Causes Oedema is not a disease, it is a sign – usually of underlying local or systemic disease. It may sometimes be visible as a swelling. Oedema occurs when the normal mechanisms for maintaining a balance between ?uid in the tissues and in the blood are upset. That balance depends mainly on the blood pressure that keeps the blood ?owing through the circulatory system – thus forcing ?uid out of the capillaries
– and the osmotic drawing force of the blood proteins which pulls water into the bloodstream. The KIDNEYS also have an essential role in maintaining this balance.
Among the disorders that may disturb this balance are heart failure, NEPHROTIC SYNDROME, kidney failure, CIRRHOSIS of the liver and a diet de?cient in protein. Injury may also cause oedema and ascites (?uid in the abdominal cavity) can occur as a result of cirrhosis of the liver or cancer in the abdominal organs.
Treatment The underlying cause of oedema should be treated and, if this is not feasible or e?ective, the excess ?uid should be excreted by boosting the output of the kidney. Restriction of sodium in the diet and the administration of DIURETICS are e?ective methods of achieving this.... oedema
Habitat: Under field cultivation.Features ? Oats of commerce and general use are the seeds of Avena sativa with the husk removed. The crushed or coarsely powdered oats is known as groats, and the powder, either fine or coarse, as oatmeal.Part used ? Seeds.
Action: Nervine, tonic, stimulant, antispasmodic.As a restorative in nervous exhaustion, and of particular value in correcting spasmodic conditions of bladder and ureter. Curative properties of oats may be utilized through the medium of the fluid extract. Dose, 10-30 drops.... oats
Oestradiol is responsible for the development of the female sexual characteristics, of the BREASTS, and of part of the changes that take place in the UTERUS before MENSTRUATION.... oestradiol
The importation into Britain of opium is strictly regulated under the Dangerous Drugs Acts. Similar regulations govern the sale and distribution of any preparation of morphine or diamorphine (heroin) stronger than 1 part in
500. (See DEPENDENCE.)
Action The action of opium varies considerably, according to the source of the drug and the preparation used.
In small doses, opium produces a state of gentle excitement, the person ?nding their imagination more vivid, their thoughts more brilliant, and their power of expression greater than usual. This stage lasts for some hours, and is succeeded by languor. In medicinal doses this stage of excitement is short and is followed by deep sleep. When potentially poisonous doses are taken, sleep comes on quickly, and passes into coma and death (see OPIOID POISONING). The habitual use of opium produces great TOLERANCE, so that opium users require to take large quantities daily before experiencing its pleasurable effects. The need for opium also confers tolerance, so that people suffering great pain may take, with apparently little e?ect beyond dulling the pain, quantities which at another time would be dangerous.... opium
ARTHROPLASTY) and the treatment of bone tumours. (See BONE, DISORDERS OF; JOINTS, DISEASES OF.)... orthopaedics
The primary problem is seen as a change in structure of cartilage and BONE, rather than an in?ammatory SYNOVITIS. Osteoarthritis usually implies a loss of the central load-bearing area of articular hyaline cartilage, with outgrowth of cartilage at the articular margin and subsequent ossi?cation to form bony outgrowths known as OSTEOPHYTES. Osteophytes form with increasing age, whether or not there is signi?cant cartilage loss, and in the elderly may lead to local frictional symptoms, and in the spine, to nerve compression.
The condition has a wide range of causes, of which some, like dysplasia and trauma, are known and others have yet to be identi?ed. The main clinical problems occur in the hip and knee. The cartilage loss in the hip usually occurs in the sixth or seventh decade. It may affect both hips in fairly rapid succession, or only one hip; such patients often have no problems in other joints. Cartilage loss in the knee occurs from the ?fth decade onwards and is often associated with cartilage loss in small joints in the hand and elsewhere. Cartilage loss in the distal interphalangeal joints of the hand is associated with the formation of bony swellings known as Heberden’s nodes.
Treatment Management is largely directed at maintaining activity, with physical and social support as necessary. ANALGESICS may be of some value, particularly in the management of night pain. NON-STEROIDAL ANTIINFLAMMATORY DRUGS (NSAIDS) may help patients with early-morning sti?ness and may also reduce pain on movement and night pain. Their bene?t, however, tends to be less marked than in RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS and their long-term usage has considerable toxicity problems. Advanced cartilage loss is best treated by joint replacement. Hip- and knee-joint replacements – with a wide variety of arti?cial joints – are now common surgical procedures which greatly improve the mobility of affected individuals. (See ARTHROPLASTY.)
People with arthritis and their relatives can obtain help and advice from Arthritis Care.... osteoarthritis
Oxygen is essential for life. It is absorbed via the lungs (see RESPIRATION) and is transported by HAEMOGLOBIN within the ERYTHROCYTES to the tissues. Within the individual cell it is involved in the production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), a compound that stores chemical energy for muscle cells, by the oxidative metabolism of fats and carbohydrates. HYPOXIA causes anaerobic metabolism with a resulting build-up in LACTIC ACID, the result of muscle cell activity. If severe enough, the lack of ATP causes a breakdown in cellular function and the death of the individual.
When hypoxia occurs, it may be corrected by giving supplemental oxygen. This is usually given via a face mask or nasal prongs or, in severe cases, during ARTIFICIAL VENTILATION OF THE LUNGS. Some indications for oxygen therapy are high altitude, ventilatory failure, heart failure, ANAEMIA, PULMONARY HYPERTENSION, CARBON MONOXIDE (CO) poisoning, anaesthesia and post-operative recovery. In some conditions – e.g. severe infections with anaerobic bacteria and CO poisoning – hyperbaric oxygen therapy has been used.... oxygen
Causes: reflux of acid from the stomach due to incompetence of sphincter muscle. This muscle can be weakened by drugs, coffee, smoking, alcohol, piping-hot drinks or the presence of hiatus hernia. Treatment: same as for HEARTBURN. ... oesophagitis
The oestrogenic hormones of the ovary are OESTRADIOL and oestrone. The rapid degradation of natural oestrogens limits their use as therapeutic agents. Chemical substitution of the steroid molecule, as in ethinyl oestradiol, or the use of a non-steroidal synthetic oestrogen such as STILBOESTROL, greatly reduces the rate of degradation and enhances the therapeutic action. A further development has been the use of compounds which are not actually oestrogenic themselves, but which are slowly metabolised to oestrogenic substances, or substances such as chlorotrianisene, which are taken up in the body fat and then slowly released into the circulation. There is in fact little to choose between the various synthetic oestrogens. Ethinyl oestradiol is the most potent oral oestrogen, being 20 times more active than stilboestrol.
Other commonly used oestrogen drugs are dienoestrol and oestrol. The use of oestrogens in hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is dealt with in the entry on the MENOPAUSE.... oestrogens
Action: Emmenagogue, antispasmodic, carminative, expectorant. Leaves and seed— astringent, antispasmodic. Warm infusion of herb—promotes suppressed menstrual flow.The herb contains about 3% volatile oil comprising sabinene hydrate, sa- binene, linalool, carvacrol, estrogole, eugenol and terpenes; flavonoids including luteolin-7-glucoside, dios- metin-7-glucoside, apigenin-7-gluco- side; rosmarinic acid, caffeic acid; and triterpenoids such as ursolic acid, olea- nolic acid, sterols.Marjoram herb and oil exhibit antibacterial action. (German Commission E.) The herb contains arbutin and hydroxyquinone (a carcinogenic agent) in low concentrations. The herb is not suited for extended use. Topical application of hydroxyquinone leads to depigmentation of the skin. There is no reports of similar side effects with marjoram ointment. (German Commission E.)Origanum vulgare Linn. (Wild Marjoram) contains volatile oil with a widely varying composition; major components include thymol, beta-bisabolene, caryophyllene, linalool and borneol; other constituents are similar to those of O. majorana.The leaves of Wild Marjoram contain phenolic acids. The phenyl propionic acid and the phenyl glucoside showed antioxidant activity comparable to that of BHA, a synthetic antiox- idant.Wild Marjoram preparations are used for bronchial catarrh and disturbances of the gastrointestinal tract in Unani medicine.Sweet Marjoram shows stronger effect on the nervous system than Wild Marjoram and gives better results in anxiety, headaches and insomnia.Both the species have been included among unapproved herbs by German Commission E.... oroxylum indicum
Habitat: Cultivated in Northern Italy and Morocco.Features ? The white Florentine root, which is preferred to other varieties, is irregular in shape and shows marks where the rootlets branched before preparation for export. Verona Orris root tapers more gradually than that from Florence, and appears more compressed. The Moroccan root is noticeable for the dirty white cortex which remains on the root. Orris gives off a violet-like scent.Part used ? Root.Large quantities of the finely pulverised root are used in the preparation of toilet and dusting powders, dentifrices and cachous, for which purposes the acceptable fragrancy and other appropriate qualities make Orris root eminently suitable. Toilet recipes are given in another section of this book.Orris is not used for purely medicinal purposes.... orris
The condition is caused by an imbalance between LUTEINISING HORMONE (LH) and FOLLICLE-STIMULATING HORMONE (FSH); this imbalance stops OVULATION and varies the TESTOSTERONE output of the ovaries. The treatment may be with CLOMIPHENE; with a PROGESTOGEN drug; with LUTEINISING HORMONE-RELEASING HORMONE (LHRH); or with oral contraceptives (see under CONTRACEPTION – Non-barrier methods). The treatment chosen depends on the severity of the disease and whether the woman wants to conceive. Rarely a section of ovarian tissue is surgically removed.... polycystic ovary syndrome
Symptoms: distension, dehydration, atony, vomiting, constipation.
Alternatives. Wild Yam. Calamus. Papaya.
Condition may have to be resolved by surgery. Simple obstruction: large doses (4-8 teaspoons) Isphaghula seeds. Lime flower tea. See: COLITIS. ... intestinal obstruction
Selenium 50mcg and Vitamin E 400iu are recommended by Jonathan Wright MD, for decreasing the pain of disease, decreasing over 3 months. (Health Update USA, June 1990) ... osgood schlatter disease
Angelica, Bearberry, Beth root, Black Cohosh, Blue Cohosh, Castor oil, Goldenseal, Juniper berries, Raspberry leaves, Rue, Squaw Vine, Wild Ginger. ... oxytocic
Bowel and kidney function should be investigated, as body odour is not normally offensive when these organs are healthy. Zinc is a powerful deodorant – zinc and castor oil cream being a traditional combination of pharmacy. Key herbal agent is Thuja, but it is sometimes advisable to add to this an agent for liver and kidneys.
Alternatives. Teas: Sage, Pennyroyal, Thyme, Betony. Decoctions: Sarsaparilla, Wild Yam.
Tablets/capsules. Seaweed and Sarsaparilla. Wild Yam, Thuja.
Formula: equal parts: Dandelion Root, Clivers, Thuja. Dosage – Powders: One-third teaspoon. Liquid Extracts: 30-60 drops. Tinctures: 1-2 teaspoons in water, thrice daily.
Topical. Dilute oil of Sage, or Sage tea, to under-arms, hands, feet.
Diet. Lacto-vegetarian. Safflower oil.
Minerals. Zinc. Dolomite. ... body odour
OENOTHERA BIENNIS, commonly known as the evening primrose. The oil contains an anti-inflammatory substance called gamolenic acid, and is believed by some to be of benefit in treating eczema and premenstrual syndrome.... evening primrose oil
The acquired form may develop after a bony injury, especially around the elbow; it causes severe pain and a swelling, which hardens. Treatment with diathermy, coupled with gentle, active movements, may be helpful.... myositis ossificans
Causes: emotional tension, hiatus hernia, food allergy and the damaging potential of hot drinks. Alternatives. Acute case: Cramp bark. German Chamomile tea, freely. Phytomedicines for chronic condition or as preventatives: Passion flower, Skullcap, Wild Yam, Lobelia, Mistletoe, Valerian. Formula. Cramp bark 2; Chamomile 1; Peppermint 1. Dose – Liquid extracts: 1-2 teaspoons. Tinctures: 2-3 teaspoons. Powders: 750mg (three 00 capsules or half a teaspoon) 3 or more times daily.
Milk. Drink whole glass cold milk, with or without 1 drop oil Peppermint, immediately on onset of pain. May relieve spasms in seconds. ... oesophageal spasm
Causes: injury, scarring by chemical medicines, drugs swallowed with insufficient water, antacids for heartburn, piping-hot tea. It is important to exclude oesophageal cancer.
Those with ‘gullet-reflex’ such as the elderly, are at risk. A relationship exists between toothlessness and this condition. Eating of soft fibreless foods does not expand the tube down which food passes. Alternatives. Horsetail, Irish Moss. Echinacea. Marshmallow. Goldenseal. Sarsaparilla. Calendula (Marigold), Chamomile.
Tea. Formula – equal parts, Horsetail, Chamomile, Marshmallow. 1 heaped teaspoon to each cup boiling water; infuse 5-15 minutes. 1 cup thrice daily.
Tablets/capsules. Echinacea, Goldenseal, Sarsaparilla, Chamomile.
Formula. Irish Moss 1; Comfrey 1; Calendula half; Goldenseal quarter. Dose – Liquid extracts: 1-2 teaspoons. Tinctures: 2-3 teaspoons. Powders: 750mg (three 00 capsules or half a teaspoon) in water before meals.
Diet. High fibre. Raw carrots with prolonged mastication. Hot drinks are potentially damaging. ... oesophageal stricture
Nitric oxide causes blood vessels to dilate, affecting the flow of oxygenated blood and regulating blood pressure.
Overproduction of nitric oxide is associated with various disorders, including toxic shock, rheumatoid arthritis, and diabetes mellitus; underproduction may cause impotence and angina.
The control of nitric oxide is an important element of many drug treatments.... nitric oxide
Adverse effects of nitrous oxide and oxygen may include nausea and vomiting during the recovery period.... nitrous oxide
Annual death rates (deaths per million at risk) vary widely between occupations, ranging from 5 in clothing and footwear manufacture to about 1,650 in offshore oil and gas industries.
More than 1,000 per year are due to work-related diseases, mainly pneumoconiosis and cancers.... occupational mortality
Given by injection, octreotide is used mainly in the treatment of acromegaly and hormone-secreting intestinal tumours.
Octreotide is also used to prevent complications following pancreatic surgery.
Side effects may include various gastrointestinal disturbances such as nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and bloating, flatulence, and diarrhoea.... octreotide
Causes: fungal or bacterial infections acquired when swimming, scratching with dirty fingernails, diabetes mellitus, eczema or excessive sweating.
Symptoms: earache, itching, discharge, moderate deafness.
Alternative Treatment:– Tea. Combine equal parts: Nettles, Clivers, Red Clover. 1-2 teaspoons to each cup boiling water; infuse 5-15 minutes. 1 cup thrice daily.
Tablets/capsules. Echinacea. Blue Flag. Garlic. Poke root. Red Clover. Devil’s Claw. Thuja.
Powders. Combine parts: Echinacea 2; Blue Flag 1; Thuja quarter; Liquorice quarter. Dose: 500mg (two 00 capsules or one-third teaspoon) thrice daily.
Tinctures. Combine parts: Echinacea 2; Devil’s Claw 1; Goldenseal quarter; Liquorice quarter. Dose: 1-2 teaspoons, thrice daily.
Evening Primrose. 4 × 500mg capsules daily.
Cider Vinegar: 2-3 teaspoons in glass water, 2-3 times daily.
Topical. Dry conditions: Jojoba oil, Mullein oil. Evening Primrose oil.
Moist suppurative conditions: Goldenseal Drops (see entry).
Simple inflammation without discharge: warm drops Houseleek juice. Pack external ear with saturated cotton wool.
Diet and supplements: same as for otitis media. ... otitis externa
The crisis may be associated with muscle spasm of the tongue, mouth, and neck, and is often triggered by stress.
It may also occur following encephalitis and in parkinsonism, or may be induced by drugs, such as phenothiazine derivatives.... oculogyric crisis
Varices develop as a consequence of portal hypertension.
Blood in the portal vein, passing from the intestines to the liver, meets resistance due to liver disease.
The increased blood pressure causes blood to be diverted into small veins in the walls of the oesophagus and stomach.
These veins may become distended and rupture, causing vomiting of blood and black faeces.
There are usually other symptoms of chronic liver disease.
To control acute bleeding, a balloon catheter may be passed into the oesophagus to press on the bleeding varices.
The varices may be treated with an intravenous injection of vasopressin and/or by injection, via an endoscope, of a sclerosant that seals off the affected veins.... oesophageal varices
It is usually taken in tablet form to treat infections that have not responded to other drugs but is also given by intravenous infusion for severe systemic infections.
Side effects may include nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, and abdominal pain.... ofloxacin
Surgical removal of the tumour can, in some cases, lead to a total cure.... oligodendroglioma
It is taken as tablets or suppositories, or given by injection.
Side effects may include constipation, headache, and hiccups.... ondansetron
The infection is treated with antibiotic drugs.... ophthalmia neonatorum
Types of ophthalmitis include ophthalmia neonatorum and sympathetic ophthalmitis: a rare condition in which a penetrating injury to one eye is followed by severe uveitis that can cause blindness in the other eye.
Sympathetic ophthalmitis can be treated with corticosteroid drugs, but removal of the injured eye is sometimes necessary to save the sight of the other.... ophthalmitis
In chemistry, “organic” refers to certain compounds that contain carbon.
In medicine, the term indicates the presence of disease.
(See also inorganic.)... organic
Bacteria and viruses are disease-causing microorganisms.... organism
ortho- A prefix meaning normal, correct, or straight, as in orthopaedics, a branch of surgery concerned with correcting disorders of the bones and joints.
orthodontic appliances Fixed or removable devices, commonly known as braces, worn to correct malocclusion, or to reposition overcrowded or buck teeth. Usually fitted during childhood and adolescence, they move teeth using sustained gentle pressure. A fixed appliance has brackets attached to the teeth through which an arch wire is threaded and tightened to exert pressure. These are usually kept in place for about a year, after which time a retainer plate may be needed to hold the teeth in place until tooth and jaw growth has finished.
Removable appliances, consisting of a plastic plate with attachments that anchor over the back teeth, are used when only one or a few teeth need correcting. They apply force by means of springs, wire bows, screws, or rubber bands fitted to the plate.... ort
If a fragment has not completely separated from the bone, the joint may be immobilized in a plaster cast to allow reattachment. Loose bone or cartilage fragments in the knee are removed during arthroscopy. Disruption to the smoothness of the joint surface increases the risk of osteoarthritis.... osteochondritis dissecans
Types of osteodystrophy include rickets; osteomalacia; osteoporosis due to Cushing’s syndrome or excessive intake of corticosteroid drugs; and bone cysts and bone mass reduction associated with chronic kidney failure or hyperparathyroidism.
In adults, an osteodystrophy is usually reversible if the underlying cause is treated before bone deformity occurs.... osteodystrophy
In newborn babies, the diaphysis (shaft) has begun to ossify and is composed mainly of bone, while the epiphyses are made of cartilage that gradually hardens. In children, growth plates produce new cartilage to lengthen the bones, and further bone forms at secondary ossification centres in the epiphyses. By the age of 18, the shafts, growth plates, and epiphyses have all ossified and fused into continuous bone.... ossification
Surgical removal may be necessary if an osteoma causes symptoms by pressing on surrounding structures.... osteoma
Most treatments for osteopetrosis aim to reduce the severity of symptoms. Bone marrow transplants of cells from which healthy bone cells might develop are undertaken in some cases.... osteopetrosis
Localized osteosclerosis may be caused by a severe injury that compresses the bone, osteoarthritis, chronic osteomyelitis, or an osteoma.
Osteosclerosis occurs throughout the body in the inherited bone disorder osteopetrosis.... osteosclerosis
Ovarian cysts are often symptomless, but some cause abdominal discomfort, pain during intercourse, or irregularities of menstruation such as amenorrhoea, menorrhagia, or dysmenorrhoea. Severe abdominal pain, nausea, and fever may develop if twisting or rupture of a cyst occurs. This condition requires surgery.An ovarian cyst may be discovered during a routine pelvic examination and its position and size confirmed by ultrasound or laparoscopy. In many cases, simple ovarian cysts – thin-walled or fluid-filled cysts – resolve themselves. However, complex cysts (such as dermoid cysts) usually require surgical removal. If an ovarian cyst is particularly large, the ovary may need to be removed (see oophorectomy).... ovarian cyst
It usually results from thrombosis in the affected vein, and is more common in people who have glaucoma.
Retinal vein occlusion may cause visual disturbances, glaucoma, or blindness.... retinal vein occlusion
An international organization established in 1948 as an agency of the United Nations with responsibilities for international health matters and public health. The headquarters are in Geneva, Switzerland.
The has campaigned effectively against some infectious diseases, most
notably smallpox, tuberculosis, and malaria.
Other functions include sponsoring medical research programmes, organizing a network of collaborating national laboratories, and providing expert advice and specific targets to its 160 member states with regard to health matters.... world health organization
whipworm infestation Small, cylindrical whip-like worms, 2.5–5 cm long, that live in the human large intestine. Infestation occurs worldwide but is most common in the tropics. Light infestation causes no symptoms; heavy infestation can cause abdominal pain, diarrhoea, and, sometimes, anaemia, since a small amount of the host’s blood is consumed every day.
Diagnosis is through the identification of whipworm eggs in the faeces. Treatment is with anthelmintic drugs, such as mebendazole. A heavy infestation may require more than 1 course of treatment. whitehead A very common type of skin blemish (see milia).... whipple’s operation
Naturally occurring and synthetic oestrogens are used to treat *amenorrhoea and menopausal symptoms (see hormone replacement therapy), as well as androgen-dependent cancers (e.g. cancer of the prostate). Synthetic oestrogens are a major constituent of *oral contraceptives. Side-effects of oestrogen therapy may include nausea and vomiting, headache and dizziness, irregular vaginal bleeding, fluid and salt retention, and feminization in men. Oestrogens should not be used in patients with a history of cancer of the breast, uterus, or genital tract. —oestrogenic adj.... oestrogen
Habitat: Artocarpus interifolia, indigenous to the western Ghats.English: Oyster Mushroom (grows on Artocarpus integrifolia).
Action: Prevents excessive salivation. Also given internally in dysentery, diarrhoea, stomatitis; as a paste to gums in apthae.... agaricus ostreatus
Habitat: Native to China; cultivated in northern India.English: Lesser Galangal, Alpinia, Catarrh Root, Chinese Ginger.Ayurvedic: Kulanjan (var.). Unani: Khulanjaan (smaller var.). Siddha/Tamil: Chitrarattai.
Action: Rhizome—a circulatory stimulant and carminative.Key application: As a carminative.(The British Herbal Pharmacopoeia.)Aqueous and methanolic extracts of the rhizome, on oral administration, exhibited significant decrease in gastric secretion in rabbits and showed anticholinergic effect in pylorus-ligated rats.Flavones from rhizomes are strongly antifungal against a wide variety of pathogenic fungi, responsible for major skin diseases in eastern India. Flavones were also found to be active against a number of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.The gingerols and diaryheptanoids constituents of the rhizome are potent inhibitors of PG synthetase (prosta- glandin biosynthesizing enzyme); they can also be active against 5-lipoxyge- nase, an enzyme involved in leuko- triene biosynthesis. (Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, 2007.)... alpinia officinarum
Habitat: Native to eastern Europe; found in Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh.English: Marshmallow, Hollyhock.Unani: Khatmi, Gul-Khairu (also equated with Althaea rosea Linn.).Siddha/Tamil: Shemai-tutti.
Action: Demulcent, emollient, antitussive (used for cough, bronchitis, gastritis, enteritis and cystitis), antilithic, diuretic.Key application: (leaf and root) In irritation ofthe oral and pharyngeal mucosa and associated dry cough; in mild inflammation of the gastric mucosa. (German Commission E, ESCOP.) As demulcent. (The British Herbal Pharmacopoeia.) In gastroenteritis, peptic and duodenal ulceration, common and ulcerative colitis. (The British Herbal Compendium.) Topically for varicose veins, skin ulcers, abscesses, cuts, burns.Althaea rosea (L.) Cav., synonym Al- cea rosea L., Hollyhock flower, is used as mucilage for prophylaxis and therapy of diseases and discomforts of the respiratory and gastrointestinal tract and for urinary complaints. (It is included among unapproved herbs by German Commission E.)The root contains starch, mucilage, pectin, flavonoids, phenolic acids, sucrose, tannins and asparagines. Mucilage (18-35%) consists of a number of polysaccharides. Flavonoids include kaempferol, quercetin and diosmetin glucosides. Polyphenolic acids include syringic, caffeic, salcyclic, vanillic and p-coumaric acids.The mucilages have proven biological activity including stimulation of phagocytosis in vitro.The root counters excess stomach acid, peptic ulceration and gastritis.... althaea officinalis
Habitat: Native to tropical America, from Mexico to Peru and Brazil. Cultivated largely in Malabar, Kerala, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh, and to some extent in Maharashtra, Goa, Orissa and West Bengal.English: Cashew Nut.Unani: Kaaju.Siddha/Tamil: Mindiri.
Action: Leaves and bark—fungi- cidal, vermicidal, protozoicidal, antimicrobial (used for toothache, sore gums). Karnel—eaten for its high protein content. Cashew apple—antiscorbutic. Resinous juice contained in the seeds—used in cases of mental derangement, memory disturbances, palpitation of heart, rheumatic pericarditis, sexual debility.The nut contains 45% fat and 20% protein. Leaves contain flavonoids, mainly glycosides of quercetin and kaempferol, and hydroxybenzoic acid. The bark contains a balsam-containing anacardic acid, anacardol, cardol and ginkgol. The caustic liquid in the shell contains about 39% anacardic acid, a mixture of alkyl salicylic acid derivatives. The leaves are febrifuge. Anacardic acid is bactericidal, fungici- dal, vermicidal and protozoicidal. The leaves and bark exhibited hypotensive activity in rats.The phenolics of the cashew-nut shell oil have inhibited the enzymic activity of alpha-glucosidase, invertase and aldose reductase (anacardic acids being the most potent). Cardols have also shown antifilarial activity in vitro. Anacardic acids, cardols and methyl cardols have been found to exhibit moderate cytotoxic activity.... anacardium occidentale
Habitat: Native to Europe; thrives in dry grassland in central and northern parts of the continent.English: Wind-Flower, Wood Anemone, Pasque Flower, Pulsatilla.Unani: Gul-laalaa, Shaqaaq-un- Nomaan.
Action: Nervine and sedative (used for anxiety neurosis, nervous exhaustion, tension, headache, migraine, insomnia), antispasmodic (in catarrh); used for amenorrhoea, inflammation of ovaries, painful menstruation and genito-urinary infections. The rootstock is given with milk for concussions. The seeds cause vomiting and purging.The seed oil is used in rheumatism.Pulsatilla contains ranunculin, which hydrolyzes to a toxic, unstable compound protoanemonin, which readily dimerizes to non-toxic anemonin.Anemonin and protoanemonin exhibit sedative and antipyretic activity. Protoanemonin is also antimicrobial. (Topically, Pulsatilla is used for infectious diseases of the skin.)... anemone obtusiloba
Habitat: A tree occurring in salt marshes and tidal creeks.English: White mangrove.Ayurvedic: Tuvara.Siddha/Tamil: Kandal.Folk: Tivaria (Gujarat), Upattam (Tamil Nadu).
Action: Stem/bark—astringent. Pulp of unripe fruit—used for healing skin lesions of smallpox; fruits and immature seeds, used as cicatrizant of abscesses and ulcers.The bark contains 5% tannin, tri- acontanol and triterpenoids. Kernels contain lapachol, which possesses an- titumour activity. Aerial parts yield beta-sitosterol, friedelin, lupenone, lu- peol, betulinic and ursolic acids.... avicennia officinalis
Habitat: Found in countries on both sides of Red Sea.English: Balsam tree, Balsam of Mecca, Balsam of Gilead.Unani: Balsaan, Roghan-e-Balsaan (oil), Hab-e-Balsaan (fruit). Ood-e- Balsaan (wood).
Action: Used in diseases of the urinary tract. Balsams are diuretic and stimulate mucous tissues in small doses (nauseatic and purgative in large doses).In Unani medicine, the fruit is used as an expectorant and emmenagogue, also for neurological affections. The wood is also used as an ingredient in compounds for epilepsy and other nervine disorders. The oil is used externally for its anti-inflammatory and revitalizing properties.... balsamodendron opobalsamum
Habitat: Native to Central America, often cultivated in Madhya Pradesh and South India.English: Annatto.Ayurvedic: Sinduri, Sinduriyaa.Siddha/Tamil: Jabara, Manjitti.
Action: Plant—astringent, antibil- ious, antiemetic, blood purifier. Leaves—infusion is given in jaundice, also in dysentery. Externally, scar-preventive. Root bark— febrifuge, antiperiodic. Seed pulp— haemostatic, antidysenteric, diuretic, laxative. Fruit—antidysenteric.An antimicrobial constituent, mas- linic acid, alongwith gallic acid and pyrogallol, has been isolated from the leaves. Alcoholic extract of the leaves completely inhibited Micrococcus pyo- genes, but was inactive against E. coli. The aqueous extract, however, showed partial inhibition against E. coli. The aqueous extract also showed potent inhibitory activity towards lens aldose re- ductase, which plays an important role in the management of diabetic complications. The activity is attributed to a flavonoid, isoscutelarein.Bixin, the main constituent of seed coat, shows cytostatic effect on the growth of human lymphoma cells. Bixin also has a hyperglycaemic effect and may disturb blood glucose control.... bixa orellana
Habitat: Central, Western and Southern India, also eastwards to Bengal.Ayurvedic: Naagadanti. (Danti is equated with Baliospermum montanum Muell., Dravanti with Jatropha curcas Linn. and Croton tiglium Linn.)
Action: Same as that of C. tiglium.... croton oblongifolius
Habitat: The Mediteranean region, Europe and Asia.English: Borage, Cow's Tongue Plant.Unani: Gaozabaan (Onosma bracteatum Wall. has also been equated with Gaozabaan).
Action: Fresh herb (compounded with water)—refreshing, restorative and nervine tonic. Leaves and flowers—diuretic, febrifuge, expectorant, demulcent, emollient; promote the activity of kidneys; alleviate pulmonary affections.The drug strengthens adrenal glands and is given for stress, mental exhau- sion and depression; provides support to stomach and intestines in cases of infection and toxicity. Used as a tonic to counteract the lingering effects of steroid therapy. Seeds relieve irritable bowel syndrome and regulate menstruation.The leaves contain lycopsamine and supindine viridiflorate as the predominant unsaturated pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Due to low concentration of these alkaloids Borage is not toxic.The drug contains potassium and calcium, combined with mineral acids. The fresh juice affords 30%, the dried herb 3% of nitrate of potash. The stems and leaves supply much saline mucilage. These saline qualities are mainly responsible for the wholesome invigorating properties of Borage.Borage imparts pleasant flavour and cooling effect to beverages. In India, squashes and syrups, sold during summer, contain Borage extract.Borage contains ascorbic acid (38 mg/100 g). Flowers contain cholin, glucose, fructose, amino acids, tannin (about 3%). Seeds contain protein (20.9%) and an oil (38.3%). The seed oil is one of the important sources of gamma-linoleic acid and linoleic acid. Borage oil, combined with Evening Primrose oil, is used in hypercholes- terolaemia.Borage seed oil is used for rheumatoid arthritis, atopic eczema, infantile seborrhoeic dermatitis, neurodermati- tis, also for PMS and for preventing heart disease and stroke. Only UPA (unsaturated pyrrolizidine alkaloids) free oil is given internally.Listed by German Commission E among unapproved herbs.It has been suggested that borage not be used with drugs known to lower the seizure threshold such as tricyclic an- tidepressants and phenothiazines due to GLA content (only borage seed oil contains significant amounts of GLA). (Francis Brinker.)... borago officinalis
Habitat: Throughout India; wild in Punjab.English: Pot-Marigold, Marigold; Calendula.Unani: Zergul.Siddha/Tamil: Thulvkka Saamanthi.
Action: Flowers—antiinflammatory, antiseptic, stimulant, antispasmodic, emmenagogue, antihaemorrhagic, styptic. Used in gastric and duodenal ulcers and dysmenorrhoea; externally for cuts, bruises, burns, scalds. Plant—antiprotozoal. Flower— antimicrobial. Essential oil— antibacterial.Key application: In inflammation of the oral and pharyngeal mucosa, internally and externally. Externally, on poorly healing wounds, ul- cuscruris. (German Commission E, WHO, ESCOP.) Anti-inflammatory, vulnerary. (The British Herbal Pharmacopoeia.)The flowers contain triterpenes, sterols, flavonoids, carotenes, bitter glycosides, resins, volatile oil, mucilage (do not contain tannins). Polysaccharides from flowers exhibited immuno- stimulating and antitumour activity in several in vitro test systems.An alcoholic extract has been shown to have antitrichomonal activity.Wound healing and antiinflammatory properties are attributed to Mn and carotene. An aqueous alcoholic extract of florets showed CNS inhibitory effect with marked sedative activity in experimental animals.The extract of flower-heads exhibited estrogenic activity (reduces period pains and regulates menstrual bleeding).Calephlone, the extract containing the total polyphenols of the inflorescence, has a marked cholagogic effect in rats and has been found helpful in the treatment of CCl4-induced hepatitis. A hypocholesterolaemic saponin has been extracted from the plant.Dosage: Dried inflorescences powder—1-3 g (API Vol. II); fruit powder—1-2 g. (API Vol. IV.)... calendula officinalis
Habitat: South India; throughout the hills of Deccan.Ayurvedic: Amlikaakanda (controversial synonym).Siddha: Kavala-kodi, Venilai Valli.Folk: Aambaalio Kanda (Gujarat).
Action: Used externally for reducing swellings.... dioscorea oppositifolia
Habitat: Throughout the country in dry regions, especially in Punjab and Kashmir.Ayurvedic: Karamardikaa.Siddha/Tamil: Chirukila Chiru.Folk: Jangali Karondaa. Garnaa (Punjab).
Action: Plant—cardiotonic. Root— purgative.The root contains caffeic acid, cardiac glycosides—odorosides B, C, G and H, and evomonoside.Carissa paucinervia A. DC. is also equated with the wild var. ofKarondaa.... carissa opaca
Habitat: Punjab, Delhi, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu.English: Spanish, Sudan Senna.Ayurvedic: Maarkandikaa, Svarna- pattri. (related species)Folk: Sonaamukhi, Sanaai.
Action: An adulterant of the true senna. Leaves and seeds—purgative and anthelmintic.... cassia obovata
Habitat: From Jammu and Himachal Pradesh to West Bengal, also in central and western India, up to an altitude of 1,200 m.Ayurvedic: Chakramarda, Prapun- naada.Folk: Chakondaa, Chakwar, Pumariaa.
Action: Pods—Antidysenteric, antibacterial, antifungal. Seeds— used for ringworm and skin diseases also for cough, cold, asthma, and as a mild purgative in liver complaints.... cassia obtusifolia
Habitat: Throughout India, up to an altitude of 1,500 m.English: Coffee Senna, Foetid Cassia, Negro Coffee.Ayurvedic: Kaasamarda, Kaasaari.Unani: Kasondi.Siddha/Tamil: Paeyaavarai, Thagarai.Folk: Kasondi (bigger var.).
Action: Purgative, diuretic, febrifugal, expectorant, stomachic. Leaves—used internally and externally in scabies, ringworm and other skin diseases. A hot decoction is given as an antiperiodic. Seeds— used for cough, whooping cough and convulsions. Roasted seeds (roasting destroys the purgative property) are mixed with coffee for strength.The pods contain sennosides and anthraquinones; seeds polysacchari- des, galactomannan; leaves dianthron- ic hetroside; pericarp apigenin; roots emodol; plant xanthone—cassiolin; seeds phytosterolin; flowers physcion and its glucosides, emodin and beta- sitosterol.The volatile oil obtained from the leaves, roots and seeds showed antibacterial and antifungal activity.The seeds, when fed to animals, resulted in weight loss and also were found to be toxic to experimental animals. Leaves are preferred to quinine as a tonic, seeds are considered as a hae- mateinic toxic and root is used as a hepatic tonic.Dosage: Seed—3-6 g powder; leaf—10-20 ml juice; root bark— 50-100 ml decoction. (CCRAS.)... cassia occidentalis
Habitat: In damp places throughout the plains and low hills in India.English: Sneezewort.Ayurvedic: Kshavaka, Chhikkini, Chhikkikaa.Folk: Nak-chhikani.
Action: Used for the treatment of rhinitis, sinusitis, nasopharyngeal tumors and obstructions, asthma and cold; also used in hemicrania.The plant extract showed a good an- titussive and expectorant activity on mice. The flavonoids, sesquiterpenes and amide exhibited significant antial- lergy activity in passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) test.... centipeda orbicularis
Habitat: Throughout warmer regions of India, as a weed.Ayurvedic: Ibha-muulaka. (Also equated with F. annua.)
Action: Used in adenitis, scrofula, syphilis; also in cough, bronchitis and asthma.... fimbristylis ovata
Chronic bronchitis is typi?ed by chronic productive cough for at least three months in two successive years (provided other causes such as TUBERCULOSIS, lung cancer and chronic heart failure have been excluded). The characteristics of emphysema are abnormal and permanent enlargement of the airspaces (alveoli) at the furthermost parts of the lung tissue. Rupture of alveoli occurs, resulting in the creation of air spaces with a gradual breakdown in the lung’s ability to oxygenate the blood and remove carbon dioxide from it (see LUNGS). Asthma results in in?ammation of the airways with the lining of the BRONCHIOLES becoming hypersensitive, causing them to constrict. The obstruction may spontaneously improve or do so in response to bronchodilator drugs. If an asthmatic patient’s airway-obstruction is characterised by incomplete reversibility, he or she is deemed to have a form of COPD called asthmatic bronchitis; sufferers from this disorder cannot always be readily distinguished from those people who have chronic bronchitis and/ or emphysema. Symptoms and signs of emphysema, chronic bronchitis and asthmatic bronchitis overlap, making it di?cult sometimes to make a precise diagnosis. Patients with completely reversible air?ow obstruction without the features of chronic bronchitis or emphysema, however, are considered to be suffering from asthma but not from COPD.
The incidence of COPD has been increasing, as has the death rate. In the UK around 30,000 people with COPD die annually and the disorder makes up 10 per cent of all admissions to hospital medical wards, making it a serious cause of illness and disability. The prevalence, incidence and mortality rates increase with age, and more men than women have the disorder, which is also more common in those who are socially disadvantaged.
Causes The most important cause of COPD is cigarette smoking, though only 15 per cent of smokers are likely to develop clinically signi?cant symptoms of the disorder. Smoking is believed to cause persistent airway in?ammation and upset the normal metabolic activity in the lung. Exposure to chemical impurities and dust in the atmosphere may also cause COPD.
Signs and symptoms Most patients develop in?ammation of the airways, excessive growth of mucus-secreting glands in the airways, and changes to other cells in the airways. The result is that mucus is transported less e?ectively along the airways to eventual evacuation as sputum. Small airways become obstructed and the alveoli lose their elasticity. COPD usually starts with repeated attacks of productive cough, commonly following winter colds; these attacks progressively worsen and eventually the patient develops a permanent cough. Recurrent respiratory infections, breathlessness on exertion, wheezing and tightness of the chest follow. Bloodstained and/or infected sputum are also indicative of established disease. Among the symptoms and signs of patients with advanced obstruction of air?ow in the lungs are:
RHONCHI (abnormal musical sounds heard through a STETHOSCOPE when the patient breathes out).
marked indrawing of the muscles between the ribs and development of a barrel-shaped chest.
loss of weight.
CYANOSIS in which the skin develops a blue tinge because of reduced oxygenation of blood in the blood vessels in the skin.
bounding pulse with changes in heart rhythm.
OEDEMA of the legs and arms.
Some patients with COPD have increased ventilation of the alveoli in their lungs, but the levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide are normal so their skin colour is normal. They are, however, breathless so are dubbed ‘pink pu?ers’. Other patients have reduced alveolar ventilation which lowers their oxygen levels causing cyanosis; they also develop COR PULMONALE, a form of heart failure, and become oedematous, so are called ‘blue bloaters’.
Investigations include various tests of lung function, including the patient’s response to bronchodilator drugs. Exercise tests may help, but radiological assessment is not usually of great diagnostic value in the early stages of the disorder.
Treatment depends on how far COPD has progressed. Smoking must be stopped – also an essential preventive step in healthy individuals. Early stages are treated with bronchodilator drugs to relieve breathing symptoms. The next stage is to introduce steroids (given by inhalation). If symptoms worsen, physiotherapy – breathing exercises and postural drainage – is valuable and annual vaccination against INFLUENZA is strongly advised. If the patient develops breathlessness on mild exertion, has cyanosis, wheezing and permanent cough and tends to HYPERVENTILATION, then oxygen therapy should be considered. Antibiotic treatment is necessary if overt infection of the lungs develops.
Complications Sometimes rupture of the pulmonary bullae (thin-walled airspaces produced by the breakdown of the walls of the alveoli) may cause PNEUMOTHORAX and also exert pressure on functioning lung tissue. Respiratory failure and failure of the right side of the heart (which controls blood supply to the lungs), known as cor pulmonale, are late complications in patients whose primary problem is emphysema.
Prognosis This is related to age and to the extent of the patient’s response to bronchodilator drugs. Patients with COPD who develop raised pressure in the heart/lung circulation and subsequent heart failure (cor pulmonale) have a bad prognosis.... chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (copd)
Habitat: Cultivated in West Bengal and Tamil Nadu.English: Crown or Loxa Bark.Ayurvedic: Quinine.Unani: Al-keenaa, Kanakanaa.
Action: Antimalarial, febrifuge, astringent, orexigenic, sapasmolytic. Also prescribed in amoebic dysentery, jaundice, atonic dyspepsia, night cramps. Sometimes causes gastric and intestinal irritation.Key application: In peptic discomforts such as bloating and fullness, loss of appetite. (German Commission E.)The bark contains alkaloids quinine (2.35-4.42%); quinidine (1.44-2.56%); cinchonine (0.10-0.66%); cinchoni- dine (0.49-0.89%) and other alkaloids, quinamine, javanine (0.14-0.63%).The leaves contain quercetin, kaem- pferol and avicularin.Quinine is antimalarial; quinidine is antiarrhythmic and cardiac tonic, also used in psychic treatments.The bark shows potent inhibitory activity against polymorphonuclear leucocytes; the activity is attributed to the alkaloids of the bark. Cinchona may potentiate coumarin derivatives. In large doses, it is sedative to CNS and cardiac plexus.Quinine is toxic at over 3 g, quini- dine at 1 g.Related Cinchona sp.: C. calisaya Wedd. (Nilgiris and Sikkim); C. calisaya Wedd. var. ledgeriana How. (West Bengal, Khasi Hills and Tamil Nadu); and C. succirubra Pav. ex Klotz. (Nilgiris and Annamalis in Tamil Nadu, Sikkim and West Bengal).The bark of all the species contain quinine, quinidine, cinchonine and cinchonidine and exhibit antimalarial activity. The alcoholic extract of C. ledgeriana Moens ex Trimen bark exhibits antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria comparable to sodium penicillin. The extract, however, exhibits lesser activity than di- hydrostreptomycin sulphate against Gram-negative bacteria.... cinchona officinalis
Habitat: British and European hedge plant, met with in the temperate Himalayas of Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh at an altitude of 1,800-3,000 m. (The plant does not thrive in the plains of India.)English: English Hawthorn.Folk: Ring, Ringo, Pingyat, Phindak, Ban Sanjli (Punjab hills).
Action: Coronary vasodilator (strengthens heart muscle without increasing the beat in coronary arteries), antispasmodic, antihypertensive, sedative to nervous system, diuretic.Key application: In cases of cardiac insufficiency Stage II as defined by NYHA (New York Heart Association). An improvement of subjective findings as well as an increase in cardiac work tolerance, a decrease in pressure/heart rate product, an increase in the ejection fraction and a rise in the anaerobic threshold have been established in human pharmacological studies. (German Commission E, WHO.)The active principles include oligo- meric procyanidins and flavonoids.The drug is official in Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia of India.Contraindicated in low blood pressure, chest pain, bleeding disorders. The herb may interfere with therapeutic effect of cardiac drugs. (Sharon M. Herr.) Preparations based on hydroal- coholic extracts of Crataegus monogy- na or C. laevigata are used as Hawthorn in the Western herbal.... crataegeus oxyacantha
Habitat: Sub-tropical Himalayas from Kumaon eastwards; Western Ghats from Konkan Southwards.Ayurvedic: Taalmuuli, Taalpatri, Krishna Mushali, Bhuumitaala.Unani: Musli Siyaah.Siddha/Tamil: Nilappanan kizhangu.
Action: Nervine, adaptogenic, sedative, anticonvulsive, androgenic, anti-inflammatory and diuretic. Used in Jaundice, urinary disorders, skin diseases and asthma. Mucilaginous.The rhizome contains saponins (cur- culigosaponin C and F promoted proliferation of spleen lymphocytes very significantly; F and G increased the weight of the thymus in vitro in mice); sapogenins; phenolic glycosides, a tri- terpene alcohol; a pentacyclic triter- pene, an aliphatic compound, hen- triacontanol, sitosterol, stigmasterol, cycloartenol and sucrose. A pep- tide, Curculin C, containing 114 amino acids, has been isolated from the fruit.In traditional Chinese medicine, dried rhizome, containing curculigo- side is used as a tonic for its immuno- logical and protective property.In Indian medicine, powdered rhizomes with milk are taken as a restorative tonic, also for sexual debility.EtOH (50%) of the plant exhibited hypoglycaemic property.Dosage: Dried rhizome—3-6 g powder. (API Vol. IV.)... curculigo orchioides
[catlist id=11 numberposts=100 pagination=yes instance=2 orderby=title order=asc]... medical dictionary
Habitat: Cultivated in Punjab, Kashmir and the Nilgiri hills.English: Quince Fruit.Ayurvedic: Amritaphala, Paatalaa, Simbitikaa.Unani: Bihi, Bihidaanaa.Siddha/Tamil: Shimaimathala.
Action: Fruit pulp and seeds— soothing and demulcent; used in irritable bowel syndrome, diarrhoea, dysentery, constipation, and in irritable conditions of the mucous membrane. Leaf, bud and bark—astringent. Fruit— expectorant. Mucilage—used externally for scalds, ulcers and burns.The seed kernel contains the gly- coside amygdalin, tannin, mucilage (about 22%), ash (1.3%) and fatty oil (l4-19%).In Greece, a tea prepared by boiling dry seeds in water is given in cystitis. The major water-soluble polysac- charide in the mucilage of seeds contains a high proportion of glucuronic acid residues.The fruit contains pectin (yield 0.53% fresh weight) and is similar to that of apple. Ionone glycosides, along with octadienoic acid and its diol, have been isolated from the fruit.Fruit juice contains thiamine, riboflavin, nicotinic acid, vitamin B6, inositol, pantothenic acid, folic acid and biotin.The essential oil also gave a number of ionone-related compounds. The buds contain a cyanogenetic glycoside. The bark and shoots yield hydrocyanic acid on distillation.... cydonia oblonga
Habitat: The Western Himalayas and Kashmir at 1,000-3,000 m.English: Mezereon.Folk: Kutilal, Kanthan (Punjab).
Action: Active principles are attracting scientific interest. The orthoesters are co-carcinogenic and mezerein antileukaemic in experimental studies. Bark— used as an ointment for inducing discharge from indolent ulcers. Bark, root and root bark—used mainly for obstinate cutaneous diseases, especially for eczema with severe itching and copious exudation (weeping eczema).As the plant is poisonous, it is used in homoeopathic dilutions internally and topically.The bark gave diterpenes including mezerein, daphnetoxin (0.02%). Mezerein is anti-inflammatory and anticar- cinogenic. Daphnetoxin is poisonous. Seeds contain daphnane ester (0.1%) and daphnetoxin (0.02%).EtOH extract showed significant activity against P-388 lymphocytic leukemia and L-1210 leukemia in mice, due to mezerein.... daphne oleoides
Habitat: The Western Ghats.Ayurvedic: Jivanti (substitute.)Folk: Nagli (Maharashtra)
Action: Juice of fresh plant—stomachic, carminative, antispasmodic, laxative, liver tonic. (excites the bile). A related species, Dendrobium crumenatum Sw., occurs in Andaman Islands. Pounded leaves are used in Malaya for poulticing boils and pimples. Traces of alkaloids have been reported to be present in the pseudobulbs and leaves.D. macraei Lindl. and D. normale Face. are also known as Jivanti.... dendrobium ovatum
Habitat: Native to Europe and North America. Found at high altitudes in Nilgiris and Salem (Tamil Nadu).English: Fumitory.Ayurvedic: Parpata (related species).Unani: Shaahtaraa.
Action: Antispasmodic and amphicholeretic. Stimulant to liver and gall bladder; used for eczema and other skin diseases. Also diuretic and mild laxative.Key application: In spastic discomforts in the area of gallbladder and bile ducts, as well as the gastrointestinal tract. (German Commission E, The British Herbal Pharmacopoeia.)The herb contains indenobenzaze- pine alkaloids—fumaritrin and fu- marofine.Other alkaloids include (-)-scou- lerine, protopine, fumaricine, (+)-fu- mariline. The plant also contain rutin, fumaric acid and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives.Protopine exhibits antihistaminic, hypotensive, bradycardic and sedative activity in small doses, but excitation and convulsions in large doses. (Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, 2007.)The seed oil contains myristic 4.2, palmitic 17.6, stearic 2.7, oleic 19.6, linoleic 55.7 and linolenic acid 0.2%.The upper flowering part of the herb is used for biliary disorders, various skin diseases and fevers. The herb can also treat arteriosclerosis by helping in lowering blood cholesterol level and improving the elasticity of arterial wall.... fumaria officinalis
Habitat: Native to tropical Southeast Asia; distributed throughout India; also planted in public parks.English: Emblic, Indian gooseberry.Ayurvedic: Aaamalaki, Aaamalaka, Dhaatri, Kaayasthaa, Amoghaa, Amritaphala, Amla, Aaamalaa, Dhaatriphala, Vayasyaa, Vrshya, Shiva, Hattha.Unani: Aamalaa, Amlaj.Siddha/Tamil: Nellikkaai, Nelli.
Action: Fruit—antianaemic, anabolic, antiemetic, bechic, astringent, antihaemorrhagic, antidiarrhoeal, diuretic, antidiabetic, carminative, antioxidant. Used in jaundice, dyspepsia, bacillary dysentery, eye trouble and as a gastrointestinal tonic. Juice with turmeric powder and honey is prescribed in diabetes insipidus. Seed—antibilious, antiasthmatic. Used in bronchitis. Bark—astringent. Leaf—juice is given in vomiting.A decoction of powdered pericarp is prescribed for paptic ulcer.Key application: As an antacid. (Indian Herbal Pharmacopoeia.).The fruit is an important source of vitamin C, minerals and amino acids. The edible fruit tissue contains protein concentration threefold and vitamin C (ascorbic acid) concentration 160-fold than those of apple. The fruit also contains considerably higher concentration of most minerals and amino acids than apple.The fruit gave cytokinine-like substances identified as zeatin, zeatin ribo- side and zeatin nucleotide; suspension culture gave phyllembin. Phyllem- bin exhibits CNS depressant and spasmolytic activity, potentiates action of adrenaline and hypnotic action of Nembutal.The leaves contain gallic acid (10.8 mg/g dry basis), besides ascorbic and music acid. The methanol extract of the leaves is found to be effective in rat paw inflammation.The bark contains tannin identified as mixed type of proanthocyanidin.The fruit contains superoxide dis- mutase 482.14 units/g fresh weight and exhibits antisenescent (anti-aging) activity. Fruit, juice, its sediment and residue are antioxidant due to gallic acid. EtOH (50%) extract—antiviral.Aqueous extract of the fruit increases cardiac glycogen level and decreases serum GOT, GPT and LDH in rats having induced myocardial necrosis.Preliminary evidence suggests that the fruit and its juice may lower serum cholesterol, LDL, triglycerides and phospholipids without affecting HDL levels and may have positive effect on atherosclerosis. (Eur J clin Nutr, 42, 1988, 939-944; PhytotherRes, 14, 2000, 592-595.)An aqueous extract of the fruit has been reported to provide protection against radiation-induced chromosomal damage in both pre-and postirradiation treatment. The fruit is reported to enhance natural killer cell activity and antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity in mice bearing Dalton's lymphoma ascites tumour. The extract of the fruit and ascorbic acid prevented hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic effects induced by lead and aluminium. The toxicity could be counteracted to a great extent by the fruit extract than by an amount of ascorbic acid alone equivalent to that contained in fruits. (The fruit can be used as a dietary supplement to counteract prolonged exposure to metals in population in industrial areas.)The fruits are reported to activate trypsin (proteolytic enzyme) activity.The fruits can be used as coagulant in the treatment of water and can purify low turbidity water.The fruits can be consumed safely all round the year.Dosage: Fresh fruit—10-20 g; pulp juice—5-10 ml. (API Vol. I.)... emblica officinalis
Gastro-oesophageal disease should be diagnosed in those patients who are at risk of physical complications from the re?ux. Diagnosis is usually based on the symptoms present or by monitoring the production of acid using a pH probe inserted into the oesophagus through the mouth, since lesions are not usually visible on ENDOSCOPY. Severe heartburn, caused by the lining of the oesophagus being damaged by acid and PEPSIN from the stomach, is commonly confused with DYSPEPSIA. Treatment should start with graded doses of one of the PROTON PUMP INHIBITORS; if this is not e?ective after several months, surgery to remedy the re?ux may be required, but the effects are not easily predictable.... gastro-oesophageal reflux
Obaxx, Obaxe, Obaxa, Obaxia, Obaxea... obax
Obeedience, Obediance, Obedienne, Obedianne, Obey, Obeye, Obede, Obedi, Obedie, Obedy, Obedey, Obedee, Obedea... obedience
Obeliah, Obeliya, Obelea, Obelie, Obeli, Obeley, Obely, Obeleah... obelia
Obiomah, Obeoma, Obeomah, Obyoma, Obyomah... obioma
Habitat: Konkan and Western Ghats.Folk: Miyili, Atangi, Ola, Nagette, Thorilla (Tamil Nadu).
Action: Leaves—stomachic, appetizer.Leaves contain 0.04% alkaloid and tannic acid. The bark contains ellagic acid and coumarin.English: Tree Cotton, Desi Cotton.Ayurvedic: Kaarpaasi.Siddha/Tamil: Sempartthi (Red Cotton), Sivappuparutthi.Folk: Kapaasa.
Action: Seed—anticatarrhal (used in consumption), antigonorrhoeic (used in gleet and chronic cystitis). Root—febrifuge. Plant (especially leaf)—uterine stimulant.The glands contain 35-50% gossy- pol, a polyphenolic toxic compound. Seeds contain 18.5-25.4% protein, 0.57-2.38% free gossypol. Gossypol is a male contraceptive. At an initial dose of 20 mg/day orally for 3 months, followed by 50-60 mg weekly maintenance dose, sperm motility is reduced initially as it inhibits important enzymes of metabolic pathways thus affecting availability of enzyme to spermatozoa. Subsequently sperm production is blocked.Gossypol is reported to cause a transient weakness early in therapy, hy- pokalaemia and changes in ECG among other side effects.Gossypol also assists menstrual flow and effectively inhibits eggs implantation.Gossypol and its derivatives have been shown to have significant antimicrobial activity as well as wound healing effect. It is reported to kill herpes virus.... gordonia obtusa
Habitat: Introduced from the West Indies; grown as an ornamental.English: Lignum Vitae, Tree-of-life, Pockwood tree.Ayurvedic: Jivadaaru, Loha- Kaashtha.Unani: Chob-hayaat.Folk: Loha-lakkar.
Action: Antirheumatic, anti- inflammatory, mild laxative, diuretic, diaphoretic, fungistatic (During the sixteenth century it was used as a cure for syphilis.)Key application: As a supportive therapy for rheumatic complaints. (German Commission E.) The British Herbal Pharmacopoeia reported anti-inflammatory activity in the resin.Several triterpene saponins, sapo- genins and prosapogenins have been isolated from different parts of the plant.A triterpenoidal saponin, isolated from the flowers, showed activity against Gram-negative bacteria. (The herb is used as a additive to mouth washes.)... guaiacum officinale
Habitat: Eastern Himalayas, Khasi Hills and Sikkim.Ayurvedic: Chaalmograa (substitute). Tuvaraka (var.) (Controversial synonyms.)Unani: Tukhm-e-Biranj Mograa.Folk: Chaaval-mungari.
Action: Oil from seed used in psoriasis, eczema, scrofula, gout, rheumatic affections.A triterpenoid ketolactone, odolac- tone, has been isolated from the plant. The fruit pulp is used as piscic. The seeds of G. odorata were formerly, erroneously, thought to be the source Chaalmograa oil of commerce obtained from the seeds of Hydnocar- pus kurzii, used in leprosy. Gynocardia oil does not contain chaulmoogric or hydnocarpic acid.... gynocardia odorata
Habitat: Native to Europe and temperate Asia. Occurs in West Himalyas from Kashmir to Kumaon.English: Hyssop.Ayurvedic: Dayaa-kunji. (Nepeta longibractea is also equated with Zuufaa, Dayaa-kunji.)Unani: Zuufaa, Zuufaa Yaabis.Folk: Diyaanku (Laddakh).
Action: Stimulant, carminative, sedative, antispasmodic, diuretic, pectoral. Used for bronchitis, coughs and colds. Induces heavy sweating in fevers, increases blood pressure. Emmenagogue. Used externally for bruises, discoloured contusions and cuts.Key application: As expectorant. (The British Herbal Pharmacopoeia.)Hyssop contains terpenoids, including marrubiin; a volatile oil consisting mainly of camphor, pinocamphone and beta-pinene; flavonoids, gluco- sides, tannins and resin. Marrubiin is a strong expectorant. The plant also contains ursolic acid, an anti- inflammatory principle. The alcoholic extract of the aerial parts at flowering yields an active antioxidant compound, rosmanol-9-ethyl ether. Its activity is much greater than butylat- ed hydroxytoluene. The extract of the plant showed weak hepatoprotective activity against CCl4-induced toxicity in albino mice.Pinocamphone and isopinocam- phone are toxic constituents of the essential oil. Wild plants from Ku- maon (Uttaranchal) shows presence of very small amounts of pinocam- phone (0.61%) in essential oil, as compared to Himalayan hyssop (38.44%) and cultivated North American hyssop (42.66%). The essential oil can induce epileptic seizures.... hyssopus officinalis
Habitat: Throughout greater parts of India.English: Wild Indigo, Mysore Panicled Indigo.Ayurvedic: Bana-Nila, Dill, Jhill.Unani: Vasmaa.Siddha/Tamil: Kattukkarchamathi.Folk: Jhil (Gujarat).
Action: Plant—antisyphilitic. All parts of the plant are found useful in enlargement of liver and spleen.The leaves gave apigenin 7-rhamno- glucoside, apigenin 7, 4'-diglucoside, kaempferol-3-neohesperidoside and rhoifolin, along with protocatechuic, p-coumaric, p-hydroxybenzoic, salicylic and vanillic acid.... indigofera oblongifolia
Habitat: North-Western Himalayas and Persia; cultivated in Kumaon, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh; in gardens throughout India.English: Spanish Jasmine.Ayurvedic: Jaati, Jaatikaa, Jaatimalli, Pravaaljaati, Saumanasyaayani, Sumanaa, Chetikaa, Hriddgandhaa, Maalati, Chameli.Unani: Yaasmin.Siddha/Tamil: Manmadabanam, Mullai, Padar-malligai, Pichi, MalliFolk: Chameli.
Action: Flowers—calming and sedative, CNS depressant, astringent and mild anaesthetic. A syrup prepared from the flowers is used for coughs, hoarsenesses and other disorders of the chest. Plant—diuretic, anthelmintic, emmenagogue; used for healing chronic ulcers and skin diseases. Oil—externally relaxing.Indian oil sample gave benzyl acetate 26.3, benzyl benzoate 19.2, phytol 10.6, jasmone 8.5, methyl jasmonate 6.3, linalool 5.4, geranyl linalool 3.5, eugenol 2.9, isophytyl acetate 2.7, and isophytol 2.4%.The leaves gave ascorbic acid, an- thranilic acid and its glucoside, indole oxygenase, alkaloid jasminine and salicylic acid.The flowers contain pyridine and nicotinate derivatives; tested positive for indole.The flowers and leaf juice is used for treating tumours.Dosage: Dried leaves—10-20 g powder for decoction (API, Vol. III.); Juice—10-20 ml. (CCRAS.).... jasminum officinale
Habitat: Native to Asia Minor.English: Storax, Oriental Sweet Gum.Ayurvedic: Turushka, Silhaka, Kapitaila.Unani: Ambar Saayil, Silaaras.Siddha/Tamil: Neri-arishippal.
Action: Balsam—anti-inflammatory, stimulating expectorant, antipara- sitic, antiseptic, antimicrobial. Used externally in scabies, ringworm and other skin diseases. Used for coughs and bronchitis as an inhalation.Storax contained cinnamic acid up to 30%—cinnamin acid esters, cin- namyl cinnamate (styracin), phenyl- propyl cinnamate; triterpene acids; vanillin; styrene; aromatic alcohols. Pentacyclic triterpene aldehydes—liq- uidambronal and ambronal—have been isolated from nonvolatile part of resin along with bornyl trans-cinna- mate.Dosage: Gum—1-3 g. (CCRAS.)... liquidambar orientalis
Habitat: Kashmir and Kumaon, at altitudes of 1,500-2,700 m.Folk: Lubis firmun.
Action: Leaves—sedative. Seeds— diuretic, lithotriptic. A decoction of roots and twigs is given in the form of syrup in eruptive diseases, such as smallpox and measles.The aerial parts contain pyrrolizi- dine alkaloids.Saline extracts of the aerial parts and roots, administered to experimental animals by injection, inhibit oestrus and the functioning of ovaries and testes; the activity of the thyroid gland is also reduced. The active principle is formed from phenolic precursors like caffeic, chlorogenic, rosmarinic acid as well as luteolin-7 beta-glucuronide by an oxidation step. Other constituents are lithospermic acid and shikonin.Shikonin and acetyl-shikonin, the pigments of the root, exhibit anti- inflammatory activity comparable to phenylbutazone.An infusion of leaves is used in Spain as sedative.... lithospermum officinanle
Habitat: Outer Himalayas from Kashmir to Sikkim, at 1,000 to 2,500 m, and in Khasi hills between 1,200 to 2,000 m.Folk: Angyaar (Garhwal), Arwan (Punjab), Angeri (Nepal).
Action: Young leaves and buds— used externally for cutaneous affections. Leaves—insectici- dal. Honey from flowers— poisonous.Leaves contain a toxic, insecticidal substance andromedotoxin.The wood yields 0.51% ash, rich in soluble potassium salts.... lyonia ovalifolia
Occupational health includes both mental and physical health. It is about compliance with health-and-safety-at-work legislation (and common law duties) and about best practice in providing work environments that reduce risks to health and safety to lowest practicable levels. It includes workers’ ?tness to work, as well as the management of the work environment to accommodate people with disabilities, and procedures to facilitate the return to work of those absent with long-term illness. Occupational health incorporates several professional groups, including occupational physicians, occupational health nurses, occupational hygienists, ergonomists, disability managers, workplace counsellors, health-and-safety practitioners, and workplace physiotherapists.
In the UK, two key statutes provide a framework for occupational health: the Health and Safety at Work, etc. Act 1974 (HSW Act); and the Disability Discrimination Act 1995 (DDA). The HSW Act states that employers have a duty to protect the health, safety and welfare of their employees and to conduct their business in a way that does not expose others to risks to their health and safety. Employees and self-employed people also have duties under the Act. Modern health-and-safety legislation focuses on assessing and controlling risk rather than prescribing speci?c actions in di?erent industrial settings. Various regulations made under the HSW Act, such as the Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations, the Manual Handling Operations Regulations and the Noise at Work Regulations, set out duties with regard to di?erent risks, but apply to all employers and follow the general principles of risk assessment and control. Risks should be controlled principally by removing or reducing the hazard at source (for example, by substituting chemicals with safer alternatives, replacing noisy machinery, or automating tasks to avoid heavy lifting). Personal protective equipment, such as gloves and ear defenders, should be seen as a last line of defence after other control measures have been put in place.
The employment provisions of the DDA require employers to avoid discriminatory practice towards disabled people and to make reasonable adjustments to working arrangements where a disabled person is placed at a substantial disadvantage to a non-disabled person. Although the DDA does not require employers to provide access to rehabilitation services – even for those injured or made ill at work – occupational-health practitioners may become involved in programmes to help people get back to work after injury or long-term illness, and many businesses see the retention of valuable sta? as an attractive alternative to medical retirement or dismissal on health grounds.
Although a major part of occupational-health practice is concerned with statutory compliance, the workplace is also an important venue for health promotion. Many working people rarely see their general practitioner and, even when they do, there is little time to discuss wider health issues. Occupational-health advisers can ?ll in this gap by providing, for example, workplace initiatives on stopping smoking, cardiovascular health, diet and self-examination for breast and testicular cancers. Such initiatives are encouraged because of the perceived bene?ts to sta?, to the employing organisation and to the wider public-health agenda. Occupational psychologists recognise the need for the working population to achieve a ‘work-life balance’ and the promotion of this is an increasing part of occupational health strategies.
The law requires employers to consult with their sta? on health-and-safety matters. However, there is also a growing understanding that successful occupational-health management involves workers directly in the identi?cation of risks and in developing solutions in the workplace. Trade unions play an active role in promoting occupational health through local and national campaigns and by training and advising elected workplace safety representatives.
Occupational medicine The branch of medicine that deals with the control, prevention, diagnosis, treatment and management of ill-health and injuries caused or made worse by work, and with ensuring that workers are ?t for the work they do.
Occupational medicine includes: statutory surveillance of workers’ exposure to hazardous agents; advice to employers and employees on eliminating or reducing risks to health and safety at work; diagnosis and treatment/management of occupational illness; advice on adapting the working environment to suit the worker, particularly those with disabilities or long-term health problems; and advice on the return to work and, if necessary, rehabilitation of workers absent through illness. Occupational physicians may play a wider role in monitoring the health of workplace populations and in advising employers on controlling health hazards where ill-health trends are observed. They may also conduct epidemiological research (see EPIDEMIOLOGY) on workplace diseases.
Because of the occupational physician’s dual role as adviser to both employer and employee, he or she is required to be particularly diligent with regards to the individual worker’s medical CONFIDENTIALITY. Occupational physicians need to recognise in any given situation the context they are working in, and to make sure that all parties are aware of this.
Occupational medicine is a medical discipline and thus is only part of the broader ?eld of occupational health. Although there are some speci?c clinical duties associated with occupational medicine, such as diagnosis of occupational disease and medical screening, occupational physicians are frequently part of a multidisciplinary team that might include, for example, occupational-health nurses, healthand-safety advisers, ergonomists, counsellors and hygienists. Occupational physicians are medical practitioners with a post-registration quali?cation in occupational medicine. They will have completed a period of supervised in-post training. In the UK, the Faculty of Occupational Medicine of the Royal College of Physicians has three categories of membership, depending on quali?cations and experience: associateship (AFOM); membership (MFOM); and fellowship (FFOM).
Occupational diseases Occupational diseases are illnesses that are caused or made worse by work. In their widest sense, they include physical and mental ill-health conditions.
In diagnosing an occupational disease, the clinician will need to examine not just the signs and symptoms of ill-health, but also the occupational history of the patient. This is important not only in discovering the cause, or causes, of the disease (work may be one of a number of factors), but also in making recommendations on how the work should be modi?ed to prevent a recurrence – or, if necessary, in deciding whether or not the worker is able to return to that type of work. The occupational history will help in deciding whether or not other workers are also at risk of developing the condition. It will include information on:
the nature of the work.
how the tasks are performed in practice.
the likelihood of exposure to hazardous agents (physical, chemical, biological and psychosocial).
what control measures are in place and the extent to which these are adhered to.
previous occupational and non-occupational exposures.
whether or not others have reported similar symptoms in relation to the work. Some conditions – certain skin conditions,
for example – may show a close relationship to work, with symptoms appearing directly only after exposure to particular agents or possibly disappearing at weekends or with time away from work. Others, however, may be chronic and can have serious long-term implications for a person’s future health and employment.
Statistical information on the prevalence of occupational disease in the UK comes from a variety of sources, including o?cial ?gures from the Industrial Injuries Scheme (see below) and statutory reporting of occupational disease (also below). Neither of these o?cial schemes provides a representative picture, because the former is restricted to certain prescribed conditions and occupations, and the latter suffers from gross under-reporting. More useful are data from the various schemes that make up the Occupational Diseases Intelligence Network (ODIN) and from the Labour Force Survey (LFS). ODIN data is generated by the systematic reporting of work-related conditions by clinicians and includes several schemes. Under one scheme, more than 80 per cent of all reported diseases by occupational-health physicians fall into just six of the 42 clinical disease categories: upper-limb disorders; anxiety, depression and stress disorders; contact DERMATITIS; lower-back problems; hearing loss (see DEAFNESS); and ASTHMA. Information from the LFS yields a similar pattern in terms of disease frequency. Its most recent survey found that over 2 million people believed that, in the previous 12 months, they had suffered from an illness caused or made worse by work and that
19.5 million working days were lost as a result. The ten most frequently reported disease categories were:
stress and mental ill-health (see MENTAL ILLNESS): 515,000 cases.
back injuries: 508,000.
upper-limb and neck disorders: 375,000.
lower respiratory disease: 202,000.
deafness, TINNITUS or other ear conditions: 170,000.
lower-limb musculoskeletal conditions: 100,000.
skin disease: 66,000.
headache or ‘eyestrain’: 50,000.
traumatic injury (includes wounds and fractures from violent attacks at work): 34,000.
vibration white ?nger (hand-arm vibration syndrome): 36,000. A person who develops a chronic occu
pational disease may be able to sue his or her employer for damages if it can be shown that the employer was negligent in failing to take reasonable care of its employees, or had failed to provide a system of work that would have prevented harmful exposure to a known health hazard. There have been numerous successful claims (either awarded in court, or settled out of court) for damages for back and other musculoskeletal injuries, hand-arm vibration syndrome, noise-induced deafness, asthma, dermatitis, MESOTHELIOMA and ASBESTOSIS. Employers’ liability (workers’ compensation) insurers are predicting that the biggest future rise in damages claims will be for stress-related illness. In a recent study, funded by the Health and Safety Executive, about 20 per cent of all workers – more than 5 million people in the UK – claimed to be ‘very’ or ‘extremely’ stressed at work – a statistic that is likely to have a major impact on the long-term health of the working population.
While victims of occupational disease have the right to sue their employers for damages, many countries also operate a system of no-fault compensation for the victims of prescribed occupational diseases. In the UK, more than 60 diseases are prescribed under the Industrial Injuries Scheme and a person will automatically be entitled to state compensation for disability connected to one of these conditions, provided that he or she works in one of the occupations for which they are prescribed. The following short list gives an indication of the types of diseases and occupations prescribed under the scheme:
CARPAL TUNNEL SYNDROME connected to the use of hand-held vibrating tools.
hearing loss from (amongst others) use of pneumatic percussive tools and chainsaws, working in the vicinity of textile manufacturing or woodworking machines, and work in ships’ engine rooms.
LEPTOSPIROSIS – infection with Leptospira (various listed occupations).
viral HEPATITIS from contact with human blood, blood products or other sources of viral hepatitis.
LEAD POISONING, from any occupation causing exposure to fumes, dust and vapour from lead or lead products.
asthma caused by exposure to, among other listed substances, isocyanates, curing agents, solder ?ux fumes and insects reared for research.
mesothelioma from exposure to asbestos.
In the UK, employers and the self-employed have a duty to report all occupational injuries (if the employee is o? work for three days or more as a result), diseases or dangerous incidents to the relevant enforcing authority (the Health and Safety Executive or local-authority environmental-health department) under the Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations 1995 (RIDDOR). Despite this statutory duty, comparatively few diseases are reported so that ?gures generated from RIDDOR reports do not give a useful indication of the scale of occupational diseases in the UK. The statutory reporting of injuries is much better, presumably because of the clear and acute relationship between a workplace accident and the resultant injury. More than 160,000 injuries are reported under RIDDOR every year compared with just 2,500 or so occupational diseases, a gross underestimate of the true ?gure.
There are no precise ?gures for the number of people who die prematurely because of work-related ill-health, and it would be impossible to gauge the exact contribution that work has on, for example, cardiovascular disease and cancers where the causes are multifactorial. The toll would, however, dwarf the number of deaths caused by accidents at work. Around 250 people are killed by accidents at work in the UK each year – mesothelioma, from exposure to asbestos at work, alone kills more than 1,300 people annually.
The following is a sample list of occupational diseases, with brief descriptions of their aetiologies.
PNEUMOCONIOSIS covers a group of diseases which cause ?brotic lung disease following the inhalation of dust. Around 250–300 new cases receive bene?t each year – mostly due to coal dust with or without silica contamination. SILICOSIS is the more severe disease. The contraction in the size of the coal-mining industry as well as improved dust suppression in the mines have diminished the importance of this disease, whereas asbestos-related diseases now exceed 1,000 per year. Asbestos ?bres cause a restrictive lung disease but also are responsible for certain malignant conditions such as pleural and peritoneal mesothelioma and lung cancer. The lung-cancer risk is exacerbated by cigarette-smoking.
Even though the use of asbestos is virtually banned in the UK, many workers remain at risk of exposure because of the vast quantities present in buildings (much of which is not listed in building plans). Carpenters, electricians, plumbers, builders and demolition workers are all liable to exposure from work that disturbs existing asbestos. OCCUPATIONAL ASTHMA is of increasing importance – not only because of the recognition of new allergic agents (see ALLERGY), but also in the number of reported cases. The following eight substances are most frequently linked to occupational asthma (key occupations in brackets): isocyanates (spray painters, electrical processors); ?our and grain (bakers and farmers); wood dust (wood workers); glutaraldehyde (nurses, darkroom technicians); solder/colophony (welders, electronic assembly workers); laboratory animals (technicians, scientists); resins and glues (metal and electrical workers, construction, chemical processors); and latex (nurses, auxiliaries, laboratory technicians).
The disease develops after a short, symptomless period of exposure; symptoms are temporally related to work exposures and relieved by absences from work. Removal of the worker from exposure does not necessarily lead to complete cessation of symptoms. For many agents, there is no relationship with a previous history of ATOPY. Occupational asthma accounts for about 10 per cent of all asthma cases. DERMATITIS The risk of dermatitis caused by an allergic or irritant reaction to substances used or handled at work is present in a wide variety of jobs. About three-quarters of cases are irritant contact dermatitis due to such agents as acids, alkalis and solvents. Allergic contact dermatitis is a more speci?c response by susceptible individuals to a range of allergens (see ALLERGEN). The main occupational contact allergens include chromates, nickel, epoxy resins, rubber additives, germicidal agents, dyes, topical anaesthetics and antibiotics as well as certain plants and woods. Latex gloves are a particular cause of occupational dermatitis among health-care and laboratory sta? and have resulted in many workers being forced to leave their profession through ill-health. (See also SKIN, DISEASES OF.)
Musculoskeletal disorders Musculoskeletal injuries are by far the most common conditions related to work (see LFS ?gures, above) and the biggest cause of disability. Although not all work-related, musculoskeletal disorders account for 36.5 per cent of all disabilities among working-age people (compared with less than 4 per cent for sight and hearing impairment). Back pain (all causes – see BACKACHE) has been estimated to cause more than 50 million days lost every year in sickness absence and costs the UK economy up to £5 billion annually as a result of incapacity or disability. Back pain is a particular problem in the health-care sector because of the risk of injury from lifting and moving patients. While the emphasis should be on preventing injuries from occurring, it is now well established that the best way to manage most lower-back injuries is to encourage the patient to continue as normally as possible and to remain at work, or to return as soon as possible even if the patient has some residual back pain. Those who remain o? work on long-term sick leave are far less likely ever to return to work.
Aside from back injuries, there are a whole range of conditions affecting the upper limbs, neck and lower limbs. Some have clear aetiologies and clinical signs, while others are less well de?ned and have multiple causation. Some conditions, such as carpal tunnel syndrome, are prescribed diseases in certain occupations; however, they are not always caused by work (pregnant and older women are more likely to report carpal tunnel syndrome irrespective of work) and clinicians need to be careful when assigning work as the cause without ?rst considering the evidence. Other conditions may be revealed or made worse by work – such as OSTEOARTHRITIS in the hand. Much attention has focused on injuries caused by repeated movement, excessive force, and awkward postures and these include tenosynovitis (in?ammation of a tendon) and epicondylitis. The greatest controversy surrounds upper-limb disorders that do not present obvious tissue or nerve damage but nevertheless give signi?cant pain and discomfort to the individual. These are sometimes referred to as ‘repetitive strain injury’ or ‘di?use RSI’. The diagnosis of such conditions is controversial, making it di?cult for sufferers to pursue claims for compensation through the courts. Psychosocial factors, such as high demands of the job, lack of control and poor social support at work, have been implicated in the development of many upper-limb disorders, and in prevention and management it is important to deal with the psychological as well as the physical risk factors. Occupations known to be at particular risk of work-related upper-limb disorders include poultry processors, packers, electronic assembly workers, data processors, supermarket check-out operators and telephonists. These jobs often contain a number of the relevant exposures of dynamic load, static load, a full or excessive range of movements and awkward postures. (See UPPER LIMB DISORDERS.)
Physical agents A number of physical agents cause occupational ill-health of which the most important is occupational deafness. Workplace noise exposures in excess of 85 decibels for a working day are likely to cause damage to hearing which is initially restricted to the vital frequencies associated with speech – around 3–4 kHz. Protection from such noise is imperative as hearing aids do nothing to ameliorate the neural damage once it has occurred.
Hand-arm vibration syndrome is a disorder of the vascular and/or neural endings in the hands leading to episodic blanching (‘white ?nger’) and numbness which is exacerbated by low temperature. The condition, which is caused by vibrating tools such as chain saws and pneumatic hammers, is akin to RAYNAUD’S DISEASE and can be disabling.
Decompression sickness is caused by a rapid change in ambient pressure and is a disease associated with deep-sea divers, tunnel workers and high-?ying aviators. Apart from the direct effects of pressure change such as ruptured tympanic membrane or sinus pain, the more serious damage is indirectly due to nitrogen bubbles appearing in the blood and blocking small vessels. Central and peripheral nervous-system damage and bone necrosis are the most dangerous sequelae.
Radiation Non-ionising radiation from lasers or microwaves can cause severe localised heating leading to tissue damage of which cataracts (see under EYE, DISORDERS OF) are a particular variety. Ionising radiation from radioactive sources can cause similar acute tissue damage to the eyes as well as cell damage to rapidly dividing cells in the gut and bone marrow. Longer-term effects include genetic damage and various malignant disorders of which LEUKAEMIA and aplastic ANAEMIA are notable. Particular radioactive isotopes may destroy or induce malignant change in target organs, for example, 131I (thyroid), 90Sr (bone). Outdoor workers may also be at risk of sunburn and skin cancers. OTHER OCCUPATIONAL CANCERS Occupation is directly responsible for about 5 per cent of all cancers and contributes to a further 5 per cent. Apart from the cancers caused by asbestos and ionising radiation, a number of other occupational exposures can cause human cancer. The International Agency for Research on Cancer regularly reviews the evidence for carcinogenicity of compounds and industrial processes, and its published list of carcinogens is widely accepted as the current state of knowledge. More than 50 agents and processes are listed as class 1 carcinogens. Important occupational carcinogens include asbestos (mesothelioma, lung cancer); polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons such as mineral oils, soots, tars (skin and lung cancer); the aromatic amines in dyestu?s (bladder cancer); certain hexavalent chromates, arsenic and nickel re?ning (lung cancer); wood and leather dust (nasal sinus cancer); benzene (leukaemia); and vinyl chloride monomer (angiosarcoma of the liver). It has been estimated that elimination of all known occupational carcinogens, if possible, would lead to an annual saving of 5,000 premature deaths in Britain.
Infections Two broad categories of job carry an occupational risk. These are workers in contact with animals (farmers, veterinary surgeons and slaughtermen) and those in contact with human sources of infection (health-care sta? and sewage workers).
Occupational infections include various zoonoses (pathogens transmissible from animals to humans), such as ANTHRAX, Borrelia burgdorferi (LYME DISEASE), bovine TUBERCULOSIS, BRUCELLOSIS, Chlamydia psittaci, leptospirosis, ORF virus, Q fever, RINGWORM and Streptococcus suis. Human pathogens that may be transmissible at work include tuberculosis, and blood-borne pathogens such as viral hepatitis (B and C) and HIV (see AIDS/HIV). Health-care workers at risk of exposure to infected blood and body ?uids should be immunised against hapatitis B.
Poisoning The incidence of occupational poisonings has diminished with the substitution of noxious chemicals with safer alternatives, and with the advent of improved containment. However, poisonings owing to accidents at work are still reported, sometimes with fatal consequences. Workers involved in the application of pesticides are particularly at risk if safe procedures are not followed or if equipment is faulty. Exposure to organophosphate pesticides, for example, can lead to breathing diffculties, vomiting, diarrhoea and abdominal cramps, and to other neurological effects including confusion and dizziness. Severe poisonings can lead to death. Exposure can be through ingestion, inhalation and dermal (skin) contact.
Stress and mental health Stress is an adverse reaction to excessive pressures or demands and, in occupational-health terms, is di?erent from the motivational impact often associated with challenging work (some refer to this as ‘positive stress’). Stress at work is often linked to increasing demands on workers, although coping can often prevent the development of stress. The causes of occupational stress are multivariate and encompass job characteristics (e.g. long or unsocial working hours, high work demands, imbalance between e?ort and reward, poorly managed organisational change, lack of control over work, poor social support at work, fear of redundancy and bullying), as well as individual factors (such as personality type, personal circumstances, coping strategies, and availability of psychosocial support outside work). Stress may in?uence behaviours such as smoking, alcohol consumption, sleep and diet, which may in turn affect people’s health. Stress may also have direct effects on the immune system (see IMMUNITY) and lead to a decline in health. Stress may also alter the course and response to treatment of conditions such as cardiovascular disease. As well as these general effects of stress, speci?c types of disorder may be observed.
Exposure to extremely traumatic incidents at work – such as dealing with a major accident involving multiple loss of life and serious injury
(e.g. paramedics at the scene of an explosion or rail crash) – may result in a chronic condition known as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). PTSD is an abnormal psychological reaction to a traumatic event and is characterised by extreme psychological discomfort, such as anxiety or panic when reminded of the causative event; sufferers may be plagued with uncontrollable memories and can feel as if they are going through the trauma again. PTSD is a clinically de?ned condition in terms of its symptoms and causes and should not be used to include normal short-term reactions to trauma.... occupational health, medicine and diseases
Oceania, Ocean, Oceanea, Oceane... oceana
Habitat: Ladakh, at 3,000-4,000 m, also cultivated.English: Yellow Sweet Clover, Melilot.Unani: Iklil-ul-Malik, Asaab-ul- Malik, Naakhunaa.
Action: Plant—astringent, wound healer, styptic, anti-inflammatory, sedative, mild analgesic, anticoagulant, spasmolytic. Flower and leaf—diuretic, analgesic, anti- inflammatory, smooth muscle relaxant, vasodilator. Seed—used in cold.Key application: In chronic venous insufficiency. For supportive treatment of thrombophlebitis, haemorrhoids and lymphatic congestion. (German Commission E.) As venotonic, vulnerary. (The British Herbal Pharmacopoeia.)The herb contains coumarin derivatives; flavonoid glycosides, including kaempferol and quercetin. Di- coumarol (melitoxin) is produced when fermentation takes place in me- lilot. Seeds gave canavanin and trigo- nelline. Reported poisonous to horses. The flowers contain the flavonoids, quercetin and myricetin besides kaem- pferol.The herb has shown increase in venous reflux and improvement in lymphatic kinetics. Animal experiments show an increase in healing wounds. Flower and leaf extracts have shown analgesic activity, prolongation in pento-barbital-induced hypnosis time and smooth muscle relaxant activity in mice; also exhibited hypotensive and vasodilatory activity in rabbit. Dicoumarol is a potent anticoagulant.In Europe and China, the plant extract is used for inflammations, arthritis, rheumatism, phlebitis, venous insufficiency, haemorrhoids, brachialgia and bronchitis.The Red Clove is equated with Tri- folium pratense.... melilotus officinalis
An excessive accumulation of monoamines can induce a dangerous reaction characterised by high blood pressure, palpitations, sweating and a feeling of su?ocation. Hence the care with which MAOI drugs are administered. What is equally important, however, is that in no circumstances should a patient receiving any MAOI drug eat cheese, yeast preparations such as Marmite, tinned ?sh, or high game. The reason for this ban is that all these foodstu?s contain large amounts of tyramine which increases the amount of certain monoamines such as noradrenaline in the body. (See MENTAL ILLNESS.)
There are also certain drugs, such as AMPHETAMINES and PETHIDINE HYDROCHLORIDE, which must not be taken by a patient who is receiving an MAOI drug. The MAOIs of choice are phenelzine or isocarboxazid because their stimulant effects are less than those of other MAOIs, making them safer.... monoamine oxidase inhibitors (maois)
Habitat: Cultivated in Bengal, Orissa and Punjab.English: Watercress.Folk: Piriyaa-Haalim (Punjab), Latputiyaa (Maharashtra).
Action: Leaves—antiscorbutic, expectorant (used in catarrh of the respiratory organs), diuretic (used in kidney and bladder disorders), detoxifying. A lotion of leaves is applied to blotches, spots and blemishes. Fresh herb is used as a blood purifier.Key application: For catarrh of respiratory tract. (German Commission E.)Watercress contains vitamin A 4720 IU, ascorbic acid 77 mg/100 g, also thiamine, riboflavin, niacin and biotin; mineral matter 2.2%—calcium 290, phosphorus 140, iron 4.6 mg/100 g, also sulphur, iodine, manganese, zinc, arsenic and copper; proteins 2.9%, amino acid composition includes leucine, phenylalanine, valine, lysine, tyrosine, alanine, threonine, glutamic acid, serine, aspartic acid, cystine, methionine sulphoxide and proline.The glucosinolate phenethyl isothio- cyanate, which is released upon chewing the leaf, is a chemopreventive agent against lung cancer. (cited in Expanded Commission E Monographs.)Watercress is contraindicated in gastric and duodenal ulcers and inflammatory kidney diseases. (Francis Brinker.)... nasturtium officinale
Habitat: Throughout India, in tanks.Ayurvedic: Lajjaalu (var.), Alam- bushaa. (Provisional synonyms.)Siddha: Sadai, Sundaikkirai.Folk: Paani-lajak (Punjab).
Action: Astringent, refrigerant.Mimosa pudica Linn. is the accepted source of the classical herb Lajjaalu. It is used as astringent and styptic.... neptunia oleracea
Habitat: Native to Mediterranean region; grown in Indian gardens.English: Red Oleander, Rose Bay.Unani: Surkh Kaner.
Action: See N. indicum. (The white- and red-flowered varieties are equated with Nerium oleander; both possess similar properties. The yellow-flowered variety is equated with Thevetia peruviana.)Key application: Leaf—included among unapproved herbs by German Commission E. Positively inotropic and negatively chronotropic actions have been mentioned; the use of leaf for diseases and functional disorders of the heart, as well as for skin diseases has been indicated.The leaves and roots gave a number of active principles including gly- cosides, terpenoids, sterols and other compounds. Cardiac steroids, isolated from the leaf, include oleandrin, gen- tiobiosyl oleandrin, odoroside. The stem contained alanine arginine, as- partic acid, cysteine, glutamic acid, glycine, histidine, leucine, isoleucine, lysine, phenylalanine, proline, serine, threonine, tryptophan, tyrosine and valine. A polysaccharide (2.3%), containing galacturonic acid, rhamnose, arabinose and galactose has been isolated from leaves.Neutral fraction from leaves at low doses caused marked suppression of locomotor activity.Aqueous extract of leaves showed significant antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The leaves also showed insecticidal activity.... nerium oleander
Oddfride, Oddfrida, Oddfreid, Oddfreide, Oddfreida, Odd, Oddfryd, Oddfryda... oddfrid
Odela, Odelet, Odelette, Odelina, Odeline, Odell, Odella, Odelle, Odeletta, Odelyn, Odelyna... odele
Habitat: Assam, Bihar, Orissa and Deccan Peninsula. Often cultivated in parks and gardens.Siddha/Tamil: Chilanti, Sherundi.Folk: Kanaka Champaa. (Bhuin- champaa, Bhuumi-champaka (Ochna pumila).
Action: Bark—digestive tonic. Root—a decoction is used in asthma, tuberculosis and in menstrual disorders. Leaves— boiled and used as emollient cataplasm; used as a poultice in lumbago.Isoflavones, along with beta-sitos- terol and oleanolic acid, have been isolated from the heartwood.A related species, Ochna pumila Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don., found in outer Himalayas and sub-Himalayan tract from Kumaon to Assam, is reported to exhibit antitubercular activity. Tetrahydroamentoflavone has been isolated from the leaves. The plant is also used for epilepsy in folk medicine.... ochna jabotapita
Habitat: Evergreen forests of Western India from Khandala southwards to Malabar and Coim- batore.Ayurvedic: Surapunnaaga (Naa- gakeshara is equated with Mesua ferrea.)Siddha/Tamil: Nagappu, Nagesarpu.Folk: Laal-Naagakeshar. Surangi (Maharashtra).
Action: Flowerbuds—cooling, stomachic, analgesic, antibacterial; used for gastritis, haemorrhoids, blood diseases, leprosy, leucoder- ma.Flower buds are popularly known as Naagakeshar.Flowers exhibited potent hypoten- sive, anti-inflammatory and antispas- modic activity attributed to vitexin.Leaves gave amentoflavone, querce- tin and vitexin as major constituents.... ochrocarpus longifolius
Habitat: Lower hills of Punjab; cultivated throughout India.English: Sweet Basil, Basil Herb.Ayurvedic: Barbari, Tuvari, Tungi, Kharpushpa, Ajgandhikaa, Baabui Tulasi.Unani: Faranjmishk. (also equated with Dracocephalum moldavica Linn. by National Formulary of Unani Medicine.), Raihan (also equated with O. sanctum). (used as a substitute for Phanijjaka.)Siddha/Tamil: Tiruneetruppachhilai.Folk: Bana-Tulasi. Sabzaa (Maharashtra).
Action: Flower—stimulant, carminative, antispasmodic, diuretic, demulcent. Seed—antidysenteric. Juice of the plant—antibacterial. Essential oil—antibacterial, antifungal, insecticidal.(Because of high estragole content of the essential oil, the herb should not be taken during pregnancy, nursing or over extended periods of time.) (German Commission E.) Included among unapproved herbs by German Commission E.The herb contains an essential oil; major constituents are linalool (up to 55%) methyl ether (estragole) up to 70% and eugenol; caffeic acid derivatives; flavonoids. Thymol and xan- thomicrol were isolated from the leaves. Aesculetin, p-coumaric acid, eriodic- tyol, its 7-glucoside and vicenin-2 from leaves have been isolated.The essential oil at concentration of 0.15% completely inhibited mycelial growth of twenty two species of fungi, including mycotoxin-producing strains of Aspergillus flavus and A. par- asiticus. Leaves act as an insect repellent externally; bring relief to insect bites and stings.In homoeopathy, the fresh mature leaves are used to treat haematuria, inflammation and congestion of kidney.Dosage: Whole plant—50-100 ml decoction; seed—1-3 g powder. (CCRAS.)... ocimum basilicum
Habitat: Plains and lower hills of India.English: Hoary Basil.Ayurvedic: Kaali Tulasi, Vana-Tulasi.Siddha/Tamil: Ganjamkorai, Nai-Tulasi.
Action: Plant—stimulant, carminative, diaphoretic. Leaf—bechic, febrifuge; used in cold, bronchitis, catarrh, externally in skin diseases. Essential oil—antifungal. Seeds— hypoglycaemic; also used in the treatment of leucorrhoea and other diseases of urinogenital system.The essential oil at the flowering stage contains citral as a major component along with methylheptenone, methylnonylketone and camphor.Leaves yielded beta-sitosterol, be- tulinic acid and ursolic acid and flavonoids, pectolinarigenin-7-methylether and nevadensin.Seeds exhibited antidiabetic activity, improved glucose tolerance was observed in diabetic patients who were given 30 g seed/day for 1 month, lowering of fasting plasma glucose level up to 30% was also observed. to assess the inheritance pattern of major chemical constituents of essential oils in hybrids produced by interspecific as well as intraspecific crosses of Ocimum sp.).... ocimum canum
Habitat: Throughout India.English: Shrubby Basil.Ayurvedic: Vriddha Tulasi, Raam- Tulasi, Raan-Tulasi.Siddha: Elumicha-Tulasi, Peria- Tulasi.
Action: Plant—used in neurological and rheumatic affections, in seminal weakness and in aphthae of children. Seed—used in cephalalgia and neuralgia. Essential oil— antibacterial, antifungal.In homoeopathy, fresh mature leaves are used in constipation, cough, fever, nasal catarrh; also in gonorrhoea with difficult urination.A heterotic hybrid 'Clocimum' (po- lycross of gratissimum) has been developed in India which yields 4.55.7% essential oil having a eugenol content up to 95%. Direct production of methyl eugenol and eugenol acetate from 'Clocimum' oil is reported.Major constituents reported from 'Clocimum' oil are myrcene 8.87, eugenol 68.14, isoeugenol 13.88, methyl- eugenol 1.74%; other constituents are alpha- pinene, limonene, phellandrene, terpene 4-ol, alpha-terpineol, carveol, carvene, geranyl acetate, caryophyl- lone and caryophyllone oxide.(At Regional Research Laboratory, CSIR, Jammu, a study was conducted Ocimum kilimandscharicum Guerke.Synonym: O. camphora Guerke.Family: Labiatae; Lamiaceae.
Habitat: Native of Kenya. Cultivated on a small scale in West Bengal, Assam, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Kerala and Dehr Dun.English: Camphor Basil.Ayurvedic: Karpura Tulasi.
Action: Plant—spasmolytic, antibacterial. Decamphorized oil— insecticidal, mosquito repellent.Essential oil contains camphor, pi- nene, limonene, terpinolene, myrcene, beta-phellandrene, linalool, camphene, p-cymene, borneol and alpha-selinene. The Camphor content varies in different samples from 61 to 80.5%.... ocimum gratissimum
Habitat: Throughout India; grown in houses, gardens and temples.English: Holy Basil, Sacred Basil.Ayurvedic: Tulasi, Surasaa, Surasa, Bhuutaghni, Suravalli, Sulabhaa, Manjarikaa, Bahumanjari, Deva- dundubhi, Apet-raakshasi, Shuu- laghni, Graamya, Sulabhaa.Unani: Tulasi.Siddha/Tamil: Tulasi, Nalla-Tulasi.
Action: Leaf—carminative, stomachic, antispasmodic, antiasthmatic, antirheumatic, expectorant, stimulant, hepatoprotective, antiperiodic, antipyretic and diaphoretic. Seed— used in genitourinary diseases. Root—antimalarial. Plant—adap- togenic, antistress. Essential oil— antibacterial, antifungal.The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India recommends the use of the leaf and seed in rhinitis and influenza; the seed in psychological disorders, including fear-psychosis and obsessions.Major components of the essential oil are eugenol, carvacrol, nerol and eugenolmethylether. Leaves have been reported to contain ursolic acid, api- genin, luteolin, apigenin-7-O-glucu- ronide, luteolin-7-O-glucuronide, orientin and molludistin.Ursolic acid, isolated from leaves, exhibited significant protection of mast cell membrane by preventing granulation and decreased histamine release. The ethanolic extract (50%) of fresh leaves, volatile oil from fresh leaves and fixed oil from seeds showed antiasth- matic activity and significantly protected guinea-pigs against histamine and dyspnoea. They also showed anti- inflammatory activity against carrage- enan-, serotonin-, histamine- and PGE-2-induced inflammation and inhibited hind paw oedema in rats.The ethanol extract (90%) of the leaves showed hepatoprotective effect against paracetamol-induced liver damage.The plant extract exhibited antiul- cerogenic property against experimental ulcers.Oral administration of alcoholic extract of leaves lowers blood sugar level in normal, glucose-fed hyperglycaemic and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The activity of the extract was 91.55 and 70.43% of that of tolbutamide in normal and diabetic rats respectively.Administration of the juice of the plant affected a significant reduction in the size of urinary brushite crystals.A study of methanol extract and aqueous suspension of the leaves showed immunostimulation of humoral immunologic response in albino rats indicating the adaptogenic action of the plant.Dosage: Seed—1-2 g powder (API, Vol. IV); plant—50-10 ml infusion (CCRAS.).... ocimum sanctum
Habitat: Native to Africa; introduced into India.English: Fever plant of Sierra Leone.Folk: Taap-maari Tulasi (Maharashtra).
Action: Leaves—febrifugal. Used as a remedy for coughs and fevers. Oil—antiseptic.Ocimum viride species, cultivated in Jammu-Tawi, gives maximum oil yield(0.4%) at full bloom stage and highest percentage of thymol (55.12%) in the oil, which can be used as a substitute for thyme-ajowan oil.... ocimum viride
Odissa, Odyssa, Odessia, Odissia, Odyssia, Odysseia... odessa
Odile, Odilia, Odolia, Odilea, Odola, Odalis, Odalys... odila
Odinah, Odeena, Odeene, Odeen, Odyna, Odyne, Odynn, Odeana, Odeane... odina
Habitat: Marshy places and river banks in North India from Kashmir to Assam.Folk: Jateraa (Meghalaya); Pan- turasi (Bengal).
Action: The plant extract showed strong antimutagenic and antitu- mour activity.From the herb, beta-sitosteryl gluco- side, stigmasteryl glucoside, isorham- netin and hyperin were isolated. The fruit yield 1.5% of an essential oil, containing phellandrene and myristicin.Linalool (70.0%) was determined in the flower oil.Evening Primrose is equated with Oenothera biennis L. (native to North America). The oil from seeds, known as Evening Primrose oil, contains about 70% cis-linolenic acid and about 9% cis-gamma-linolenic acid (GLA). Evening Primrose oil is one of the most widely prescribed plant-derived medicines in the world. Sold under the trade name Epogam, it is recognized by the governments of Great Britain, Germany, Denmark, Ireland, Spain, Greece, South Africa, Australia and New Zealand as a treatment for eczema. A combination, known as Efamol Marine, used for eczema, contains 80% Evening Primrose Oil and 20% fish oil.Evening Primrose Oil has become a frontline treatment in Great Britain for initial treatment of cyclical breast pain and fibrocystic breast disease.... oenanthe javanica
A still more serious and frequent cause of oesophageal stricture is that due to cancer, which may occur at any part, but is most common at the lower end, near the entrance into the stomach. The chief symptoms of this condition are increasing di?culty in swallowing, increasing debility, together with enlargement of the glands in the neck. The condition usually occurs in middle age or beyond and around 5,000 people are diagnosed with such cancer every year in the United Kingdom. In many cases treatment can only be palliative, but recent advances in surgery are producing promising results. In some cases treatment with irradiation or anti-cancer drugs produces relief, if not cure. In those in whom neither operation nor radiation can be performed, life may be prolonged and freedom from pain obtained by ?uid food which is either swallowed or passed down a tube. In cases of achalasia (see above), the passage of a special bougie down the oesophagus to dilate the sphincter may be e?ective.
Strictures of the oesophagus may also be produced by the pressure of tumours or aneurysms within the cavity of the chest but external to the gullet.
Finally, di?culty in swallowing sometimes occurs in certain serious nervous diseases from paralysis affecting the nerves supplying the muscular coats of the PHARYNX, which thus loses its propulsive power (bulbar paralysis).
Foreign bodies which lodge in the respiratory part of the throat – i.e. at the entrance to, or in the cavity of, the larynx – set up immediate symptoms of CHOKING. Those which lodge in the gullet, on the contrary, do not usually set up any immediately serious symptoms, although their presence causes considerable discomfort. Medical attention is usually required.... oesophagus, diseases of
Oksanah, Oksanna, Oksania, Oksanea, Oksaniya, Oksanochka... oksana
Olabisie, Olabisy, Olabisey, Olabisee, Olabisea... olabisi
Oldwinn, Oldwinne, Oldwina, Oldwinna, Oldwyn, Oldwynn, Oldwynne, Oldwyna, Oldwynna, Oldwen, Oldwenn, Oldwenne, Oldwenna... oldwin
Habitat: Native to Chile; cultivated as a garden plant in South Australia. Introduced into Indian gardens.English: Evening Primrose (var.); Sundrop (var.).
Action: Oil from seeds—prescribed for eczema (in children); premenstrual syndrome and cyclical breast pain.Family: Olacaceae.
Habitat: Sub-Himalayas tract of Kumaon and Bihar, Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, Deccan and Western Ghats.Ayurvedic: Dheniaani, Karbudaar (doubtful synonym).Siddha/Tamil: Malliveppam, Kadalranchi.Folk: Rimil-beeri (Bihar).
Action: Bark—used in anaemia and as a supporting drug in diabetes; also in the treatment of fever.... olax scandens
Habitat: Bihar, Orissa, Travancore. Cultivated on the Coromandel coast.English: Indian Madder, Chay-Root.Siddha/Tamil: Inbooral.Folk: Chiraval (Maharashtra).
Action: Leaves and roots—used in bronchitis, asthma, consumption.The plant gave anthraquinone derivatives. The root gave alizarin, ru- bichloric acid and ruberythric acid, also anthraquinones. Purpurin, pupur- oxanthin carboxylic acid, present in Madder (Rubia tinctorum), are almost entirely absent.... oldenlandia umbellata
Habitat: Native of Mediterranean region; cultivated in Jammu and Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh.English: Olive.Unani: Zaitoon.
Action: Leaves and bark— febrifugal, astringent, diuretic, antihypertensive.Oil—preparations are used for cho- langiitis, cholecystitis, cholelithiasis, icterus, flatulence, meteorism, lack of bacteria in the intestines. Demulcent and mild laxative. Externally used for wound dressing and for minor burns, psoriasis and pruritus. (Included among unapproved herbs by German Commission E.)Chemical investigations of two varieties—Ascotrinia and Ascolina— grown in Jammu region have shown that the characteristics of fruits and their oils are similar to those of European varieties.Leaves of Olea europaea gave iri- doid monoterpenes including oleu- ropein and oleuroside; triterpenes including oleanolic and maslinic acids; flavonoids including luteolin and api- genine derivatives. The oil contains glycerides of oleic acid about 70-80%, with smaller amounts of linoleic, palmitic and stearic acid glycerides.The leaves exhibited hypotensive, antiarrhythmic and spasmolytic activities in animal studies. The oil exhibited contraction of gallbladder due to raising of the cholecystokinin level in the plasma.India's requirements of olive oil are met by imports.... olea europaea
Oldedah, Oleta, Olita, Olida, Oletah, Olitah, Olidah... oleda
Olenah, Olenia, Olenya, Olinija, Olinia... olena
Olgah, Olenka, Olia, Oliah, Olya... olga
Olindah, Olynda, Olynda, Olenda, Olendah... olinda
Olwenn, Olwin, Olwyn, Olwynne, Olwynn, Olwenne, Olwinn, Olwinne, Olwena, Olwenna, Olwina, Olwinna, Olwyna, Olwynna... olwen
Olympiah, Olimpe, Olimpia, Olimpiada, Olimpiana, Olypme, Olympie, Olympi, Olympy, Olympey, Olimpi, Olimpie, Olympas... olympia
Omemea, Omemi, Omemie, Omemey, Omemy... omemee
Omphaile, Omphayle, Omfale, Omfaile, Omfayle, Omphael, Omphaele, Omphaela... omphale
Onata, Onatia, Onatiah, Onatea, Onateah... onatah
Onour, Onoria, Onor, Onorata, Onoratas, Onnor, Onorina, Onorine, Onore, Onoree, Onori, Onorie, Onory, Onouri, Onourie, Onoury, Onoura, Onouria, Onoure, Ohnicio, Omora, Omorra... onora
Habitat: Kashmir and Kumaon.English: Borage.Ayurvedic: Gojihvaa, Kharpatraa, Darvipatraa, Vrishjihvaa.Unani: Gaozabaan (related species).Siddha/Tamil: Ununjil.
Action: Cooling, astringent, diuretic, cardiac tonic. Used for cold, cough, bronchial affections; insomnia, depression, mental exhaustion; constipation, misperistalsis, jaundice; dysuria, urethral discharges; fevers.The name Gaozaban is applied to six different plants, belonging to five genera. According to The Wealth ofIn- dia, Gaozaban is derived not from this plant but from Anchusa strigosa Labill, which occurs in Iran. Kashmiri Gaoz- aban is derived from Macrotomia ben- thamii. Coccinia glauca is also used as Gojihvaa.Borage has been equated with Bora- go officinalis Linn. (Boraginacea.).Dosage: Dried leaves and stems, flowers—3-6 g powder.... onosma bracteatum
Ontinah, Onteena, Onteenah, Onteana, Onteanah, Ontiena, Ontienah, Onteina, Onteinah, Ontyna, Ontynah... ontina
Habitat: Kashmir and Kumaon up to 1,000-1,500 m.Unani: Ratanjot (equated with Onosma echioides Linn., according to National Formularly ofUnani Medicine).
Action: Astringent and styptic. Root—bruised and used as application to eruptions. An ingredient of ointments for ulcers, scrofula, burns. Flowers—stimulant, cardiac tonic.Ursolic acid and naphthoquinones, onosone A and B have been isolated from the root. Shikonin acetate is obtained from callus cultures of the plant.The species, distributed in western Himalayas, is Onosma echioides C. B. Clarke non Linn.; Onosma echioides Linn. is an European species. A variety of this species, var. kashmiricum Johnson, is found in Kashmir. Onosma hookeri C. B. Clarke occurs in Sikkim and Bhutan.Maharanga emodi (Wall.) DC., synonym Onosma emodi (Wall.) DC. (the Himalayas from Garhwal to Bhutan at altitudes of 3,500-4,000 m) is also known as Ratanjot and Shankhuli.(Ratanjot is used in a generic sense to cover a range of red dye-yielding roots, rather than the root of a single species. As many as 15 plant species belonging to four different families are known as Ratanjot; five of them do not yield red dye. General properties and colour reactions attributed to Ratanjot resemble Alkanet from Alkanna tinctoria Tausch.)... onosma echioides
Habitat: Throughout India up to 1,000 m; occasionally grown in gardens.English: Indian Jalap, Turpeth.Ayurvedic: Trivrta, Trivrtaa, Trib- handi, Triputaa, Saralaa, Suvahaa,Rechani, Nishotra, Kumbha, Kaalaa, Shyaama, Shyaamaa.Unani: Turbud, Nishoth.Siddha/Tamil: Karunchivadai.
Action: Root—purgative, antiinflammatory (particularly used in rheumatic and paralytic affections; also in fevers, oedema, hepatic and haemophilic diseases).White Turpeth is preferred to Black Turpeth as cathartic; the latter produces drastic purgation and causes vomiting, fainting and giddiness. White Turpeth is derived from Mars- denia tenacissima in folk medicine.The active principle of O. turpethum is a glycosidic resin present in the drug up to 10%. It is similar to jalap resin and is concentrated mostly in the root bark. It contains an ether insoluble glycoside, turpethin, which constitutes about half of the resin and two ether soluble gly- cosides, alpha-and beta-turpethein (8 and 6% respectively).Dosage: Root—1-3 g powder. (API, Vol. III.)... operculina turpethum
Ofelia, Ofilia, Ophelie, Ophelya, Ophilia, Ovalia, Ovelia, Opheliah, Ofeliah, Ophelie... ophelia
Habitat: From Konkan to Kerala at 1,500-2,000 m.Ayurvedic: Shailaja, Kiraatatikta (related species).
Action: A substitute for S. chirayita and Gentiana lutea L.The leaves and flowers contain xan- thone—swartinin, triterpenes, oleano- lic acid and beta-sitosterol. Decussatin is also present in the flowers and root.... ophelia multiflora
Habitat: Moist meadows in Great Britain. Found in the Himalayas, Bihar, Assam, Pune (Maharashtra), Annamalai and Shevaroy hills (South India); up to an altitude of 2,700 m.English: English Adder's Tongue. Serpant's Tongue.
Action: Fern—antiseptic, styptic, vulnerary, detergent, emetic. The mucilaginous and astringent decoction of the fern is used in angina in Reunion. An ointment, prepared by boiling the herb in oil or fat, is used for wounds.Ophioglossum pendulum L. (Assam) is used in the form of a scalp ointment for improving the hair growth. American Adder's Tongue is equated with Erythronium americanum Ker- Gawl (Liliaceae). The fresh leaves gave alpha-methylenebutyrolactone.... ophioglossum vulgatum
Habitat: Khasi Hills up to 600700 m, in Western Ghats and the Andaman Islands.English: Mongoose Plant.Ayurvedic: Sarpaakshi. (Gandha- naakuli is a wrong synonym. It is equated with Aristolochia indica.)Siddha/Tamil: Keerippundu.Folk: Sarahati. Mungus-vel (Maharashtra).
Action: Root—bitter tonic. Leaves— used for dressing ulcers.The roots contain starch, a resin and small amounts of a bitter amorphous alkaloid. Beta-sitosterol, 5- alpha-ergost-7-en-3-beta-ol and 5- alpha-ergost-8 (14)-en-3 beta-ol (as an ester) have been identified in the root. Leaves and stems contain traces of hydrocyanic acid.... ophiorrhiza mungos
Ofra, Ofrit, Ophra, Oprah, Orpa, Orpah, Ofrat, Ofrah... ophrah
The most common effects of opioid overdose are vomiting, drowsiness, pinpoint pupils, BRADYCARDIA, CONVULSIONS and COMA. Respiratory depression is common and may lead to CYANOSIS and respiratory arrest. HYPOTENSION occurs occasionally and in severe cases non-cardiogenic pulmonary oedema and cardiovascular collapse may occur. Cardiac ARRHYTHMIA may occur with some opioids. Some opioids have a HISTAMINE-releasing e?ect which may result in an urticarial rash (see URTICARIA), PRURITUS, ?ushing and hypotension. Activated CHARCOAL should be given following overdose and NALOXONE administered to reverse respiratory depression and deep coma.... opioid poisoning
Habitat: Indian gardens. Introduced into India towards the end of the 18th century.English: Cochineal Cactus. (A host for cochineal insect, Dactylopius cacti Linn.)Siddha/Tamil: Puchikalli.
Action: Fruits—emollient, bechic. Mucilaginous joints—used as poultices in cases of articular rheumatism, inflammations, scalds, burns and skin diseases.... opuntia cochinellifera
Habitat: Native of Mexico; well- acclimatized throughout India.English: Prickly Pear, Slipper Thorn.Ayurvedic: Naagaphani, Kanthaari.Unani: Naagphani.Siddha/Tamil: Sappathikalli, Nagathali.
Action: Leaves—applied as poultice to allay inflammation and heat. Fruit—baked and given in whooping cough.Dried or fresh flowers of cactus (opuntia series)—astringent and haemostatic. An infusion is given in irritable bowel, mucous colitis, and prostatitis. Ash of the aerial portion, mixed with sugar candy, is given for 21 days for birth control in tribal areas of Andhra Pradesh.The Plant is recommended for growing in high pollution zones for abating sulphur dioxide pollution.Pods contain a polysaccharide, ar- binogalactan. Betanin has been isolated from ripe fruits. Flowers contain the glycosides of isorhamnetin and quer- cetin, with smal amounts of the free flavonols.... opuntia dillenii
Habitat: Throughout the greater part of India.English: Prickly Pear.Ayurvedic: Naagaphani (var.).
Action: In homoeopathy, a tincture made from the flowers and wood, is given for diarrhoea and splenomegaly.The fresh stalks yielded calcium magnesium pectate which exhibited antihaemorrhagic action. A flavono- side has been obtained from dried flowers. It resembles rutoside in its action of inhibiting capillary fragility. The flavonoside on hydrolysis produces trihydroxy-methoxy-flavonol and glucose. The plant is reported to contain an alkaloid. It also yields a mucilage which gives arabinose and galactose. to convalescents suffering from chronic diarrhoea and bilious fevers. Allays irritation of gastrointestinal tracts.Orchis species (Salep) contain mucilage (up to 50%)-glucans, gluco- mannans (partially acetylized), starch (25%), proteins (5-15%).The leaves of Orchis latifolia contain a glucoside, loroglossin. Most of the Salep used in Unani medicine is imported from Iran and Afghanistan.Allium macleanii Baker (Afghanistan) is known as Baadashaahi (royal) Saalab, and is used as a substitute for Munjaataka.Dosage: Tuber—3-5 g powder. (CCRAS.)... opuntia vulgaris
In developed countries ORT is useful in treating gastroenteritis. There are a number of proprietary preparations, often dispensed as ?avoured sachets, including Dioralyte® and Rehydrate®.... oral rehydration therapy (ort)
Oraleydah, Oraleida, Oraleidah, Oralida, Oralidah, Oralyda, Oralydah, Oraleda, Oraledah, Oralieda, Oraliedah... oraleyda
Orbelinah, Orbeleena, Orbeleenah, Orbeleana, Orbeleanah, Orbelyna, Orbelynah, Orbie, Orbi, Orby, Orbey, Orbee, Orbea... orbelina
Orfelynda, Orphelinda, Orphelynda, Orfelenda, Orphelenda... orfelinda
Treatment After contamination with insecticides, decontaminate (remove clothes, wash skin). Those treating should wear gloves, mask, apron and goggles. For symptoms give 2 mg of ATROPINE IV every 30 minutes until full atropinisation (dry mouth, pulse >70). Up to three days’ treatment may be needed. Severe poisoning may require pralidoxine mysalate: available from designated centres, this drug should be given intravenously within 24 hours of exposure.... organophosphorus
Orrinthia, Orenthia, Orna, Ornina, Orinthea, Orenthea, Orynthia, Orynthea... orinthia
Oreolle, Oriolle, Oreole, Oriola, Oriolla, Oriol, Oreola, Oreolla... oriole
Habitat: Kashmir to Nepal at altitudes of 2,500-5,000 m in damp places.English: Orchis, Salep.Ayurvedic: Munjaataka, Saalam- misri, Saalam-panjaa. (Eulophia campestris Wall. is also equated with Munjaataka.)Unani: Saaleb, Khusyaat-us-Saalab, Saalab Misri.Siddha: Silamishri.
Action: Considered aphrodisiac and nervine tonic by Unani physicians. Tuber—nutritive, demulcent, restorative. GivenSynonym: Majorana hortensis Moench.Family: Labiatae; Lamiaceae.
Habitat: Native to Europe and Great Britain.English: Sweet Marjoram. (Origanum vulgare Linn., Wild Marjoram, occurs in Simla hills and in Kashmir valley.)Ayurvedic: Sukhaatmaka, Maruba- ka, Phanijjaka. (Ocimum basilicum is used as a substitute for Phanijjaka.)Unani: Marzanjosh.Folk: Maruae. Santhraa. Jangali Maruaa (Origanum vulgare Linn.).... origanum majorana
Orthiah, Orthea, Ortheah, Orthiya, Orthiyah... orthia
Habitat: Manipur, Naga and Lushai hills, Chota Nagpur, Western Ghats.English: Kidney Tea Plant, Java Tea.Folk: Mutri-Tulasi (Maharashtra).
Action: Leaves—diuretic, used in nephrosis and severe cases of oedema. An infusion of leaves is given as a specific in the treatment of various kidney and bladder diseases including nephrocirrhosis and phosphaturia, also in rheumatism and gout.Key application: In irrigation therapy for bacterial and inflammatory diseases of the lower urinary tract and renal gravel. (German Commission E.) Flower tops and leaves (samples from Indonesia) contained methyl ri- pariochromene A. In another sample, leaves also yielded several phenolic compounds including lipophilic flavones, flavonol glycosides and caf- feic acid derivatives. Rosmarinic acid and 2,3-dicaffeoyl-tartaric acid (67% of total phenolics, 94.5% in hot water extract) were major compounds of caffeic acid derivatives.The leaves also contain a high percentage (0.7-00.8) of potassium salts. Presence oforthosiphonin and potassium salts help in keeping uric acid and urate salts in solution, thus prevents calculi and other deposits. The leaf extract lowers blood sugar in diabetics, but not consistently.Orthosiphon pallidus Royle, equated with the Ayurvedic herb Arjaka and Shveta-Kutherak and known as Ajagur and Naganda-baavari in folk medicine, is used for dysuria and colic.... orthosiphon grandiflorus
Orzorah, Orzorra, Orzorrah, Orzoria, Orzorea... orzora
Habitat: Orissa, Gujarat, South India, ascending up to 1,000 m in the hills.Ayurvedic: Prataanikaa (non- classical).Folk: Tulasi (var.), Kattu-thrithava (Kerala).
Action: Plant—a decoction is given in diarrhoea. Leaves—applied externally to cuts and wounds.... orthosiphon tomentosus
Habitat: Cultivated all over India as a food crop.English: Rice.Ayurvedic: Shaali, Vrihidhaanya, Tandula, Nivara.Unani: Biranj Saathi.
Action: Rice-water (a water decoction of rice)—demulcent and refrigerant in febrile and inflammatory diseases and in dysuria. Also used as a vehicle for compound preparations used for gynaecological disorders. It is regarded as cooling in haematemesis and epistaxis, and as diuretic.The green clum or stalks—recommended in biliousness. Ash of the straw—used in the treatment of wounds and discharges. Lixiviated ash of straw is used as anthelmintic and in nausea.The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia ofIn- dia recommends the dried root in dy- suria and lactic disorders.The pigments occurring in coloured types of rice are a mixture of monogly- cosides of cyanidin and delphinidin. The dark Puttu Rice of India contains a diglycosidic anthocyanin.Dosage: Root—50 g for decoction. (API, Vol. II.)... oryza sativa
Habitat: The Himalayas from Garhwal to Bhutan, North Bengal, Bihar and Khasi, Aka and Lushai hills.Folk: Bhui-lukham (Lushai).
Action: Plant—anodyne, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory.The plant contains the flavonoids, quercetin, kaempferol and hydrolys- able tannins, besides gallic acid, methyl gallate and ellagic acid.The flavonoids and tannins showed antioxidant activity. Ellagic acid suppressed increase in lipid peroxidation induced by CCl4 and Cobalt-60 irradiation and this effect was more than that of alpha-tocopherol. Gallic acid showed anti-inflammatory activity against zymosan-induced acute footpad swelling in mice.... osbeckia chinensis
Habitat: Native to China and Japan. Found in Kumaon, Garhwal and Sikkim.Ayurvedic: Vasuka (Also equated with Brihat Bakula.)Folk: Silang, Silingi, Bagahul, Buuk.
Action: Diuretic, genitourinary tract disinfectant.Flowers—antiseptic, insecticidal. Used for protecting clothes from insects.The flowers yield an oil containing oleanolic and urosolic acids, beta- sitosterol, glycosides and a wax (0.04%) composed mainly of triacontane. The leaves are reported to contain a philly- rin-like glycoside.Osmanthus suavis King, known as Silingi in Nepal and Chashing in Bhutan, is found in eastern Himalayas at altitudes of 2,700-3,000 m and in Aka hills in Assam. It is used as a var. of Vasuka.Dosage: Flower—500 mg to 1 g powder. (CCRAS.)... osmanthus fragrans
Habitat: The Himalayas, Khasi hills and the Western Ghats at altitudes of 1,500-3,000 m.English: Royal Fern.
Action: Fern—antispasmodic, astringent, an aqueous extract is administered for intestinal gripe; used externally in rheumatism; also prescribed in muscular debility Fonds enter into diuretic drinks used for treating body swellings. Root—mucilaginous, styptic, stimulant.The rhizomes contain phenolic, gallic, caffeic, p-coumaric, vanillic, salicylic, p-hydroxybenzoic and ferulic acids and catechol tannins (2.8%) which are responsible for fern's astringent activity. Biological activity of these tannins corresponds to that of 10% tannic acid.... osmunda regalis
Osykah, Osika, Osikah, Oseka, Osekah... osyka
Habitat: Sub-tropical Himalaya, Madhya Pradesh, Tamil Nadu.Folk: Popli (Maharashtra); Paral (Karnataka, Tamil Nadu); Jhuri (Nepal); Dalmi, Dalmia (Garhwal, Kumaon).
Action: Leaf—emetic.The leaf contains 20% tannin. It gave cis-4-hydroxy-L-proline, and exhibited antiviral activity.The heartwood is faintly fragrant and reported to be used for adulterating sandalwood.... osyris wightiana
Otzarah, Otzarra, Otzarrah, Ozara, Ozarra... otzara
Habitat: Outer Himalayas and sub-Himalayan tract from Jammu to Bhutan up to an altitude of 1,500 m, and extending through the whole of northern and central India into the greater part of Deccan Peninsula.English: Chariot tree, Punjab Kino.Ayurvedic: Tinishaa, Tinisha, Syandana, Nemi, Sarvasaara, Ashmagarbhaka, Vajjala, Chitrakrt.Siddha/Tamil: Narivengai.Folk: Saanan.
Action: Bark—febrifuge, anti- diarrhoeal, spasmolytic.The leaves and heartwood contained iso-flavonoids—dalbergion, hemofer- ritin and urgenin. Leaves, in addition, contained flavonoids—querce- tin, kaempferol and leucopelargonidin. Stem bark gave triterpenes, lupeol and betulin.... ougeinia dalbergioides
Failure of OVULATION is the cause of INFERTILITY in around a third of couples seeking help with conception. It may also lead to menstrual problems (see MENSTRUATION), such as an irregular menstrual cycle or MENORRHAGIA. An uncommon cause of failure of ovulation is POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME, often associated with acne, hirsutism, and obesity. Treatment depends on the symptoms. Early ovarian failure is the cause of premature MENOPAUSE. Treatment consists of hormone replacement therapy using a combination of oestrogen and progestogen.
Ovarian cysts (for example, follicular cysts) result from ovulation. They may be symptomless but sometimes cause abdominal pain, pain during intercourse or disturbances in menstruation. Twisting or rupture can cause severe pain, pyrexia (fever) and nausea, and explorative surgery – endoscopic laparotomy – may be needed to establish a diagnosis (symptoms of ECTOPIC PREGNANCY are similar). The ovary may have to be removed. Simple cysts often disappear of their own accord but a large cyst can cause pressure on surrounding structures and therefore should be surgically removed.
In young women the most common benign tumour is a dermoid cyst, while in older women, ?broma (see under UTERUS, DISEASES OF) is more common. All benign tumours should be removed surgically in order to be sure they are not malignant.
Malignant tumours may be primary (arising in the ovary) or secondary (metastases from a cancer developing in another organ). Treatment depends upon the site and type of the primary tumour.
Around 5,000 women a year are diagnosed as having ovarian cancer in England and Wales. Unfortunately it is not readily detected in its early stages; around 85 per cent of women do not see a doctor until after the tumour has spread. Early tumours present with symptoms similar to benign tumours, while late ones present with abdominal distension, pain and vague gastrointestinal symptoms. The disease is most common in menopausal women. Earlier diagnosis and treatment can be achieved by ULTRASOUND screening. Treatment is surgical, aimed at totally removing the tumour mass. Nowadays RADIOTHERAPY is only used for palliation. CHEMOTHERAPY is often given to patients with ovarian metastases, or who have residual disease after surgery. The most active cytotoxic agent is the taxane, PACLITAXEL – especially when it is combined with cisplatin.... ovaries, diseases of
Habitat: Temperate Himalayas from Kashmir to Sikkim from 2,500 to 4,000 m and Nilgiris in Tamil Nadu.English: Common Wood-Sorrel.Ayurvedic: Chaangeri (related species).Folk: Tinpatiyaa, Amrul.
Action: Diuretic and refrigerant. Used for urinary affections and fevers. (Sorrel is equated with Rumex acetosa Linn.)Aerial parts gave 2"-O-(beta-D-glu- copyranosyl) isovitexin. The whole flowering plant contains 0.3-1.25% oxalic acid (high in fresh leaves and roots).... oxalis acetosella
Habitat: Throughout the warmer parts of India.English: Indian Sorrel.Ayurvedic: Chaangeri, Am- lapatrikaa, Amlikaa, Chukraa, Chukrikaa, Chhatraamlikaa.Unani: Ambutaa bhaaji, Amutaa saag.Siddha/Tamil: Puliyarai.Folk: Tinpatiyaa, Ambilonaa.
Action: Plant—boiled with butter milk is a home remedy for indigestion and diarrhoea in children. Used for tympanitis, dyspepsia, biliousness and dysentery; also for its anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic and antiscorbutic activities. Leaf paste is applied over forehead to cure headache.The leaves contain the flavonoids, vitexin, isovitexin and vitexin-2"-O- beta-D-glucopyranoside. The leaves contain 1.47% of lipid (dry weight), a rich source of essential fatty acids and alpha-and beta-tocopherol (1.58 and 6.18 mg/g dry basis, respectively.) They are a good source of vitamin C (125 mg/100 g), carotene (3.6 mg/100 g) and calcium (5.6% of dry material) but contain a high content of oxalates (12% of dry material).The leaves and stem contain tartar- ic and citric acid; stems contain also malic acid.An aqueous extract of the plant shows activity against Micrococcus pyogenes var. aureus. Expressed juice of the entire plant shows activity against Gram-positive bacteria.Oxalis martiana Zucc. (native to America, naturalized in moist and shady placaes in temperate parts of India) is equated with Wood-Sorrel. It is known as Khatmitthi in Delhi and Peria-puliyarai in Tamil Nadu.Dosage: Whole plant—5-10 ml juice. (API, Vol. III.)... oxalis corniculata
– from anaerobic metabolism which is ultimately oxidised after conversion to citrate and metabolism via the citric acid cycle. The increased amount of oxygen above resting concentrations which needs to be consumed to perform this metabolism is known as the oxygen debt or de?cit.... oxygen deficit
Habitat: The Himalayas from Kashmir to Sikkim, in the alpine region at altitudes of3,000-6,000 m.Folk: Chohahak, Amlu (Punjab). Kailaashi (Kashmir).
Action: Refrigerant, antiscorbutic.... oxyria digyna
Habitat: Throughout the plains and lower hills of India, including paddy fields and hedges rear semi-marshy places.Ayurvedic: Dugdhikaa, Duudhila- taa, Duudhialataa .Folk: Usipallai (Tamil Nadu); Dugdhani (Maharashtra); Jala- dudhi (Gujarat).
Action: Herb—antiseptic, depura- tive, galactogogue; decoction used as a gargle in stomatitis and sore throat. Latex—vulnerary. Fresh root—prescribed in jaundice.A pregnane ester oligoglycoside (oxysine), a pregnane triglycoside (es- culentin), a cardenolide (oxyline), two more cardenolides, oxystelmoside and oxystelmine, have been isolated from the roots.Dosage: Plant—10-20 ml juice; 50100 ml decoction. (CCRAS.)Family: Rubiaceae.
Habitat: Central and Eastern Himlayas extending to Assam, West Bengal, Bihar, Orissa.Ayurvedic: Talanili, Gand- haprasaarini. (Prasaarini is also equated with Raaja-balaa, Sida veronicaefolia.).Siddha/Tamil: Talanili, Mudiyar Kundal.Folk: Gandhabhaaduli (Bengali).
Action: Leaf—carminative, antiinflammatory, astringent, spasmolytic, antidiarrhoeal, diuretic, an- tilithic. Root— anti-inflammatory. Used for rheumatic affections, piles, inflammations of the liver, spleen and chest.Aerial parts contain epi-friedelanol, embelin and beta-sitosterol. Leaves and stems gave iridoid glycosides, si- tosterol, stigmasterol, campesterol, ur- solic acid, hentriacontane, hentriacon- tanol, ceryl alcohol, palmitic acid and methyl mercaptan. The foetid smell is due to methyl mercaptan.All parts of the plant have been employed for rheumatic affections.A related species, Paederia scandens (Lour.) Merill, synonym P. tomentosa Blume, is known as Gandha Prasaarini. The iridoid glucosides, paedero- side, paederosidic acid and scandosides have been isolated from the plant.... oxystelma secamone
Oziomah, Ozeoma, Ozeomah, Ozyoma, Ozyomah... ozioma
Habitat: Indigenous to Great Britain.English: Paeony.Unani: Ood Saleeb, Ood Gharqi.
Action: Root—antispasmodic, sedative, smooth muscle relaxant, vasodilatory, hypotensive, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, em- menagogue, hepatoprotective. Flower—used for diseases of mucous membranes, fissures, anal fissures associated with haemorrhoids, also for ailments of the respiratory tract, nervous conditions and skin diseases. Root— used for arthritis, neuralgia, neurasthenia, migraine, epilepsy, allergic disorders, whooping cough and painful spasms.The herb gave monoterpene ester glucosides of the pinen-type (including paeoniflorin); anthocyanin including paeonin; tannins (pentagalloyl glucose); flavonoids including kaempferol glycosides.Paeoniflorin shows a smooth muscle relaxant, vasodilatory, anti-inflammatory, immunostimulating and some CNS depressant activity in animal studies. Pentagalloyl glucose exhibited antiviral activity in animal studies in vitro against herpes simplex.German Commission E included Paeony (flower and root) among un- approved herbs. The Pharmacopoeia of People's Republic of China indicates the use of the root in dementia, headache and vertigo. (WHO.)... paeonia officinalis
Habitat: North-West India, Bengal and Konkan.English: Fragrant Sticky Mallow.Ayurvedic: Vaalaka, Baalaka, Baala, Barhishtha, Hrivera, Ambu, Jala, Nira, Paya, Toya, Udichya, Vaari, Muurdhaja. Sugandhbaalaa (also equated with Valeriana Jatamansi). In the South, Celus vettiveroides is equated with Baalaka.Siddha/Tamil: Peraamutti, Kastoori vendai.
Action: Plant—anti-inflammatory and spasmolytic. Used in rheumatic affections. Root—stomachic, astringent, demulcent. Used in dysentery, haemorrhages from intestines; ulcers and bleeding disorders.The roots gave an essential oil containing isovaleric acid, isovaleralde- hyde, armomadendrene, pavonene, alpha-terpinene, azulene and pavo- nenol.The plant exhibits antiparasitic activity against Entamoeba histolytica.... pavonia odorata
ForskSynonym: P. Ispaghula Roxb.Family: Plantaginaceae.
Habitat: Cultivated In Parts Of Rajasthan And Maharashtra.English: Ispaghula, Spogel Seeds, Blond Psyllium.Ayurvedic: Ashvagola. Ashwakarna (Also Equated With Shorea Robusta).Unani: Aspaghol.Siddha/Tamil: Isapppa.Folk: Isabgol.
Action: Seed And Husk—Laxative, Diuretic, Demulcent, Bechic, Cholinergic. Used In Inflammatory Conditions Of The Mucous Membrane Of Gastrointestinal And Genitourinary Tract, Chronic Amoebic And Bacillary Dysentery; Also In Hypercholesterolemia.Key Application ? In Chronic Constipation And Irritable Bowel. (German Commission E.) Also In Constipation Due To Duodenal Ulcer Or Diverticulitis (Who.) German Commission E Also Noted That Blond Psyllium Seed Lowers Serum Cholesterol Levels. It Has Also Been Shown To Slow Sugar Absorption Thereby Reducing Blood Glucose. (Escop.) Use Of Blond Psyllium Husk Up To Six Months Did Not Clinically Alter Vitamin Or Mineral Status In A Review Of Eight Human Trials. It Did Not Reduce Absorption Of Calcium. (J Am Geriatr Soc, 43, 1995; Am J Clin Nutr, 71, 2000; Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, 2007.)The Seed Contains Amino Acids Including Valine, Alanine, Glutamic Acid, Glycine, Cystine, Lysine, Leucine And Tyrosine; And A Mucilage Consisting Of A Mixture Of Polysaccharides Composed Mainly Of Xylose, Arabinose And Galacturonic Acid; Rhamnose And Galactose Are Also Present. The Seeds Also Gave Aucubin, The Antibacterial Principle. The Seed Coat Contains Fatty Acids Mainly Linoleic, Oleic And Palmitic Acids In Decreasing Concentrations.The Seeds Show A Liver Protective Effect On Induced Hepatotoxicity In Mice. In China, The Plant Is Used Clinically To Treat Certain Types Of Hepatitis (Activity Due To Aucubin Content).Dosage: Husk—5-10 G. (Ccras.)... plantago ovata
Habitat: Native to eastern Mediterranean region; cultivated in Kashmir and North-western Himalayas at 1,200-2,400 m.English: Oriental Plane, Oriental Sycamore. European Plane tree.Folk: Chinaar, Buin (Kashmir and Punjab).
Action: Bark—antidiarrhoeal, antiscorbutic, antirheumatic. Leaf—astringent. Buds—antiseptic, used for urinary infection.The buds yielded kaempferol, its derivatives and caffeic acid. The me- thanolic extract exhibits antiseptic and antimicrobial activities.The bark contains 1.5% of platanin, also 5.9% tannin and 7.3% non-tans. The shoots and leaves contain alan- toin; roots phlobaphene. The sap of the tree contains up to 90% mannitol. A triterpene, platanolic acid, is found in most parts of the plant except the fruit.... platanus orientalis
Habitat: South India.Ayurvedic: Phanji (var.).Siddha/Tamil: Machuttai.Folk: Baravat, Phaang.
Action: Juice of the plant—used topically in haemorrhagic diseases and piles.... rivea ornate
Habitat: Rain forests of Western Ghats from Konkan to Kerala.Folk: Chundan (Tamil Nadu), Ponkoranti (Kerala).
Action: Root bark—used for the treatment rheumatism; also for gonorrhoea, swellings and skin diseases. Plant—mildly antiseptic.... salacia oblonga
Habitat: On the old trunks of various coniferous trees.English: White Agaric.Unani: Ghaariqoon.
Action: Used in the treatment of sweats in wasting diseases such as phthisis (it checks profuse sweats); also as an expectorant and diuretic.The drug contains agaric acid (agari- cin). The resinous extract, when burnt, yields not more than 2% of a white ash, rich in phosphates. The drug gives 46% soft resin.Agaric acid acts as a counter-irritant when applied to abraded surfaces or mucous membrane.... polyporus officinalis
Habitat: All over India, cultivated as a vegetable.English: Common Purslane.Ayurvedic: Brihat Lonikaa, Lonaa, Loni, Ghoddhika, Ghotikaa, Upodika, Khursaa.Unani: Khurfaa, Kulfaa.Siddha/Tamil: Pulli-keerai, Parup- pukirai.
Action: Refrigerant (reduces body heat), mild spasmodic, diuretic, antiscorbutic. Used in scurvy and in diseases of liver, spleen, kidney and bladder; also in dysuria, stomatitis and dysentery. A paste of leaves is applied to swellings, erysipelas, burns and scalds. Seeds—diuretic, antidysenteric; applied externally to burns and scalds.A crude protein-free extract of the herb contained l-nor-adrenaline, do- pamine and l-dopa, also catechol. (The fresh plant contained 2.5 mg/g l-nor- adrenaline in one sample.) The extract gave a strong pressor response when injected intravenously into anaesthetized dogs.The oral administration of the ho- mogenates of P. oleracea reduced the blood sugar level of alloxan-diabetic rabbits to normal.The extract of the leaves and stems reduced muscle tone in individuals suffering from spasticity and exhibited skeletal muscle relaxant activity both in vitro and in vivo. The extract produced dose-dependent negative in- otropic and chronotropic effects and pressor response on rat blood pressure.The diuretic action of the herb is attributed to the presence of high percentage of potassium salts.Dosage: Plant-125-400 mg powder; juice—1-20 ml (CCRAS.)... portulaca oleracea
Habitat: Southeast Tibet, West and Northwest China.English: Rhubarb.Unani: Usaare Rewand.
Action: Astringent and cathartic (anthraquinones are laxative and tannins astringent), stomachic, aperient, cholinergic, gastric stimulant, antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic. Used for indigestion, diarrhoea, dysentery and disorders of liver and gallbladder.Key application: In constipation. Contraindicated in acute intestinal inflammation and obstruction. (German Commission E, ESCOP, The British Herbal Pharmacopoeia, WHO.)Rhubarb contains 1,8-dihydroxy- anthracene derivatives. The laxative effect of the herb is primarily due to its influence on the motility of the colon, inhibiting stationary and stimulating propulsive contractions. Stimulation of the chloride secretion increases the water and electrolyte content of stool. (German Commission E.)The plant extract of R. officinale is found to be strong and effective scavenger of oxygen radicals in xan- thine/xanthine oxidase and other systems in vitro.Rheum rhaponticum, known as Rha- pontic or English rhubarb, is extensively cultivated all over Europe and America; also cultivated to a small extent in India in the Khasi Hills, the Nilgiris and West Bengal.Rhubarbs contain anthraquinones but English rhubarb contains only chrysophanic acid and some of its glycosides. Stilbene glycosides, present in other types, are also found in English rhubarb. The roots contain rhapontin. (1.42%), reported to restore oestrus cycle in castrated female rats.... rheum officinale
Habitat: The Himalayas from Kashmir to Sikkim at 4,2005,000 m.Folk: Brahma-kamal (Kumaon); Birm-kanwal (Punjab).
Action: Roots—antiseptic, styptic, anti-inflammatory. Applied to wounds and cuts.Plant—hypothermic. Flower—CNS active, antiviral. The flowers, after frying, are used in rheumatism.... saussurea obvallata
Habitat: Tropical Himalayas from Kumaon eastwards to Khasi, Garo and Naga Hills, and in Bihar.Unani: Ushbaa. (Jamaica sak- saparilla.)
Action: Roots—used as a blood purifying drug.... smilax ornata
Habitat: Native to the Mediterranean region, cultivated in Nilgiri Hills.English: Rosemary.Folk: Rusmari.
Action: Essential oil from flowers and leaves—anti-inflammatory, astringent, antiseptic, stomachic, carminative; used externally in circulatory disorders. Flowering tops and leaves—carminative, diuretic, emmenagogue; vapor baths afford relief in incipient catarrh, rheumatism and muscular affections.Key application: Leaf—internally in dyspeptic complaints; externally in supportive therapy for rheumatic diseases and circulatory problems. (German Commission E.) Shows improvement of hepatic and biliary function.(ESCOP.) Carminative, spasmolytic of hepatic and biliary function. (ESCOP.) Carminative, spasmolytic. (The British Herbal Pharmacopoeia.)In research using rats, the essential oil and ethanolic extract of rosemary decreased drug-induced hepatotoxici- ty and the suppression of bone marrow cells. Phenolic compounds in the herb exhibit antioxidant activity. (Sharon M. Herr.)The herb contains volatile oil (1.02.5%), composed mainly of 1, 8-cineole (20-25%), alpha-pinene (15-25%), camphor (10-25%), others include bor- neol, isobutyl acetate, camphene, li- monene, linalool, 3-octanone, terpine- ol, verbenol; flavonoids including api- genin, diosmetin, diosmin; rosmarinic acid and other phenolic acids; diter- penes; rosmaricine; ursolic acid, olea- nolic acid and their derivatives.The anti-inflammatory effect of Rosemary has been attributed to ros- marinic acid, ursolic acid and apigenin. Among flavonoids, diosmin is reported to be more effective in decreasing capillary fragility than rutin. A ros- maricine derivative exhibits stimulant and mild analgesic activity.The phenolic fraction, isolated from the leaves, also from the oil, exhibits antioxidant activity.Pressed juice of leaves possesses a strong antibacterial action on Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli and Bacillis sub- tilis.An infusion of the plant with borax is used as a hair wash for preventing hair loss.Rosemary oil, in combination with the essential oil from thyme, lavender and cedarwood, showed improvement in hair growth by 44% after 7 months of treatment for alopecia areata. (Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, 2007.)... rosmarinus officinalis
Habitat: Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and Punjab.English: Sugarcane, Noble Cane.Ayurvedic: Ikshu, Dirgha-chhada, Bhuurirasa, Morata, Asipatra, Madhutrna, Gudamuula, Trnarasa.Unani: Gannaa, Naishakar.Siddha/Tamil: Karumbu, Nanal.
Action: Cane Juice—restorative, cooling, laxative, demulcent, diuretic, antiseptic. Used in general debility, haemophilic conditions, jaundice and urinary diseases.The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia ofIn- dia recommends the juice of the stem in haemorrhagic diseases and anuria; and the root in dysuria.Sugarcane juice contains surcose (70-80% of soluble solids in the juice), glucose and fructose. Non-sugar constituents present in the cane juice are carbohydrates other than sugars. As- paragine and glutamine are prominent amino acids in the juice. Other amino acids include alanine, gamma- amino butyric acid, aspartic and glutamic acids, glycine, leucine, lysine, serine and tyrosine. The presence of phenylalanine, histidine, valine, proline, threonine and arginine, pipecolic acid, methionine and tryptophan has also been reported.Aconitic acid constitutes about three-fourths of the total carboxylic acid present in the juice.Vitamins present in the juice are: thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, biotin, and vitamin D; enzymes include diastase, invertase, lac- tase, peroxidase, tyrosinase.Phenols in the cane juice are mainly polyphenols from tannin and antho- cyanin from the rind.Cane juice contains glycolic acid which improves skin complexion as it has antiwrinkle effect, prevents scaly growth and increases natural collagen and elastin in the skin.Enzymes present in the seeds include large quantities of diastase and invertase.An ester, vanilloyl-l-O-beta-D-glu- coside, has been isolated from the bagasse.The leaves contain alpha-amylase and glutathione-S-transferase.Dosage: Stem—200-400 ml juice; rootstock—15-30 g for decoction. (API, Vol. IV.)... saccharum officinarum
Habitat: Tropical parts of India.... smilax ovalifolia
Habitat: Native to Europe; cultivated in Kashmir.English: Sweet Violet.Unani: Banafashaa, Banafsaj, Kakosh, Fareer.... viola odorata
Habitat: The arid regions of Punjab, Rajasthan and western India.Ayurvedic: Pilu (bigger var.).
Action: Leaf—bechic. Bark— vesicant. Fruit—febrifuge (in low fever), used in enlarged spleen. Oil from seed—applied in rheumatic affections and after child birth.The fruit contains sterols, beta-sitos- terol and its glucosides and stigmas- terol; benzylisothiocyanate, n-octaco- sanol and tetracosane; flavonoids including quercetin and rutin; thiourea derivatives and phospholipids. Myris- tic, lauric and palmitic acids were obtained from the seed fat.... salvadora oleoides
Habitat: Native to the Mediterranean region; grown as an ornamental.English: Sage.Folk: Salvia Sefakuss.
Action: Plant—astringent, anti- inflammatory, carminative, anti- spasmodic, antiseptic. Leaf and flower—cholagogue, hypogly- caemic, antiasthmatic (used for respiratory allergy), cholagogue, emmenagogue, antisudoriferous, antiseptic. Leaf—diaphoretic, antipyretic. Used for sore throat, laryngitis, tonsillitis, stomatitis.Key application: Leaf—internally, for dyspeptic symptoms and excessive perspiration; externally for inflammations of the mucous membranes of nose and throat. (German Commission E.) ESCOP indicates its use for inflammations and infections such as stomatitis, gingivitis, pharyngitis, and hyperhidrosis.The leaves contain a volatile oil; diterpene bitters including carnosolic acid; flavonoids including salvigenin, genkwanin, hispidulin, luteolin and its derivatives; phenolic acids including rosmarinic, caffeic, labiatic; a condensed catechin, salvia tannin.The roots contain diterpene quino- nesroyleanone and its derivatives. Volatile oil contains alpha-and beta-thu- jone, 1,8-cineole and camphor. Thu- jone is strongly antiseptic and carminative, also has an oestrogenic action that is partly responsible for the herb's hormonal activity in reducing breast milk production. The volatile oil also relieves muscle spasms. Ros- marinic acid, a phenol, allays inflammations.Cirsiliol, linalool and alpha-terpine- ol, constituents of the volatile oil, exhibit CNS depressant activities.In a double blind, randomized and placebo controlled trial, extracts of Salvia officinalis showed improvement in patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer disease. (Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, 2007.)Sage oil is used in perfumes as a deodorant and for the treatment of thrush and gingivitis. The herb is used in tooth powders, mouth washes, gargles, poultices, hair tonics and hair dressings.... salvia officinalis
Habitat: Native to temperate region of Europe; introduced in Indian gardens.English: Bouncing Bet, Soapwort.
Action: Roots—blood purifier, cholagogue, expectorant, diuretic, diaphoretic. Roots and leaves— used for scrofula and skin diseases. Sap used as a depurative for scabies, furuncles, hepatic eruptions and venereal ulcers (as a lotion). Plant— employed for jaundice (to increase bile flow); also in respiratory disorders (bronchitis, sore throat).Key application: Root—in catarrhs of the upper respiratory tract. (German Commission E.)The plant contains saponin, sapo- toxin and saponarin. The root contains sapotoxin (4-5%) and saporubrinic acid. Saponin content of the root is highest (7.7-8.2%) just before flowering stage and the lowest (about 3%) during the flowering period. The bark yield 0.8% of saponin. The leaves contain saponarin. Youngest leaves show the highest haemolytic activity.Aqueous extract of the plant exhibit antibacterial activity.... saponaria officinalis
Habitat: The sub-Himalayan tract from Kashmir to West Bengal; Bihar, Punjab, Madhya Pradesh, southwards to Peninsular India.English: Lac tree, Macassar Oil tree, Honey tree, Ceylon Oak.Ayurvedic: Koshaamra, Kshudraam- ra, Lakshaa vrksha, Ghanaskandha.Siddha/Tamil: Puvathipuvam, Pulaachi.
Action: Bark—astringent; mixed with oil, applied externally in skin eruptions. Seed oil—used for massage in rheumatism and applied in alopecia, itch and acne; stimulates hair growth. (Tree is an important host of Kusmi lac.)Fatty acids of the oil consisted of ole- ic (52.%), gadoleic, stearic, arachidic, behenic, palmitoleic and palmitic acids. Young leaves contain gallo-tannic acid (5.09%, dry matter basis). The bark contains 9.4% tannin.Dosage: Bark—50-100 ml decoction. (CCRAS.)... schleichera oleosa
Habitat: Bihar, West Bengal and Kerala. (The plant parasitizing Strychnos nux-vomica tree are used in Indian medicine.)Folk: Baandaa.
Action: Used as a substitute for nux-vomica. Poultice of leaves is used for neuralgia; ashes of the plant for the treatment of skin diseases.... viscum orientale
Habitat: Tropical Himalayas, Bengal, southwards to Andhra Pradesh and the Andamans.Ayurvedic: Gajakrishna, Hastipip- pali, Gajapippali (also equated with Piper chaba).Siddha/Tamil: Anaitippili.
Action: Fruits—stimulant, carminative, diaphoretic, anthelmintic, antidiarrhoeal. Decoction is used as an expectorant in asthma. Fruits and shoots—hypoglycaemic. Fruit pulp—applied externally in rheumatism.The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India recommends dried pieces of mature female spadix in dyspnoea. (Gajapip- pali is wrongly equated with male or female inflorescence of Borassus flabel- lifer Linn.)The fruits contain two glycosidic substances—scindapsin A and B, which on hydrolysis yield the aglu- cons, scindapsinidine A and B. Free sugars, rhamnose, fructose, glucose and xylose together with some di-and trisaccharides have been identified in the plant.Dosage: Dried pieces of mature female spadix—2-3 g for infusion. (API, Vol. II.)... scindapsus officinalis
Habitat: Throughout India up to 2,000 m.English: The Holy Herb, Siegesbeckia.Siddha/Tamil: Katampam, Kadambu.Folk: Pili-badkadi (Gujarat), Lat- latiaa (Bihar), Lichkuraa (Garhwal).
Action: Plant—antiscorbutic, sial- agogue, cardiotonic, diaphoretic. Used for the treatment of rheumatism, renal colic and ague. Also used as a lotion for gangrenous ulcers and sores, syphilis, leprosy, ringworm.The aerial parts contain sesquiter- pene lactone, orientin; melampolides including orientolide; diterpene, dru- tigenol and the corresponding gluco- side darutoside. The whole plant, in addition, gave 3,7-dimethylquercetin.The plant exhibited antiviral, CVS active, spasmolytic and hypoglycaemic activity.... siegesbeckia orientalis
Habitat: Waste places throughout India, up to elevation of 2,400 m.English: Milk Thistle (a confusing synonym. Silybum marianum has been equated with Milk Thistle.)Folk: Duudhi, Dodaka, Dudhaali.
Action: Galactagogue, febrifuge, sedative, vermifuge. Used in indigestion and in the treatment of diseases of the liver. An ointment is made from the decoction for wounds and ulcers.The leaves contain luteolin, luteolin- 7-O-glucoside; hydroxycoumarins, cichoriin and scopoletin. Apigenin-7-O- glucoside was also obtained from the leaves and stems. Young leaves are reported to contain 4.1 mg/100 g of vitamin C.... sonchus oleraceus
Habitat: Introduced from Brazil; often cultivated in Indian gardens.English: Brazilian Cress, Para Cress.Ayurvedic: Mahaaraashtri, Marethi, Desi Akarkaraa. Aakaarakarab- ha of Ayurvedic medicine and Aaqarqarha of Unani medicine is equated with Anacyclus pyrethrum DC. (root is used); S. acmella and S. oleracea flowering heads are used as Desi Akarkaraa and should not be confused with the original drug.
Action: Flowers—used against scurvy, gum troubles, toothache and against bladder pains and gout.The flower heads yield 1.25% of spilanthol from the pentane extract.The fresh plant yields an essential oil consisting mainly of spilanthol and a hydrocarbon, spilanthene. The plant also contains cerotic acid, crystalline phytosterols, tannic acid, resin, potassium malate and large amounts of choline and potassium nitrate.... spilanthes oleracea
Habitat: Native to South-west Asia; cultivated throughout India.English: Garden Spinach.Ayurvedic: Paalankikaa, Paalankya, Paalakyaa.Unani: Paalak.Siddha/Tamil: Vasaiyila-keerai.
Action: Seeds—cooling and laxative; given during jaundice. Spinach, as a potherb, is rich in nitrogenous substances, hydrocarbons and iron sesqui-oxide.Aerial parts afforded rutin, hyperoside, astragalin and caffeic, chloro- genic, neochlorogenic and protocate- chuic acids. Seeds contain glycopro- tein-bound hexosamine. Roots contain spirasaponins.... spinacia oleracea
Constituents: Urtica urens herba tincture (1:2) 9.5 per cent. Arnica montana planta tincture (1:2) 0.5 per cent. (Weleda) ... combudoron ointment
Habitat: A native to Asia minor and Syria.English: The True Storax tree.Ayurvedic: Silhaka, Silaarasa, Turushka, Kapitaila, Yavandeshaja.Folk: Silaajit, Usturak.
Action: Balsam is used for cough and respiratory tract catarrh. Turushka was obtained from Styrax officinale. Due to scarcity, it was replaced by the exudation of Liquidamber orientalis Mill. Balsam obtained from Altingia excelsa Noronha is used as a substitute for Silhaka and is known as Silaarasa (occurs in Assam and Arunachal Pradesh).Dosage: Balsam—500 mg to 1.0 g. (CCRAS.)... styrax officinale
Habitat: Europe and from the Mediterranean to Caucasian region. Russian Comfrey or Blue Comfrey has been introduced in Simla; Prickly Camfrey is cultivated in Western India.English: Comfrey, Knitbone.Folk: Sankuutan (Maharashtra).
Action: Vulnerary (The British Herbal Pharmacopoeia), astringent, demulcent, haemostatic, tissue- restorative (repairs broken bones and lacerated flesh, promotes formation of a callus).Key application: Externally for fractures and sprains, to promote bone growth and formation of callus. (German Commission E.)Allantoin, a cell proliferant, helps repair damaged tissues. Antiinflammatory action is due to rosmarinic acid and other phenolic acids. Used for stomach ulcers, irritable bowel syndrome, colitis, hiatus hernia; pleurisy, bronchitis (contraindicated in oede- matous conditions of the lung); and for the treatment of fractures, sickets, varicose ulcers. Experiments, during the 1960s, reveal that pyrrolizidine alkaloids are toxic to liver (dispute still unresolved); it is still not clear if these are hepatotoxic in the context of the whole plant. The aerial parts are considered safe.Russian Comfrey or Blue Comfrey has been equated with Symphytum peregrinum Ledeb. (introduced into India in Simla).The Plant is a good source of al- lantoin, a drug used in the treatment of gastric ulcers, disorders of liver and cancer. Tincture of the fresh herb is reported to be used for asthma, bronchitis and congestive conditions of the lungs.... symphytum officinale
Habitat: Temperate Himalayas, Khasi Hills, Mishmi Hills, Gujarat and in hills of South India.English: Common Dandelion.Ayurvedic: Dugdh-pheni, Luutaari, Payaswani.Unani: Kaanful, Kaasani Dashti, Kaasani Sahraayi, Hind-baa-al- Barri. (Not to be confused with Ci- chorium intybus, known as Kaasani.)Folk: Dudhli, Dudhal.
Action: Root—diuretic, cholagogue, pancreatic and bile duct stimulant, stimulant to portal circulation, choleretic, urinary antiseptic, detoxicant, promotes elimination of plasma cholesterol. Used chiefly in kidney and liver disorders, for rheumatism and as a general tonic. A decoction is given for infective hepatitis.Key application: In dyspepsia, loss of appetite, and for diuresis. (German Commission E, ESCOP.) ESCOP indicates its use for restoration of hepatic and biliary function.Most of the diuretics cause loss of potassium, but dandelion leaves contain high levels of potassium.The leaves and root contain sesqui- terpene lactones (bitter substances); triterpenes and sterols—beta-sitosterol, beta-sitosterol-glucosides, taraxasterol, psi-taratexol and taraxol; flavonoids, including among others, apigenin-7- O-glucosides and luteolin-7-O-gluco- sides; mucilages; inulin (2-40%, high values in autumn). The amaroids are cholagogic and secretolytic. (PDR.) An appetite-stimulating bitter has been identified as eudesmanolides (previously called taraxacin).The vitamin A content is higher than in carrots.The polysaccharides and aqueous extracts exhibited antitumour activity in animals. The anti-inflammatory activity has also been confirmed in animal studies.The high K+ content of roots and leaves is considered responsible for the diuretic activity.Dosage: Root—1-3 g powder. (CCRAS.)... taraxacum officinale
Constituents: 100g contains: Ananarsa fruct. 5g; Larch Resin 2g in a base containing Lanolin and yellow soft paraffin. (Weleda) ... larch resin ointment
Ingredients: Amber oil 4 per cent; Clove oil BP 1 per cent; Eucalyptus oil BP 4 per cent; Linseed oil 10 per cent; Methyl sal BP 4 per cent; Volatile Mustard oil 0.03 per cent; Turpentine oil BP 12.3 per cent; Thyme oil 2 per cent; Peppermint oil BP 2.1 per cent; Arachis oil BP to 100. ... nine rubbing oils
Ingredients: Cajuput oil 18.5 per cent, Clove oil 10 per cent; Eucalyptus oil 35.45 per cent, Juniper berry oil 2.7 per cent, Menthol 10 per cent, Peppermint oil 25.45 per cent, Wintergreen oil 3.7 per cent. (Lane’s, UK) ... olbas oil
Habitat: Native to China; planted all over India in gardens.English: Oriental Arbor-Vitae.Folk: Morepankhi.
Action: Leaves—diuretic, insectici- dal antipyretic.The leaves contain rhodoxanthin, amentoflavone, hinokiflavone, querce- tin, myricetin, carotene (20.8 mg/100 g dry basis), xanthophyll and ascorbic acid (68 mg/100 g). Essential oil, obtained from twigs (0.32) and berries (0.25%), contains alpha-thujene, (+)- sabinene, (+)-camphene, cedrol, ce- drenol and alpha-and beta-pinenes as major constituents.American Arbor-Vitae and White Cedar has been equated with T. occidentals and is used as Thuja.It was introduced into India from North America, and grows as a Christmas tree in the plains of India.Leaves—aninfusionisusedasa uterine stimulant, emmenagogue and diuretic. Boiled in lard, are applied externally for rheumatism. Bark—astringent, emmenagogue, diuretic. Oil— poisonous, disinfectant, insecticidal. Seed and fruit— antibacterial; inhibited the growth of Gram-positive microorganisms.The leaves yields a volatile oil, containing thujone as major component, with iso-thujone, borneol, bornyl acetate, l-fenchone, limonene, sabinene, camphor, l-alpha-thujene; flavonoids, mucilage, tannins.The heartwood yields a non-toxic antibiotic substance. It gave sesquiter- pene alcohols—occidentalol and oc- cidol; also alpha-beta-and gamma- eudesmol.Thuja is used in homoeopathy for tissue degeneration and tumours, warts and fungoid growths, both internally and externally.... thuja orientalis
Habitat: Throughout India in humid regions, up to 2,430 m.English: Charcoal tree, Indian Nettle tree.Siddha/Tamil: Ambaratthi, Chenko- lam.Folk: Gio.
Action: Root—astringent and styptic; prescribed for diarrhoea, haematuria. Bark—analgesic.Used as poultice for muscular pain. Root, bark and leaves—used in epilepsy.The bark contains 16% tannin. Stem- bark gave triterpenoid alcohols simi- arenol and tremetol; a triterpene sim- iurenone; octacosanoic acid and 1- octacosanyl acetate.Alcoholic extract of the roots produced a progressive depression of blood pressure (a total of 50% in 1 h) in cats.... trema orientalis
Constituents: neriodorin, neriodorein, essential oil.
Action: has a digitalis-like effect. Cardioactive. Diuretic. Seldom used in modern herbalism. ... oleander
Active principle: “maesanin”. (Dr Isno Kubo, University of California-Berkeley)
Recommended by the Bwana-mganga medicine-men as a tea to be drunk one week before visiting Lake Victoria, an area where cholera is endemic. ... orange berries
Habitat: Native to Eurasia. (V officinalis auct. non Linn. is found in Kashmir at Sonamarg at 2,4002,700 m)English: Valerian, Garden Heliotrope, Common Valerian.Ayurvedic: Tagara, Nata. Baalaka (syn. Udichya, Jala, Barhishtha) is also equated with Valeriana sp.Folk: Sugandhabaalaa, taggar.
Action: Tranquillizer, hypnotic, a natural relaxant to higher nerve centres. Used for nervous tension, sleeplessness, restlessness, palpitation, tension, headache, migraine, menstrual pain, intestinal cramps, bronchial spasm.Key application: Internally for restlessness and sleeping disorders based on nervous conditions (German Commission E). (See Expanded Commission E, ESCOP and WHO monographs.)Constituents of the root include val- trates, didrovaltrates and isovalerates. Other constituents include 0.4-1.4% monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, caf- feic, gamma-aminobutyric (GABA) and chlorogenic acids, beta-sitosterol, methyl, 2-pyrrolketone, choline, tannins, gums alkaloids and resin. (Expanded Commission E Monographs.)The volatile oil (0.5-2%) contains bornyl acetate and bornyl isovalerate as the principal components. Other constituents include beta-caryophyllene, valeranone, valerenal, valerenic acid and other sesquiterpenoids and mono- terpenes.The co-occurrence of three cyclo- pentane-sesquiterpenoids (valerenic acid, acetoxyvalerenic acid and valere- nal) is confined to Valeriana officinalis L. and permits its distinction from V edulis and V. Wallichii. (WHO.)The important active compounds of valerian are the valepotriates (iridoid molecules) and valeric acid. Originally it was thought that valepotriates were responsible for the herbs sedative effect, but, later on, an aqueous extract of the root has also been shown to have a sedative effect. Since valepotriates are not soluble in water, it was concluded that valerenic acid is also the chemical factor responsible for the sedative effect of the herb. Most commercial extracts in Western herbal are water-soluble extracts standardized for valerenic acids.Large doses ofvalepotriates from the herb decreased benzodiazepines and diazepam withdrawl symptoms in rats. At low doses valerian enhances binding of flunitrazepam, but at high doses it inhibits binding of the drug. Valerenic acid inhibits breakdown of GABA, and hydroxypinoresinol binds to benzodi- azepine receptor. (Sharon M. Herr.)The safety of valepotriates has been questioned.Currently valerian is an approved over-the-counter medicine in Germany, Belgium, France, Switzerland and Italy. (The British Herbal Compendium.)See Valeriana dubia Bunge, syn. V. officinalis auct. non Linn., known as Common Valerian.... valeriana officinalis
Habitat: The Himalayas, Khasi and Lushai Hills, Bihar, West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra.English: Vervain, Pigeon's Grass.Unani: Saal-ul-hamaam, Faristari- un.
Action: Plant—nervine, antidepressant, anticonvulsant; prescribed in liver and gall bladder complaints (spasm of the bladder and strangury), nervous and menstrual disorders; also for bronchitis, asthma and febrile affections.Included among unapproved herbs by German Commission E.The plant contains an iridoid gly- coside, hastatoside; loganin; methyl- cyclopentane monoterpenoid, verbe- nalin; verbascoside and eukovoside. The stem and roots are quite rich in stachyose. Aerial parts gave lupeol, beta-sitosterol, ursolic acid, aucubin and artemetin.The herb is credited with weak parasympathomimetic activity. Verbenalin exhibited mild purgative activity in animal studies. Emetic in high doses.Vervain tea decreased absorption of non-heme iron by 59% in human subjects. (Sharon M. Herr.)... verbena officinalis
Habitat: Native to North America. Dried bark imported into India.English: Cranberry Bush, Cramp- bark.
Action: Used as a diuretic and as a uterine sedative in functional uterine disorders.The activity of the bark has been attributed to the presence of uterine relaxants, acting directly on the muscle and not through sympathomimetic action. The muscle relaxants include an essential oil, an amorphous, bitter phenolic glucoside, esculetin and scopo- letin.The bark contains hydroquinones, arbutin, methylarbutin and traces of hydroquinone; coumarins including scopoletin and scopoline; tannins mainly catechins.The polycondensed tannins produced significant angioprotective effect in rats.... viburnum opulus
Balmony, Boldo, Burdock (leaves and root), Calumba, Cardamom, Chiretta, Cinnamon, Condurango, Fennel, Fenugreek, Gentian, Holy Thistle, Hops, Lungwort, Mugwort, Peruvian bark, Quassia, Wormwood. ... orexigenic
Chromium: 1mg, providing 50mcg elemental Chromium per tablet. Calcium: 500mg, providing 50mg elemental Calcium per tablet. Copper: 7mg, providing 1mg elemental Copper per tablet. ... orotates
Uses: Oedema: swollen ankles. ... orthosiphon
Habitat: The Himalayas from Garhwal to Bhutan at 1,8002,700 m, and in Khasi Hills at 1,2001,800 m.Folk: Mezenga (Assam); Timur, Bhansi (Nepal).
Action: Bark—stimulant, stomachic, sudorific; used in colic; also administered in fevers. Fruits— prescribed for dyspepsia, also for asthma, bronchitis, rheumatism and toothache.Alkaloids, xanthoxyphyllin and corydine and a lactone 3,5-bis furan 2- one have been isolated from the roots. Stem bark gave zanoxyline and rhetsi- nine. Dried branches with bark gave lignans (sesamin, eudesmin and epi- eudesmin), fluoroquinolone alkaloid gamma-fagarine, triterpenoid lupeol, beta-sitosterol and syringaresinol.... zanthoxylum oxyphyllum
Habitat: Native to Southeast Asia; now cultivated mainly in Kerala, Andhra Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, Maharashtra.English: Ginger.Ayurvedic: Fresh rhizome— Aardraka, Aadrikaa, Shrngibera, shrngavera, Katubhadra. Dried rhi- zome—Shunthi, Naagara, Naagaraa, Naagaraka, Aushadha, Mahaushad- ha, Vishvaa, Vishvabheshaja, Vishvaaushadha.Unani: Fresh rhizome—Zanjabeel- e-Ratab, Al-Zanjabeel. Dried rhizome—zanjabeel, Zanjabeel-e- yaabis.Siddha: Fresh rhizome—Inji, Allam, Lokottai. Dried rhizome— chukku, Sunthi.
Action: Rhizome—antiemetic, antiflatulent, hypocholesterolaemic, anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, expectorant, circulatory stimulant, diaphoretic, increases bioavailabil- ity of prescription drugs. Used for irritable bowel and diarrhoea, colds and influenza. Showed encouraging results in migraine and cluster headache (J Ethnophar- macol, 1990, 29, 267-273; Aust J Med Herbalism, 1995, 7/3, 6978; Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, 2007.) The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India recommends dried rhizomes in dyspepsia, loss of appetite, tympanitis, anaemia, rheumatism, cough and dyspnoea; fresh rhizomes in constipation, colic, oedema and throat infections.Key application: For dyspepsia and prevention of motion sickness (German Commission E); vomiting of pregnancy, anorexia, bronchitis and rheumatic complaints (The British Herbal Compendium); as a post-operative antiemetic. (ESCOP).The rhizome contains an essential oil containing monoterpenes, mainly geranial and neral; and sesquiterpenes, mainly beta-sesquiphellandrene, beta- bisabolene, ar-curcumene and alpha- zingiberene; pungent principles, consisting of gingerols, shogaols and related phenolic ketone derivatives. Other constituents include diarylheptenones, diterpenes, gingesulphonic acid and monoacyldigalactosyl glycerols.Gingerol and shogaol have been shown to suppress gastric contractions. Both fresh and dried rhizomes suppress gastric secretion and reduce vomiting. Gingerol and shogaol have gained importance due to their sedative, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, analgesic, hypotensive and hepatopro- tective activities.Cardiotonic effects of ginger has been attributed to 6-and 8-shagaols and gingerols. (Antithrombotic effects remain unconfirmed.) Antimigraine effect is due to ginger's ability to decrease platelet aggregation. It also acts as a potent inhibitor of prostaglandins which enhance release of substance P from trigeminal fibers. (PDR, 2004.)Indian ginger is considered only second to Jamaican in quality.There are three main types of Indian ginger—Cochin ginger (light brown or yellowish grey; Calicut ginger from Malabar (orange or reddish brown, resembling African ginger) and Kolkata ginger (greyish brown to greyish blue).... zingiber officinale
Habitat: North India and both the Peninsulas.English: Jackal Jujube.Ayurvedic: Laghu-badara, Shrgaala- badari.Siddha/Tamil: Soorai.
Action: Fruits—stomachic. Root— given for hyperacidity and ascaris infection.Stem bark and root bark contain cy- clopeptide alkaloids—zizyphines A, B, C, D, E, F and G, and zizyphinine. The bark contains 12% tannin.Aerial parts exhibit diuretic and hy- potensive activity.... ziziphus oenoplia
Habitat: West Asia. Recorded from Maharashtra.
Action: Herb—used for cough and bowel disorders.The fruits and roots yield a mixture of coumarin lactones, 1.5% and 3.2% respectively; these include two isomeric dihydrofurocoumarins—zosimin and deltonin. On saponification, zosimin yielded a hydroxyacetone called zosi- mol and cis-2,3-dimethyl acrylic acid. It showed antitumour activity against Ehrlich ascites cells in vitro.Herbal cheese is prepared from the fresh leaves and stems in Turkey.... zosima orientalis
This substance may be contaminated in manufacture with the highly toxic , commonly known as dioxin (see defoliant poisoning).... agent orange
It may also be applied to the scalp, followed by shampooing, in the treatment of cradle cap.... arachis oil
Oil is injected into the meatus for softening ear wax prior to removal. A good vehicle for Vitamins A, D and E in cosmetic lotions. Excellent base for ointments, together with Agar-Agar.
Sweet almonds have been used as food since ancient times, being a source of fats, iron, calcium, potassium, phosphorus, copper and zinc. Used widely in Aromatherapy. ... almond oil
Common in the elderly and menopausal women. Calcium salts may be laid down in a joint believed to be due to errors of diet. Small crystals of calcium hydroxyapatite have been observed to form in cartilage and synovial fluid. (Research group: St Bartholomew’s Hospital, London)
The aged sometimes suffer from diminished supply of hydrochloric acid in the stomach, and which is necessary for normal calcium metabolism. An effective substitute is 2 teaspoons cider vinegar in a glass of water sipped before or during meals.
Alte rnative s. Black Cohosh and Meadowsweet (natural sources of salicylic acid), Asafoetida (inflammation of connective tissue), Hawthorn (efficient circulation of the blood), Poke root, Bladderwrack, Guaiacum, Devil’s Claw, Bogbean, White Poplar bark, Yucca leaves.
Tea. Celery seeds. 1 teaspoon to each cup boiling water. Infuse 15 minutes. Half-1 cup, 2-3 times daily, before meals. Comfrey tea.
Alternative formulae:– Powders. White Willow 2; Devil’s Claw 1; Black Cohosh half; Guaiacum quarter. Mix. Dose: 500mg (two 00 capsules or one-third teaspoon). Thrice daily in water or Nettle tea. Liquid extracts. White Willow 2; Devil’s Claw 1; Bogbean 1; Fennel 1; Tincture Capsicum quarter. Mix. 1 teaspoon thrice daily in water or Nettle tea.
Tinctures. Bogbean 2; Meadowsweet 2; Black Cohosh 1; Guaiacum quarter; Peppermint quarter. Mix. Dose: 2 teaspoons thrice daily.
Tablets/capsules: Devil’s Claw, Wild Yam, Ligvites.
Cod liver oil. Chief of the iodised oils. Can reach and nourish cartilage by the process of osmosis. Its constituents filter into cartilage, imparting increased elasticity which prevents degeneration. Known to soften-up fibrous tissue. 2 teaspoons once daily. Also helps correct uric acid metabolism.
Topical. Physiotherapy. Osteopathy. Jojoba oil packs. Capsicum Cream. Hot and cold compresses twice daily – followed by a cold compress at night, leaving on when in bed. Hot Epsom salt bath twice weekly. Diet. Oily fish: see entry. Low fat. Low salt. High fibre. Avoid lemons and other citrus fruits. Lemon juice may remove some calculi from the body but later begins to remove calcium from the bones. Supplementation. Pantothenic acid 10mg; Vitamin A 7500iu; Vitamin B6 25mg; Vitamin E 400iu; Zinc 25mg.
General. Warm dry climate often relieves. Surgery may be necessary. Herbs Pleurisy root, Comfrey root and Bryonia, sustain the constitution and promote tissue healing after joint replacements with ceramic substitute after the famous Charnley operation. The condition is disabling but it is possible to manage successfully, maintaining normal activities with minimum difficulty. ... arthritis – osteo
Given orally, castor oil has a laxative action.
Zinc and castor oil are combined in a soothing ointment for conditions such as nappy rash.... castor oil
Clove oil is sometimes used to relieve abdominal pain due to flatulence and as a remedy for toothache.... clove oil
Rarely, ingredients such as preservatives may result in sensitization.... emulsifying ointment
Seldom before 45 years. Frequently in lower one-third of gullet. Dysphagia, with sense of obstruction on swallowing food. May perforate wall of trachea. Pain, worse at night, radiates from an exact spot. Eating hot food and drinking piping hot tea are heavily suspect.
At risk. Heavy smokers and alcoholics with depleted reserves of Vitamin A and zinc. These two factors play an important role in modern treatment.
Occurs in areas where the soil is low in molybdenum which causes plants to have a high level of nitrates. When such plants are stored they form nitrites which in turn form nitrosamines – which are carcinogens. Experimental rats given nitrous amines have a strong tendency to form cancer of the oesophagus. Eating pickled vegetables carries a high risk.
There are a few areas of the world where these adverse soil conditions pertain – one in Iran, another in Calvados, but the worst was in Lin Xian of the province of Honan, China. In Lin Xian, in the 1970s, it was found that villagers ate mainly persimmon and corn cakes and pickled vegetables. These, and their water, were high in nitrates. It was also their habit to eat mouldy bread which is high in amines – even nitrosamines. Their food was deficient in Vitamin C, which is likely to produce nitrous amines in the stomach.
The molybdenum problem was solved by sowing seeds with a fertiliser containing molybdenum. Piped water replaced old cistern wells and food was carefully stored. Even the chickens oesophageal cancers were cured. As a result of modern scientific investigation and treatment in which medicinal herbs made an important contribution, what was once a high gullet cancer area was resolved into one of the success stories of modern medicine.
Tannin has long been identified as a cancer-causing chemical, supported by findings of a high incidence of the disease among those who consume large quantities of tannin-containing beverages such as tea. Milk binds with tannin and is advised in tea-drinking where lemon is not taken.
Solid drugs and tablets should not be swallowed in the recumbent position without chewing a piece of banana.
Symptoms. (1) Sensation of obstruction when swallowing food. (2) Sharp pain behind breastbone. (3) “Something stuck in the gullet.” (4) Stomach ache, dry throat. (5) Belching when taking food. (6) Soreness of the upper back. (Dr Ge-ming, Lin Xian, Province of Honan, Chinese People’s Republic)
Of possible value. Alternatives:– Tea. Equal parts: Chaparral, Gotu Kola, Red Clover. 1 heaped teaspoon to each cup boiling water; infuse 15 minutes. Drink freely.
Powders. Combination. Goldenseal 1; Echinacea 2; Slippery Elm 3. Dose: 750mg (three 00 capsules or half a teaspoon). 3 or more times daily.
Tinctures. Combination. Goldenseal 1; Bayberry 1; Thuja 1; Condurango 1; Rosebay Willowherb 2. One teaspoon 3 or more times daily.
Chinese Herbalism. Powdered Huang yao-tzu 3 ch’ien, 3 times daily. Remedy is prepared by taking 12 liang of huang yao-tzu and steeping in 3 chin of white wine 24 hours. Then place huang yao-tzu in cold water and soak for another 7 days and 7 nights. Take out, dry and crush into powder. (A Barefoot Doctor’s Manual)
Diet. Leafy vegetables, carrots, tomatoes and fruit help to protect against the disease. Supplements. Especially Vitamin A, zinc and molybdenum.
Treatment by a general medical practitioner or hospital oncologist. ... cancer – oesophagus
Symptoms. Failing appetite, weight loss, flatulence, bowel symptoms, bladder disturbance, abdominal pain, clothes tight around the abdomen. The disease usually presents after the age of 45, users of contraceptives having a lower risk of development.
Risk of ovarian cancer has been related to women who consume too much animal fat and too little vegetable fat (JAM Nov. 1984). A similar risk is recorded in a report from Milan providing strong evidence of its relation to excessive coffee consumption.
Researchers at John Hopkin’s University, Baltimore, USA, report success with Taxol, extracted from the bark of the Pacific Yew Tree, given intravenously to 40 women with ovarian cancer resistant to other therapies, caused a 50 per cent decrease in size of the tumours. (New Scientist 1989, 1687, p37) Treatment. Should it be necessary to defer surgery or cytotoxic chemotherapy, any of the following alternatives may be taken with profit, or prescribed as secondary to primary treatment.
Tea. Equal parts: Agnus Castus, Gotu Kola, Red Clover. 1 heaped teaspoon to each cup boiling water; infuse 5-15 minutes. Drink freely.
Formula. Cramp bark 3; Liquorice 1; Thuja 1; Poke root half. Mix. Dose: Powders: 750mg (three 00 capsules or half a teaspoon). Liquid extracts: 1 teaspoon. Tinctures: 2 teaspoons. Thrice daily.
Vaginal pack. 8 parts Slippery Elm powder mixed with 1 part Thuja powder in a little water to form a paste; saturate tampon and insert.
Dr J. Christopher. For pre- and post-operative pain: Black Willow.
British Herbal Pharmacopoeia. Cramp bark for pain.
Diet. See: DIET – CANCER. Drinks of Violet leaf tea freely.
Supplements. Post-operative treatment should include Comfrey and Calcium to counter the loss of calcium on surgical removal, with possible brittle and broken bones in ageing women.
Note: When a potential lesion is found, a pelvic ultrasound scan may confirm.
Treatment by gynaecologist or oncologist. ... cancer – ovaries
The inflammation is caused by infection. Often, there is no obvious source of infection, but sometimes the cause is a bacterial urinary tract infection that has spread via the vas deferens to the epididymis. Treatment is with antibiotic drugs. If there is an underlying urinary tract infection, its cause will be investigated. (See also orchitis.)... epididymo-orchitis
Action: anti-allergenic, galactagogue. Canary Island nursing mothers bind leaves to the breast to increase secretion of milk. Vitality of cells is upgraded by contact with the oil. Oral contraceptive. (V.J. Brondegaard, Plants Med. 23, 167, 1973) A traditional purgative.
Uses: Internal. Rarely used, except for varied forms of allergy (penicillin, hay fever, etc): 5 drops oil in honey, 3-4 times daily. Mouth ulcers, smear with oil. Large doses avoided.
Topical. Anti-fungal, emollient, anodyne.
Application to warts, corns, bunions, skin disorders, psoriasis, eczema, nail infection, bedsores, pigmented mole, ringworm, itch, ear-infection in children (drops), leg ulcers – dab with smear for pain relief, rodent ulcers made bearable, gangrene (with tincture Myrrh drops). Oil massaged into scalp for 20 minutes daily for falling hair. Eyelids, to soothe and heal. Age spots: brown patches on face, arms or hands have been known to disappear when persevering with a smear of each – Castor oil and Bicarbonate of Soda.
Preparations: Internal use: oil – 5 to 20ml, as prescribed.
External use: Zinc and Castor oil cream, or ointment. Or, Castor oil only.
Castor oil pack, to stimulate the immune system: apply soft pad of material saturated with Castor oil; hold in position with elastic bandage for skin diseases, pains of arthritis or rheumatism; lacerated and well-sutured wounds that refuse to heal. Renew oil when pad becomes dry. Oil may be used as a vehicle for eye drops. ... castor oil plant
Oils used in Phytotherapy: Almond, English Chamomile, Aniseed, Bergamot, Black Pepper, Buchu, Camphor, Cedarwood, Cloves, Coriander, Cypress, Eucalyptus, Geranium, Juniper, Lavender (French), Lavender (English), Lavender (Spanish), Lemon, Marjoram, Orange (sweet), Patchouli, Peppermint, Pine (Scots), Rosemary, Sage, Sandalwood, Thyme, Spearmint, St John’s Wort, Turpentine, Ylang Ylang.
Most oils are obtained by steam distillation. Being highly concentrated, internal use is by a few drops, diluted. About 30-40 are used medicinally; each having its own specific healing properties. Some are convenient as inhalants; a few drops on a tissue for relief of catarrh, colds, etc. Fragrant burners and electronic diffusers are available for vapour-inhalation. Bring to boil 2 pints water; allow to stand 3-4 minutes; sprinkle on the surface 5-10 drops Eucalyptus oil and with towel over head, inhale steam, 5-10 minutes.
Examples: (a) equal parts dilute oils of Thyme and Hypericum (acute middle ear inflammation) 3-4 drops injected into ear 2-3 times daily. (b) 10 drops oil Marjoram in bath water for cramp. Eucalyptus is a useful antibacterial; Cinnamon (anti-inflammatory), Juniper (urinary antiseptic), Orange blossom (anti- depressant), Lavender (sedative).
Essential oils should never be used neat, except as prescribed by a suitably qualified practitioner. While aromatherapists do not prescribe internally, Dr Paul Belaiche, one of France’s leading experts on essential oils, advises oral medication at a maximum daily dosage of 12 drops according to the oil. He advises drops on the tongue, on activated charcoal, in capsule form using a suitable excipient or vegetable oil, or mixed with a little honey. Anal injection has proved successful, (8-10 drops in 10ml vegetable oil) or suppositories made from 200-300mg (8-10 drops) essential oil to 2 grams of base per suppository. Oils should never be allowed to touch the eyes.
Capsules of Garlic oil may be inserted into the rectum for worms or prostate disorder. OR: 10 drops oil mixed with 10ml vegetable oil and injected with the aid of a pipette. Dilute oil of Thyme is used as a massage-rub for chest infections. Oil of Cloves is not only an antiseptic but an analgesic to assuage moderate dental pain. Volatile oils reflexly stimulate the medulla through the olfactory nerve, thus promoting appetite and flow of saliva. All stimulate production of white blood cells and thereby support the immune system.
Oils not used: Basil, Bitter Almonds, Boldo, Calamus, Horseradish, Mugwort, Mustard, Pennyroyal, Rue, Sassafras, Savin, Tansy, Thuja, Wormseed.
Oils not used in pregnancy: Bay, Buchu, Chamomile, Clary Sage, Cinnamon, Clove, Fennel, Hyssop, Juniper, Marjoram, Myrrh, Peppermint, Rose, Rosemary, Sage, Thyme. All other oils – half the normal amount.
Tea: 2-3 drops, selected oil, on teabag makes 3 cups tea.
Inhalant: 10 drops on tissue, or same amount in hot water to inhale steam.
Bath water: add: 10-15 drops.
Compress: 10-15 drops in half a cup (75ml) milk or water. Soak suitable material and apply.
Massage: 6 drops in two teaspoons ‘carrier’ vegetable oil (Almond, Peanut, Olive, etc).
Fragrant oils replace hospital smell.
Essential oil suppliers: Butterbur and Sage, 101 Highgrove Street, Reading RG1 5EJ. Also: Shirley Price Aromatherapy, Wesley House, Stockwell Road, Hinckley, Leics LE10 1RD. ... essential oils
In Greenland, where much oily fish is eaten, heart disease is scarcely known. Each year over 200,000 people in Britain alone die of heart disease. Western affluence-diseases from a diet of excess saturated fat (from meat, butter, etc) may be reduced by modest amounts of oily fish.
A daily intake of 800 milligrams of essential fatty acids as contained in herring, mackerel, cod, etc., can play a decisive role in cardiac treatments. Such fish may be eaten twice weekly. On days when not taken, supplement with pure fish oil or fish oil capsules. As little as 1oz (30 grams) of mackerel, herring or other similar fish is sufficient.
When eating oily fish only twice a week a teaspoon of pure fish oil or dessertspoon cod liver oil daily is sufficient.
Labels of fish oils should be carefully studied for their DHA and EPA content in milligrams. Add together to a total 800 milligrams – average daily dose.
Fish oils can lower the level of triglycerides and reduce ‘stickiness’ of the blood – its tendency to clot and possibly block coronary vessels. As fish oil Vitamin A contains 10,000iu of Retinol, it should not be taken for extended periods without the advice of a practitioner. ... fish oils
Tablets/capsules. St John’s Wort.
Formula. Comfrey root 2; St John’s Wort 1; Echinacea 2; trace of Cayenne (Capsicum). Dose – Powders: 750mg (three 00 capsules or half a teaspoon). Liquid Extracts: 1-2 teaspoons. Tinctures: 1-3 teaspoons. Effect is enhanced when doses are taken in cup of Comfrey herb tea. Other agents to promote renewal of tissue. Slippery Elm bark, Fenugreek seeds, Wild Yam, Carragheen Moss.
Discomfort from a scar. Aloe Vera gel, Calendula, Comfrey or Chickweed cream or ointment. See: CASTOR OIL PACK.
Diet. High protein, oily fish or fish oils.
Supplements. Vitamin C: 3-6g daily. Calcium ascorbate, Zinc. Magnesium. Cod Liver oil for Vitamins A and D; 2 teaspoons daily.
Note: Where titanium alloy implants are used for this operation serum levels of the metal are likely to show up higher than normal. Raised serum titanium has been linked with lung cancer, osteoporosis, and platelet suppression. A New Zealand study has found deaths from cancer were significantly higher in patients having had a metal hip replacement. See: CHELATION.
Comfrey. Potential benefit far outweighs possible risk. ... hip replacement operation
I will use my power to help the sick to the best of my ability and judgement. I will abstain from harming or wronging any man.
I will not give a fatal draught to anyone, even if it is demanded of me, nor will I suggest the giving of the draught. I will give no woman the means of procuring an abortion.
I will be chaste and holy in my life and actions. I will not cut, even for the stone, but I will leave all cutting to the practitioners of the craft.
Whenever I enter a house, I shall help the sick, and never shall I do any harm or injury. I will not indulge in sexual union with the bodies of women or men, whether free or slaves.
Whatever I see or hear, either in my profession or in private, I shall never divulge. All secrets shall be safe with me. If therefore I observe this Oath, may prosperity come to me and may I earn good repute among men through all the ages. If I break the Oath, may I receive the punishment given to all transgressors.” ... hippocrates – oath of
This is achieved by placing a person in a special chamber and exposing him or her to oxygen at a much higher atmospheric pressure than normal.
Hyperbaric oxygen treatment is used to treat poisoning from carbon monoxide and in cases of gas gangrene.... hyperbaric oxygen treatment
Too high a dose may provoke the onset of hypoglycaemia.... hypoglycaemics, oral
They work by preventing the breakdown of certain neurotransmitters by the enzyme monoamine oxidase.
The increased levels of neurotransmitters that result are associated with improved mood.
Common drugs include phenelzine and isocarboxazid.
All MAOIs interact with certain other drugs and foods such as cheese and red wine; but moclobemide is known as a reversible , which makes the adverse reactions less likely to occur.... monoamine oxidase inhibitors
Symptoms: skin has a yellow tinge especially whites of the eyes. Motions become clay-coloured due to absence of bile in the intestines. Bitter herbs keep the bile fluid and flowing.
Alternatives. Teas. Agrimony, Bogbean, Clivers, Hyssop. Mix. One heaped teaspoon to each cup boiling water; infuse 15 minutes. 1 cup freely.
Decoction. 2 teaspoons shredded Gentian root to each cup cold water. Allow to stand overnight. Half cup every two hours.
Tablets/capsules. Dandelion, Goldenseal, Prickly Ash.
Formula. Milk Thistle 2; Blue Flag root 1; Valerian half. Dose – Powders: 500mg (two 00 capsules or one-third teaspoon). Liquid Extracts: one 5ml teaspoon. Tinctures: two 5ml teaspoons. Every 3 hours. Frank Roberts MNIMH. Liquid extracts: Celandine (greater), Butternut, Fringe Tree, Dandelion; 2 drachms (8ml) of each. Purified or spring water to 12oz. Dose: tablespoon every 2 hours. ... jaundice, obstructive
Bruise herbs with a rolling pin (double quantity for fresh herb). Add oil. Simmer in low heat until herbs change colour – about 1 hour. Strain into bottles.
Alternative. Place crushed herb, preferably flowers, in the oil in a wide-mouthed bottle or jar. Cover. Shake daily. After 3 days, strain off and replenish with fresh material. Repeat the process 3 or 4 times until the oil is saturated with essence of the flowers (or herb). Strain and bottle. Method suitable for Lavender, Rosemary, Bergamot, Rose petals, Mullein and Chamomile.
Sunflower oil is used in general practice, although Olive or other vegetable oil proves satisfactory. ... oils, impregnated
Since ancient times is still used in China, India, other Far Eastern countries and the Catholic Church as incense. With it, Egyptians embalmed their dead.
Action: used internally in drop doses of the tincture as an antimicrobial, antiseptic, diuretic and tonic. Uses. Historic remedy for venereal disease, open sores, suppurating wounds, tumour and cancer. Not confirmed by present-day research.
Preparation. Tincture: 1 part gum to 20 parts 90 per cent alcohol; macerate 8 days; shake daily, filter, bottle. Dose: 1-5 drops in water thrice daily. Or use as a lotion for suppurating external lesions; may be diluted many times. ... olibanum
The most common cause of nasal obstruction is inflammation of the mucous membrane lining the passage (see nasal congestion).
Other causes include deviation of the nasal septum, nasal polyps, a haematoma (a collection of clotted blood) usually caused by injury, and, rarely, a cancerous tumour.
In children, enlargement of the adenoids is the most common cause of nasal obstruction.... nasal obstruction
Perhaps the simplest base is lard or butter, as used by Maria Treben. 2 handfuls (4oz or 120g) finely chopped herbs are digested in 500g lard or butter. Heat gently one hour. Stand overnight. Should be sufficiently fluid next morning to filter through muslin or a wire-mesh strainer. Pour into jars. Very effective but its life is not more than a few weeks.
((a) Vaseline base. Dissolve vaseline. Place 1oz (handful) fresh herb (say . . . Chickweed) or tablespoon dried herb (or 2 teaspoons powder) in 7oz (100g) vaseline melted in low heat. Simmer gently 15 minutes, stirring all the time. Strain through a wire-mesh strainer while hot and pour into air-tight containers.
(b) Vaseline base. To incorporate essential oils; i.e. Oil of Eucalyptus 2ml; Oil of Pine 1ml; Oil of Peppermint 2ml; vaseline to 30 gram. Melt the vaseline. Add oils. Stir until cold. Makes a useful inhalant ointment applied directly to the frontal sinus areas, or inhaled from boiling water. (Fred Fletcher Hyde) (c) Mixed base, suitable for holding liquid extracts, tinctures. Ingredients: parts, Almond oil 12; Liquid Extract (say . . . Comfrey) 5; powdered gum Acacia 3; water (preferably distilled) to 100.
Method: Rub together a small equal amount of well-sieved Acacia powder and water to form a paste – best performed in a pestle and mortar. Add the Almond oil. Mix. Add liquid extract, tincture or oil slowly until a good consistency is reached. Slowly add remaining water and stir. Store in airtight glass jars.
(d) Olive and Beeswax base. Ingredients: 2oz beeswax; 16oz Olive oil.
Method: cut beeswax into slices and dissolve in the Olive oil on a low heat. Stir until all beeswax is dissolved. Place in a stone jar or pyrex vessel 12oz aerial parts of fresh herb material (Marigold, Plantain, Chickweed etc) or 4oz hard woody parts, roots or barks (Comfrey, Marshmallow, etc). Pour on the Olive oil and beeswax. Place in a warm oven for 3 hours; give an occasional stir. While still hot, strain through a wire-mesh strainer into pots. Store in a refrigerator. Where powders are used, the proportion is 2oz for every 16oz Olive oil.
((e) Coconut oil base. Dissolve 7 parts Coconut oil. Add 5 parts powdered herbs and 6 parts beeswax. Simmer gently 1 and a half hours. Strain through warm wire mesh strainer or muslin. Filter if necessary. Pour into jars.
(f) Pile ointment. Prepare, vaseline base. Add, Liquid Extract Pilewort 5 per cent, Liquid Extract Witch Hazel 5 per cent; Tincture Benzoin 5 per cent; Menthol 2 and a half per cent.
((g) Pain Reliever. Prepare, vaseline base. Add Menthol 2 per cent; Eucalyptus 2 per cent; Camphor 2 per cent; Oil of Mustard 0.2 per cent.
(h) Russian traditional. It is still common in country practice to simmer popular herbs (Marigold, Arnica, St John’s Wort) in butter, as above.
Preservatives. Length of life of above ointments is increased by addition of Benzoic acid, Nipagen, etc. Benzoinated lard was once a popular base used in pharmacy. Ointments containing volatile oils should be kept in porcelain or glass pots in preference to synthetic containers. All ointments should be stored out of the light and in a cool place.
Marshmallow and Slippery Elm ointment has a long traditional reputation as a general purposes ointment. ... ointment bases
Action: hypoglycaemic, hypotensive, diuretic, antispasmodic (mild), astringent diuretic, febrifuge, vulnerary, vasodilator, cholagogue.
Uses: To dilate coronary arteries and improve circulation of blood through the heart. Moderately high blood pressure. Infection of the urinary tract. Nephritis. To lower blood sugar – diabetes. To facilitate passage of gall-stones.
Preparations: Thrice daily.
Tea. 20-30g in 500ml (1 pint) boiling water; infuse 20 minutes. Dose: half-1 cup.
Decoction. 50-60g in 500ml water, gently simmer 10 minutes; stand 20 minutes. Dose:quarter to half a cup.
Powder, capsules: 210mg, 2 capsules. (Arkocaps) ... olive leaves
Although medication with opiates is addictive and its abuse ranges from dependence to death, use of crushed poppyheads as a topical poultice for crippling pain, as in terminal disease of chest or abdomen, is worthy of consideration. In an age before modern drugs and anaesthetics this was one of the few solaces available. Even today, there are a few situations for which this deep-acting pain-killer is indicated as, for instance, wounds healed but not without pain.
In spite of the plethora of modern drugs to combat the pain of terminal illness, few are as effective as the greatest anodyne of all time which led the eminent Sydenham to say “. . . if it were expunged from the pharmacopoeia, I would give up the practise of medicine”. ... opium poppy
Causes: chronic catarrh with obstruction of the Eustachian tubes of dietetic origin. Starchy foods should be severely restricted. The ear is clogged with a sticky fluid usually caused by enlarged adenoids blocking the ventilation duct which connects the cavity with the back of the throat.
Conventional treatment consists of insertion of ‘grommets’ – tiny flanged plastic tubes about one millimetre long – which are inserted into the eardrum, thus ensuring a free flow of air into the cavity.
Fluid usually disappears and hearing returns to normal.
Tre atme nt. Underlying cause treated – adenoids, tonsils, etc. Sinus wash-out with Soapwort, Elderflowers, Mullein or Marshmallow tea. Internal treatment with anti-catarrhals to disperse. Alternatives:– German Chamomile tea. (Traditional German).
Teas. Boneset, Cayenne, Coltsfoot, Elderflowers, Eyebright, Hyssop, Marshmallow leaves, Mullein, Mint, Yarrow.
Powders. Combine: Echinacea 2; Goldenseal quarter; Myrrh quarter; Liquorice half. Dose: 500mg (two 00 capsules or one-third teaspoon), thrice daily.
Tinctures. Combine: Echinacea 2; Yarrow 1; Plantain 1. Drops: Tincture Capsicum. Dose: 1-2 teaspoons thrice daily.
Topical. Castor oil drops, with cotton wool ear plugs, Oils of Garlic or Mullein. If not available, use Almond oil. Hopi Indian Ear Candles for mild suction and to impart a perceptible pressure regulation of sinuses and aural fluids.
Diet. Gluten-free diet certain. No confectionery, chocolate, etc. Salt-free. Low-starch. Milk-free. Abundance of fruits and raw green salad materials. Supplements. Vitamins A, B-complex, C. E. ... otitis media – glue ear
Topical. Creams to prevent burning: Vitamin E, Evening Primrose, Houseleek, Aloe Vera. Honey. Most creams contain Vitamin E which acts as a filter and moisturiser.
Diet. Foods rich in beta-carotene, Vitamins C and E.
Supplements. Vitamins A and E.
Note: Use of sunglasses and sun screens on sunny days to avoid burning. Wearing of a hat. ... ozone radiation
Symptoms of cervical osteoarthritis may include pain and stiffness in the neck, pain in the arms and shoulders, numbness and tingling in the hands, and a weak grip. Other symptoms such as dizziness, unsteadiness, and double vision when turning the head may also occur. Rarely, pressure on the spinal cord can cause weakness or paralysis in the legs and loss of bladder control.
Treatments include heat treatment and analgesics.
Physiotherapy may improve neck posture and movement.
Pressure on the spinal cord may be relieved by surgery (see decompression, spinal canal).... cervical osteoarthritis
Fats are usually solid at room temperature; oils are liquid. The amount and types of fat in the diet have important implications for health. A diet containing a large amount of fat, particularly saturated fat, is linked to an increased risk of atherosclerosis and subsequent heart disease and stroke.
Some dietary fats, mainly triglycerides (combinations of glycerol and 3 fatty acids), are sources of the fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E, and K and of essential fatty acids. Triglycerides are the main form of fat stored in the body. These stores act as an energy reserve and also provide insulation and a protective layer for delicate organs. Phospholipids are structural fats found in cell membranes. Sterols, such as cholesterol, are found in animal and plant tissues; they have a variety of functions, often being converted into hormones or vitamins.
Dietary fats are first emulsified by bile salts before being broken down by lipase, a pancreatic enzyme. They are absorbed via the lymphatic system before entering the bloodstream.Lipids are carried in the blood bound to protein; in this state they are known as lipoproteins. There are 4 classes of lipoprotein: very low-density lipoproteins (VLDLs), low-density lipoproteins (LDLs), high-density lipoproteins (HDLs), and chylomicrons. LDLs and VLDLs contain large amounts of cholesterol, which they carry through the bloodstream and deposit in tissues. HDLs pick up cholesterol and carry it back to the liver for processing and excretion. High levels of LDLs are associated with atherosclerosis, whereas HDLs have a protective effect. (See also nutrition.)... fats and oils
A blockage in the small intestine usually causes intermittent cramp-like pain in the centre of the abdomen with increasingly frequent bouts of vomiting and failure to pass wind or faeces. An obstruction in the large intestine causes pain, distension of the abdomen, and failure to pass wind or faeces.
Treatments involve emptying the stomach via a nasogastric tube and replacing lost fluids through an intravenous drip In some cases, this will be sufficient to correct the problem. However, in many cases, surgery to deal with the cause of the blockage is necessary.... intestine, obstruction of
Air is trapped in the oesophagus and is gradually expelled while the tongue, palate, and lips form distinguishable sounds.... oesophageal speech
In women, they are produced mainly in the ovaries and also in the placenta in pregnancy.
Small amounts are produced in the adrenal glands in both men and women, but oestrogens have no known specific function in men.
When levels are low, oestrogen hormones can be replaced with oestrogen drugs.... oestrogen hormones
The disorder usually starts in adolescence. Genetic factors, an obsessive personality, or a tendency to neurotic symptoms may contribute. Some types of brain damage, especially in encephalitis, can cause obsessional symptoms. Many sufferers respond well to behaviour therapy, which may be combined with antidepressant drugs, but symptoms may recur under stress.... obsessive–compulsive disorder
Pneumoconiosis is fibrosis of the lung due to inhalation of industrial dusts, such as coal. Asbestosis is associated with asbestos in industry. Allergic alveolitis is caused by organic dusts (see farmer’s lung).
Industrial chemicals can damage the lungs if inhaled, or other major organs if they enter the bloodstream via the lungs or skin. Examples include fumes of cadmium, beryllium, lead, and benzene. Carbon tetrachloride and vinyl chloride are causes of liver disease. Many of these compounds can cause kidney damage. Work-related skin disorders include contact dermatitis and squamous cell carcinoma. Rare infectious diseases that are more common in certain jobs include brucellosis and Q fever (from livestock), psittacosis (from birds), and leptospirosis (from sewage). People who work with blood or blood products are at increased risk of viral hepatitis (see hepatitis, viral) and AIDS, as are healthcare professionals. The nuclear industry and some healthcare professions use measures to reduce the danger from radiation hazards. Other occupational disorders include writer’s cramp, carpal tunnel syndrome, singer’s nodes, Raynaud’s phenomenon, deafness, and cataracts.... occupational disease and injury
Symptoms progressively worsen to a point where food is immediately regurgitated and there is rapid weight loss. Regurgitated fluid spilling into the trachea often causes respiratory infections.
Diagnosis is with a barium swallow (see barium X-ray examinations) and a biopsy taken during endoscopy. Removal of the oesophagus may be possible in some cases. Radiotherapy may cause regression of the cancer, relieve symptoms, and occasionally cure older patients who might not survive major surgery. Insertion of a rigid tube through the tumour, or laser treatment to burn through it, can help to relieve symptoms and improve nutrition. The overall outlook is poor, but is improved with early diagnosis.... oesophagus, cancer of
Infections of the oesophagus are rare but may occur in immunosuppressed patients. The most common are herpes simplex and candidiasis (thrush). Oesophagitis is usually due to reflux of stomach contents, causing heartburn. Corrosive oesophagitis can occur as a result of swallowing caustic chemicals. Both may cause an oesophageal stricture.
Congenital defects include oesophageal atresia, which requires surgery soon after birth. Tumours of the oesophagus are quite common; about 90 per cent are cancerous (see oesophagus, cancer of). Injury to the oesophagus is most commonly caused by a tear or rupture due to severe vomiting and retching. (See also swallowing difficulty.)... oesophagus, disorders of
Oestrogen drugs are often used together with progestogen drugs.
Oestrogens suppress the production of gonadotrophin hormones, which stimulate cell activity in the ovaries. High doses are used in postcoital contraception to prevent conception (see contraception, emergency). They are also used to treat, or sometimes prevent, menopausal symptoms and disorders. Oestrogens may be used to treat certain forms of infertility, female hypogonadism, abnormal menstrual bleeding, prostatic cancer (see prostate, cancer of), and certain types of breast cancer.
Oestrogens may cause breast tenderness and enlargement, bloating, weight gain, nausea, reduced sex drive, depression, migraine, and bleeding between periods. Side effects often subside after 2 or 3 months. The drugs can increase the risk of abnormal blood clotting and susceptibility to high blood pressure (see hypertension). Oestrogen drugs should not be taken in pregnancy as they may adversely affect the fetus.... oestrogen drugs
The risk of infection of open wounds during surgery is reduced by a ventilation system that continually provides clean, filtered air, and walls and floors that are easily washable.
Surgeons, assistants, and nurses use sterile brushes and bactericidal soaps to scrub their hands and forearms before putting on sterile gowns, masks, and gloves.
The theatre is equipped with shadowless operating lights; lightboxes for viewing X-ray images; anaesthetic machines (see anaesthesia, general); and a diathermy machine, which controls bleeding.
A heart–lung machine may also be used.... operating theatre
whose immune system is impaired.
In most patients with AIDS, death is due to opportunistic infections, especially pneumocystis pneumonia.
Many fungal infections, such as candidiasis, and some viral infections, such as herpes simplex, are opportunistic infections.
Treatment is with appropriate antimicrobial drugs.... opportunistic infection
Typically, a child shows hostile, argumentative behaviour that includes loss of temper, defiance of rules, and swearing.
To some extent such behaviour is common in adolescence, but when law-breaking or violence occur the condition is deemed to be pathological.... oppositional defiant disorder
Combined and phased pills increase oestrogen and progesterone levels. This interferes with the production of two hormones, luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), which in turn prevents ovulation. The minipill works mainly by making the mucus lining of the cervix too thick to be penetrated by sperm.
Oestrogen-containing pills offer protection against uterine and ovarian cancer, ovarian cysts, endometriosis, and irondeficiency anaemia. They also tend to make menstrual periods regular, lighter, and relatively pain-free. Possible side effects include nausea, weight gain, depression, swollen breasts, reduced sex drive, increased appetite, leg and abdominal cramps, headaches, and dizziness. More seriously, there is a risk of thrombosis causing a stroke or a pulmonary embolism. These pills may also aggravate heart disease or cause hypertension, gallstones, jaundice, and, very rarely, liver cancer. All oral contraceptives can cause bleeding between periods, especially the minipill. Other possible adverse effects of the minipill include irregular periods, ectopic pregnancy, and ovarian cysts. There may be a slightly increased long-term risk of breast cancer for women taking the combined pill.
Oestrogen-based pills should generally be avoided in women with hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, liver disease, migraine, otosclerosis, or who are at increased risk of a thrombosis. They are not usually prescribed to a woman with a personal or family history of heart or circulatory disorders, or who suffers from unexplained vaginal bleeding. The minipill or a lowoestrogen pill may be used by women who should avoid oestrogens. Combined or phased pills may interfere with milk production and should not be taken during breast-feeding. Certain drugs may impair the effectiveness of oral contraceptives. (See also contraception.) ... oral contraceptives
Professional treatment to remove calculus and stubborn plaque by scaling and polishing is usually carried out by a dentist or dental hygienist during a routine check-up.
In periodontal disease, treatment may be needed more often.... oral hygiene
Infection is potentially serious as it may spread to the brain.
Treatment is with high doses of antibiotic drugs.... orbital cellulitis
Most organs for transplantation, such as the heart, lungs, liver, and kidneys, are removed immediately after death, often in intensive care units where heart and lung function is sometimes maintained by machine after brain death been certified.
Compatible living donors may also be able to give a kidney (see tissue-typing).
People can facilitate use of their organs after death by informing relatives and carrying a donor card.
(See also corneal graft; heart–lung transplant; heart transplant; heart-valve surgery; kidney transplant; liver transplant.)... organ donation
Treatment may include washing out the stomach (see lavage, gastric) or removing soiled clothing and washing contaminated skin.
Injections of atropine may be given, and oxygen therapy and/or artificial ventilation may be needed.
With rapid treatment, people may survive doses that would otherwise have been fatal.
Long term effects of organophosphates in sheep dips are thought to be responsible for debilitating illness with neural, muscular, and mental symptoms.... organophosphates
For both sexes, contributory factors include problems with technique or in the relationship, unfamiliarity with sexual responses, psychological problems (such as anxiety, early sexual trauma, or inhibitions), and fear of pregnancy.
Sex therapy, relationship counselling, and psychotherapy are sometimes helpful.... orgasm, lack of
The affected bone may be immobilized in an orthopaedic brace or plaster cast. In Perthes’ disease, surgery may be required to prevent more deformity. The bone usually regenerates within 3 years and rehardens, but deformity may be permanent and increases the risk of osteoarthritis in later life.... osteochondritis juvenilis
The emission is produced only by a normally functioning ear and is recorded in a test to detect impaired hearing.... otoacoustic emission
In most cases, ovarian cancer causes no symptoms until it is widespread. The first symptoms may include vague discomfort and swelling in the abdomen; nausea and vomiting; abnormal vaginal bleeding; and ascites.
If ovarian cancer is suspected, a doctor will carry out a physical examination to detect any swellings in the pelvis. A laparoscopy will usually be performed to confirm the diagnosis.
Treatment is by surgical removal of the growth or as much cancerous tissue as possible.
This usually involves salpingooophorectomy and hysterectomy followed by radiotherapy and anticancer drugs.... ovary, cancer of
The condition results from an imbalance of two gonadotrophin hormones: follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). This hormonal imbalance is associated with raised levels of testosterone and oestrogen.
Treatments include clomifene and oral contraceptives. Polycystic ovaries are often associated with high oestrogen levels in the body, which increase the risk of endometrial cancer (see uterus, cancer of); treatment with progesterone may be recommended for this problem. ... ovary, polycystic
Overcrowded teeth may lead to malocclusion or may prevent certain teeth from erupting through the gum (see impaction, dental). They can be difficult to clean, increasing the risk of dental decay (see caries, dental) and periodontal disease.
Teeth may need to be extracted to allow room for others. Usually an orthodontic appliance is fitted to the remaining teeth to position them correctly.... overcrowding, dental
Examples include epicondylitis: painful inflammation of one of the bony prominences at the elbow, caused by the pull of the attached forearm muscles during strenuous activities (see golfer’s elbow; tennis elbow).
Overuse injuries of the fingers, thumb, and wrist joints may affect assembly-line and keyboard workers, and musicians; injuries of the neck may affect violinists.
Rest relieves the symptoms.
A change in the technique used during the activity may prevent recurrence.... overuse injury
(See also hyperbaric oxygen treatment.)... oxygen therapy
Attachment to such an item is normal and usually diminishes by age 7 or 8.... security object
Treatment of thoracic outlet syndrome usually consists of exercises to improve posture, sometimes together with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and muscle-relaxant drugs. Severe cases may be treated by surgical removal of the 1st rib.... thoracic outlet syndrome