice was due to chlorogenic acids. The ascorbate fraction of the juice also contains compounds that inhibit ni- trosation.

Consumption of tomato juice can significantly increase serum lycopene levels. (Decreased serum lycopene concentrations are associated with an increase risk of prostate cancer.) (Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, 2007.)

The alcoholic extract of tomato possesses CNS depressant and analgesic properties.... lycopersicon esculentum

Lycopus Europaeus


Family: Labiatae.

Habitat: Western Himalayas in Jammu and Kashmir, and Himachal Pradesh.

English: Gipsywort, Bugleweed.

Folk: Gandam-gundu, Jalneem.

Action: Cardioactive, diuretic, peripheral vasoconstrictor, sedative, narcotic, antihaemorrhagic, antitussive, thyrostatic.

Key application: In mild thyroid hyperfunction (contraindicated in thyroid hypofunction, enlargement of thyroid) with disturbances of vegetative nervous system; masto- dynia (tension and pain in breast). No simultaneous administration of thyroid preparations. Administration of Bugleweed preparations interferes with the administration of diagnostic procedures using radioactive isotopes. (German Commission E.)

The leaves contain lithospermic acid. Plant contains luteolin-7-glucoside; ur- solic acid, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, sinapic acid, ellagic acid and other derivatives of phenolic acid. The antioxidant activity of the plant is partially attributed to rosmarinic acid. Antigonadotropic activity of the leaf extract is attributed to phenolic precursors.

Ethanol extract of the plant showed diverse effects on the pituitary, thyroid and gonadal glands of rats.

A closely related species, Lycopus virginicus of Europe, exhibits anti- thyrotropic activity. It induces TSH repletion in hypothyroid rats and reduction of TSH levels in euthyroid rats. Antigonadotropic activity has been demonstrated in rats.... lycopus europaeus

Maca Tea - A Libido Enhancer

Maca tea has been recognized for its nutritional properties and for being a libido enhancer. Maca plant, also known as the “Peruvian ginseng”, is an herb that grows in the high Andes of Bolivia and Peru for thousands of years. It is related to the turnip and the radish, having green and fragrant tops that lie along the ground. Maca has been used in Peru as a remedy to enhance energy and sexual function. The constituents of maca root are basically minerals such as calcium, potassium, magnesium, zinc, phosphorus and iron; sterols, lipids, carbohydrates, fiber, proteins and amino acids. How To Make Maca Tea Maca tea has a sweet taste, similar to butterscotch. To brew maca tea you will need an herbal tea of your choice to combine it with the maca powder. Prepare the herbal tea and after 1-2 minutes, add a teaspoon of maca powder and stir the mixture. To really enhance the flavor, you can add milk or honey. Tea connoisseurs recommend Soya milk. Maca Tea Benefits
  • Helps providing energy without over-stimulating the body’s systems.
  • Enhances libido and helps in the treatment of erectile dysfunction.
  • Increases the production of sperm.
  • Helps relieving the symptoms of menopause.
  • Strengthens your immune system.
  • Balances and stabilizes the body’s cardiovascular, nervous, muscular and lymphatic systems.
Maca Tea Side Effects In toxicity studies, maca tea showed no adverse pharmacological effects. However, maca root contains iodine, which can lead to side effects such as thyroid disease. Maca root is also high in glucosinolates and in case of over consumption, combined with low-iodine diet, can cause goiter. It can also cause hives and fatigue to people that are allergic to the constituents of maca tea. Maca Tea is a wonderful tea with many health benefits. It is ideal for incresing your libido and boosting your immune system! Try to avoid over consumption in order not to experience any of its side effects!... maca tea - a libido enhancer

Placebo Effect

The placebo effect (usually but not necessarily beneficial) is attributable to the expectation that the regimen will have an effect, i.e. the effect is due to the power of suggestion.... placebo effect

Positron-emission Tomography (pet)

See PET SCANNING.... positron-emission tomography (pet)

Potentially Pathogenic Environmental Mycobacteria (ppem)

The atypical mycobacteria. The commonest PPEM to cause human disease is the Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex. PPEM differ from M. tuberculosis in their source (environmental or zoonotic), rate of growth, temperature of growth and ability to produce pigment on culture. Mostly infect immunologically compromised humans and the disease caused by some species may be clinicallyindistinguishable from true human tuberculosis.... potentially pathogenic environmental mycobacteria (ppem)

Pre-existing Condition

A term normally used for a condition developed prior to applying for a health insurance policy. Some policies exclude coverage of such conditions for a period of time or indefinitely.... pre-existing condition

Manihot Esculenta


Family: Euphorbiaceae.

Habitat: Native to Brazil. Major crop in Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh.

English: Manioc, Tapioca, Cassava.

Siddha/Tamil: Maravalli kizhangu, Ezhalai kizhangu.

Folk: Tapioca.

Action: Staple food for poorer section of the population in many tropical countries. The starch is used for the manufacture of dextose, liquid glucose. The bitter variety is used for treating scabies and weeping skin.

The tuber is a good source of provitamin A carotenoids. It contains 0.1-3.0 mg/kg (fresh weight) of beta- carotene and 0.05-00.6 mg/kg (fresh weight) of lutein. The bitterness of the tuber is related to the cyanoglu- coside content which ranges from 320 to 1,100 mcg cyanide/g in very bitter tubers and from 27.5 to 77.5 mcg is non-bitter tubers. Boiling, crushing and sun-drying reduce bitterness and also cyanoglucoside content. The tannin equivalent content in the clones varies from 0.31 to 0.34% and saponin equivalent varies from 0.18 to 0.29%.

Feeding tapioca significantly reduced the plasma cholesterol profile experimentally in cats and rats.... manihot esculenta

Memecylon Edule


Synonym: M. umbellatum Burm. f.

Family: Melastomataceae.

Habitat: Orissa, Assam and Western Peninsula.

English: Iron Wood.

Ayurvedic: Anjani.

Siddha/Tamil: Kasai, Anjani.

Folk: Yaalki, Lokhandi (Maharashtra).

Action: Fruit and leaf—astringent. Leaf—antileucorrhoeic, spasmolytic, hypoglycaemic. A lotion prepared from the leaves is used in ophthalmia. Root—used in excessive menstrual discharge.

Aerial parts gave umbelactone, beta- amyrin, ursolic acid, oleanolic acid, sitosterol and its glucoside.... memecylon edule

Mimusops Elengi


Family: Mimosaceae.

Habitat: Native to tropical America; naturalized in tropical and subtropical regions of India.

English: Sensitive-plant, Humble- Plant.

Ayurvedic: Lajjaalu, Laajavanti, Namaskaari, Samangaa, Sankochini, Shamipatraa, Khadirkaa, Raktapaadi.

Unani: Chhuimui, Sharmili, Laajwanti.

Siddha/Tamil: Thottalsurungi.

Action: Leaf—astringent, alterative, antiseptic, styptic, blood purifier. Used for diarrhoea, dysentery, haemophilic conditions, leuc- orrhoea, morbid conditions of vagina, piles, fistula, hydrocele and glandular swellings. Root—used in gravel and urinary complaints. A decoction is taken to relieve asthma.

The plant contains mimosine and turgorin. The periodic leaf movements exhibited by the plant are due to presence of derivatives of 4-O- (beta-D-glucopyranosyl-6'-sulphate)

Family: Sapotaceae.

Habitat: Cultivated in North India, Western Peninsula and South India.

English: Spanish-Cherry, West Indian Medlar, Bullet Wood.

Ayurvedic: Bakula, Keshara, Simhakeshara, Sthiraa, Sthira- pushpa, Vishaarada, Dhanvi, Madhupushpa, Madhugandha, Chirpushpa, Maulsiri.

Unani: Molsari.

Siddha: Magilam.

Action: Pulp of ripe fruit—astringent; used in chronic dysentery Flowers, fruit and bark—astringent. Bark—given for promoting fertility in women. Seeds—purgative. The leaves contain sterols, reducing sugars and tannins; roots, a steroidal saponin; stem bark, spinasterol and taraxerol; flowers, D-mannitol, beta-sitosterol and beta-sitosterol- D-glycoside; seeds, pentacyclic triterpene acids, mimusopic and mimusopsic acids.

Essential oil obtained from the plant is reported to be mycotoxic. Antimicrobial activity of the root extract has been reported. Saponins isolated from the seeds have been found to effect the cardiovascular activity in dogs and haemolytic activity in human beings. Spasmolytic activity in isolated ileum of guinea-pigs has also been recorded. Saponins from seeds also showed spermicidal activity.

Dosage: Seed, bark—10-20 g paste; 50-100 ml decoction. (CCRAS.)... mimusops elengi

Programme Evaluation / Review

The systematic assessment of the relevance, adequacy, progress, efficiency, effectiveness and impact of a programme.... programme evaluation / review

Random Variation / Random Error

The tendency for the estimated magnitude of a parameter (e.g. based upon the average of a sample of observations of a treatment or intervention effect) to deviate randomly from the true magnitude of that parameter. Random variation is independent of the effects of systematic biases. In general, the larger the sample size, the lower the random variation of the estimate of a parameter. As random variation decreases, precision increases.... random variation / random error

Medical Education

This term is used to de?ne the process of learning and knowledge-acquisition in the study of medicine. It also encompasses the expertise required to develop education and training for students and learners in all aspects of medical health care. Studies for undergraduate students, postgraduate students and individual health-care practitioners, from the initial stages to the ongoing development of a career in medicine or associated health ?elds, are also included in medical education. The word ‘pedagogy’ is sometimes applied to this process.

A range of research investigations has developed within medical education. These apply to course monitoring, audit, development and validation, assessment methodologies and the application of educationally appropriate principles at undergraduate and postgraduate levels. Research is undertaken by medical educationalists whose backgrounds include teaching, social sciences and medicine and related health-care specialties, and who will hold a medical or general educational diploma, degree or other appropriate postgraduate quali?cation.

Development and validation for all courses are an important part of continuing accreditation processes. The relatively conservative courses at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels, including diplomas and postgraduate quali?cations awarded by the specialist medical royal colleges (responsible for standards of specialist education) and universities, have undergone a range of reassessment and rede?nition driven by the changing needs of the individual practitioner in the last decade. The stimuli to change aspects of medical training have come from the government through the former Chief Medical O?cer, Sir Kenneth Calman, and the introduction of new approaches to specialist training (the Calman programme), from the GENERAL MEDICAL COUNCIL (GMC) and its document Tomorrow’s Doctors, as well as from the profession itself through the activities of the British Medical Association and the medical royal colleges. The evolving expectations of the public in their perception of the requirements of a doctor, and changes in education of other groups of health professionals, have also led to pressures for changes.

Consequently, many new departments and units devoted to medical education within university medical schools, royal colleges and elsewhere within higher education have been established. These developments have built upon practice developed elsewhere in the world, particularly in North America, Australia and some European countries. Undergraduate education has seen application of new educational methods, including Problem-Based Learning (PBL) in Liverpool, Glasgow and Manchester; clinical and communications skills teaching; early patient contact; and the extensive adoption of Internet (World Wide Web) support and Computer-Aided Learning (CAL). In postgraduate education – driven by European directives and practices, changes in specialist training and the needs of community medicine – new courses have developed around the membership and fellowship examinations for the royal colleges. Examples of these changes driven by medical education expertise include the STEP course for the Royal College of Surgeons of England, and distance-learning courses for diplomas in primary care and rheumatology, as well as examples of good practice as adopted by the Royal College of General Practitioners.

Continuing Professional Development (CPD) and Continuing Medical Education (CME) are also important aspects of medical education now being developed in the United Kingdom, and are evolving to meet the needs of individuals at all stages of their careers.

Bodies closely involved in medical educational developments and their review include the General Medical Council, SCOPME (the Standing Committee on Postgraduate Medical Education), all the medical royal colleges and medical schools, and the British Medical Association through its Board of Medical Education. The National Health Service (NHS) is also involved in education and is a key to facilitation of CPD/CME as the major employer of doctors within the United Kingdom.

Several learned societies embrace medical education at all levels. These include ASME (the Association for the Study of Medical Education), MADEN (the Medical and Dental Education Network) and AMEE (the Association for Medical Education in Europe). Specialist journals are devoted to research reports relating to medical educational developments

(e.g. Academic Medicine, Health Care Education, Medical Education). The more general medical journals (e.g. British Medical Journal, New England Journal of Medicine, The Lancet, Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons) also carry articles on educational matters. Finally, the World Wide Web (WWW) is a valuable source of information relating to courses and course development and other aspects of modern medical education.

The UK government, which controls the number of students entering medical training, has recently increased the quota to take account of increasing demands for trained sta? from the NHS. More than 5,700 students – 3,300 women and 2,400 men – are now entering UK medical schools annually with nearly 28,600 at medical school in any one year, and an attrition rate of about 8–10 per cent. This loss may in part be due to the changes in university-funding arrangements. Students now pay all or part of their tuition fees, and this can result in medical graduates owing several thousand pounds when they qualify at the end of their ?ve-year basic quali?cation course. Doctors wishing to specialise need to do up to ?ve years (sometimes more) of salaried ‘hands-on’ training in house or registrar (intern) posts.

Though it may be a commonly held belief that most students enter medicine for humanitarian reasons rather than for the ?nancial rewards of a successful medical career, in developed nations the prospect of status and rewards is probably one incentive. However, the cost to students of medical education along with the widespread publicity in Britain about an under-resourced, seriously overstretched health service, with sta? working long hours and dealing with a rising number of disgruntled patients, may be affecting recruitment, since the number of applicants for medical school has dropped in the past year or so. Although there is still competition for places, planners need to bear this falling trend in mind.

Another factor to be considered for the future is the nature of the medical curriculum. In Britain and western Europe, the age structure of a probably declining population will become top-heavy with senior citizens. In the ?nancial interests of the countries affected, and in the personal interests of an ageing population, it would seem sensible to raise the pro?le of preventive medicine – traditionally rather a Cinderella subject – in medical education, thus enabling people to live healthier as well as longer lives. While learning about treatments is essential, the increasing specialisation and subspecialisation of medicine in order to provide expensive, high-technology care to a population, many of whom are suffering from preventable illnesses originating in part from self-indulgent lifestyles, seems insupportable economically, unsatisfactory for patients awaiting treatment, and not necessarily professionally ful?lling for health-care sta?. To change the mix of medical education would be a di?cult long-term task but should be worthwhile for providers and recipients of medical care.... medical education

Murraya Exotica


Synonym: M. paniculata (Linn.) Jack.

Family: Rutaceae.

Habitat: Throughout India and Andaman Islands up to an altitude of1,500 m.

Siddha/Tamil: Konji.

Folk: Kaamini; Aanthil (Bihar).

Action: Leaves—astringent; used in diarrhoea and dysentery (sap, squeezed from leaves, is administered). Root—antipyretic.

The plant is rich in coumarins, car- bazole alkaloids and flavonoids. The leaves contain a number of coumarins, the major ones being murrangatin and phebalosin. Murrangatin, derived from the precursor phebalosin, is reported to possess antithyroid property. The root contains a bis-indole alkaloid, yuehchukene, with potent antiimplantation activity.

Mexolide (dimeric coumarin), isolated from the stem bark is antibacterial. The steam distillate of leaves exhibit antifungal and antibacterial activity.... murraya exotica

National Institute For Clinical Excellence (nice)

This special health authority in the National Health Service, launched in 1999, prepares formal advice for all managers and health professionals working in the service in England and Wales on the clinical- and cost-e?ectiveness of new and existing technologies. This includes diagnostic tests, medicines and surgical procedures. The institute also gives advice on best practice in the use of existing treatments.

NICE – its Scottish equivalent is the Scottish Health Technology Assessment Centre – has three main functions:

appraisal of new and existing technologies.

development of clinical guidelines.

promotion of clinical audit and con?dential inquiries. Central to its task is public concern about ‘postcode prescribing’ – that is, di?erent availability of health care according to geography.

In 2003 the World Health Organisation appraised NICE. Amongst its recomendations were that there should be greater consistency in the methods used for appraisal and the way in which results and decisions were reported. WHO was concerned about the need for transparency about the con?ict between NICE’s use of manufacturers’ commercial evidence in con?dence, and believed there should be greater de?nition of justi?cation for ‘threshold’ levels for cost-e?ectiveness in the Centre’s judgement of what represents value for money.

In all, WHO was congratulatory – but questions remain about the practical value and imlementation of NICE guidelines.... national institute for clinical excellence (nice)

Nocturnal Enuresis

The involuntary passing of URINE during sleep. It is a condition predominantly of childhood, and usually genetically determined. Sometimes, however, it is a symptom of anxiety in a child, especially if there has been over-rigorous attempts at toilet-training or hostile or unloving behaviour by a parent. It can also be provoked by apparently unimportant changes in a child’s life – for example, moving house. In a small minority of cases it is due to some organic cause such as infection of the genitourinary tract.

The age at which a child achieves full control of bladder function varies considerably. Such control is sometimes achieved in the second year, but much more commonly not until 2–3 years old. Some children do not normally achieve such control until the fourth, or even ?fth, year, so that paediatricians are reluctant to make this diagnosis before a child is aged six.

The approach consists essentially of reassurance and ?rm but kindly and understanding training. In most cases the use of a ‘star chart’ and a buzzer alarm which wakens the child should he or she start passing urine is helpful. Where there are relationship or social problems, these need to be considered in treating the child. The few who have urinary infection or irritable bladders may respond to drug tretament.

Those who do not respond may be helped by DDAVP, an analogue of a pituitary hormone, which reduces the amount of urine produced overnight. It is licensed for use for three months at a time. Some children prefer to reserve it for occasions such as sleeping away from home. The antidepressant imipramine can help some children but has to be used cautiously because of side-effects.

For help, contact nocturnal enuresis

Reticulo-endothelial System

This consists of highly specialised cells scattered throughout the body, but found mainly in the SPLEEN, BONE MARROW, LIVER, and LYMPH nodes or glands. Their main function is the ingestion of red blood cells and the conversion of HAEMOGLOBIN to BILIRUBIN. They are also able to ingest bacteria and foreign colloidal particles.... reticulo-endothelial system

Olea Europaea


Family: Olaeaceae.

Habitat: Native of Mediterranean region; cultivated in Jammu and Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh.

English: Olive.

Unani: Zaitoon.

Action: Leaves and bark— febrifugal, astringent, diuretic, antihypertensive.

Oil—preparations are used for cho- langiitis, cholecystitis, cholelithiasis, icterus, flatulence, meteorism, lack of bacteria in the intestines. Demulcent and mild laxative. Externally used for wound dressing and for minor burns, psoriasis and pruritus. (Included among unapproved herbs by German Commission E.)

Chemical investigations of two varieties—Ascotrinia and Ascolina— grown in Jammu region have shown that the characteristics of fruits and their oils are similar to those of European varieties.

Leaves of Olea europaea gave iri- doid monoterpenes including oleu- ropein and oleuroside; triterpenes including oleanolic and maslinic acids; flavonoids including luteolin and api- genine derivatives. The oil contains glycerides of oleic acid about 70-80%, with smaller amounts of linoleic, palmitic and stearic acid glycerides.

The leaves exhibited hypotensive, antiarrhythmic and spasmolytic activities in animal studies. The oil exhibited contraction of gallbladder due to raising of the cholecystokinin level in the plasma.

India's requirements of olive oil are met by imports.... olea europaea

Onosma Echioides

C. B. Clarke non Linn.

Synonym: Onosma hispidum Wall. ex D. Don.

Family: Boraginaceae.

Habitat: Kashmir and Kumaon up to 1,000-1,500 m.

Unani: Ratanjot (equated with Onosma echioides Linn., according to National Formularly ofUnani Medicine).

Action: Astringent and styptic. Root—bruised and used as application to eruptions. An ingredient of ointments for ulcers, scrofula, burns. Flowers—stimulant, cardiac tonic.

Ursolic acid and naphthoquinones, onosone A and B have been isolated from the root. Shikonin acetate is obtained from callus cultures of the plant.

The species, distributed in western Himalayas, is Onosma echioides C. B. Clarke non Linn.; Onosma echioides Linn. is an European species. A variety of this species, var. kashmiricum Johnson, is found in Kashmir. Onosma hookeri C. B. Clarke occurs in Sikkim and Bhutan.

Maharanga emodi (Wall.) DC., synonym Onosma emodi (Wall.) DC. (the Himalayas from Garhwal to Bhutan at altitudes of 3,500-4,000 m) is also known as Ratanjot and Shankhuli.

(Ratanjot is used in a generic sense to cover a range of red dye-yielding roots, rather than the root of a single species. As many as 15 plant species belonging to four different families are known as Ratanjot; five of them do not yield red dye. General properties and colour reactions attributed to Ratanjot resemble Alkanet from Alkanna tinctoria Tausch.)... onosma echioides

Oolong Tea Health Benefits, Side Effects And Brewing

Oolong tea, literally meaning “Black Dragon”, is a traditional Chinese beverage which undergoes a unique preparation process resulting in a reddish drink with a slightly sweet delicate flavour. Oolong tea is partially fermented, unlike black tea, which is fully fermented, or green tea, which is unfermented. Oolong Tea Brewing Oolong tea requires a higher brewingtemperature in order to extract the complex aromas of the tea leaves. It is recommended to use spring or filtered water heated at a temperature of approximately 90 degrees Celsius. The steeping process for most Oolong teas should last no longer than five minutes. If this period is extended for too long, it may ruin the delicate aromas and turn your cup of tea unpleasantly bitter. Oolong teas are best served plain, but you can add milk, sugar, honey or lemon according to your taste. Oolong Tea Health Benefits Oolong tea, a hybrid between black and green tea, has numerous health benefits, especially if consumed regularly. Drinking Oolong tea stimulates brain activity and relieves mental and physical stress. Oolong tea has the potential of reducing high blood pressure, lowering blood sugar levels and preventing serious afflictions like obesity, osteoporosis, tooth decay, cancer or heart disease. Oolong tea accelerates the metabolism and promotes weight loss. Another health benefit of Oolong tea is its effectiveness in treating skin problems such as eczema and rashes and combating skin aging. Oolong Tea Side Effects Although drinking Oolong tea is extremely beneficial for the body, it can also lead to unpleasant side effects when consumed in large quantities, therefore moderation is required. These side effects include sleeping difficulties, anxiety or irritability, most of them related to excessive caffeine intake. It is not recommended for pregnant women and people suffering from kidney disorders. Furthermore, oolong tea has been proven to interact with certain medications; therefore, people who undertake treatment are advised to consult a health care provider first. Oolong tea is extremely effective in keeping your energy levels up, due to its caffeine content, and it also increases brain function, helping you maintain active and aware throughout the day.... oolong tea health benefits, side effects and brewing