The meaning of the symbols of dreams/ seen in a dream.


Referring to conjunctivitis... ophthalmia


Inflammation of the testis characterised by hypertrophy and pain... orchitis


An abnormal accumulation of ?uid beneath the skin, or in one or more of the cavities of the body.

Causes Oedema is not a disease, it is a sign – usually of underlying local or systemic disease. It may sometimes be visible as a swelling. Oedema occurs when the normal mechanisms for maintaining a balance between ?uid in the tissues and in the blood are upset. That balance depends mainly on the blood pressure that keeps the blood ?owing through the circulatory system – thus forcing ?uid out of the capillaries

– and the osmotic drawing force of the blood proteins which pulls water into the bloodstream. The KIDNEYS also have an essential role in maintaining this balance.

Among the disorders that may disturb this balance are heart failure, NEPHROTIC SYNDROME, kidney failure, CIRRHOSIS of the liver and a diet de?cient in protein. Injury may also cause oedema and ascites (?uid in the abdominal cavity) can occur as a result of cirrhosis of the liver or cancer in the abdominal organs.

Treatment The underlying cause of oedema should be treated and, if this is not feasible or e?ective, the excess ?uid should be excreted by boosting the output of the kidney. Restriction of sodium in the diet and the administration of DIURETICS are e?ective methods of achieving this.... oedema


Softening of the bones, resulting from vitamin D deficiency... osteomalacia


A system of medicine that emphasizes the theory that the body can make its own remedies, given normal structural relationships, environmental conditions, and nutrition. It differs from allopathy primarily in its greater attention to body mechanics and manipulative methods in diagnosis and therapy.... osteopathy


The softening of bone mass and the widening of the bone canals. This occurs with both age and diminished physical activity. Since women live longer, they are more likely to show such signs. (WARNING! Tirade Ahead!) There is little doubt that the condition is increasing among American women, and is starting to show itself at an earlier age. This is called “improved diagnostic methods” (harumph). The statistics that show the rise to be strongest in women that have used steroid hormone therapies in their earlier years seems to have escaped the notice of current Medical Conventional Wisdom. This states that ALL women need medical care against osteoporosis going into menopause, and the primary treatment is...steroid hormones (this year, at least). I know this may sound smarmy, coming from some long-in-the-tooth hippy male, but I would be far more impressed if SERIOUS attention was given to carefully defining the parameters of a woman’s risks. The road of medicine is strewn with four decades of well-intended universal hormone approaches to women’s health...embarrassedly forgotten. The idea of universal HRT for a whole generation of menopausal women seems like a frightening experiment in medical fascism and band-wagon hubris. There is no attention given as to WHY our future elders are suddenly stricken with a medical problem. Were birth-control pills, made up of synthetic digestion-proof steroid analogues, a major cause? Has our food become simply inadequate and over-pocessed? Have the decades of exposure by women to xeno-estrogens that are derived from degraded insecticides had more effect than the ones claimed by environmental watch-dog groups...the rise in breast and prostate cancer, the halving of the sperm count in Caucasian males and little-dicked alligators reported from Florida? Is the synthetic flavor in that pink bubble gum to blame? Perhaps its the fumes released from the early Barbies? FDS? There must be some reason, but the present medical answer is only HRT and (if politics allow) Jane Fonda tapes.... osteoporosis

Cancrum Oris

Cancrum oris, also called noma, is a gangrenous ulcer about the mouth which affects sickly children, especially after some severe disease such as measles. It is due to the growth of bacteria in the tissues.... cancrum oris


An excessive accumulation of fat in the body... obesity

Occupational Therapy

Therapy designed to help individuals improve their independence in daily living activities through rehabilitation, exercises and the use of assistive devices. In addition, such therapy provides activities to promote growth, self-fulfilment and self-esteem.... occupational therapy


Structure attached to the oral cavity/mouth of an organism which connects to the rest of the digestive system. The oesophagus can be classified according to the shape and structure.... oesophagus


(Syn. “river blindness”) A. disease caused by the parasitic filarial nematode Onchocerca volvulus. (See also filariasis).... onchocerciasis


The study of cancer.... oncology


See Cebolla.... onion


Relating to the mouth. The area with the mouth opening.... oral


In?ammation of the BONE as a result of infection (see BONE, DISEASES OF).... osteomyelitis


A short-lived, fast acting hormone, made by the hypothalamus of the brain, along with its close relative vasopressin (anti-diuretic hormone), stored in the posterior pituitary, and released into the blood as needed. It stimulates certain smooth muscle coats, constricts certain blood vessels and facilitates the sensitivity of some tissues to other hormones and nerves. The main tissues affected are the uterus, including endo­and myometriums, vagina, breasts (both sexes), erectile tissue (both sexes), seminal vesicles, and with special-case effects on uterine muscle contractions in both birth and orgasm, the vascular constriction that lessens placental separation bleeding, and the let­down reflex that nursing mothers have when babies cry (or kittens mew...or husbands whine)... oxytocin


Also called angioneurotic oedema; see under URTICARIA.... angio-oedema

Cardiac Output

The volume of blood pumped out per minute by the ventricles of the heart. It is one measure of the heart’s e?ciency. At rest, the heart of a healthy adult will pump between 2.5 and 4.5 litres of blood every minute. Exercise will raise this to as much as 30 litres a minute but, if this ?gure is low, it suggests that the heart muscle may be diseased or that the person has suffered severe blood loss.... cardiac output

Hippocratic Oath

An oath once (but no longer) taken by doctors on quali?cation, setting out the moral precepts of their profession and binding them to a code of behaviour and practice aimed at protecting the interests of their patients. The oath is named after HIPPOCRATES (460–377 BC), the Greek ‘father of medicine’. Almost half of British medical students and 98 per cent of American ones make a ceremonial commitment to assume the responsibilities and obligations of the medical profession, but not by reciting this oath.... hippocratic oath

Medulla Oblongata

The hindmost part of the BRAIN, continuing into the SPINAL CORD. In it are situated several of the nerve centres which are most essential to life, such as those governing breathing, the action of the heart and swallowing.... medulla oblongata


The lower and hinder part of the head, where it merges into the neck.... occiput


The way that the TEETH ?t together when the jaws close. Also the closing or obstruction of a duct, hollow organ, or blood vessel.... occlusion


Describing something that is not easily seen. Occult blood in the faeces is present in very small amounts and can be identi?ed only by a chemical test or under the microscope.... occult

Oedipus Complex

A description used by psychoanalysts of the subconscious attraction of a child for its parent of the opposite sex. This is accompanied by a wish to get rid of the parent of the same sex. The origin of the phrase lies in the Greek story in which Oedipus kills his father without realising who he is, then marries his mother. It has been suggested that the arrest of psychological development at the Oedipal stage may cause NEUROSIS and sexual dysfunction.... oedipus complex


Avena sativa. N.O. Graminaceae.

Synonym: Groats.

Habitat: Under field cultivation.

Features ? Oats of commerce and general use are the seeds of Avena sativa with the husk removed. The crushed or coarsely powdered oats is known as groats, and the powder, either fine or coarse, as oatmeal.

Part used ? Seeds.

Action: Nervine, tonic, stimulant, antispasmodic.

As a restorative in nervous exhaustion, and of particular value in correcting spasmodic conditions of bladder and ureter. Curative properties of oats may be utilized through the medium of the fluid extract. Dose, 10-30 drops.... oats


The branch of medicine dealing with pregnancy and giving birth. Derived from the Latin word for midwifery (see MIDWIFE), it is closely allied to GYNAECOLOGY. It is concerned with the health of the woman and fetus, from early in pregnancy through to a successful labour and delivery. Pregnancy and childbirth are, however, normal physiological events and for most women they take place without complications. Nevertheless, if something does go wrong, skilled medical care should be immediately available to help the mother and baby achieve a successful outcome. Routine monitoring of pregnancies by midwives and, where necessary, general practitioners or obstetricians is well recognised as a signi?cant contribution to a successful pregnancy and delivery. Such monitoring has been greatly facilitated by advances in ULTRASOUND, AMNIOSCOPY, and amnioand cordocentesis (see PRENATAL SCREENING OR DIAGNOSIS). Numerous problems may occur at all stages, and early detection, followed rapidly by sensitive and appropriate treatment, is vital. Doctors and nurses can specialise in obstetrics after suitable training. (See also PREGNANCY AND LABOUR.)... obstetrics


The name given to the oestrogenic hormone (see OESTROGENS) secreted by the ovarian follicle.

Oestradiol is responsible for the development of the female sexual characteristics, of the BREASTS, and of part of the changes that take place in the UTERUS before MENSTRUATION.... oestradiol


See OESTROGENS.... oestriol


See OESTROGENS.... oestrone


A less-than-normal number of sperm (see SPERMATOZOON) present in each unit volume of seminal ?uid (each ml of semen usually contains 20 million sperm). The condition may be permanent or temporary and is a major cause of INFERTILITY in men. It may be caused by ORCHITIS, an undescended testis, or VARICOCELE, and should be investigated.... oligospermia


An abnormally low excretion of URINE, such as occurs in acute NEPHRITIS.... oliguria


Healing, Peace, Fertility, Potency, Protection, Lust... olive


This is a proton-pump inhibitor drug (see PROTON-PUMP INHIBITORS) which inhibits gastric-acid secretion by blocking a key enzyme system in the parietal cells of the STOMACH. The drug is used to treat (short-term) gastric ulcer (see under STOMACH, DISEASES OF) and DUODENAL ULCER, as well as strictures and in?ammatory erosion of the oesophagus (see OESOPHAGUS, DISEASES OF).... omeprazole


A long fold of peritoneal membrane (see PERITONEUM), generally loaded with more or less fat, which hangs down within the cavity of the ABDOMEN in front of the bowels. It is formed by the layers of peritoneum that cover the front and back surfaces of the stomach in their passage from the lower margin of this organ to cover the back and front surfaces of the large intestine. Instead of passing straight from one organ to the other, these layers dip down and form a sort of fourfold apron. This omentum is known as the greater omentum, to distinguish it from two smaller peritoneal folds, one of which passes between the liver and stomach (the hepatogastric omentum), and the other between the liver and duodenum (the hepatoduodenal omentum). Together they are known as the lesser omentum.... omentum


Another name for exomphalos – a HERNIA of abdominal organs through the UMBILICUS.... omphalocele


A distortion of the nail (see under SKIN) in which it is much thickened, overgrown and twisted on itself. This usually affects a toe-nail and is the result of chronic irritation and in?ammation.... onychogryphosis


Separation of the nail (see under SKIN) from the nail-bed.... onycholysis


Removal, by operation, of an ovary (see OVARIES). When the ovary is removed for the presence of a cyst, the term ovariotomy is usually employed (see OVARIES, DISEASES OF).... oöphorectomy


Another name for ovaritis or in?ammation of an ovary (see OVARIES; OVARIES, DISEASES OF).... oöphoritis


The study of the structure and function of the EYE and the diagnosis and treatment of the diseases that affect it.... ophthalmology


Paralysis of the muscles of the EYE. Internal ophthalmoplegia refers to paralysis of the iris and ciliary body; external ophthalmoplegia refers to paralysis of one or all of the muscles that move the eyes.... ophthalmoplegia


An instrument for examining the interior of the EYE. There are di?erent types of ophthalmoscope; all have a light source to illuminate the inside of the eye and a magnifying lens to make examination easier.... ophthalmoscope


A preparation of OPIUM.... opiate


The dried juice of the unripe seed-capsules of the white Indian poppy, Papaver somniferum.The action of opium depends upon the 20– 25 ALKALOIDS it contains. Of these, the chief is MORPHINE, the amount of which varies from around 9–17 per cent. Other alkaloids include codeine, narcotine, thebaine, papaverine, and naceine.

The importation into Britain of opium is strictly regulated under the Dangerous Drugs Acts. Similar regulations govern the sale and distribution of any preparation of morphine or diamorphine (heroin) stronger than 1 part in

500. (See DEPENDENCE.)

Action The action of opium varies considerably, according to the source of the drug and the preparation used.

In small doses, opium produces a state of gentle excitement, the person ?nding their imagination more vivid, their thoughts more brilliant, and their power of expression greater than usual. This stage lasts for some hours, and is succeeded by languor. In medicinal doses this stage of excitement is short and is followed by deep sleep. When potentially poisonous doses are taken, sleep comes on quickly, and passes into coma and death (see OPIOID POISONING). The habitual use of opium produces great TOLERANCE, so that opium users require to take large quantities daily before experiencing its pleasurable effects. The need for opium also confers tolerance, so that people suffering great pain may take, with apparently little e?ect beyond dulling the pain, quantities which at another time would be dangerous.... opium

Optic Atrophy

A deterioration in the ?bres of the optic nerve (see EYE) resulting in partial or complete loss of vision. It may be caused by damage to the nerve from in?ammation or injury, or the atrophy may be secondary to disease in the eye.... optic atrophy

Optic Disc

Otherwise known as the blind spot of the EYE, the disc is the beginning of the optic nerve – the point where nerve ?bres from the retina’s rods and cones (the light- and colour-sensitive cells) leave the eyeball.... optic disc

Optic Nerve

See EYE.... optic nerve

Optic Neuritis

In?ammation of the optic nerve (see EYE) which may result in sudden loss of part of a person’s vision. It is usually accompanied by pain and tenderness on touch. The cause is uncertain, although in some cases it may be a prcursor of MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS (MS): CORTICOSTEROIDS may help by improving the loss of visual acuity, but seems not to check the long-term in?ammatory activity.... optic neuritis


Someone who ?ts and sells glasses or contact lenses. An ophthalmic optician (optometrist) is trained to perform eye examinations to test for long- and short-sightedness and to prescribe corrective lenses, but they do not treat disorders of the eye, referring patients with a disorder to a family doctor or ophthalmologist.... optician


(Latin) Resembling the sweet fruit Orangetta, Orangia, Orangina, Orangea... orange


See EYE.... orbit


Operation for the removal of the testicles (one or both – see TESTICLE) – for example, because of cancer.... orchidectomy


When testes do not descend into the scrotum, normally in young children (CRYPTORCHIDISM), an operation is performed to correct this. This is called surgical orchidopexy. The main reason is probably cosmetic; however, a testis which has descended is less likely to become cancerous than one which has not. It is less likely that treatment improves future fertility.... orchidopexy


A collection of di?erent tissues that form a distinct structure in the body with a particular function or functions. The LIVER, for example, comprises a collection of di?erent metabolic cells bound together with connective tissue and liberally supplied with blood vessels; it performs vital functions in the breakdown of substances absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. Other examples of organs are the KIDNEYS, BRAIN and HEART. (See also TRANSPLANTATION.)... organ


The climax of sexual intercourse. In men this coincides with ejaculation of the semen when the muscles of the pelvis force the seminal ?uid from the prostate into the urethra and out through the urethral ori?ce. In women, orgasm is typi?ed by irregular contractions of the muscular walls of the vagina followed by relaxation. The sensation is more di?use in women than in men and tends to last longer with successive orgasms sometimes occurring.... orgasm


An inhibitor of the pancreatic enzyme LIPASE, which breaks down fats in food to their constituent parts. By inhibiting lipase, the drug reduces absorption of dietary fat from the INTESTINE. It is used as an ADJUVANT to a modest low-calorie diet in people with a BODY MASS INDEX of 30 kg/m2 or more. The drug should be prescribed only if diet alone has, over a period of four consecutive weeks, resulted in a person losing 2.5 kg or more. Orlistat may cause oily liquid faeces, urgency to defecate, excessive wind and, sometimes, headaches, tiredness and anxiety. (See OBESITY.)... orlistat


Ornithosis is an infection of birds with the micro-organism known as Chlamydia psittaci, which is transmissible to humans.... ornithosis


A drug used in the treatment of PARKINSONISM.... orphenadrine


Orthodontics is the branch of dentistry concerned with the prevention and treatment of dental irregularities and malocclusion.... orthodontics


Originally the general measures, both surgical and mechanical, for the correction or prevention of deformities in children. Now, that branch of medical science dealing with skeletal deformity (congenital or acquired), fractures and infections of bones, replacement of arthritic joints (hips, knees and ?ngers – see

ARTHROPLASTY) and the treatment of bone tumours. (See BONE, DISORDERS OF; JOINTS, DISEASES OF.)... orthopaedics


A form of di?culty in breathing so severe that the patient cannot bear to lie down, but must sit or stand up. As a rule, it occurs only in serious affections of the heart or lungs.... orthopnoea


The passage of ?uids through a semipermeable membrane which separates them, so as to become mixed with one another. Osmotic pressure is a term applied to the strength of the tendency which a ?uid shows to do this, and depends largely upon the amount of solid which it holds in solution.... osmosis


A small bone. The term is usually applied to the three small bones of the middle EAR – malleus, incus, and stapes – that conduct sound from the eardrum to the inner ear.... ossicle


Osteitis means in?ammation in the substance of a BONE. Traumatic osteitis is a condition particularly common in footballers, in which the victim complains of pain in the groin following exercise, particularly if this has involved much hip rotation. Examination reveals di?culty in spreading the legs and marked tenderness over the symphysis pubis. It responds well to rest and the administration of non-steroidal antiin?ammatory drugs (NSAIDS) such as ibuprofen or indomethacin.... osteitis


This includes a group of diseases involving degeneration of the centre of OSSIFICATION (see also BONE) in the growing bones of children and adolescents. They include Kohler’s disease, OSGOOD-SCHLATTER’S DISEASE, and PERTHES’ DISEASE.... osteochondrosis

Osteogenesis Imperfecta

A hereditary disease due to an inherited abnormality of COLLAGEN. It is characterised by extreme fragility of the skeleton, resulting in fractures and deformities. It may be accompanied by blue sclera (the outermost, normally white coat of the eyeball), transparent teeth, hypermobility (excessive range of movement) of the joints, deafness, and dwar?sm (shortness of stature). The exact cause is not known, although there is some evidence that it may be associated with collagen formation. Parents of affected children can obtain help and advice from the Brittle Bone Society.... osteogenesis imperfecta


Despite major e?orts, it has proved impossible to produce a single clear de?nition of osteoarthritis and this probably reffects the muddled nature of a concept which will need replacing. Unfortunately, there is confusion because the term is also used to cover joint pain that appears to have a mechanical basis in the absence of clinical or radiographic evidence of CARTILAGE loss.

The primary problem is seen as a change in structure of cartilage and BONE, rather than an in?ammatory SYNOVITIS. Osteoarthritis usually implies a loss of the central load-bearing area of articular hyaline cartilage, with outgrowth of cartilage at the articular margin and subsequent ossi?cation to form bony outgrowths known as OSTEOPHYTES. Osteophytes form with increasing age, whether or not there is signi?cant cartilage loss, and in the elderly may lead to local frictional symptoms, and in the spine, to nerve compression.

The condition has a wide range of causes, of which some, like dysplasia and trauma, are known and others have yet to be identi?ed. The main clinical problems occur in the hip and knee. The cartilage loss in the hip usually occurs in the sixth or seventh decade. It may affect both hips in fairly rapid succession, or only one hip; such patients often have no problems in other joints. Cartilage loss in the knee occurs from the ?fth decade onwards and is often associated with cartilage loss in small joints in the hand and elsewhere. Cartilage loss in the distal interphalangeal joints of the hand is associated with the formation of bony swellings known as Heberden’s nodes.

Treatment Management is largely directed at maintaining activity, with physical and social support as necessary. ANALGESICS may be of some value, particularly in the management of night pain. NON-STEROIDAL ANTIINFLAMMATORY DRUGS (NSAIDS) may help patients with early-morning sti?ness and may also reduce pain on movement and night pain. Their bene?t, however, tends to be less marked than in RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS and their long-term usage has considerable toxicity problems. Advanced cartilage loss is best treated by joint replacement. Hip- and knee-joint replacements – with a wide variety of arti?cial joints – are now common surgical procedures which greatly improve the mobility of affected individuals. (See ARTHROPLASTY.)

People with arthritis and their relatives can obtain help and advice from Arthritis Care.... osteoarthritis


Osteosarcoma, or osteogenic sarcoma, is the most common, and most malignant, tumour of bone (see BONE, DISORDERS OF). It occurs predominantly in older children and young adults; the most common site is at the ends of the long bones of the body – i.e. the femur, tibia and humerus. Treatment is by CHEMOTHERAPY and surgical reconstruction or amputation of the affected limb. The ?ve-year survival rate is over 70 per cent.... osteosarcoma


The operation of cutting of a BONE.... osteotomy


Pain in the ear... otalgia


In?ammation of the EAR. (See EAR, DISEASES OF.)... otitis

Otitis Media

Inflammation, infectious or sterile, of the middle ear. In children this is often complicated by fluid buildup behind the eardrum. This raises the anxiety levels of conscious parents, debating the three-decade-old question, “Antibiotics?”. They may fear the realistic (and unrealistic) effects of the drug, weighed against the anguish of a center-of-attention complaining child and the knee-jerk agitation they feel (particularly the mother...see OXYTOCIN). Then, when three months of antibiotic therapy doesn’t work for some children (and they now show the brand-new signs of having become allergic...”No connection with the antibiotics at all” sez the pediatrician), the parents have descended to another level of Parent Bardo...”Tubes in his ears?!” You can guess my feelings. I am not, however, suggesting ignoring your pediatrician. There are presently strong, if minority, medical currents against these may have a Ped. that starts with antibiotics the first day and practically pre-schedules a three-month-away intubation visit...Let Your Fingers Do The Walking (see YELLOW PAGES). Another BabyDoc may not want to use antibiotics UNLESS other measures have failed and there is the extended presence of pus behind the eardrum. Turning away from such conservative an approach can hurt the kid...and is giving the careful physician a session in Negative Reinforcement Therapy. “Antibiotics Ÿber alles!” proclaims a banner in the waiting room next visit, and there may be a case displaying the newest line of Swatch Eartubes.... otitis media


The study of diseases of the ear, nose, and throat – colloquially referred to as ear, nose and throat (ENT) specialty. The relevant specialist is called an otorhinolaryngologist (US) or ENT surgeon (UK).... otorhinolaryngology


Discharge from the EAR. (See EAR, DISEASES OF.)... otorrhoea


See under EAR, DISEASES OF.... otosclerosis


See AURISCOPE.... otoscope


A dental term describing the condition where a person’s upper INCISOR teeth vertically overlap the lower incisors. If serious, the person may need orthodontic correction and this is usually done in childhood after the permanent teeth have developed.... overbite


The development and release of an OVUM (egg) from the ovary (see OVARIES) into the FALLOPIAN TUBES. Ovulation is initiated by the secretion of luteinising hormone by the anterior PITUITARY GLAND and occurs half way through the menstrual cycle. If the ovum is not fertilised, it is lost during MENSTRUATION.... ovulation


The single cell derived from the female, out of which a future individual arises, after its union with the SPERMATOZOON derived from the male. It is about 35 micrometres in diameter. (See FETUS; OVARIES.)... ovum

Oxalic Acid

This is an irritant poison that is used domestically for cleaning purposes. It is also found in many plants including rhubarb and sorrel. Oxalic acid, when swallowed, produces burning of the mouth and throat, vomiting of blood, breathlessness and circulatory collapse. Calcium salts, lime water or milk should be given by mouth. An injection of calcium gluconate is an antidote.... oxalic acid


The presence in the URINE of OXALIC ACID or oxalates, in particular calcium oxalate (see OXALOSIS).... oxaluria


A benzodiazpine anxiolytic drug (see BENZODIAZEPINES; ANXIOLYTICS). Like all benzodiazepines, oxazepam should be prescribed with caution at the lowest possible dosage for the shortest possible time, as patients can become dependent on it (see DEPENDENCE). The indication for use is short-term relief of severe anxiety, including panic attacks. Oxazepam has an advantage over many diazepams in being shorter acting, and it can be used for patients with impairment of LIVER function. The drug is inappropriate for treatment of DEPRESSION, obsessional states or PSYCHOSIS (see MENTAL ILLNESS).... oxazepam


An non-invasive device which can be attached to a patient’s skin by an adhesive and records the degree of OXYGEN saturation in their blood, displaying the level on a screen. It also records pulse rate. Oximeters have become essential to safe managament of severe respiratory illness as they provide one measure of the lungs’ ability to exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide.... oximeter




A colourless and odourless gas of molecular weight 32. It constitutes just less than 21 per cent of the earth’s atmosphere. As a medical gas, it is supplied in the UK compressed at high pressure (13,600 kilopascals (KPa)) in cylinders which are black with white shoulders. In hospitals, oxygen is often stored as a liquid in insulated tanks and controlled evaporation allows the gas to be supplied via a pipeline at a much lower pressure.

Oxygen is essential for life. It is absorbed via the lungs (see RESPIRATION) and is transported by HAEMOGLOBIN within the ERYTHROCYTES to the tissues. Within the individual cell it is involved in the production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), a compound that stores chemical energy for muscle cells, by the oxidative metabolism of fats and carbohydrates. HYPOXIA causes anaerobic metabolism with a resulting build-up in LACTIC ACID, the result of muscle cell activity. If severe enough, the lack of ATP causes a breakdown in cellular function and the death of the individual.

When hypoxia occurs, it may be corrected by giving supplemental oxygen. This is usually given via a face mask or nasal prongs or, in severe cases, during ARTIFICIAL VENTILATION OF THE LUNGS. Some indications for oxygen therapy are high altitude, ventilatory failure, heart failure, ANAEMIA, PULMONARY HYPERTENSION, CARBON MONOXIDE (CO) poisoning, anaesthesia and post-operative recovery. In some conditions – e.g. severe infections with anaerobic bacteria and CO poisoning – hyperbaric oxygen therapy has been used.... oxygen


Oxytetracycline is an antibiotic derived from a soil organism, Streptomyces rimosus. Its range of antibacterial activity is comparable to that of tetracycline (see TETRACYCLINES).... oxytetracycline


Another name for the threadworm (see ENTEROBIASIS).... oxyuriasis


A specially active and poisonous form of OXYGEN in which three volumes of the gas are condensed into the space ordinarily occupied by two. It has a characteristic smell and is a strong oxidising agent. Formed when an electrical charge is passed through oxygen or air, it is found at high altitudes in the atmosphere where it screens out much of the sun’s ultraviolet radiation. The ozone layer, as it is called, is being damaged by pollutant gases from earth. Unless this damage is reversed, lethal quantities of ultraviolet radiation could penetrate to the earth’s surface, further warming the world’s climates, with long-term damage to the environment.... ozone

Pulmonary Oedema

Fluid in the small air sacs of the lungs, from inefficient pumping by the heart or leakage of fluid from the blood vessels in the lungs (possibly from envenomation). As it prevents air exchange in the lungs it causes hypoxia and may lead to death.... pulmonary oedema


Surgical removal of a Fallopian tube (see FALLOPIAN TUBES) and its accompanying ovary (see OVARIES).... salpingo-oöphorectomy

Thromboangiitis Obliterans

Also known as Buerger’s disease, this is an in?ammatory disease involving the blood vessels and nerves of the limbs, particularly the lower limbs. TOBACCO is an important cause. Pain is the outstanding symptom, accompanied by pallor of the affected part; intermittent CLAUDICATION caused by a reduction in blood supply is common. Sooner or later ulceration and GANGRENE tend to develop in the feet or hands when AMPUTATION of the affected part may be necessary. There is no speci?c treatment, but, if seen in the early stages, considerable relief may be given to the patient. Regular walking exercise is helpful and affected individuals should not smoke.... thromboangiitis obliterans


Inflammation of the lower oesophagus (gullet).

Causes: reflux of acid from the stomach due to incompetence of sphincter muscle. This muscle can be weakened by drugs, coffee, smoking, alcohol, piping-hot drinks or the presence of hiatus hernia. Treatment: same as for HEARTBURN. ... oesophagitis

Bitter Orange

See Naranja agria.... bitter orange

Bypass Operation

A technique by which narrowing or blockage of an artery (see ARTERIES), vein (see VEINS) or a section of the gastrointestinal tract is bypassed using surgery. Arterial blockages – usually caused by ATHEROSCLEROSIS – in the carotid, coronary or iliofemoral arteries are bypassed utilising sections of artery or vein taken from elsewhere in the patient. Tumour growths in the intestines are sometimes too large to remove and can be bypassed by linking up those parts of the intestines on each side of the growth.... bypass operation

Conscientious Objection

See ETHICS.... conscientious objection


See SLEEP.... dreams

End Organ

A structure at the end of a peripheral nerve that acts as receptor for a sensation. For example, the olfactory nerves have end organs that identify smells.... end organ


A measurable state that is expected to exist at a predetermined place and time as a result of the application of procedures and resources.... objective

Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

A mental-health problem which will be experienced at some time by up to 3 per cent of adults. The main feature is the occurrence of spontaneous intrusive thoughts that cause intense anxiety. Many of these thoughts prompt urges, or compulsions, to carry out particular actions in order to reduce the anxiety. One of the commonest obsessions is a fear of dirt and contamination that prompts compulsive cleaning or repeated and unnecessary handwashing. (See MENTAL ILLNESS.)... obsessive compulsive disorder


Severe CONSTIPATION.... obstipation


A rare condition in which the ligaments and cartilages of the body, and sometimes the conjunctiva (see EYE), become stained by dark brown or black pigment. This may occur in chronic carbolic poisoning, or in a congenital disorder of metabolism in which the individual is unable to break down completely the tyrosine of the protein molecule – the intermediate product, homogentisic acid, appearing in the urine, this being known as alkaptonuria.... ochronosis

Odds Ratio

1 A measure of association which quantifies the relationship between an exposure and outcome from a comparative study; also known as the cross-product ratio. 2 Comparison of the presence of a risk factor in a sample.... odds ratio


An endoscopic instrument for observing the lining of the OESOPHAGUS. (See ENDOSCOPE.)... oesophagoscope


A genus of nematodes that includes the nodular worms.... oesophagostomum


A surgical operation in which the OESOPHAGUS is opened on to the surface of the neck. The procedure is usually carried out as a temporary measure to facilitate feeding and drinking after an operation on the throat.... oesophagostomy

Oestrogen Receptor

A site on the membrane surrounding a cell (see CELLS) that binds to the hormone OESTROGENS. This activates the cell’s reaction to the hormone. Anti-oestrogen drugs such as TAMOXIFEN used to treat breast cancer (see BREASTS, DISEASES OF) prevent the oestrogen from binding to these receptors.... oestrogen receptor


Natural or synthetic substances that induce the changes in the UTERUS that precede OVULATION. They are also responsible for the development of the secondary sex characteristics in women: that is, the physical changes that take place in a girl at puberty, such as enlargement of the BREASTS, appearance of pubic and axillary hair, and the deposition of fat on the thighs and hips. They are used in the management of disturbances of the MENOPAUSE, and also in the treatment of cancer of the prostate (see PROSTATE GLAND, DISEASES OF) and certain cases of cancer of the breast.

The oestrogenic hormones of the ovary are OESTRADIOL and oestrone. The rapid degradation of natural oestrogens limits their use as therapeutic agents. Chemical substitution of the steroid molecule, as in ethinyl oestradiol, or the use of a non-steroidal synthetic oestrogen such as STILBOESTROL, greatly reduces the rate of degradation and enhances the therapeutic action. A further development has been the use of compounds which are not actually oestrogenic themselves, but which are slowly metabolised to oestrogenic substances, or substances such as chlorotrianisene, which are taken up in the body fat and then slowly released into the circulation. There is in fact little to choose between the various synthetic oestrogens. Ethinyl oestradiol is the most potent oral oestrogen, being 20 times more active than stilboestrol.

Other commonly used oestrogen drugs are dienoestrol and oestrol. The use of oestrogens in hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is dealt with in the entry on the MENOPAUSE.... oestrogens

Olecranon Process

The large process on the ulnar bone that projects behind the joint of the elbow.... olecranon process

Oleic Acid

The most common of naturally occurring fatty acids, being present in most fats and oils in the form of triglyceride. It is used in the preparation of OINTMENTS, but not eye ointments.... oleic acid


A diminution of the quantity of blood in the circulation.... oligaemia


Infrequent MENSTRUATION.... oligomenorrhoea


A gene in a cancer cell that causes its growth to be uncontrolled. A regulatory gene that has changed and is responsible for uncontrolled growth.... oncogene


GENES found in mammalian cells and viruses that can cause cancer. They are believed to manufacture the proteins that control the division of cells. In certain circumstances this control malfunctions and a normal cell may be changed into one with MALIGNANT properties. Extensive research is being done with oncogenes with the aim of ?nding ways to prevent or control cancers.... oncogenes


Doctor who specialises in treating cancer.... oncologist


A hexacanth embryo of cestodes.... oncosphere


A fungus infection of the nail (see under SKIN), caused by CANDIDA or DERMATOPHYTES (see also RINGWORM).... onychomycosis


(Latin) As precious as the stone Onix, Onyks, Oniks, Onycks, Onicks... onyx


Fertilised female cell (zygote) after the ookinete penetrates and encysts in the wall of the mosquito stomach. This cell undergoes division to produce sporozoites.... oocyst


An immature OVUM. When the cell undergoes MEIOSIS in the ovary it becomes an ovum and is ready for fertilisation by the spermatozoa. Only a small number of the many oöcytes produced survive until PUBERTY, and not all of them will become ova and be ejected into the FALLOPIAN TUBES.... oöcyte


The production of mature egg cells (ova – see OVUM) by the OVARIES. Germ cells in the ovary multiply to produce oogonia which divide by MEIOSIS to form oöcytes in the FETUS.... oögenesis


Motile (mobile) stage of the malaria parasite resulting from fertilisation of the macrogametocyte bymicrogametocyte(s) in the mosquito gut. After passing through the gut wall, it becomes an oocyst.... ookinete

Operating Microscope

A binocular MICROSCOPE used for MICROSURGERY on, for example, the EYE and middle EAR; this microscope is also used for suturing nerves and blood vessels damaged or severed by trauma and for rejoining obstructed FALLOPIAN TUBES in the treatment of INFERTILITY in women.... operating microscope


A surgical procedure using instruments – or sometimes just the hands; for example, when manipulating a joint or setting a simple fracture. Operations range from simple removal of a small skin lesion under local anaesthetic to a major event such as transplanting a heart which takes several hours and involves many doctors, nurses and technical sta?. Increasingly, operations are done on an outpatient or day-bed basis, thus enabling many more patients to be treated than was the case 25 years ago, and permitting them to resume a normal life – often within 24 hours. (See also SURGERY; MINIMALLY INVASIVE SURGERY (MIS).)... operation


A lid-like structure covering certain cestode and most trematode eggs.... operculum


A doctor with specialist training in OPHTHALMOLOGY.... ophthalmologist


A substance with a pharmacological action that is like that of OPIUM or its derivatives.... opioid


A disease caused by liver flukes from the Opisthorchis species, e.g. O. viverrini seen widely in southeast Asia. See also cholangiocarcinoma.... opisthorchiasis


The name for a position assumed by the body during one of the convulsive seizures of TETANUS. The muscles of the back, by their spasmodic contraction, arch the body in such a way that the person for a time may rest upon the bed only by their heels and head.... opisthotonos


A description usually applied to infection resulting from an organism that does not normally cause disease in a healthy individual. It is also used to describe widespread infection by an organism that usually causes local infection. The body’s defence mechanism can usually combat these organisms, but if it is impaired – as happens in AIDS/HIV or other immune de?ciencies– opportunistic infection, such as PNEUMONIA, may develop. Some viral and fungal infections behave in this way. Antimicrobial treatment is often e?ective, even though the weakness in the body’s defence mechanism cannot be recti?ed.... opportunistic


Concerned with the EYE or vision.... optic


1 The profession concerned with the examination of the eyes and related structures to determine the presence of vision problems and eye disorders and with the prescription and adaptation of lenses and other optical aids or the use of visual training for maximum visual efficiency. 2 The use of an optometer.... optometry

Oral Contraceptive

A contraceptive taken by mouth (see CONTRACEPTION). It comprises one or more synthetic female hormones, usually an oestrogen (see OESTROGENS), which blocks normal OVULATION, and a progestogen which in?uences the PITUITARY GLAND and thus blocks normal control of the woman’s menstrual cycle (see MENSTRUATION). Progestogens also make the uterus less congenial for the fertilisation of an ovum by the sperm.... oral contraceptive

Oral Surgery

A branch of surgery that treats deformities, injuries or diseases of the TEETH and JAW, as well as other areas of the face and mouth. Surgeons doing this work are usually quali?ed dentists who have done further training in oral and maxillofacial surgery.... oral surgery

Organic Disease

A disease that started as, or became, impairment of structure or tissue. The smoker may have coughing and shortness of breath for years, and suffer from functional disorders; when the smoker gets emphysema, it is an organic disease.... organic disease

Oriental Sore

This term is a synonym for cutaneous LEISHMANIASIS; others include: Cochin, Delhi, Kandahar, Lahore, Madagascar, Natal, Old World tropical, tropical sore, etc. As with many of the local names for this infection, it is now rarely used.... oriental sore


A genus of soft ticks (argassids or tampans). Includes the species O. moubata that transmits relapsing fever caused by Borrelia duttoni.... ornithodoros


The part of the PHARYNX that lies between the soft PALATE and the HYOID bone.... oropharynx

Oroxylum Indicum

Vent. 453

Action: Emmenagogue, antispasmodic, carminative, expectorant. Leaves and seed— astringent, antispasmodic. Warm infusion of herb—promotes suppressed menstrual flow.

The herb contains about 3% volatile oil comprising sabinene hydrate, sa- binene, linalool, carvacrol, estrogole, eugenol and terpenes; flavonoids including luteolin-7-glucoside, dios- metin-7-glucoside, apigenin-7-gluco- side; rosmarinic acid, caffeic acid; and triterpenoids such as ursolic acid, olea- nolic acid, sterols.

Marjoram herb and oil exhibit antibacterial action. (German Commission E.) The herb contains arbutin and hydroxyquinone (a carcinogenic agent) in low concentrations. The herb is not suited for extended use. Topical application of hydroxyquinone leads to depigmentation of the skin. There is no reports of similar side effects with marjoram ointment. (German Commission E.)

Origanum vulgare Linn. (Wild Marjoram) contains volatile oil with a widely varying composition; major components include thymol, beta-bisabolene, caryophyllene, linalool and borneol; other constituents are similar to those of O. majorana.

The leaves of Wild Marjoram contain phenolic acids. The phenyl propionic acid and the phenyl glucoside showed antioxidant activity comparable to that of BHA, a synthetic antiox- idant.

Wild Marjoram preparations are used for bronchial catarrh and disturbances of the gastrointestinal tract in Unani medicine.

Sweet Marjoram shows stronger effect on the nervous system than Wild Marjoram and gives better results in anxiety, headaches and insomnia.

Both the species have been included among unapproved herbs by German Commission E.... oroxylum indicum


Iris florentina. N.O. Iridaceae.

Synonym: Florentine Orris.

Habitat: Cultivated in Northern Italy and Morocco.

Features ? The white Florentine root, which is preferred to other varieties, is irregular in shape and shows marks where the rootlets branched before preparation for export. Verona Orris root tapers more gradually than that from Florence, and appears more compressed. The Moroccan root is noticeable for the dirty white cortex which remains on the root. Orris gives off a violet-like scent.

Part used ? Root.

Large quantities of the finely pulverised root are used in the preparation of toilet and dusting powders, dentifrices and cachous, for which purposes the acceptable fragrancy and other appropriate qualities make Orris root eminently suitable. Toilet recipes are given in another section of this book.

Orris is not used for purely medicinal purposes.... orris

Orris Root

Love, Protection, Divination... orris root

Osteitis Deformans

See PAGET’S DISEASE OF BONE.... osteitis deformans


A cell responsible for the production of BONE (see OSSIFICATION).... osteoblast


In?ammation of both BONE and CARTILAGE. It is a not uncommon cause of BACKACHE in young people, particularly gymnasts.... osteochondritis


A cell that resorbs calci?ed BONE.... osteoclast


A BONE cell formed from an OSTEOBLAST or bone-forming cell that has stopped its activity. The cell is embedded in the matrix of the bone.... osteocyte


See OSSIFICATION.... osteogenesis

Osteogenic Sarcoma

See OSTEOSARCOMA.... osteogenic sarcoma


The study, diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the ears, throat and larynx.... otolaryngology


Otology is that branch of medical science which is concerned with disorders and diseases of the organ of hearing – one practising this branch being called an otologist.... otology


This term has many meanings depending on its applicability. Simply an outcome is a change in a situation resulting from an action. More specifically, in relation to health, an outcome is the possible results that may stem from exposure to a causal factor; or the result of preventive, medical, surgical or therapeutic interventions or non-intervention. An outcome can also be viewed as the end result obtained from utilizing the structure and processes of health care delivery. Outcomes are often viewed as the bottom-line measure of the effectiveness of the health care delivery system.... outcome


Cases that differ substantially from the average case in a particular area. For example, a hospital admission requiring either substantially more expense or a much longer length of stay than average. See also Statistical section for related definition.... outlier


A patient who is receiving ambulatory care at a hospital or other facility without being admitted to the facility.... outpatient


The main female reproductive organs which produce the ova (egg cells – see OVUM) and steroid HORMONES in a regular cycle (see MENSTRUATION) in response to hormones (see GONADOTROPHINS) from the anterior PITUITARY GLAND. Situated one on each side of the uterus in the lower abdomen, each ovary contains numerous follicles within which the ova develop. Only a small proportion of these reach maturity, when the ovum is described as a Graa?an follicle. OVULATION occurs and, if the ovum is fertilised, a pregnancy may develop. (See also ENDOCRINE GLANDS; OESTRADIOL; OESTROGENS; PROGESTERONE.)... ovaries


Also called oöphorectomy. The operation of removal of an ovary (see OVARIES) or an ovarian tumour (see under OVARIES, DISEASES OF).... ovariotomy


A platinum-based anticancer drug given intravenously for the treatment of colorectal cancer with metastases. It is usually combined with FLUOROURACIL and folinic acid. Side-effects include toxic damage to the nervous system.... oxaliplatin


An inherited defect in the body’s METABOLISM in which oxalates – a product of metabolism – are deposited in the KIDNEYS and other tissues, ultimately causing failure of the kidneys.... oxalosis


A molecule that causes biological oxidation in which OXYGEN is added to or electrons removed from a substance. Oxygen-free radicals are highly toxic atoms and chemical groups produced by intracellular activity in various disease processes and by poisons, radiation, smoking and other pollutants. Anti-oxidants such as beta-carotene can neutralise these radicals.... oxidant


A deformity of the skull in which the forehead is high and the top of the head pointed. There is also poor vision and the eyes bulge.... oxycephaly

Oxygen Tent

A sheet of plastic put over a hospital bed with OXYGEN fed into it so that a patient can receive oxygen. Such treatment may be for a heart or lung condition in which the normal atmospheric concentration of oxygen is insu?cient to enable the person to oxygenate the blood ?owing through the lungs to a normal level, so extra oxygen is provided in the patient’s immediate surroundings.... oxygen tent


The compound formed when the pigment HAEMOGLOBIN in the ERYTHROCYTES (red blood cells) combines with OXYGEN (a reversible reaction). The oxygen is carried in this way from the lungs to the body’s tissues where it is released to take part in metabolic activities.... oxyhaemoglobin


A chronic disease of the NOSE of an in?ammatory nature, combined with atrophy of the mucous membrane and the formation of extremely foul-smelling crusts in the interior of the nose. (See also NOSE, DISORDERS OF.)... ozaena


A gene in a cell that regulates cell growth and development in an orderly fashion. If a protooncogene mutates, it can give rise to cancer by causing growth without the normal controls. The proto-oncogene is then called an oncogene.... proto-oncogene

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

Characterised by scanty (or absent) MENSTRUATION, INFERTILITY, hirsutism (excessive hairiness) and OBESITY and the sufferers often have multiple cysts in their OVARIES.

The condition is caused by an imbalance between LUTEINISING HORMONE (LH) and FOLLICLE-STIMULATING HORMONE (FSH); this imbalance stops OVULATION and varies the TESTOSTERONE output of the ovaries. The treatment may be with CLOMIPHENE; with a PROGESTOGEN drug; with LUTEINISING HORMONE-RELEASING HORMONE (LHRH); or with oral contraceptives (see under CONTRACEPTION – Non-barrier methods). The treatment chosen depends on the severity of the disease and whether the woman wants to conceive. Rarely a section of ovarian tissue is surgically removed.... polycystic ovary syndrome

Target Organ

The speci?c organ (or tissue) at which a hormone (see HORMONES), drug or other agent is aimed to bring about its physiological or pharmacological e?ect.... target organ

Gastro-oesophageal Reflux Disease

See: REFLUX. ... gastro-oesophageal reflux disease

Intestinal Obstruction

Any block-age or hindrance arresting the flow of contents of the intestines. May be mechanical (adhesions, hernias, tumours, etc) or paralytic.

Symptoms: distension, dehydration, atony, vomiting, constipation.

Alternatives. Wild Yam. Calamus. Papaya.

Condition may have to be resolved by surgery. Simple obstruction: large doses (4-8 teaspoons) Isphaghula seeds. Lime flower tea. See: COLITIS. ... intestinal obstruction

Osgood Schlatter Disease

Degenerative changes in the growth centres of bones in children due to calcium or other mineral deficiency. Herbs rich in calcium, iron, and magnesium are indicated. (Horsetail, Chamomile, Plantain, Silverweed, Nettles, Mullein, etc)

Selenium 50mcg and Vitamin E 400iu are recommended by Jonathan Wright MD, for decreasing the pain of disease, decreasing over 3 months. (Health Update USA, June 1990) ... osgood schlatter disease


A herb which hastens the process of childbirth by initiating contraction of the uterine muscle.

Angelica, Bearberry, Beth root, Black Cohosh, Blue Cohosh, Castor oil, Goldenseal, Juniper berries, Raspberry leaves, Rue, Squaw Vine, Wild Ginger. ... oxytocic


Nasal disorder with offensive discharge. Powders, liquid extracts, tinctures. Combine, Sarsaparilla 2; Burdock 1; Goldenseal quarter. Powders: quarter of a teaspoon. Liquid extracts: 1 teaspoon. Tinctures: 1-2 teaspoons. In water, honey, etc thrice daily. ... ozena

Airway Obstruction

Narrowing or blockage of the respiratory passages. The obstruction may be due to a foreign body, such as a piece of food, that becomes lodged in part of the upper airway and may result in choking. Certain disorders, such as diphtheria and lung cancer, can cause obstruction. Additionally, spasm of the muscular walls of the airway, as occurs in bronchospasm (a feature of asthma), results in breathing difficulty.... airway obstruction

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

See pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive.... chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Body Odour

A personal and social problem. Over-activity of the sweat glands. Offensive smell is caused by the action of bacteria on stale sweat. The purpose of antiperspirants is to reduce skin bacterial action on apocrine sweat. Almost all antiperspirants sold over the counter are made from aluminium salts which have been implicated in skin granulomas. Deodorants that bear labels describing contents as dangerous to the eyes, nose and mouth should be rejected.

Bowel and kidney function should be investigated, as body odour is not normally offensive when these organs are healthy. Zinc is a powerful deodorant – zinc and castor oil cream being a traditional combination of pharmacy. Key herbal agent is Thuja, but it is sometimes advisable to add to this an agent for liver and kidneys.

Alternatives. Teas: Sage, Pennyroyal, Thyme, Betony. Decoctions: Sarsaparilla, Wild Yam.

Tablets/capsules. Seaweed and Sarsaparilla. Wild Yam, Thuja.

Formula: equal parts: Dandelion Root, Clivers, Thuja. Dosage – Powders: One-third teaspoon. Liquid Extracts: 30-60 drops. Tinctures: 1-2 teaspoons in water, thrice daily.

Topical. Dilute oil of Sage, or Sage tea, to under-arms, hands, feet.

Diet. Lacto-vegetarian. Safflower oil.

Vitamins. B-complex.

Minerals. Zinc. Dolomite. ... body odour


The transmission of images through bundles of thin, flexible glass or plastic threads which propagate light by total internal reflection. This means that all the light from a powerful external source travels the length of the fibre without losing its intensity. Fibre-optics have led to the development of endoscopes, which enable structures deep within the body to be viewed directly.... fibre-optics

Myositis Ossificans

A congenital or acquired condition in which bone is deposited in muscles. The congenital form is rare. The first symptoms are painful swellings in the muscles, which gradually harden and extend until the affected child is encased in a rigid sheet. There is no treatment, and death results.

The acquired form may develop after a bony injury, especially around the elbow; it causes severe pain and a swelling, which hardens. Treatment with diathermy, coupled with gentle, active movements, may be helpful.... myositis ossificans

Nitric Oxide

(NO) A gas that is produced both outside the body as a pollutant (for example, in car exhaust fumes), and inside the body, where it takes the form of a molecule that acts as a messenger between cells.

Nitric oxide causes blood vessels to dilate, affecting the flow of oxygenated blood and regulating blood pressure.

Overproduction of nitric oxide is associated with various disorders, including toxic shock, rheumatoid arthritis, and diabetes mellitus; underproduction may cause impotence and angina.

The control of nitric oxide is an important element of many drug treatments.... nitric oxide

Oesophageal Spasm

Constriction of the gullet and throat. Sense of rising pressure from chest to jaw that can simulate early heart attack.

Causes: emotional tension, hiatus hernia, food allergy and the damaging potential of hot drinks. Alternatives. Acute case: Cramp bark. German Chamomile tea, freely. Phytomedicines for chronic condition or as preventatives: Passion flower, Skullcap, Wild Yam, Lobelia, Mistletoe, Valerian. Formula. Cramp bark 2; Chamomile 1; Peppermint 1. Dose – Liquid extracts: 1-2 teaspoons. Tinctures: 2-3 teaspoons. Powders: 750mg (three 00 capsules or half a teaspoon) 3 or more times daily.

Milk. Drink whole glass cold milk, with or without 1 drop oil Peppermint, immediately on onset of pain. May relieve spasms in seconds. ... oesophageal spasm

Oesophageal Stricture

An abnormal narrowing of the (lower) gullet.

Causes: injury, scarring by chemical medicines, drugs swallowed with insufficient water, antacids for heartburn, piping-hot tea. It is important to exclude oesophageal cancer.

Those with ‘gullet-reflex’ such as the elderly, are at risk. A relationship exists between toothlessness and this condition. Eating of soft fibreless foods does not expand the tube down which food passes. Alternatives. Horsetail, Irish Moss. Echinacea. Marshmallow. Goldenseal. Sarsaparilla. Calendula (Marigold), Chamomile.

Tea. Formula – equal parts, Horsetail, Chamomile, Marshmallow. 1 heaped teaspoon to each cup boiling water; infuse 5-15 minutes. 1 cup thrice daily.

Tablets/capsules. Echinacea, Goldenseal, Sarsaparilla, Chamomile.

Formula. Irish Moss 1; Comfrey 1; Calendula half; Goldenseal quarter. Dose – Liquid extracts: 1-2 teaspoons. Tinctures: 2-3 teaspoons. Powders: 750mg (three 00 capsules or half a teaspoon) in water before meals.

Diet. High fibre. Raw carrots with prolonged mastication. Hot drinks are potentially damaging. ... oesophageal stricture

Nitrous Oxide

(NO) A colourless gas, sometimes called laughing gas. Nitrous oxide is used with oxygen to provide analgesia (pain relief) and light anaesthesia (see anaesthesia, general).

Adverse effects of nitrous oxide and oxygen may include nausea and vomiting during the recovery period.... nitrous oxide

Obstructive Airways Disease

See pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive.... obstructive airways disease

Occupational Mortality

Death due to work-related disease or injuries.

Annual death rates (deaths per million at risk) vary widely between occupations, ranging from 5 in clothing and footwear manufacture to about 1,650 in offshore oil and gas industries.

More than 1,000 per year are due to work-related diseases, mainly pneumoconiosis and cancers.... occupational mortality


A somatostatin analogue, a hormone that acts on the pituitary gland.

Given by injection, octreotide is used mainly in the treatment of acromegaly and hormone-secreting intestinal tumours.

Octreotide is also used to prevent complications following pancreatic surgery.

Side effects may include various gastrointestinal disturbances such as nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and bloating, flatulence, and diarrhoea.... octreotide


Relating to or affecting the eye and its structures; also the eyepiece of an optical device, such as a microscope.... ocular

Oculogyric Crisis

A state of gaze in which the eyes are fixed, usually upwards, for minutes or hours.

The crisis may be associated with muscle spasm of the tongue, mouth, and neck, and is often triggered by stress.

It may also occur following encephalitis and in parkinsonism, or may be induced by drugs, such as phenothiazine derivatives.... oculogyric crisis

Oculomotor Nerve

The 3rd cranial nerve, controlling most of the muscles that move the eye. The oculomotor nerve also supplies the muscle that constricts the pupil, that which raises the upper eyelid, and the ciliary muscle, which focuses the eye. The nerve may be damaged due to a fracture to the base of the skull or a tumour. Symptoms include ptosis, squint, dilation of the pupil, inability to focus the eye, double vision, and slight protrusion of the eyeball. (See also trochlear nerve; abducent nerve.)... oculomotor nerve

Otitis Externa

Swimmer’s ear. Inflammation of the outer ear.

Causes: fungal or bacterial infections acquired when swimming, scratching with dirty fingernails, diabetes mellitus, eczema or excessive sweating.

Symptoms: earache, itching, discharge, moderate deafness.

Alternative Treatment:– Tea. Combine equal parts: Nettles, Clivers, Red Clover. 1-2 teaspoons to each cup boiling water; infuse 5-15 minutes. 1 cup thrice daily.

Tablets/capsules. Echinacea. Blue Flag. Garlic. Poke root. Red Clover. Devil’s Claw. Thuja.

Powders. Combine parts: Echinacea 2; Blue Flag 1; Thuja quarter; Liquorice quarter. Dose: 500mg (two 00 capsules or one-third teaspoon) thrice daily.

Tinctures. Combine parts: Echinacea 2; Devil’s Claw 1; Goldenseal quarter; Liquorice quarter. Dose: 1-2 teaspoons, thrice daily.

Evening Primrose. 4 × 500mg capsules daily.

Cider Vinegar: 2-3 teaspoons in glass water, 2-3 times daily.

Topical. Dry conditions: Jojoba oil, Mullein oil. Evening Primrose oil.

Moist suppurative conditions: Goldenseal Drops (see entry).

Simple inflammation without discharge: warm drops Houseleek juice. Pack external ear with saturated cotton wool.

Diet and supplements: same as for otitis media. ... otitis externa


An examination of the upper digestive tract using an endoscope (see gastroscopy).... oesophagogastroduodenoscopy


A quinolone antibiotic used to treat skin, soft tissue, and lower respiratory tract and urinary tract infections.

It is usually taken in tablet form to treat infections that have not responded to other drugs but is also given by intravenous infusion for severe systemic infections.

Side effects may include nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, and abdominal pain.... ofloxacin


A greasy preparation used as a vehicle to apply drugs in dry skin conditions such as eczema or to protect or lubricate the skin.... ointment


An antipsychotic drug used for the treatment of schizophrenia.... olanzapine

Olfactory Nerve

The first cranial nerve, which conveys sensations of smell as nerve impulses from the nose to the brain. Each of the 2 olfactory nerves has receptors in the mucous membrane lining the nasal cavity. These receptors detect smells and send signals along nerve fibres, which pass through tiny holes in the roof of the nasal cavity and combine to form the olfactory bulbs. From here, nerve fibres come together to form the olfactory nerve, leading to the olfactory centre in the brain. Sense of smell may be lost or impaired due to damage to the olfactory nerves, usually as a result of head injury.... olfactory nerve

Oesophageal Varices

Widened veins in the walls of the lower oesophagus and, sometimes, the upper part of the stomach.

Varices develop as a consequence of portal hypertension.

Blood in the portal vein, passing from the intestines to the liver, meets resistance due to liver disease.

The increased blood pressure causes blood to be diverted into small veins in the walls of the oesophagus and stomach.

These veins may become distended and rupture, causing vomiting of blood and black faeces.

There are usually other symptoms of chronic liver disease.

To control acute bleeding, a balloon catheter may be passed into the oesophagus to press on the bleeding varices.

The varices may be treated with an intravenous injection of vasopressin and/or by injection, via an endoscope, of a sclerosant that seals off the affected veins.... oesophageal varices


A rare and slowgrowing type of primary brain tumour mainly affecting young or middle-aged adults.

Surgical removal of the tumour can, in some cases, lead to a total cure.... oligodendroglioma


A rare condition in pregnancy in which there is insufficient amniotic fluid surrounding the fetus in the uterus.... oligohydramnios


A serotonin antagonist drug used to control nausea and vomiting following an operation or induced by radiotherapy or anticancer drugs.

It is taken as tablets or suppositories, or given by injection.

Side effects may include constipation, headache, and hiccups.... ondansetron

Ophthalmia Neonatorum

A type of eye inflammation and discharge (ophthalmitis) that occurs in newborn infants, usually as a result of infection with gonorrhoea or chlamydia at birth.

The infection is treated with antibiotic drugs.... ophthalmia neonatorum


A term that describes any inflammatory eye disorder.

Types of ophthalmitis include ophthalmia neonatorum and sympathetic ophthalmitis: a rare condition in which a penetrating injury to one eye is followed by severe uveitis that can cause blindness in the other eye.

Sympathetic ophthalmitis can be treated with corticosteroid drugs, but removal of the injured eye is sometimes necessary to save the sight of the other.... ophthalmitis

Oral Rehydration Therapy

See rehydration therapy.... oral rehydration therapy


One of various specialized structures contained within a body cell.... organelle


Related to a body organ; having organs or an organized structure; or related to organisms or to substances from them.

In chemistry, “organic” refers to certain compounds that contain carbon.

In medicine, the term indicates the presence of disease.

(See also inorganic.)... organic


A general term for an individual animal or plant.

Bacteria and viruses are disease-causing microorganisms.... organism

Orthognathic Surgery

An operation to correct deformity of the jaw and the severe malocclusion that is invariably associated with it. The bones of the jaw are repositioned under general anaesthesia, and often require splinting (see splinting, dental) until they heal.... orthognathic surgery


Techniques used mainly in children to measure and evaluate squint, including eye exercises, assessment of monocular and binocular vision, and measures to combat amblyopia.... orthoptics


Use of appliances to support or correct weakened or deformed joints.... orthotics


A prefix denoting a relationship to bone, as in osteoporosis, a condition in which the bones thin and weaken.... osteo-

Osteochondritis Dissecans

Degeneration of a bone just under a joint surface, causing fragments of bone and cartilage to become separated, which may cause the joint to lock. The condition commonly affects the knee and usually starts in adolescence. Symptoms include aching discomfort and intermittent swelling of the affected joint.

If a fragment has not completely separated from the bone, the joint may be immobilized in a plaster cast to allow reattachment. Loose bone or cartilage fragments in the knee are removed during arthroscopy. Disruption to the smoothness of the joint surface increases the risk of osteoarthritis.... osteochondritis dissecans


The process by which bone is formed, renewed, and repaired, starting in the embryo and continuing throughout life. There are 3 main situations in which ossification occurs: bone growth, during which new bone forms at the epiphyses (ends) of bones; bone renewal as part of normal regeneration; and bone repair following a fracture.

In newborn babies, the diaphysis (shaft) has begun to ossify and is composed mainly of bone, while the epiphyses are made of cartilage that gradually hardens. In children, growth plates produce new cartilage to lengthen the bones, and further bone forms at secondary ossification centres in the epiphyses. By the age of 18, the shafts, growth plates, and epiphyses have all ossified and fused into continuous bone.... ossification


A noncancerous bone tumour, which is formed from a stalk of bone capped with cartilage, and appears as a hard round swelling near a joint. An osteochondroma develops in late childhood and early adolescence, usually from the side of a long bone near the knee or shoulder. The tumour causes problems only if it interferes with movement of tendons or the surrounding joint, in which case it may be removed surgically. Large osteochondromas can interfere with skeletal growth, causing deformity.... osteochondroma


Any generalized bone defect due to metabolic disorders.

Types of osteodystrophy include rickets; osteomalacia; osteoporosis due to Cushing’s syndrome or excessive intake of corticosteroid drugs; and bone cysts and bone mass reduction associated with chronic kidney failure or hyperparathyroidism.

In adults, an osteodystrophy is usually reversible if the underlying cause is treated before bone deformity occurs.... osteodystrophy


A hard, noncancerous, usually small tumour that may occur on any bone.

Surgical removal may be necessary if an osteoma causes symptoms by pressing on surrounding structures.... osteoma


A very rare inherited disorder in which bones harden and become denser. Deficiency of one of the 2 types of bone cell responsible for healthy bone growth results in a disruption of normal bone structure. In its mildest form, there may be no symptoms; more severe forms of osteopetrosis result in abnormally high susceptibility to fractures; stunted growth; deformity; and anaemia. Pressure on nerves may cause blindness, deafness, and facial paralysis.

Most treatments for osteopetrosis aim to reduce the severity of symptoms. Bone marrow transplants of cells from which healthy bone cells might develop are undertaken in some cases.... osteopetrosis


An outgrowth of bone at the boundary of a joint. The formation of osteophytes is a characteristic feature of osteoarthritis that contributes to the deformity and restricted movement of affected joints.... osteophyte


Increased bone density, visible on X-rays as an area of extreme whiteness.

Localized osteosclerosis may be caused by a severe injury that compresses the bone, osteoarthritis, chronic osteomyelitis, or an osteoma.

Osteosclerosis occurs throughout the body in the inherited bone disorder osteopetrosis.... osteosclerosis


A fungal ear infection that causes inflammation of the ear canal and external ear (see otitis externa).... otomycosis


Cosmetic or reconstructive surgery on the external ear. This procedure is usually carried out to make protruding ears lie closer to the head. Otoplasty may also be performed to construct a missing ear in a child born with part or all of one ear missing, or to reconstruct a damaged ear.... otoplasty

Ovarian Cyst

An abnormal, fluid-filled swelling in an ovary. Ovarian cysts are common and, in most cases, noncancerous. The most common type, a follicular cyst, is one in which the egg-producing follicle enlarges and fills with fluid. Cysts may also occur in the corpus luteum, a mass of tissue that forms from the follicle after ovulation. Other types include dermoid cysts and cancerous cysts (see ovary, cancer of).

Ovarian cysts are often symptomless, but some cause abdominal discomfort, pain during intercourse, or irregularities of menstruation such as amenorrhoea, menorrhagia, or dysmenorrhoea. Severe abdominal pain, nausea, and fever may develop if twisting or rupture of a cyst occurs. This condition requires surgery.An ovarian cyst may be discovered during a routine pelvic examination and its position and size confirmed by ultrasound or laparoscopy. In many cases, simple ovarian cysts – thin-walled or fluid-filled cysts – resolve themselves. However, complex cysts (such as dermoid cysts) usually require surgical removal. If an ovarian cyst is particularly large, the ovary may need to be removed (see oophorectomy).... ovarian cyst


One of a pair of almond-shaped glands situated on either side of the uterus immediately below the opening of the fallopian tubes. Each ovary contains numerous cavities called follicles, in which egg cells (see ovum) develop. The ovaries also produce the female sex hormones oestrogen and progesterone.... ovary


A drug that is used to treat frequent urination (see urination, frequent) by increasing the bladder’s capacity. Common side effects include dry mouth and blurred vision.... oxybutynin

Polycystic Ovary

See ovary, polycystic.... polycystic ovary

Retinal Artery Occlusion

Blockage of an artery supplying blood to the retina, most commonly due to thrombosis or embolism, The disorder can result in permanent blindness or loss of part of the field of vision, depending on the artery affected and whether or not the condition can be treated quickly enough.... retinal artery occlusion

Retinal Vein Occlusion

Blockage of a vein carrying blood away from the retina.

It usually results from thrombosis in the affected vein, and is more common in people who have glaucoma.

Retinal vein occlusion may cause visual disturbances, glaucoma, or blindness.... retinal vein occlusion

World Health Organization


An international organization established in 1948 as an agency of the United Nations with responsibilities for international health matters and public health. The headquarters are in Geneva, Switzerland.

The has campaigned effectively against some infectious diseases, most

notably smallpox, tuberculosis, and malaria.

Other functions include sponsoring medical research programmes, organizing a network of collaborating national laboratories, and providing expert advice and specific targets to its 160 member states with regard to health matters.... world health organization

Whipple’s Operation

A type of pancreatectomy in which the head of the pancreas and the loop of the duodenum are surgically removed.

whipworm infestation Small, cylindrical whip-like worms, 2.5–5 cm long, that live in the human large intestine. Infestation occurs worldwide but is most common in the tropics. Light infestation causes no symptoms; heavy infestation can cause abdominal pain, diarrhoea, and, sometimes, anaemia, since a small amount of the host’s blood is consumed every day.

Diagnosis is through the identification of whipworm eggs in the faeces. Treatment is with anthelmintic drugs, such as mebendazole. A heavy infestation may require more than 1 course of treatment. whitehead A very common type of skin blemish (see milia).... whipple’s operation

Zinc Oxide

An ingredient of many skin preparations that has a mild astringent action and a soothing effect. Zinc oxide is used to treat painful, itchy, or moist skin conditions and to ease the pain caused by haemorrhoids and insect bites or stings. It also blocks the ultraviolet rays of the sun (see sunscreens).... zinc oxide


n. one of a group of steroid hormones (including oestriol, oestrone, and oestradiol) that control female sexual development, promoting the growth and function of the female sex organs (see menstrual cycle) and female secondary sexual characteristics (such as breast development). Oestrogens are synthesized mainly by the ovary; small amounts are also produced by the adrenal cortex, testes, and placenta. In men excessive production of oestrogen gives rise to *feminization.

Naturally occurring and synthetic oestrogens are used to treat *amenorrhoea and menopausal symptoms (see hormone replacement therapy), as well as androgen-dependent cancers (e.g. cancer of the prostate). Synthetic oestrogens are a major constituent of *oral contraceptives. Side-effects of oestrogen therapy may include nausea and vomiting, headache and dizziness, irregular vaginal bleeding, fluid and salt retention, and feminization in men. Oestrogens should not be used in patients with a history of cancer of the breast, uterus, or genital tract. —oestrogenic adj.... oestrogen


n. 1. the sense of smell. 2. the process of smelling. Sensory cells in the mucous membrane that lines the nasal cavity are stimulated by the presence of chemical particles dissolved in the mucus. See nose. —olfactory adj.... olfaction

Agaricus Ostreatus

(Jacq.) Fries

Family: Agaricaceae.

Habitat: Artocarpus interifolia, indigenous to the western Ghats.

English: Oyster Mushroom (grows on Artocarpus integrifolia).

Action: Prevents excessive salivation. Also given internally in dysentery, diarrhoea, stomatitis; as a paste to gums in apthae.... agaricus ostreatus

Alpinia Officinarum


Family: Zingiberaceae.

Habitat: Native to China; cultivated in northern India.

English: Lesser Galangal, Alpinia, Catarrh Root, Chinese Ginger.

Ayurvedic: Kulanjan (var.). Unani: Khulanjaan (smaller var.). Siddha/Tamil: Chitrarattai.

Action: Rhizome—a circulatory stimulant and carminative.

Key application: As a carminative.

(The British Herbal Pharmacopoeia.)

Aqueous and methanolic extracts of the rhizome, on oral administration, exhibited significant decrease in gastric secretion in rabbits and showed anticholinergic effect in pylorus-ligated rats.

Flavones from rhizomes are strongly antifungal against a wide variety of pathogenic fungi, responsible for major skin diseases in eastern India. Flavones were also found to be active against a number of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.

The gingerols and diaryheptanoids constituents of the rhizome are potent inhibitors of PG synthetase (prosta- glandin biosynthesizing enzyme); they can also be active against 5-lipoxyge- nase, an enzyme involved in leuko- triene biosynthesis. (Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, 2007.)... alpinia officinarum

Althaea Officinalis


Family: Malvaceae.

Habitat: Native to eastern Europe; found in Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh.

English: Marshmallow, Hollyhock.

Unani: Khatmi, Gul-Khairu (also equated with Althaea rosea Linn.).

Siddha/Tamil: Shemai-tutti.

Action: Demulcent, emollient, antitussive (used for cough, bronchitis, gastritis, enteritis and cystitis), antilithic, diuretic.

Key application: (leaf and root) In irritation ofthe oral and pharyngeal mucosa and associated dry cough; in mild inflammation of the gastric mucosa. (German Commission E, ESCOP.) As demulcent. (The British Herbal Pharmacopoeia.) In gastroenteritis, peptic and duodenal ulceration, common and ulcerative colitis. (The British Herbal Compendium.) Topically for varicose veins, skin ulcers, abscesses, cuts, burns.

Althaea rosea (L.) Cav., synonym Al- cea rosea L., Hollyhock flower, is used as mucilage for prophylaxis and therapy of diseases and discomforts of the respiratory and gastrointestinal tract and for urinary complaints. (It is included among unapproved herbs by German Commission E.)

The root contains starch, mucilage, pectin, flavonoids, phenolic acids, sucrose, tannins and asparagines. Mucilage (18-35%) consists of a number of polysaccharides. Flavonoids include kaempferol, quercetin and diosmetin glucosides. Polyphenolic acids include syringic, caffeic, salcyclic, vanillic and p-coumaric acids.

The mucilages have proven biological activity including stimulation of phagocytosis in vitro.

The root counters excess stomach acid, peptic ulceration and gastritis.... althaea officinalis

Anacardium Occidentale


Family: Anacardiaceae.

Habitat: Native to tropical America, from Mexico to Peru and Brazil. Cultivated largely in Malabar, Kerala, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh, and to some extent in Maharashtra, Goa, Orissa and West Bengal.

English: Cashew Nut.

Unani: Kaaju.

Siddha/Tamil: Mindiri.

Action: Leaves and bark—fungi- cidal, vermicidal, protozoicidal, antimicrobial (used for toothache, sore gums). Karnel—eaten for its high protein content. Cashew apple—antiscorbutic. Resinous juice contained in the seeds—used in cases of mental derangement, memory disturbances, palpitation of heart, rheumatic pericarditis, sexual debility.

The nut contains 45% fat and 20% protein. Leaves contain flavonoids, mainly glycosides of quercetin and kaempferol, and hydroxybenzoic acid. The bark contains a balsam-containing anacardic acid, anacardol, cardol and ginkgol. The caustic liquid in the shell contains about 39% anacardic acid, a mixture of alkyl salicylic acid derivatives. The leaves are febrifuge. Anacardic acid is bactericidal, fungici- dal, vermicidal and protozoicidal. The leaves and bark exhibited hypotensive activity in rats.

The phenolics of the cashew-nut shell oil have inhibited the enzymic activity of alpha-glucosidase, invertase and aldose reductase (anacardic acids being the most potent). Cardols have also shown antifilarial activity in vitro. Anacardic acids, cardols and methyl cardols have been found to exhibit moderate cytotoxic activity.... anacardium occidentale

Bergamot, Orange

Money, Success... bergamot, orange

Blue-ringed Octopus

Colloquial term for Hapalochlaena spp.... blue-ringed octopus

Bronchiolitis Obliterans

A rare disorder involving gradually increasing FIBROSIS and destruction of lung tissue following an attack of BRONCHIOLITIS.... bronchiolitis obliterans

Anemone Obtusiloba

D. Don

Synonym: A. pulsatilla Linn.

Family: Ranunculaceae.

Habitat: Native to Europe; thrives in dry grassland in central and northern parts of the continent.

English: Wind-Flower, Wood Anemone, Pasque Flower, Pulsatilla.

Unani: Gul-laalaa, Shaqaaq-un- Nomaan.

Action: Nervine and sedative (used for anxiety neurosis, nervous exhaustion, tension, headache, migraine, insomnia), antispasmodic (in catarrh); used for amenorrhoea, inflammation of ovaries, painful menstruation and genito-urinary infections. The rootstock is given with milk for concussions. The seeds cause vomiting and purging.

The seed oil is used in rheumatism.

Pulsatilla contains ranunculin, which hydrolyzes to a toxic, unstable compound protoanemonin, which readily dimerizes to non-toxic anemonin.

Anemonin and protoanemonin exhibit sedative and antipyretic activity. Protoanemonin is also antimicrobial. (Topically, Pulsatilla is used for infectious diseases of the skin.)... anemone obtusiloba

Avicennia Officinalis


Synonym: A. alba Blume

Family: Verbenaceae; Avicenniaceae.

Habitat: A tree occurring in salt marshes and tidal creeks.

English: White mangrove.

Ayurvedic: Tuvara.

Siddha/Tamil: Kandal.

Folk: Tivaria (Gujarat), Upattam (Tamil Nadu).

Action: Stem/bark—astringent. Pulp of unripe fruit—used for healing skin lesions of smallpox; fruits and immature seeds, used as cicatrizant of abscesses and ulcers.

The bark contains 5% tannin, tri- acontanol and triterpenoids. Kernels contain lapachol, which possesses an- titumour activity. Aerial parts yield beta-sitosterol, friedelin, lupenone, lu- peol, betulinic and ursolic acids.... avicennia officinalis

Balsamodendron Opobalsamum


Synonym: Commiphora opobalsamum (L.) Engl.

Family: Burseraceae.

Habitat: Found in countries on both sides of Red Sea.

English: Balsam tree, Balsam of Mecca, Balsam of Gilead.

Unani: Balsaan, Roghan-e-Balsaan (oil), Hab-e-Balsaan (fruit). Ood-e- Balsaan (wood).

Action: Used in diseases of the urinary tract. Balsams are diuretic and stimulate mucous tissues in small doses (nauseatic and purgative in large doses).

In Unani medicine, the fruit is used as an expectorant and emmenagogue, also for neurological affections. The wood is also used as an ingredient in compounds for epilepsy and other nervine disorders. The oil is used externally for its anti-inflammatory and revitalizing properties.... balsamodendron opobalsamum

Bixa Orellana


Family: Bixaceae.

Habitat: Native to Central America, often cultivated in Madhya Pradesh and South India.

English: Annatto.

Ayurvedic: Sinduri, Sinduriyaa.

Siddha/Tamil: Jabara, Manjitti.

Action: Plant—astringent, antibil- ious, antiemetic, blood purifier. Leaves—infusion is given in jaundice, also in dysentery. Externally, scar-preventive. Root bark— febrifuge, antiperiodic. Seed pulp— haemostatic, antidysenteric, diuretic, laxative. Fruit—antidysenteric.

An antimicrobial constituent, mas- linic acid, alongwith gallic acid and pyrogallol, has been isolated from the leaves. Alcoholic extract of the leaves completely inhibited Micrococcus pyo- genes, but was inactive against E. coli. The aqueous extract, however, showed partial inhibition against E. coli. The aqueous extract also showed potent inhibitory activity towards lens aldose re- ductase, which plays an important role in the management of diabetic complications. The activity is attributed to a flavonoid, isoscutelarein.

Bixin, the main constituent of seed coat, shows cytostatic effect on the growth of human lymphoma cells. Bixin also has a hyperglycaemic effect and may disturb blood glucose control.... bixa orellana

Cervico-occipital Headache

A headache of the neck and side of the head...a tension headache.... cervico-occipital headache

Clinical Observation

Clinical information, excluding information about treatment and intervention. Clinical information that does not record an intervention is by nature a clinical observation. The observer may be the patient or related person (information about symptoms, family history, occupation or lifestyle) or a health care professional (information about physical signs, measurements, properties observed or diagnoses). While information about the nature of a planned or performed treatment is excluded by the definition, clinical observations may be recorded on the results of a treatment, on progress during the course of a treatment, or on the result of a treatment.... clinical observation

Bai Hao Oolong Tea - The Taiwanese Oolong Tea

Bai Hao Oolong Tea is a type of oolong tea, made from the leaves of the Camellia sinensis plant. Although Oolong tea is known as a traditional Chinese tea, the Bai Hao Oolong tea is made in Taiwan. Find out more about the Bai Hao Oolong tea! About Bai Hao Oolong tea Bai Hao Oolong tea is a type of Oolong tea produced in Taiwan, in the Hsinchu County. In English, it means “white tip oolong tea”. It is also known by the name Dongfang meiren; in English, its name is translated as “oriental beauty tea”. It is also said that, at the beginning of the 20th century, a British tea merchant presented Queen Elizabeth II. After tasting it, she also called it “Oriental Beauty”, which became one of the tea’s well-known names. The name Bai Hao Oolong tea, translated as “white tip oolong tea”, refers to the leaves. Theyare dark purple or brown, while the tips have a white, silvery color. The Bai Hao Oolong tea has a sweet and fruity taste, while the color of the beverage is a beautiful bright reddish-orange. Production of Bai Hao Oolong tea The tea bushes that produce the leaves of Bai Hao Oolong tea are cultivated in Northern Taiwan. They are grown without using any kind of pesticide. This is to encourage the tea green leafhopper to feed on the leaves, stems, and buds in order to suck the phloem juice. The buds then turn white, as the plant becomes oxidized where it was bit. This is what gives the tea its unique, sweet flavor. In order to have the tea green leafhopper bite on the plants, it is necessary that the bushes producing Bai Hao Oolongtea leaves be cultivated in warmer areas. The tea bushes are planted in the northwestern part of the country, in lower altitude areas which have sufficient sunshine and humidity. It is harvested during mid-summer and then, it is fermented up to 70%. Only the bud and the top two leaves are used. How to prepare Bai Hao Oolong tea In order to prepare Bai Hao Oolong tea, use two grams of tea leaves for every 150 ml of water. The ideal water temperature is around 80°C-85°C, while the steeping time is of 1-2 minutes. The Bai Hao Oolongtea leaves can be used for more than one brewing, though you have to gradually increase steeping time. Benefits of Bai Hao Oolong tea Oolong teas are good for our health, and the Bai Hao Oolong tea is not an exception. Read more about some health benefits of the Bai Hao Oolong tea. First, the polyphenols in its composition help you to lose weight. They increase the function of the enzymes which are responsible with burning fat. That’s why it’s a good idea to drink cups of Bai Hao Oolong teaif you’re on a diet. Bai Hao Oolong tea also contains fluoride, which helps you maintain a good oral hygiene. It helps protect your teeth as it prevents the decaying of teeth and stops the plaque build-up. Overall, it makes your teeth stronger. The polyphenols in the Bai Hao Oolong tea also help treat skin problems such as eczema and rashes. Other skin problems can be treated with Bai Hao Oolong tea, as well. The antioxidants in its composition fight against the free radicals affecting your skin. Some of the skin benefits include reducing the dark spots and wrinkles, slowing down the aging process, and improving the color of the skin. They also help protect you against cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Drinking Bai Hao Oolong tea also helps reduce high blood pressure and blood sugar levels. It is especially good for diabetes patients, who can keep the blood glucose level under control. Lastly,Bai Hao Oolong teais also helpful when it comes to increasing energy, reducing stress and improving brain power. Side effects of Bai Hao Oolong tea While there are many health benefits when drinking Bai Hao Oolong tea, don’t forget that there are a few side effects, as well. One is related to the caffeine found in the Bai Hao Oolong tea. Although the amount is less than in most types of black tea, you still have to be careful if caffeine isn’t good for your body. Be careful not to get the following symptoms: insomnia, anxiety, headache, dizziness, irritability, and blurred vision. Also, pregnant women have to reduce the amount of tea they drink, as the caffeine may cause miscarriages and birth defects. It can also affect the child during breast feeding. It’s important not to drink too much tea either, including Bai Hao Oolong tea. IT is generally recommended that you not drink more than six cups of tea a day. General symptoms that may appear when drinking too much tea are loss of appetite, diarrhea, vomiting, headaches, dizziness, insomnia, and irregular heartbeats. Also, it was discovered that, among elderly people, excessive amount of Bai Hao Oolong tea can cause hypokalemia. The Bai Hao Oolong tea is a richly-flavored, fruity tea that also keeps you healthy. If you decide to include it in your daily diet, you surely won’t regret it.... bai hao oolong tea - the taiwanese oolong tea

Cost Outlier

A case which is more costly to treat compared with other persons in a particular diagnosis-related group. Outliers also refer to any unusual occurrence of cost, cases which skew average costs or unusual procedures.... cost outlier

Croton Oblongifolius


Family: Euphorbiaceae.

Habitat: Central, Western and Southern India, also eastwards to Bengal.

Ayurvedic: Naagadanti. (Danti is equated with Baliospermum montanum Muell., Dravanti with Jatropha curcas Linn. and Croton tiglium Linn.)

Action: Same as that of C. tiglium.... croton oblongifolius

Cyclo-oxygenase-2 Selective Inhibitors

See COX-2 INHIBITORS.... cyclo-oxygenase-2 selective inhibitors

Dioscorea Oppositifolia


Family: Dioscoreaceae.

Habitat: South India; throughout the hills of Deccan.

Ayurvedic: Amlikaakanda (controversial synonym).

Siddha: Kavala-kodi, Venilai Valli.

Folk: Aambaalio Kanda (Gujarat).

Action: Used externally for reducing swellings.... dioscorea oppositifolia

Borago Officinalis


Family: Boraginaceae.

Habitat: The Mediteranean region, Europe and Asia.

English: Borage, Cow's Tongue Plant.

Unani: Gaozabaan (Onosma bracteatum Wall. has also been equated with Gaozabaan).

Action: Fresh herb (compounded with water)—refreshing, restorative and nervine tonic. Leaves and flowers—diuretic, febrifuge, expectorant, demulcent, emollient; promote the activity of kidneys; alleviate pulmonary affections.

The drug strengthens adrenal glands and is given for stress, mental exhau- sion and depression; provides support to stomach and intestines in cases of infection and toxicity. Used as a tonic to counteract the lingering effects of steroid therapy. Seeds relieve irritable bowel syndrome and regulate menstruation.

The leaves contain lycopsamine and supindine viridiflorate as the predominant unsaturated pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Due to low concentration of these alkaloids Borage is not toxic.

The drug contains potassium and calcium, combined with mineral acids. The fresh juice affords 30%, the dried herb 3% of nitrate of potash. The stems and leaves supply much saline mucilage. These saline qualities are mainly responsible for the wholesome invigorating properties of Borage.

Borage imparts pleasant flavour and cooling effect to beverages. In India, squashes and syrups, sold during summer, contain Borage extract.

Borage contains ascorbic acid (38 mg/100 g). Flowers contain cholin, glucose, fructose, amino acids, tannin (about 3%). Seeds contain protein (20.9%) and an oil (38.3%). The seed oil is one of the important sources of gamma-linoleic acid and linoleic acid. Borage oil, combined with Evening Primrose oil, is used in hypercholes- terolaemia.

Borage seed oil is used for rheumatoid arthritis, atopic eczema, infantile seborrhoeic dermatitis, neurodermati- tis, also for PMS and for preventing heart disease and stroke. Only UPA (unsaturated pyrrolizidine alkaloids) free oil is given internally.

Listed by German Commission E among unapproved herbs.

It has been suggested that borage not be used with drugs known to lower the seizure threshold such as tricyclic an- tidepressants and phenothiazines due to GLA content (only borage seed oil contains significant amounts of GLA). (Francis Brinker.)... borago officinalis

Calendula Officinalis


Family: Compositae; Asteraceae.

Habitat: Throughout India; wild in Punjab.

English: Pot-Marigold, Marigold; Calendula.

Unani: Zergul.

Siddha/Tamil: Thulvkka Saamanthi.

Action: Flowers—antiinflammatory, antiseptic, stimulant, antispasmodic, emmenagogue, antihaemorrhagic, styptic. Used in gastric and duodenal ulcers and dysmenorrhoea; externally for cuts, bruises, burns, scalds. Plant—antiprotozoal. Flower— antimicrobial. Essential oil— antibacterial.

Key application: In inflammation of the oral and pharyngeal mucosa, internally and externally. Externally, on poorly healing wounds, ul- cuscruris. (German Commission E, WHO, ESCOP.) Anti-inflammatory, vulnerary. (The British Herbal Pharmacopoeia.)

The flowers contain triterpenes, sterols, flavonoids, carotenes, bitter glycosides, resins, volatile oil, mucilage (do not contain tannins). Polysaccharides from flowers exhibited immuno- stimulating and antitumour activity in several in vitro test systems.

An alcoholic extract has been shown to have antitrichomonal activity.

Wound healing and antiinflammatory properties are attributed to Mn and carotene. An aqueous alcoholic extract of florets showed CNS inhibitory effect with marked sedative activity in experimental animals.

The extract of flower-heads exhibited estrogenic activity (reduces period pains and regulates menstrual bleeding).

Calephlone, the extract containing the total polyphenols of the inflorescence, has a marked cholagogic effect in rats and has been found helpful in the treatment of CCl4-induced hepatitis. A hypocholesterolaemic saponin has been extracted from the plant.

Dosage: Dried inflorescences powder—1-3 g (API Vol. II); fruit powder—1-2 g. (API Vol. IV.)... calendula officinalis

Do Not Resuscitate Order

An advance directive based on the premise that a person may prefer to die than live when the quality of life available after cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is likely to be worse than before. In such circumstances, a patient has the right not to be resuscitated and to be allowed to die.... do not resuscitate order


A method of recording movements of the eyes, which is of value in assessing the function of the retina (see EYE.)... electro-oculography

Environmental Health Officer

A local-authority health o?cial specially quali?ed in aspects of environmental health such as clean air, food hygiene, housing, pollution, sanitation and water supplies. He or she is responsible for running the authority’s environmental health department and, when epidemiological advice is needed, the relevant public-health physician acts in a consultative capacity (see EPIDEMIOLOGY; PUBLIC HEALTH).... environmental health officer

Equine Oestrogens

See OESTROGENS.... equine oestrogens

Fimbristylis Ovata


Synonym: F. monostachya Hassk.

Family: Cyperaceae.

Habitat: Throughout warmer regions of India, as a weed.

Ayurvedic: Ibha-muulaka. (Also equated with F. annua.)

Action: Used in adenitis, scrofula, syphilis; also in cough, bronchitis and asthma.... fimbristylis ovata

Carissa Opaca

Stapf. Ex Haines.

Synonym: C. spinarum auct. non L.

Family: Apocynaceae.

Habitat: Throughout the country in dry regions, especially in Punjab and Kashmir.

Ayurvedic: Karamardikaa.

Siddha/Tamil: Chirukila Chiru.

Folk: Jangali Karondaa. Garnaa (Punjab).

Action: Plant—cardiotonic. Root— purgative.

The root contains caffeic acid, cardiac glycosides—odorosides B, C, G and H, and evomonoside.

Carissa paucinervia A. DC. is also equated with the wild var. ofKarondaa.... carissa opaca

Cassia Obovata

(L.) Collad.

Synonym: C. obtusa Roxb.

Family: Calsalpiniaceae.

Habitat: Punjab, Delhi, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu.

English: Spanish, Sudan Senna.

Ayurvedic: Maarkandikaa, Svarna- pattri. (related species)

Folk: Sonaamukhi, Sanaai.

Action: An adulterant of the true senna. Leaves and seeds—purgative and anthelmintic.... cassia obovata

Cassia Obtusifolia


Family: Calsalpiniaceae.

Habitat: From Jammu and Himachal Pradesh to West Bengal, also in central and western India, up to an altitude of 1,200 m.

Ayurvedic: Chakramarda, Prapun- naada.

Folk: Chakondaa, Chakwar, Pumariaa.

Action: Pods—Antidysenteric, antibacterial, antifungal. Seeds— used for ringworm and skin diseases also for cough, cold, asthma, and as a mild purgative in liver complaints.... cassia obtusifolia

Cassia Occidentalis


Family: Calsalpiniaceae.

Habitat: Throughout India, up to an altitude of 1,500 m.

English: Coffee Senna, Foetid Cassia, Negro Coffee.

Ayurvedic: Kaasamarda, Kaasaari.

Unani: Kasondi.

Siddha/Tamil: Paeyaavarai, Thagarai.

Folk: Kasondi (bigger var.).

Action: Purgative, diuretic, febrifugal, expectorant, stomachic. Leaves—used internally and externally in scabies, ringworm and other skin diseases. A hot decoction is given as an antiperiodic. Seeds— used for cough, whooping cough and convulsions. Roasted seeds (roasting destroys the purgative property) are mixed with coffee for strength.

The pods contain sennosides and anthraquinones; seeds polysacchari- des, galactomannan; leaves dianthron- ic hetroside; pericarp apigenin; roots emodol; plant xanthone—cassiolin; seeds phytosterolin; flowers physcion and its glucosides, emodin and beta- sitosterol.

The volatile oil obtained from the leaves, roots and seeds showed antibacterial and antifungal activity.

The seeds, when fed to animals, resulted in weight loss and also were found to be toxic to experimental animals. Leaves are preferred to quinine as a tonic, seeds are considered as a hae- mateinic toxic and root is used as a hepatic tonic.

Dosage: Seed—3-6 g powder; leaf—10-20 ml juice; root bark— 50-100 ml decoction. (CCRAS.)... cassia occidentalis

Centipeda Orbicularis


Synonym: C. minima (Linn.) A.Br. & Asch.

Family: Compositae; Asteraceae.

Habitat: In damp places throughout the plains and low hills in India.

English: Sneezewort.

Ayurvedic: Kshavaka, Chhikkini, Chhikkikaa.

Folk: Nak-chhikani.

Action: Used for the treatment of rhinitis, sinusitis, nasopharyngeal tumors and obstructions, asthma and cold; also used in hemicrania.

The plant extract showed a good an- titussive and expectorant activity on mice. The flavonoids, sesquiterpenes and amide exhibited significant antial- lergy activity in passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) test.... centipeda orbicularis

Frail Older Person

An older person in need of a substantial level of care and support.... frail older person

General Optical Council

The statutory body that regulates the professions of ophthalmic OPTICIAN (optometrist) and dispensing optician. It promotes high standards of education and professional conduct and was set up by the Opticians Act 1958.... general optical council

Health Maintenance Organization (hmo)

An organized system providing health care in a geographic area to an enrolled group of persons who pay a predetermined fixed, periodic prepayment made by, or on behalf of, each person or family unit enrolled, irrespective of actual service use.... health maintenance organization (hmo)

Health Outcome

Changes in health status which result from the provision of health (or other) services.... health outcome

Health Promotion Outcome

Assessment of changes to personal characteristics and skills, and/or social norms and actions, and/or organizational practices and public policies which are attributable to a health promotion activity.... health promotion outcome

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (copd)

This is a term encompassing chronic BRONCHITIS, EMPHYSEMA, and chronic ASTHMA where the air?ow into the lungs is obstructed.

Chronic bronchitis is typi?ed by chronic productive cough for at least three months in two successive years (provided other causes such as TUBERCULOSIS, lung cancer and chronic heart failure have been excluded). The characteristics of emphysema are abnormal and permanent enlargement of the airspaces (alveoli) at the furthermost parts of the lung tissue. Rupture of alveoli occurs, resulting in the creation of air spaces with a gradual breakdown in the lung’s ability to oxygenate the blood and remove carbon dioxide from it (see LUNGS). Asthma results in in?ammation of the airways with the lining of the BRONCHIOLES becoming hypersensitive, causing them to constrict. The obstruction may spontaneously improve or do so in response to bronchodilator drugs. If an asthmatic patient’s airway-obstruction is characterised by incomplete reversibility, he or she is deemed to have a form of COPD called asthmatic bronchitis; sufferers from this disorder cannot always be readily distinguished from those people who have chronic bronchitis and/ or emphysema. Symptoms and signs of emphysema, chronic bronchitis and asthmatic bronchitis overlap, making it di?cult sometimes to make a precise diagnosis. Patients with completely reversible air?ow obstruction without the features of chronic bronchitis or emphysema, however, are considered to be suffering from asthma but not from COPD.

The incidence of COPD has been increasing, as has the death rate. In the UK around 30,000 people with COPD die annually and the disorder makes up 10 per cent of all admissions to hospital medical wards, making it a serious cause of illness and disability. The prevalence, incidence and mortality rates increase with age, and more men than women have the disorder, which is also more common in those who are socially disadvantaged.

Causes The most important cause of COPD is cigarette smoking, though only 15 per cent of smokers are likely to develop clinically signi?cant symptoms of the disorder. Smoking is believed to cause persistent airway in?ammation and upset the normal metabolic activity in the lung. Exposure to chemical impurities and dust in the atmosphere may also cause COPD.

Signs and symptoms Most patients develop in?ammation of the airways, excessive growth of mucus-secreting glands in the airways, and changes to other cells in the airways. The result is that mucus is transported less e?ectively along the airways to eventual evacuation as sputum. Small airways become obstructed and the alveoli lose their elasticity. COPD usually starts with repeated attacks of productive cough, commonly following winter colds; these attacks progressively worsen and eventually the patient develops a permanent cough. Recurrent respiratory infections, breathlessness on exertion, wheezing and tightness of the chest follow. Bloodstained and/or infected sputum are also indicative of established disease. Among the symptoms and signs of patients with advanced obstruction of air?ow in the lungs are:

RHONCHI (abnormal musical sounds heard through a STETHOSCOPE when the patient breathes out).

marked indrawing of the muscles between the ribs and development of a barrel-shaped chest.

loss of weight.

CYANOSIS in which the skin develops a blue tinge because of reduced oxygenation of blood in the blood vessels in the skin.

bounding pulse with changes in heart rhythm.

OEDEMA of the legs and arms.

decreasing mobility.

Some patients with COPD have increased ventilation of the alveoli in their lungs, but the levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide are normal so their skin colour is normal. They are, however, breathless so are dubbed ‘pink pu?ers’. Other patients have reduced alveolar ventilation which lowers their oxygen levels causing cyanosis; they also develop COR PULMONALE, a form of heart failure, and become oedematous, so are called ‘blue bloaters’.

Investigations include various tests of lung function, including the patient’s response to bronchodilator drugs. Exercise tests may help, but radiological assessment is not usually of great diagnostic value in the early stages of the disorder.

Treatment depends on how far COPD has progressed. Smoking must be stopped – also an essential preventive step in healthy individuals. Early stages are treated with bronchodilator drugs to relieve breathing symptoms. The next stage is to introduce steroids (given by inhalation). If symptoms worsen, physiotherapy – breathing exercises and postural drainage – is valuable and annual vaccination against INFLUENZA is strongly advised. If the patient develops breathlessness on mild exertion, has cyanosis, wheezing and permanent cough and tends to HYPERVENTILATION, then oxygen therapy should be considered. Antibiotic treatment is necessary if overt infection of the lungs develops.

Complications Sometimes rupture of the pulmonary bullae (thin-walled airspaces produced by the breakdown of the walls of the alveoli) may cause PNEUMOTHORAX and also exert pressure on functioning lung tissue. Respiratory failure and failure of the right side of the heart (which controls blood supply to the lungs), known as cor pulmonale, are late complications in patients whose primary problem is emphysema.

Prognosis This is related to age and to the extent of the patient’s response to bronchodilator drugs. Patients with COPD who develop raised pressure in the heart/lung circulation and subsequent heart failure (cor pulmonale) have a bad prognosis.... chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (copd)

Human Organs Transplants Act

UK legislation that lays down the framework and rules governing organ transplantation. The UK Transplant Support Service Authority (UKTSSA), a special health authority set up in 1991, is responsible for administering the NHS Organ Donor Registry and the Act (see APPENDIX 7: STATUTORY ORGANISATIONS).... human organs transplants act


(Arabic) One who is fortunate; lucky Maas’ouda... mas’ouda

Medical Oncology

See ONCOLOGY.... medical oncology

Cinchona Officinalis


Synonym: C. robusta How.

Family: Rubiaceae.

Habitat: Cultivated in West Bengal and Tamil Nadu.

English: Crown or Loxa Bark.

Ayurvedic: Quinine.

Unani: Al-keenaa, Kanakanaa.

Action: Antimalarial, febrifuge, astringent, orexigenic, sapasmolytic. Also prescribed in amoebic dysentery, jaundice, atonic dyspepsia, night cramps. Sometimes causes gastric and intestinal irritation.

Key application: In peptic discomforts such as bloating and fullness, loss of appetite. (German Commission E.)

The bark contains alkaloids quinine (2.35-4.42%); quinidine (1.44-2.56%); cinchonine (0.10-0.66%); cinchoni- dine (0.49-0.89%) and other alkaloids, quinamine, javanine (0.14-0.63%).

The leaves contain quercetin, kaem- pferol and avicularin.

Quinine is antimalarial; quinidine is antiarrhythmic and cardiac tonic, also used in psychic treatments.

The bark shows potent inhibitory activity against polymorphonuclear leucocytes; the activity is attributed to the alkaloids of the bark. Cinchona may potentiate coumarin derivatives. In large doses, it is sedative to CNS and cardiac plexus.

Quinine is toxic at over 3 g, quini- dine at 1 g.

Related Cinchona sp.: C. calisaya Wedd. (Nilgiris and Sikkim); C. calisaya Wedd. var. ledgeriana How. (West Bengal, Khasi Hills and Tamil Nadu); and C. succirubra Pav. ex Klotz. (Nilgiris and Annamalis in Tamil Nadu, Sikkim and West Bengal).

The bark of all the species contain quinine, quinidine, cinchonine and cinchonidine and exhibit antimalarial activity. The alcoholic extract of C. ledgeriana Moens ex Trimen bark exhibits antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria comparable to sodium penicillin. The extract, however, exhibits lesser activity than di- hydrostreptomycin sulphate against Gram-negative bacteria.... cinchona officinalis

Crataegeus Oxyacantha


Family: Rosaceae.

Habitat: British and European hedge plant, met with in the temperate Himalayas of Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh at an altitude of 1,800-3,000 m. (The plant does not thrive in the plains of India.)

English: English Hawthorn.

Folk: Ring, Ringo, Pingyat, Phindak, Ban Sanjli (Punjab hills).

Action: Coronary vasodilator (strengthens heart muscle without increasing the beat in coronary arteries), antispasmodic, antihypertensive, sedative to nervous system, diuretic.

Key application: In cases of cardiac insufficiency Stage II as defined by NYHA (New York Heart Association). An improvement of subjective findings as well as an increase in cardiac work tolerance, a decrease in pressure/heart rate product, an increase in the ejection fraction and a rise in the anaerobic threshold have been established in human pharmacological studies. (German Commission E, WHO.)

The active principles include oligo- meric procyanidins and flavonoids.

The drug is official in Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia of India.

Contraindicated in low blood pressure, chest pain, bleeding disorders. The herb may interfere with therapeutic effect of cardiac drugs. (Sharon M. Herr.) Preparations based on hydroal- coholic extracts of Crataegus monogy- na or C. laevigata are used as Hawthorn in the Western herbal.... crataegeus oxyacantha

Curculigo Orchioides


Family: Amaryllidaceae; Hypoxi- daceae.

Habitat: Sub-tropical Himalayas from Kumaon eastwards; Western Ghats from Konkan Southwards.

Ayurvedic: Taalmuuli, Taalpatri, Krishna Mushali, Bhuumitaala.

Unani: Musli Siyaah.

Siddha/Tamil: Nilappanan kizhangu.

Action: Nervine, adaptogenic, sedative, anticonvulsive, androgenic, anti-inflammatory and diuretic. Used in Jaundice, urinary disorders, skin diseases and asthma. Mucilaginous.

The rhizome contains saponins (cur- culigosaponin C and F promoted proliferation of spleen lymphocytes very significantly; F and G increased the weight of the thymus in vitro in mice); sapogenins; phenolic glycosides, a tri- terpene alcohol; a pentacyclic triter- pene, an aliphatic compound, hen- triacontanol, sitosterol, stigmasterol, cycloartenol and sucrose. A pep- tide, Curculin C, containing 114 amino acids, has been isolated from the fruit.

In traditional Chinese medicine, dried rhizome, containing curculigo- side is used as a tonic for its immuno- logical and protective property.

In Indian medicine, powdered rhizomes with milk are taken as a restorative tonic, also for sexual debility.

EtOH (50%) of the plant exhibited hypoglycaemic property.

Dosage: Dried rhizome—3-6 g powder. (API Vol. IV.)... curculigo orchioides


A very small, single-celled living organism that cannot usually be seen by the naked eye. The most important micro-organisms in medicine are those that cause disease. This ‘pathogenic’ group, however, forms only a small proportion of the enormous number of known microorganisms. The main pathogenic ones are BACTERIA. Others are fungi and RICKETTSIA. Though not true cells, viruses (see VIRUS) are usually classi?ed as micro-organisms. (See also MICROBIOLOGY.)... micro-organism

Myositis Ossificans

See under MUSCLES, DISORDERS OF.... myositis ossificans

Naturally Occurring Retirement Communities

Geographic areas or multi-unit buildings that are not restricted to persons over a specified age, but which have evolved over time to include a significant number (typically, over 50%) of residents who are aged 60 and over.... naturally occurring retirement communities

Nitrous Oxide Gas

Also known as laughing gas, this is (at ordinary pressures) a colourless, sweetish-smelling gas. It is used with oxygen to provide relief of pain (see ANALGESICS; PAIN) and mild ANAESTHESIA during childbirth, during painful dental procedures, and at the site of major accidents. It has a rapid action and the effects do not last for long.... nitrous oxide gas

Cyclical Oedema

This is a syndrome in women, characterised by irregular intermittent bouts of generalised swelling. Sometimes the ?uid retention is more pronounced before the menstrual period (see MENSTRUATION). The eyelids are pu?y and the face and ?ngers feel sti? and bloated. The breasts may feel swollen and the abdomen distended, and ankles may swell. The diurnal weight gain may exceed 4 kg. The underlying disturbance is due to increased loss of ?uid from the vascular compartment, probably from leakage of protein from the capillaries increasing the tissue osmotic pressure. Recent evidence suggests that a decrease in the urinary excretion of DOPAMINE may contribute, as this has a natriuretic action (see NATRIURESIS). This may explain why drugs that are dopamine antagonists, such as chlorpromazine, may precipitate or aggravate cyclical oedema. Conversely, bromocriptine, a dopamine agonist, may improve the oedema.... cyclical oedema

Cydonia Oblonga


Synonym: C. vulgaris Pers.

Family: Rosaceae.

Habitat: Cultivated in Punjab, Kashmir and the Nilgiri hills.

English: Quince Fruit.

Ayurvedic: Amritaphala, Paatalaa, Simbitikaa.

Unani: Bihi, Bihidaanaa.

Siddha/Tamil: Shimaimathala.

Action: Fruit pulp and seeds— soothing and demulcent; used in irritable bowel syndrome, diarrhoea, dysentery, constipation, and in irritable conditions of the mucous membrane. Leaf, bud and bark—astringent. Fruit— expectorant. Mucilage—used externally for scalds, ulcers and burns.

The seed kernel contains the gly- coside amygdalin, tannin, mucilage (about 22%), ash (1.3%) and fatty oil (l4-19%).

In Greece, a tea prepared by boiling dry seeds in water is given in cystitis. The major water-soluble polysac- charide in the mucilage of seeds contains a high proportion of glucuronic acid residues.

The fruit contains pectin (yield 0.53% fresh weight) and is similar to that of apple. Ionone glycosides, along with octadienoic acid and its diol, have been isolated from the fruit.

Fruit juice contains thiamine, riboflavin, nicotinic acid, vitamin B6, inositol, pantothenic acid, folic acid and biotin.

The essential oil also gave a number of ionone-related compounds. The buds contain a cyanogenetic glycoside. The bark and shoots yield hydrocyanic acid on distillation.... cydonia oblonga

Daphne Oleoides


Family: Thymelaeaceae.

Habitat: The Western Himalayas and Kashmir at 1,000-3,000 m.

English: Mezereon.

Folk: Kutilal, Kanthan (Punjab).

Action: Active principles are attracting scientific interest. The orthoesters are co-carcinogenic and mezerein antileukaemic in experimental studies. Bark— used as an ointment for inducing discharge from indolent ulcers. Bark, root and root bark—used mainly for obstinate cutaneous diseases, especially for eczema with severe itching and copious exudation (weeping eczema).

As the plant is poisonous, it is used in homoeopathic dilutions internally and topically.

The bark gave diterpenes including mezerein, daphnetoxin (0.02%). Mezerein is anti-inflammatory and anticar- cinogenic. Daphnetoxin is poisonous. Seeds contain daphnane ester (0.1%) and daphnetoxin (0.02%).

EtOH extract showed significant activity against P-388 lymphocytic leukemia and L-1210 leukemia in mice, due to mezerein.... daphne oleoides

Dendrobium Ovatum

(Willd.) Kranzl.

Habitat: The Western Ghats.

Ayurvedic: Jivanti (substitute.)

Folk: Nagli (Maharashtra)

Action: Juice of fresh plant—stomachic, carminative, antispasmodic, laxative, liver tonic. (excites the bile). A related species, Dendrobium crumenatum Sw., occurs in Andaman Islands. Pounded leaves are used in Malaya for poulticing boils and pimples. Traces of alkaloids have been reported to be present in the pseudobulbs and leaves.

D. macraei Lindl. and D. normale Face. are also known as Jivanti.... dendrobium ovatum

Non-profit / Not-for-profit Organization

An incorporated organization from which its shareholders or trustees do not benefit financially.... non-profit / not-for-profit organization

Nongovernmental Organization (ngo)

An independent, national or international organization. These organizations may be run either for profit or not for profit.... nongovernmental organization (ngo)


(Arabic) A powerful woman Oadirah, Oadyra, Oadyrah, Oadeera, Oadeerah, Oadeara, Oadearah... oadira


(Arabic) A great ruler; an empress Oaisarah, Oaisarra, Oaisarrah... oaisara


(American) From the field of oak trees Oakly, Oaklee, Oakleigh, Oakli, Oaklie, Oakes, Oake, Oaklea... oakley


(Arabic) Daughter of the moon Oamrah, Oamira, Oamyra, Oameera... oamra


(Breton) Form of Agnes, meaning “one who is pure; chaste” Ownah, Owna, Oaneza, Oanezia, Oanezea... oanez

Oat, Oatmeal, Oastraw

See Avena.... oat, oatmeal, oastraw


(African) A river goddess Obalah, Oballa, Oballah, Obalia, Obaliah, Obalea, Obaleah, Obla, Oblah... obala


(African) As delicate and beautiful as a flower

Obaxx, Obaxe, Obaxa, Obaxia, Obaxea... obax


(American) A well-behaved and complying child

Obeedience, Obediance, Obedienne, Obedianne, Obey, Obeye, Obede, Obedi, Obedie, Obedy, Obedey, Obedee, Obedea... obedience

Discover Oregon Grape Root Tea

If you want to try a special type of herbal tea, there’s Oregon grape root tea! It has a slightly bitter taste, but that shouldn’t discourage you. It also has plenty of health benefits which are bound to keep you healthy. Read to find out more about Oregon grape root tea! About Oregon Grape Root Tea Oregon grape root tea is made from the root of the Oregon grape. The plant is an evergreen shrub which grows along the North American west coast. The plant can grow up to 5m tall. The leaves are similar to those of holly, and the stems and twigs are thick and corky. The flowers are yellow-colored and bloom in late spring. The fruits are small, purplish-black, with a dusty appearance, and they contain large seeds. The Oregon grape is in no way related to normal grapes. The name of the tree comes from the similarity of its berries to the grapes’ berries. Constituents of Oregon Grape Root Tea It is not surprising that the root is used to make Oregon grape root tea. The root is actually the part of the tea which contains the most active constituents. A cup of Oregon grape root tea contains many alkaloids (berberine) and phytochemicals, as well as tannins. How to prepare Oregon Grape Root Tea It isn’t difficult to make a cup of Oregon grape root tea. Place one teaspoon of dried root in a cup filled with boiling water. Let it steep for about 10-15 minutes. Once the steeping time ends, remove the dried herbs from the cup. If Oregon grape root tea is too bitter for your taste, you can add honey or sugar to sweeten it. Oregon Grape Root Tea Benefits Thanks to its important constituents, Oregon grape root tea brings you many health benefits. First of all, Oregon grape root tea is used in the treatment for dyspepsia (indigestion) and diarrhea, and it helps you fight intestinal parasites. It also increases the speed to the flow of bile, which makes it useful in the treatment for gallbladder pain, gallstones, hepatitis, and jaundice. The alkaloids found in Oregon grape root tea help treat typhoid, tuberculosis in its early stage, and various digestive disorders. It can even help with small problems, such as stomach cramps and abdominal pains. It also works as a potential anti-carcinogenic, speeding up the recovery from chemotherapy and radiation therapies. Oregon grape root teacan work as a lymphatic and liver stimulating blood cleanser. It is good for your liver as it helps release stacked away iron from the liver into the blood stream. It might also help you fight tumors in the bladder and colon. Oregon grape root tea can help you even when it’s applied topically. It is useful when treating psoriasis, eczema, athlete’s foot, acne, and other fungal infections. It also helps in easing inflammation, irritation, and itching of the skin. Oregon Grape Root Tea Side Effects First, it’s not recommended that you drink Oregon grape root tea if you are pregnant. If you do, it might cause uterine contractions. It is also best that you not consume Oregon grape root tea if you’ve gotchronic gastrointestinal irritation or inflammation. It will only worsen the symptoms. Be careful with how much Oregon grape root tea you drink. Don’t have more than six cups of tea a day, and don’t drink for more than 7 consecutive days. If you drink too much Oregon grape root tea, you’ll get the following symptoms: headaches, loss of appetite, vomiting, diarrhea, insomnia, dizziness, and irregular heartbeats. Even if it has a slightly bitter taste, Oregon grape root tea shouldn’t be forgotten. Its many health benefits can help you, if needed.... discover oregon grape root tea

Discover Orris Tea

If you haven’t tried orris tea before, now is the time. As an herbal tea, it has a bittersweet taste, but it also has important health benefits. Read to find out more about orris tea. About Orris Tea Orris tea is made from orris root, which is the root of the flower Florentine iris from the genus Iris. The plant is grown for ornamental purposes, and it is cultivated mostly in the Mediterranean region, but also in northern India, North Africa and southern Europe. The stems of the flower may reach 1 meter in height, with green, flat and sword-like leaves, and white flowers. Orris root is used for making orris tea. During ancient times, orris root was used to make perfumes, as well as for medical purposes. Later, it was also used in cuisine. Constituents of Orris Tea Orris tea is made from orris root, which has important active constituents. They make orris teagood for our health. A few important ones are starch, myristic acid, and iridin. Also, orris root has various anti-inflammatory flavonoids and isoflavone glycosides. These active constituents make orris tea an important herbal tea with many health benefits. Orris Tea Benefits Orris tea is helpful when you’ve got a cold. Besides this, it can help you when you’ve only got a sore throat and coughing problems, as it’s got strong expectorant properties. Drinking orris tea will help detoxify your body. It will help you in your treatment for congestive heart failure, as well. It is also used in the treatment for dental problems, liver congestion, diarrhea, bronchitis, and dropsy. Orris tea also works as a good diuretic. Because of this, it is helpful when treating heart failure, kidney disease, cirrhosis of the liver, and high blood pressure. Orris Tea Side Effects There aren’t too many known side effects related to the consumption of orris tea; it is mostly considered safe to drink. If you are pregnant or breastfeeding, you shouldn’t drink orris tea. Although it hasn’t been proven that it can be harmful, there is a possibility that it might affect the baby in both cases. Also, it is generally recommended that you not drink more than six cups of tea per day. This applies to any type of tea, including orris tea. If you drink more tea than your body can take, you might get some of the following symptoms: headaches, loss of appetite, vomiting, diarrhea, insomnia, dizziness, and irregular heartbeats.   While orris tea doesn’t have a high number of health benefits, it’s also notable that it doesn’t have any dangerous side effects. Because of this, it is considered safe to consume orris tea every day. Just be careful with the amount.... discover orris tea


(Greek) One who acts as a pillar of strength

Obeliah, Obeliya, Obelea, Obelie, Obeli, Obeley, Obely, Obeleah... obelia


(African) A kind and caring woman

Obiomah, Obeoma, Obeomah, Obyoma, Obyomah... obioma

Emblica Officinalis


Synonym: Phyllanthus emblica Linn.

Family: Euphorbiaceae.

Habitat: Native to tropical Southeast Asia; distributed throughout India; also planted in public parks.

English: Emblic, Indian gooseberry.

Ayurvedic: Aaamalaki, Aaamalaka, Dhaatri, Kaayasthaa, Amoghaa, Amritaphala, Amla, Aaamalaa, Dhaatriphala, Vayasyaa, Vrshya, Shiva, Hattha.

Unani: Aamalaa, Amlaj.

Siddha/Tamil: Nellikkaai, Nelli.

Action: Fruit—antianaemic, anabolic, antiemetic, bechic, astringent, antihaemorrhagic, antidiarrhoeal, diuretic, antidiabetic, carminative, antioxidant. Used in jaundice, dyspepsia, bacillary dysentery, eye trouble and as a gastrointestinal tonic. Juice with turmeric powder and honey is prescribed in diabetes insipidus. Seed—antibilious, antiasthmatic. Used in bronchitis. Bark—astringent. Leaf—juice is given in vomiting.

A decoction of powdered pericarp is prescribed for paptic ulcer.

Key application: As an antacid. (Indian Herbal Pharmacopoeia.).

The fruit is an important source of vitamin C, minerals and amino acids. The edible fruit tissue contains protein concentration threefold and vitamin C (ascorbic acid) concentration 160-fold than those of apple. The fruit also contains considerably higher concentration of most minerals and amino acids than apple.

The fruit gave cytokinine-like substances identified as zeatin, zeatin ribo- side and zeatin nucleotide; suspension culture gave phyllembin. Phyllem- bin exhibits CNS depressant and spasmolytic activity, potentiates action of adrenaline and hypnotic action of Nembutal.

The leaves contain gallic acid (10.8 mg/g dry basis), besides ascorbic and music acid. The methanol extract of the leaves is found to be effective in rat paw inflammation.

The bark contains tannin identified as mixed type of proanthocyanidin.

The fruit contains superoxide dis- mutase 482.14 units/g fresh weight and exhibits antisenescent (anti-aging) activity. Fruit, juice, its sediment and residue are antioxidant due to gallic acid. EtOH (50%) extract—antiviral.

Aqueous extract of the fruit increases cardiac glycogen level and decreases serum GOT, GPT and LDH in rats having induced myocardial necrosis.

Preliminary evidence suggests that the fruit and its juice may lower serum cholesterol, LDL, triglycerides and phospholipids without affecting HDL levels and may have positive effect on atherosclerosis. (Eur J clin Nutr, 42, 1988, 939-944; PhytotherRes, 14, 2000, 592-595.)

An aqueous extract of the fruit has been reported to provide protection against radiation-induced chromosomal damage in both pre-and postirradiation treatment. The fruit is reported to enhance natural killer cell activity and antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity in mice bearing Dalton's lymphoma ascites tumour. The extract of the fruit and ascorbic acid prevented hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic effects induced by lead and aluminium. The toxicity could be counteracted to a great extent by the fruit extract than by an amount of ascorbic acid alone equivalent to that contained in fruits. (The fruit can be used as a dietary supplement to counteract prolonged exposure to metals in population in industrial areas.)

The fruits are reported to activate trypsin (proteolytic enzyme) activity.

The fruits can be used as coagulant in the treatment of water and can purify low turbidity water.

The fruits can be consumed safely all round the year.

Dosage: Fresh fruit—10-20 g; pulp juice—5-10 ml. (API Vol. I.)... emblica officinalis

Fumaria Officinalis


Family: Fumariaceae.

Habitat: Native to Europe and North America. Found at high altitudes in Nilgiris and Salem (Tamil Nadu).

English: Fumitory.

Ayurvedic: Parpata (related species).

Unani: Shaahtaraa.

Action: Antispasmodic and amphicholeretic. Stimulant to liver and gall bladder; used for eczema and other skin diseases. Also diuretic and mild laxative.

Key application: In spastic discomforts in the area of gallbladder and bile ducts, as well as the gastrointestinal tract. (German Commission E, The British Herbal Pharmacopoeia.)

The herb contains indenobenzaze- pine alkaloids—fumaritrin and fu- marofine.

Other alkaloids include (-)-scou- lerine, protopine, fumaricine, (+)-fu- mariline. The plant also contain rutin, fumaric acid and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives.

Protopine exhibits antihistaminic, hypotensive, bradycardic and sedative activity in small doses, but excitation and convulsions in large doses. (Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, 2007.)

The seed oil contains myristic 4.2, palmitic 17.6, stearic 2.7, oleic 19.6, linoleic 55.7 and linolenic acid 0.2%.

The upper flowering part of the herb is used for biliary disorders, various skin diseases and fevers. The herb can also treat arteriosclerosis by helping in lowering blood cholesterol level and improving the elasticity of arterial wall.... fumaria officinalis

Observational Study

A study in which the investigators do not manipulate the use of an intervention (e.g. do not randomize people to treatment and control groups) but only observe people who are (and sometimes people who are not) exposed to the intervention, and interpret the results.... observational study

Gastro-oesophageal Reflux

A disorder in which the contents of the STOMACH back up into the OESOPHAGUS because the usual neuromuscular mechanisms for preventing this are intermittently or permanently failing to work properly. If persistent, the failure may cause oesophagitis (see OESOPHAGUS, DISEASES OF). If a person develops HEARTBURN, regurgitation, discomfort and oesophagitis, the condition is called gastro-oesophageal re?ux disease (GORD) and sometimes symptoms are so serious as to warrant surgery. Gastrooesophageal re?ux is sometimes associated with HIATUS HERNIA.

Gastro-oesophageal disease should be diagnosed in those patients who are at risk of physical complications from the re?ux. Diagnosis is usually based on the symptoms present or by monitoring the production of acid using a pH probe inserted into the oesophagus through the mouth, since lesions are not usually visible on ENDOSCOPY. Severe heartburn, caused by the lining of the oesophagus being damaged by acid and PEPSIN from the stomach, is commonly confused with DYSPEPSIA. Treatment should start with graded doses of one of the PROTON PUMP INHIBITORS; if this is not e?ective after several months, surgery to remedy the re?ux may be required, but the effects are not easily predictable.... gastro-oesophageal reflux

Gordonia Obtusa


Family: Theaceae.

Habitat: Konkan and Western Ghats.

Folk: Miyili, Atangi, Ola, Nagette, Thorilla (Tamil Nadu).

Action: Leaves—stomachic, appetizer.

Leaves contain 0.04% alkaloid and tannic acid. The bark contains ellagic acid and coumarin.

English: Tree Cotton, Desi Cotton.

Ayurvedic: Kaarpaasi.

Siddha/Tamil: Sempartthi (Red Cotton), Sivappuparutthi.

Folk: Kapaasa.

Action: Seed—anticatarrhal (used in consumption), antigonorrhoeic (used in gleet and chronic cystitis). Root—febrifuge. Plant (especially leaf)—uterine stimulant.

The glands contain 35-50% gossy- pol, a polyphenolic toxic compound. Seeds contain 18.5-25.4% protein, 0.57-2.38% free gossypol. Gossypol is a male contraceptive. At an initial dose of 20 mg/day orally for 3 months, followed by 50-60 mg weekly maintenance dose, sperm motility is reduced initially as it inhibits important enzymes of metabolic pathways thus affecting availability of enzyme to spermatozoa. Subsequently sperm production is blocked.

Gossypol is reported to cause a transient weakness early in therapy, hy- pokalaemia and changes in ECG among other side effects.

Gossypol also assists menstrual flow and effectively inhibits eggs implantation.

Gossypol and its derivatives have been shown to have significant antimicrobial activity as well as wound healing effect. It is reported to kill herpes virus.... gordonia obtusa

Guaiacum Officinale


Family: Zygophyllaceae.

Habitat: Introduced from the West Indies; grown as an ornamental.

English: Lignum Vitae, Tree-of-life, Pockwood tree.

Ayurvedic: Jivadaaru, Loha- Kaashtha.

Unani: Chob-hayaat.

Folk: Loha-lakkar.

Action: Antirheumatic, anti- inflammatory, mild laxative, diuretic, diaphoretic, fungistatic (During the sixteenth century it was used as a cure for syphilis.)

Key application: As a supportive therapy for rheumatic complaints. (German Commission E.) The British Herbal Pharmacopoeia reported anti-inflammatory activity in the resin.

Several triterpene saponins, sapo- genins and prosapogenins have been isolated from different parts of the plant.

A triterpenoidal saponin, isolated from the flowers, showed activity against Gram-negative bacteria. (The herb is used as a additive to mouth washes.)... guaiacum officinale

Gynocardia Odorata


Synonym: Hydnocarpus odorata Landl.

Family: Flacourtiaceae.

Habitat: Eastern Himalayas, Khasi Hills and Sikkim.

Ayurvedic: Chaalmograa (substitute). Tuvaraka (var.) (Controversial synonyms.)

Unani: Tukhm-e-Biranj Mograa.

Folk: Chaaval-mungari.

Action: Oil from seed used in psoriasis, eczema, scrofula, gout, rheumatic affections.

A triterpenoid ketolactone, odolac- tone, has been isolated from the plant. The fruit pulp is used as piscic. The seeds of G. odorata were formerly, erroneously, thought to be the source Chaalmograa oil of commerce obtained from the seeds of Hydnocar- pus kurzii, used in leprosy. Gynocardia oil does not contain chaulmoogric or hydnocarpic acid.... gynocardia odorata

Obstruction Of The Bowels

See under INTESTINE, DISEASES OF.... obstruction of the bowels

Occupancy Rate

A measure of the use of facilities, most often inpatient health facility use, determined by dividing the number of patient days by the number of bed days (or places) available, on average, per unit of time, multiplied by 100.... occupancy rate

Hyssopus Officinalis


Family: Labiatae; Lamiaceae.

Habitat: Native to Europe and temperate Asia. Occurs in West Himalyas from Kashmir to Kumaon.

English: Hyssop.

Ayurvedic: Dayaa-kunji. (Nepeta longibractea is also equated with Zuufaa, Dayaa-kunji.)

Unani: Zuufaa, Zuufaa Yaabis.

Folk: Diyaanku (Laddakh).

Action: Stimulant, carminative, sedative, antispasmodic, diuretic, pectoral. Used for bronchitis, coughs and colds. Induces heavy sweating in fevers, increases blood pressure. Emmenagogue. Used externally for bruises, discoloured contusions and cuts.

Key application: As expectorant. (The British Herbal Pharmacopoeia.)

Hyssop contains terpenoids, including marrubiin; a volatile oil consisting mainly of camphor, pinocamphone and beta-pinene; flavonoids, gluco- sides, tannins and resin. Marrubiin is a strong expectorant. The plant also contains ursolic acid, an anti- inflammatory principle. The alcoholic extract of the aerial parts at flowering yields an active antioxidant compound, rosmanol-9-ethyl ether. Its activity is much greater than butylat- ed hydroxytoluene. The extract of the plant showed weak hepatoprotective activity against CCl4-induced toxicity in albino mice.

Pinocamphone and isopinocam- phone are toxic constituents of the essential oil. Wild plants from Ku- maon (Uttaranchal) shows presence of very small amounts of pinocam- phone (0.61%) in essential oil, as compared to Himalayan hyssop (38.44%) and cultivated North American hyssop (42.66%). The essential oil can induce epileptic seizures.... hyssopus officinalis

Indigofera Oblongifolia

Forsk Synonym: I. paucifolia Delile.Family: Fabaceae.

Habitat: Throughout greater parts of India.English: Wild Indigo, Mysore Panicled Indigo.Ayurvedic: Bana-Nila, Dill, Jhill.Unani: Vasmaa.Siddha/Tamil: Kattukkarchamathi.Folk: Jhil (Gujarat).

Action: Plant—antisyphilitic. All parts of the plant are found useful in enlargement of liver and spleen.The leaves gave apigenin 7-rhamno- glucoside, apigenin 7, 4'-diglucoside, kaempferol-3-neohesperidoside and rhoifolin, along with protocatechuic, p-coumaric, p-hydroxybenzoic, salicylic and vanillic acid.... indigofera oblongifolia

Jasminum Officinale

Linn. var. grandiflorum (L.) Kobuski.

Synonym: J. grandiflorum Linn.

Family: Oleaceae.

Habitat: North-Western Himalayas and Persia; cultivated in Kumaon, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh; in gardens throughout India.

English: Spanish Jasmine.

Ayurvedic: Jaati, Jaatikaa, Jaatimalli, Pravaaljaati, Saumanasyaayani, Sumanaa, Chetikaa, Hriddgandhaa, Maalati, Chameli.

Unani: Yaasmin.

Siddha/Tamil: Manmadabanam, Mullai, Padar-malligai, Pichi, Malli

Folk: Chameli.

Action: Flowers—calming and sedative, CNS depressant, astringent and mild anaesthetic. A syrup prepared from the flowers is used for coughs, hoarsenesses and other disorders of the chest. Plant—diuretic, anthelmintic, emmenagogue; used for healing chronic ulcers and skin diseases. Oil—externally relaxing.

Indian oil sample gave benzyl acetate 26.3, benzyl benzoate 19.2, phytol 10.6, jasmone 8.5, methyl jasmonate 6.3, linalool 5.4, geranyl linalool 3.5, eugenol 2.9, isophytyl acetate 2.7, and isophytol 2.4%.

The leaves gave ascorbic acid, an- thranilic acid and its glucoside, indole oxygenase, alkaloid jasminine and salicylic acid.

The flowers contain pyridine and nicotinate derivatives; tested positive for indole.

The flowers and leaf juice is used for treating tumours.

Dosage: Dried leaves—10-20 g powder for decoction (API, Vol. III.); Juice—10-20 ml. (CCRAS.).... jasminum officinale

Occupational Health Services

Health services concerned with the physical, mental and social well-being of an individual in relation to his/her working environment and with the adjustment of individuals to their work. The term applies to more than the safety of the workplace and includes health and job satisfaction.... occupational health services

Occupational Health, Medicine And Diseases

Occupational health The e?ect of work on human health, and the impact of workers’ health on their work. Although the term encompasses the identi?cation and treatment of speci?c occupational diseases, occupational health is also an applied and multidisciplinary subject concerned with the prevention of occupational ill-health caused by chemical, biological, physical and psychosocial factors, and the promotion of a healthy and productive workforce.

Occupational health includes both mental and physical health. It is about compliance with health-and-safety-at-work legislation (and common law duties) and about best practice in providing work environments that reduce risks to health and safety to lowest practicable levels. It includes workers’ ?tness to work, as well as the management of the work environment to accommodate people with disabilities, and procedures to facilitate the return to work of those absent with long-term illness. Occupational health incorporates several professional groups, including occupational physicians, occupational health nurses, occupational hygienists, ergonomists, disability managers, workplace counsellors, health-and-safety practitioners, and workplace physiotherapists.

In the UK, two key statutes provide a framework for occupational health: the Health and Safety at Work, etc. Act 1974 (HSW Act); and the Disability Discrimination Act 1995 (DDA). The HSW Act states that employers have a duty to protect the health, safety and welfare of their employees and to conduct their business in a way that does not expose others to risks to their health and safety. Employees and self-employed people also have duties under the Act. Modern health-and-safety legislation focuses on assessing and controlling risk rather than prescribing speci?c actions in di?erent industrial settings. Various regulations made under the HSW Act, such as the Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations, the Manual Handling Operations Regulations and the Noise at Work Regulations, set out duties with regard to di?erent risks, but apply to all employers and follow the general principles of risk assessment and control. Risks should be controlled principally by removing or reducing the hazard at source (for example, by substituting chemicals with safer alternatives, replacing noisy machinery, or automating tasks to avoid heavy lifting). Personal protective equipment, such as gloves and ear defenders, should be seen as a last line of defence after other control measures have been put in place.

The employment provisions of the DDA require employers to avoid discriminatory practice towards disabled people and to make reasonable adjustments to working arrangements where a disabled person is placed at a substantial disadvantage to a non-disabled person. Although the DDA does not require employers to provide access to rehabilitation services – even for those injured or made ill at work – occupational-health practitioners may become involved in programmes to help people get back to work after injury or long-term illness, and many businesses see the retention of valuable sta? as an attractive alternative to medical retirement or dismissal on health grounds.

Although a major part of occupational-health practice is concerned with statutory compliance, the workplace is also an important venue for health promotion. Many working people rarely see their general practitioner and, even when they do, there is little time to discuss wider health issues. Occupational-health advisers can ?ll in this gap by providing, for example, workplace initiatives on stopping smoking, cardiovascular health, diet and self-examination for breast and testicular cancers. Such initiatives are encouraged because of the perceived bene?ts to sta?, to the employing organisation and to the wider public-health agenda. Occupational psychologists recognise the need for the working population to achieve a ‘work-life balance’ and the promotion of this is an increasing part of occupational health strategies.

The law requires employers to consult with their sta? on health-and-safety matters. However, there is also a growing understanding that successful occupational-health management involves workers directly in the identi?cation of risks and in developing solutions in the workplace. Trade unions play an active role in promoting occupational health through local and national campaigns and by training and advising elected workplace safety representatives.

Occupational medicine The branch of medicine that deals with the control, prevention, diagnosis, treatment and management of ill-health and injuries caused or made worse by work, and with ensuring that workers are ?t for the work they do.

Occupational medicine includes: statutory surveillance of workers’ exposure to hazardous agents; advice to employers and employees on eliminating or reducing risks to health and safety at work; diagnosis and treatment/management of occupational illness; advice on adapting the working environment to suit the worker, particularly those with disabilities or long-term health problems; and advice on the return to work and, if necessary, rehabilitation of workers absent through illness. Occupational physicians may play a wider role in monitoring the health of workplace populations and in advising employers on controlling health hazards where ill-health trends are observed. They may also conduct epidemiological research (see EPIDEMIOLOGY) on workplace diseases.

Because of the occupational physician’s dual role as adviser to both employer and employee, he or she is required to be particularly diligent with regards to the individual worker’s medical CONFIDENTIALITY. Occupational physicians need to recognise in any given situation the context they are working in, and to make sure that all parties are aware of this.

Occupational medicine is a medical discipline and thus is only part of the broader ?eld of occupational health. Although there are some speci?c clinical duties associated with occupational medicine, such as diagnosis of occupational disease and medical screening, occupational physicians are frequently part of a multidisciplinary team that might include, for example, occupational-health nurses, healthand-safety advisers, ergonomists, counsellors and hygienists. Occupational physicians are medical practitioners with a post-registration quali?cation in occupational medicine. They will have completed a period of supervised in-post training. In the UK, the Faculty of Occupational Medicine of the Royal College of Physicians has three categories of membership, depending on quali?cations and experience: associateship (AFOM); membership (MFOM); and fellowship (FFOM).

Occupational diseases Occupational diseases are illnesses that are caused or made worse by work. In their widest sense, they include physical and mental ill-health conditions.

In diagnosing an occupational disease, the clinician will need to examine not just the signs and symptoms of ill-health, but also the occupational history of the patient. This is important not only in discovering the cause, or causes, of the disease (work may be one of a number of factors), but also in making recommendations on how the work should be modi?ed to prevent a recurrence – or, if necessary, in deciding whether or not the worker is able to return to that type of work. The occupational history will help in deciding whether or not other workers are also at risk of developing the condition. It will include information on:

the nature of the work.

how the tasks are performed in practice.

the likelihood of exposure to hazardous agents (physical, chemical, biological and psychosocial).

what control measures are in place and the extent to which these are adhered to.

previous occupational and non-occupational exposures.

whether or not others have reported similar symptoms in relation to the work. Some conditions – certain skin conditions,

for example – may show a close relationship to work, with symptoms appearing directly only after exposure to particular agents or possibly disappearing at weekends or with time away from work. Others, however, may be chronic and can have serious long-term implications for a person’s future health and employment.

Statistical information on the prevalence of occupational disease in the UK comes from a variety of sources, including o?cial ?gures from the Industrial Injuries Scheme (see below) and statutory reporting of occupational disease (also below). Neither of these o?cial schemes provides a representative picture, because the former is restricted to certain prescribed conditions and occupations, and the latter suffers from gross under-reporting. More useful are data from the various schemes that make up the Occupational Diseases Intelligence Network (ODIN) and from the Labour Force Survey (LFS). ODIN data is generated by the systematic reporting of work-related conditions by clinicians and includes several schemes. Under one scheme, more than 80 per cent of all reported diseases by occupational-health physicians fall into just six of the 42 clinical disease categories: upper-limb disorders; anxiety, depression and stress disorders; contact DERMATITIS; lower-back problems; hearing loss (see DEAFNESS); and ASTHMA. Information from the LFS yields a similar pattern in terms of disease frequency. Its most recent survey found that over 2 million people believed that, in the previous 12 months, they had suffered from an illness caused or made worse by work and that

19.5 million working days were lost as a result. The ten most frequently reported disease categories were:

stress and mental ill-health (see MENTAL ILLNESS): 515,000 cases.

back injuries: 508,000.

upper-limb and neck disorders: 375,000.

lower respiratory disease: 202,000.

deafness, TINNITUS or other ear conditions: 170,000.

lower-limb musculoskeletal conditions: 100,000.

skin disease: 66,000.

headache or ‘eyestrain’: 50,000.

traumatic injury (includes wounds and fractures from violent attacks at work): 34,000.

vibration white ?nger (hand-arm vibration syndrome): 36,000. A person who develops a chronic occu

pational disease may be able to sue his or her employer for damages if it can be shown that the employer was negligent in failing to take reasonable care of its employees, or had failed to provide a system of work that would have prevented harmful exposure to a known health hazard. There have been numerous successful claims (either awarded in court, or settled out of court) for damages for back and other musculoskeletal injuries, hand-arm vibration syndrome, noise-induced deafness, asthma, dermatitis, MESOTHELIOMA and ASBESTOSIS. Employers’ liability (workers’ compensation) insurers are predicting that the biggest future rise in damages claims will be for stress-related illness. In a recent study, funded by the Health and Safety Executive, about 20 per cent of all workers – more than 5 million people in the UK – claimed to be ‘very’ or ‘extremely’ stressed at work – a statistic that is likely to have a major impact on the long-term health of the working population.

While victims of occupational disease have the right to sue their employers for damages, many countries also operate a system of no-fault compensation for the victims of prescribed occupational diseases. In the UK, more than 60 diseases are prescribed under the Industrial Injuries Scheme and a person will automatically be entitled to state compensation for disability connected to one of these conditions, provided that he or she works in one of the occupations for which they are prescribed. The following short list gives an indication of the types of diseases and occupations prescribed under the scheme:

CARPAL TUNNEL SYNDROME connected to the use of hand-held vibrating tools.

hearing loss from (amongst others) use of pneumatic percussive tools and chainsaws, working in the vicinity of textile manufacturing or woodworking machines, and work in ships’ engine rooms.

LEPTOSPIROSIS – infection with Leptospira (various listed occupations).

viral HEPATITIS from contact with human blood, blood products or other sources of viral hepatitis.

LEAD POISONING, from any occupation causing exposure to fumes, dust and vapour from lead or lead products.

asthma caused by exposure to, among other listed substances, isocyanates, curing agents, solder ?ux fumes and insects reared for research.

mesothelioma from exposure to asbestos.

In the UK, employers and the self-employed have a duty to report all occupational injuries (if the employee is o? work for three days or more as a result), diseases or dangerous incidents to the relevant enforcing authority (the Health and Safety Executive or local-authority environmental-health department) under the Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations 1995 (RIDDOR). Despite this statutory duty, comparatively few diseases are reported so that ?gures generated from RIDDOR reports do not give a useful indication of the scale of occupational diseases in the UK. The statutory reporting of injuries is much better, presumably because of the clear and acute relationship between a workplace accident and the resultant injury. More than 160,000 injuries are reported under RIDDOR every year compared with just 2,500 or so occupational diseases, a gross underestimate of the true ?gure.

There are no precise ?gures for the number of people who die prematurely because of work-related ill-health, and it would be impossible to gauge the exact contribution that work has on, for example, cardiovascular disease and cancers where the causes are multifactorial. The toll would, however, dwarf the number of deaths caused by accidents at work. Around 250 people are killed by accidents at work in the UK each year – mesothelioma, from exposure to asbestos at work, alone kills more than 1,300 people annually.

The following is a sample list of occupational diseases, with brief descriptions of their aetiologies.

Inhaled materials

PNEUMOCONIOSIS covers a group of diseases which cause ?brotic lung disease following the inhalation of dust. Around 250–300 new cases receive bene?t each year – mostly due to coal dust with or without silica contamination. SILICOSIS is the more severe disease. The contraction in the size of the coal-mining industry as well as improved dust suppression in the mines have diminished the importance of this disease, whereas asbestos-related diseases now exceed 1,000 per year. Asbestos ?bres cause a restrictive lung disease but also are responsible for certain malignant conditions such as pleural and peritoneal mesothelioma and lung cancer. The lung-cancer risk is exacerbated by cigarette-smoking.

Even though the use of asbestos is virtually banned in the UK, many workers remain at risk of exposure because of the vast quantities present in buildings (much of which is not listed in building plans). Carpenters, electricians, plumbers, builders and demolition workers are all liable to exposure from work that disturbs existing asbestos. OCCUPATIONAL ASTHMA is of increasing importance – not only because of the recognition of new allergic agents (see ALLERGY), but also in the number of reported cases. The following eight substances are most frequently linked to occupational asthma (key occupations in brackets): isocyanates (spray painters, electrical processors); ?our and grain (bakers and farmers); wood dust (wood workers); glutaraldehyde (nurses, darkroom technicians); solder/colophony (welders, electronic assembly workers); laboratory animals (technicians, scientists); resins and glues (metal and electrical workers, construction, chemical processors); and latex (nurses, auxiliaries, laboratory technicians).

The disease develops after a short, symptomless period of exposure; symptoms are temporally related to work exposures and relieved by absences from work. Removal of the worker from exposure does not necessarily lead to complete cessation of symptoms. For many agents, there is no relationship with a previous history of ATOPY. Occupational asthma accounts for about 10 per cent of all asthma cases. DERMATITIS The risk of dermatitis caused by an allergic or irritant reaction to substances used or handled at work is present in a wide variety of jobs. About three-quarters of cases are irritant contact dermatitis due to such agents as acids, alkalis and solvents. Allergic contact dermatitis is a more speci?c response by susceptible individuals to a range of allergens (see ALLERGEN). The main occupational contact allergens include chromates, nickel, epoxy resins, rubber additives, germicidal agents, dyes, topical anaesthetics and antibiotics as well as certain plants and woods. Latex gloves are a particular cause of occupational dermatitis among health-care and laboratory sta? and have resulted in many workers being forced to leave their profession through ill-health. (See also SKIN, DISEASES OF.)

Musculoskeletal disorders Musculoskeletal injuries are by far the most common conditions related to work (see LFS ?gures, above) and the biggest cause of disability. Although not all work-related, musculoskeletal disorders account for 36.5 per cent of all disabilities among working-age people (compared with less than 4 per cent for sight and hearing impairment). Back pain (all causes – see BACKACHE) has been estimated to cause more than 50 million days lost every year in sickness absence and costs the UK economy up to £5 billion annually as a result of incapacity or disability. Back pain is a particular problem in the health-care sector because of the risk of injury from lifting and moving patients. While the emphasis should be on preventing injuries from occurring, it is now well established that the best way to manage most lower-back injuries is to encourage the patient to continue as normally as possible and to remain at work, or to return as soon as possible even if the patient has some residual back pain. Those who remain o? work on long-term sick leave are far less likely ever to return to work.

Aside from back injuries, there are a whole range of conditions affecting the upper limbs, neck and lower limbs. Some have clear aetiologies and clinical signs, while others are less well de?ned and have multiple causation. Some conditions, such as carpal tunnel syndrome, are prescribed diseases in certain occupations; however, they are not always caused by work (pregnant and older women are more likely to report carpal tunnel syndrome irrespective of work) and clinicians need to be careful when assigning work as the cause without ?rst considering the evidence. Other conditions may be revealed or made worse by work – such as OSTEOARTHRITIS in the hand. Much attention has focused on injuries caused by repeated movement, excessive force, and awkward postures and these include tenosynovitis (in?ammation of a tendon) and epicondylitis. The greatest controversy surrounds upper-limb disorders that do not present obvious tissue or nerve damage but nevertheless give signi?cant pain and discomfort to the individual. These are sometimes referred to as ‘repetitive strain injury’ or ‘di?use RSI’. The diagnosis of such conditions is controversial, making it di?cult for sufferers to pursue claims for compensation through the courts. Psychosocial factors, such as high demands of the job, lack of control and poor social support at work, have been implicated in the development of many upper-limb disorders, and in prevention and management it is important to deal with the psychological as well as the physical risk factors. Occupations known to be at particular risk of work-related upper-limb disorders include poultry processors, packers, electronic assembly workers, data processors, supermarket check-out operators and telephonists. These jobs often contain a number of the relevant exposures of dynamic load, static load, a full or excessive range of movements and awkward postures. (See UPPER LIMB DISORDERS.)

Physical agents A number of physical agents cause occupational ill-health of which the most important is occupational deafness. Workplace noise exposures in excess of 85 decibels for a working day are likely to cause damage to hearing which is initially restricted to the vital frequencies associated with speech – around 3–4 kHz. Protection from such noise is imperative as hearing aids do nothing to ameliorate the neural damage once it has occurred.

Hand-arm vibration syndrome is a disorder of the vascular and/or neural endings in the hands leading to episodic blanching (‘white ?nger’) and numbness which is exacerbated by low temperature. The condition, which is caused by vibrating tools such as chain saws and pneumatic hammers, is akin to RAYNAUD’S DISEASE and can be disabling.

Decompression sickness is caused by a rapid change in ambient pressure and is a disease associated with deep-sea divers, tunnel workers and high-?ying aviators. Apart from the direct effects of pressure change such as ruptured tympanic membrane or sinus pain, the more serious damage is indirectly due to nitrogen bubbles appearing in the blood and blocking small vessels. Central and peripheral nervous-system damage and bone necrosis are the most dangerous sequelae.

Radiation Non-ionising radiation from lasers or microwaves can cause severe localised heating leading to tissue damage of which cataracts (see under EYE, DISORDERS OF) are a particular variety. Ionising radiation from radioactive sources can cause similar acute tissue damage to the eyes as well as cell damage to rapidly dividing cells in the gut and bone marrow. Longer-term effects include genetic damage and various malignant disorders of which LEUKAEMIA and aplastic ANAEMIA are notable. Particular radioactive isotopes may destroy or induce malignant change in target organs, for example, 131I (thyroid), 90Sr (bone). Outdoor workers may also be at risk of sunburn and skin cancers. OTHER OCCUPATIONAL CANCERS Occupation is directly responsible for about 5 per cent of all cancers and contributes to a further 5 per cent. Apart from the cancers caused by asbestos and ionising radiation, a number of other occupational exposures can cause human cancer. The International Agency for Research on Cancer regularly reviews the evidence for carcinogenicity of compounds and industrial processes, and its published list of carcinogens is widely accepted as the current state of knowledge. More than 50 agents and processes are listed as class 1 carcinogens. Important occupational carcinogens include asbestos (mesothelioma, lung cancer); polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons such as mineral oils, soots, tars (skin and lung cancer); the aromatic amines in dyestu?s (bladder cancer); certain hexavalent chromates, arsenic and nickel re?ning (lung cancer); wood and leather dust (nasal sinus cancer); benzene (leukaemia); and vinyl chloride monomer (angiosarcoma of the liver). It has been estimated that elimination of all known occupational carcinogens, if possible, would lead to an annual saving of 5,000 premature deaths in Britain.

Infections Two broad categories of job carry an occupational risk. These are workers in contact with animals (farmers, veterinary surgeons and slaughtermen) and those in contact with human sources of infection (health-care sta? and sewage workers).

Occupational infections include various zoonoses (pathogens transmissible from animals to humans), such as ANTHRAX, Borrelia burgdorferi (LYME DISEASE), bovine TUBERCULOSIS, BRUCELLOSIS, Chlamydia psittaci, leptospirosis, ORF virus, Q fever, RINGWORM and Streptococcus suis. Human pathogens that may be transmissible at work include tuberculosis, and blood-borne pathogens such as viral hepatitis (B and C) and HIV (see AIDS/HIV). Health-care workers at risk of exposure to infected blood and body ?uids should be immunised against hapatitis B.

Poisoning The incidence of occupational poisonings has diminished with the substitution of noxious chemicals with safer alternatives, and with the advent of improved containment. However, poisonings owing to accidents at work are still reported, sometimes with fatal consequences. Workers involved in the application of pesticides are particularly at risk if safe procedures are not followed or if equipment is faulty. Exposure to organophosphate pesticides, for example, can lead to breathing diffculties, vomiting, diarrhoea and abdominal cramps, and to other neurological effects including confusion and dizziness. Severe poisonings can lead to death. Exposure can be through ingestion, inhalation and dermal (skin) contact.

Stress and mental health Stress is an adverse reaction to excessive pressures or demands and, in occupational-health terms, is di?erent from the motivational impact often associated with challenging work (some refer to this as ‘positive stress’). Stress at work is often linked to increasing demands on workers, although coping can often prevent the development of stress. The causes of occupational stress are multivariate and encompass job characteristics (e.g. long or unsocial working hours, high work demands, imbalance between e?ort and reward, poorly managed organisational change, lack of control over work, poor social support at work, fear of redundancy and bullying), as well as individual factors (such as personality type, personal circumstances, coping strategies, and availability of psychosocial support outside work). Stress may in?uence behaviours such as smoking, alcohol consumption, sleep and diet, which may in turn affect people’s health. Stress may also have direct effects on the immune system (see IMMUNITY) and lead to a decline in health. Stress may also alter the course and response to treatment of conditions such as cardiovascular disease. As well as these general effects of stress, speci?c types of disorder may be observed.

Exposure to extremely traumatic incidents at work – such as dealing with a major accident involving multiple loss of life and serious injury

(e.g. paramedics at the scene of an explosion or rail crash) – may result in a chronic condition known as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). PTSD is an abnormal psychological reaction to a traumatic event and is characterised by extreme psychological discomfort, such as anxiety or panic when reminded of the causative event; sufferers may be plagued with uncontrollable memories and can feel as if they are going through the trauma again. PTSD is a clinically de?ned condition in terms of its symptoms and causes and should not be used to include normal short-term reactions to trauma.... occupational health, medicine and diseases


In epidemiology, a general term describing the frequency of a disease or other attribute or event in a population, without distinguishing between incidence and prevalence.... occurrence


(Greek) Feminine form of Oceanus, father of the rivers; from the ocean

Oceania, Ocean, Oceanea, Oceane... oceana


The “eye”, present midway between the corners of cubozoan (“box”) jellyfish. It is capable of distinguishing light and dark, and is probably responsible for evasive action by the jellyfish. Term ocellus also refers to the “simple” eyes of insects and spiders as opposed to their “compund” eyes.... ocellus

Keemun Tea - The Black Tea With An Orchid Fragrance

Keemun tea is a popular Chinese black tea produced in Qimen County in the Anhui Province of China. It is classified as being a top quality black tea around the globe, especially in the British market whereKeemun tea is considered a delicacy. The tea gained popularity very quickly in England where it has become an important ingredient in English Breakfast tea blends. Keemun tea comes from a sub-variety of the Chinese tea plant Camellia Sinensis, named Zhu-ye-zhing which grows in a mountainous area covered by forest in Anhui Province. In that area, the lack of sun, high humidity and low temperature allow the growth of perfect thin black tea leaves which are withered, rubbed, twirled and then baked dry. There are many Keemun tea varieties such as:
  • Keemun Gongfu or Congou which has thin, dark and tight shaped leaves.
  • Keemun Mao Feng which has slightly twisted leaf buds and a smoother flavor. For a proper taste, it is recommended to brew a smaller quantity of this type of tea and let it steep for 7 minutes.
  • Keemun Xin Ya - a type of tea with a less bitter taste.
  • Keemun Hao Ya
Keemun Tea brewing If it is properly brewed, you will obtain a clear red color cup of Keemun tea with a fruity, exotic and floral (but not as floral as Darjeeling tea ) aroma. To get a perfect cup of tea, add 1-2 teaspoons of tea leaves per 8 oz cup into the teapot. Boil the water, pour it over the tea leaves and let it steep between 2 - 3 minutes. In China, people drink Keemun tea without any kind of sweetener or milk. Keemun tea benefits Keemun tea has many benefits even though it does not contain as many antioxidants as green or white tea. The caffeine in the Keemun tea helps enhancing your memory and gives you energy during the day. Since this tea is a type of black tea, it has many benefits for the human body:
  • Accelerates your metabolism and allows you to burn fat much easier and faster. With a balanced diet and regular exercise,Keemun tea is a strong allied in the process of weight loss.
  • Keemun tea can be a good alternative for coffee. The caffeine in the black tea will give you the energy that you need in the morning and will make you feel full of energy all day long.
  • Improves your digestion by dissolving the excess acidity.
  • Inhibits the growth of cancer cells and the development of rheumatoid arthritis.
Keemun tea side effects Being a black tea, Keemun tea has a significant amount of caffeine which can cause anxiety, insomnia or irritability if you drink it before bed. Pregnant women are not advised to drink black tea during the pregnancy since it has been related to spontaneous abortions and birth defects. Also, if you are breastfeeding you should consider reducing the amount of black tea. People who suffer from anemia are strongly recommended not to drink Keemun tea since it can cause dizziness, blurred vision or headaches. It is often said that Keemun tea has an orchid fragrance that leaves a lasting impression in people`s memory.  It has a reputation for being a truly exquisite tea with its fruity and wine-like flavor that, combined with the wonderful health benefits, make the tea drinking a delightful experience.... keemun tea - the black tea with an orchid fragrance

Liquidambar Orientalis


Family: Altingiaceae; Hamameli- daceae.

Habitat: Native to Asia Minor.

English: Storax, Oriental Sweet Gum.

Ayurvedic: Turushka, Silhaka, Kapitaila.

Unani: Ambar Saayil, Silaaras.

Siddha/Tamil: Neri-arishippal.

Action: Balsam—anti-inflammatory, stimulating expectorant, antipara- sitic, antiseptic, antimicrobial. Used externally in scabies, ringworm and other skin diseases. Used for coughs and bronchitis as an inhalation.

Storax contained cinnamic acid up to 30%—cinnamin acid esters, cin- namyl cinnamate (styracin), phenyl- propyl cinnamate; triterpene acids; vanillin; styrene; aromatic alcohols. Pentacyclic triterpene aldehydes—liq- uidambronal and ambronal—have been isolated from nonvolatile part of resin along with bornyl trans-cinna- mate.

Dosage: Gum—1-3 g. (CCRAS.)... liquidambar orientalis


(Latin) Feminine form of Octavius; the eighth-born child Octaviana, Octavianne, Octavie, Octiana, Octoviana, Ottavia, Octavi, Octavy, Octavey, Octavee, Octavea... octavia


(American) Born during autumn; born in the month of October Oktober, Octobar, Oktobar... october


A person who is aged between 80 and 89 years.... octogenarian


(Greek) In mythology, a Harpy... ocypete


(Native American) Of the rippling waters... odahingum


(Spanish) From the well-known land

Odandah, Odandia, Odandea, Odande... odanda


(Norse) As sharp as the point of a sword

Oddfride, Oddfrida, Oddfreid, Oddfreide, Oddfreida, Odd, Oddfryd, Oddfryda... oddfrid


(Norse) A pointed woman Oddnauge, Oddnauga, Oddvieg, Oddviege, Oddviega, Oddny, Oddni, Oddney, Oddnie, Oddnee, Oddnea... oddnaug


(Scandinavian) Our secret love... oddrun


(Scandinavian) One who wields a spear... oddveig


(Hebrew) Having great strength Odedia, Odedah, Odede... odeda

Lithospermum Officinanle


Family: Boraginaceae.

Habitat: Kashmir and Kumaon, at altitudes of 1,500-2,700 m.

Folk: Lubis firmun.

Action: Leaves—sedative. Seeds— diuretic, lithotriptic. A decoction of roots and twigs is given in the form of syrup in eruptive diseases, such as smallpox and measles.

The aerial parts contain pyrrolizi- dine alkaloids.

Saline extracts of the aerial parts and roots, administered to experimental animals by injection, inhibit oestrus and the functioning of ovaries and testes; the activity of the thyroid gland is also reduced. The active principle is formed from phenolic precursors like caffeic, chlorogenic, rosmarinic acid as well as luteolin-7 beta-glucuronide by an oxidation step. Other constituents are lithospermic acid and shikonin.

Shikonin and acetyl-shikonin, the pigments of the root, exhibit anti- inflammatory activity comparable to phenylbutazone.

An infusion of leaves is used in Spain as sedative.... lithospermum officinanle

Lyonia Ovalifolia

(Wall.) Drude.

Synonym: Pieris ovalifolia D. Don.

Family: Ericaceae.

Habitat: Outer Himalayas from Kashmir to Sikkim, at 1,000 to 2,500 m, and in Khasi hills between 1,200 to 2,000 m.

Folk: Angyaar (Garhwal), Arwan (Punjab), Angeri (Nepal).

Action: Young leaves and buds— used externally for cutaneous affections. Leaves—insectici- dal. Honey from flowers— poisonous.

Leaves contain a toxic, insecticidal substance andromedotoxin.

The wood yields 0.51% ash, rich in soluble potassium salts.... lyonia ovalifolia

Medical Defence Organisations

These are UK bodies that provide doctors with advice and, where appropriate, ?nancial support in defending claims for medical negligence in their clinical practice. They also advise doctors on all legal aspects of their work, including patients’ complaints, and provide representation for members called to account by the GENERAL MEDICAL COUNCIL (GMC) or other regulatory body. The sharp rise in claims for medical negligence in the NHS in the 1980s persuaded the UK Health Departments to introduce a risk-pooling system called the Clinical Negligence Scheme for Trusts, and the defence societies liaise with this scheme when advising their doctor members on responding to claims of negligence (see MEDICAL LITIGATION; MEDICAL NEGLIGENCE).... medical defence organisations

Melilotus Officinalis


Family: Fabaceae.

Habitat: Ladakh, at 3,000-4,000 m, also cultivated.

English: Yellow Sweet Clover, Melilot.

Unani: Iklil-ul-Malik, Asaab-ul- Malik, Naakhunaa.

Action: Plant—astringent, wound healer, styptic, anti-inflammatory, sedative, mild analgesic, anticoagulant, spasmolytic. Flower and leaf—diuretic, analgesic, anti- inflammatory, smooth muscle relaxant, vasodilator. Seed—used in cold.

Key application: In chronic venous insufficiency. For supportive treatment of thrombophlebitis, haemorrhoids and lymphatic congestion. (German Commission E.) As venotonic, vulnerary. (The British Herbal Pharmacopoeia.)

The herb contains coumarin derivatives; flavonoid glycosides, including kaempferol and quercetin. Di- coumarol (melitoxin) is produced when fermentation takes place in me- lilot. Seeds gave canavanin and trigo- nelline. Reported poisonous to horses. The flowers contain the flavonoids, quercetin and myricetin besides kaem- pferol.

The herb has shown increase in venous reflux and improvement in lymphatic kinetics. Animal experiments show an increase in healing wounds. Flower and leaf extracts have shown analgesic activity, prolongation in pento-barbital-induced hypnosis time and smooth muscle relaxant activity in mice; also exhibited hypotensive and vasodilatory activity in rabbit. Dicoumarol is a potent anticoagulant.

In Europe and China, the plant extract is used for inflammations, arthritis, rheumatism, phlebitis, venous insufficiency, haemorrhoids, brachialgia and bronchitis.

The Red Clove is equated with Tri- folium pratense.... melilotus officinalis


(Greek / German) A sweet melody / one who is wealthy

Odela, Odelet, Odelette, Odelina, Odeline, Odell, Odella, Odelle, Odeletta, Odelyn, Odelyna... odele


(Hebrew) One who praises God Oda, Odeelia, Odelinda, Odellia, Odilia, Odelea, Odellea... odelia


(Spanish) One who sings Odelitah, Odelyta, Odelytah, Odeleeta, Odeleetah, Odeleata, Odeleatah, Odeleta, Odeletah... odelita


(Hebrew) One who plows the earth Oderah, Oderra, Oderrah, Oderia, Oderria, Oderea, Oderrea... odera


(Greek) Feminine form of Odysseus; one who wanders; an angry woman

Odissa, Odyssa, Odessia, Odissia, Odyssia, Odysseia... odessa


(French) A wealthy woman; one who is prosperous Odette, Odeta, Odete, Odett... odetta


(Gaelic) A pale-skinned woman Omat... odharnait


(French) Form of Otthild, meaning “one who is prosperous in battle; the fortunate heroine”

Odile, Odilia, Odolia, Odilea, Odola, Odalis, Odalys... odila


(Latin / Scandinavian) From the mountain / feminine form of Odin, the highest of the gods

Odinah, Odeena, Odeene, Odeen, Odyna, Odyne, Odynn, Odeana, Odeane... odina


(Hebrew) Song of the Lord Odiyah, Odya, Odyah... odiya


Toothache... odontalgia

Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (maois)

These are drugs that destroy, or prevent the action of, monoamine oxidase (MAO). Monoamines, which include NORADRENALINE and tyramine, play an important part in the metabolism of the BRAIN, and there is some evidence that excitement is due to an accumulation of monoamines in the brain. MAO is a naturally occurring ENZYME which is concerned in the breakdown of monoamines. MAOIs were among the earliest ANTIDEPRESSANT DRUGS used, but they are now used much less than tricyclic and related antidepressants, or SELECTIVE SEROTONIN-REUPTAKE INHIBITORS (SSRIS) and related antidepressants, because of the dangers of dietary or drug interactions – and because MAOIs are less e?ective than these two groups.

An excessive accumulation of monoamines can induce a dangerous reaction characterised by high blood pressure, palpitations, sweating and a feeling of su?ocation. Hence the care with which MAOI drugs are administered. What is equally important, however, is that in no circumstances should a patient receiving any MAOI drug eat cheese, yeast preparations such as Marmite, tinned ?sh, or high game. The reason for this ban is that all these foodstu?s contain large amounts of tyramine which increases the amount of certain monoamines such as noradrenaline in the body. (See MENTAL ILLNESS.)

There are also certain drugs, such as AMPHETAMINES and PETHIDINE HYDROCHLORIDE, which must not be taken by a patient who is receiving an MAOI drug. The MAOIs of choice are phenelzine or isocarboxazid because their stimulant effects are less than those of other MAOIs, making them safer.... monoamine oxidase inhibitors (maois)

Nasturtium Officinale

R. Br.

Synonym: Rorippa nasturtium- aquaticum (Linn.) Hayek.

Family: Cruciferae; Brassicaceae.

Habitat: Cultivated in Bengal, Orissa and Punjab.

English: Watercress.

Folk: Piriyaa-Haalim (Punjab), Latputiyaa (Maharashtra).

Action: Leaves—antiscorbutic, expectorant (used in catarrh of the respiratory organs), diuretic (used in kidney and bladder disorders), detoxifying. A lotion of leaves is applied to blotches, spots and blemishes. Fresh herb is used as a blood purifier.

Key application: For catarrh of respiratory tract. (German Commission E.)

Watercress contains vitamin A 4720 IU, ascorbic acid 77 mg/100 g, also thiamine, riboflavin, niacin and biotin; mineral matter 2.2%—calcium 290, phosphorus 140, iron 4.6 mg/100 g, also sulphur, iodine, manganese, zinc, arsenic and copper; proteins 2.9%, amino acid composition includes leucine, phenylalanine, valine, lysine, tyrosine, alanine, threonine, glutamic acid, serine, aspartic acid, cystine, methionine sulphoxide and proline.

The glucosinolate phenethyl isothio- cyanate, which is released upon chewing the leaf, is a chemopreventive agent against lung cancer. (cited in Expanded Commission E Monographs.)

Watercress is contraindicated in gastric and duodenal ulcers and inflammatory kidney diseases. (Francis Brinker.)... nasturtium officinale

Neptunia Oleracea


Synonym: N. prostrata Baill.

Family: Mimosaceae.

Habitat: Throughout India, in tanks.

Ayurvedic: Lajjaalu (var.), Alam- bushaa. (Provisional synonyms.)

Siddha: Sadai, Sundaikkirai.

Folk: Paani-lajak (Punjab).

Action: Astringent, refrigerant.

Mimosa pudica Linn. is the accepted source of the classical herb Lajjaalu. It is used as astringent and styptic.... neptunia oleracea

Nerium Oleander


Family: Apocynaceae.

Habitat: Native to Mediterranean region; grown in Indian gardens.

English: Red Oleander, Rose Bay.

Unani: Surkh Kaner.

Action: See N. indicum. (The white- and red-flowered varieties are equated with Nerium oleander; both possess similar properties. The yellow-flowered variety is equated with Thevetia peruviana.)

Key application: Leaf—included among unapproved herbs by German Commission E. Positively inotropic and negatively chronotropic actions have been mentioned; the use of leaf for diseases and functional disorders of the heart, as well as for skin diseases has been indicated.

The leaves and roots gave a number of active principles including gly- cosides, terpenoids, sterols and other compounds. Cardiac steroids, isolated from the leaf, include oleandrin, gen- tiobiosyl oleandrin, odoroside. The stem contained alanine arginine, as- partic acid, cysteine, glutamic acid, glycine, histidine, leucine, isoleucine, lysine, phenylalanine, proline, serine, threonine, tryptophan, tyrosine and valine. A polysaccharide (2.3%), containing galacturonic acid, rhamnose, arabinose and galactose has been isolated from leaves.

Neutral fraction from leaves at low doses caused marked suppression of locomotor activity.

Aqueous extract of leaves showed significant antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The leaves also showed insecticidal activity.... nerium oleander


Any disease of the teeth... odontopathy


(Greek) In mythology, a nymph who acted as a healer Oenonie, Oenonee... oenone

Nitric Oxide (no)

A naturally occurring chemical that performs a wide range of biological roles. It is involved in the laying down of memories in the BRAIN; in killing viruses, bacteria and cancer cells; and in helping to control blood pressure. NO, comprising a nitrogen atom attached to an oxygen one, is one of the smallest of biologically active compounds as well as having such diverse functions. The chemical is a muscle relaxant and is important in maintaining the heart and circulation in good condition. NO is also the toxic agent released by macrophages (see MACROPHAGE) to kill invading germs and spreading cancer cells. It acts as an essential NEUROTRANSMITTER and protects nerve cells against stress. Researchers are studying how it might be used to treat diseases, for example by using it as an inhaled gas in certain respiratory conditions.... nitric oxide (no)

Ochna Jabotapita


Synonym: O. squarrosa Linn.

Family: Ochnaceae.

Habitat: Assam, Bihar, Orissa and Deccan Peninsula. Often cultivated in parks and gardens.

Siddha/Tamil: Chilanti, Sherundi.

Folk: Kanaka Champaa. (Bhuin- champaa, Bhuumi-champaka (Ochna pumila).

Action: Bark—digestive tonic. Root—a decoction is used in asthma, tuberculosis and in menstrual disorders. Leaves— boiled and used as emollient cataplasm; used as a poultice in lumbago.

Isoflavones, along with beta-sitos- terol and oleanolic acid, have been isolated from the heartwood.

A related species, Ochna pumila Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don., found in outer Himalayas and sub-Himalayan tract from Kumaon to Assam, is reported to exhibit antitubercular activity. Tetrahydroamentoflavone has been isolated from the leaves. The plant is also used for epilepsy in folk medicine.... ochna jabotapita

Ochrocarpus Longifolius

Bentb. & Hook. f.

Synonym: Mammea longifolia Planch. & Triana.

Family: Guttiferae; Clusiaceae.

Habitat: Evergreen forests of Western India from Khandala southwards to Malabar and Coim- batore.

Ayurvedic: Surapunnaaga (Naa- gakeshara is equated with Mesua ferrea.)

Siddha/Tamil: Nagappu, Nagesarpu.

Folk: Laal-Naagakeshar. Surangi (Maharashtra).

Action: Flowerbuds—cooling, stomachic, analgesic, antibacterial; used for gastritis, haemorrhoids, blood diseases, leprosy, leucoder- ma.

Flower buds are popularly known as Naagakeshar.

Flowers exhibited potent hypoten- sive, anti-inflammatory and antispas- modic activity attributed to vitexin.

Leaves gave amentoflavone, querce- tin and vitexin as major constituents.... ochrocarpus longifolius

Oestradiol Valerate

See OESTROGENS.... oestradiol valerate

Ocimum Basilicum


Synonym: O. caryophyllatum Roxb. O. minimum Linn. O. pilosum Willd.

Family: Labiatae; Lamiaceae.

Habitat: Lower hills of Punjab; cultivated throughout India.

English: Sweet Basil, Basil Herb.

Ayurvedic: Barbari, Tuvari, Tungi, Kharpushpa, Ajgandhikaa, Baabui Tulasi.

Unani: Faranjmishk. (also equated with Dracocephalum moldavica Linn. by National Formulary of Unani Medicine.), Raihan (also equated with O. sanctum). (used as a substitute for Phanijjaka.)

Siddha/Tamil: Tiruneetruppachhilai.

Folk: Bana-Tulasi. Sabzaa (Maharashtra).

Action: Flower—stimulant, carminative, antispasmodic, diuretic, demulcent. Seed—antidysenteric. Juice of the plant—antibacterial. Essential oil—antibacterial, antifungal, insecticidal.

(Because of high estragole content of the essential oil, the herb should not be taken during pregnancy, nursing or over extended periods of time.) (German Commission E.) Included among unapproved herbs by German Commission E.

The herb contains an essential oil; major constituents are linalool (up to 55%) methyl ether (estragole) up to 70% and eugenol; caffeic acid derivatives; flavonoids. Thymol and xan- thomicrol were isolated from the leaves. Aesculetin, p-coumaric acid, eriodic- tyol, its 7-glucoside and vicenin-2 from leaves have been isolated.

The essential oil at concentration of 0.15% completely inhibited mycelial growth of twenty two species of fungi, including mycotoxin-producing strains of Aspergillus flavus and A. par- asiticus. Leaves act as an insect repellent externally; bring relief to insect bites and stings.

In homoeopathy, the fresh mature leaves are used to treat haematuria, inflammation and congestion of kidney.

Dosage: Whole plant—50-100 ml decoction; seed—1-3 g powder. (CCRAS.)... ocimum basilicum

Ocimum Canum


Synonym: O. americanum Linn.

Family: Labiatae; Lamiaceae.

Habitat: Plains and lower hills of India.

English: Hoary Basil.

Ayurvedic: Kaali Tulasi, Vana-Tulasi.

Siddha/Tamil: Ganjamkorai, Nai-Tulasi.

Action: Plant—stimulant, carminative, diaphoretic. Leaf—bechic, febrifuge; used in cold, bronchitis, catarrh, externally in skin diseases. Essential oil—antifungal. Seeds— hypoglycaemic; also used in the treatment of leucorrhoea and other diseases of urinogenital system.

The essential oil at the flowering stage contains citral as a major component along with methylheptenone, methylnonylketone and camphor.

Leaves yielded beta-sitosterol, be- tulinic acid and ursolic acid and flavonoids, pectolinarigenin-7-methylether and nevadensin.

Seeds exhibited antidiabetic activity, improved glucose tolerance was observed in diabetic patients who were given 30 g seed/day for 1 month, lowering of fasting plasma glucose level up to 30% was also observed. to assess the inheritance pattern of major chemical constituents of essential oils in hybrids produced by interspecific as well as intraspecific crosses of Ocimum sp.).... ocimum canum

Ocimum Gratissimum


Family: Labiatae; Lamiaceae.

Habitat: Throughout India.

English: Shrubby Basil.

Ayurvedic: Vriddha Tulasi, Raam- Tulasi, Raan-Tulasi.

Siddha: Elumicha-Tulasi, Peria- Tulasi.

Action: Plant—used in neurological and rheumatic affections, in seminal weakness and in aphthae of children. Seed—used in cephalalgia and neuralgia. Essential oil— antibacterial, antifungal.

In homoeopathy, fresh mature leaves are used in constipation, cough, fever, nasal catarrh; also in gonorrhoea with difficult urination.

A heterotic hybrid 'Clocimum' (po- lycross of gratissimum) has been developed in India which yields 4.55.7% essential oil having a eugenol content up to 95%. Direct production of methyl eugenol and eugenol acetate from 'Clocimum' oil is reported.

Major constituents reported from 'Clocimum' oil are myrcene 8.87, eugenol 68.14, isoeugenol 13.88, methyl- eugenol 1.74%; other constituents are alpha- pinene, limonene, phellandrene, terpene 4-ol, alpha-terpineol, carveol, carvene, geranyl acetate, caryophyl- lone and caryophyllone oxide.

(At Regional Research Laboratory, CSIR, Jammu, a study was conducted Ocimum kilimandscharicum Guerke.

Synonym: O. camphora Guerke.

Family: Labiatae; Lamiaceae.

Habitat: Native of Kenya. Cultivated on a small scale in West Bengal, Assam, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Kerala and Dehr Dun.

English: Camphor Basil.

Ayurvedic: Karpura Tulasi.

Action: Plant—spasmolytic, antibacterial. Decamphorized oil— insecticidal, mosquito repellent.

Essential oil contains camphor, pi- nene, limonene, terpinolene, myrcene, beta-phellandrene, linalool, camphene, p-cymene, borneol and alpha-selinene. The Camphor content varies in different samples from 61 to 80.5%.... ocimum gratissimum


A quinolone drug (see QUINOLONES) used to treat infections in the urinary, respiratory and reproductive tracts.... ofloxacin


(Hebrew) God provides assistance Ogenyah, Ogeniya, Ogeniyah... ogenya


(Native American) Resembling the wild rose... ogin

Ocimum Sanctum


Synonym: O. tenuiflorum Linn.

Family: Labiatae; Lamiaceae.

Habitat: Throughout India; grown in houses, gardens and temples.

English: Holy Basil, Sacred Basil.

Ayurvedic: Tulasi, Surasaa, Surasa, Bhuutaghni, Suravalli, Sulabhaa, Manjarikaa, Bahumanjari, Deva- dundubhi, Apet-raakshasi, Shuu- laghni, Graamya, Sulabhaa.

Unani: Tulasi.

Siddha/Tamil: Tulasi, Nalla-Tulasi.

Action: Leaf—carminative, stomachic, antispasmodic, antiasthmatic, antirheumatic, expectorant, stimulant, hepatoprotective, antiperiodic, antipyretic and diaphoretic. Seed— used in genitourinary diseases. Root—antimalarial. Plant—adap- togenic, antistress. Essential oil— antibacterial, antifungal.

The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India recommends the use of the leaf and seed in rhinitis and influenza; the seed in psychological disorders, including fear-psychosis and obsessions.

Major components of the essential oil are eugenol, carvacrol, nerol and eugenolmethylether. Leaves have been reported to contain ursolic acid, api- genin, luteolin, apigenin-7-O-glucu- ronide, luteolin-7-O-glucuronide, orientin and molludistin.

Ursolic acid, isolated from leaves, exhibited significant protection of mast cell membrane by preventing granulation and decreased histamine release. The ethanolic extract (50%) of fresh leaves, volatile oil from fresh leaves and fixed oil from seeds showed antiasth- matic activity and significantly protected guinea-pigs against histamine and dyspnoea. They also showed anti- inflammatory activity against carrage- enan-, serotonin-, histamine- and PGE-2-induced inflammation and inhibited hind paw oedema in rats.

The ethanol extract (90%) of the leaves showed hepatoprotective effect against paracetamol-induced liver damage.

The plant extract exhibited antiul- cerogenic property against experimental ulcers.

Oral administration of alcoholic extract of leaves lowers blood sugar level in normal, glucose-fed hyperglycaemic and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The activity of the extract was 91.55 and 70.43% of that of tolbutamide in normal and diabetic rats respectively.

Administration of the juice of the plant affected a significant reduction in the size of urinary brushite crystals.

A study of methanol extract and aqueous suspension of the leaves showed immunostimulation of humoral immunologic response in albino rats indicating the adaptogenic action of the plant.

Dosage: Seed—1-2 g powder (API, Vol. IV); plant—50-10 ml infusion (CCRAS.).... ocimum sanctum

Ocimum Viride


Family: Labiatae; Lamiaceae.

Habitat: Native to Africa; introduced into India.

English: Fever plant of Sierra Leone.

Folk: Taap-maari Tulasi (Maharashtra).

Action: Leaves—febrifugal. Used as a remedy for coughs and fevers. Oil—antiseptic.

Ocimum viride species, cultivated in Jammu-Tawi, gives maximum oil yield

(0.4%) at full bloom stage and highest percentage of thymol (55.12%) in the oil, which can be used as a substitute for thyme-ajowan oil.... ocimum viride


(Armenian) A gift from God Ohannah, Ohana, Ohanah, Ohanny, Ohanney, Ohanni, Ohannie, Ohannea, Ohannee... ohanna


(Japanese) One who meditates Oharah, Oharra, Oharrah... ohara


(Hebrew) One who lives in a tent Ohelah... ohela


(Native American) A beautiful woman... oheo


(Native American) Of the good river; from the state of Ohio... ohio


(Gaelic) A freckled child... oighrig


(Spanish) From the woodland Oihanne, Oihana, Oihanna, Oihann, Oihaine, Oihain, Oihayn, Oihayne, Oihaen, Oihaene... oihane


(Celtic) In mythology, a queen Oilelle, Oilel, Oilele, Oilella, Oilela... oilell


Semi-solid, greasy substances used as EMOLLIENTS, protectants and as vehicles for topical drug delivery, ointments may be hydrophilic or hydrophobic. The former dissolve in water and usually contain polyethylene glycols. Hydrophobic ointments do not combine with water and are para?n-based. Mixing hard and soft para?ns allows sti?ness and greasiness to be modi?ed. Pastes are ointments containing a high proportion of inert powder such as starch or zinc oxide which confers sti?ness. Pastes are protective and allow precise aplication of drugs to the skin.... ointments

Oedema Of The Lungs

This occurs as a result of left ventricular failure (see HEART, DISEASES OF). There is an abrupt increase in the venous and capillary pressure in the pulmonary vessels, followed by ?ooding of ?uid into the interstitial spaces and alveoli. The commonest cause of acute pulmonary oedema is myocardial infarction (see HEART, DISEASES OF) which reduces the ability of the left ventricular myocardial muscle to handle the blood delivered to it. Pulmonary oedema may result from other causes of left ventricular failure such as HYPERTENSION or valvular disease of the mitral and aortic valves. The initial symptoms are cough with breathlessness and occasionally with wheezing (once called ‘cardiac asthma’). The patient becomes extremely short of breath and in a severe attack the patient is pale, sweating and cyanosed and obviously gasping for breath. Frequently, frothy sputum is produced which may be blood-stained. Treatment is with DIURETICS and measures to deal with the myocardial infarction or other underlying cause.... oedema of the lungs

Oenanthe Javanica

(Blume) DC.

O. stolinifera Wall. ex

Family: Apiaceae; Umbelliferae.

Habitat: Marshy places and river banks in North India from Kashmir to Assam.

Folk: Jateraa (Meghalaya); Pan- turasi (Bengal).

Action: The plant extract showed strong antimutagenic and antitu- mour activity.

From the herb, beta-sitosteryl gluco- side, stigmasteryl glucoside, isorham- netin and hyperin were isolated. The fruit yield 1.5% of an essential oil, containing phellandrene and myristicin.

Linalool (70.0%) was determined in the flower oil.

Evening Primrose is equated with Oenothera biennis L. (native to North America). The oil from seeds, known as Evening Primrose oil, contains about 70% cis-linolenic acid and about 9% cis-gamma-linolenic acid (GLA). Evening Primrose oil is one of the most widely prescribed plant-derived medicines in the world. Sold under the trade name Epogam, it is recognized by the governments of Great Britain, Germany, Denmark, Ireland, Spain, Greece, South Africa, Australia and New Zealand as a treatment for eczema. A combination, known as Efamol Marine, used for eczema, contains 80% Evening Primrose Oil and 20% fish oil.

Evening Primrose Oil has become a frontline treatment in Great Britain for initial treatment of cyclical breast pain and fibrocystic breast disease.... oenanthe javanica

Oesophagus, Diseases Of

Oesophagitis is in?ammation of the OESOPHAGUS and may be due to swallowing a corrosive chemical (corrosive oesophagitis) or because the muscles of the lower part of the oesophagus do not work properly (ACHALASIA), allowing the stomach’s acidic contents to regurgitate (re?ux oesophagitis). HIATUS HERNIA is sometimes associated with the latter condition. Diagnosis can be made by ENDOSCOPY of the oesophagus and/or an X-ray examination using a barium swallow. Treatment of re?ux oesophagitis is by an appropriate diet and weight loss. Stricture of the oesophagus can result from swallowing a corrosive ?uid and may produce severe narrowing. Such strictures may sometimes be dilated by the use of suitable instruments; otherwise, surgery may be necessary.

A still more serious and frequent cause of oesophageal stricture is that due to cancer, which may occur at any part, but is most common at the lower end, near the entrance into the stomach. The chief symptoms of this condition are increasing di?culty in swallowing, increasing debility, together with enlargement of the glands in the neck. The condition usually occurs in middle age or beyond and around 5,000 people are diagnosed with such cancer every year in the United Kingdom. In many cases treatment can only be palliative, but recent advances in surgery are producing promising results. In some cases treatment with irradiation or anti-cancer drugs produces relief, if not cure. In those in whom neither operation nor radiation can be performed, life may be prolonged and freedom from pain obtained by ?uid food which is either swallowed or passed down a tube. In cases of achalasia (see above), the passage of a special bougie down the oesophagus to dilate the sphincter may be e?ective.

Strictures of the oesophagus may also be produced by the pressure of tumours or aneurysms within the cavity of the chest but external to the gullet.

Finally, di?culty in swallowing sometimes occurs in certain serious nervous diseases from paralysis affecting the nerves supplying the muscular coats of the PHARYNX, which thus loses its propulsive power (bulbar paralysis).

Foreign bodies which lodge in the respiratory part of the throat – i.e. at the entrance to, or in the cavity of, the larynx – set up immediate symptoms of CHOKING. Those which lodge in the gullet, on the contrary, do not usually set up any immediately serious symptoms, although their presence causes considerable discomfort. Medical attention is usually required.... oesophagus, diseases of


(Latin) One who prays to God Oyra, Oirah, Oyrah... oira


(Irish) Resembling a young deer Oisine, Oisina, Oisinia, Oisinea, Oisinn, Oisinne, Oisinna... oisin


(Indian) A dream or vision Ojall, Ojale, Ojala, Ojalle, Ojalla... ojal


(Egyptian) Loved by the gods Ojufemie, Ojufemy, Ojufemey, Ojufemee, Olufemi, Olufemie, Olufemee, Olufemy, Olufemey, Ojufemea, Olufemea... ojufemi


(Hawaiian) Form of Kalani, meaning “from the heavens” Okalanie, Okalany, Okalaney, Okalanee, Okaloni, Okalonie, Okalonee, Okalony, Okaloney, Okeilana, Okelani, Okelani, Okelanie, Okelany, Okelaney, Okelanee, Okalanea, Okalonea, Okelanea... okalani


(Japanese) Woman of the ocean... okei


(Native American) Of the red people; from the state of Oklahoma... oklahoma


(African) Born during rainfall Okothe, Okotha, Okothia, Okothea, Okothiya... okoth


(Russian) One who gives glory to God

Oksanah, Oksanna, Oksania, Oksanea, Oksaniya, Oksanochka... oksana


(Egyptian) One who brings joy to others

Olabisie, Olabisy, Olabisey, Olabisee, Olabisea... olabisi

Office For National Statistics (ons)

This is an executive agency of the UK government formed by an amalgamation in 1990 of the Central Statistical O?ce and the O?ce of Population Censuses and Surveys (OPCS). The ONS compiles and publishes statistics on national and local populations, including their social and economic situation and contributions to the country’s economy. It also records the demographic patterns of births, marriages and deaths, including the medical cause of death. The former OPCS organised a national ten-yearly census and ONS is carrying on this activity. The census is based on the actual presence of individuals in a house or institutions on a given night. The ?gures provide government departments and local authorities with information for planning services.... office for national statistics (ons)


(American) A thoughtful woman Olaid, Olaida, Olayd, Olayde, Olayda, Olaed, Olaede, Olaeda... olaide


(Native American) A lovely young woman... olathe


(Scandinavian) A loyal woman... olaug

Olax Scandens


Oenothera odorata Jacq.

Family: Onagraceae.

Habitat: Native to Chile; cultivated as a garden plant in South Australia. Introduced into Indian gardens.

English: Evening Primrose (var.); Sundrop (var.).

Action: Oil from seeds—prescribed for eczema (in children); premenstrual syndrome and cyclical breast pain.

Family: Olacaceae.

Habitat: Sub-Himalayas tract of Kumaon and Bihar, Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, Deccan and Western Ghats.

Ayurvedic: Dheniaani, Karbudaar (doubtful synonym).

Siddha/Tamil: Malliveppam, Kadalranchi.

Folk: Rimil-beeri (Bihar).

Action: Bark—used in anaemia and as a supporting drug in diabetes; also in the treatment of fever.... olax scandens


(Yoruban) Surrounded by wealth and honor Olayenka, Olayanka... olayinka

Oldenlandia Umbellata


Synonym: Hedyotis umbellata (Linn.) Lam.

Family: Rubiaceae.

Habitat: Bihar, Orissa, Travancore. Cultivated on the Coromandel coast.

English: Indian Madder, Chay-Root.

Siddha/Tamil: Inbooral.

Folk: Chiraval (Maharashtra).

Action: Leaves and roots—used in bronchitis, asthma, consumption.

The plant gave anthraquinone derivatives. The root gave alizarin, ru- bichloric acid and ruberythric acid, also anthraquinones. Purpurin, pupur- oxanthin carboxylic acid, present in Madder (Rubia tinctorum), are almost entirely absent.... oldenlandia umbellata

Older Person

A person who has reached a certain age that varies among countries but is often associated with the age of normal retirement.... older person

Oldest Old Person

Persons aged 85 years and over in a categorization of “young old” (60-74) and “old old” (75-84).... oldest old person


(Czech) A noble ruler Oldryska, Oldri, Oldrie, Oldry, Oldrey, Oldree, Oldrea... oldriska


(English) A special and beloved friend

Oldwinn, Oldwinne, Oldwina, Oldwinna, Oldwyn, Oldwynn, Oldwynne, Oldwyna, Oldwynna, Oldwen, Oldwenn, Oldwenne, Oldwenna... oldwin


Oily, greasy... oleaginous


(English) Resembling a winged creature

Oldedah, Oleta, Olita, Olida, Oletah, Olitah, Olidah... oleda


(Greek) One who is smooth... oleia

Olea Europaea


Family: Olaeaceae.

Habitat: Native of Mediterranean region; cultivated in Jammu and Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh.

English: Olive.

Unani: Zaitoon.

Action: Leaves and bark— febrifugal, astringent, diuretic, antihypertensive.

Oil—preparations are used for cho- langiitis, cholecystitis, cholelithiasis, icterus, flatulence, meteorism, lack of bacteria in the intestines. Demulcent and mild laxative. Externally used for wound dressing and for minor burns, psoriasis and pruritus. (Included among unapproved herbs by German Commission E.)

Chemical investigations of two varieties—Ascotrinia and Ascolina— grown in Jammu region have shown that the characteristics of fruits and their oils are similar to those of European varieties.

Leaves of Olea europaea gave iri- doid monoterpenes including oleu- ropein and oleuroside; triterpenes including oleanolic and maslinic acids; flavonoids including luteolin and api- genine derivatives. The oil contains glycerides of oleic acid about 70-80%, with smaller amounts of linoleic, palmitic and stearic acid glycerides.

The leaves exhibited hypotensive, antiarrhythmic and spasmolytic activities in animal studies. The oil exhibited contraction of gallbladder due to raising of the cholecystokinin level in the plasma.

India's requirements of olive oil are met by imports.... olea europaea


(Greek) Form of Elizabeth, meaning “my God is bountiful” Oleisia, Oleisah, Oleisia, Oleesa, Oleasa, Oleysa... oleisa


(Russian) Form of Helen, meaning “the shining light”

Olenah, Olenia, Olenya, Olinija, Olinia... olena


(Polish) Form of Alexandra, meaning “helper and defender of mankind” Olesiah, Olexa, Olexia, Olexea, Olex... olesia


(Latin) Form of Alethea, meaning “one who is truthful” Oletheia, Olethia, Oletha, Oletea, Olthaia, Olithea, Olathea, Oletia, Olithia, Olthaea, Oleta... olethea

Olfactory Nerves

The nerves of SMELL. Each nerve detects smell by means of hair-like receptors positioned in the mucous membrane lining the roof of the nasal cavity (see NOSE).... olfactory nerves


(Scandinavian) One who is blessed and successful

Olgah, Olenka, Olia, Oliah, Olya... olga


(Hawaiian) Resembling the oleander Olianah, Olianna, Oleana, Oleanna, Oliane, Oliann, Oleane, Oleann, Oleanne... oliana


(Spanish) Surrounded by light Olidi, Olidy, Olidey, Olidee, Olidea, Olydie, Olydi, Olydie, Olydy, Olydey, Olydee, Olydea... olidie


A pre?x which means little or scanty: for example, oliguria, excretion of smaller than normal quantities of urine.... olig(o)


(Hawaiian) One who is joyous Oline, Oleen, Oleene, Olyne, Oleena, Olyna, Olin... olina


(German) Resembling a wild fig; a protector of the land

Olindah, Olynda, Olynda, Olenda, Olendah... olinda


(Native American) Devoted to God Olisah, Olissa, Olissah, Olysa, Olyssa... olisa


(Latin) Feminine form of Oliver; of the olive tree; one who is peaceful Oliviah, Oliva, Olive, Oliveea, Olivet, Olivetta, Olivette, Olivija, Olivine, Olivya, Ollie, Olva, Olia, Oliff, Oliffe, Olivie, Olivi, Olivey, Olivee, Olivy, Oliveria, Oleta, Olida, Oilbhe... olivia


(African) A dazzling woman Olubaya, Oloubayo, Oloubaya... olubayo


(Welsh) Form of Olwen, meaning “one who leaves a white footprint” Olvyin... olvyen


(Welsh) One who leaves a white footprint

Olwenn, Olwin, Olwyn, Olwynne, Olwynn, Olwenne, Olwinn, Olwinne, Olwena, Olwenna, Olwina, Olwinna, Olwyna, Olwynna... olwen


(Greek) From Mount Olympus; a goddess

Olympiah, Olimpe, Olimpia, Olimpiada, Olimpiana, Olypme, Olympie, Olympi, Olympy, Olympey, Olimpi, Olimpie, Olympas... olympia


(Hebrew) From the cedar tree Omette, Omett, Omete, Ometta, Ometa, Ornetta, Ornette... omah


(Indian) A lovely woman Omanah, Omanna, Omannah... omana

Olive Leaf Tea

If you want to drink a special type of tea, try Olive Leaf Tea! It has an aromatic flavor, similar to green tea, but a bit sweeter, which makes for a pleasant cup of tea. Also, it has many benefits which help you stay healthy. Read to find out more! About Olive Leaf Tea Olive leaf tea is made from the leaves of the olive tree. We can find these trees on the coastal areas of the eastern Mediterranean Basin (including areas from Europe, Asia and Africa), as well as in northern Iran and northern Iraq. The leaves of the olive tree have a silvery green color. They are oblong, measuring 4-10cm long and 1-3 cm wide. The olive leaves are well-known for their many health benefits. Also, olive leaf extract is used for various soaps and skin creams. How to make Olive Leaf Tea Olive leaf teacan be bought either in loose leaf form or in tea bag form. In both cases, it is quite easy to prepare a cup of olive leaf tea. A teaspoon of olive leaves, or a teabag, is enough for one cup of olive leaf tea. Pour boiling water in the cup and let it steep for about 15 minutes. Once the steeping time is done, either remove the teabag or strain to remove the olive leaves. Also, if you’ve got olive trees around, you can make your own olive leaf tea. First, pick the healthy-looking leaves from the tree. Wash the leaves carefully; then, dry them in the oven, at a temperature below 65°C or 150°F. You can air-dry the leaves, too, but don’t leave them in direct sunlight, as that might reduce their health benefits. Once the leaves are dry, crush the leaves by hand, remove the stalks and store the dried herbs in paper packets. For a cup of olive leaf tea, just follow the simple steps mentioned above. Components of Olive Leaf Tea Olive leaves have many components which are good for our body. Seeing as the leaves are the main ingredient for the tea, the components are also transferred to the olive leaf tea.Some of the important ones include various antioxidants, polyphenols, and flavonoids. Olive leaves, as well as olive leaf tea, also have Vitamin C. Olive leaf tea doesn’t contain caffeine, so you don’t have to worry about getting any side effects caused by caffeine. Olive Leaf Tea Benefits Considering its many components, it’s not a lie when we say that a cup of olive leaf tea brings you many health benefits. First of all, olive leaf tea helps lower both LDL “bad” cholesterol levels and blood pressure. It also increases the blood flow by relaxing the arteries. Because of this, olive leaf tea is considered an important heart tonic. Olive leaf tea can also help you if you’ve got diabetes, as it lowers the blood sugar levels. Drinking olive leaf tea during winter can help you strengthen your immune system, and also fight against colds and the flu. It helps you relax, and it can count as an energy booster if you drink a lot of olive leaf tea. Olive leaf tea may also help you prevent the appearance of cancer or tumors. Plus, it is used in the treatment for viral infections, such as the Epstein-Barr disease, herpes, shingles, and malaria. It is also useful in healing inflammations of the bladder, as well as alienating arthritic pain and swelling. Olive Leaf Tea side effects If you know you’ve got a low blood pressure, don’t drink too much olive leaf tea. It will lower your blood pressure even more, and that might make you feel dizzy. In this case, be careful with the amount of olive leaf tea you drink. Some people might experience Herxheimers reaction when drinking olive leaf tea. Herxheimers reaction is an immune response to the release of toxins from pathogens which have been destroyed. It is a normal and good reaction, as that means the olive leaf tea is doing you good. The symptoms include    headaches, muscle and joint pain, fever, nausea, sore throat, and vaginal irritation. Reduce the amount of tea you drink, and also drink a large quantity of water daily to help the body eliminate the toxins. With this, the symptoms should disappear after a few days. Be careful if you’re taking any other medication. Olive leaf tea might interfere with the usual actions of the medication you’re taking. Before including olive leaf tea in your daily diet, make sure you talk to your doctor. If you’re pregnant or breast feeding, it is best to avoid drinking olive leaf tea. While it is not sure how harmful it can be in this case, it is best not to take a risk, in case it might cause miscarriages or affect the baby. Also, don›t drink more than six cups of olive leaf tea a day. It will lead to more side effects rather than to help you stay healthy. If you drink too much tea, the symptoms you might get are the following: headaches, dizziness, insomnia, irregular heartbeats, vomiting, diarrhea and loss of appetite. Make sure to reduce the amount of olive leaf tea you drink, if you get any of these. Not only does olive leaf tea have a pleasant taste, but one cup brings many health benefits with it. As long as you make sure you won’t get any side effects from consumption of olive leaf tea, you can easily include it in your daily diet. You definitely won’t regret it!... olive leaf tea


(American) An exuberant woman Omani, Omany, Omaney, Omanee, Omanea... omanie


(Latin / Spanish) Having a pleasant fragrance / one who is dearly loved Omayrah, Omaira, Omairah, Omaera, Omaerah... omayra


A person who investigates complaints and mediates fair settlements, especially between aggrieved parties, such as consumers, and an institution or organization.... ombudsman


(Greek) The last great one; the last letter of the Greek alphabet Omegah, Omegia, Omegiah... omega


(Native American) Resembling a dove

Omemea, Omemi, Omemie, Omemey, Omemy... omemee


(American) A spendid woman Omeshah, Omeesha, Omeeshah, Omeasha, Omeashah, Omeisha, Omeishah, Omiesha, Omieshah, Omysha, Omyshah... omesha


(Italian) A homebody Omi, Omee, Omea, Omy, Omey... omie


(Native American) Having a beautiful voice... ominotago


(African) A welcomed daughter Omolarah, Omolarra, Omolarrah... omolara


(Egyptian) One who is beautiful Omorosa, Omorosia, Omorosie, Omorosi, Omorosee, Omorosea, Omorosey, Omorosy... omorose


(Greek) In mythology, a queen of Lydia

Omphaile, Omphayle, Omfale, Omfaile, Omfayle, Omphael, Omphaele, Omphaela... omphale


(Arabic) A red-haired woman Omrie, Omree, Omrea, Omry, Omrey... omri


(African) One who is adored Omusah, Omousa, Omousah... omusa


(African) One who is precious Omusuppe, Omusepe, Omuseppe... omusupe


(English) Form of Myra, meaning “resembling the fragrant oil” Omeira, Omira, Omeera, Omiera, Omeara, Omera... omyra


(African) The golden child Onaydo, Onaido... onaedo


(Hawaiian) Having a sweet fragrance Onanonah... onaona


(Native American) Daughter of the earth

Onata, Onatia, Onatiah, Onatea, Onateah... onatah


(Native American) One who is wide-awake Onawah... onawa


(Latin) Resembling a small wave Ondina, Ondyne, Ondinia, Ondyna... ondine


(Slavic) Form of Andrea, meaning “courageous and strong / womanly” Ondria, Ondrianna, Ondreia, Ondreina, Ondreya, Ondriana, Ondreana, Ondera, Ondraia, Ondreja, Ondrya, Ondris, Ondrette, Oindrea, Onda, Ondee, Ondena, Ondere, Ondra, Ondralyn, Ondi, Ondie, Ondranetta, Ondraya, Ondreanna, Ondree, Ondreah, Ondras, Ondrena, Ondrienne, Ondrianne, Ondrina, Ondren, Ondrya, Onndrea, Onndria, Odra... ondrea


(Native American) Our long- awaited daughter Onieda, Oneyda, Onida, Onyda... oneida


(Greek) Lady of light Onela, Onellia, Onellea, Onelia, Onelea... onella


(American) A patient woman Oneshah, Oneisha, Oneishah, Oniesha, Onieshah, Oneesha, Oneeshah, Oneasha, Oneashah, Onysha, Onyshah, Oneshia, Oneshiah, Oneshea, Onesheah... onesha


(Hebrew) One who brings in profit... onesiphorus


(English) Form of Angela, meaning “a heavenly messenger; an angel” Ongelica, Ongelina, Ongelique, Onjela, Onjelika, Ongella, Ongelita, Ongeline, Ongelyn, Ongelene, Ongelin, Ongelia, Onge, Onga, Ongel, Ongele, Ongelee, Ongelena, Ongeles, Ongeletta, Ongelette, Ongeli, Ongelika, Ongeliki, Ongilia, Ongelisa, Ongelita, Ongell, Ongelle, Ongelynn, Ongie, Ongyalka, Onielka, Onjelica, Onjelita, Onnjel, Onjella... ongela


(Latin) Our one and only Oniah, Onya, Onyah, Oniya, Oniyah... onia


(Native American) The one who has been expected Onidah, Onyda, Onydah... onida


A database or other source of information available via a computer and the Internet.... online


(Irish) Form of Honora, meaning “having a good name and integrity; an honorable woman”

Onour, Onoria, Onor, Onorata, Onoratas, Onnor, Onorina, Onorine, Onore, Onoree, Onori, Onorie, Onory, Onouri, Onourie, Onoury, Onoura, Onouria, Onoure, Ohnicio, Omora, Omorra... onora

Onosma Bracteatum


Family: Boraginaceae.

Habitat: Kashmir and Kumaon.

English: Borage.

Ayurvedic: Gojihvaa, Kharpatraa, Darvipatraa, Vrishjihvaa.

Unani: Gaozabaan (related species).

Siddha/Tamil: Ununjil.

Action: Cooling, astringent, diuretic, cardiac tonic. Used for cold, cough, bronchial affections; insomnia, depression, mental exhaustion; constipation, misperistalsis, jaundice; dysuria, urethral discharges; fevers.

The name Gaozaban is applied to six different plants, belonging to five genera. According to The Wealth ofIn- dia, Gaozaban is derived not from this plant but from Anchusa strigosa Labill, which occurs in Iran. Kashmiri Gaoz- aban is derived from Macrotomia ben- thamii. Coccinia glauca is also used as Gojihvaa.

Borage has been equated with Bora- go officinalis Linn. (Boraginacea.).

Dosage: Dried leaves and stems, flowers—3-6 g powder.... onosma bracteatum

Onosma Echioides

C. B. Clarke non Linn.

Synonym: Onosma hispidum Wall. ex D. Don.

Family: Boraginaceae.

Habitat: Kashmir and Kumaon up to 1,000-1,500 m.

Unani: Ratanjot (equated with Onosma echioides Linn., according to National Formularly ofUnani Medicine).

Action: Astringent and styptic. Root—bruised and used as application to eruptions. An ingredient of ointments for ulcers, scrofula, burns. Flowers—stimulant, cardiac tonic.

Ursolic acid and naphthoquinones, onosone A and B have been isolated from the root. Shikonin acetate is obtained from callus cultures of the plant.

The species, distributed in western Himalayas, is Onosma echioides C. B. Clarke non Linn.; Onosma echioides Linn. is an European species. A variety of this species, var. kashmiricum Johnson, is found in Kashmir. Onosma hookeri C. B. Clarke occurs in Sikkim and Bhutan.

Maharanga emodi (Wall.) DC., synonym Onosma emodi (Wall.) DC. (the Himalayas from Garhwal to Bhutan at altitudes of 3,500-4,000 m) is also known as Ratanjot and Shankhuli.

(Ratanjot is used in a generic sense to cover a range of red dye-yielding roots, rather than the root of a single species. As many as 15 plant species belonging to four different families are known as Ratanjot; five of them do not yield red dye. General properties and colour reactions attributed to Ratanjot resemble Alkanet from Alkanna tinctoria Tausch.)... onosma echioides


(African) Protected by God Ontibyle, Ontybile, Ontybyle... ontibile


(American) An open-minded woman

Ontinah, Onteena, Onteenah, Onteana, Onteanah, Ontiena, Ontienah, Onteina, Onteinah, Ontyna, Ontynah... ontina


Disease of the nails (see SKIN – Nail; NAILS, DISEASES OF).... onychia


(Gaelic) Form of Agnes, meaning “one who is pure; chaste” Oonaugh, Oonagh, Oonah, Ouna, Ounah, Ounagh, Ounaugh... oona


Another name for the ovary (see OVARIES).... oöphoron

Oota Dabun

(Native American) Born beneath the daystar... oota dabun


The fertilising chamber where the ovum is fertilised by the spermatozoon.... ootype


An opaque or non-transparent area... opacity

Oolong Tea Health Benefits, Side Effects And Brewing

Oolong tea, literally meaning “Black Dragon”, is a traditional Chinese beverage which undergoes a unique preparation process resulting in a reddish drink with a slightly sweet delicate flavour. Oolong tea is partially fermented, unlike black tea, which is fully fermented, or green tea, which is unfermented. Oolong Tea Brewing Oolong tea requires a higher brewingtemperature in order to extract the complex aromas of the tea leaves. It is recommended to use spring or filtered water heated at a temperature of approximately 90 degrees Celsius. The steeping process for most Oolong teas should last no longer than five minutes. If this period is extended for too long, it may ruin the delicate aromas and turn your cup of tea unpleasantly bitter. Oolong teas are best served plain, but you can add milk, sugar, honey or lemon according to your taste. Oolong Tea Health Benefits Oolong tea, a hybrid between black and green tea, has numerous health benefits, especially if consumed regularly. Drinking Oolong tea stimulates brain activity and relieves mental and physical stress. Oolong tea has the potential of reducing high blood pressure, lowering blood sugar levels and preventing serious afflictions like obesity, osteoporosis, tooth decay, cancer or heart disease. Oolong tea accelerates the metabolism and promotes weight loss. Another health benefit of Oolong tea is its effectiveness in treating skin problems such as eczema and rashes and combating skin aging. Oolong Tea Side Effects Although drinking Oolong tea is extremely beneficial for the body, it can also lead to unpleasant side effects when consumed in large quantities, therefore moderation is required. These side effects include sleeping difficulties, anxiety or irritability, most of them related to excessive caffeine intake. It is not recommended for pregnant women and people suffering from kidney disorders. Furthermore, oolong tea has been proven to interact with certain medications; therefore, people who undertake treatment are advised to consult a health care provider first. Oolong tea is extremely effective in keeping your energy levels up, due to its caffeine content, and it also increases brain function, helping you maintain active and aware throughout the day.... oolong tea health benefits, side effects and brewing


(Sanskrit) A treasured jewel; resembling the iridescent gemstone Opall, Opalle, Opale, Opalla, Opala, Opalina, Opaline, Opaleena, Opaleene, Opalyna, Opalyne, Opel... opal

Operating Cost

See “cost”.... operating cost

Operation- Qualification

documented verification that the system or sub system performs as intended throughout all anticipated operating ranges... operation- qualification

Operculina Turpethum

(Linn.) Silva Manso.

Synonym: Ipomoea turpethum R. Br.

Family: Convolvulaceae.

Habitat: Throughout India up to 1,000 m; occasionally grown in gardens.

English: Indian Jalap, Turpeth.

Ayurvedic: Trivrta, Trivrtaa, Trib- handi, Triputaa, Saralaa, Suvahaa,

Rechani, Nishotra, Kumbha, Kaalaa, Shyaama, Shyaamaa.

Unani: Turbud, Nishoth.

Siddha/Tamil: Karunchivadai.

Action: Root—purgative, antiinflammatory (particularly used in rheumatic and paralytic affections; also in fevers, oedema, hepatic and haemophilic diseases).

White Turpeth is preferred to Black Turpeth as cathartic; the latter produces drastic purgation and causes vomiting, fainting and giddiness. White Turpeth is derived from Mars- denia tenacissima in folk medicine.

The active principle of O. turpethum is a glycosidic resin present in the drug up to 10%. It is similar to jalap resin and is concentrated mostly in the root bark. It contains an ether insoluble glycoside, turpethin, which constitutes about half of the resin and two ether soluble gly- cosides, alpha-and beta-turpethein (8 and 6% respectively).

Dosage: Root—1-3 g powder. (API, Vol. III.)... operculina turpethum


(Hebrew) From the temple hill Ophela, Ophie, Ophi, Ophy, Ophey, Ophee, Ophea... ophel


(Greek) One who offers help to others

Ofelia, Ofilia, Ophelie, Ophelya, Ophilia, Ovalia, Ovelia, Opheliah, Ofeliah, Ophelie... ophelia

Ophelia Multiflora


Family: Gentianaceae.

Habitat: From Konkan to Kerala at 1,500-2,000 m.

Ayurvedic: Shailaja, Kiraatatikta (related species).

Action: A substitute for S. chirayita and Gentiana lutea L.

The leaves and flowers contain xan- thone—swartinin, triterpenes, oleano- lic acid and beta-sitosterol. Decussatin is also present in the flowers and root.... ophelia multiflora

Ophioglossum Vulgatum


Family: Ophioglossaceae.

Habitat: Moist meadows in Great Britain. Found in the Himalayas, Bihar, Assam, Pune (Maharashtra), Annamalai and Shevaroy hills (South India); up to an altitude of 2,700 m.

English: English Adder's Tongue. Serpant's Tongue.

Action: Fern—antiseptic, styptic, vulnerary, detergent, emetic. The mucilaginous and astringent decoction of the fern is used in angina in Reunion. An ointment, prepared by boiling the herb in oil or fat, is used for wounds.

Ophioglossum pendulum L. (Assam) is used in the form of a scalp ointment for improving the hair growth. American Adder's Tongue is equated with Erythronium americanum Ker- Gawl (Liliaceae). The fresh leaves gave alpha-methylenebutyrolactone.... ophioglossum vulgatum

Ophiorrhiza Mungos


Family: Rubiaceae.

Habitat: Khasi Hills up to 600700 m, in Western Ghats and the Andaman Islands.

English: Mongoose Plant.

Ayurvedic: Sarpaakshi. (Gandha- naakuli is a wrong synonym. It is equated with Aristolochia indica.)

Siddha/Tamil: Keerippundu.

Folk: Sarahati. Mungus-vel (Maharashtra).

Action: Root—bitter tonic. Leaves— used for dressing ulcers.

The roots contain starch, a resin and small amounts of a bitter amorphous alkaloid. Beta-sitosterol, 5- alpha-ergost-7-en-3-beta-ol and 5- alpha-ergost-8 (14)-en-3 beta-ol (as an ester) have been identified in the root. Leaves and stems contain traces of hydrocyanic acid.... ophiorrhiza mungos


(Hebrew) Feminine form of Ophir; from a place of wealth; golden Ophirah, Opheera, Ophyra, Ophiera, Opheira, Ofira, Ofeera, Ofeira, Ofiera, Ofyra, Opheara, Ofeara... ophira


(Hebrew) Resembling a fawn; from the place of dust

Ofra, Ofrit, Ophra, Oprah, Orpa, Orpah, Ofrat, Ofrah... ophrah


Pain in the eye... ophthalmodynia


Any disease of the eye... ophthalmopathy

Opioid Poisoning

MORPHINE and CODEINE are natural opium ALKALOIDS found in the opium poppy (Papaver somniferum). The other opioids are either synthetic or semi-synthetic analogues of these. Their main use is in the treatment of moderate to severe PAIN, but they are also used as antidiarrhoeal and antitussive agents. As a result of induced tolerance (see DEPENDENCE) and great individual variability, the amount of opioid substances required to cause serious consequences varies enormously.

The most common effects of opioid overdose are vomiting, drowsiness, pinpoint pupils, BRADYCARDIA, CONVULSIONS and COMA. Respiratory depression is common and may lead to CYANOSIS and respiratory arrest. HYPOTENSION occurs occasionally and in severe cases non-cardiogenic pulmonary oedema and cardiovascular collapse may occur. Cardiac ARRHYTHMIA may occur with some opioids. Some opioids have a HISTAMINE-releasing e?ect which may result in an urticarial rash (see URTICARIA), PRURITUS, ?ushing and hypotension. Activated CHARCOAL should be given following overdose and NALOXONE administered to reverse respiratory depression and deep coma.... opioid poisoning


(Latin) One who seizes opportunity Oportina, Opportyna, Oportyna, Opporteena, Oporteena, Opporteana, Oporteana, Opportine, Opportyne, Opporteen, Opportean... opportina

Opportunistic Infections

A variety of diseases which occur in some individuals who do not have healthy immune systems. These are microorganisms which do not usually cause diseases in a healthy individual. They are seen in AIDS patients and include Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, massive or overwhelming herpes infections, atypical mycobacteria, toxoplasmosis or chronic or overwhelming candidiasis.... opportunistic infections

Opportunity Cost

See “cost”.... opportunity cost


Plant parts, usually leaves, that form pairs at nodes.... opposite


Substances present in the SERUM of the blood which act upon bacteria, so as to prepare them for destruction by the white cells of the blood.... opsonins


Very simply, eye pain.... opthalmalgia


Inflation of the eye ball... opthalmitis

Optic Chiasma

This is formed by a crossing-over of the two optic nerves (see EYE) which run from the back of the eyeballs to meet in the mid line beneath the brain. Nerve ?bres from the nasal part of the retina cross to link up with ?bres from the outer part of the retina of the opposite eye. The linked nerves form two separate optic tracts which travel back to the occipital lobes of the brain.... optic chiasma

Optimal Ageing

See “healthy ageing”.... optimal ageing


Atriplex species

Description: This plant is vinelike in growth and has arrowhead-shaped, alternate leaves up to 5 cenitmeters long. Young leaves maybe silver-colored. Its flowers and fruits are small and inconspicuous.

Habitat and Distribution: Orach species are entirety restricted to salty soils. They are found along North America’s coasts and on the shores of alkaline lakes inland. They are also found along seashores from the Mediterranean countries to inland areas in North Africa and eastward to Turkey and central Siberia.

Edible Parts: The entire plant is edible raw or boiled.... orach

Oral And Maxillo-facial Surgeons

Perform surgery to the mouth and face. This not only includes removal of buried teeth but also treatment for fractured facial bones, removal of cancers and the repair of missing tissue, and the cosmetic restoration of facial anomalies such as CLEFT PALATE or large or small jaws.... oral and maxillo-facial surgeons

Opuntia Cochinellifera


Synonym: Nopalea cochenillifera Salm-Dyck.

Family: Cactaceae.

Habitat: Indian gardens. Introduced into India towards the end of the 18th century.

English: Cochineal Cactus. (A host for cochineal insect, Dactylopius cacti Linn.)

Siddha/Tamil: Puchikalli.

Action: Fruits—emollient, bechic. Mucilaginous joints—used as poultices in cases of articular rheumatism, inflammations, scalds, burns and skin diseases.... opuntia cochinellifera

Opuntia Dillenii

(Ker-Gawl.) Haw.

Synonym: O. stricta Haw. var. dillenii (Ker-Gawl.) Benson.

Family: Cactaceae.

Habitat: Native of Mexico; well- acclimatized throughout India.

English: Prickly Pear, Slipper Thorn.

Ayurvedic: Naagaphani, Kanthaari.

Unani: Naagphani.

Siddha/Tamil: Sappathikalli, Nagathali.

Action: Leaves—applied as poultice to allay inflammation and heat. Fruit—baked and given in whooping cough.

Dried or fresh flowers of cactus (opuntia series)—astringent and haemostatic. An infusion is given in irritable bowel, mucous colitis, and prostatitis. Ash of the aerial portion, mixed with sugar candy, is given for 21 days for birth control in tribal areas of Andhra Pradesh.

The Plant is recommended for growing in high pollution zones for abating sulphur dioxide pollution.

Pods contain a polysaccharide, ar- binogalactan. Betanin has been isolated from ripe fruits. Flowers contain the glycosides of isorhamnetin and quer- cetin, with smal amounts of the free flavonols.... opuntia dillenii

Opuntia Ficus-indica

(Linn.) Mill., known as Prickly Pear or Indian Fig, is a spineless cactus, mostly cultivated in Indian gardens. Ripe fruits are nutritious. Flowers are astringent and reduce bleeding; used for diarrhoea and irritable bowel syndrome; also for enlarged prostate. The flower decoction exhibits a strong diuretic effect.

The cladodes are used as a topical anti-inflammatory remedy for oedemata and arthrosis, as regulators of smooth muscles in the treatment of whooping cough and as anti-infective agent.

The stem or their crude preparations showed hypoglycaemic effect in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mel- litus patients (irrespective of its being heated or blended during preparation).

Neobetanin (14,15-dehydro betanin) is the major constituent in the fruit.... opuntia ficus-indica

Opuntia Vulgaris


Family: Cactaceae.

Habitat: Throughout the greater part of India.

English: Prickly Pear.

Ayurvedic: Naagaphani (var.).

Action: In homoeopathy, a tincture made from the flowers and wood, is given for diarrhoea and splenomegaly.

The fresh stalks yielded calcium magnesium pectate which exhibited antihaemorrhagic action. A flavono- side has been obtained from dried flowers. It resembles rutoside in its action of inhibiting capillary fragility. The flavonoside on hydrolysis produces trihydroxy-methoxy-flavonol and glucose. The plant is reported to contain an alkaloid. It also yields a mucilage which gives arabinose and galactose. to convalescents suffering from chronic diarrhoea and bilious fevers. Allays irritation of gastrointestinal tracts.

Orchis species (Salep) contain mucilage (up to 50%)-glucans, gluco- mannans (partially acetylized), starch (25%), proteins (5-15%).

The leaves of Orchis latifolia contain a glucoside, loroglossin. Most of the Salep used in Unani medicine is imported from Iran and Afghanistan.

Allium macleanii Baker (Afghanistan) is known as Baadashaahi (royal) Saalab, and is used as a substitute for Munjaataka.

Dosage: Tuber—3-5 g powder. (CCRAS.)... opuntia vulgaris

Oral Health

The optimal state of the mouth and normal functioning of the organs of the mouth without evidence of disease.... oral health

Oral Rehydration Therapy (ort)

This is the essential initial treatment for DIARRHOEA, and is particularly valuable for dehydrated children in developing countries ill with diseases such as CHOLERA. A litre of water containing one teaspoonful of salt and eight of sugar, taken by mouth, is readily absorbed. It replaces salts and water lost because of the diarrhoea and usually no other treatment is required.

In developed countries ORT is useful in treating gastroenteritis. There are a number of proprietary preparations, often dispensed as ?avoured sachets, including Dioralyte® and Rehydrate®.... oral rehydration therapy (ort)


(Hebrew) The Lord is my light Oralie, Orali, Oraleigh, Oraly, Oraley, Oralit, Orlee, Orli, Orlie, Orly, Orley, Orleigh, Oralea, Orlea... oralee


(Spanish) Born with the light of dawn

Oraleydah, Oraleida, Oraleidah, Oralida, Oralidah, Oralyda, Oralydah, Oraleda, Oraledah, Oralieda, Oraliedah... oraleyda


(Latin) Form of Aurelia, meaning “golden-haired woman” Orelia, Oraliah, Oriel, Orielle, Oriell, Oriele, Oriella, Oriela, Orlena, Orlene, Orielda, Orial, Oriall, Orialle, Oriala, Orialla... oralia


(French) Born at sunrise Oraine, Orayne, Oriane, Orania, Oraen, Oraene... orane

Orange Peel Tea - A Bittersweet Tea

If you want both an aromatic tea, as well as a healthy one, orange peel tea is perfect. It is a delicious beverage, especially during cold winter days. It also helps you stay healthy, especially thanks to the amount of vitamin C it contains. Read this article to find out more about its health benefits and side effects. About Orange Peel Tea Orange peel tea is made from the peel of the orange fruit. The fruit grows in orange trees, which are cultivated all around the world. The orange peel is the outer skin of the orange, leathery-textured and with many oil glands. Orange peel, as well as the peel from other fruits (lemon, lime) has been used for medical purposes for many years. They are also used for culinary purposes, as they can be added to soups, stews, cakes or cookies. Components of Orange Peel Tea It is well-known that oranges have many nutritional components. Some are included in the orange peel, as well, and are thus transferred to the orange peel tea. The orange peel tea is, of course, a great source of Vitamin C, and also has vitamin B1. Other important active constituents are: choline, folic acid, antioxidant flavonoids, d-limonene, alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, and aldehydes. How to make Orange Peel Tea If you’ve got some oranges around, you can easily make your own orange peel tea from scratch. Peel the skin from an orange, cut it in smaller pieces, and let them dry, preferably in a cool, dry place. Once they’re dry, you can use them for your orange peel tea. Add a bit to a cup of boiling water and let it steep for about 10-15 minutes. Remove the pieces of dried orange peel and you’re ready to drink your cup of tea! Orange Peel Tea Benefits Because of its many active constituents, orange peel tea helps you stay healthy. One cup brings many health benefits. Orange peel tea helps you fight against viruses and bacteria. It is also useful when treating coughs, asthma, bronchitis, tightness in the chest, and colds. Generally, it is good at helping the body eliminate the phlegm in the lungs. Drinking orange peel tea helps you have a good digestion. It is useful when relieving gas, bloating and nausea, symptoms of an upset stomach. Also, it is drunk in order to treat constipation, and it helps boost your appetite. Orange peel tea is also helpful when it comes to having a good oral hygiene. It helps you take care and treat sensitive skin, and it also eliminates bad breath. Another benefit is related to stimulating blood circulation and the flow in the lymphatic system. Also, orange peel tea is useful with helping you fight stress, nervousness, and insomnia. For women who have just given birth, orange peel tea helps treat mastitis (when the breast feels swollen because of excess milk production). If this is your case, then it’s recommended that you drink it twice a day. Orange Peel Tea Side Effects Just like any type of tea, orange peel tea also comes with a few side effects. First, it is recommended that you not drink orange peel tea while you’re pregnant. It might cause problems to the baby. Orange peel tea can act as a stimulant in some cases. It might cause symptoms such as nervousness or restlessness, and you might also have trouble falling asleep. It will act even more as a stimulant if you take a supplement that contains caffeine. If your family has a history of heart diseases, speak to your doctor before drinking orange peel tea. It might be harmful for you, and cause high blood pressure, hypertension, arrhythmias, tachycardia, fainting, heart palpitations and chest pains. Be careful if you’re suffering from hyperthyroidism. Orange peel tea may aggravate the thyroid’s condition. It might also weaken your body, or cause vision problems. It can cause your vision to get blurry, difficulty in focusing, and it might also worsen glaucoma. Not only is orange peel tea richly aromatic and delicious, but it is also good for your health. Make sure you get no side effects and then you can enjoy a cup of orange peel tea!... orange peel tea - a bittersweet tea

Orange Spice Tea: A Mixture For Health

Orange Spice Tea is a complex, full-flavored type of black tea, kindly recommended to beginner consumers of tea blends. It is a largely-appreciated tea, having an old acknowledged tradition, its first production being placed in the 19th century. Orange Spice Tea description. Orange Spice Tea is another variety of black tea mixed with orange zest or dried peel, together with a combination of spices, such as: cloves, cinnamon, nutmeg and allspice. It has been noticed that any number of spice combination is possible. Orange Spice Tea is usually caffeine-free, being thus, a good tea to consume at any time of the day or even night.  It can be drunk hot or as an iced tea beverage, with or without adding milk or honey. Orange Spice Tea is recommended to be one of the best choices for those not yet accustomed to gourmet tea blends. It is typically available as loose leaves or as bag forms and is often found in gourmet tea shops, health stores or on grocery shelves. Orange Spice Tea recipe The abovementioned tea has a delicate taste and is also a good ingredient to be included in the daily diet, due to its healthy properties. It can be consumed both as beverage, or can be added to different cookies recipes. To brew Orange Spice Tea:
  • Fill a teapot with about 16 ounces of water
  • Boil the water
  • Place about two tablespoons of the leaves in a teapot
  • Take the pot out of the water
  • Let the mix stand for about 5 to 7 minutes
  • Strain and drink it slowly
To include Orange Spice Tea in sweets recipes, grind the tea leaves and mix them with the dough, together with the ingredients. Orange Spice Tea benefits Orange Spice Tea gathers the benefits of black tea, citrus and spices:
  • strengthens the immune system
  • helps lower the risk of cardiovascular diseases
  • helps in the prevention of certain cancers
  • contributes to preventing colds, cough and flu
  • helps in calming and relaxing the senses
  • stimulates blood circulation
  • increases concentration and memory levels
  • warms the body (especially during winter)
Orange Spice Tea side effects Rarely,Orange Spice Teaconsumers experienced stomach aches or the syndrome of upset stomach. Patients suffering from gastritis are advised to intake a low quantity of Orange Spice Tea. Orange Spice Tea clusters the benefits and taste of black tea, citron and a large array of spices. It is intensely consumed by connoisseurs and novices, especially due to its health contributions and proven energy booster actions.... orange spice tea: a mixture for health


(American) One who brings excitement

Orbelinah, Orbeleena, Orbeleenah, Orbeleana, Orbeleanah, Orbelyna, Orbelynah, Orbie, Orbi, Orby, Orbey, Orbee, Orbea... orbelina

Orbital Headache

A headache around the eyes. There are supra-orbital headaches and suborbital headaches as well...the difference escapes me.... orbital headache


(Latin) In mythology, goddess who provided children to those without Orbonah, Orbonna, Orbonnah... orbona


Pain in the testis... orchialgia


Love... orchid


Any disorder of the testis... orchiopathy


(Latin) Of the beginning Ordelle, Ordele, Ordel, Ordella, Ordela, Orde... ordell


The taxonomic term for a group, above Genus, but below Class. See Taxonomy.... order

Ordinal Scale

See “measurement scale”.... ordinal scale


(Greek) From the mountains Oreah... orea


This common name can refer to several different plant species, but most commonly designates orégano de comer. Other types of oregano are listed below and will be included in forthcoming editions of this book.

- Orégano poleo (Coleus amboinicus)

- Orégano mejorana (Origanum marjorana)

- Oreganillo (Lippia micromera)... orégano

Orégano De Comer

Oregano (Origanum vulgare).

Plant Part Used: Leaf, stem, aerial parts.

Dominican Medicinal Uses: Leaves: decoction, orally, for indigestion, stomach complaints, gastro-intestinal inflammation, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, pasmo, gas, pelvic pain, padrejón; poultice or oil, topically, for sinus infection, allergies, nasal congestion and common cold.

Safety: Therapeutic use generally considered safe.

Contraindications: Pregnancy: avoid excess internal use.

Clinical Data: Human clinical trial: antiparasitic (essential oil).

Laboratory & Preclinical Data: In vitro: anticancer (constituent), antifungal, antimicrobial, antioxidant (essential oil and constituents).

* See entry for Orégano de comer in “Part 3: Dominican Medicinal Plant Profiles” of this book for more information, including references.... orégano de comer

Oregon Grape

Money, Prosperity... oregon grape


(Latin) A golden woman Oreile, Oreill, Oreilla, Oreila... oreille


(Latin) Announcement from the gods Orelah, Orella, Orellah, Orila, Orilla, Orelda, Oracle, Oracula... orela


(Iroquois) A woman with magical powers... orenda


(French) A nurturing woman Oreene, Oreen, Oreane, Orean, Orena, Oreena, Oreana... orene


(Greek) Feminine form of Orpheus; having a beautiful voice Orfeah, Orfeya, Orfia, Orphea, Orpheya, Orphia... orfea


(Spanish) Having the beauty of the dawn

Orfelynda, Orphelinda, Orphelynda, Orfelenda, Orphelenda... orfelinda

Organ Transplantation

See TRANSPLANTATION.... organ transplantation

Organic Substances

Those which are obtained from animal or vegetable bodies, or which resemble in chemical composition those derived from this source. Organic chemistry has come to mean the chemistry of the carbon compounds.... organic substances

Organized Delivery System

See “integrated delivery system”.... organized delivery system


Organophosphorus insecticides act by inhibiting the action of cholinesterase (see ACETYLCHOLINE). For this reason they are also toxic to humans and must therefore be handled with great care. The most widely used are PARATHION and MALATHION. Organophosphorus has also been used to make nerve gases (see BIOLOGICAL WARFARE).

Treatment After contamination with insecticides, decontaminate (remove clothes, wash skin). Those treating should wear gloves, mask, apron and goggles. For symptoms give 2 mg of ATROPINE IV every 30 minutes until full atropinisation (dry mouth, pulse >70). Up to three days’ treatment may be needed. Severe poisoning may require pralidoxine mysalate: available from designated centres, this drug should be given intravenously within 24 hours of exposure.... organophosphorus


(English) One who is arrogant... orguelleuse


(Latin) Woman from the Orient Oriah, Orien, Orienne, Oriena, Orienna... oria


(Latin) Born at sunrise Oreana, Orianna, Oriane, Oriann, Orianne... oriana


(Latin) A beautiful golden child Orabel, Orabelle, Orabell, Orabela, Orabella, Oribell, Oribelle, Oribele, Oribela, Oribella, Orinda, Orynda... oribel

Origanum Majorana


Family: Orchidaceae.

Habitat: Kashmir to Nepal at altitudes of 2,500-5,000 m in damp places.

English: Orchis, Salep.

Ayurvedic: Munjaataka, Saalam- misri, Saalam-panjaa. (Eulophia campestris Wall. is also equated with Munjaataka.)

Unani: Saaleb, Khusyaat-us-Saalab, Saalab Misri.

Siddha: Silamishri.

Action: Considered aphrodisiac and nervine tonic by Unani physicians. Tuber—nutritive, demulcent, restorative. Given

Synonym: Majorana hortensis Moench.

Family: Labiatae; Lamiaceae.

Habitat: Native to Europe and Great Britain.

English: Sweet Marjoram. (Origanum vulgare Linn., Wild Marjoram, occurs in Simla hills and in Kashmir valley.)

Ayurvedic: Sukhaatmaka, Maruba- ka, Phanijjaka. (Ocimum basilicum is used as a substitute for Phanijjaka.)

Unani: Marzanjosh.

Folk: Maruae. Santhraa. Jangali Maruaa (Origanum vulgare Linn.).... origanum majorana


(Irish) A dark-haired beauty Orine, Orina, Oryna, Oryn, Oryne... orin


(Japanese) One who works outside the home Oryno, Oreno... orino


(Hebrew / Gaelic) Of the pine tree / a fair lady

Orrinthia, Orenthia, Orna, Ornina, Orinthea, Orenthea, Orynthia, Orynthea... orinthia


(Latin) Resembling the gold-speckled bird

Oreolle, Oriolle, Oreole, Oriola, Oriolla, Oriol, Oreola, Oreolla... oriole


(Greek) The huntress; a constellation... orion


(Greek) One who is motherly Orithe, Orith, Orytha, Oryth, Orythe, Orithia, Orithea, Orythia, Orythea... oritha


(Greek) One who is natural Orithne, Orythna, Orythne, Orithnia, Orythnia, Orithnea, Orythnea, Orithniya, Orythniya... orithna


(Gaelic) The golden queen Orlah, Orrla, Orrlah, Orlagh, Orlaith, Orlaithe, Orghlaith, Orghlaithe... orla


(French) One who is famous Orlaine, Orlaina, Orlaen, Orlaene, Orlaena, Orlayn, Orlayne, Orlayna... orlain


(Latin) Feminine form of Orlando; from the renowned land Orlandia, Orlandea, Orlantha, Orlande, Orlanthe, Orlanthia, Orlanthea... orlanda


(Russian) Resembling an eagle Orlinda, Orlynda... orlenda


(French) The golden child Orlinah, Orlyna, Orlynah, Orlean, Orleane, Orleana, Orleans, Orleene, Orleena... orlina


(African) An independent woman; one who is free Ormah... orma


(German) Woman of the sea Ormandy, Ormandey, Ormadee, Ormandi, Ormandie, Ormandea... ormanda


(Irish / Hebrew) One who is pale- skinned / of the cedar tree Ornah, Ornette, Ornetta, Ornete, Orneta, Obharnait, Ornat... orna


(Italian) Of the flowering ash tree Ornelle, Ornell, Ornela, Ornele, Ornel... ornella


(Irish) A pale-skinned woman Ornyce, Ornise, Orynse, Orneice, Orneise, Orniece, Orniese, Orneece, Orneese, Orneace, Ornease... ornice

Ornithorhynchus Anatinus

See Platypus.... ornithorhynchus anatinus


(Greek) In mythology, a nymph and mother of Ascalaphus Orphnie, Orphny, Orphney, Orphnee, Orphnea... orphne


(Spanish) Resembling the orchid Orquideah, Orquidia, Orquida, Orquidana, Orquidiya... orquidea


(Latin) Form of Ursula, meaning “resembling a little bear” Orsah, Orsalina, Orsaline, Orsel, Orselina, Orseline, Orsola, Orssa... orsa


(Hungarian) Form of Elizabeth, meaning “my God is bountiful” Orsebet, Orszebeth, Orsebeth, Orzebet, Orzebeth, Orzsebet, Orzsebeth... orszebet


(Latin) From the garden Ortensiah, Ortensea, Ortenseah, Ortense, Ortenze, Ortenzia, Ortenzea, Ortensiana, Ortensie, Ortensi, Ortensy, Ortensey, Ortensee, Ortenzi, Ortenzie, Ortenzee... ortensia


(Greek) One who takes the straight path

Orthiah, Orthea, Ortheah, Orthiya, Orthiyah... orthia

Orthoptic Treatment

The examination and treatment by exercises of squints and their sequelae (see EYE, DISORDERS OF).... orthoptic treatment


(Teutonic) Resembling a serpent Ortrud, Ortrude, Ortrouda, Ortroude, Ortroud... ortruda

Orthosiphon Grandiflorus


Synonym: O. aristatus (Blume) Miq. O. spiralis (Linn.) Merrill O. stamineus Benth.

Family: Labiatae; Lamiaceae.

Habitat: Manipur, Naga and Lushai hills, Chota Nagpur, Western Ghats.

English: Kidney Tea Plant, Java Tea.

Folk: Mutri-Tulasi (Maharashtra).

Action: Leaves—diuretic, used in nephrosis and severe cases of oedema. An infusion of leaves is given as a specific in the treatment of various kidney and bladder diseases including nephrocirrhosis and phosphaturia, also in rheumatism and gout.

Key application: In irrigation therapy for bacterial and inflammatory diseases of the lower urinary tract and renal gravel. (German Commission E.) Flower tops and leaves (samples from Indonesia) contained methyl ri- pariochromene A. In another sample, leaves also yielded several phenolic compounds including lipophilic flavones, flavonol glycosides and caf- feic acid derivatives. Rosmarinic acid and 2,3-dicaffeoyl-tartaric acid (67% of total phenolics, 94.5% in hot water extract) were major compounds of caffeic acid derivatives.

The leaves also contain a high percentage (0.7-00.8) of potassium salts. Presence oforthosiphonin and potassium salts help in keeping uric acid and urate salts in solution, thus prevents calculi and other deposits. The leaf extract lowers blood sugar in diabetics, but not consistently.

Orthosiphon pallidus Royle, equated with the Ayurvedic herb Arjaka and Shveta-Kutherak and known as Ajagur and Naganda-baavari in folk medicine, is used for dysuria and colic.... orthosiphon grandiflorus

Orthosiphon Tomentosus

Benth. var. glabratus Hook. f.

Synonym: O. glabratus Benth.

Family: Labiatae; Lamiaceae.

Habitat: Orissa, Gujarat, South India, ascending up to 1,000 m in the hills.

Ayurvedic: Prataanikaa (non- classical).

Folk: Tulasi (var.), Kattu-thrithava (Kerala).

Action: Plant—a decoction is given in diarrhoea. Leaves—applied externally to cuts and wounds.... orthosiphon tomentosus


(Greek) In mythology, an island where Artemis and Apollo were born Ortegia, Ortigia... ortygia


(Anglo-Saxon / French) A courageous friend / as precious as gold Orvah... orva


(Ukrainian) A peaceful woman Orinko, Orynka, Orinka... orynko

Oryza Sativa


Family: Gramineae; Poaceae.

Habitat: Cultivated all over India as a food crop.

English: Rice.

Ayurvedic: Shaali, Vrihidhaanya, Tandula, Nivara.

Unani: Biranj Saathi.

Action: Rice-water (a water decoction of rice)—demulcent and refrigerant in febrile and inflammatory diseases and in dysuria. Also used as a vehicle for compound preparations used for gynaecological disorders. It is regarded as cooling in haematemesis and epistaxis, and as diuretic.

The green clum or stalks—recommended in biliousness. Ash of the straw—used in the treatment of wounds and discharges. Lixiviated ash of straw is used as anthelmintic and in nausea.

The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia ofIn- dia recommends the dried root in dy- suria and lactic disorders.

The pigments occurring in coloured types of rice are a mixture of monogly- cosides of cyanidin and delphinidin. The dark Puttu Rice of India contains a diglycosidic anthocyanin.

Dosage: Root—50 g for decoction. (API, Vol. II.)... oryza sativa


(Hebrew) Having the strength of God

Orzorah, Orzorra, Orzorrah, Orzoria, Orzorea... orzora


(Japanese) From the city of industry Osaki, Osakie, Osakee, Osaky, Osakey, Osakea... osaka


(English) Form of Hosanna, meaning “raising one’s voice in praise of God” Osannah, Osann, Osane, Osanne, Osana, Osanah... osanna


(American) One who is sleek Osarmah... osarma


(Anglo-Saxon) A queenly woman Osburga, Ozberga, Ozburga... osberga


(Egyptian) One who is filled with happiness... oseye

Osgood-schlatter’s Disease

The form of OSTEOCHONDROSIS involving the tibial tubercle – the growing point of the TIBIA. It occurs around PUBERTY, mainly in boys, and ?rst manifests itself by a painful swelling over the tibial tubercle at the upper end of the tibia. The pain is worst during and after exercise. A limp with increasing limitation of movement of the knee-joint develops. The disease usually clears up without treatment. If pain is troublesome, physiotherapy or immobilisation of the knee-joint in a plaster cast for up to eight weeks may be necessary.... osgood-schlatter’s disease


(Italian) Woman from Italy Osith, Osyth, Osythe, Ositha, Osytha... osithe


(English) Feminine form of Osmond; protected by God Osmah, Ozma, Ozmah... osma

Osbeckia Chinensis


Family: Melastomataceae.

Habitat: The Himalayas from Garhwal to Bhutan, North Bengal, Bihar and Khasi, Aka and Lushai hills.

Folk: Bhui-lukham (Lushai).

Action: Plant—anodyne, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory.

The plant contains the flavonoids, quercetin, kaempferol and hydrolys- able tannins, besides gallic acid, methyl gallate and ellagic acid.

The flavonoids and tannins showed antioxidant activity. Ellagic acid suppressed increase in lipid peroxidation induced by CCl4 and Cobalt-60 irradiation and this effect was more than that of alpha-tocopherol. Gallic acid showed anti-inflammatory activity against zymosan-induced acute footpad swelling in mice.... osbeckia chinensis

Osmanthus Fragrans


Family: Obleaceae.

Habitat: Native to China and Japan. Found in Kumaon, Garhwal and Sikkim.

Ayurvedic: Vasuka (Also equated with Brihat Bakula.)

Folk: Silang, Silingi, Bagahul, Buuk.

Action: Diuretic, genitourinary tract disinfectant.

Flowers—antiseptic, insecticidal. Used for protecting clothes from insects.

The flowers yield an oil containing oleanolic and urosolic acids, beta- sitosterol, glycosides and a wax (0.04%) composed mainly of triacontane. The leaves are reported to contain a philly- rin-like glycoside.

Osmanthus suavis King, known as Silingi in Nepal and Chashing in Bhutan, is found in eastern Himalayas at altitudes of 2,700-3,000 m and in Aka hills in Assam. It is used as a var. of Vasuka.

Dosage: Flower—500 mg to 1 g powder. (CCRAS.)... osmanthus fragrans

Osmunda Regalis


Family: Osmundaceae.

Habitat: The Himalayas, Khasi hills and the Western Ghats at altitudes of 1,500-3,000 m.

English: Royal Fern.

Action: Fern—antispasmodic, astringent, an aqueous extract is administered for intestinal gripe; used externally in rheumatism; also prescribed in muscular debility Fonds enter into diuretic drinks used for treating body swellings. Root—mucilaginous, styptic, stimulant.

The rhizomes contain phenolic, gallic, caffeic, p-coumaric, vanillic, salicylic, p-hydroxybenzoic and ferulic acids and catechol tannins (2.8%) which are responsible for fern's astringent activity. Biological activity of these tannins corresponds to that of 10% tannic acid.... osmunda regalis


The formation of BONE. In early life, centres appear in the bones previously represented by cartilage or ?brous tissue; and these cells, called osteoblasts, initiate the formation of true bone, which includes the deposition of calcium salts. When a fracture occurs, the bone mends by ossi?cation of the clot which forms between the fragments (see under BONE, DISORDERS OF). In old age, an unnatural process of ossi?cation often takes place in parts which should remain cartilaginous – for example, in the cartilages of the larynx and of the ribs, making these parts unusually brittle.... ossification


Pain in the bones... ostalgia

Osteitis Fibrosa Cystica

A pathological rather than a clinical entity. The term refers to the replacement of BONE by a highly cellular and vascular connective tissue. It is the result of osteoclastic and osteoblastic activity and is due to excessive PARATHYROID activity. It is thus seen in a proportion of patients with primary hyperparathyroidism and in patients with uraemic osteodystrophy; that is, the secondary hyperparathyroidism that occurs in patients with chronic renal disease.... osteitis fibrosa cystica


Bony spurs or projections. They occur most commonly at the margins of areas of bone affected by OSTEOARTHRITIS.... osteophytes


(Italian) From the ancient city Ostiah, Ostea, Osteah, Ostiya, Ostiyah... ostia


(Native American) One who is eagle- eyed

Osykah, Osika, Osikah, Oseka, Osekah... osyka


(Greek) The perfect one Otameesia, Ottamisia, Ottmeesia... otamisia


(Anglo-Saxon) The little rich child Othili, Othilie, Othily, Othiley, Othilee, Othia, Othea, Othilea, Othileigh... otha

Osyris Wightiana

Wall. ex Wight.

Synonym: O. arborea Wall. ex DC. O. quadriparita Salzm. ex Decne.

Family: Santalaceae.

Habitat: Sub-tropical Himalaya, Madhya Pradesh, Tamil Nadu.

Folk: Popli (Maharashtra); Paral (Karnataka, Tamil Nadu); Jhuri (Nepal); Dalmi, Dalmia (Garhwal, Kumaon).

Action: Leaf—emetic.

The leaf contains 20% tannin. It gave cis-4-hydroxy-L-proline, and exhibited antiviral activity.

The heartwood is faintly fragrant and reported to be used for adulterating sandalwood.... osyris wightiana

Otic Barotrauma

Also called aerotitis, this is blockage of the Eustachian tubes between the middle EAR and the PHARYNX as a result of rapidly changing external air pressure, such as occurs during descent of an aircraft. VALSALVA’S MANOEUVRE – pinching the nose with ?nger and thumb and attempting to blow hard through the nose – will usually relieve the blockage. People prone to this phenomenon may ?nd nasal decongestants helpful.... otic barotrauma


(American) A fortunate woman Otinah, Otyna, Otynah, Oteena, Oteenah, Oteana, Oteanah, Otiena, Otienah, Oteina, Oteinah... otina


Any disease of the ear... otopathy


Purulent discharge from the ear... otopyorrhea


(Greek) In mythology, the mother of the Amazons Otreria, Otrerea, Otrere... otrera

Ottawa Charter For Health Promotion

The Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion of 1986 identifies three basic strategies for health promotion. These are advocacy for health to create essential conditions for health; enabling all people to achieve their full health potential; and mediating between the different interests in society in the pursuit of health. These strategies are supported by five priority action areas: build health public policy; create supportive environments for health; strengthen community action for health; develop personal skills; and reorient health services.... ottawa charter for health promotion


(German) One who is prosperous in battle; the fortunate heroine Otthilda, Ottila, Ottilia, Ottalia, Ottilie, Ottolie, Ottiline, Ottoline, Otthilde, Otylia, Ottillia, Otilie, Otka... otthild


(Hebrew) Possessing great wealth and treasure

Otzarah, Otzarra, Otzarrah, Ozara, Ozarra... otzara


(Arabic) One who is pious Oudsiya, Oudsiyyah, Oudsiyah... oudsiyya


(English) Form of Louise, meaning “a famous warrior”... ouida


(Greek) A heavenly woman Ouraniah, Ouranea, Ouraneah, Ouraniya, Ouraniyah... ourania

Outbreak Of Malaria

A sudden increase in the number of people sick with malaria in a particular area (village, town, district).... outbreak of malaria

Ougeinia Dalbergioides


Synonym: Ougeinia oojeinensis (Roxb.) Hochr.

Family: Papilionaceae; Fabaceae.

Habitat: Outer Himalayas and sub-Himalayan tract from Jammu to Bhutan up to an altitude of 1,500 m, and extending through the whole of northern and central India into the greater part of Deccan Peninsula.

English: Chariot tree, Punjab Kino.

Ayurvedic: Tinishaa, Tinisha, Syandana, Nemi, Sarvasaara, Ashmagarbhaka, Vajjala, Chitrakrt.

Siddha/Tamil: Narivengai.

Folk: Saanan.

Action: Bark—febrifuge, anti- diarrhoeal, spasmolytic.

The leaves and heartwood contained iso-flavonoids—dalbergion, hemofer- ritin and urgenin. Leaves, in addition, contained flavonoids—querce- tin, kaempferol and leucopelargonidin. Stem bark gave triterpenes, lupeol and betulin.... ougeinia dalbergioides

Outcome Measurement

System used to track treatment or care and responses. The methods for measuring outcomes are quite varied among providers. Much disagreement exists regarding the best practice or tools to utilize to measure outcomes.... outcome measurement

Outcome Research

Research on measures of changes in outcomes, that is, health status and satisfaction, resulting from specific interventions.... outcome research

Outcome Standard

The quality of care and quality of life objectives set by an authority which the service providers should strive to achieve for all people.... outcome standard

Outpatient Services

See “ambulatory care”.... outpatient services


1 Activities associated with promoting services and programmes to persons who may be eligible for them but be unaware of them. 2 Services provided outside the venue of the providing organization, usually in people’s homes.... outreach

Ovaries, Diseases Of

Oöphoritis (infection of the ovaries) rarely occurs alone, except in viral infections such as mumps. Usually it is associated with infection of the FALLOPIAN TUBES (SALPINGITIS). It may occur as a complication of a miscarriage, a therapeutic abortion, or the birth of a baby. Cases not associated with pregnancy typically result from sexual activity: the most common organisms involved are Chlamydia, E. coli, and Neisseria gonorrhoea. Cervical swabs should be sent for culture and analgesics given, together with the appropriate antibiotics.

Failure of OVULATION is the cause of INFERTILITY in around a third of couples seeking help with conception. It may also lead to menstrual problems (see MENSTRUATION), such as an irregular menstrual cycle or MENORRHAGIA. An uncommon cause of failure of ovulation is POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME, often associated with acne, hirsutism, and obesity. Treatment depends on the symptoms. Early ovarian failure is the cause of premature MENOPAUSE. Treatment consists of hormone replacement therapy using a combination of oestrogen and progestogen.

Ovarian cysts (for example, follicular cysts) result from ovulation. They may be symptomless but sometimes cause abdominal pain, pain during intercourse or disturbances in menstruation. Twisting or rupture can cause severe pain, pyrexia (fever) and nausea, and explorative surgery – endoscopic laparotomy – may be needed to establish a diagnosis (symptoms of ECTOPIC PREGNANCY are similar). The ovary may have to be removed. Simple cysts often disappear of their own accord but a large cyst can cause pressure on surrounding structures and therefore should be surgically removed.

In young women the most common benign tumour is a dermoid cyst, while in older women, ?broma (see under UTERUS, DISEASES OF) is more common. All benign tumours should be removed surgically in order to be sure they are not malignant.

Malignant tumours may be primary (arising in the ovary) or secondary (metastases from a cancer developing in another organ). Treatment depends upon the site and type of the primary tumour.

Around 5,000 women a year are diagnosed as having ovarian cancer in England and Wales. Unfortunately it is not readily detected in its early stages; around 85 per cent of women do not see a doctor until after the tumour has spread. Early tumours present with symptoms similar to benign tumours, while late ones present with abdominal distension, pain and vague gastrointestinal symptoms. The disease is most common in menopausal women. Earlier diagnosis and treatment can be achieved by ULTRASOUND screening. Treatment is surgical, aimed at totally removing the tumour mass. Nowadays RADIOTHERAPY is only used for palliation. CHEMOTHERAPY is often given to patients with ovarian metastases, or who have residual disease after surgery. The most active cytotoxic agent is the taxane, PACLITAXEL – especially when it is combined with cisplatin.... ovaries, diseases of


The general costs of operating an entity that are allocated to all the revenue-producing operations of the entity, but which are not directly attributable to a single activity. For example, overhead costs normally include maintenance of plant, occupancy costs, housekeeping, administration and others.... overheads


(English) From the upper side of town Overtown... overton


(Hebrew) One who worships God Ovidah, Ovyda, Ovydah, Oveda, Ovedah, Ovieda, Oviedah, Oveida, Oveidah, Oveeda, Oveedah, Oveada, Oveadah... ovida


(Spanish) One who helps others Ovyenah, Oviena, Ovienah, Oviyena, Oviyenah... ovyena


(Welsh) A highborn woman Owenah, Owenna, Owennah, Owenia, Owenea... owena

Oxalis Acetosella


Family: Oxalidaceae.

Habitat: Temperate Himalayas from Kashmir to Sikkim from 2,500 to 4,000 m and Nilgiris in Tamil Nadu.

English: Common Wood-Sorrel.

Ayurvedic: Chaangeri (related species).

Folk: Tinpatiyaa, Amrul.

Action: Diuretic and refrigerant. Used for urinary affections and fevers. (Sorrel is equated with Rumex acetosa Linn.)

Aerial parts gave 2"-O-(beta-D-glu- copyranosyl) isovitexin. The whole flowering plant contains 0.3-1.25% oxalic acid (high in fresh leaves and roots).... oxalis acetosella

Oxalis Corniculata


Family: Oxalidaceae.

Habitat: Throughout the warmer parts of India.

English: Indian Sorrel.

Ayurvedic: Chaangeri, Am- lapatrikaa, Amlikaa, Chukraa, Chukrikaa, Chhatraamlikaa.

Unani: Ambutaa bhaaji, Amutaa saag.

Siddha/Tamil: Puliyarai.

Folk: Tinpatiyaa, Ambilonaa.

Action: Plant—boiled with butter milk is a home remedy for indigestion and diarrhoea in children. Used for tympanitis, dyspepsia, biliousness and dysentery; also for its anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic and antiscorbutic activities. Leaf paste is applied over forehead to cure headache.

The leaves contain the flavonoids, vitexin, isovitexin and vitexin-2"-O- beta-D-glucopyranoside. The leaves contain 1.47% of lipid (dry weight), a rich source of essential fatty acids and alpha-and beta-tocopherol (1.58 and 6.18 mg/g dry basis, respectively.) They are a good source of vitamin C (125 mg/100 g), carotene (3.6 mg/100 g) and calcium (5.6% of dry material) but contain a high content of oxalates (12% of dry material).

The leaves and stem contain tartar- ic and citric acid; stems contain also malic acid.

An aqueous extract of the plant shows activity against Micrococcus pyogenes var. aureus. Expressed juice of the entire plant shows activity against Gram-positive bacteria.

Oxalis martiana Zucc. (native to America, naturalized in moist and shady placaes in temperate parts of India) is equated with Wood-Sorrel. It is known as Khatmitthi in Delhi and Peria-puliyarai in Tamil Nadu.

Dosage: Whole plant—5-10 ml juice. (API, Vol. III.)... oxalis corniculata


The measurement by an OXIMETER of the proportion of oxygenated HAEMOGLOBIN in the blood.... oximetry

Oxygen Deficit

In a resting individual the potential OXYGEN supply to the tissues is greater than its consumption. During heavy exercise, the energy required by the tissues is greater than can be supplied by aerobic cellular metabolism and the additional energy is supplied by a biochemical reaction called anaerobic metabolism. There is a build-up of lactate – a product of LACTIC ACID

– from anaerobic metabolism which is ultimately oxidised after conversion to citrate and metabolism via the citric acid cycle. The increased amount of oxygen above resting concentrations which needs to be consumed to perform this metabolism is known as the oxygen debt or de?cit.... oxygen deficit

Oxygen Toxicity

OXYGEN toxicity in human lungs causes an acute OEDEMA followed by ?brosis and PULMONARY HYPERTENSION. In the neonate, retrolental ?broplasia occurs and centralnervous-system damage may result in the infant having ?ts. Several factors are involved in toxicity and there is no absolute relationship to time or concentration, although inspired concentrations of under 50 per cent are probably safe for long periods.... oxygen toxicity

Oxyria Digyna

(L.) Hill.

Family: Polygonaceae.

Habitat: The Himalayas from Kashmir to Sikkim, in the alpine region at altitudes of3,000-6,000 m.

Folk: Chohahak, Amlu (Punjab). Kailaashi (Kashmir).

Action: Refrigerant, antiscorbutic.... oxyria digyna


(African) One who has been called Oyamah, Oyamma, Oyammah, Oyamia, Oyamea, Oyamiah, Oyameah... oyama


(Hebrew) Woman of merit Ozerah, Ozerra, Ozerrah, Ozeria, Ozeriah, Ozerea, Ozereah... ozera


(American) Having strength of character

Oziomah, Ozeoma, Ozeomah, Ozyoma, Ozyomah... ozioma

Oxystelma Secamone

(Linn.) Karst.

Synonym: O. esculentum R. Br. Sarcostemma secamone (Linn.) Bennet.

Family: Asclepiadaceae.

Habitat: Throughout the plains and lower hills of India, including paddy fields and hedges rear semi-marshy places.

Ayurvedic: Dugdhikaa, Duudhila- taa, Duudhialataa .

Folk: Usipallai (Tamil Nadu); Dugdhani (Maharashtra); Jala- dudhi (Gujarat).

Action: Herb—antiseptic, depura- tive, galactogogue; decoction used as a gargle in stomatitis and sore throat. Latex—vulnerary. Fresh root—prescribed in jaundice.

A pregnane ester oligoglycoside (oxysine), a pregnane triglycoside (es- culentin), a cardenolide (oxyline), two more cardenolides, oxystelmoside and oxystelmine, have been isolated from the roots.

Dosage: Plant—10-20 ml juice; 50100 ml decoction. (CCRAS.)

Family: Rubiaceae.

Habitat: Central and Eastern Himlayas extending to Assam, West Bengal, Bihar, Orissa.

Ayurvedic: Talanili, Gand- haprasaarini. (Prasaarini is also equated with Raaja-balaa, Sida veronicaefolia.).

Siddha/Tamil: Talanili, Mudiyar Kundal.

Folk: Gandhabhaaduli (Bengali).

Action: Leaf—carminative, antiinflammatory, astringent, spasmolytic, antidiarrhoeal, diuretic, an- tilithic. Root— anti-inflammatory. Used for rheumatic affections, piles, inflammations of the liver, spleen and chest.

Aerial parts contain epi-friedelanol, embelin and beta-sitosterol. Leaves and stems gave iridoid glycosides, si- tosterol, stigmasterol, campesterol, ur- solic acid, hentriacontane, hentriacon- tanol, ceryl alcohol, palmitic acid and methyl mercaptan. The foetid smell is due to methyl mercaptan.

All parts of the plant have been employed for rheumatic affections.

A related species, Paederia scandens (Lour.) Merill, synonym P. tomentosa Blume, is known as Gandha Prasaarini. The iridoid glucosides, paedero- side, paederosidic acid and scandosides have been isolated from the plant.... oxystelma secamone


(Hebrew) One who is wealthy Ozorah, Ozorra, Ozorrah

P... ozora

Pacific Man-o’war

The colloquial term for the multi-tentacled hydrozoan colony Physalia physalis, recentlydescribed on the eastern coast of Australia.... pacific man-o’war

Paeonia Officinalis


Family: Paeoniaceae.

Habitat: Indigenous to Great Britain.

English: Paeony.

Unani: Ood Saleeb, Ood Gharqi.

Action: Root—antispasmodic, sedative, smooth muscle relaxant, vasodilatory, hypotensive, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, em- menagogue, hepatoprotective. Flower—used for diseases of mucous membranes, fissures, anal fissures associated with haemorrhoids, also for ailments of the respiratory tract, nervous conditions and skin diseases. Root— used for arthritis, neuralgia, neurasthenia, migraine, epilepsy, allergic disorders, whooping cough and painful spasms.

The herb gave monoterpene ester glucosides of the pinen-type (including paeoniflorin); anthocyanin including paeonin; tannins (pentagalloyl glucose); flavonoids including kaempferol glycosides.

Paeoniflorin shows a smooth muscle relaxant, vasodilatory, anti-inflammatory, immunostimulating and some CNS depressant activity in animal studies. Pentagalloyl glucose exhibited antiviral activity in animal studies in vitro against herpes simplex.

German Commission E included Paeony (flower and root) among un- approved herbs. The Pharmacopoeia of People's Republic of China indicates the use of the root in dementia, headache and vertigo. (WHO.)... paeonia officinalis

Participant Observation

A qualitative data collection technique in which the researcher participates in activities in a setting to observe and record (or simply study) actors’ behaviour. Not all participant observation requires the researcher to conceal his/her identity (thus participate as a member of the group).... participant observation

Patient-origin Study

A study, generally undertaken by an individual health programme or health planning agency to determine the geographic distribution of the residences of the patients served by one or more health programmes. Such studies help define catchment and medical trade areas and are useful in locating and planning the development of new services.... patient-origin study


The period after an operation, the patient’s condition after operation, or any investigations or treatment during this time.... post-operative

Potentially Preventable Adverse Outcome

Complication of a condition which may be modified or prevented with appropriate treatment.... potentially preventable adverse outcome

Pavonia Odorata


Family: Malvaceae.

Habitat: North-West India, Bengal and Konkan.

English: Fragrant Sticky Mallow.

Ayurvedic: Vaalaka, Baalaka, Baala, Barhishtha, Hrivera, Ambu, Jala, Nira, Paya, Toya, Udichya, Vaari, Muurdhaja. Sugandhbaalaa (also equated with Valeriana Jatamansi). In the South, Celus vettiveroides is equated with Baalaka.

Siddha/Tamil: Peraamutti, Kastoori vendai.

Action: Plant—anti-inflammatory and spasmolytic. Used in rheumatic affections. Root—stomachic, astringent, demulcent. Used in dysentery, haemorrhages from intestines; ulcers and bleeding disorders.

The roots gave an essential oil containing isovaleric acid, isovaleralde- hyde, armomadendrene, pavonene, alpha-terpinene, azulene and pavo- nenol.

The plant exhibits antiparasitic activity against Entamoeba histolytica.... pavonia odorata

Plantago Ovata


Synonym: P. Ispaghula Roxb.

Family: Plantaginaceae.

Habitat: Cultivated In Parts Of Rajasthan And Maharashtra.

English: Ispaghula, Spogel Seeds, Blond Psyllium.

Ayurvedic: Ashvagola. Ashwakarna (Also Equated With Shorea Robusta).

Unani: Aspaghol.

Siddha/Tamil: Isapppa.

Folk: Isabgol.

Action: Seed And Husk—Laxative, Diuretic, Demulcent, Bechic, Cholinergic. Used In Inflammatory Conditions Of The Mucous Membrane Of Gastrointestinal And Genitourinary Tract, Chronic Amoebic And Bacillary Dysentery; Also In Hypercholesterolemia.

Key Application ? In Chronic Constipation And Irritable Bowel. (German Commission E.) Also In Constipation Due To Duodenal Ulcer Or Diverticulitis (Who.) German Commission E Also Noted That Blond Psyllium Seed Lowers Serum Cholesterol Levels. It Has Also Been Shown To Slow Sugar Absorption Thereby Reducing Blood Glucose. (Escop.) Use Of Blond Psyllium Husk Up To Six Months Did Not Clinically Alter Vitamin Or Mineral Status In A Review Of Eight Human Trials. It Did Not Reduce Absorption Of Calcium. (J Am Geriatr Soc, 43, 1995; Am J Clin Nutr, 71, 2000; Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, 2007.)

The Seed Contains Amino Acids Including Valine, Alanine, Glutamic Acid, Glycine, Cystine, Lysine, Leucine And Tyrosine; And A Mucilage Consisting Of A Mixture Of Polysaccharides Composed Mainly Of Xylose, Arabinose And Galacturonic Acid; Rhamnose And Galactose Are Also Present. The Seeds Also Gave Aucubin, The Antibacterial Principle. The Seed Coat Contains Fatty Acids Mainly Linoleic, Oleic And Palmitic Acids In Decreasing Concentrations.

The Seeds Show A Liver Protective Effect On Induced Hepatotoxicity In Mice. In China, The Plant Is Used Clinically To Treat Certain Types Of Hepatitis (Activity Due To Aucubin Content).

Dosage: Husk—5-10 G. (Ccras.)... plantago ovata

Platanus Orientalis


Family: Platanaceae.

Habitat: Native to eastern Mediterranean region; cultivated in Kashmir and North-western Himalayas at 1,200-2,400 m.

English: Oriental Plane, Oriental Sycamore. European Plane tree.

Folk: Chinaar, Buin (Kashmir and Punjab).

Action: Bark—antidiarrhoeal, antiscorbutic, antirheumatic. Leaf—astringent. Buds—antiseptic, used for urinary infection.

The buds yielded kaempferol, its derivatives and caffeic acid. The me- thanolic extract exhibits antiseptic and antimicrobial activities.

The bark contains 1.5% of platanin, also 5.9% tannin and 7.3% non-tans. The shoots and leaves contain alan- toin; roots phlobaphene. The sap of the tree contains up to 90% mannitol. A triterpene, platanolic acid, is found in most parts of the plant except the fruit.... platanus orientalis

Pulse Oximetry

Measurement of OXYGEN saturation of HAEMOGLOBIN in a blood sample using a noninvasive device called a spectrophotometer.... pulse oximetry


Substances which absorb X-RAYS, rather than transmitting them, appear white on X-ray ?lm and are described as radio-opaque. This is true of bones, teeth, certain types of gall-stones, renal stones and contrast media used to enhance the accuracy of radiographic imaging.... radio-opaque

Re-orienting Health Services

Health services re-orientation is characterized by a more explicit concern for the achievement of population health outcomes in the ways in which the health system is organized and funded.... re-orienting health services

Red Onion

See Cebolla.... red onion

Rivea Ornate

(Roxb.) Choisy.

Family: Convolvulaceae.

Habitat: South India.

Ayurvedic: Phanji (var.).

Siddha/Tamil: Machuttai.

Folk: Baravat, Phaang.

Action: Juice of the plant—used topically in haemorrhagic diseases and piles.... rivea ornate

Salacia Oblonga

Wall. ex Wight & Arn.

Family: Hippocrateaceae; Celas- traceae.

Habitat: Rain forests of Western Ghats from Konkan to Kerala.

Folk: Chundan (Tamil Nadu), Ponkoranti (Kerala).

Action: Root bark—used for the treatment rheumatism; also for gonorrhoea, swellings and skin diseases. Plant—mildly antiseptic.... salacia oblonga

Polyporus Officinalis


Family: Polyporaceae.

Habitat: On the old trunks of various coniferous trees.

English: White Agaric.

Unani: Ghaariqoon.

Action: Used in the treatment of sweats in wasting diseases such as phthisis (it checks profuse sweats); also as an expectorant and diuretic.

The drug contains agaric acid (agari- cin). The resinous extract, when burnt, yields not more than 2% of a white ash, rich in phosphates. The drug gives 46% soft resin.

Agaric acid acts as a counter-irritant when applied to abraded surfaces or mucous membrane.... polyporus officinalis

Portulaca Oleracea


Family: Portulacaceae.

Habitat: All over India, cultivated as a vegetable.

English: Common Purslane.

Ayurvedic: Brihat Lonikaa, Lonaa, Loni, Ghoddhika, Ghotikaa, Upodika, Khursaa.

Unani: Khurfaa, Kulfaa.

Siddha/Tamil: Pulli-keerai, Parup- pukirai.

Action: Refrigerant (reduces body heat), mild spasmodic, diuretic, antiscorbutic. Used in scurvy and in diseases of liver, spleen, kidney and bladder; also in dysuria, stomatitis and dysentery. A paste of leaves is applied to swellings, erysipelas, burns and scalds. Seeds—diuretic, antidysenteric; applied externally to burns and scalds.

A crude protein-free extract of the herb contained l-nor-adrenaline, do- pamine and l-dopa, also catechol. (The fresh plant contained 2.5 mg/g l-nor- adrenaline in one sample.) The extract gave a strong pressor response when injected intravenously into anaesthetized dogs.

The oral administration of the ho- mogenates of P. oleracea reduced the blood sugar level of alloxan-diabetic rabbits to normal.

The extract of the leaves and stems reduced muscle tone in individuals suffering from spasticity and exhibited skeletal muscle relaxant activity both in vitro and in vivo. The extract produced dose-dependent negative in- otropic and chronotropic effects and pressor response on rat blood pressure.

The diuretic action of the herb is attributed to the presence of high percentage of potassium salts.

Dosage: Plant-125-400 mg powder; juice—1-20 ml (CCRAS.)... portulaca oleracea

Rheum Officinale


Family: Polygonaceae.

Habitat: Southeast Tibet, West and Northwest China.

English: Rhubarb.

Unani: Usaare Rewand.

Action: Astringent and cathartic (anthraquinones are laxative and tannins astringent), stomachic, aperient, cholinergic, gastric stimulant, antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic. Used for indigestion, diarrhoea, dysentery and disorders of liver and gallbladder.

Key application: In constipation. Contraindicated in acute intestinal inflammation and obstruction. (German Commission E, ESCOP, The British Herbal Pharmacopoeia, WHO.)

Rhubarb contains 1,8-dihydroxy- anthracene derivatives. The laxative effect of the herb is primarily due to its influence on the motility of the colon, inhibiting stationary and stimulating propulsive contractions. Stimulation of the chloride secretion increases the water and electrolyte content of stool. (German Commission E.)

The plant extract of R. officinale is found to be strong and effective scavenger of oxygen radicals in xan- thine/xanthine oxidase and other systems in vitro.

Rheum rhaponticum, known as Rha- pontic or English rhubarb, is extensively cultivated all over Europe and America; also cultivated to a small extent in India in the Khasi Hills, the Nilgiris and West Bengal.

Rhubarbs contain anthraquinones but English rhubarb contains only chrysophanic acid and some of its glycosides. Stilbene glycosides, present in other types, are also found in English rhubarb. The roots contain rhapontin. (1.42%), reported to restore oestrus cycle in castrated female rats.... rheum officinale

Saussurea Obvallata

Wall. ex C. B. Clarke.

Family: Compositae; Asteraceae.

Habitat: The Himalayas from Kashmir to Sikkim at 4,2005,000 m.

Folk: Brahma-kamal (Kumaon); Birm-kanwal (Punjab).

Action: Roots—antiseptic, styptic, anti-inflammatory. Applied to wounds and cuts.

Plant—hypothermic. Flower—CNS active, antiviral. The flowers, after frying, are used in rheumatism.... saussurea obvallata

Second Opinion

The practice of seeking the judgement of another medical practitioner or specialist regarding a health condition.... second opinion

Smilax Ornata


Family: Liliaceae.

Habitat: Tropical Himalayas from Kumaon eastwards to Khasi, Garo and Naga Hills, and in Bihar.

Unani: Ushbaa. (Jamaica sak- saparilla.)

Action: Roots—used as a blood purifying drug.... smilax ornata

Rosmarinus Officinalis


Family: Labiatae; Lamiaceae.

Habitat: Native to the Mediterranean region, cultivated in Nilgiri Hills.

English: Rosemary.

Folk: Rusmari.

Action: Essential oil from flowers and leaves—anti-inflammatory, astringent, antiseptic, stomachic, carminative; used externally in circulatory disorders. Flowering tops and leaves—carminative, diuretic, emmenagogue; vapor baths afford relief in incipient catarrh, rheumatism and muscular affections.

Key application: Leaf—internally in dyspeptic complaints; externally in supportive therapy for rheumatic diseases and circulatory problems. (German Commission E.) Shows improvement of hepatic and biliary function.(ESCOP.) Carminative, spasmolytic of hepatic and biliary function. (ESCOP.) Carminative, spasmolytic. (The British Herbal Pharmacopoeia.)

In research using rats, the essential oil and ethanolic extract of rosemary decreased drug-induced hepatotoxici- ty and the suppression of bone marrow cells. Phenolic compounds in the herb exhibit antioxidant activity. (Sharon M. Herr.)

The herb contains volatile oil (1.02.5%), composed mainly of 1, 8-cineole (20-25%), alpha-pinene (15-25%), camphor (10-25%), others include bor- neol, isobutyl acetate, camphene, li- monene, linalool, 3-octanone, terpine- ol, verbenol; flavonoids including api- genin, diosmetin, diosmin; rosmarinic acid and other phenolic acids; diter- penes; rosmaricine; ursolic acid, olea- nolic acid and their derivatives.

The anti-inflammatory effect of Rosemary has been attributed to ros- marinic acid, ursolic acid and apigenin. Among flavonoids, diosmin is reported to be more effective in decreasing capillary fragility than rutin. A ros- maricine derivative exhibits stimulant and mild analgesic activity.

The phenolic fraction, isolated from the leaves, also from the oil, exhibits antioxidant activity.

Pressed juice of leaves possesses a strong antibacterial action on Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli and Bacillis sub- tilis.

An infusion of the plant with borax is used as a hair wash for preventing hair loss.

Rosemary oil, in combination with the essential oil from thyme, lavender and cedarwood, showed improvement in hair growth by 44% after 7 months of treatment for alopecia areata. (Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, 2007.)... rosmarinus officinalis

Saccharum Officinarum


Family: Gramineae; Poaceae.

Habitat: Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and Punjab.

English: Sugarcane, Noble Cane.

Ayurvedic: Ikshu, Dirgha-chhada, Bhuurirasa, Morata, Asipatra, Madhutrna, Gudamuula, Trnarasa.

Unani: Gannaa, Naishakar.

Siddha/Tamil: Karumbu, Nanal.

Action: Cane Juice—restorative, cooling, laxative, demulcent, diuretic, antiseptic. Used in general debility, haemophilic conditions, jaundice and urinary diseases.

The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia ofIn- dia recommends the juice of the stem in haemorrhagic diseases and anuria; and the root in dysuria.

Sugarcane juice contains surcose (70-80% of soluble solids in the juice), glucose and fructose. Non-sugar constituents present in the cane juice are carbohydrates other than sugars. As- paragine and glutamine are prominent amino acids in the juice. Other amino acids include alanine, gamma- amino butyric acid, aspartic and glutamic acids, glycine, leucine, lysine, serine and tyrosine. The presence of phenylalanine, histidine, valine, proline, threonine and arginine, pipecolic acid, methionine and tryptophan has also been reported.

Aconitic acid constitutes about three-fourths of the total carboxylic acid present in the juice.

Vitamins present in the juice are: thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, biotin, and vitamin D; enzymes include diastase, invertase, lac- tase, peroxidase, tyrosinase.

Phenols in the cane juice are mainly polyphenols from tannin and antho- cyanin from the rind.

Cane juice contains glycolic acid which improves skin complexion as it has antiwrinkle effect, prevents scaly growth and increases natural collagen and elastin in the skin.

Enzymes present in the seeds include large quantities of diastase and invertase.

An ester, vanilloyl-l-O-beta-D-glu- coside, has been isolated from the bagasse.

The leaves contain alpha-amylase and glutathione-S-transferase.

Dosage: Stem—200-400 ml juice; rootstock—15-30 g for decoction. (API, Vol. IV.)... saccharum officinarum

Smilax Ovalifolia


Synonym: S. macrophylla Roxb.

Family: Liliaceae.

Habitat: Tropical parts of India.... smilax ovalifolia

Vestibulo-ocular Reflex

Eye movement that occurs after or during the slow injection of 20 ml of ice-cold water into each external auditory meatus (see EAR) in turn.... vestibulo-ocular reflex

Viola Odorata


Family: Violaceae.

Habitat: Native to Europe; cultivated in Kashmir.

English: Sweet Violet.

Unani: Banafashaa, Banafsaj, Kakosh, Fareer.... viola odorata

Salvadora Oleoides


Family: Salvadoraceae.

Habitat: The arid regions of Punjab, Rajasthan and western India.

Ayurvedic: Pilu (bigger var.).

Action: Leaf—bechic. Bark— vesicant. Fruit—febrifuge (in low fever), used in enlarged spleen. Oil from seed—applied in rheumatic affections and after child birth.

The fruit contains sterols, beta-sitos- terol and its glucosides and stigmas- terol; benzylisothiocyanate, n-octaco- sanol and tetracosane; flavonoids including quercetin and rutin; thiourea derivatives and phospholipids. Myris- tic, lauric and palmitic acids were obtained from the seed fat.... salvadora oleoides

Salvia Officinalis


Family: Labiatae; Lamiaceae.

Habitat: Native to the Mediterranean region; grown as an ornamental.

English: Sage.

Folk: Salvia Sefakuss.

Action: Plant—astringent, anti- inflammatory, carminative, anti- spasmodic, antiseptic. Leaf and flower—cholagogue, hypogly- caemic, antiasthmatic (used for respiratory allergy), cholagogue, emmenagogue, antisudoriferous, antiseptic. Leaf—diaphoretic, antipyretic. Used for sore throat, laryngitis, tonsillitis, stomatitis.

Key application: Leaf—internally, for dyspeptic symptoms and excessive perspiration; externally for inflammations of the mucous membranes of nose and throat. (German Commission E.) ESCOP indicates its use for inflammations and infections such as stomatitis, gingivitis, pharyngitis, and hyperhidrosis.

The leaves contain a volatile oil; diterpene bitters including carnosolic acid; flavonoids including salvigenin, genkwanin, hispidulin, luteolin and its derivatives; phenolic acids including rosmarinic, caffeic, labiatic; a condensed catechin, salvia tannin.

The roots contain diterpene quino- nesroyleanone and its derivatives. Volatile oil contains alpha-and beta-thu- jone, 1,8-cineole and camphor. Thu- jone is strongly antiseptic and carminative, also has an oestrogenic action that is partly responsible for the herb's hormonal activity in reducing breast milk production. The volatile oil also relieves muscle spasms. Ros- marinic acid, a phenol, allays inflammations.

Cirsiliol, linalool and alpha-terpine- ol, constituents of the volatile oil, exhibit CNS depressant activities.

In a double blind, randomized and placebo controlled trial, extracts of Salvia officinalis showed improvement in patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer disease. (Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, 2007.)

Sage oil is used in perfumes as a deodorant and for the treatment of thrush and gingivitis. The herb is used in tooth powders, mouth washes, gargles, poultices, hair tonics and hair dressings.... salvia officinalis

Saponaria Officinalis


Family: Caryophyllaceae.

Habitat: Native to temperate region of Europe; introduced in Indian gardens.

English: Bouncing Bet, Soapwort.

Action: Roots—blood purifier, cholagogue, expectorant, diuretic, diaphoretic. Roots and leaves— used for scrofula and skin diseases. Sap used as a depurative for scabies, furuncles, hepatic eruptions and venereal ulcers (as a lotion). Plant— employed for jaundice (to increase bile flow); also in respiratory disorders (bronchitis, sore throat).

Key application: Root—in catarrhs of the upper respiratory tract. (German Commission E.)

The plant contains saponin, sapo- toxin and saponarin. The root contains sapotoxin (4-5%) and saporubrinic acid. Saponin content of the root is highest (7.7-8.2%) just before flowering stage and the lowest (about 3%) during the flowering period. The bark yield 0.8% of saponin. The leaves contain saponarin. Youngest leaves show the highest haemolytic activity.

Aqueous extract of the plant exhibit antibacterial activity.... saponaria officinalis

Schleichera Oleosa

(Lour.) Oken.

Synonym: S. trijuga Willd & Klein.

Family: Sapindaceae.

Habitat: The sub-Himalayan tract from Kashmir to West Bengal; Bihar, Punjab, Madhya Pradesh, southwards to Peninsular India.

English: Lac tree, Macassar Oil tree, Honey tree, Ceylon Oak.

Ayurvedic: Koshaamra, Kshudraam- ra, Lakshaa vrksha, Ghanaskandha.

Siddha/Tamil: Puvathipuvam, Pulaachi.

Action: Bark—astringent; mixed with oil, applied externally in skin eruptions. Seed oil—used for massage in rheumatism and applied in alopecia, itch and acne; stimulates hair growth. (Tree is an important host of Kusmi lac.)

Fatty acids of the oil consisted of ole- ic (52.%), gadoleic, stearic, arachidic, behenic, palmitoleic and palmitic acids. Young leaves contain gallo-tannic acid (5.09%, dry matter basis). The bark contains 9.4% tannin.

Dosage: Bark—50-100 ml decoction. (CCRAS.)... schleichera oleosa

Viscum Orientale


Family: Viscaceae; Loranthaceae.

Habitat: Bihar, West Bengal and Kerala. (The plant parasitizing Strychnos nux-vomica tree are used in Indian medicine.)

Folk: Baandaa.

Action: Used as a substitute for nux-vomica. Poultice of leaves is used for neuralgia; ashes of the plant for the treatment of skin diseases.... viscum orientale

Box’s Herbal Ointment

Ingredients: Slippery Elm 10.5 per cent; Marshmallow 10.5 per cent; soft yellow paraffin to 100 per cent. General purposes. Now obsolete. ... box’s herbal ointment

Scindapsus Officinalis


Family: Araceae.

Habitat: Tropical Himalayas, Bengal, southwards to Andhra Pradesh and the Andamans.

Ayurvedic: Gajakrishna, Hastipip- pali, Gajapippali (also equated with Piper chaba).

Siddha/Tamil: Anaitippili.

Action: Fruits—stimulant, carminative, diaphoretic, anthelmintic, antidiarrhoeal. Decoction is used as an expectorant in asthma. Fruits and shoots—hypoglycaemic. Fruit pulp—applied externally in rheumatism.

The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India recommends dried pieces of mature female spadix in dyspnoea. (Gajapip- pali is wrongly equated with male or female inflorescence of Borassus flabel- lifer Linn.)

The fruits contain two glycosidic substances—scindapsin A and B, which on hydrolysis yield the aglu- cons, scindapsinidine A and B. Free sugars, rhamnose, fructose, glucose and xylose together with some di-and trisaccharides have been identified in the plant.

Dosage: Dried pieces of mature female spadix—2-3 g for infusion. (API, Vol. II.)... scindapsus officinalis

Sea Orach

Atriplex halimus

Description: The sea orach is a sparingly branched herbaceous plant with small, gray- colored leaves up to 2.5 centimeters long. Sea orach resembles Iamb’s quarter, a common weed in most gardens in the United States. It produces its flowers in narrow, densely compacted spikes at the tips of its branches.

Habitat and Distribution: The sea orach is found in highly alkaline and salty areas along seashores from the Mediterranean countries to inland areas in North Africa and eastward to Turkey and central Siberia. Generally, it can be found in tropical scrub and thorn forests, steppes in temperate regions, and most desert scrub and waste areas.

Edible Parts: Its leaves are edible. In the areas where it grows, it has the healthy reputation of being one of the few native plants that can sustain man in times of want.... sea orach

Siegesbeckia Orientalis


Family: Compositae; Asteraceae.

Habitat: Throughout India up to 2,000 m.

English: The Holy Herb, Siegesbeckia.

Siddha/Tamil: Katampam, Kadambu.

Folk: Pili-badkadi (Gujarat), Lat- latiaa (Bihar), Lichkuraa (Garhwal).

Action: Plant—antiscorbutic, sial- agogue, cardiotonic, diaphoretic. Used for the treatment of rheumatism, renal colic and ague. Also used as a lotion for gangrenous ulcers and sores, syphilis, leprosy, ringworm.

The aerial parts contain sesquiter- pene lactone, orientin; melampolides including orientolide; diterpene, dru- tigenol and the corresponding gluco- side darutoside. The whole plant, in addition, gave 3,7-dimethylquercetin.

The plant exhibited antiviral, CVS active, spasmolytic and hypoglycaemic activity.... siegesbeckia orientalis

Sonchus Oleraceus


Family: Compositae; Asteraceae.

Habitat: Waste places throughout India, up to elevation of 2,400 m.

English: Milk Thistle (a confusing synonym. Silybum marianum has been equated with Milk Thistle.)

Folk: Duudhi, Dodaka, Dudhaali.

Action: Galactagogue, febrifuge, sedative, vermifuge. Used in indigestion and in the treatment of diseases of the liver. An ointment is made from the decoction for wounds and ulcers.

The leaves contain luteolin, luteolin- 7-O-glucoside; hydroxycoumarins, cichoriin and scopoletin. Apigenin-7-O- glucoside was also obtained from the leaves and stems. Young leaves are reported to contain 4.1 mg/100 g of vitamin C.... sonchus oleraceus

Spilanthes Oleracea


Family: Compositae; Asteraceae.

Habitat: Introduced from Brazil; often cultivated in Indian gardens.

English: Brazilian Cress, Para Cress.

Ayurvedic: Mahaaraashtri, Marethi, Desi Akarkaraa. Aakaarakarab- ha of Ayurvedic medicine and Aaqarqarha of Unani medicine is equated with Anacyclus pyrethrum DC. (root is used); S. acmella and S. oleracea flowering heads are used as Desi Akarkaraa and should not be confused with the original drug.

Action: Flowers—used against scurvy, gum troubles, toothache and against bladder pains and gout.

The flower heads yield 1.25% of spilanthol from the pentane extract.

The fresh plant yields an essential oil consisting mainly of spilanthol and a hydrocarbon, spilanthene. The plant also contains cerotic acid, crystalline phytosterols, tannic acid, resin, potassium malate and large amounts of choline and potassium nitrate.... spilanthes oleracea

Cancer – To Neutralise Odour

Dr Desmartis, in a paper to The American Academy of Sciences announced that Logwood, (Haematoxylum campechianum) was an antiseptic of value in cancer. This was discovered by accident. Having under his care several cancer patients presenting ulcerative sores ‘emitting a nauseous odour’, he composed a plaster of equal parts of Extract of Logwood and hog’s lard. To his surprise, on application the fetter immediately disappeared. ... cancer – to neutralise odour

Combudoron Ointment

For relief of minor burns and scalds. Anthroposophic.

Constituents: Urtica urens herba tincture (1:2) 9.5 per cent. Arnica montana planta tincture (1:2) 0.5 per cent. (Weleda) ... combudoron ointment

Ear Discharge – Otorrhoea

May be due to a perforated eardrum or to inflammation of the external ear (otitis externa). Whatever cause, antibacterials and alteratives would be required. See: OTITIS EXTERNA. OTITIS MEDIA. ... ear discharge – otorrhoea

Speedwell Tea Organic Health Benefits

Speedwell Tea is and it has been for centuries used mainly for its soothing effects. Speedwell is a perennial herb that grows mostly in Europe. The French people used it in the 19th century as a very good replacement for ordinary tea, because of its bitter and astringent flavor. Nowadays, Speedwell Tea is used to calm any skin irritation, throat ache or cough. Speedwell Tea Properties Speedwell Tea is a great remedy for almost any health condition that involves inflammation or localized pain. You can use it as a supplementary aid or as a main treatment as well. There are many types of Speedwell Tea solutions, such as infusions, tonics or tinctures. Also, pressing the smashed plant on a open cut will calm your pain and bring relief if you are suffering from irritated skin. You can benefit from this plant’s wonders at home, preparing the tea by yourself or buy it from the tea shop. However, if you are thinking about making it at home, pay attention to our advice on How to prepare Speedwell Tea. Speedwell Tea Benefits Speedwell Tea has been used for many years as a panacea for almost any health problems. Its main use was in treating gall stones and colds. In our times, alternative medicine found new and excited benefits of Speedwell Tea in treating light-headedness, damaged hearing, sinusitis and ear infections. Also, if you are suffering from nephritic problems, skin ailments, hemorrhages or have a small opened wound, Speedwell Tea may come in hand. The leaves and roots of speedwell are astringent, gently diuretic, stomachic, slightly expectorant and stimulant. Lately, herbalists around the world announced the benefits that Speedwell Tea offers when treating ulcers or blockages of the respiratory system. How to make Speedwell Tea Infusion When making Speedwell Tea infusion, you need to pay attention to a couple of things. First of all, you need to decide if you are using Speedwell powder, freshly picked Speedwell plants or dry roots. Put the ingredients in a pot of boiled water and wait for the benefits of Speedwell Tea to be released. If you are using powder, wait only 10 minutes. For dry roots or fresh plants, 15 to 20 minutes, depending on the amount of water used. For better results and a more concentrated solution, wait another 15 minutes. You can drink it or use it on your affected area. Also, you can use the powder directly on an open cut or wound. Speedwell Tea Side Effects Speedwell Tea has almost no side effects at all. Just make sure you don’t drink more than 3 cups a day or you’ll get diarrhea and also experience vomiting sensations. Other than that, go for it! Speedwell Tea Contraindications Don’t take Speedwell Tea if you are already suffering from diarrhea or have vomiting episodes. Also, if you have a dry throat, this tea may not be the best idea for you. However, if you experience any of the symptoms mentioned before and are still thinking about taking Speedwell Tea, talk to a specialist before boiling the water. Judging by this tea’s popularity and the great reviews that people around the world gave, it’s fair to say that Speedwell tea should have its own place in your list of herbal remedies. If you have on open cut and are tired of your medicine cabinet, add Speedwell Tea to your shopping cart next time you’re shopping for natural treatments!... speedwell tea organic health benefits

Spinacia Oleracea


Synonym: S. tetrandra Roxb.

Family: Chenopodiaceae.

Habitat: Native to South-west Asia; cultivated throughout India.

English: Garden Spinach.

Ayurvedic: Paalankikaa, Paalankya, Paalakyaa.

Unani: Paalak.

Siddha/Tamil: Vasaiyila-keerai.

Action: Seeds—cooling and laxative; given during jaundice. Spinach, as a potherb, is rich in nitrogenous substances, hydrocarbons and iron sesqui-oxide.

Aerial parts afforded rutin, hyperoside, astragalin and caffeic, chloro- genic, neochlorogenic and protocate- chuic acids. Seeds contain glycopro- tein-bound hexosamine. Roots contain spirasaponins.... spinacia oleracea

Hair – Oily

To condition. Calendula, Clary, all kinds of mints, Horsetail, Lavender, Lemon Balm, Rosemary, Southernwood. Internal and external. ... hair – oily

Infused Oils

Extraction of active ingredients of a plant by maceration in oil for external use for massage or ointments, creams, etc. See: OILS, IMPREGNATED. ... infused oils

Larch Resin Ointment

For tired or strained eyes.

Constituents: 100g contains: Ananarsa fruct. 5g; Larch Resin 2g in a base containing Lanolin and yellow soft paraffin. (Weleda) ... larch resin ointment

Nine Rubbing Oils

(Potter’s). For rheumatism, fibrositis, painful joints and muscles. Oil for external use.

Ingredients: Amber oil 4 per cent; Clove oil BP 1 per cent; Eucalyptus oil BP 4 per cent; Linseed oil 10 per cent; Methyl sal BP 4 per cent; Volatile Mustard oil 0.03 per cent; Turpentine oil BP 12.3 per cent; Thyme oil 2 per cent; Peppermint oil BP 2.1 per cent; Arachis oil BP to 100. ... nine rubbing oils

Oatmeal Bath

For irritated, itching skin as in eczema or shingles. Tie one pound uncooked oatmeal in a piece of gauze and run-on the hot bath tap. When softened, use as a sponge during the bath. ... oatmeal bath

Styrax Officinale


Family: Styracaceae.

Habitat: A native to Asia minor and Syria.

English: The True Storax tree.

Ayurvedic: Silhaka, Silaarasa, Turushka, Kapitaila, Yavandeshaja.

Folk: Silaajit, Usturak.

Action: Balsam is used for cough and respiratory tract catarrh. Turushka was obtained from Styrax officinale. Due to scarcity, it was replaced by the exudation of Liquidamber orientalis Mill. Balsam obtained from Altingia excelsa Noronha is used as a substitute for Silhaka and is known as Silaarasa (occurs in Assam and Arunachal Pradesh).

Dosage: Balsam—500 mg to 1.0 g. (CCRAS.)... styrax officinale

Symphytum Officinale


Family: Boraginaceae.

Habitat: Europe and from the Mediterranean to Caucasian region. Russian Comfrey or Blue Comfrey has been introduced in Simla; Prickly Camfrey is cultivated in Western India.

English: Comfrey, Knitbone.

Folk: Sankuutan (Maharashtra).

Action: Vulnerary (The British Herbal Pharmacopoeia), astringent, demulcent, haemostatic, tissue- restorative (repairs broken bones and lacerated flesh, promotes formation of a callus).

Key application: Externally for fractures and sprains, to promote bone growth and formation of callus. (German Commission E.)

Allantoin, a cell proliferant, helps repair damaged tissues. Antiinflammatory action is due to rosmarinic acid and other phenolic acids. Used for stomach ulcers, irritable bowel syndrome, colitis, hiatus hernia; pleurisy, bronchitis (contraindicated in oede- matous conditions of the lung); and for the treatment of fractures, sickets, varicose ulcers. Experiments, during the 1960s, reveal that pyrrolizidine alkaloids are toxic to liver (dispute still unresolved); it is still not clear if these are hepatotoxic in the context of the whole plant. The aerial parts are considered safe.

Russian Comfrey or Blue Comfrey has been equated with Symphytum peregrinum Ledeb. (introduced into India in Simla).

The Plant is a good source of al- lantoin, a drug used in the treatment of gastric ulcers, disorders of liver and cancer. Tincture of the fresh herb is reported to be used for asthma, bronchitis and congestive conditions of the lungs.... symphytum officinale

Taraxacum Officinale

Weber ex Wiggers.

Family: Compositae; Asteraceae.

Habitat: Temperate Himalayas, Khasi Hills, Mishmi Hills, Gujarat and in hills of South India.

English: Common Dandelion.

Ayurvedic: Dugdh-pheni, Luutaari, Payaswani.

Unani: Kaanful, Kaasani Dashti, Kaasani Sahraayi, Hind-baa-al- Barri. (Not to be confused with Ci- chorium intybus, known as Kaasani.)

Folk: Dudhli, Dudhal.

Action: Root—diuretic, cholagogue, pancreatic and bile duct stimulant, stimulant to portal circulation, choleretic, urinary antiseptic, detoxicant, promotes elimination of plasma cholesterol. Used chiefly in kidney and liver disorders, for rheumatism and as a general tonic. A decoction is given for infective hepatitis.

Key application: In dyspepsia, loss of appetite, and for diuresis. (German Commission E, ESCOP.) ESCOP indicates its use for restoration of hepatic and biliary function.

Most of the diuretics cause loss of potassium, but dandelion leaves contain high levels of potassium.

The leaves and root contain sesqui- terpene lactones (bitter substances); triterpenes and sterols—beta-sitosterol, beta-sitosterol-glucosides, taraxasterol, psi-taratexol and taraxol; flavonoids, including among others, apigenin-7- O-glucosides and luteolin-7-O-gluco- sides; mucilages; inulin (2-40%, high values in autumn). The amaroids are cholagogic and secretolytic. (PDR.) An appetite-stimulating bitter has been identified as eudesmanolides (previously called taraxacin).

The vitamin A content is higher than in carrots.

The polysaccharides and aqueous extracts exhibited antitumour activity in animals. The anti-inflammatory activity has also been confirmed in animal studies.

The high K+ content of roots and leaves is considered responsible for the diuretic activity.

Dosage: Root—1-3 g powder. (CCRAS.)... taraxacum officinale

Olbas Oil

European household remedy over many years. A blend of plant oils originated in Switzerland. Stomachic, bactericidal and antiseptic. Has a wide sphere of therapeutic influence, used externally for relief of the pain of rheumatism, lumbago, etc; internally as a medicament for flatulence and minor stomach disorders. Inhaled, to clear nasal congestion caused by colds, bronchial catarrh, influenza and sinusitis.

Ingredients: Cajuput oil 18.5 per cent, Clove oil 10 per cent; Eucalyptus oil 35.45 per cent, Juniper berry oil 2.7 per cent, Menthol 10 per cent, Peppermint oil 25.45 per cent, Wintergreen oil 3.7 per cent. (Lane’s, UK) ... olbas oil

Olbas Pastilles

Oil Eucalyptus 1.16 per cent, Oil Peppermint 1.12 per cent, Menthol 0.1 per cent, Oil Juniper berry 0.067 per cent, Oil Wintergreen 0.047 per cent, and Oil Clove 0.0025 per cent. Respiratory obstruction and cough. (Lane’s, UK) ... olbas pastilles


Nerium oleander L. French: Laurier rose. German: Lorbeerrosen. Italian: Lauro roseo. Spanish: Adelfa baladre. Arabian: Sumul-himar. Indian: Karabi.

Constituents: neriodorin, neriodorein, essential oil.

Action: has a digitalis-like effect. Cardioactive. Diuretic. Seldom used in modern herbalism. ... oleander

Tea For Lucid Dreams

Having a lucid dream means dreaming while being aware of the fact that you are dreaming. However, many people become lucid in the middle of the dream or, on the contrary, fall lose reality contact after being lucid at first. Although traditional medicine can’t be very helpful in these cases, alternative medicine has a few tricks up its sleeve. How a Tea for Lucid Dreams Works A Tea for Lucid Dreams’ main purpose is to make you recall what you have dreamed by calming your nervous system and improving your memory function. These teas are good for a number of other diseases, such as memory loss, headaches or migraines. However, talk to an herbalist or to your doctor before starting any kind of herbal treatment in order to make sure everything will be alright. Efficient Tea for Lucid Dreams In order to work properly, a Tea for Lucid Dreams needs to be both very efficient and one hundred percent safe (since lucid dreams are not exactly a medical problem, you may want to avoid developing one). A tea that is rich in antioxidants, nutrients, tannins, volatile oils and minerals (sodium, magnesium, iron, manganese) would be very adequate. You may want to avoid teas with a large amount of acid agents (they could cause stomach pain). If you don’t know which teas could be useful for lucid dreams, here’s a list for guidance: - Green Tea – contains all the ingredients necessary to sustain life, so it’s useful for a wide range of ailments, not just lucid dreams. If you’re suffering from infertility, anemia, asthenia, loss of appetite, digestive tract complaints or nervous system failure, this decoction could also be useful. However, you must avoid it at all costs if you’re experiencing some menstrual or menopausal symptoms. The same advice if you’re pregnant (it may cause uterine contractions and therefore miscarriage). - Valerian Tea – was been used as a sleep aid since ancient times, when the Romans and the Greeks took it before going to bed. This Tea for Lucid Dreams, thanks to its active compounds, is a mild sedative and could also work miracles on your nervous system. However, you need to make sure that you don’t exceed the number of cups recommended per day in order to avoid hallucinations, tiredness or even death. - Chamomile Tea – of course, the world’s greatest panacea shouldn’t be left aside. If you’re having trouble remembering your dreams, try a cup of Chamomile Tea before you go to bed! This Tea has a great fragrance and a pleasant smell. Plus, it’s one hundred percent safe so you can drink as much as you want. Tea for Lucid Dreams Side Effects When taken according to specifications, these teas are generally safe. However, exceeding the number of cups recommended per day may lead to a number of health problems, such as diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, upset stomach or even death! If you’ve been taking one of these decoctions for a while and you’re experience a negative response from your body, ask for medical assistance right away! Don’t take a Tea for Lucid Dreams if you’re pregnant, breastfeeding, on blood thinners or anticoagulants. The same advice in case you’re preparing for a surgery. If your doctor says it’s ok to start an herbal treatment, choose a tea that fits best your requirements and enjoy its wonderful benefits!  ... tea for lucid dreams

Thuja Orientalis


Synonym: Biota orientalis Endl.

Family: Cupressaceae.

Habitat: Native to China; planted all over India in gardens.

English: Oriental Arbor-Vitae.

Folk: Morepankhi.

Action: Leaves—diuretic, insectici- dal antipyretic.

The leaves contain rhodoxanthin, amentoflavone, hinokiflavone, querce- tin, myricetin, carotene (20.8 mg/100 g dry basis), xanthophyll and ascorbic acid (68 mg/100 g). Essential oil, obtained from twigs (0.32) and berries (0.25%), contains alpha-thujene, (+)- sabinene, (+)-camphene, cedrol, ce- drenol and alpha-and beta-pinenes as major constituents.

American Arbor-Vitae and White Cedar has been equated with T. occidentals and is used as Thuja.

It was introduced into India from North America, and grows as a Christmas tree in the plains of India.

Leaves—aninfusionisusedasa uterine stimulant, emmenagogue and diuretic. Boiled in lard, are applied externally for rheumatism. Bark—astringent, emmenagogue, diuretic. Oil— poisonous, disinfectant, insecticidal. Seed and fruit— antibacterial; inhibited the growth of Gram-positive microorganisms.

The leaves yields a volatile oil, containing thujone as major component, with iso-thujone, borneol, bornyl acetate, l-fenchone, limonene, sabinene, camphor, l-alpha-thujene; flavonoids, mucilage, tannins.

The heartwood yields a non-toxic antibiotic substance. It gave sesquiter- pene alcohols—occidentalol and oc- cidol; also alpha-beta-and gamma- eudesmol.

Thuja is used in homoeopathy for tissue degeneration and tumours, warts and fungoid growths, both internally and externally.... thuja orientalis

Olive Oil And Lemon Treatment

See: GALL-STONES. ... olive oil and lemon treatment

Oral Administration

Giving a remedy by mouth. Such a route leads to its passage through the mucous membrane lining the intestines and from there into the bloodstream. ... oral administration

Orange Berries

Maeso Lanceolata. Native remedy for cholera. Potent antibiotic effect in gram- negative bacteria in laboratory animals.

Active principle: “maesanin”. (Dr Isno Kubo, University of California-Berkeley)

Recommended by the Bwana-mganga medicine-men as a tea to be drunk one week before visiting Lake Victoria, an area where cholera is endemic. ... orange berries


A herb which increases or stimulates the appetite.

Balmony, Boldo, Burdock (leaves and root), Calumba, Cardamom, Chiretta, Cinnamon, Condurango, Fennel, Fenugreek, Gentian, Holy Thistle, Hops, Lungwort, Mugwort, Peruvian bark, Quassia, Wormwood. ... orexigenic


Orotic acid aids absorption of minerals by cells, and ensures against loss of these important nutrients through the action of free-radicals or infection. Orotic acid is found in Wild Yam and some root vegetables, sweet potatoes and whey from milk. It assists excretion of uric acid and stimulates phagocytic activity of the white cells.

Common orotates:–

Chromium: 1mg, providing 50mcg elemental Chromium per tablet. Calcium: 500mg, providing 50mg elemental Calcium per tablet. Copper: 7mg, providing 1mg elemental Copper per tablet. ... orotates

Trema Orientalis


Synonym: T. amboinensis auct. non Blume.

Family: Ulmaceae.

Habitat: Throughout India in humid regions, up to 2,430 m.

English: Charcoal tree, Indian Nettle tree.

Siddha/Tamil: Ambaratthi, Chenko- lam.

Folk: Gio.

Action: Root—astringent and styptic; prescribed for diarrhoea, haematuria. Bark—analgesic.

Used as poultice for muscular pain. Root, bark and leaves—used in epilepsy.

The bark contains 16% tannin. Stem- bark gave triterpenoid alcohols simi- arenol and tremetol; a triterpene sim- iurenone; octacosanoic acid and 1- octacosanyl acetate.

Alcoholic extract of the roots produced a progressive depression of blood pressure (a total of 50% in 1 h) in cats.... trema orientalis

Valeriana Officinalis


Family: Valerianaceae.

Habitat: Native to Eurasia. (V officinalis auct. non Linn. is found in Kashmir at Sonamarg at 2,4002,700 m)

English: Valerian, Garden Heliotrope, Common Valerian.

Ayurvedic: Tagara, Nata. Baalaka (syn. Udichya, Jala, Barhishtha) is also equated with Valeriana sp.

Folk: Sugandhabaalaa, taggar.

Action: Tranquillizer, hypnotic, a natural relaxant to higher nerve centres. Used for nervous tension, sleeplessness, restlessness, palpitation, tension, headache, migraine, menstrual pain, intestinal cramps, bronchial spasm.

Key application: Internally for restlessness and sleeping disorders based on nervous conditions (German Commission E). (See Expanded Commission E, ESCOP and WHO monographs.)

Constituents of the root include val- trates, didrovaltrates and isovalerates. Other constituents include 0.4-1.4% monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, caf- feic, gamma-aminobutyric (GABA) and chlorogenic acids, beta-sitosterol, methyl, 2-pyrrolketone, choline, tannins, gums alkaloids and resin. (Expanded Commission E Monographs.)

The volatile oil (0.5-2%) contains bornyl acetate and bornyl isovalerate as the principal components. Other constituents include beta-caryophyllene, valeranone, valerenal, valerenic acid and other sesquiterpenoids and mono- terpenes.

The co-occurrence of three cyclo- pentane-sesquiterpenoids (valerenic acid, acetoxyvalerenic acid and valere- nal) is confined to Valeriana officinalis L. and permits its distinction from V edulis and V. Wallichii. (WHO.)

The important active compounds of valerian are the valepotriates (iridoid molecules) and valeric acid. Originally it was thought that valepotriates were responsible for the herbs sedative effect, but, later on, an aqueous extract of the root has also been shown to have a sedative effect. Since valepotriates are not soluble in water, it was concluded that valerenic acid is also the chemical factor responsible for the sedative effect of the herb. Most commercial extracts in Western herbal are water-soluble extracts standardized for valerenic acids.

Large doses ofvalepotriates from the herb decreased benzodiazepines and diazepam withdrawl symptoms in rats. At low doses valerian enhances binding of flunitrazepam, but at high doses it inhibits binding of the drug. Valerenic acid inhibits breakdown of GABA, and hydroxypinoresinol binds to benzodi- azepine receptor. (Sharon M. Herr.)

The safety of valepotriates has been questioned.

Currently valerian is an approved over-the-counter medicine in Germany, Belgium, France, Switzerland and Italy. (The British Herbal Compendium.)

See Valeriana dubia Bunge, syn. V. officinalis auct. non Linn., known as Common Valerian.... valeriana officinalis

Verbena Officinalis


Family: Verbenaceae.

Habitat: The Himalayas, Khasi and Lushai Hills, Bihar, West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra.

English: Vervain, Pigeon's Grass.

Unani: Saal-ul-hamaam, Faristari- un.

Action: Plant—nervine, antidepressant, anticonvulsant; prescribed in liver and gall bladder complaints (spasm of the bladder and strangury), nervous and menstrual disorders; also for bronchitis, asthma and febrile affections.

Included among unapproved herbs by German Commission E.

The plant contains an iridoid gly- coside, hastatoside; loganin; methyl- cyclopentane monoterpenoid, verbe- nalin; verbascoside and eukovoside. The stem and roots are quite rich in stachyose. Aerial parts gave lupeol, beta-sitosterol, ursolic acid, aucubin and artemetin.

The herb is credited with weak parasympathomimetic activity. Verbenalin exhibited mild purgative activity in animal studies. Emetic in high doses.

Vervain tea decreased absorption of non-heme iron by 59% in human subjects. (Sharon M. Herr.)... verbena officinalis


Orthosiphon staminus, Benth. Action. Diuretic, antiseptic, cholagogue.

Uses: Oedema: swollen ankles. ... orthosiphon


See: ARTHRITIS, OSTEO. ... osteo-arthritis

Oswego Tea

See: BERGAMOT, RED. ... oswego tea


A chemical reaction essential to life. By removal of hydrogen atoms biological oxidation is effected. A reaction in which a molecule or atom loses electrons, and provides energy for vital cell maintenance. ... oxidation

Viburnum Opulus

Linn. var. americanum (Mill.) Ait.

Family: Caprifoliaceae.

Habitat: Native to North America. Dried bark imported into India.

English: Cranberry Bush, Cramp- bark.

Action: Used as a diuretic and as a uterine sedative in functional uterine disorders.

The activity of the bark has been attributed to the presence of uterine relaxants, acting directly on the muscle and not through sympathomimetic action. The muscle relaxants include an essential oil, an amorphous, bitter phenolic glucoside, esculetin and scopo- letin.

The bark contains hydroquinones, arbutin, methylarbutin and traces of hydroquinone; coumarins including scopoletin and scopoline; tannins mainly catechins.

The polycondensed tannins produced significant angioprotective effect in rats.... viburnum opulus

Wild Onion And Garlic

Allium species

Description: Allium cernuum is an example of the many species of wild onions and garlics, all easily recognized by their distinctive odor.

Habitat and Distribution: Wild onions and garlics are found in open, sunny areas throughout the temperate regions. Cultivated varieties are found anywhere in the world.

Edible Parts: The bulbs and young leaves are edible raw or cooked. Use in soup or to flavor meat.


There are several plants with onionlike bulbs that are extremely poisonous. Be certain that the plant you are using is a true onion or garlic. Do not eat bulbs with no onion smell.

Other Uses: Eating large quantities of onions will give your body an odor that will help to repel insects. Garlic juice works as an antibiotic on wounds... wild onion and garlic

Zanthoxylum Oxyphyllum


Synonym: Xanthoxylon violaceum Wall. Fagara oxyphylla (Edgew.) Engl.

Family: Rutaceae.

Habitat: The Himalayas from Garhwal to Bhutan at 1,8002,700 m, and in Khasi Hills at 1,2001,800 m.

Folk: Mezenga (Assam); Timur, Bhansi (Nepal).

Action: Bark—stimulant, stomachic, sudorific; used in colic; also administered in fevers. Fruits— prescribed for dyspepsia, also for asthma, bronchitis, rheumatism and toothache.

Alkaloids, xanthoxyphyllin and corydine and a lactone 3,5-bis furan 2- one have been isolated from the roots. Stem bark gave zanoxyline and rhetsi- nine. Dried branches with bark gave lignans (sesamin, eudesmin and epi- eudesmin), fluoroquinolone alkaloid gamma-fagarine, triterpenoid lupeol, beta-sitosterol and syringaresinol.... zanthoxylum oxyphyllum

Ziziphus Oenoplia


Synonym: Rhamnus oenoplia L.

Family: Rhamnaceae.

Habitat: North India and both the Peninsulas.

English: Jackal Jujube.

Ayurvedic: Laghu-badara, Shrgaala- badari.

Siddha/Tamil: Soorai.

Action: Fruits—stomachic. Root— given for hyperacidity and ascaris infection.

Stem bark and root bark contain cy- clopeptide alkaloids—zizyphines A, B, C, D, E, F and G, and zizyphinine. The bark contains 12% tannin.

Aerial parts exhibit diuretic and hy- potensive activity.... ziziphus oenoplia

Zosima Orientalis


Synonym: Z. absinthifolia Link.

Family: Umbelliferae; Apiaceae.

Habitat: West Asia. Recorded from Maharashtra.

Action: Herb—used for cough and bowel disorders.

The fruits and roots yield a mixture of coumarin lactones, 1.5% and 3.2% respectively; these include two isomeric dihydrofurocoumarins—zosimin and deltonin. On saponification, zosimin yielded a hydroxyacetone called zosi- mol and cis-2,3-dimethyl acrylic acid. It showed antitumour activity against Ehrlich ascites cells in vitro.

Herbal cheese is prepared from the fresh leaves and stems in Turkey.... zosima orientalis


A combination of honey (5 parts) and Vinegar (1 part) used to mask the unpleasant taste of certain herbs (Squills, Asafoetida, etc). Medicaments are added and the whole simmered gently until the consistency of treacle. Dose, according to medicament. Internally, or as a mouthwash and gargle. ... oxymel

Agent Orange

A herbicide of which the major constituent is the phenoxy acid herbicide 2,4,5 T.

This substance may be contaminated in manufacture with the highly toxic , commonly known as dioxin (see defoliant poisoning).... agent orange

Zingiber Officinale


Family: Zingiberaceae.

Habitat: Native to Southeast Asia; now cultivated mainly in Kerala, Andhra Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, Maharashtra.

English: Ginger.

Ayurvedic: Fresh rhizome— Aardraka, Aadrikaa, Shrngibera, shrngavera, Katubhadra. Dried rhi- zome—Shunthi, Naagara, Naagaraa, Naagaraka, Aushadha, Mahaushad- ha, Vishvaa, Vishvabheshaja, Vishvaaushadha.

Unani: Fresh rhizome—Zanjabeel- e-Ratab, Al-Zanjabeel. Dried rhizome—zanjabeel, Zanjabeel-e- yaabis.

Siddha: Fresh rhizome—Inji, Allam, Lokottai. Dried rhizome— chukku, Sunthi.

Action: Rhizome—antiemetic, antiflatulent, hypocholesterolaemic, anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, expectorant, circulatory stimulant, diaphoretic, increases bioavailabil- ity of prescription drugs. Used for irritable bowel and diarrhoea, colds and influenza. Showed encouraging results in migraine and cluster headache (J Ethnophar- macol, 1990, 29, 267-273; Aust J Med Herbalism, 1995, 7/3, 6978; Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, 2007.) The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India recommends dried rhizomes in dyspepsia, loss of appetite, tympanitis, anaemia, rheumatism, cough and dyspnoea; fresh rhizomes in constipation, colic, oedema and throat infections.

Key application: For dyspepsia and prevention of motion sickness (German Commission E); vomiting of pregnancy, anorexia, bronchitis and rheumatic complaints (The British Herbal Compendium); as a post-operative antiemetic. (ESCOP).

The rhizome contains an essential oil containing monoterpenes, mainly geranial and neral; and sesquiterpenes, mainly beta-sesquiphellandrene, beta- bisabolene, ar-curcumene and alpha- zingiberene; pungent principles, consisting of gingerols, shogaols and related phenolic ketone derivatives. Other constituents include diarylheptenones, diterpenes, gingesulphonic acid and monoacyldigalactosyl glycerols.

Gingerol and shogaol have been shown to suppress gastric contractions. Both fresh and dried rhizomes suppress gastric secretion and reduce vomiting. Gingerol and shogaol have gained importance due to their sedative, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, analgesic, hypotensive and hepatopro- tective activities.

Cardiotonic effects of ginger has been attributed to 6-and 8-shagaols and gingerols. (Antithrombotic effects remain unconfirmed.) Antimigraine effect is due to ginger's ability to decrease platelet aggregation. It also acts as a potent inhibitor of prostaglandins which enhance release of substance P from trigeminal fibers. (PDR, 2004.)

Indian ginger is considered only second to Jamaican in quality.

There are three main types of Indian ginger—Cochin ginger (light brown or yellowish grey; Calicut ginger from Malabar (orange or reddish brown, resembling African ginger) and Kolkata ginger (greyish brown to greyish blue).... zingiber officinale

Arthritis – Osteo

Osteo-arthritis. Erosion of cartilage of a joint with pain and stiffness. “Wear and tear” arthritis of the over 50s, affecting hands, knees, spine or hips. Biochemical changes in the cartilage stimulate overgrowth of bone cells (hyperplasia) which is an effort by the body to correct the disturbance.

Common in the elderly and menopausal women. Calcium salts may be laid down in a joint believed to be due to errors of diet. Small crystals of calcium hydroxyapatite have been observed to form in cartilage and synovial fluid. (Research group: St Bartholomew’s Hospital, London)

The aged sometimes suffer from diminished supply of hydrochloric acid in the stomach, and which is necessary for normal calcium metabolism. An effective substitute is 2 teaspoons cider vinegar in a glass of water sipped before or during meals.

Alte rnative s. Black Cohosh and Meadowsweet (natural sources of salicylic acid), Asafoetida (inflammation of connective tissue), Hawthorn (efficient circulation of the blood), Poke root, Bladderwrack, Guaiacum, Devil’s Claw, Bogbean, White Poplar bark, Yucca leaves.

Tea. Celery seeds. 1 teaspoon to each cup boiling water. Infuse 15 minutes. Half-1 cup, 2-3 times daily, before meals. Comfrey tea.

Alternative formulae:– Powders. White Willow 2; Devil’s Claw 1; Black Cohosh half; Guaiacum quarter. Mix. Dose: 500mg (two 00 capsules or one-third teaspoon). Thrice daily in water or Nettle tea. Liquid extracts. White Willow 2; Devil’s Claw 1; Bogbean 1; Fennel 1; Tincture Capsicum quarter. Mix. 1 teaspoon thrice daily in water or Nettle tea.

Tinctures. Bogbean 2; Meadowsweet 2; Black Cohosh 1; Guaiacum quarter; Peppermint quarter. Mix. Dose: 2 teaspoons thrice daily.

Tablets/capsules: Devil’s Claw, Wild Yam, Ligvites.

Cod liver oil. Chief of the iodised oils. Can reach and nourish cartilage by the process of osmosis. Its constituents filter into cartilage, imparting increased elasticity which prevents degeneration. Known to soften-up fibrous tissue. 2 teaspoons once daily. Also helps correct uric acid metabolism.

Topical. Physiotherapy. Osteopathy. Jojoba oil packs. Capsicum Cream. Hot and cold compresses twice daily – followed by a cold compress at night, leaving on when in bed. Hot Epsom salt bath twice weekly. Diet. Oily fish: see entry. Low fat. Low salt. High fibre. Avoid lemons and other citrus fruits. Lemon juice may remove some calculi from the body but later begins to remove calcium from the bones. Supplementation. Pantothenic acid 10mg; Vitamin A 7500iu; Vitamin B6 25mg; Vitamin E 400iu; Zinc 25mg.

General. Warm dry climate often relieves. Surgery may be necessary. Herbs Pleurisy root, Comfrey root and Bryonia, sustain the constitution and promote tissue healing after joint replacements with ceramic substitute after the famous Charnley operation. The condition is disabling but it is possible to manage successfully, maintaining normal activities with minimum difficulty. ... arthritis – osteo

Billroth’s Operation

A type of partial gastrectomy in which the lower part of the stomach is removed. Once used as a surgical treatment for peptic ulcers, it has now largely been replaced by treatment with antibiotic drugs.... billroth’s operation

Brace, Orthopaedic

An appliance worn to support part of the body or hold it in a fixed position. It may be used to correct or halt the development of a deformity, to aid mobility, or to relieve pain. (See also caliper splint; corset; splint.)... brace, orthopaedic

Cancer – Oesophagus

Usually epithelial in character, similar to that of the lips. Mostly in males.

Seldom before 45 years. Frequently in lower one-third of gullet. Dysphagia, with sense of obstruction on swallowing food. May perforate wall of trachea. Pain, worse at night, radiates from an exact spot. Eating hot food and drinking piping hot tea are heavily suspect.

At risk. Heavy smokers and alcoholics with depleted reserves of Vitamin A and zinc. These two factors play an important role in modern treatment.

Occurs in areas where the soil is low in molybdenum which causes plants to have a high level of nitrates. When such plants are stored they form nitrites which in turn form nitrosamines – which are carcinogens. Experimental rats given nitrous amines have a strong tendency to form cancer of the oesophagus. Eating pickled vegetables carries a high risk.

There are a few areas of the world where these adverse soil conditions pertain – one in Iran, another in Calvados, but the worst was in Lin Xian of the province of Honan, China. In Lin Xian, in the 1970s, it was found that villagers ate mainly persimmon and corn cakes and pickled vegetables. These, and their water, were high in nitrates. It was also their habit to eat mouldy bread which is high in amines – even nitrosamines. Their food was deficient in Vitamin C, which is likely to produce nitrous amines in the stomach.

The molybdenum problem was solved by sowing seeds with a fertiliser containing molybdenum. Piped water replaced old cistern wells and food was carefully stored. Even the chickens oesophageal cancers were cured. As a result of modern scientific investigation and treatment in which medicinal herbs made an important contribution, what was once a high gullet cancer area was resolved into one of the success stories of modern medicine.

Tannin has long been identified as a cancer-causing chemical, supported by findings of a high incidence of the disease among those who consume large quantities of tannin-containing beverages such as tea. Milk binds with tannin and is advised in tea-drinking where lemon is not taken.

Solid drugs and tablets should not be swallowed in the recumbent position without chewing a piece of banana.

Symptoms. (1) Sensation of obstruction when swallowing food. (2) Sharp pain behind breastbone. (3) “Something stuck in the gullet.” (4) Stomach ache, dry throat. (5) Belching when taking food. (6) Soreness of the upper back. (Dr Ge-ming, Lin Xian, Province of Honan, Chinese People’s Republic)

Of possible value. Alternatives:– Tea. Equal parts: Chaparral, Gotu Kola, Red Clover. 1 heaped teaspoon to each cup boiling water; infuse 15 minutes. Drink freely.

Powders. Combination. Goldenseal 1; Echinacea 2; Slippery Elm 3. Dose: 750mg (three 00 capsules or half a teaspoon). 3 or more times daily.

Tinctures. Combination. Goldenseal 1; Bayberry 1; Thuja 1; Condurango 1; Rosebay Willowherb 2. One teaspoon 3 or more times daily.

Chinese Herbalism. Powdered Huang yao-tzu 3 ch’ien, 3 times daily. Remedy is prepared by taking 12 liang of huang yao-tzu and steeping in 3 chin of white wine 24 hours. Then place huang yao-tzu in cold water and soak for another 7 days and 7 nights. Take out, dry and crush into powder. (A Barefoot Doctor’s Manual)

Diet. Leafy vegetables, carrots, tomatoes and fruit help to protect against the disease. Supplements. Especially Vitamin A, zinc and molybdenum.

Treatment by a general medical practitioner or hospital oncologist. ... cancer – oesophagus

Collar, Orthopaedic

A soft foam or stiffened device that is worn to treat pain or instability of the neck.... collar, orthopaedic

Drug Overdose

The taking of an excessive amount of a drug, which may cause toxic effects (see drug poisoning).... drug overdose

Emulsifying Ointment

A type of emollient containing emulsifying wax, white soft paraffin, and liquid paraffin that is used to smooth, soothe, and hydrate the skin in all dry or scaling conditions.

Rarely, ingredients such as preservatives may result in sensitization.... emulsifying ointment


Acute inflammation of a testis along with its associated epididymis. Epididymo-orchitis causes severe pain and swelling at the back of the testis, and, in severe cases, swelling and redness of the scrotum.

The inflammation is caused by infection. Often, there is no obvious source of infection, but sometimes the cause is a bacterial urinary tract infection that has spread via the vas deferens to the epididymis. Treatment is with antibiotic drugs. If there is an underlying urinary tract infection, its cause will be investigated. (See also orchitis.)... epididymo-orchitis

Forceps, Obstetric

Surgical instruments that are used in forceps delivery to deliver the head of a baby in a difficult labour. Obstetric forceps consist of 2 blades that can be locked together and that cup the baby’s head.... forceps, obstetric

Cancer – Ovaries

Ovarian carcinoma. The fifth most common cause of death in women. Often together with bowel and breast cancers. Adeno-carcinoma. Prognosis poor because of delay in seeking medical advise.

Symptoms. Failing appetite, weight loss, flatulence, bowel symptoms, bladder disturbance, abdominal pain, clothes tight around the abdomen. The disease usually presents after the age of 45, users of contraceptives having a lower risk of development.

Risk of ovarian cancer has been related to women who consume too much animal fat and too little vegetable fat (JAM Nov. 1984). A similar risk is recorded in a report from Milan providing strong evidence of its relation to excessive coffee consumption.

Researchers at John Hopkin’s University, Baltimore, USA, report success with Taxol, extracted from the bark of the Pacific Yew Tree, given intravenously to 40 women with ovarian cancer resistant to other therapies, caused a 50 per cent decrease in size of the tumours. (New Scientist 1989, 1687, p37) Treatment. Should it be necessary to defer surgery or cytotoxic chemotherapy, any of the following alternatives may be taken with profit, or prescribed as secondary to primary treatment.

Tea. Equal parts: Agnus Castus, Gotu Kola, Red Clover. 1 heaped teaspoon to each cup boiling water; infuse 5-15 minutes. Drink freely.

Formula. Cramp bark 3; Liquorice 1; Thuja 1; Poke root half. Mix. Dose: Powders: 750mg (three 00 capsules or half a teaspoon). Liquid extracts: 1 teaspoon. Tinctures: 2 teaspoons. Thrice daily.

Vaginal pack. 8 parts Slippery Elm powder mixed with 1 part Thuja powder in a little water to form a paste; saturate tampon and insert.

Dr J. Christopher. For pre- and post-operative pain: Black Willow.

British Herbal Pharmacopoeia. Cramp bark for pain.

Diet. See: DIET – CANCER. Drinks of Violet leaf tea freely.

Supplements. Post-operative treatment should include Comfrey and Calcium to counter the loss of calcium on surgical removal, with possible brittle and broken bones in ageing women.

Note: When a potential lesion is found, a pelvic ultrasound scan may confirm.

Treatment by gynaecologist or oncologist. ... cancer – ovaries

Essential Oils

Volatile oils. Out of 250,000 flowering plants only 2,000 yield essential oils. Soluble in alcohol, colourless. Contained in plants, they are responsible for taste, aroma and medicinal action. Organic properties give the flower its scent. May be anti-bacterial, antispasmodic, sedative, expectorant, antiseptic, anti-inflammatory. The smell of a flower roughly conveys the potency of its oil. An example is menthol in the mint family.

Oils used in Phytotherapy: Almond, English Chamomile, Aniseed, Bergamot, Black Pepper, Buchu, Camphor, Cedarwood, Cloves, Coriander, Cypress, Eucalyptus, Geranium, Juniper, Lavender (French), Lavender (English), Lavender (Spanish), Lemon, Marjoram, Orange (sweet), Patchouli, Peppermint, Pine (Scots), Rosemary, Sage, Sandalwood, Thyme, Spearmint, St John’s Wort, Turpentine, Ylang Ylang.

Most oils are obtained by steam distillation. Being highly concentrated, internal use is by a few drops, diluted. About 30-40 are used medicinally; each having its own specific healing properties. Some are convenient as inhalants; a few drops on a tissue for relief of catarrh, colds, etc. Fragrant burners and electronic diffusers are available for vapour-inhalation. Bring to boil 2 pints water; allow to stand 3-4 minutes; sprinkle on the surface 5-10 drops Eucalyptus oil and with towel over head, inhale steam, 5-10 minutes.

Examples: (a) equal parts dilute oils of Thyme and Hypericum (acute middle ear inflammation) 3-4 drops injected into ear 2-3 times daily. (b) 10 drops oil Marjoram in bath water for cramp. Eucalyptus is a useful antibacterial; Cinnamon (anti-inflammatory), Juniper (urinary antiseptic), Orange blossom (anti- depressant), Lavender (sedative).

Essential oils should never be used neat, except as prescribed by a suitably qualified practitioner. While aromatherapists do not prescribe internally, Dr Paul Belaiche, one of France’s leading experts on essential oils, advises oral medication at a maximum daily dosage of 12 drops according to the oil. He advises drops on the tongue, on activated charcoal, in capsule form using a suitable excipient or vegetable oil, or mixed with a little honey. Anal injection has proved successful, (8-10 drops in 10ml vegetable oil) or suppositories made from 200-300mg (8-10 drops) essential oil to 2 grams of base per suppository. Oils should never be allowed to touch the eyes.

Capsules of Garlic oil may be inserted into the rectum for worms or prostate disorder. OR: 10 drops oil mixed with 10ml vegetable oil and injected with the aid of a pipette. Dilute oil of Thyme is used as a massage-rub for chest infections. Oil of Cloves is not only an antiseptic but an analgesic to assuage moderate dental pain. Volatile oils reflexly stimulate the medulla through the olfactory nerve, thus promoting appetite and flow of saliva. All stimulate production of white blood cells and thereby support the immune system.

Oils not used: Basil, Bitter Almonds, Boldo, Calamus, Horseradish, Mugwort, Mustard, Pennyroyal, Rue, Sassafras, Savin, Tansy, Thuja, Wormseed.

Oils not used in pregnancy: Bay, Buchu, Chamomile, Clary Sage, Cinnamon, Clove, Fennel, Hyssop, Juniper, Marjoram, Myrrh, Peppermint, Rose, Rosemary, Sage, Thyme. All other oils – half the normal amount.

Tea: 2-3 drops, selected oil, on teabag makes 3 cups tea.

Inhalant: 10 drops on tissue, or same amount in hot water to inhale steam.

Bath water: add: 10-15 drops.

Compress: 10-15 drops in half a cup (75ml) milk or water. Soak suitable material and apply.

Massage: 6 drops in two teaspoons ‘carrier’ vegetable oil (Almond, Peanut, Olive, etc).

Fragrant oils replace hospital smell.

Essential oil suppliers: Butterbur and Sage, 101 Highgrove Street, Reading RG1 5EJ. Also: Shirley Price Aromatherapy, Wesley House, Stockwell Road, Hinckley, Leics LE10 1RD. ... essential oils

Hygiene, Oral

See oral hygiene.... hygiene, oral

Hyperbaric Oxygen Treatment

A method of increasing the amount of oxygen in the tissues.

This is achieved by placing a person in a special chamber and exposing him or her to oxygen at a much higher atmospheric pressure than normal.

Hyperbaric oxygen treatment is used to treat poisoning from carbon monoxide and in cases of gas gangrene.... hyperbaric oxygen treatment

Hypoglycaemics, Oral

A group of antidiabetic drugs that are used to lower blood glucose.

Too high a dose may provoke the onset of hypoglycaemia.... hypoglycaemics, oral

Lung Disease, Chronic Obstructive

See pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive.... lung disease, chronic obstructive

Fish Oils

It is now accepted that oily fish is good for the heart, arthritis, skin disorders and some cases of chronic headache.

In Greenland, where much oily fish is eaten, heart disease is scarcely known. Each year over 200,000 people in Britain alone die of heart disease. Western affluence-diseases from a diet of excess saturated fat (from meat, butter, etc) may be reduced by modest amounts of oily fish.

A daily intake of 800 milligrams of essential fatty acids as contained in herring, mackerel, cod, etc., can play a decisive role in cardiac treatments. Such fish may be eaten twice weekly. On days when not taken, supplement with pure fish oil or fish oil capsules. As little as 1oz (30 grams) of mackerel, herring or other similar fish is sufficient.

When eating oily fish only twice a week a teaspoon of pure fish oil or dessertspoon cod liver oil daily is sufficient.

Labels of fish oils should be carefully studied for their DHA and EPA content in milligrams. Add together to a total 800 milligrams – average daily dose.

Fish oils can lower the level of triglycerides and reduce ‘stickiness’ of the blood – its tendency to clot and possibly block coronary vessels. As fish oil Vitamin A contains 10,000iu of Retinol, it should not be taken for extended periods without the advice of a practitioner. ... fish oils

Hip Replacement Operation

Athroplasty. Success rate: high. Commonest indication: osteo- arthritis of hip. A lesser risk of sepsis occurs in first operation than in subsequent ones. Infection is suspected when acetabular loosening is present in conjunction with femoral loosening. Echinacea is the key remedy for combatting infection and for enhancing the patient’s resistance. Comfrey root promotes healing of bone tissue. St John’s Wort gives partial relief in post-operative pain. Horsetail is a source of readily absorbable iron and calcium. For slow healing, a liver agent (Fringe Tree) may be indicated. Alternatives. Teas. Comfrey leaves, Calendula, St John’s Wort, Gotu Kola, Plantain.

Tablets/capsules. St John’s Wort.

Formula. Comfrey root 2; St John’s Wort 1; Echinacea 2; trace of Cayenne (Capsicum). Dose – Powders: 750mg (three 00 capsules or half a teaspoon). Liquid Extracts: 1-2 teaspoons. Tinctures: 1-3 teaspoons. Effect is enhanced when doses are taken in cup of Comfrey herb tea. Other agents to promote renewal of tissue. Slippery Elm bark, Fenugreek seeds, Wild Yam, Carragheen Moss.

Discomfort from a scar. Aloe Vera gel, Calendula, Comfrey or Chickweed cream or ointment. See: CASTOR OIL PACK.

Diet. High protein, oily fish or fish oils.

Supplements. Vitamin C: 3-6g daily. Calcium ascorbate, Zinc. Magnesium. Cod Liver oil for Vitamins A and D; 2 teaspoons daily.

Note: Where titanium alloy implants are used for this operation serum levels of the metal are likely to show up higher than normal. Raised serum titanium has been linked with lung cancer, osteoporosis, and platelet suppression. A New Zealand study has found deaths from cancer were significantly higher in patients having had a metal hip replacement. See: CHELATION.

Comfrey. Potential benefit far outweighs possible risk. ... hip replacement operation

Hippocrates – Oath Of

“I Swear . . . To my master in the healing art I shall pay the same respect as to my parents, and I shall share my life with him and pay all my debts to him. I shall regard his sons as my brothers, and I shall teach them the healing art if they desire to learn it, without fee or contract. I shall hand-on precepts, lectures and all other learning to my sons, to my master’s sons and to those pupils who are duly apprenticed and sworn, and to no others.

I will use my power to help the sick to the best of my ability and judgement. I will abstain from harming or wronging any man.

I will not give a fatal draught to anyone, even if it is demanded of me, nor will I suggest the giving of the draught. I will give no woman the means of procuring an abortion.

I will be chaste and holy in my life and actions. I will not cut, even for the stone, but I will leave all cutting to the practitioners of the craft.

Whenever I enter a house, I shall help the sick, and never shall I do any harm or injury. I will not indulge in sexual union with the bodies of women or men, whether free or slaves.

Whatever I see or hear, either in my profession or in private, I shall never divulge. All secrets shall be safe with me. If therefore I observe this Oath, may prosperity come to me and may I earn good repute among men through all the ages. If I break the Oath, may I receive the punishment given to all transgressors.” ... hippocrates – oath of

Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors

Also known as MAOIs, one of the 3 main types of antidepressant drug.

They work by preventing the breakdown of certain neurotransmitters by the enzyme monoamine oxidase.

The increased levels of neurotransmitters that result are associated with improved mood.

Common drugs include phenelzine and isocarboxazid.

All MAOIs interact with certain other drugs and foods such as cheese and red wine; but moclobemide is known as a reversible , which makes the adverse reactions less likely to occur.... monoamine oxidase inhibitors

Nasal Obstruction

Blockage of the nasal passage on 1 or both sides of the nose.

The most common cause of nasal obstruction is inflammation of the mucous membrane lining the passage (see nasal congestion).

Other causes include deviation of the nasal septum, nasal polyps, a haematoma (a collection of clotted blood) usually caused by injury, and, rarely, a cancerous tumour.

In children, enlargement of the adenoids is the most common cause of nasal obstruction.... nasal obstruction

Jaundice, Obstructive

 May be due to hold-up in flow of bile from the liver down the bile duct. Bile enters the blood and is borne round the body by the circulation. Obstruction may be due to a gall stone lodged in the gall duct, or to a swelling of the liver or pancreas.

Symptoms: skin has a yellow tinge especially whites of the eyes. Motions become clay-coloured due to absence of bile in the intestines. Bitter herbs keep the bile fluid and flowing.

Alternatives. Teas. Agrimony, Bogbean, Clivers, Hyssop. Mix. One heaped teaspoon to each cup boiling water; infuse 15 minutes. 1 cup freely.

Decoction. 2 teaspoons shredded Gentian root to each cup cold water. Allow to stand overnight. Half cup every two hours.

Tablets/capsules. Dandelion, Goldenseal, Prickly Ash.

Formula. Milk Thistle 2; Blue Flag root 1; Valerian half. Dose – Powders: 500mg (two 00 capsules or one-third teaspoon). Liquid Extracts: one 5ml teaspoon. Tinctures: two 5ml teaspoons. Every 3 hours. Frank Roberts MNIMH. Liquid extracts: Celandine (greater), Butternut, Fringe Tree, Dandelion; 2 drachms (8ml) of each. Purified or spring water to 12oz. Dose: tablespoon every 2 hours. ... jaundice, obstructive

Oils, Impregnated

 Properties of herbs may be extracted into an oil base, such as Olive or other vegetable oil in the proportion of 250g dried or 750g fresh herb to 1 pint (500ml) oil.

Bruise herbs with a rolling pin (double quantity for fresh herb). Add oil. Simmer in low heat until herbs change colour – about 1 hour. Strain into bottles.

Alternative. Place crushed herb, preferably flowers, in the oil in a wide-mouthed bottle or jar. Cover. Shake daily. After 3 days, strain off and replenish with fresh material. Repeat the process 3 or 4 times until the oil is saturated with essence of the flowers (or herb). Strain and bottle. Method suitable for Lavender, Rosemary, Bergamot, Rose petals, Mullein and Chamomile.

Sunflower oil is used in general practice, although Olive or other vegetable oil proves satisfactory. ... oils, impregnated


Frankincense. Boswellia carteri, Birdw. Gum.

Since ancient times is still used in China, India, other Far Eastern countries and the Catholic Church as incense. With it, Egyptians embalmed their dead.

Action: used internally in drop doses of the tincture as an antimicrobial, antiseptic, diuretic and tonic. Uses. Historic remedy for venereal disease, open sores, suppurating wounds, tumour and cancer. Not confirmed by present-day research.

Preparation. Tincture: 1 part gum to 20 parts 90 per cent alcohol; macerate 8 days; shake daily, filter, bottle. Dose: 1-5 drops in water thrice daily. Or use as a lotion for suppurating external lesions; may be diluted many times. ... olibanum

Occult Blood, Faecal

The presence in the faeces of blood that cannot be seen by the naked eye, but can be detected by chemical tests. Such tests are widely used in screening for cancer of the colon (see colon, cancer of). Faecal occult blood may also be a sign of a gastrointestinal disorder such as oesophagitis, gastritis, or stomach cancer; cancer of the intestine (see intestine, cancer of); rectal cancer (see rectum, cancer of); diverticular disease; polyps in the colon; ulcerative colitis; or irritation of the stomach or intestine by drugs such as aspirin. (See also rectal bleeding.)... occult blood, faecal

Ointment Bases

Ointments are semi-solid preparations of a plant remedy in a non-aqueous base to protect, nourish or convey medication to the skin. They are made from a base. A herbal powder or fine- cut material is usually added to the base which will vary according to the substance used. Vaseline is popular as a base, yet many combinations are serviceable from which the following are a small selection. Ointments should not be made in plastic or aluminium vessels.

Perhaps the simplest base is lard or butter, as used by Maria Treben. 2 handfuls (4oz or 120g) finely chopped herbs are digested in 500g lard or butter. Heat gently one hour. Stand overnight. Should be sufficiently fluid next morning to filter through muslin or a wire-mesh strainer. Pour into jars. Very effective but its life is not more than a few weeks.

((a) Vaseline base. Dissolve vaseline. Place 1oz (handful) fresh herb (say . . . Chickweed) or tablespoon dried herb (or 2 teaspoons powder) in 7oz (100g) vaseline melted in low heat. Simmer gently 15 minutes, stirring all the time. Strain through a wire-mesh strainer while hot and pour into air-tight containers.

(b) Vaseline base. To incorporate essential oils; i.e. Oil of Eucalyptus 2ml; Oil of Pine 1ml; Oil of Peppermint 2ml; vaseline to 30 gram. Melt the vaseline. Add oils. Stir until cold. Makes a useful inhalant ointment applied directly to the frontal sinus areas, or inhaled from boiling water. (Fred Fletcher Hyde) (c) Mixed base, suitable for holding liquid extracts, tinctures. Ingredients: parts, Almond oil 12; Liquid Extract (say . . . Comfrey) 5; powdered gum Acacia 3; water (preferably distilled) to 100.

Method: Rub together a small equal amount of well-sieved Acacia powder and water to form a paste – best performed in a pestle and mortar. Add the Almond oil. Mix. Add liquid extract, tincture or oil slowly until a good consistency is reached. Slowly add remaining water and stir. Store in airtight glass jars.

(d) Olive and Beeswax base. Ingredients: 2oz beeswax; 16oz Olive oil.

Method: cut beeswax into slices and dissolve in the Olive oil on a low heat. Stir until all beeswax is dissolved. Place in a stone jar or pyrex vessel 12oz aerial parts of fresh herb material (Marigold, Plantain, Chickweed etc) or 4oz hard woody parts, roots or barks (Comfrey, Marshmallow, etc). Pour on the Olive oil and beeswax. Place in a warm oven for 3 hours; give an occasional stir. While still hot, strain through a wire-mesh strainer into pots. Store in a refrigerator. Where powders are used, the proportion is 2oz for every 16oz Olive oil.

((e) Coconut oil base. Dissolve 7 parts Coconut oil. Add 5 parts powdered herbs and 6 parts beeswax. Simmer gently 1 and a half hours. Strain through warm wire mesh strainer or muslin. Filter if necessary. Pour into jars.

(f) Pile ointment. Prepare, vaseline base. Add, Liquid Extract Pilewort 5 per cent, Liquid Extract Witch Hazel 5 per cent; Tincture Benzoin 5 per cent; Menthol 2 and a half per cent.

((g) Pain Reliever. Prepare, vaseline base. Add Menthol 2 per cent; Eucalyptus 2 per cent; Camphor 2 per cent; Oil of Mustard 0.2 per cent.

(h) Russian traditional. It is still common in country practice to simmer popular herbs (Marigold, Arnica, St John’s Wort) in butter, as above.

Preservatives. Length of life of above ointments is increased by addition of Benzoic acid, Nipagen, etc. Benzoinated lard was once a popular base used in pharmacy. Ointments containing volatile oils should be kept in porcelain or glass pots in preference to synthetic containers. All ointments should be stored out of the light and in a cool place.

Marshmallow and Slippery Elm ointment has a long traditional reputation as a general purposes ointment. ... ointment bases

Olive Leaves

Olea europea L. Other names: see OLIVE.

Action: hypoglycaemic, hypotensive, diuretic, antispasmodic (mild), astringent diuretic, febrifuge, vulnerary, vasodilator, cholagogue.

Uses: To dilate coronary arteries and improve circulation of blood through the heart. Moderately high blood pressure. Infection of the urinary tract. Nephritis. To lower blood sugar – diabetes. To facilitate passage of gall-stones.

Preparations: Thrice daily.

Tea. 20-30g in 500ml (1 pint) boiling water; infuse 20 minutes. Dose: half-1 cup.

Decoction. 50-60g in 500ml water, gently simmer 10 minutes; stand 20 minutes. Dose:quarter to half a cup.

Powder, capsules: 210mg, 2 capsules. (Arkocaps) ... olive leaves

Opium Poppy

Papaver somniferum L. Prescription by a medical practitioner only. Contains morphine alkaloids and codeine. Analgesic, narcotic.

Although medication with opiates is addictive and its abuse ranges from dependence to death, use of crushed poppyheads as a topical poultice for crippling pain, as in terminal disease of chest or abdomen, is worthy of consideration. In an age before modern drugs and anaesthetics this was one of the few solaces available. Even today, there are a few situations for which this deep-acting pain-killer is indicated as, for instance, wounds healed but not without pain.

In spite of the plethora of modern drugs to combat the pain of terminal illness, few are as effective as the greatest anodyne of all time which led the eminent Sydenham to say “. . . if it were expunged from the pharmacopoeia, I would give up the practise of medicine”. ... opium poppy

Oesophageal Dilatation

A procedure to stretch the oesophagus when it has been narrowed by disease (see oesophageal stricture) and swallowing is difficult. Endoscopy is used to locate the obstruction. The narrowed area is then stretched by passing bougies (cylindrical rods with olive-shaped tips) down the oesophagus, or by using balloon catheters.... oesophageal dilatation

Otitis Media – Glue Ear

Secretory form. A common form of inflammation of the middle ear in children and which may be responsible for conduction deafness.

Causes: chronic catarrh with obstruction of the Eustachian tubes of dietetic origin. Starchy foods should be severely restricted. The ear is clogged with a sticky fluid usually caused by enlarged adenoids blocking the ventilation duct which connects the cavity with the back of the throat.

Conventional treatment consists of insertion of ‘grommets’ – tiny flanged plastic tubes about one millimetre long – which are inserted into the eardrum, thus ensuring a free flow of air into the cavity.

Fluid usually disappears and hearing returns to normal.

Tre atme nt. Underlying cause treated – adenoids, tonsils, etc. Sinus wash-out with Soapwort, Elderflowers, Mullein or Marshmallow tea. Internal treatment with anti-catarrhals to disperse. Alternatives:– German Chamomile tea. (Traditional German).

Teas. Boneset, Cayenne, Coltsfoot, Elderflowers, Eyebright, Hyssop, Marshmallow leaves, Mullein, Mint, Yarrow.

Powders. Combine: Echinacea 2; Goldenseal quarter; Myrrh quarter; Liquorice half. Dose: 500mg (two 00 capsules or one-third teaspoon), thrice daily.

Tinctures. Combine: Echinacea 2; Yarrow 1; Plantain 1. Drops: Tincture Capsicum. Dose: 1-2 teaspoons thrice daily.

Topical. Castor oil drops, with cotton wool ear plugs, Oils of Garlic or Mullein. If not available, use Almond oil. Hopi Indian Ear Candles for mild suction and to impart a perceptible pressure regulation of sinuses and aural fluids.

Diet. Gluten-free diet certain. No confectionery, chocolate, etc. Salt-free. Low-starch. Milk-free. Abundance of fruits and raw green salad materials. Supplements. Vitamins A, B-complex, C. E. ... otitis media – glue ear

Ozone Radiation

Harmful ultraviolet radiation from depletion of the ozone layer may affect general health and cause skin cancers, cataracts and immune deficiency. The protection offered by antioxidant nutrients can play a part in reducing the incidence of lens cataract. Until scientific medicine discovers effective treatment it would appear that Vitamins A, E, and Evening Primrose oil have a role to play in protection of the eyes and skin. Horsetail, rich in silica, is believed to delay progression of cataract when taken internally.

Topical. Creams to prevent burning: Vitamin E, Evening Primrose, Houseleek, Aloe Vera. Honey. Most creams contain Vitamin E which acts as a filter and moisturiser.

Diet. Foods rich in beta-carotene, Vitamins C and E.

Supplements. Vitamins A and E.

Note: Use of sunglasses and sun screens on sunny days to avoid burning. Wearing of a hat. ... ozone radiation

Brain Syndrome, Organic

Disorder of consciousness, intellect, or mental functioning that is of organic (physical), as opposed to psychiatric, origin. Causes include degenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease; infections; certain drugs; or the effects of injury, stroke, or tumour. Symptoms range from mild confusion to stupor or coma. They may also include disorientation, memory loss, hallucinations, and delusions (see delirium). In the chronic form, there is a progressive decline in intellect, memory, and behaviour (see dementia). Treatment is more likely to be successful with the acute form. In chronic cases, irreversible brain damage may already have occurred. (See also psychosis.)... brain syndrome, organic

Oesophageal Diverticulum

A sac-like protrusion of part of the oesophagus wall in which food becomes trapped, causing irritation, difficulty swallowing, halitosis, and regurgitation. A diverticulum is usually removed surgically.... oesophageal diverticulum

Oesophageal Speech

A technique for producing speech after surgical removal of the larynx (see laryngectomy).

Air is trapped in the oesophagus and is gradually expelled while the tongue, palate, and lips form distinguishable sounds.... oesophageal speech


Examination of the oesophagus and stomach using an endoscope (see gastroscopy).... oesophagogastroscopy


Endoscopic examination of the oesophagus (see gastroscopy).... oesophagoscopy

Oestrogen Hormones

A group of hormones that are essential for normal female sexual development and healthy functioning of the reproductive system.

In women, they are produced mainly in the ovaries and also in the placenta in pregnancy.

Small amounts are produced in the adrenal glands in both men and women, but oestrogens have no known specific function in men.

When levels are low, oestrogen hormones can be replaced with oestrogen drugs.... oestrogen hormones

Bypass Operations

Procedures to bypass the blockage or narrowing of an artery or vein or any part of the digestive system. Arteries can become blocked or narrowed in atherosclerosis. Obstructions can be bypassed using sections of healthy artery or vein from elsewhere in the body or using synthetic tubing. Veins are bypassed most often in patients with diseases of the liver that cause portal hypertension and bleeding oesophageal varices. This kind of bypass is called a shunt. Intestinal bypasses are employed most commonly in patients with cancer in which tumour growth is too extensive to be removed. An obstructed bile duct can be bypassed by constructing a new opening into the digestive tract. (See also coronary artery bypass.)... bypass operations

Cervical Osteoarthritis

A degenerative disorder, also known as cervical spondylitis, that affects the joints between the cervical vertebrae (bones in the neck). Cervical osteoarthritis mainly affects middle-aged and elderly people, but occasionally the degeneration begins earlier due to an injury.

Symptoms of cervical osteoarthritis may include pain and stiffness in the neck, pain in the arms and shoulders, numbness and tingling in the hands, and a weak grip. Other symptoms such as dizziness, unsteadiness, and double vision when turning the head may also occur. Rarely, pressure on the spinal cord can cause weakness or paralysis in the legs and loss of bladder control.

Treatments include heat treatment and analgesics.

Physiotherapy may improve neck posture and movement.

Pressure on the spinal cord may be relieved by surgery (see decompression, spinal canal).... cervical osteoarthritis

Fats And Oils

Nutrients that provide the body with its most concentrated form of energy. Fats, which are also called lipids, are compounds containing chains of carbon and hydrogen with very little oxygen. Chemically, fats consist mostly of fatty acids combined with glycerol. They are divided into 2 main groups, saturated and unsaturated, depending on the proportion of hydrogen atoms. If the fatty acids contain the maximum possible quantity of hydrogen, the fats are saturated. If some sites on the carbon chain are unoccupied by hydrogen, they are unsaturated; when many sites are vacant, they are polyunsaturated. Monounsaturated fats are unsaturated fats with only one site that could take an extra hydrogen. Animal fats, such as those in meat and dairy products, are largely saturated, whereas vegetable fats tend to be unsaturated.

Fats are usually solid at room temperature; oils are liquid. The amount and types of fat in the diet have important implications for health. A diet containing a large amount of fat, particularly saturated fat, is linked to an increased risk of atherosclerosis and subsequent heart disease and stroke.

Some dietary fats, mainly triglycerides (combinations of glycerol and 3 fatty acids), are sources of the fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E, and K and of essential fatty acids. Triglycerides are the main form of fat stored in the body. These stores act as an energy reserve and also provide insulation and a protective layer for delicate organs. Phospholipids are structural fats found in cell membranes. Sterols, such as cholesterol, are found in animal and plant tissues; they have a variety of functions, often being converted into hormones or vitamins.

Dietary fats are first emulsified by bile salts before being broken down by lipase, a pancreatic enzyme. They are absorbed via the lymphatic system before entering the bloodstream.Lipids are carried in the blood bound to protein; in this state they are known as lipoproteins. There are 4 classes of lipoprotein: very low-density lipoproteins (VLDLs), low-density lipoproteins (LDLs), high-density lipoproteins (HDLs), and chylomicrons. LDLs and VLDLs contain large amounts of cholesterol, which they carry through the bloodstream and deposit in tissues. HDLs pick up cholesterol and carry it back to the liver for processing and excretion. High levels of LDLs are associated with atherosclerosis, whereas HDLs have a protective effect. (See also nutrition.)... fats and oils

Intestine, Obstruction Of

A partial or complete blockage of the small or large intestine. Causes include a strangulated hernia; stenosis (narrowing) of the intestine, often due to cancer in the intestine; intestinal atresia; adhesions; volvulus; and intussusception. Intestinal obstruction also occurs in diseases that affect the intestinal wall, such as Crohn’s disease. In less common cases, internal blockage of the intestinal canal is caused by impacted food, faecal impaction, gallstones, or an object that has been accidentally swallowed.

A blockage in the small intestine usually causes intermittent cramp-like pain in the centre of the abdomen with increasingly frequent bouts of vomiting and failure to pass wind or faeces. An obstruction in the large intestine causes pain, distension of the abdomen, and failure to pass wind or faeces.

Treatments involve emptying the stomach via a nasogastric tube and replacing lost fluids through an intravenous drip In some cases, this will be sufficient to correct the problem. However, in many cases, surgery to deal with the cause of the blockage is necessary.... intestine, obstruction of


See fats and oils.... oils


In the arm, the bony projection at the upper end of the ulna that forms the point of the elbow.... olecranon


A prefix meaning few, scanty or little, as in oligospermia (too few sperm in the semen).... oligo-

Obsessive–compulsive Disorder

A psychiatric condition in which a person is dogged by persistent ideas (obsessions) that lead to repetitive, ritualized acts (compulsions). Obsessions are commonly based on fears about security or becoming infected. In obsessional rumination, there is constant brooding over a word, phrase, or unanswerable problem. Compulsions may occur frequently enough to disrupt work and social life. The disorder is often accompanied by depression and anxiety. If severe, a person may become housebound.

The disorder usually starts in adolescence. Genetic factors, an obsessive personality, or a tendency to neurotic symptoms may contribute. Some types of brain damage, especially in encephalitis, can cause obsessional symptoms. Many sufferers respond well to behaviour therapy, which may be combined with antidepressant drugs, but symptoms may recur under stress.... obsessive–compulsive disorder

Occupational Disease And Injury

Illnesses, disorders, or injuries that result from exposure to chemicals or dust, or are due to physical, psychological, or biological factors in the workplace.

Pneumoconiosis is fibrosis of the lung due to inhalation of industrial dusts, such as coal. Asbestosis is associated with asbestos in industry. Allergic alveolitis is caused by organic dusts (see farmer’s lung).

Industrial chemicals can damage the lungs if inhaled, or other major organs if they enter the bloodstream via the lungs or skin. Examples include fumes of cadmium, beryllium, lead, and benzene. Carbon tetrachloride and vinyl chloride are causes of liver disease. Many of these compounds can cause kidney damage. Work-related skin disorders include contact dermatitis and squamous cell carcinoma. Rare infectious diseases that are more common in certain jobs include brucellosis and Q fever (from livestock), psittacosis (from birds), and leptospirosis (from sewage). People who work with blood or blood products are at increased risk of viral hepatitis (see hepatitis, viral) and AIDS, as are healthcare professionals. The nuclear industry and some healthcare professions use measures to reduce the danger from radiation hazards. Other occupational disorders include writer’s cramp, carpal tunnel syndrome, singer’s nodes, Raynaud’s phenomenon, deafness, and cataracts.... occupational disease and injury

Occupational Medicine

A branch of medicine dealing with the effects of various occupations on health, and with an individual’s capacity for particular types of work. It includes prevention of occupational disease and injury and the promotion of health in the working population. Epidemiology is used to analyse patterns of sickness absence, injury, illness, and death. Clinical techniques are used to monitor the health of a particular workforce. Assessment of psychological stress and hazards of new technology are part of the remit. Occupational health risks are reduced by dust control, appropriate waste disposal, use of safe work stations and practices, limiting exposure to harmful substances, and screening for early evidence of occupational disorders.... occupational medicine

Oesophageal Atresia

A rare birth defect in which the oesophagus forms into 2 separate, blind-ended sections during development. There is usually an abnormal channel (tracheoesophageal fistula) between one of the sections and the trachea. The condition may be suspected before birth if the mother had polyhydramnios. The infant cannot swallow, and drools and regurgitates milk continually. If there is an upper tracheoesophageal fistula, milk may be sucked into the lungs, provoking attacks of coughing and cyanosis. Immediate surgery is needed to join the blind ends of the oesophagus and close the fistula. If the operation is successful, the baby should develop normally. Some babies, however, do not survive.... oesophageal atresia

Olive Oil

An oil, obtained from the fruit of the olive tree OLEA EUROPAEA, that may be used to soften earwax or to treat cradle cap in babies.... olive oil


A suffix that denotes a disease or disorder, as in neuropathy (a disorder of the peripheral nerves).... opathy

Open Heart Surgery

Any operation on the heart in which it is stopped temporarily and its function taken over by a mechanical pump. The main forms of open heart surgery are correction of congenital heart defects (see heart disease, congenital), surgery for narrowed or leaky heart valves (see heart-valve surgery), and coronary artery bypass surgery. Once the pump is connected, the heart is opened, and the defects repaired. Surgical hypothermia is used to keep the heart cool and help prevent damage to the heart muscle from lack of oxygen (see hypothermia, surgical).... open heart surgery

Oesophagus, Cancer Of

A malignant tumour, most common in people over 50, that mainly affects the middle or lower oesophagus and leads to swallowing difficulties. Smoking and heavy alcohol intake are risk factors.

Symptoms progressively worsen to a point where food is immediately regurgitated and there is rapid weight loss. Regurgitated fluid spilling into the trachea often causes respiratory infections.

Diagnosis is with a barium swallow (see barium X-ray examinations) and a biopsy taken during endoscopy. Removal of the oesophagus may be possible in some cases. Radiotherapy may cause regression of the cancer, relieve symptoms, and occasionally cure older patients who might not survive major surgery. Insertion of a rigid tube through the tumour, or laser treatment to burn through it, can help to relieve symptoms and improve nutrition. The overall outlook is poor, but is improved with early diagnosis.... oesophagus, cancer of

Oesophagus, Disorders Of

Several disorders, most of which cause swallowing difficulties and/or chest pain.

Infections of the oesophagus are rare but may occur in immunosuppressed patients. The most common are herpes simplex and candidiasis (thrush). Oesophagitis is usually due to reflux of stomach contents, causing heartburn. Corrosive oesophagitis can occur as a result of swallowing caustic chemicals. Both may cause an oesophageal stricture.

Congenital defects include oesophageal atresia, which requires surgery soon after birth. Tumours of the oesophagus are quite common; about 90 per cent are cancerous (see oesophagus, cancer of). Injury to the oesophagus is most commonly caused by a tear or rupture due to severe vomiting and retching. (See also swallowing difficulty.)... oesophagus, disorders of

Oestrogen Drugs

A group of synthetically produced drugs that are used in oral contraceptives and to supplement or replace the body’s own oestrogen hormones.

Oestrogen drugs are often used together with progestogen drugs.

Oestrogens suppress the production of gonadotrophin hormones, which stimulate cell activity in the ovaries. High doses are used in postcoital contraception to prevent conception (see contraception, emergency). They are also used to treat, or sometimes prevent, menopausal symptoms and disorders. Oestrogens may be used to treat certain forms of infertility, female hypogonadism, abnormal menstrual bleeding, prostatic cancer (see prostate, cancer of), and certain types of breast cancer.

Oestrogens may cause breast tenderness and enlargement, bloating, weight gain, nausea, reduced sex drive, depression, migraine, and bleeding between periods. Side effects often subside after 2 or 3 months. The drugs can increase the risk of abnormal blood clotting and susceptibility to high blood pressure (see hypertension). Oestrogen drugs should not be taken in pregnancy as they may adversely affect the fetus.... oestrogen drugs


A term applied to a condition that is suitable for surgical treatment, such as an accessible noncancerous tumour. (See also inoperable.)... operable

Operating Theatre

A specialized hospital room in which surgical procedures are performed.

The risk of infection of open wounds during surgery is reduced by a ventilation system that continually provides clean, filtered air, and walls and floors that are easily washable.

Surgeons, assistants, and nurses use sterile brushes and bactericidal soaps to scrub their hands and forearms before putting on sterile gowns, masks, and gloves.

The theatre is equipped with shadowless operating lights; lightboxes for viewing X-ray images; anaesthetic machines (see anaesthesia, general); and a diathermy machine, which controls bleeding.

A heart–lung machine may also be used.... operating theatre


A noninvasive procedure in which an ophthalmologist (a doctor specializing in eye disorders) uses an ophthalmoscope to examine the inside of the eye. The ophthalmoscope is used first to direct a beam of light into the eye and then to examine the light-sensitive retina; the retinal blood vessels; the head of the optic nerve; and the jelly-like vitreous humour.... ophthalmoscopy

Opportunistic Infection

Infection by organisms that rarely have serious or widespread effects in people of normal health, but which can cause serious illness or widespread infection in a person

whose immune system is impaired.

In most patients with AIDS, death is due to opportunistic infections, especially pneumocystis pneumonia.

Many fungal infections, such as candidiasis, and some viral infections, such as herpes simplex, are opportunistic infections.

Treatment is with appropriate antimicrobial drugs.... opportunistic infection

Oppositional Defiant Disorder

A type of behavioural disorder that usually appears in childhood or early adolescence.

Typically, a child shows hostile, argumentative behaviour that includes loss of temper, defiance of rules, and swearing.

To some extent such behaviour is common in adolescence, but when law-breaking or violence occur the condition is deemed to be pathological.... oppositional defiant disorder

Oral Hygiene

Measures to keep the mouth and teeth clean and reduce the risk of tooth decay (see caries, dental), gingivitis and other gum disorders, and halitosis. Oral hygiene includes regular, thorough toothbrushing and flossing (see floss, dental) to remove plaque. Disclosing agents help to reveal build-up of plaque. Dentures are brushed on all surfaces and soaked in cleansing solution.

Professional treatment to remove calculus and stubborn plaque by scaling and polishing is usually carried out by a dentist or dental hygienist during a routine check-up.

In periodontal disease, treatment may be needed more often.... oral hygiene

Oral Contraceptives

A group of oral drug preparations containing one or more synthetic female sex hormones, taken by women in a monthly cycle to prevent pregnancy. “The pill” commonly refers to the combined or the phased pill, which both contain an oestrogen drug and a progestogen drug, and the minipill, which contains only a progestogen. Oestrogen pills include ethinylestradiol; progestogens include levonorgestrel and norethisterone. When used correctly, the number of pregnancies among women using oral contraceptives for one year is less than 1 per cent. Actual failure rates may be 4 times higher, particularly for the minipill, which has to be taken at precisely the same time each day.

Combined and phased pills increase oestrogen and progesterone levels. This interferes with the production of two hormones, luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), which in turn prevents ovulation. The minipill works mainly by making the mucus lining of the cervix too thick to be penetrated by sperm.

Oestrogen-containing pills offer protection against uterine and ovarian cancer, ovarian cysts, endometriosis, and irondeficiency anaemia. They also tend to make menstrual periods regular, lighter, and relatively pain-free. Possible side effects include nausea, weight gain, depression, swollen breasts, reduced sex drive, increased appetite, leg and abdominal cramps, headaches, and dizziness. More seriously, there is a risk of thrombosis causing a stroke or a pulmonary embolism. These pills may also aggravate heart disease or cause hypertension, gallstones, jaundice, and, very rarely, liver cancer. All oral contraceptives can cause bleeding between periods, especially the minipill. Other possible adverse effects of the minipill include irregular periods, ectopic pregnancy, and ovarian cysts. There may be a slightly increased long-term risk of breast cancer for women taking the combined pill.

Oestrogen-based pills should generally be avoided in women with hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, liver disease, migraine, otosclerosis, or who are at increased risk of a thrombosis. They are not usually prescribed to a woman with a personal or family history of heart or circulatory disorders, or who suffers from unexplained vaginal bleeding. The minipill or a lowoestrogen pill may be used by women who should avoid oestrogens. Combined or phased pills may interfere with milk production and should not be taken during breast-feeding. Certain drugs may impair the effectiveness of oral contraceptives. (See also contraception.) ... oral contraceptives

Orbital Cellulitis

Bacterial infection of the tissues within the eye socket, or orbit.

Infection is potentially serious as it may spread to the brain.

Treatment is with high doses of antibiotic drugs.... orbital cellulitis

Organ Donation

The agreement of a person (or his or her family) to surgical removal of one or more organs for use in transplant surgery.

Most organs for transplantation, such as the heart, lungs, liver, and kidneys, are removed immediately after death, often in intensive care units where heart and lung function is sometimes maintained by machine after brain death been certified.

Compatible living donors may also be able to give a kidney (see tissue-typing).

People can facilitate use of their organs after death by informing relatives and carrying a donor card.

(See also corneal graft; heart–lung transplant; heart transplant; heart-valve surgery; kidney transplant; liver transplant.)... organ donation

Organic Brain Syndrome

See brain syndrome, organic.... organic brain syndrome

Orphan Drugs

Drugs that have been developed to treat rare conditions but are not manufactured generally.... orphan drugs

Osgood–schlatter Disease

Painful enlargement and tenderness of the tibial tuberosity (the bony prominence of the tibia), which occurs most commonly in boys aged between 10 and 14. It results from excessive, repetitive pulling of the quadriceps muscle, due to repeated exercise. The disorder often clears up without treatment; severe pain may require physiotherapy or immobilization of the knee in a plaster cast.... osgood–schlatter disease


Highly poisonous agricultural insecticides that are harmful when absorbed through the skin, by inhalation, or by swallowing. Among the many possible symptoms are nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, diarrhoea, blurred vision, excessive sweating, headache, confusion, and twitching. Severe poisoning may cause breathing difficulty, palpitations, seizures, and unconsciousness. If left untreated, death may result.

Treatment may include washing out the stomach (see lavage, gastric) or removing soiled clothing and washing contaminated skin.

Injections of atropine may be given, and oxygen therapy and/or artificial ventilation may be needed.

With rapid treatment, people may survive doses that would otherwise have been fatal.

Long term effects of organophosphates in sheep dips are thought to be responsible for debilitating illness with neural, muscular, and mental symptoms.... organophosphates

Orgasm, Lack Of

Inability to achieve orgasm during sexual activity. It may be due to inhibited sexual desire (see sexual desire, inhibited) or inability to become aroused or maintain arousal (see frigidity; impotence). In men, there may be a problem achieving orgasm despite normal arousal (see ejaculation, disorders of). The problem is common in women; some may achieve orgasm through masturbation but not during sexual intercourse. Sometimes it is due to pain during intercourse (see intercourse, painful).

For both sexes, contributory factors include problems with technique or in the relationship, unfamiliarity with sexual responses, psychological problems (such as anxiety, early sexual trauma, or inhibitions), and fear of pregnancy.

Sex therapy, relationship counselling, and psychotherapy are sometimes helpful.... orgasm, lack of

Osteochondritis Juvenilis

Inflammation of an epiphysis (growing end of bone) in children and adolescents, causing pain, tenderness, and restricted movement if the epiphysis forms part of a joint. The inflammation leads to softening of the bone, which may result in deformity. The condition may be due to disruption of the bone’s blood supply. There are several types: Perthes’ disease; Scheuermann’s disease, which affects several adjoining vertebrae; and other types that affect certain bones in the foot and wrist.

The affected bone may be immobilized in an orthopaedic brace or plaster cast. In Perthes’ disease, surgery may be required to prevent more deformity. The bone usually regenerates within 3 years and rehardens, but deformity may be permanent and increases the risk of osteoarthritis in later life.... osteochondritis juvenilis

Osteoid Osteoma

A bone disorder in which a tiny abnormal area of bone, usually in a long bone, causes deep pain, which is typically worse at night. The condition is cured by removing the area of bone. (See also osteoma.)... osteoid osteoma


The term used to describe a surgical opening or a junction of 2 hollow organs (for example, colostomy).... ostomy

Otoacoustic Emission

An echo emitted by the inner ear in response to sound.

The emission is produced only by a normally functioning ear and is recorded in a test to detect impaired hearing.... otoacoustic emission


Toxic damage to the structures of the inner ear. High doses of certain drugs (such as aminoglycoside antibiotics) may cause this type of ear damage, resulting in impaired hearing and balance.... ototoxicity

Outpatient Treatment

Medical care on a same-day basis in a hospital or clinic.... outpatient treatment

Ovary, Cancer Of

A malignant growth of the ovary. The cancer may be either primary (arising in the ovary) or secondary (due to the spread of cancer from another part of the body). Ovarian cancer can occur at any age but is most common after 50 and in women who have never had children. A family history of cancer of the ovary, breast, or colon, especially in close relatives under 50, is an important risk factor. Taking oral contraceptives reduces the risk.

In most cases, ovarian cancer causes no symptoms until it is widespread. The first symptoms may include vague discomfort and swelling in the abdomen; nausea and vomiting; abnormal vaginal bleeding; and ascites.

If ovarian cancer is suspected, a doctor will carry out a physical examination to detect any swellings in the pelvis. A laparoscopy will usually be performed to confirm the diagnosis.

Treatment is by surgical removal of the growth or as much cancerous tissue as possible.

This usually involves salpingooophorectomy and hysterectomy followed by radiotherapy and anticancer drugs.... ovary, cancer of

Ovary, Disorders Of

Diseases and abnormalities of the ovaries can occur for various reasons. Absence of ovaries, or their failure to develop normally, is rare and is usually due to a chromosomal abnormality (see Turner’s syndrome). Oophoritis (inflammation of an ovary) may result from infections such as gonorrhoea or pelvic inflammatory disease. Ovarian cysts are common and usually noncancerous. Polycystic ovary syndrome is due to an imbalance of sex hormones. Ovarian cancer (see ovary, cancer of) occurs mainly in women over 50. Ovarian failure causes premature menopause in about 5 per cent of women.... ovary, disorders of


A common name for hyperventilation.... overbreathing


See obesity.... overweight

Oxygen Concentrator

An appliance used in oxygen therapy that separates oxygen from the air and mixes it back in at a greater concentration. This oxygenenriched air is delivered through a tube for prolonged inhalation. The appliance is used by people who have persistent hypoxia due to severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (see pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive). (See also hyperbaric oxygen treatment.)... oxygen concentrator

Oxygen Therapy

The process of supplying a person with oxygen-enriched air to relieve severe hypoxia (inadequate oxygen in body tissues). The oxygen is usually delivered through a face-mask or a nasal cannula (a length of narrow plastic tubing with two prongs that are inserted into the nostrils). Piped oxygen is used in hospitals; oxygen in cylinders can be used at home for acute attacks of hypoxia, such as those occurring in severe asthma. Long-term therapy for people with persistent hypoxia may involve the use of an oxygen concentrator.

(See also hyperbaric oxygen treatment.)... oxygen therapy


A decongestant drug used in the treatment of allergic rhinitis, sinusitis, and the common cold.... oxymetazoline

Peau D’orange

A condition in which the skin has a normal colour but looks like orange peel. The skin’s dimpled appearance is due to fluid retention in the nearby lymph vessels.... peau d’orange

Ovary, Polycystic

A condition, also called Stein–Leventhal syndrome, that is characterized by oligomenorrhea or amenorrhoea (scanty or absent periods), infertility, hirsutism (excessive hairiness), and obesity. Often, there are multiple ovarian cysts. Most women with polycystic ovaries begin menstruation at a normal age, but after a year or two periods become highly irregular and then cease. Hirsutism and obesity occur in about 50 per cent of cases.

The condition results from an imbalance of two gonadotrophin hormones: follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). This hormonal imbalance is associated with raised levels of testosterone and oestrogen.

Treatments include clomifene and oral contraceptives. Polycystic ovaries are often associated with high oestrogen levels in the body, which increase the risk of endometrial cancer (see uterus, cancer of); treatment with progesterone may be recommended for this problem. ... ovary, polycystic

Overcrowding, Dental

Excessive crowding of the teeth so that they are unable to assume their normal positions in the jaw. Dental overcrowding is commonly inherited and may occur because the teeth are too large for the jaw or the jaw is too small to accommodate the teeth. Premature loss of primary molar (back) teeth can cause the permanent teeth beneath them to move out of position and crowd the teeth further forward.

Overcrowded teeth may lead to malocclusion or may prevent certain teeth from erupting through the gum (see impaction, dental). They can be difficult to clean, increasing the risk of dental decay (see caries, dental) and periodontal disease.

Teeth may need to be extracted to allow room for others. Usually an orthodontic appliance is fitted to the remaining teeth to position them correctly.... overcrowding, dental

Overuse Injury

Also called repetitive strain injury, a term, for any injury caused by repetitive movement of part of the body. Symptoms include pain and stiffness in the affected joints and muscles.

Examples include epicondylitis: painful inflammation of one of the bony prominences at the elbow, caused by the pull of the attached forearm muscles during strenuous activities (see golfer’s elbow; tennis elbow).

Overuse injuries of the fingers, thumb, and wrist joints may affect assembly-line and keyboard workers, and musicians; injuries of the neck may affect violinists.

Rest relieves the symptoms.

A change in the technique used during the activity may prevent recurrence.... overuse injury


Oestrogens that occur naturally in plants.... phyto-oestrogens

Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive

A combination of chronic bronchitis and emphysema, in which there is persistent disruption of air flow into or out of the lungs. Patients are sometimes described as either pink puffers or blue bloaters, depending on their condition. Pink puffers maintain adequate oxygen in their bloodstream through an increase in their breathing rate, and remain “pink” despite damage to the lungs. However, they suffer from almost constant shortness of breath. Blue bloaters are cyanotic (have a bluish discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes) because of obesity, and sometimes oedema, mainly due to heart failure resulting from the lung damage.... pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive

Pyrexia Of Uncertain Origin

Persistent fever with no apparent cause. The cause is usually an illness that is difficult to diagnose or a common disease that presents in an unusual way. These illnesses include various viral infections; tuberculosis; cancer, particularly lymphoma; and collagen diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus and temporal arteritis. Another possible cause is a drug reaction.... pyrexia of uncertain origin

Rehydration, Oral

See rehydration therapy.... rehydration, oral

Secretory Otitis Media

An alternative name for glue ear.... secretory otitis media

Security Object

A significant item, such as a favourite soft toy, that provides comfort and reassurance to a young child.

Attachment to such an item is normal and usually diminishes by age 7 or 8.... security object

Self-help Organizations

Organizations, usually set up by patients or their relatives, that provide people affected by particular conditions with information, support, and, sometimes, financial aid.... self-help organizations

Short Sight, Operations For

See LASIK; photorefractive keratectomy; keratotomy, radial.... short sight, operations for

Thoracic Outlet Syndrome

A condition in which pressure on the brachial plexus causes pain in the arms and shoulders, pins-and-needles sensation in the fingers, and weakness of grip and other hand movements. Severe symptoms are usually caused by a cervical rib. Thoracic outlet syndrome may also be caused by drooping of the shoulders, an enlarged scalenus muscle in the neck, or a tumour.The condition is made worse by lifting and carrying heavy loads or by increases in body weight.

Treatment of thoracic outlet syndrome usually consists of exercises to improve posture, sometimes together with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and muscle-relaxant drugs. Severe cases may be treated by surgical removal of the 1st rib.... thoracic outlet syndrome

Albright’s Hereditary Osteodystrophy

the skeletal abnormalities, collectively, of *pseudohypoparathyroidism. These include short stature, abnormally short fingers and toes (particularly involving the fourth and fifth metacarpals and metatarsals), and soft-tissue calcification. [F. Albright (1900–69), US physician]... albright’s hereditary osteodystrophy

Alveolar Osteotis

see dry socket.... alveolar osteotis


(oestrogen-receptor antagonist) n. one of a group of drugs that oppose the action of oestrogen by binding to *oestrogen receptors in the body’s tissues. The most important of these drugs is currently *tamoxifen, which is used in the treatment of breast cancers dependent on oestrogen. Because they stimulate the production of pituitary *gonadotrophins, some anti-oestrogens (e.g. *clomifene, tamoxifen) are used to induce or stimulate ovulation in infertility treatment. Side-effects of anti-oestrogens include hot flushes, itching of the vulva, nausea, vomiting, fluid retention, and sometimes vaginal bleeding.... anti-oestrogen

Assertive Outreach Team

(AOT) a multidisciplinary psychiatric team specialized in the treatment of patients with severe mental illness who are difficult to engage. Most AOTs will only see patients who have had a number of recent hospital admissions (‘revolving door’ patients). Recently, in many areas of the UK AOTs have been subsumed into *community mental health teams.... assertive outreach team

Barrett’s Oesophagus

(columnar-lined oesophagus) a condition in which the squamous *epithelium lining the oesophagus is replaced by columnar epithelium of the type normally lining the intestine (‘intestinal metaplasia’). Barrett’s oesophagus is caused by chronic inflammation and damage resulting from *gastro-oesophageal reflux or (less frequently) corrosive *oesophagitis. The appearance of Barrett’s epithelium seen at endoscopy must be confirmed by biopsy. Patients with confirmed Barrett’s oesophagus are at a higher risk of developing oesophageal adenocarcinoma and may be kept under surveillance with regular endoscopies. [N. R. Barrett (1903–79), British thoracic surgeon]... barrett’s oesophagus

Bed Occupancy

the number of hospital beds occupied by patients expressed as a percentage of the total beds available in the ward, specialty, hospital, area, or region. It may be recorded in relation to a defined point in time or more usefully for a period, when the calculation is based on bed-days. It is used with other indices (such as *admission rate) to assess the demands for hospital beds in relation to diseases, specialties, or populations and hence to gauge an appropriate balance between demand for health care and number of beds.... bed occupancy

Bronchiolitis Obliterans Organizing Pneumonia

(BOOP) a disease entity characterized clinically by a flulike illness with cough, fever, shortness of breath, and late inspiratory crackles; there are specific histological features and patchy infiltrates on X-ray. It is sometimes the result of a viral infection, but may follow medication with certain drugs or be associated with connective-tissue disease, such as rheumatoid arthritis. The condition usually responds to oral corticosteroids; however, if a drug is implicated, it must be withdrawn.... bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia

Chief Medical Officer

(CMO) the most senior medical adviser to the UK government, who is responsible for providing expert advice on health issues (including health-related emergencies). The CMO is responsible to the Secretary of State for Health and acts as leader of profession for Directors of Public Health. There are separate CMOs appointed to advise the devolved governments in Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland.... chief medical officer

Chief Nursing Officer

the UK government’s chief nursing adviser, who is responsible for providing an expert professional contribution and advice on nursing, midwifery, and health visiting matters to ministers and senior officials. There are separate Chief Nursing Officers appointed to advise the devolved governments in Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland.... chief nursing officer

Chronic Total Occlusion

(CTO) a complete arterial blockage (usually coronary) that has been present for at least three months. Fibrosis and calcification at the site of occlusion are well established by this time, making *percutaneous coronary intervention to open the artery much more difficult.... chronic total occlusion

Clinical Medical Officer

see community health.... clinical medical officer

Commando Operation

a major operation performed to remove a malignant tumour from the head and neck. Extensive dissection, often involving the face, is followed by reconstruction to restore function and cosmetic acceptability.... commando operation

Community Treatment Order

see Mental Health Act.... community treatment order

Controlled Ovarian Stimulation

(COS) see superovulation.... controlled ovarian stimulation

Cumulus Oophoricus

a cluster of follicle cells that surround a freshly ovulated ovum. By increasing the effective size of the ovum they may assist its entrance into the end of the Fallopian tube. They are dispersed at fertilization by the contents of the *acrosome.... cumulus oophoricus

Cystoid Macular Oedema

swelling of the central area of the retina (macula), usually occurring as a result of trauma, posterior *uveitis, or ocular surgery.... cystoid macular oedema

Diffuse Oesophageal Spasm

a disorder affecting the gullet (oesophagus) in which uncoordinated, sometimes simultaneous, oesophageal contractions precipitate difficulty in swallowing (*dysphagia), regurgitation of food, and chest pain. The cause is unclear. Diagnosis is suggested by characteristic appearances during a *barium swallow (corkscrew oesophagus) and confirmed by oesophageal manometry. Medical treatment comprises the use of calcium-channel blockers, nitrates, and sildenafil; endoscopic treatment may include infiltration of *botulinum toxin in specific oesophageal segments and, infrequently, endoscopic dilatation. Surgical myotomy is reserved for extreme cases.... diffuse oesophageal spasm

Directly Observed Therapy

(DOT) see tuberculosis.... directly observed therapy

Direct Oral Anticoagulant

(DOAC) a relatively recently introduced class of drugs that reduce coagulation of the blood by inhibition of one of the coagulation factors (Factor Xa). They may be used as an alternative to *warfarin in many (but not all) cases, their advantage being that regular blood tests are not required for dose adjustment. Examples include, apixaban, dabigatran, edoxaban, and rivaroxaban.... direct oral anticoagulant

Dnar Order

Do Not Attempt Resuscitation order: an instruction, usually made by a patient while he or she has capacity and recorded in their notes, requesting that doctors desist from performing resuscitation in the event of physiological failure. By respecting a patient’s choice with regard to resuscitation, a doctor is respecting that patient’s *autonomy. If resuscitation is considered *futile, a decision not to attempt it may be taken; ideally, this should be communicated to the patient and the reasons explained sensitively.... dnar order

Do Not Attempt Resuscitation Order

see DNAR order.... do not attempt resuscitation order

Double-outlet Right Ventricle

(DORV) a congenital defect of the heart in which both the aorta and the pulmonary artery arise predominantly from the right ventricle anterior to the ventricular septum with an associated *ventricular septal defect (VSD). The relationship between the site of the VSD and the great arteries must be taken into account for surgical repair. DORV can be associated with chromosomal defects.... double-outlet right ventricle

Environmental Health Officer

(EHO) a person, employed by a local authority, with special training in such aspects of environmental health as housing, pollution, and food safety (formerly known as a Public Health Inspector). EHOs work closely with other professionals within the local authority and with other agencies, including *Public Health England.... environmental health officer

Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation

(ECMO) a technique that is accepted as a rescue treatment for otherwise fatal respiratory failure in newborn babies or infants due to prematurity or overwhelming septicaemia (e.g. meningitis). It involves modified prolonged *cardiopulmonary bypass to support gas exchange, which allows the lungs to rest and recover. ECMO is only available in selected high-technology centres.... extracorporeal membrane oxygenation

Faecal Occult Blood Test

(FOBT) a noninvasive test used to identify microscopic blood (see occult) in faeces. It is widely used as a screening test for colorectal cancer.... faecal occult blood test

Follicular Occlusion Tetrad

the combination of major acne, *pilonidal sinus, chronic scalp *folliculitis, and *hidradenitis suppurativa.... follicular occlusion tetrad

Gastro-oesophageal Reflux

the process in which the stomach contents transiently reflux into the oesophagus. Reflux is a normal process but pathological reflux (see gastro-oesophageal reflux disease) gives rise to symptoms and complications.... gastro-oesophageal reflux


n. a surgical operation in which the oesophagus (gullet) is joined to the stomach, bypassing the natural junction when this is obstructed by *achalasia, *stricture (narrowing), or cancer. This operation is rarely performed.... gastro-oesophagostomy

Glutamic Oxaloacetic Transaminase

(GOT) see aspartate aminotransferase.... glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase

Golgi Tendon Organ

see tendon organ.... golgi tendon organ

Hartmann’s Operation

a method of reconstruction after surgical removal of the distal colon and proximal rectum, in which the rectal stump is closed off and the divided end of the colon is brought out as a *colostomy. The technique allows for a second operation to join up the bowel ends and obviates the need for a stoma. It is often used temporarily where primary anastomosis is unsafe (e.g. in cases of perforated *diverticular disease) or permanently as a palliative procedure (e.g. for unresectable colonic cancer). [H. Hartmann (1860–1952), French surgeon]... hartmann’s operation

Health Maintenance Organization

(HMO) in the USA, a type of prepaid group medical practice with a defined and restricted patient population. Each enrolled patient pays a fixed fee regardless of the amount of physician services used. The HMO physicians assume responsibility for the health care of the enrolled members and provide a wide range of inpatient and outpatient services.... health maintenance organization

Heller’s Operation

see achalasia. [E. Heller (1877–1964), Austrian pathologist]... heller’s operation

Hyperbaric Oxygenation

a technique for exposing a patient to oxygen at a pressure of greater than 1 atmosphere in a compression chamber. It is used to treat carbon monoxide poisoning, gas gangrene, compressed air illness, and acute breathing difficulties. It is also used in some cases during heart surgery. In dental extractions and implant treatment it may reduce the incidence of osteonecrosis in patients who have received radiation to the head and neck region (osteoradionecrosis).... hyperbaric oxygenation

Infracolic Omentectomy

see omentectomy.... infracolic omentectomy

Internuclear Ophthalmoplegia

(INO) see ophthalmoplegia.... internuclear ophthalmoplegia

Juvenile-onset Spondylarthropathy

see juvenile idiopathic arthritis.... juvenile-onset spondylarthropathy

Keller’s Operation

an operation for *hallux valgus (see also bunion) or *hallux rigidus that involves an excision *arthroplasty of the metatarsophalangeal joint, at the base of the big toe. The toe will be slightly shorter and floppy, but usually this improves alignment and range of movement. [W. L. Keller (1874–1959), US surgeon]... keller’s operation

Keratosis Obturans

an abnormal build-up of *keratin and dead skin cells within the ear canal that can block the canal, cause conductive hearing loss (see deafness), and erode the bone of the ear canal. It is associated with *bronchiectasis and chronic sinusitis.... keratosis obturans

Late-onset Schizophrenia

a mental disorder characterized by systematic *delusions and commonly auditory *hallucinations, but without any other marked symptoms of *mental illness; it was formerly known as paraphrenia. The only loss of contact with reality is in areas affected by the delusions and hallucinations. It is typically seen in the elderly and can also occur in people with severe hearing impediments. Some people develop other symptoms of *schizophrenia over time but in many the personality remains intact over years. *Antipsychotic medication is often useful in treating the illness.... late-onset schizophrenia

Leber’s Optic Atrophy

a rare hereditary disorder, usually affecting young males, that is characterized by loss of central vision due to neuroretinal degeneration. Visual loss in one eye is rapid and usually followed by loss in the second eye. [T. Leber]... leber’s optic atrophy

Litzmann’s Obliquity

see asynclitism. [K. C. T. Litzmann (1815–90), German obstetrician]... litzmann’s obliquity

Magpi Operation

meatal advancement and glanuloplasty operation: a simple surgical procedure designed to correct minor to moderate degrees of coronal or subcoronal *hypospadias. This single-stage operation corrects any associated minor degrees of *chordee and transfers the urethral opening to the glans, allowing normal urination.... magpi operation

Maturity-onset Diabetes Of The Young

(MODY, monogenic diabetes) a range of rare but important forms of type 2 *diabetes mellitus caused by a single autosomal *dominant genetic defect. The two commonest forms are mutations of the HNF-1? gene (MODY 3), which often responds to treatment with *sulphonylurea drugs, and mutations of the glucokinase gene (MODY 2), causing a mild elevation of blood glucose levels usually responsive to dietary management.... maturity-onset diabetes of the young

Mayo Operation

an overlapping repair of an umbilical hernia. [W. J. Mayo (1861–1939), US surgeon]... mayo operation

Monoamine Oxidase

(MAO) an enzyme that catalyses the oxidation of a large variety of monoamines, including adrenaline, noradrenaline, and serotonin. Monoamine oxidase is found in most tissues, particularly the gastrointestinal tract and nervous system, and exists in two forms in humans: monoamine oxidase A primarily breaks down noradrenaline and serotonin, whereas monoamine oxidase B primarily degrades dopamine. Drugs that act as inhibitors of monoamine oxidase A may be used in the treatment of depression (see MAO inhibitor); monoamine oxidase B inhibitors are used to treat Parkinson’s disease.... monoamine oxidase

Multi-organ Failure

(MOF) see multiple organ dysfunction syndrome.... multi-organ failure

Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome

(MODS, multi-organ failure, multiple organ failure, MOF) a common cause of death following severe injury, overwhelming infection, or immune deficiency states.... multiple organ dysfunction syndrome

Naegele’s Obliquity

see asynclitism.... naegele’s obliquity

Nesbit’s Operation

an operation devised to surgically straighten a congenitally curved penis but now more frequently employed to correct the penile curvature caused by *Peyronie’s disease. The procedure can often result in penile shortening. [R. M. Nesbit (20th century), US surgeon]... nesbit’s operation

Neuromyelitis Optica

(Devic’s disease) a condition that resembles multiple sclerosis. The diagnosis is confirmed by the finding of the antiaquaparin-4 antibody (NMO IgG antibody). Typically there is a transverse *myelitis, producing paralysis and numbness of the legs and trunk below the inflamed spinal cord, and *retrobulbar (optic) neuritis affecting both optic nerves. The attacks of myelitis and optic neuritis may coincide or they may be separated by days or weeks. Recovery from the initial attack is often incomplete and severe relapses occur commonly unless treatment with immunosuppressive therapies is started.... neuromyelitis optica


see obstetric anal sphincter injury.... oasis


see Affordable Care Act 2010.... obamacare


adj. referring to an environment that predisposes to *obesity, generally because of factors that encourage over-consumption of food or low levels of physical activity.... obeseogenic


n. the curved lower margin of the fourth *ventricle of the brain, between the medulla oblongata and the cerebellum.... obex

Objective Structured Clinical Examination

(OSCE) a type of examination used increasingly in the health sciences (medicine, dentistry, nursing, physiotherapy, pharmacy) to assess clinical skills in examination, communication, medical procedures, and interpretation of results. The examination usually takes the form of a circuit of stations around which each candidate moves after a specified time interval (5–10 minutes) at each station. Stations are a mixture of interactive and noninteractive tasks. Some have an examiner and a simulated patient, either an actor for assessment of communication or history-taking skills or a manikin of a specific part of the body (e.g. to demonstrate how to use an auriscope). Other stations have investigation results with a list of questions that are to be completed on computer-marked examination papers. Each station has a different examiner and the stations are standardized with specific marking criteria, thus enabling fairer comparison with peers.... objective structured clinical examination


adj. describing an organism that is restricted to one particular way of life; for example, an obligate parasite cannot exist without a host. Compare facultative.... obligate


n. see duty.... obligation

Obscure Auditory Dysfunction

(OAD, King–Kopetzky syndrome) hearing difficulty, especially in noisy environments, in an individual with a normal *audiogram: a form of *auditory processing disorder. Treatment includes *hearing therapy.... obscure auditory dysfunction

Observer Error

see validity.... observer error


n. a recurrent thought, feeling, or impulse that is unpleasant and provokes anxiety but cannot be eliminated. Although an obsession dominates the person, he (or she) realizes its senselessness and struggles to resist it: this resistance causes anxiety. It is a feature of *obsessive–compulsive disorder and sometimes of depression and of organic states, such as encephalitis. —obsessional adj.... obsession

Obsessional Traits

see anankastic.... obsessional traits

Obstetric Anal Sphincter Injury

(OASIS) a spectrum of injuries that encompasses both third- and fourth-degree *perineal tears. Injury to the anal sphincter mechanism during childbirth may arise secondarily to direct disruption of the sphincter muscles and/or traction of the pudendal nerves. Disruption of the anal sphincter muscles is best assessed by anal ultrasound examination. This is usually performed using a high-frequency (10 MHz) endoanal probe. In selected cases with complex injury and/or suspected rectovaginal *fistula, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may also be employed.... obstetric anal sphincter injury

Obstetric Cholestasis

a pregnancy-related condition characterized by intense *pruritus (itch) – and consequent sleep deprivation – in the absence of a skin rash, with abnormal liver function tests and elevated bile acids, all of which remit following delivery. The clinical importance of obstetric cholestasis lies in the potential fetal risks, which may include prematurity and intrauterine death.... obstetric cholestasis

Obstructed Labour

failure of the presenting part to descend in spite of uterine contractions, which implies a mechanical cause. Obstruction is usually due to (1) an abnormality in the woman’s pelvis (a contracted pelvis); (2) an abnormality in her baby (e.g. hydrocephaly); or (3) an abnormality in the relationship between them, either (a) an abnormal *lie (e.g. transverse) or *malpresentation, or (b) *cephalopelvic disproportion (CPD). CPD and impacted transverse lie are the most important causes. Much of the purpose of antenatal care is to screen mothers who are at risk from obstructed labour, which can be detected early by means of a *partogram. If undetected, it can lead to rupture of the uterus, death of the fetus, obstetric fistulae, or maternal death.... obstructed labour

Obstructive Sleep Apnoea

(OSA, obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome, OSAS) a serious condition in which airflow from the nose and mouth to the lungs is restricted during sleep, also called sleep apnoea syndrome (SAS). It is defined by the presence of more than five episodes of *apnoea per hour of sleep associated with significant daytime sleepiness. Snoring is a feature of the condition but it is not universal. There are significant medical complications of prolonged OSA, including heart failure and high blood pressure. Patients perform poorly on driving simulators, and driving licence authorities may impose limitations on possession of a driving licence. There are associated conditions in adults, the *hypopnoea syndrome and the upper airways resistance syndrome, with less apnoea but with daytime somnolence and prominent snoring. In children the cause is usually enlargement of the tonsils and adenoids and treatment is by removing these structures. In adults the tonsils may be implicated but there are often other abnormalities of the pharynx, and patients are often obese. Treatment may include weight reduction or nasal *continuous positive airways pressure (nCPAP) devices, *mandibular advancement splints, or noninvasive ventilation. Alternatively *tonsillectomy, *uvulopalatopharyngoplasty, *laser-assisted uvulopalatoplasty, or *tracheostomy may be required.... obstructive sleep apnoea

Obstructive Sleep Apnoea Syndrome

(OSAS) see obstructive sleep apnoea.... obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome


vb. to blunt or deaden sensitivity; for example, by the application of a local anaesthetic, which reduces or causes complete loss of sensation in nearby nerves.... obtund


n. obstruction of a bodily passage, usually by impaction of a foreign body, viscid secretions, or hardened faeces.... obturation


n. 1. see obturator muscle. 2. a wire or rod within a cannula or hollow needle for piercing tissues or fitting aspirating needles. 3. a removable prosthetic device that both closes a defect in the palate and also restores the dentition. The defect may result from removal of a tumour or, less commonly, be congenital, as in a cleft palate.... obturator

Obturator Foramen

a large opening in the *hip bone, below and slightly in front of the acetabulum. See also pelvis.... obturator foramen

Obturator Muscle

either of two muscles that cover the outer surface of the anterior wall of the pelvis (the obturator externus and obturator internus) and are responsible for lateral rotation of the thigh and movements of the hip.... obturator muscle


n. the weakening or blunting of normal sensations. This may be associated with disease.... obtusion

Occipital Bone

a saucer-shaped bone of the *skull that forms the back and part of the base of the cranium. At the base of the occipital are two occipital condyles: rounded surfaces that articulate with the first (atlas) vertebra of the backbone. Between the condyles is the foramen magnum, the cavity through which the spinal cord passes.... occipital bone


adj. (in dental anatomy) denoting or relating to the biting surface of a premolar or molar tooth.... occlusal

Occlusal Rim

the occlusal extension of a denture base to allow analysis of jaw relations and to record jaw relations for the construction of *dentures, bridges, and extensive crowning.... occlusal rim


n. a recombinant protease with activity against components of the interface between the retina and the vitreous humour, used for treatment of symptomatic vitreomacular adhesion. It works by dissolving the proteins that link the vitreous to the macula in this condition, thus preventing posterior detachment of the vitreous from the retina (see retinal detachment).... ocriplasmin

Ocular Hypertension

(OHT) a constantly raised intraocular pressure (greater than 21 mmHg by Goldmann applanation *tonometry) registered on two or more occasions in one or both eyes with the absence of evidence of optic nerve damage or visual field defect. Intraocular pressure increases slowly with age and OHT can increase the risk of developing glaucoma. It is treated with eye drops and surgery if indicated.... ocular hypertension

Occupational Disease

a disease to which workers in certain occupations are particularly prone. Industrial diseases, associated with a particular industry or group of industries, fall within this category. Examples of such diseases include the various forms of *pneumoconiosis, which affect the lungs of workers continually exposed to dusty atmospheres; cataracts in glassblowers; decompression sickness in divers; poisoning from toxic metals in factory and other workers; and infectious diseases contracted from animals by farm workers, such as woolsorter’s disease (see anthrax). See also coshh, prescribed disease; industrial injuries disablement benefit.... occupational disease

Occupational Health Service

(OHS) a scheme by which employers provide a mainly preventive health service for employees. Specially trained doctors and nurses advise management on hazardous situations at work. Advice is also given to management to ensure that people with ill health or disability are not prevented from taking up employment and on the potential for rehabilitating employees with prolonged or repeated sickness absence. Instruction may be given to the workforce on simple first aid procedures, and *health promotion programmes may be offered in relation to nutrition, physical activity, and stress. With the approval of the *Health and Safety Executive, the OHS may conduct routine tests on employees working with potentially hazardous substances, such as lead. See also coshh.... occupational health service


n. a former name for an *ophthalmologist.... oculist


combining form denoting the eye(s).... oculo


adj. causing or concerned with movements of the eye.... oculogyric


adj. concerned with eye movements.... oculomotor


adj. concerned with the eye and nose.... oculonasal


n. a surgical specialty concerned with reconstructive and cosmetic surgery around the eye (including the orbit, eyelids, lacrimal apparatus, and other accessory structures).... oculoplastics


n. measurement of the pressure inside the eyeball. A rising or above-normal pressure is an important indication of the presence of *glaucoma.... oculoplethysmography


(odonto-) combining form denoting a tooth. Example: odontalgia (toothache).... odont


n. one of the cells in the pulp of a tooth that form dentine. Odontoblasts line the pulp and have small processes that extend into the dentine. The process of dentine formation is known as *dentinogenesis.... odontoblast

Odontogenic Tumour

any one of a group of neoplasm tumour-like malformations arising from odontogenic tissues or their remnants. The most important example is the *ameloblastoma.... odontogenic tumour

Odontoid Process

a toothlike process from the upper surface of the axis vertebra. See cervical vertebrae.... odontoid process


n. the study of the teeth.... odontology


n. an abnormal mass of calcified dental tissue, which usually represents a developmental abnormality. Compare hamartoma.... odontome


combining form denoting pain in (a specified part).... odynia


n. painful swallowing. This may be due to severe inflammation of the gullet (see oesophagitis) or infection as by such as cytomegalovirus, candidiasis, or herpes simplex virus in an immunocompromised patient. Other causes include neuromuscular disease, such as *achalasia, foreign bodies, such as impacted fish bones, and malignancy.... odynophagia


(oesophago-) combining form denoting the oesophagus. Example: oesophagectomy (surgical removal of).... oesophag

Oesophageal Ulcer

see peptic ulcer; oesophagitis.... oesophageal ulcer


n. protrusion of the lining (mucosa) of the oesophagus (gullet) through a tear or weakness in its muscular wall.... oesophagocele


n. surgical opening of the oesophagus (gullet) in order to inspect its interior or to remove or insert something.... oesophagotomy

Oestrogen-receptor Antagonist

see anti-oestrogen.... oestrogen-receptor antagonist


n. a genus of widely distributed nonbloodsucking flies, occurring wherever sheep and goats are raised. The parasitic larvae of O. ovis, the sheep nostril fly, may occasionally and accidentally infect humans. By means of large mouth hooks, it attaches itself to the conjunctiva of the eye, causing a painful *myiasis that may result in loss of sight. This is an occupational disease of shepherds. Larvae can be removed with forceps following anaesthesia.... oestrus

Office For National Statistics

(ONS) (in Britain) an executive agency of the Treasury that was formed in 1996. It is responsible for the compilation and publication of statistics relating to national and local populations, including their social and economic situation and contribution to the economy, and the demographic patterns of births, marriages, and deaths (including the medical cause of death). The ONS organizes a national *census at ten-yearly intervals.

ONS website... office for national statistics

Ogilvie’s Syndrome

see pseudo-obstruction.... ogilvie’s syndrome


n. see PARP inhibitor.... olaparib


combining form denoting oil.... oleo


n. the procedure of introducing paraffin wax extrapleurally so that the lung is allowed to collapse. This was sometimes formerly undertaken to allow closure of tuberculous cavities within the lung.... oleothorax


n. (in pharmacy) an oil.... oleum


(oligo-) combining form denoting 1. few. 2. a deficiency.... olig


n. see arthritis.... oligoarthritis

Oligoclonal Bands

immunoglobulin bands found in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) taken at *lumbar puncture. Bands isolated only in the CSF and not in the serum indicate local synthesis and are seen in such conditions as multiple sclerosis.... oligoclonal bands


n. the congenital absence of some of the fingers and toes.... oligodactylism


n. one of the cells of the *glia, responsible for producing the *myelin sheaths of the neurons of the central nervous system and therefore equivalent to the *Schwann cells of the peripheral nerves.... oligodendrocyte


n. a condition in which thirst is diminished or absent.... oligodipsia


n. the congenital absence of more than six teeth in the primary or permanent dentition or both. It is usually part of a syndrome and seldom occurs as an isolated entity.... oligodontia


n. infrequent occurrence of ovulation.... oligo-ovulation

Ollier’s Disease

see dyschondroplasia. [L. L. X. E. Ollier (1830–1900), French surgeon]

ology combining form. see -logy.... ollier’s disease


n. a salicylate preparation used to treat mild ulcerative colitis. Possible side-effects include nausea, vomiting, headache, joint pain, and skin rashes.... olsalazine


n. a *monoclonal antibody used in the prevention of severe allergic asthma that has not responded to standard therapy and is also a highly effective treatment for chronic *urticaria. It is now recommended by NICE as an additional treatment to standard asthma therapy for some people aged six years and over with severe persistent allergic asthma. Omalizumab acts by binding to IgE, an *immunoglobulin that mediates the allergic response.... omalizumab

Omega-3 Fatty Acids

(n-3 fatty acids) polyunsaturated fatty acids with a double bond at the third carbon atom in the chain. Omega-3 fatty acids are essential for brain development and are also associated with many health benefits, including protection against heart disease and possibly stroke and inflammatory conditions. There are three major types: alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). The main source of EPA and DHA is fish oils. Vegetarians rely on EPA and DHA being synthesized by the body from dietary sources of ALA. See also essential fatty acids.... omega-3 fatty acids


n. the surgical removal of all or part of the omentum (the fold of peritoneum between the stomach and other abdominal organs). In infracolic omentectomy the lower section of the greater omentum is excised as part of the management of ovarian or bowel cancer. It enables accurate staging and optimal reduction of the cancer.... omentectomy

Ommaya Reservoir

a device inserted into the ventricles of the brain to enable the repeated injection of drugs into the cerebrospinal fluid. It is used, for example, in the treatment of malignant meningitis, particularly in children with leukaemia. It can also be used to allow aspiration of cystic gliomas.... ommaya reservoir


(omphalo-) combining form denoting the navel or umbilical cord.... omphal


n. inflammation of the navel, especially in newborn infants.... omphalitis


n. see umbilicus.... omphalus


n. a genus of parasitic worms (see filaria) occurring in central Africa and central America. The adult worms are found in fibrous nodules within the connective tissues beneath the skin and their presence causes disease (see onchocerciasis). Various species of black fly, in which Onchocerca undergoes part of its development, transmit the infective larvae to humans.... onchocerca


combining form denoting 1. a tumour. 2. volume.... onco


n. a usually benign tumour that consists of oncocytes, which are abnormal epithelial cells that contain many mitochondria. Oncocytomas commonly occur in the kidney.... oncocytoma

Oncofetal Antigen

a protein normally produced only by fetal tissue but often produced by certain tumours. An example is *carcino-embryonic antigen (CEA), which has been used as a *tumour marker, especially in colorectal carcinomas.... oncofetal antigen


n. the development of a new abnormal growth (a benign or malignant tumour).... oncogenesis


adj. describing a substance, organism, or environment that is known to be a causal factor in the production of a tumour. Some viruses are considered to be oncogenic; these include the *papovaviruses, the *retroviruses, certain *adenoviruses and *herpesviruses, and the *Epstein-Barr virus. See also carcinogen.... oncogenic


n. the destruction of tumours and tumour cells. This may occur spontaneously or, more usually, in response to treatment with drugs or by radiotherapy.... oncolysis


n. an instrument for measuring the volume of blood circulating in one of the limbs. See plethysmography.... oncometer


adj. 1. characterized by a tumour or swelling. 2. relating to an increase in volume or pressure.... oncotic

Oncotic Pressure

a pressure represented by the pressure difference that exists between the osmotic pressure of blood and that of the lymph or tissue fluid. Oncotic pressure is important for regulating the flow of water between blood and tissue fluid. See also osmosis.... oncotic pressure


(oneiro-) combining form denoting dreams or dreaming.... oneir

Onodi Cell

a posterior ethmoidal sinus air cell (see paranasal sinuses). They are surgically important because of their proximity to the optic nerve and internal carotid artery. [A. Onodi (1857–1919), Hungarian rhinolaryngologist]... onodi cell


n. the history of the development of an individual from the fertilized egg to maturity.... ontogeny


(onycho-) combining form denoting the nail(s).... onych

Oocyte Donation

(egg donation) the transfer of secondary *oocytes from one woman to another. Possible recipients include women with primary or secondary ovarian failure or severe genetic disorders, and women in whom ovulation has been suppressed as an incidental result of drug treatment for another condition (e.g. cancer). Pregnancy rates are higher than with *in vitro fertilization.... oocyte donation


n. (pl. oogonia) a cell produced at an early stage in the formation of an ovum (egg cell). Primordial germ cells that have migrated to the embryonic ovary multiply to form numerous small oogonia. After the fifth month of pregnancy they enter the early stages of the first meiotic division to form the *oocytes. See also oogenesis.... oogonium


(oophoro-) combining form denoting the ovary.... oophor


n. the stitching of a displaced ovary to the wall of the pelvic cavity.... oophoropexy


adj. (in psychology) describing a unit of behaviour that is defined by its effect on the environment. See conditioning.... operant


n. a group of closely linked genes that regulate the production of enzymes in bacteria. An operon is composed of one or more structural genes, which determine the nature of the enzymes made, and operator and promoter genes, which control the working of the structural genes. The operator is itself controlled by a regulator gene, which is not part of the operon.... operon


(ophthalmo-) combining form denoting the eye or eyeball. Examples: ophthalmectomy (surgical removal of); ophthalmorrhexis (rupture of); ophthalmotomy (incision into).... ophthalm