The meaning of the symbols of dream, dictionary/ seen in a dream.


See Hinojo.... fennel


Infection with filarial nematode worms... filariasis


Presence of excessive gas in the stomach or intestine... flatulence

Lassa Fever

A serious viral haemorrhagic fever of humans harboured by small rodents such as the multimammate mouse of West and Central Africa.... lassa fever

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

(CFS) is a recently designated semi-disease, often attributed to EBV (the Epstein-Barr virus) or CMV (Cytomegalovirus) infections, characterized by FUOs (Fevers of Unknown Origin) and resulting in the patient suffering FLS (Feels Like Shit). In most of us, the microorganisms involved in CFS usually provoke nothing more than a head cold; in some individuals, however, they induce a long, grinding, and debilitating disorder, characterized by exhaustion, depression, periodic fevers...a crazy-quilt of symptoms that frustrates both the sufferer and the sometimes skeptical physician. MCS (Multiple Chemical Sensitivities) are another syndrome that is often lumped with CFS, and they may often be two faces of the same condition. I am not using all these acronyms to mock the conditions, but as an irony. There is too much (Acronym Safety Syndrome) in medicine, reducing complex and frustrating conditions to insider’s techno-babble, somehow therein trivializing otherwise complex, painful and crazy-making problems. The widest use of acronyms (AIDS, HIV, CFS, MCS, MS etc.) seems to be for diseases hardest to treat, least responsive to procedural medicine, and most depressing to discuss with patients or survivors.... chronic fatigue syndrome

Cystic Fibrosis

This is the most common serious genetic disease in Caucasian children, with an incidence of about one per 2,500 births, and more than 6,000 patients in the UK (30,000 in the USA). It is an autosomal recessive disorder of the mucus-secreting glands of the lungs, the pancreas, the mouth, and the gastrointestinal tract, as well as the sweat glands of the skin. The defective gene is sited on chromosome 7 which encodes for a protein, cystic ?brosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). Individuals who inherit the gene only on one set of chromosomes can, however, carry the defect into successive generations. Where parents have a child with cystic ?brosis, they have a one-infour chance of subsequent children having the disease. They should seek GENETIC COUNSELLING.

The disorder is characterised by failure to gain weight in spite of a good appetite, by repeated attacks of bronchitis (with BRONCHIECTASIS developing at a young age), and by the passage of loose, foul-smelling and slimy stools (faeces). AMNIOCENTESIS, which yields amniotic ?uid along with cells shed from the fetus’s skin, can be used to diagnose cystic ?brosis prenatally. The levels of various enzymes can be measured in the ?uid and are abnormal when the fetus is affected by cystic ?brosis. Neonatal screening is possible using a test on blood spots – immunoreactive trypsin (IRT).

In children with symptoms or a positive family history, the disease can be tested for by measuring sweat chloride and sodium. This detects the abnormal amount of salt that is excreted via the sweat glands when cystic ?brosis is present. Con?rmation is by genetic testing.

Treatment This consists basically of regular physiotherapy and postural drainage, antibiotics and the taking of pancreatic enzyme tablets and vitamins. Some children need STEROID treatment and all require nutritional support. The earlier treatment is started, the better the results. Whereas two decades ago, only 12 per cent of affected children survived beyond adolescence, today 75 per cent survive into adult life, and an increasing number are surviving into their 40s. Patients with end-stage disease can be treated by heart-lung transplantation (with their own heart going to another recipient). Research is underway on the possible use of GENE THERAPY to control the disorder. Parents of children with cystic ?brosis, seeking help and advice, can obtain this from the Cystic Fibrosis Trust.... cystic fibrosis

Enteric Fever

Typhoid and Paratyphoid. Septicaemic diseases caused by Salmonella typhi and Salmonella paratyphi.... enteric fever


Fainting, or SYNCOPE, is a temporary loss of consciousness caused by inadequate supply of blood to the brain. It may be preceded by nausea, sweating, loss of vision, and ringing in the ears (see TINNITUS). It is most often caused by pooling of blood in the extremities, which reduces venous return (see CIRCULATORY SYSTEM OF THE BLOOD) and thus cardiac output: this may be due to hot weather or prolonged standing. Occasionally, fainting on standing occurs in people with low blood pressure (see HYPOTENSION), autonomic neuropathy (in which normal vasomotor re?exes are absent), or those taking antihypertensive drugs. A prolonged rise in intrathoracic pressure caused by coughing, MICTURITION, or VALSALVA’S MANOEUVRE also impedes venous return and may cause fainting. HYPOVOLAEMIA produced by bleeding, prolonged diarrhoea, or vomiting may also cause fainting, and the condition can be produced by severe pain or emotional upset. Cardiac causes, such as severe stenotic valve disease or rhythm disturbances (particularly complete heart block or very rapid tachycardias), may result in fainting (see HEART, DISEASES OF). Treatment must be directed towards the underlying cause, but immediate ?rst aid consists of laying the patient down and elevating the legs.... fainting


Anything which reduces fever... febrifuge


Feverish.... febrile


Trigonella foenum-graecum


San: Methika, Methi, Kalanusari;

Hin: Meti, Mutti; Ben, Mar: Methi;

Mal: Uluva;

Tam: Ventayam;

Kan: Mentya, Menlesoppu;

Tel: Mentulu, Mentikura; Arab: Hulabaha

Importance: Fenugreek or Greek Hayes is cultivated as a leafy vegetable, condiment and as medicinal plant. The leaves are refrigerant and aperient and are given internally for vitiated conditions of pitta. A poultice of the leaves is applied for swellings and burns. Seeds are used for fever, vomiting, anorexia, cough, bronchitis and colonitis. In the famous Malayalam treatises like ‘Padhyam’ ‘Kairali’ and ‘Arunodhayam’, uluva is recommended for use as kalanusari in Dhanvantaram formulations of ‘Astaghradayam’. An infusion of the seeds is a good cool drink for small pox patients. Powdered seeds find application in veterinary medicine. An aqueous extract of the seeds possesses antibacterial property (Kumar et al, 1997; Warrier et al, 1995).

Distribution: Fenugreek is a native of South Eastern Europe and West Asia. In India fenugreek is grown in about 0.30 lakh ha producing annually about 30,000 tonnes of seeds. The major states growing fenugreek are Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Punjab and Karnataka. It is grown wild in Kashmir and Punjab.

Botany: Trigonella foenum-graecum Linn. belongs to family, Fabaceae. It is an annual herb, 30-60cm in height, leaves are light green, pinnately trifoliate, leaflets toothed, flowers are white or yellowish white, papilionaceous and axillary. Fruits are legumes, 5-7.5cm long, narrow, curved, tapering with a slender point and containing 10-20 deeply furrowed seeds per pod. There are two species of the genus Trigonella which are of economic importance viz. T. foenum graecum, the common methi and T. corniculata, the Kasuri methi. These two differ in their growth habit and yield. The latter one is a slow growing type and remains in rosette condition during most of the vegetative growth period (Kumar et al, 1997; Warrier et al, 1995).

Agrotechnology: Fenugreek has a wide adaptability and is successfully cultivated both in the tropics as well as temperate regions. It is tolerant to frost and freezing weather. It does well in places receiving moderate or low rainfall areas but not in heavy rainfall area. It can be grown on a wide variety of soils but clayey loam is relatively better. The optimum soil pH should be 6-7 for its better growth and development. Some of the improved cultivars available for cultivation are CO1 (TNAU), Rajendra Kanti (RAU), RMt-1(RAU) and Lam Selection-1 (APAU). Land is prepared by ploughing thrice and beds of uniform size are prepared. Broadcasting the seed on the bed and raking the surface to cover the seeds is normally followed. But to facilitate intercultural operations, line sowing is also advocated in rows at 20-25cm apart. Sowing in the plains is generally in September-November while in the hills it is from March. The seed rate is 20-25kg/ha and the seeds germinate within 6-8 days. Besides 15t of FYM, a fertiliser dose of 25:25:50kg NPK/ha is recommended. Entire P,K and half N are to be applied basally and the remaining half N 30 days after sowing. First irrigation is to be given immediately after sowing and subsequent irrigations at 7-10 days interval. Hoeing and weeding are to be done during the early stages of plant growth and thinning at 25-30 days to have a spacing of 10-15cm between plants and to retain 1-2 plants per hill. Root rot (caused by Rhizoctonia solani) is a serious disease and can be controlled by drenching carbendazim 0.05% first at the onset of the disease and another after one monthof first application. In about 25-30 days, young shoots are nipped off 5cm above ground level and subsequent cuttings of leaves may be taken after 15 days. It is advisable to take 1-2 cuttings before the crop is allowed for flowering and fruiting when pods are dried, the plants are pulled out, dried in the sun and seeds are threshed by beating with stick or by rubbing with hands. Seeds are winnowed, cleaned and dried in the sun. They may be stored in gunny bags lined with paper. An yield of 1200-1500kg of seeds and about 800-1000kg of leaves may be obtained per hectare in crops grown for both the purposes (Kumar et al, 1997).

Properties and activity: Seeds contain sapogenins-diosgenin, its 25-epimer(yamogenin), tigogenin, gitogenin, yuccagenin, 25-2-spirosta-3-5-diene and its -epimer. Seeds also contain a C27-steroidal sapogenin-peptide ester-fenugreekine. Seeds, in addition, contain 4-hydroxyleucine and saponins-fenugrins A-E:two furostanol glycoxides-trigonelloxide C and (255)-22-O-methyl-52-firostan-3 ,22,26,triol-3-O- -rhamnopyrans syl(1-2) C- -D-glucopyranosyl (1-3)- -D- glucopyranoxide-26-O- -D-glucopyranoxide.

Other chemical constituents are sterols- -sitosterol and cholesterol, flavone C- glycosides-vitexin, iso-vitexin, vitexin-2”-O-P-coumarate and vicenin-2. Flavonoids- quercetin and luteolin, flavonoid glycoside-vicenin-I. Invitro seedling callus culture gave flavonoids-luteolin and vitexin-1-glycoside. An essential oil is also reported from seeds. Leaves gave saponins-gracecunins A-G, flavonoids- kaempferol and quercetin; sterols- - sitosterol, sapogenins-diosgenin, gitogenin coumarin-scopoletin is also reported from the plant.

Seeds are bitter, mucilaginous, aromatic, carminative, tonic, diuretic, thermogenic, galactagogue, astringent, emollient, amophrodisiac, antirheumatic, CNS depressant and antiimplantation. Fenugreekine is hypoglycaemic, diuretic, hypotensive, cardiotonic, antiphlogistic. It showed 80% inhibition of vaccina virus.... fenugreek


Chrysanthemum parthenium. N.O. Compositae.

Synonym: Featherfew, Featherfoil, Pyrethrum parthenium.

Habitat: Waste places, hedges.

Features ? Stem one and a half feet high, erect, finely furrowed, hairy, branches towards top. Leaves alternate, bipinnatifid, serrate edges, very short hairs, about four and a half by two and a half inches; leaf stalk flat above, convex below. Numerous flowers (June and July), yellow disc, white petals, each on stalk. Taste, very unpleasant.

Part used ? Herb.

Action: Aperient, carminative.

Assists in promotion of the menses and in the expulsion of worms. Also given in hysterical conditions. Infusion of 1 ounce to 1 pint boiling water, wineglassful doses.... feverfew


Fever, or PYREXIA, is the abnormal rise in body TEMPERATURE that frequently accompanies disease in general.

Causes The cause of fever is the release of fever-producing proteins (pyrogens) by phagocytic cells called monocytes and macrophages, in response to a variety of infectious, immunological and neoplastic stimuli. The lymphocytes (see LYMPHOCYTE) play a part in fever production because they recognise the antigen and release substances called lymphokines which promote the production of endogenous pyrogen. The pyrogen then acts on the thermoregulatory centre in the HYPOTHALAMUS and this results in an increase in heat generation and a reduction in heat loss, resulting in a rise in body temperature.

The average temperature of the body in health ranges from 36·9 to 37·5 °C (98·4 to 99·5 °F). It is liable to slight variations from such causes as the ingestion of food, the amount of exercise, the menstrual cycle, and the temperature of the surrounding atmosphere. There are, moreover, certain appreciable daily variations, the lowest temperature being between the hours of 01.00 and 07.00 hours, and the highest between 16.00 and 21.00 hours, with tri?ing ?uctuations during these periods.

The development and maintenance of heat within the body depends upon the metabolic oxidation consequent on the changes continually taking place in the processes of nutrition. In health, this constant tissue disintegration is exactly counterbalanced by the consumption of food, whilst the uniform normal temperature is maintained by the adjustment of the heat developed, and of the processes of exhalation and cooling which take place, especially from the lungs and skin. During a fever this balance breaks down, the tissue waste being greatly in excess of the food supply. The body wastes rapidly, the loss to the system being chie?y in the form of nitrogen compounds (e.g. urea). In the early stage of fever a patient excretes about three times the amount of urea that he or she would excrete on the same diet when in health.

Fever is measured by how high the temperature rises above normal. At 41.1 °C (106 °F) the patient is in a dangerous state of hyperpyrexia (abnormally high temperature). If this persists for very long, the patient usually dies.

The body’s temperature will also rise if exposed for too long to a high ambient temperature. (See HEAT STROKE.)

Symptoms The onset of a fever is usually marked by a RIGOR, or shivering. The skin feels hot and dry, and the raised temperature will often be found to show daily variations – namely, an evening rise and a morning fall.

There is a relative increase in the pulse and breathing rates. The tongue is dry and furred; the thirst is intense, while the appetite is gone; the urine is scanty, of high speci?c gravity and containing a large quantity of solid matter, particularly urea. The patient will have a headache and sometimes nausea, and children may develop convulsions (see FEBRILE CONVULSION).

The fever falls by the occurrence of a CRISIS – that is, a sudden termination of the symptoms – or by a more gradual subsidence of the temperature, technically termed a lysis. If death ensues, this is due to failure of the vital centres in the brain or of the heart, as a result of either the infection or hyperpyrexia.

Treatment Fever is a symptom, and the correct treatment is therefore that of the underlying condition. Occasionally, however, it is also necessary to reduce the temperature by more direct methods: physical cooling by, for example, tepid sponging, and the use of antipyretic drugs such as aspirin or paracetamol.... fever


Pain, muscular sti?ness and in?ammation affecting the soft tissues of the arm, legs and trunk. The cause is unknown but may include immunological factors, muscular strain and psychological stress. Treatment is usually palliative.... fibrositis


An open channel from the anus or rectum to the skin near the anus... fistula


Intestinal or stomach gas. If it rises upwards, it is an eructation (burp or belch); if it descends, causing borborygmus (love that word), you are flatulent (fartish).... flatus


A popular name for an excessive blood-stained discharge from the womb (UTERUS). (See MENSTRUATION; MENORRHAGIA.) In the majority of cases, ?ooding is the sign of a miscarriage (see ABORTION).... flooding


Follicle is the term applied to a very small sac or gland: for example, small collections of adenoid tissue in the throat, and the small digestive glands on the mucous membrane of the intestine.... follicle

Food Poisoning

This illness is characterised by vomiting, diarrhoea and abdominal pain, and results from eating food contaminated with metallic or chemical poisons, certain micro-organisms or microbial products. Alternatively, the foods – such as undercooked red kidney beans or ?sh of the scombroid family (mackerel and tuna) – may contain natural posions. Food poisoning caused by chemical or metallic substances usually occurs rapidly, within minutes or a few hours of eating. Among micro-organisms, bacteria are the leading cause of food poisoning, particularly Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium perfringens (formerly Cl. welchii), Salmonella spp., Campylobacter jejuni, and Escherichia coli O157.

Staphylococcal food poisoning occurs after food such as meat products, cold meats, milk, custard and egg products becomes contaminated before or after cooking, usually through incorrect handling by humans who carry S. aureus. The bacteria produce an ENTEROTOXIN which causes the symptoms of food poisoning 1–8 hours after ingestion. The toxin can withstand heat; thus, subsequent cooking of contaminated food will not prevent illness.

Heat-resistant strains of Cl. perfringens cause food poisoning associated with meat dishes, soups or gravy when dishes cooked in bulk are left unrefrigerated for long periods before consumption. The bacteria are anaerobes (see ANAEROBE) and form spores; the anaerobic conditions in these cooked foods allow the germinated spores to multiply rapidly during cooling, resulting in heavy contamination. Once ingested the bacteria produce enterotoxin in the intestine, causing symptoms within 8–24 hours.

Many di?erent types of Salmonella (about 2,000) cause food poisoning or ENTERITIS, from eight hours to three days after ingestion of food in which they have multiplied. S. brendeny, S. enteritidis, S. heidelberg, S. newport and S. thompson are among those commonly causing enteritis. Salmonella infections are common in domesticated animals such as cows, pigs and poultry whose meat and milk may be infected, although the animals may show no symptoms. Duck eggs may harbour Salmonella (usually S. typhimurium), arising from surface contamination with the bird’s faeces, and foods containing uncooked or lightly cooked hen’s eggs, such as mayonnaise, have been associated with enteritis. The incidence of human S. enteritidis infection has been increasing, by more than 15-fold in England and Wales annually, from around 1,100 a year in the early 1980s to more than 32,000 at the end of the 1990s, but has since fallen to about 10,000. A serious source of infection seems to be poultry meat and hen’s eggs.

Although Salmonella are mostly killed by heating at 60 °C for 15 minutes, contaminated food requires considerably longer cooking and, if frozen, must be completely thawed beforehand, to allow even cooking at a su?cient temperature.

Enteritis caused by Campylobacter jejuni is usually self-limiting, lasting 1–3 days. Since reporting of the disease began in 1977, in England and Wales its incidence has increased from around 1,400 cases initially to nearly 13,000 in 1982 and to over 42,000 in 2004. Outbreaks have been associated with unpasteurised milk: the main source seems to be infected poultry.

ESCHERICHIA COLI O157 was ?rst identi?ed as a cause of food poisoning in the early 1980s, but its incidence has increased sharply since, with more than 1,000 cases annually in the United Kingdom in the late 1990s. The illness can be severe, with bloody diarrhoea and life-threatening renal complications. The reservoir for this pathogen is thought to be cattle, and transmission results from consumption of raw or undercooked meat products and raw dairy products. Cross-infection of cooked meat by raw meat is a common cause of outbreaks of Escherichia coli O157 food poisoning. Water and other foods can be contaminated by manure from cattle, and person-to-person spread can occur, especially in children.

Food poisoning associated with fried or boiled rice is caused by Bacillus cereus, whose heat-resistant spores survive cooking. An enterotoxin is responsible for the symptoms, which occur 2–8 hours after ingestion and resolve after 8–24 hours.

Viruses are emerging as an increasing cause of some outbreaks of food poisoning from shell?sh (cockles, mussels and oysters).

The incidence of food poisoning in the UK rose from under 60,000 cases in 1991 to nearly 79,000 in 2004. Public health measures to control this rise include agricultural aspects of food production, implementing standards of hygiene in abattoirs, and regulating the environment and process of industrial food production, handling, transportation and storage.... food poisoning


A list of drugs, usually by their generic names, and indications for their use. A formulary is intended to include a sufficient range of medicines to enable medical practitioners, dentists and, as appropriate, other practitioners to prescribe all medically appropriate treatment for all reasonably common illnesses. In some health plans, providers are limited to prescribing only drugs listed on the plan’s formulary.... formulary


See “occurrence”.... frequency


This results from the action of extreme cold (below 0 °C) on the skin. VASOCONSTRICTION results in a reduced blood – and hence, oxygen

– supply, leading to NECROSIS of the skin and, in severe cases, of the underlying tissues. Chie?y affecting exposed parts of the body, such as the face and the limbs, frostbite occurs especially in people exercising at high altitudes, or in those at risk of peripheral vascular disease, such as diabetics (see DIABETES MELLITUS), who should take particular care of their ?ngers and toes when in cold environments.

In mild cases – the condition sometimes known as frostnip – the skin on exposed parts of the body, such as the cheeks or nose, becomes white and numb with a sudden and complete cessation of cold and discomfort. In more severe cases, blisters develop on the frozen part, and the skin then gradually hardens and turns black until the frozen part, such as a ?nger, is covered with a black shell of dead tissue. Swelling of the underlying tissue occurs and this is accompanied by throbbing and aching. If, as is often the case, only the skin and the tissues immediately under it are frozen, then in a matter of months the dead tissue peels o?. In the most severe cases of all, muscles, bone and tendon are also frozen, and the affected part becomes cold, swollen, mottled and blue or grey. There may be no blistering in these severe cases. At ?rst there is no pain, but in time shooting and throbbing pains usually develop.

Prevention This consists of wearing the right clothing and never venturing on even quite short expeditions in cold weather, particularly on mountains, without taking expert advice as to what should be worn.

Treatment Frostnip is the only form of frostbite that should be treated on the spot. As it usually occurs on exposed parts, such as the face, each member of the party should be on the lookout for it in another. The moment that whitening of the skin is seen, the individual should seek shelter and warm the affected part by covering it with his or her warm hand or a glove until the normal colour and consistency of the affected part are restored. In more severe cases, treatment should only be given in hospital or in a well-equipped camp. In essence this consists of warming the affected part, preferably in warm water, against a warm part of the body or warm air. Rewarming should be done for spells of 20 minutes at a time. The affected part should never be placed near an open ?re. Generalised warming of the whole body may also be necessary, using hot drinks, and putting the victim in a sleeping bag.... frostbite

Frozen Shoulder

A painful condition of the shoulder accompanied by sti?ness and considerable limitation of movement. The usual age-incidence is between 50 and 70. The cause is in?ammation and contracture of the ligaments and muscles of the shoulder joint, probably due to overuse. Treatment is physiotherapy and local steroid infections. There is practically always complete recovery, even though this may take 12–18 months.... frozen shoulder

Glandular Fever

See MONONUCLEOSIS.... glandular fever

Hay Fever

Also known as allergic rhinitis, this is caused by an ALLERGY to the pollen of grasses, trees and other plants. Contact with the particular pollen to which the sufferer is allergic causes HISTAMINE release, resulting in a blocked, runny nose and itchy, watering eyes. It affects approximately 3 million people each year in the UK.

The mainstays of treatment are ANTIHISTAMINE DRUGS, taken by mouth, and the use of steroid and cromoglycate nasal sprays and eye drops. Occasionally desensitisation by injection may work if the particular allergen is known.... hay fever

Intrinsic Factor

One of two proteins secreted from the lining of the stomach whose sole purpose is (it seems) to cradle B12 in a pre-fitted styrofoam mold and (A) carry it through the Seven Levels of Digestive Hell until it reaches those few absorption sites in the last foot of small intestine that understand its “Special Needs” (sounds either sexually kinky or the airplane dinner label on kosher food for flying Hassidim jewelers) and finally (B) slip it from one protein to the other, and thence into the cell membranes where its is turn handed over to (C) the specialized blood protein that can carry it safely to the final target tissues (3 times out of 4, the bone marrow). Cyanocobalamin (B12) has parts that fall off, radicals that twirl around in five directions on three charge potentials, and is as durable as a 49¢ water pistol. And, if we have an ulcer, chronic enteritis or long-standing steatorrhea, we either get B12 shots (and hope the liver still makes that blood carrier) or walk around with pernicious anemia and a hematocrit of 16.... intrinsic factor

Q Fever

Query Fever. A zoonotic febrile illness caused by the rickettsial organism, Coxiella burnettii. Is a particular hazard to abattoir workers but also causes problems to farmers, veterinarians and other farm workers. A vaccine (QVAX) is no available.... q fever

Risk Factor

An aspect of personal behaviour or lifestyle, an environmental exposure, or an inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of scientific evidence, is known to be associated with health-related condition(s) considered important to prevent.... risk factor

Ventricular Fibrillation

A very fast ‘flickering’ of the heart with no measurable circulation of blood by the heart. This usually occurs after a heart attack (or electrocution).... ventricular fibrillation

Yellow Fever

An arboviral (flavivirus) disease, also a zoonosis, being essentially a disease of forest monkeys, which under certain conditions can be transmitted to humans. A vaccine is available.... yellow fever

Amniotic Fluid

The clear ?uid contained within the AMNION that surrounds the FETUS in the womb and protects it from external pressure. The ?uid, comprising mainly water, is produced by the amnion and is regularly circulated, being swallowed by the fetus and excreted through the kidneys back into the amniotic sac. By the 35th week of pregnancy there is about 1 litre of ?uid, but this falls to 0.5 litres at term. The amniotic sac normally ruptures in early labour, releasing the ?uid or ‘waters’.... amniotic fluid

Blackwater Fever

This is caused by rapid breakdown of red blood cells (acute intravascular haemolysis), with resulting kidney failure as the breakdown products block the vessels serving the kidney ?ltration units (see KIDNEYS). It is associated with severe Plasmodium falciparum infection.

The complication is frequently fatal, being associated with HAEMOGLOBINURIA, JAUNDICE, fever, vomiting and severe ANAEMIA. In an extreme case the patient’s urine appears black. Tender enlarged liver and spleen are usually present. The disease is triggered by quinine usage at subtherapeutic dosage in the presence of P. falciparum infection, especially in the non-immune individual. Now that quinine is rarely used for prevention of this infection (it is reserved for treatment), blackwater fever has become very unusual. Treatment is as for severe complicated P. falciparum infection with renal impairment; dialysis and blood transfusion are usually indicated. When inadequately treated, the mortality rate may be over 40 per cent but, with satisfactory intensive therapy, this should be reduced substantially.... blackwater fever

Breast Feeding

This is the natural way to feed a baby from birth to WEANING. Human milk is an ideal food, containing a proper balance of nutrients as well as an essential supply of antibodies to protect the infant against infections. Breast feeding also strengthens the physical bond between mother and child. For the ?rst few weeks, feeding should be on demand. Di?culties over breast feeding, discouragement from health-care providers and the pressures of modern life, especially for working mothers, can make it hard to continue breast feeding for more than a few weeks, or even to breast feed at all. Sometimes infections occur, producing soreness and even an abscess. Mothers should seek advice from their health visitor about breast feeding, especially if problems arise.... breast feeding

Cat-scratch Fever

An infection in humans caused by a small gram-negative BACILLUS (Bartonella henselae). The domestic cat is a reservoir for the bacteria, and up to 50 per cent of the cat population may be affected. The disorder manifests itself as a skin lesion 3–10 days after a minor scratch; within two weeks the victim’s lymph glands enlarge and may produce pus. Fever, headache and malaise occur in some patients. Antibiotics do not seem to be e?ective. The skin lesion and lymph-gland enlargement subside spontaneously within 2–5 months.... cat-scratch fever

Cerebrospinal Fluid

The ?uid within the ventricles of the brain and bathing its surface and that of the spinal cord. Normally a clear, colourless ?uid, its pressure when an individual is lying on one side is 50 to 150 mm water. A LUMBAR PUNCTURE should not be done if the intracranial pressure is raised (see HYDROCEPHALUS).

The cerebrospinal ?uid (CSF) provides useful information in various conditions and is invaluable in the diagnosis of acute and chronic in?ammatory diseases of the nervous system. Bacterial MENINGITIS results in a large increase in the number of polymorphonuclear LEUCOCYTES, while a marked lymphocytosis is seen in viral meningitis and ENCEPHALITIS, tuberculous meningitis and neurosyphilis. The total protein content is raised in many neurological diseases, being particularly high with neuro?bromatosis (see VON RECKLINGHAUSEN’S DISEASE) and Guillan-Barré syndrome, while the immunoglobulin G fraction is raised in MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS (MS), neurosyphilis, and connective-tissue disorders. The glucose content is raised in diabetes (see DIABETES MELLITUS), but may be very low in bacterial meningitis, when appropriately stained smears or cultures often de?ne the infecting organism. The CSF can also be used to measure immune proteins produced in response to infection, helping diagnosis in cases where the organism is not grown in the laboratory culture.... cerebrospinal fluid


Claw-foot, or PES CAVUS, is a familial deformity of the foot characterised by an abnormally high arch of the foot accompanied by shortening of the foot, clawing of the toes, and inversion, or turning inwards, of the foot and heel. Its main e?ect is to impair the resilience of the foot resulting in a sti? gait and aching pain. Milder cases are treated with special shoes ?tted with a sponge rubber insole. More severe cases may require surgical treatment.... claw-foot


See TALIPES.... club-foot

Face Lift

An operation to reduce wrinkles and lift ‘loose’ skin on the face of mature persons with the aim of making them look younger. It can be performed under local anaesthetic as an outpatient or with general anaesthesia as an inpatient. The operation is regarded as cosmetic and is usually done in the private health-care sector in the UK.... face lift

Facial Nerve

The seventh cranial nerve (arising from the BRAIN), supplying the muscles of expression in the face, being purely a motor nerve. It enters the face immediately below the ear after splitting up into several branches. (See BELL’S PALSY.)... facial nerve

Factor Viii

A coagulative blood protein that is a constituent of the COAGULATION cascade – an essential component in the clotting of blood. Those people with the inherited disorder, HAEMOPHILIA, have abnormally low amounts of factor VIII and so bleed more when cut. They are treated with a concentrated version to reduce the tendency to bleed.... factor viii


Faeces, or stools, consist of the remainder of the food after it has passed through the alimentary canal and been subjected to the action of the digestive juices, and after the nutritious parts have been absorbed by the intestinal mucous membrane. The stools also contain various other matters, such as pigment derived from the BILE, and large quantities of bacteria which are the main component of human stools. The stools are passed once daily by most people, but infants have several evacuations of the bowels in 24 hours and some adults may defaecate only two or three times weekly. Sudden changes in bowel habit, persistent diarrhoea or a change from the normal dark brown (caused by the bile pigment, stercobilin) to very pale or very dark stools are reasons for seeking medical advice. Blood in the stools may be due to HAEMORRHOIDS or something more serious, and anyone with such symptoms should see a doctor.

Incontinence of the bowels, or inability to retain the stools, is found in certain diseases in which the sphincter muscles – those muscles that naturally keep the bowel closed – relax. It is also a symptom of disease in, or injury to, the SPINAL CORD.

Pain on defaecation is a characteristic symptom of a FISSURE at the ANUS or of in?amed haemorrhoids, and is usually sharp. Pain of a duller character associated with the movements of the bowels may be caused by in?ammation in the other pelvic organs.

CONSTIPATION and DIARRHOEA are considered under separate headings.... faeces


A description of a disorder, illness or characteristic that runs in families.... familial


One of the H2 RECEPTOR ANTAGONISTS used to heal gastric ulcers (see STOMACH, DISEASES OF) and DUODENAL ULCER. The drug works by blocking H2 receptors and so cutting the output of gastric acid. It is taken orally; side-effects may include dizziness, changed bowel habit, fatigue, rashes, confusion, reversible liver damage and headache.... famotidine


Sheets or bands of ?brous tissue which enclose the body tissues beneath the skin and connect the muscles.... fascia


In?ammation of FASCIA. The most common site is the sole of the foot, where it is known as plantar fasciitis. It is characterised by gnawing pain. There is no speci?c treatment, but the condition usually clears up spontaneously – though over a considerable time.... fasciitis


Disease caused by the liver ?uke, Fasciola hepatica. This is found in sheep, cattle and other herbivorous animals, in which it is the cause of the condition known as liver rot. It measures about 35 × 13 mm, and is transmitted to humans from the infected animals by snails. In Britain it is the most common disease found in animal slaughterhouses. The danger to humans is in eating vegetables – particularly wild watercress – that have been infected by snails; there have been several outbreaks of fascioliasis in Britain due to eating contaminated wild watercress, and much larger outbreaks from the same cause have been reported in France. The disease is characterised by fever, dyspepsia (indigestion), heavy sweating, loss of appetite, abdominal pain, URTICARIA, and a troublesome cough. In the more serious cases there may be severe damage to the LIVER, with or without JAUNDICE. The diagnosis is clinched by the ?nding of the eggs of the ?uke in the stools. The two drugs used in treatment are bithionol and chloroquine. Even though many cases are quite mild and recover spontaneously, prevention is particularly important. This consists primarily of never eating wild watercress, as this is the main cause of infestation. Lettuces have also been found to be infested.... fascioliasis


An operation to relieve pressure on muscles caused by tight surrounding FASCIA or ?brous CONNECTIVE TISSUE. The fascia is slit with an incision.... fasciotomy


Fasting is the abstention from, or deprivation of, food and drink. It may result from a genuine desire to lose weight – in an attempt to improve one’s health and/or appearance – or from a MENTAL ILLNESS such as DEPRESSION, or from one of the EATING DISORDERS. Certain religious customs and practices may demand periods of fasting. Forced fasting, often extended, has been used for many years as an e?ective means of torture.

Without food and drink the body rapidly becomes thinner and lighter as it draws upon its stored energy reserves, initially mainly fat. Body temperature gradually falls, and muscle is progressively broken down as the body struggles to maintain its vital functions. Dehydration, leading to cardiovascular collapse, inevitably follows unless a basic amount of water is taken – particularly if the body’s ?uid output is high, such as may occur with excessive sweating.

After prolonged fasting the return to food should be gradual, with careful monitoring of blood-pressure levels and concentrations of serum ELECTROLYTES. Feeding should consist mainly of liquids and light foods at ?rst, with no heavy meals being taken for several days.... fasting


Tiredness: a physiological state in which muscles become fatigued by the LACTIC ACID accumulating in them as the result of their activity. For the removal of lactic acid in the recovery phase of muscular contraction, oxygen is needed. If the supply of oxygen is not plentiful enough, or cannot keep pace with the work the muscle is doing, then lactic acid accumulates and fatigue results. There is also a nervous element in muscular fatigue: it is diminished by stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system. (See also MUSCLE.)

Chronic fatigue is a symptom of some illnesses such as ANAEMIA, CHRONIC FATIGUE SYNDROME (CFS), HYPOTHYROIDISM, MONONUCLEOSIS, MOTOR NEURONE DISEASE (MND), MYASTHENIA GRAVIS, MYALGIC ENCEPHALOMYELITIS (ME) and others. Some drugs may also produce a feeling of fatigue.... fatigue


The throat.... fauces


A type of haemolytic ANAEMIA, attacks of which occur within an hour or two of eating broad beans (Vicia fava). It is a hereditary disease due to lack of an essential ENZYME called glucose-6phosphate dehydrogenase, which is necessary for the continued integrity of the red cell. This defect is inherited as a sex-linked dominant trait, and the red cells of patients with this abnormality have a normal life-span until challenged by certain drugs or fava beans when the older cells are rapidly destroyed, resulting in haemolytic anaemia. Fourteen per cent of African-Americans are affected and 60 per cent of Yemenite Jews in Israel. The perpetuation of the gene is due to the greater resistance against MALARIA that it carries. Severe and even fatal HAEMOLYSIS has followed the administration of the antimalarial compounds pamaquine and primaquine in sensitive individuals. These red cells are sensitive not only to fava beans and primaquine but also to sulphonamides, acetanilide, phenacetin, para-aminosalicyclic acid, nitrofurantoin, probenecid and vitamin K analogues.... favism

Febrile Convulsion

Convulsion occurring in a child aged six months to six years with a high temperature in which the limbs twitch; he or she may lose consciousness. The condition is common, with one child in 20 suffering from it. It is a result of immature homeostatic control (see HOMEOSTASIS) and is not usually serious, occurring generally during an infection such as measles or tonsillitis. The brain and nervous system are normal in most cases. Treatment is tepid sponging and attention to the underlying cause, with the child placed in the recovery position. It is important to rule out more serious illness, such as MENINGITIS, if the child seems particularly ill.... febrile convulsion


The thigh bone, which is the longest and strongest bone in the body. As the upper end is set at an angle of about 120 degrees to the rest of the bone, and since the weight of the body is entirely borne by the two femora, fracture of one of these bones close to its upper end is a common accident in old people, whose bones are often weakened by osteoporosis (see under BONE, DISORDERS OF). The femur ?ts, at its upper end, into the acetabulum of the pelvis, forming the hip-joint, and, at its lower end, meets the tibia and patella in the knee-joint.... femur


This is a form of sexual deviation in which the person becomes sexually stimulated by parts of the body, such as the feet, which are not usually regarded as erotogenic. Some people are sexually aroused by items of clothing or shoes.... fetishism


Inspection of a FETUS by passing a ?breoptic instrument called a fetoscope through the abdominal wall of a pregnant woman into her UTERUS. The procedure is usually conducted in the 18th to 20th week of pregnancy to assess the fetus for abnormalities and to take blood samples to preclude diseases such as HAEMOPHILIA, DUCHENNE MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY and sickle-cell ANAEMIA. The procedure should be used only if there is a serious possibility of abnormality, the presence of which will usually have been indicated by other screening tests such as ULTRASOUND and tests of blood obtained by (intrauterine) cordocentesis (withdrawal of blood by syringe inserted into the umbilical cord).... fetoscopy


A substance formed in the BLOOD as it clots: indeed, its formation causes clotting. The substance is produced in threads; after the threads have formed a close meshwork through the blood, they contract, and produce a dense, felted mass. The substance is formed not only from shed blood but also from LYMPH which exudes from the lymph vessels. Thus ?brin is found in all in?ammatory conditions within serous cavities like the PLEURA, PERITONEUM, and PERICARDIUM, and forms a thick coat upon the surface of the in?amed membranes. It is also found in in?amed joints, and in the lung as a result of pneumonia. (See COAGULATION.)... fibrin


The soluble protein in the blood which is the precursor of FIBRIN, the substance in blood clot.... fibrinogen


The name given to the unborn child after the eighth week of development. Humans, like all animals, begin as a single cell, the OVUM, in the ovary (see OVARIES). After FERTILISATION with a SPERMATOZOON, the ovum becomes embedded in the mucous membrane of the UTERUS, its covering being known as the decidua. Increase in size is rapid, and development of complexity is still more marked. The original cell divides repeatedly to form new cells, and these become arranged in three layers known as the ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm. The ?rst produces the skin, brain and spinal cord, and the nerves; the second the bones, muscles, blood vessels and connective tissues; while the third develops into the lining of the digestive system and the various glands attached to it.

The embryo develops upon one side of the ovum, its ?rst appearance consisting of a groove, the edges of which grow up and join to form a tube, which in turn develops into the brain and spinal cord. At the same time, a part of the ovum beneath this is becoming pinched o? to form the body, and within this the endoderm forms a second tube, which in time is changed in shape and lengthened to form the digestive canal. From the gut there grows out very early a process called the allantois, which attaches itself to the wall of the uterus, developing into the PLACENTA (afterbirth), a structure well supplied with blood vessels which draws nourishment from the mother’s circulation via the wall of the womb.

The remainder of the ovum – which within two weeks of conception has increased to about 2 mm (1/12 inch) in size – splits into an outer and inner shell, from the outer of which are developed two covering membranes, the chorion and amnion; while the inner constitutes the yolk sac, attached by a pedicle to the developing gut of the embryo. From two weeks after conception onwards, the various organs and limbs appear and grow. The human embryo at this stage is almost indistinguishable in appearance from the embryo of other animals. After around the middle of the second month, it begins to show a distinctly human form and then is called the fetus. The property of ‘life’ is present from the very beginning, although the movements of the fetus are not usually felt by the mother until the ?fth month.

During the ?rst few days after conception the eye begins to be formed, beginning as a cup-shaped outgrowth from the mid-brain, its lens being formed as a thickening in the skin. It is very soon followed by the beginnings of the nose and ear, both of which arise as pits on the surface, which increase in complexity and are joined by nerves that grow outward from the brain. These three organs of sense have practically their ?nal appearance as early as the beginning of the second month.

The body closes in from behind forwards, the sides growing forwards from the spinal region. In the neck, the growth takes the form of ?ve arches, similar to those which bear gills in ?shes. From the ?rst of these the lower jaw is formed; from the second the hyoid bone, all the arches uniting, and the gaps between them closing up by the end of the second month. At this time the head and neck have assumed quite a human appearance.

The digestive canal begins as a simple tube running from end to end of the embryo, but it grows in length and becomes twisted in various directions to form the stomach and bowels. The lungs and the liver arise from this tube as two little buds, which quickly increase in size and complexity. The kidneys also appear very early, but go through several changes before their ?nal form is reached.

The genital organs appear late. The swellings, which form the ovary in the female and the testicle (or testis) in the male, are produced in the region of the loins, and gradually descend to their ?nal positions. The external genitals are similar in the two sexes till the end of the third month, and the sex is not clearly distinguishable till late in the fourth month.

The blood vessels appear in the ovum even before the embryo. The heart, originally double, forms as a dilatation upon the arteries which later produce the aorta. These two hearts later fuse into one.

The limbs appear at about the end of the third week, as buds which increase quickly in length and split at their ends into ?ve parts, for ?ngers or toes. The bones at ?rst are formed of cartilage, in which true bone begins to appear during the third month. The average period of human gestation is 266 days – or 280 days from the ?rst day of the last menstrual period. The average birth weight of an infant born of a healthy mother (in the UK) is 3,200 g (see table).

The following table gives the average size and weight of the fetus at di?erent periods:

(See also PREGNANCY AND LABOUR.)... fetus


The way in which blood clots are removed from the circulation. The insoluble protein FIBRIN is broken down by the enzyme plasmin (see PLASMINOGEN) which is activated at the same time as the COAGULATION process of blood. There is normally a balance between coagulation and ?brinolysis; an abnormal increase in the latter causes excessive bleeding.... fibrinolysis


A benign tumour of glandular EPITHELIUM containing ?brous elements. The commonest benign tumour is of the breast, often occurring in young women.... fibroadenoma


Fibroid, or ?bromyoma, is the commonest form of tumour of the uterus (see UTERUS, DISEASES OF), and one of the most common tumours of the human body. It is composed of a mixture of muscular and ?brous tissue. The tumour may be small or as large as a grapefruit. Fibroids may cause pain and heavy menstrual bleeding and usually occur in women over 30 years of age. In some women the ?broid may be small enough to remove surgically but, if it is large, a HYSTERECTOMY is often necessary. Small, symptomless ?broids are no danger and can be left untreated.... fibroid


A benign tumour comprising mainly CONNECTIVE TISSUE – the substance that surrounds body structures, binding them together. Examples are neuro?broma, affecting connective tissue around nerves, and ovarian ?broma which develops around the follicles from which eggs (ova) develop in the OVARIES. Unless the ?broma is causing symptoms (as a result of pressure on surrounding tissues) it does not require treatment. If symptoms occur, the tumour is removed surgically.... fibroma


A term applied to rapid contraction or TREMOR of muscles, and especially to a form of abnormal action of the heart muscle in which individual bundles of ?bres take up independent action. It is believed to be due to a state of excessive excitability in the muscle associated with the stretching which occurs in dilatation of the heart. The main causes are ATHEROSCLEROSIS, chronic rheumatic heart disease and hypertensive heart disease (see HEART, DISEASES OF). Fibrillation is distinguished as atrial or ventricular, depending on whether the muscle of the atria or of the ventricles is affected. In atrial ?brillation, the heartbeats and the pulse become extremely irregular, both as regards time and force; when the atrium is ?brillating there is no signi?cant contraction of the atrial muscle but the cardiac output is maintained by ventricular contraction. In ventricular ?brillation there is no signi?cant contractile force, so that there is no cardiac output. The commonest cause is myocardial infarction. Administration of DIGOXIN, timolol or verapamil may restore normal rhythm, and in some patients, CARDIOVERSION – a controlled direct-current electric shock given via a modi?ed de?brillator placed on the chest wall – is e?ective.... fibrillation


A cancer of the CONNECTIVE TISSUE arising in the ?broblasts, stem cells that produce connective tissue cells. The tumours can develop in bone or in soft tissue and occur most commonly in the limbs. Treatment is by surgery or RADIOTHERAPY.... fibrosarcoma


The formation of ?brous or scar tissue, which is usually due to infection, injury or surgical operation.... fibrosis


The slender outer bone of the leg. The head of this bone articualtes with the TIBIA just below the knee, and at the ANKLE it articulates with the TALUS bone.... fibula


Finasteride is a drug which inhibits the ENZYME that metabolises TESTOSTERONE into the more potent ANDROGEN, dihydrotestosterone. This action results in a reduction of prostate tissue. The drug is used to treat an enlarged PROSTATE GLAND, thus improving urinary ?ow. Its side-effects include reduced LIBIDO, and IMPOTENCE. Finasteride o?ers an alternative to PROSTATECTOMY for some men but a signi?cant minority do not improve. Women of childbearing age should not handle broken or crushed tablets.... finasteride


The unique pattern of ?ne ridges in the outer horny layer of the skin at the front of the tip of each ?nger and thumb. The ridges are of three types: loops (70 per cent), whorls (25 per cent) and arches (5 per cent). Fingerprint patterns are used as a routine forensic test by police forces to identify individuals. Some patterns can indicate that the subject has an inherited disorder.... fingerprint


Particles that appear to be ?oating in a person’s ?eld of vision. They move quickly as the eye moves, but when the eye is still they seem to drift. Vision is not usually affected. Most ?oaters are shadows on the retina from minute particles in the vitreous humour (see EYE) which lies in the main part of the eyeball behind the lens. As a person ages, the jelly-like vitreous humour usually shrinks a little and becomes detached from the retina; this produces ?oaters which vanish over time. If a person notices a sudden cloud of ?oaters, sometimes accompanied by ?ashes of light, it is likely that a tear in or detachment of the retina has occurred. This requires prompt medical attention (see EYE, DISORDERS OF – Retinal detachment).... floaters


A PENICILLINASE-resistant PENICILLIN used to treat penicillin-resistant staphylococci infection (see also STAPHYLOCOCCUS; ANTIBIOTICS).... flucloxacillin


An oral triazole antifungal drug used to treat local and systemic infections.... fluconazole


Generally refers to helminth in the Class Trematoda or trematodes.... fluke


See FLUORINE.... fluoridation


An drug of the antimetabolite group – a group that disrupts normal cell division. Fluorouracil is used intravenously to treat recurrent and inoperable carcinoma of the colon and rectum, as well as secondaries from cancer of the breast. It can be used topically for some malignant and premalignant skin lesions. (See CYTOTOXIC.)... fluorouracil


Better known by its trade name Prozac®, this drug – one of the SELECTIVE SEROTONINREUPTAKE INHIBITORS (SSRIS) – has been widely used, especially in North America, for the treatment of depression and anxiety (see MENTAL ILLNESS). Though causing fewer side-effects than TRICYCLIC ANTIDEPRESSANT DRUGS (the ?rst such drugs widely used), SSRI drugs should be prescribed with care and should not be stopped abruptly. Unlike benzodiazepine tranquillisers such as Valium®, ?uoxetine is not addictive, but there have been rare reports of it allegedly provoking people to acts of violence. The drug acts by modifying the activities of neurotransmitters, notably DOPAMINE and SEROTONIN in the brain, thus prolonging the effects of these chemical messengers.... fluoxetine


See BENZODIAZEPINES.... flurazepam


See FETUS.... foetus

Follicle-stimulating Hormone

A hormone produced by the anterior PITUITARY GLAND which stimulates the formation of follicles in the ovary each menstrual cycle (see OVARIES; MENSTRUATION) and of spermatocytes in the testis (see TESTICLE). It is under hypothalamic control (see HYPOTHALAMUS) and in the female there is feedback inhibition by oestrogens from the developing follicle.... follicle-stimulating hormone


A hot, wet poultice used on painful, inflamed areas. The usual form is a towel dipped in tea and applied hot or warm to the swollen tissue, being changed when it cools.... fomentation

Folic Acid

One of the constituents of the vitamin B complex, folic acid derives its name from the fact that it is found in many green leaves, including spinach and grass. It has also been obtained from liver, kidney and yeasts. It has proved to be of value in the treatment of macrocytic anaemias (see ANAEMIA), particularly those associated with SPRUE and nutritional de?ciencies.

In order to prevent NEURAL TUBE defects and cleft lip or palate (see CLEFT PALATE), all women planning to become pregnant should be advised to have a diet rich in folic acid in the months before conception until 13 weeks’ gestation, or to take folic acid tablets.

Recent research has suggested that adequate levels of folic acid can prevent the build-up of homocysteine, a compound in the blood closely associated with heart attacks and strokes. It has been suggested that the o?cial recommendation of 200 micrograms a day in the diet should be doubled. (See APPENDIX 5: VITAMINS.)... folic acid


Areas on the head on which bone has not yet formed. The chief of these is the anterior fontanelle, situated on the top of the head between the frontal and two parietal bones. In shape it is four-sided, about 25 mm (1 inch) square at the time of birth, gradually diminishing until it is completely covered by bone, which should happen by the age of 18 months. The pulsations of the brain can be readily felt through it. Delay in its closure is particularly found in cases of RICKETS, as well as in other states of defective development. The fontanelle bulges in raised intracranial pressure from HYDROCEPHALUS and MENINGITIS, and depressed in DEHYDRATION.... fontanelle


The Latin term for a hole. It is especially applied to natural openings in bones, such as the foramen magnum, the large opening in the base of the skull through which the brain and spinal cord are continuous.... foramen

Food Intolerance

This is divided into food aversion, where a person simply avoids a food they dislike; food intolerance, where taking the food causes symptoms; and food allergy, where the symptoms are due to an immunological reaction. Some cases of food intolerance are due to idiosyncrasy – that is, a genetic defect in the patient, such as alactasia, where the intestine lacks the enzyme that digests milk sugar, with the result that individuals so affected develop diarrhoea when they drink milk. Intolerance to speci?c foods, as distinct from allergy, is probably quite common and may be an important factor in the aetiology of the IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME (IBS).

For the diagnosis of true food allergy, it is necessary to demonstrate that there is a reproducible intolerance to a speci?c food; also, that there is evidence of an abnormal immunological reaction to it. Occasionally the allergic response may not be to the food itself but to food contaminants such as penicillin, or to food additives such as tartrazine. There may also be reactions to foods which have pharmacological effects, such as ca?eine in strong co?ee or histamine in fermented cheese, or such reactions may be due to the irritant e?ect on the intestinal mucosa (especially if it is already diseased) by, say, highly spiced curries.

Testing blood and skin for food allergy is beloved of some alternative practitioners but, in practice, the results of tests do not necessarily agree with what happens when the food is taken. Therefore, a careful history is as useful as any test in making a diagnosis.... food intolerance


Surgical instruments with a pincer-like action which are used, for example, during operations, for grasping tissues and other materials. There are many di?erent designs for di?erent uses.

Obstetric forceps are designed to ?t around the infant’s head and allow traction to be applied to aid its delivery or to protect the soft skull of a very premature baby. (See PREGNANCY AND LABOUR.)... forceps

Forensic Medicine

That branch of medicine concerned with matters of law and the solving of crimes, for example, by determining the cause of a death in suspicious circumstances or identifying a criminal by examining tissue found at the scene of a crime. The use of DNA identi?cation to establish who was present at the ‘scene of the crime’ is now a widely used procedure in forensic medicine.... forensic medicine


See PREPUCE.... foreskin


The British Pharmacopoeia preparation, formaldehyde solution, contains 34–38 per cent formaldehyde in water. It is a powerful antiseptic, and also has the power to harden the tissues. The vapour is very irritating to the eyes and nose.

Uses For disinfection it is largely used in the form of a spray; it can also be vaporised by heat. One of its advantages is that it does not damage metals or fabrics. In 3 per cent solution in water it is used for the treatment of warts on the palms of the hands and the soles of the feet.... formaldehyde


A small depression. In the EYE this is an area near the fundus which contains predominantly cones and is the area with greatest visual acuity (see also VISION).... fovea


Protection, Exorcism, Spirituality... frankincense


A term used to describe a lack of interest in sexual intercourse (COITUS) or the inability to achieve intercourse or ORGASM. Though applicable to both sexes, frigidity is usually applied to women with these sexual problems.... frigidity


Describing the anterior part of a body or organ.... frontal


A potent loop diuretic with a rapid onset (30 minutes), and short duration, of action. (See THIAZIDES, DIURETICS.)... frusemide


The term literally means ?ight, and it is used to describe the mental condition in which an individual is suddenly seized with a subconscious motivation to ?ee from some intolerable reality of everyday existence: this usually involves some agonising interpersonal relationship. As a rule, fugue lasts for a matter of hours or days, but may go on for weeks or even months. During the fugue the individual seldom behaves in a particularly odd manner – though he or she may be considered somewhat eccentric. When it is over there is no remembrance of events during the fugue.

Three types of fugue have been identi?ed: (a) acute anxiety; (b) a manifestation of DEPRESSION; (c) a manifestation of organic mental state such as occurs after an epileptic seizure (see EPILEPSY).... fugue


Fumaria officinalis. N.O. Fumariaceae.

Synonym: Earth Smoke.

Habitat: Roadsides, fields, gardens.

Features ? Stem weak, brittle, sometimes erect, sometimes trailing, six to twelve inches long. Leaves alternate, twice pinnate, bluish-green. Flowers (May to November) reddish-rose, several on stalk.

Part used ? Herb.

Action: Slightly tonic, diuretic, aperient.

For stomach and liver disorders and minor skin blemishes. Infusion of 1

ounce to 1 pint may be taken freely.... fumitory


(1) The base of an organ, or that part remote from its opening.

(2) Point on the retina opposite the pupil through which nerve ?bres and blood vessels traverse the retina (see EYE).... fundus


Eucaryotic (nucleated) organisms, reproducing by means of spores and have no chlorophyll, e.g. mushrooms, toadstools, moulds.... fungus


Another term for a boil.... furuncle

Fusidic Acid

A valuable antistaphylococcal antibiotic used both orally and topically. It is particularly useful in osteomyelitis (see BONE, DISORDERS OF).... fusidic acid

Greenstick Fracture

An incomplete fracture, in which the bone is not completely broken across. It occurs in the long bones of children and is usually due to indirect force. (See BONE, DISORDERS OF – Bone fractures.)... greenstick fracture

Hand, Foot And Mouth Disease

A contagious disease due to infection with coxsackie A16 virus (see COXSACKIE VIRUSES). Most common in children, the incubation period is 3–5 days. It is characterised by an eruption of blisters on the palms and the feet (often the toes), and in the mouth. The disease

has no connection with foot and mouth disease in cattle, deer, pigs and sheep.... hand, foot and mouth disease

Hydrops Fetalis


Immersion Foot

The term applied to a condition which develops as a result of prolonged immersion of the feet in cold or cool water. It was a condition commonly seen during World War II in shipwrecked sailors and airmen who had crashed into the sea, spending long periods there before being rescued. Such prolonged exposure results in VASOCONSTRICTION of the smaller arteries in the feet, leading to coldness and blueness and ?nally, in severe cases, to ulceration and GANGRENE. (See also TRENCH FOOT.)... immersion foot

Mallet Finger

Deformation of a ?nger due to sudden forced ?exion of the terminal joint, leading to rupture of the tendon. As a result the individual is unable to extend the terminal part of the ?nger, which remains bent forwards. The middle, ring and little ?ngers are most commonly involved. Treatment is by splinting the ?nger. The end result is satisfactory provided that the patient has su?cient patience.... mallet finger

Malta Fever

See BRUCELLOSIS.... malta fever

March Fracture

A curious condition in which a fracture occurs of the second (rarely, the third) metatarsal bone in the foot without any obvious cause. The usual story is that a pain suddenly developed in the foot while walking or marching (hence the name), and that it has persisted ever since. The only treatment needed is immobilisation of the foot and rest, and the fracture heals satisfactorily. (For more information on fractures, see BONE, DISORDERS OF – Bone fractures.)... march fracture

Mycosis Fungoides

An old term for a chronic eruption of the skin characterised by erythematous (see ERYTHEMA) itching plaques (raised patches on the skin resulting from the merging or enlargement of papules – see PAPULE), which, if left untreated, eventually form tumours and ulcers. The disease is now known to be a form of cancer of lymphocytes (see LYMPHOCYTE) called T-cell LYMPHOMA. It may be responsive to PHOTOCHEMOTHERAPY in its early stages and to RADIOTHERAPY when more advanced.... mycosis fungoides

Plantar Fasciitis

See FASCIITIS.... plantar fasciitis

Relapsing Fever

So-called because of the characteristic temperature chart showing recurring bouts of fever, this is an infectious disease caused by SPIROCHAETE. There are two main forms of the disease.

Louse-borne relapsing fever is an EPIDEMIC disease, usually associated with wars and famines, which has occurred in practically every country in the world. For long confused with TYPHUS FEVER and typhoid fever (see ENTERIC FEVER), it was not until the 1870s that the causal organism was described by Obermeier. It is now known as the Borrelia recurrentis, a motile spiral organism 10–20 micrometres in length. The organism is transmitted from person to person by the louse, Pediculus humanus.

Symptoms The incubation period is up to 12 days (but usually seven). The onset is sudden, with high temperature, generalised aches and pains, and nose-bleeding. In about half of cases, a rash appears at an early stage, beginning in the neck and spreading down over the trunk and arms. JAUNDICE may occur; and both the LIVER and the SPLEEN are enlarged. The temperature subsides after ?ve or six days, to rise again in about a week. There may be up to four such relapses (see the introductory paragraph above).

Treatment Preventive measures are the same as those for typhus. Rest in bed is essential, as are good nursing and a light, nourishing diet. There is usually a quick response to PENICILLIN; the TETRACYCLINES and CHLORAMPHENICOL are also e?ective. Following such treatment the incidence of relapse is about 15 per cent. The mortality rate is low, except in a starved population.

Tick-borne relapsing fever is an ENDEMIC disease which occurs in most tropical and sub-tropical countries. The causative organism is Borrelia duttoni, which is transmitted by a tick, Ornithodorus moubata. David Livingstone suggested that it was a tick-borne disease, but it was not until 1905 that Dutton and Todd produced the de?nitive evidence.

Symptoms The main di?erences from the louse-borne disease are: (a) the incubation period is usually shorter, 3–6 days (but may be as short as two days or as long as 12); (b) the febrile period is usually shorter, and the afebrile periods are more variable in duration, sometimes only lasting for a day or two; (c) relapses are much more numerous.

Treatment Preventive measures are more di?cult to carry out than in the case of the louse-borne infection. Protective clothing should always be worn in ‘tick country’, and old, heavily infected houses should be destroyed. Curative treatment is the same as for the louse-borne infection.... relapsing fever

Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

A fever of the typhus group (see TYPHUS FEVER). It received its name from the fact that it was ?rst reported in the Rocky Mountain States of the United States; these are still the most heavily infected areas, but the fever is now found in all parts of the US. The causative organism is Rickettsia rickettsi, which is transmitted to humans by tics.... rocky mountain spotted fever

Rheumatic Fever

An acute febrile illness, usually seen in children, which may include ARTHRALGIA, ARTHRITIS, CHOREA, carditis (see below) and rash (see ERUPTION). The illness has been shown to follow a beta-haemolytic streptococcal infection (see STREPTOCOCCUS).

Rheumatic fever is now extremely uncommon in developed countries, but remains common in developing areas. Diagnosis is based on the presence of two or more major manifestations – endocarditis (see under HEART, DISEASES OF), POLYARTHRITIS, chorea, ERYTHEMA marginatum, subcutaneous nodules – or one major and two or more minor ones – fever, arthralgia, previous attacks, raised ESR, raised white blood cell count, and ELECTROCARDIOGRAM (ECG) changes. Evidence of previous infection with streptococcus is also a criterion.

Clinical features Fever is high, with attacks of shivering or rigor. Joint pain and swelling (arthralgia) may affect the knee, ankle, wrist or shoulder and may migrate from one joint to another. TACHYCARDIA may indicate cardiac involvement. Subcutaneous nodules may occur, particularly over the back of the wrist or over the elbow or knee. Erythema marginatum is a red rash, looking like the outline of a map, characteristic of the condition.

Cardiac involvement includes PERICARDITIS, ENDOCARDITIS, and MYOCARDITIS. The main long-term complication is damage to the mitral and aortic valves (see HEART).

The chief neurological problem is chorea (St Vitus’s dance) which may develop after the acute symptoms have subsided.

Chronic rheumatic heart disease occurs subsequently in at least half of those who have had rheumatic fever with carditis. The heart valve usually involved is the mitral; less commonly the aortic, tricuspid and pulmonary. The lesions may take 10–20 years to develop in developed countries but sooner elsewhere. The heart valves progressively ?brose and ?brosis may also develop in the myocardium and pericardium. The outcome is either mitral stenosis or mitral regurgitation and the subsequent malfunction of this or other heart valves affected is chronic failure in the functioning of the heart. (see HEART, DISEASES OF).

Treatment Eradication of streptococcal infection is essential. Other features are treated symptomatically. PARACETAMOL may be preferred to ASPIRIN as an antipyretic in young children. One of the NON-STEROIDAL ANTIINFLAMMATORY DRUGS (NSAIDS) may bene?t the joint symptoms. CORTICOSTEROIDS may be indicated for more serious complications.

Patients who have developed cardiac-valve abnormalities require antibiotic prophylaxis during dental treatment and other procedures where bacteria may enter the bloodstream. Secondary cardiac problems may occur several decades later and require replacement of affected heart valves.... rheumatic fever

Tetralogy Of Fallot

The most common form of cyanotic congenital heart disease. The tetralogy consists of stenosis of the pulmonary valve (see PULMONARY STENOSIS); a defect in the septum separating the two ventricles (see VENTRICLE); the AORTA over-riding both ventricles; marked HYPERTROPHY of the right ventricle. Surgery is required to remedy the defects.... tetralogy of fallot

Scarlet Fever

This disorder is caused by the erythrogenic toxin of the STREPTOCOCCUS. The symptoms of PYREXIA, headache, vomiting and a punctate erythematous rash (see ERYTHEMA) follow a streptococcal infection of the throat or even a wound. The rash is symmetrical and does not itch. The skin subsequently peels.

Symptoms The period of incubation (i.e. the time elapsing between the reception of infection and the development of symptoms) varies somewhat. In most cases it lasts only two to three days, but in occasional cases the patient may take a week to develop his or her ?rst symptoms. The occurrence of fever is usually short and sharp, with rapid rise of temperature to 40 °C (104 °F), shivering, vomiting, headache, sore throat and marked increase in the rate of the pulse. In young children, CONVULSIONS or DELIRIUM may precede the fever. The rash usually appears within 24 hours of the onset of fever and lasts about a week.

Complications The most common and serious of these is glomerulonephritis (see under KIDNEYS, DISEASES OF), which may arise during any period in the course of the fever, but particularly when DESQUAMATION occurs. Occasionally the patient develops chronic glomerulonephritis. Another complication is infection of the middle ear (otitis media – see under EAR, DISEASES OF). Other disorders affecting the heart and lungs occasionally arise in connection with scarlet fever, the chief of these being ENDOCARDITIS, which may lay the foundation of valvular disease of the heart later in life. ARTHRITIS may produce swelling and pain in the smaller rather than in the larger joints; this complication usually occurs in the second week of illness. Scarlet fever, which is now a mild disease in most patients, should be treated with PENICILLIN.... scarlet fever

Trench Fever

An infectious disease caused by Rickettsia quintana which is transmitted by the body louse. Large epidemics occurred among troops on active service during World War I. It recurred on a smaller scale in World War II, but is now rare.... trench fever

Trigger Finger

Also called snapping ?nger. This is the condition in which, when the ?ngers are straightened on unclenching the ?st, one ?nger – usually the ring or middle ?nger – remains bent. The cause is obscure. In severe cases treatment consists of opening up the sheath surrounding the tendon of the affected ?nger. When con?ned to the thumb, the condition is known as trigger thumb.... trigger finger

Typhoid Fever

See ENTERIC FEVER.... typhoid fever

Anal Fissure

See: FISSURE, ANAL. ... anal fissure

Trench Foot

This is due to prolonged exposure of the feet to water – particularly cold water. Trench warfare is a common precipitating factor, and the condition was rampant during World War I. Cases also occurred during World War II and during the Falklands campaign. (The less common form, due to warm-water immersion, occurred with some frequency in the Vietnam war.) It is characterised by painful swelling of the feet accompanied in due course by blistering and ulceration which, in severe, untreated cases, may progress to GANGRENE. In mild cases recovery may be complete in a month, but severe cases may drag on for a year. (See also IMMERSION FOOT.)

Treatment Drying of the feet overnight, where practicable, is the best method of prevention, accompanied by avoidance of constrictive clothing and tight boots, and of prolonged immobility. Frequent rest periods and daily changing of socks also help. The application of silicone grease once a day is another useful preventive measure. In the early stages, treatment consists of rest in bed and warmth; in more severe cases treatment is as for infected tissues and ulceration. ANALGESICS are usually necessary to ease the pain. Technically, smoking should be forbidden, but the adverse psychological effects of this in troops on active service may outweigh its advantages.... trench foot

Athlete’s Foot

Superficial infection of the skin of the feet by a fungus. Ringworm of the feet. Scaly lesions, sometimes with blisters. May be secondary infection from lymphadenitis or cellulitis – in which cases internal treatment would be indicated. Begins between the toes before spreading to plantar surface. Differential diagnosis. Eczema, psoriasis or dermatitis from shoes.

Symptoms. Itchy redness and peeling. Sore raw areas left after removal of patches of skin. Possible invasion of other parts of the body: fingers, palms. The fungus can be picked up walking bare-feet in sport’s clubs, schools or swimming baths. Worse in warm weather. Resistant to cleansing.

Treatment. Tablets/capsules. Echinacea, Thuja, Poke root.

Formula. Echinacea 2; Goldenseal 1; Poke root half. Mix. Dose – Powders: 500mg (two 00 capsules or one-third teaspoon). Liquid extracts: one 5ml teaspoon. Tinctures: two 5ml teaspoons. Thrice daily before meals.

Topical. Alternatives:– Thuja lotion applied on lint or suitable material (1 teaspoon Liquid extract Thuja in 1oz (30ml) distilled extract of Witch Hazel. Wild Indigo salve (1 teaspoon Wild Indigo powder in 1oz (30ml) honey – store in screw-top jar.

Aloe Vera, fresh juice or gel.

Tea Tree oil: if too strong may be diluted many times.

Comfrey cream. Castor oil. Mullein oil. Houseleek.

Black Walnut: tincture or Liquid extract. Cider vinegar. Bran bath.

Night foot-wash. With water to which has been added a few drops of tincture Thuja, Myrrh, or Tea

Tree oil.

Light sprinkle of powdered Myrrh or Goldenseal in sock or shoe. ... athlete’s foot

Atrial Fibrillation

Arrhythmia. Heart flutter. Disorderly uncoordinated contraction of atrial muscle wall, the ventricles responding irregularly.

Causes: thyrotoxicosis, valvular or coronary disease. Present in mitral stenosis and myocarditis. Precursor of heart failure. Carrying a bucket of coal upstairs may be sufficient to precipitate an attack. Symptoms. Pulse irregular in time and force, breathlessness, visible pulse in neck, excessive heart beats of sudden onset or permanent, with breathlessness often from emotional excitement.

Treatment. Patient should avoid excessive physical exercise or give way to anxiety and depression. Alternatives:– Tea. Equal parts: Hawthorn (berries or blossoms), Broom, Valerian. 1-2 teaspoons in each cup boiling water; infuse 5-15 minutes; dose – half-1 cup thrice daily.

Tablets/capsules. Hawthorn, Valerian, Motherwort.

Formula. Hawthorn 2; Passion flower 2; Broom 3. Mix. Dose: Powders: 750mg (three 00 capsules or half a teaspoon). Liquid extracts: 1 teaspoon. Tinctures: 2 teaspoons. In water or honey thrice daily. Practitioner. Tincture Gelsemium (BPC 1973): 2-5 drops. Tincture Lily of the Valley: 0.5-1ml.

Undue violence. Tincture Gelsemium 1; Tincture Cactus 2. Mix. Dose: 5-10 drops. Where heart muscle is damaged, add 1 part Liquid Extract Black Cohosh.

Broom. Spartiol Drops, 20 drops thrice daily. (Klein)

Diet. See: DIET – HEART AND CIRCULATION. ... atrial fibrillation

Farmer’s Lung

Allergic alveolitis. An occupational lung disease due to inhaling dust and mouldy grain, hay or other mouldy vegetable produce. Usually affects farm workers and those exposed to its wide range of allergens.

Symptoms: Influenza-like fever, breathlessness, cough.

Prognosis: Chronic lung damage and progressive disability.

Indicated: antifungals, antibiotics.

Alternatives. Teas. Marigold, Ground Ivy, Scarlet Pimpernel, Yarrow. 1 heaped teaspoon to each cup boiling water; infuse 5-15 minutes; 1 cup freely.

Tablets/capsules. Garlic, Echinacea, Goldenseal, Thuja.

Powders. Combine, parts, Echinacea 3; Goldenseal 1; Thuja 1. Dose: 500mg, (two 00 capsules or one- third teaspoon) thrice daily.

Decoction. Irish Moss, to promote expectoration and eliminate debris.

Tinctures. Alternatives. (1) Echinacea 2; Lobelia 1; Liquorice 1. (2) Equal parts: Wild Indigo, Thuja and Pleurisy root. (3) Echinacea 2; Marigold 1; Thuja half; Liquorice half. Dosage: two 5ml teaspoons in water thrice daily. Acute cases: every 2 hours.

Topical. Inhalation of Eucalyptus or Tea Tree oils.

Diet. See: DIET – GENERAL. Yoghurt in place of milk.

Note: Bronchodilators of little value. Those at risk should have an X-ray at regular intervals. ... farmer’s lung


Sycosis. Barber’s itch. Inflammation of the hair follicles commencing as scattered pimples progressing to pustules on the scalp or beard.

Cause: mostly staphylococcal or streptococcal.

Key agent: Thuja.

Alternatives. Blue Flag root, Burdock root, Clivers, Garlic, Poke root, Red Clover flower, Yellow Dock root, Echinacea root. Devil’s Claw, Guaiacum resin, Sarsaparilla.

Decoction. Burdock and Sarsaparilla; equal parts. Mix. 1oz to 1 pint water gently simmered 20 minutes. Half-1 cup thrice daily.

Powders. Combine equal parts, Echinacea and Garlic. 500mg or one-third teaspoon in water or honey, thrice daily.

Practitioner. Tinctures: Guaiacum BPC (1949) 0.5ml; Rheum Palmatum BPC (1934) 5ml; Thuja 0.5ml; Trifolium pratense BHP (1983) 5ml; Arctium lappa BHP (1983) 5ml; Rumex Crispus BHP (1983) 5ml. Aqua et 100ml. Sig: 5ml (3i) tds Aq. cal. pc.

Topical. 10 drops Tea Tree oil in eggcup Almond, Safflower or Sunflower oil. Evening Primrose oil. Aloe Vera gel.


Vitamins. A. B-complex, B2, B6, D, F, Biotin, Niacin, Zinc.

Note: There is a form which is part of the constitutional disease resulting from gonorrhoea which presents with dry soft spongy cauliflower warts. See: GONORRHOEA. ... folliculitis

Amaurosis Fugax

Sudden transitory impairment, or loss, of vision. It usually affects only one eye, and is commonly due to circulatory failure. In its simplest form it occurs in normal people on rising suddenly from the sitting or recumbent position, when it is due to the effects of gravity. It also occurs in migraine. A not uncommon cause, particularly in elderly people, is transient ocular ISCHAEMIA, resulting from blockage of the circulation to the retina (see EYE) by emboli (see EMBOLISM) from the common carotid artery or the heart. Treatment in this last group of cases consists of control of the blood pressure if this is raised, as it often is in such cases; and the administration of drugs that reduce the stickiness of blood platelets, such as aspirin. In some instances, removal of the part of the carotid artery from which the emboli are coming may be indicated.... amaurosis fugax

Blue Flag

Iris versicolor. N.O. Iridaceae.

Synonym: Flag Lily, Liver Lily, Snake Lily, Water Lily.

Habitat: Marshy places in Central America.

Features ? Rhizome cylindrical, compressed towards larger end, where is cup-shaped stem scar. Breaks with sharp fracture, showing dark purple internally. Taste, acrid and pungent.

Part used ? Root.

Action: Alterative, diuretic, cathartic.

Skin affections; stimulates liver and other glands. Dose of the powdered root, 20 grains as a cathartic.... blue flag

Case Fatality Rate

The number of fatal cases of specific disease, divided by total number of known cases and it is usually expressed as percent. Case fatality is one index of disease severity and is of more interest in acute than in chronic disease.... case fatality rate

Colles’ Fracture

Colles’ fracture is a fracture of the lower end of the radius close to the wrist, caused usually by a fall forwards on the palm of the hand, in which the lower fragment is displaced backwards. (See BONE, DISORDERS OF.)... colles’ fracture

Comminuted Fracture

See BONE, DISORDERS OF.... comminuted fracture

Epicanthic Fold

A vertical skinfold that runs from the upper eyelid to the side of the nose. These folds are normal in oriental races but uncommon in others, although babies may have a temporary fold that disappears. Folds are present in people with DOWN’S (DOWN) SYNDROME.... epicanthic fold

Essential Fatty Acids

Three acids – arachidonic, linolenic and tinoleic – which are essential for life, but which the body cannot produce. They are found in natural vegetable and ?sh oils and their functions are varied. EFAs have a vital function in fat metabolism and transfer and they are also precursors of PROSTAGLANDINS.... essential fatty acids

Enteral Feeding

In severely ill patients, the metabolic responses to tissue damage may be su?cient to cause a reduction of muscle mass and of plasma proteins. This state of CATABOLISM may also impair the immune response to infection and delay the healing of wounds. It is probable that as many as one-half of patients who have had a major operation a week previously show evidence of protein malnutrition. This can be detected clinically by a loss of weight and a reduction in the skinfold thickness and arm circumference. Biochemically the serum-albumin (see ALBUMINS) concentration falls, as does the LYMPHOCYTE count. The protein reserves of the body fall even more dramatically when there are SEPSIS, burns, acute pancreatitis or renal failure.

The purpose of enteral feeding is to give a liquid, low-residue food through a naso-gastric feeding tube. It has the advantage over parenteral nutrition that the septic complications of insertion of CATHETERS into veins are avoided. Enteral feeding may either take the form of intermittent feeding through a large-bore naso-gastric tube, or of continuous gravity-feeding through a ?ne-bore tube.

A number of proprietary enteral foods are available. Some contain whole protein as the nitrogen source; others – and these are called elemental diets – contain free amino acids. DIARRHOEA is the most common problem with enteral feeding and it tends to occur when enteral feeding is introduced too rapidly or with too strong a preparation.... enteral feeding


Facies is a term applied to the expression or appearance of the face.... facies

Factual Database

An indexed computer or printed source that provides information, in the form of guidelines for diagnosis, treatment and care indications, about older persons, or other authoritative information (for example, a computer database on drug indications, contraindications and interactions).... factual database

Faith Healing

The facility, claimed by some people, to cure disease by a healing force present in their make-up. The healer ‘transmits’ the force by direct contact with the person seeking treatment. Strong religious beliefs are usually the characteristics of the healer and his or her subject. The force is inexplicable to science but some medically quali?ed doctors have been convinced of its bene?cial e?ect in certain individuals.... faith healing

Fallen Arches

Weakness in the muscles that support the bony arches of the foot. The result is ?at feet, a condition that can adversely affect a person’s ability to walk and run normally.... fallen arches

Fallopian Tubes

Tubes, one on each side, lying in the pelvic area of the abdomen, which are attached at one end to the UTERUS, and have the other unattached but lying close to the ovary (see OVARIES). Each is 10–12·5 cm (4–5 inches) long, large at the end next to the ovary, but communicating with the womb by an opening which admits only a bristle. These tubes conduct the ova (see OVUM) from the ovaries to the interior of the womb. Blockage of the Fallopian tubes by a chronic in?ammatory process resulting from infection is a not uncommon cause of infertility in women. (See ECTOPIC PREGNANCY; REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM.)... fallopian tubes

False Negative

A negative test result for a condition that is, in fact, present.... false negative

False Positive

A positive test result for a condition that is not, in fact, present.... false positive


A combination of PYRIMETHAMINE and sulfadoxine used in conjunction with other antimalarial drugs to treat falciparum malaria (see MALARIA).... fansidar


(English) A traveling woman; a wanderer... fara

Fatty Degeneration

As a result of ANAEMIA, interference with blood or nerve supply, or because of the action of various poisons, body cells may undergo abnormal changes accompanied by the appearance in their substance of fat droplets.... fatty degeneration


An emotional condition provoked by danger and usually characterised by unpleasant subjective feelings accompanied by physiological and behavioural changes. The heart rate increases, sweating occurs and the blood pressure rises. Sometimes fear of certain events or places may develop into a phobia: for example, agoraphobia, a fear of open spaces.... fear


A deep infection around the nails of toes or fingers... felon


Adjective relating to the FEMUR or the region of the thigh. For example, the femoral nerve, artery, vein and canal.... femoral


A largely obsolete surgical operation to form a new opening in the bony LABYRINTH of the inner ear in the treatment of deafness caused by otosclerosis (see under EAR, DISEASES OF). Nowadays the disorder is usually surgically treated by STAPEDECTOMY.... fenestration


(English) Resembling a green shade- loving plant

Ferne, Fyrn, Fyrne, Furn, Furne... fern

Fertility Rate

The number of live births that occur in a year for every 1,000 women of childbearing age (this is usually taken as 15–44 years of age). The fertility rate in the UK (all ages) was 54.9 in 2002 (UK Health Statistics, 2001 edition, The Stationery O?ce).... fertility rate


The involuntary quickening of gait seen in some nervous diseases, especially in PARKINSONISM.... festination

Fetal Blood Sampling

A procedure performed during a mother’s labour in which a blood sample is taken from a vein in the scalp of the FETUS. This enables tests to be performed that indicate whether the fetus is, for example, suffering from a shortage of oxygen (HYPOXIA). If so, the obstetrician will usually accelerate the baby’s birth.... fetal blood sampling

Fetal Transplant

A procedure in which cells – for example, from the pancreas – are taken from an aborted FETUS and then transplanted into the malfunctioning organ (pancreas) of an individual with a disorder of that organ (in this case, diabetes). The cells from the fetus are intended to take over the function of the host’s diseased or damaged cells. Fetal brain cells have also been transplanted into brains of people suffering from PARKINSONISM. These treatments are at an experimental stage.... fetal transplant

Fibre, Dietary

See ROUGHAGE.... fibre, dietary

Fibrinolytic Drugs

A group of drugs, also known as thrombolytics, with the ability to break down the protein FIBRIN, the prime constituent of blood clots (see THROMBUS; THROMBOSIS). They are used to disperse blood clots that have formed in the vessels of the circulatory system. The group includes STREPTOKINASE, alteplase and reteplase. The drugs work by activating PLASMINOGEN to form PLASMIN which degrades ?brin and breaks up the blood clot (see COAGULATION).... fibrinolytic drugs

Fibrocystic Disease Of The Pancreas

See CYSTIC FIBROSIS.... fibrocystic disease of the pancreas


Also called a leiomyoma or fibromyoma (or myofibroma, for that matter), it is an encapsulated tumor made up of disorganized and irregular connective tissue. A uterine fibroid is benign, there may be one or many, they grow slowly, have unknown causes, and may or may not cause painful menses or mid-cycle bleeding. Much depends on where they are in the uterus and whether or not they extend far enough into the cavity to impair and thin out the endometrium. If they do, they cause distress.... fibroids

Fibrosing Alveolitis

See ALVEOLITIS.... fibrosing alveolitis

Fibrous Dysplasia

A rare disease in which areas of bone are replaced by ?brous tissue (see CONNECTIVE TISSUE). This renders the bone fragile and liable to fracture. It may involve only one bone – usually the thigh bone or FEMUR – or several bones. This latter form of the disease may be accompanied by pigmentation of the skin and the early onset of PUBERTY.... fibrous dysplasia


Ficus spp.


The genus Ficus constitutes an important group of trees with immense medicinal value. It is a sacred tree of Hindus and Buddhists. Among the varied number of species, the most important ones are the four trees that constitute the group “Nalpamaram”, namely, F. racemosa, F. microcarpa, F. benghalensis and F. religiosa (Athi, Ithi, Peral and Arayal respectively).

1. Ficus racemosa Linn. syn. F. glomerata Roxb.

Eng: Cluster fig, Country fig

San: Udumbarah, Sadaphalah

Hin: Gular, Umar

Ben: Jagya dumur

Mal, Tam,

Kan: Athi

Tel: Udambaramu, Paidi

Gular fig, Cluster fig or Country fig, which is considered sacred, has golden coloured exudate and black bark. It is distributed all over India. Its roots are useful in treating dysentery. The bark is useful as a wash for wounds, highly efficacious in threatened abortions and recommended in uropathy. Powdered leaves mixed with honey are given in vitiated condition of pitta. A decoction of the leaves is a good wash for wounds and ulcers. Tender fruits (figs) are used in vitiated conditions of pitta, diarrhoea, dyspepsia and haemorrhages. The latex is administered in haemorrhoids and diarrhoea (Warrier et al, 1995). The ripe fruits are sweet, cooling and are used in haemoptysis, thirst and vomiting (Nadkarni, 1954; Aiyer et al, 1957; Moos, 1976). Nalpamaradi coconut oil, Candanasava, Valiya Arimedastaila, Dinesavalyadi Kuzhambu, Abhrabhasma, Valiya candanaditaila, etc. are some important preparations using the drug (Sivarajan et al, 1994).

It is a moderate to large-sized spreading laticiferous, deciduous tree without many prominent aerial roots. Leaves are dark green and ovate or elliptic. Fruit receptacles are 2-5cm in diameter, sub- globose or pyriform arranged in large clusters on short leafless branches arising from main trunk or large branches. Figs are smooth or rarely covered with minute soft hairs. When ripe, they are orange, dull reddish or dark crimson. They have a pleasant smell resembling that of cedar apples. The bark is rusty brown with a fairly smooth and soft surface, the thickness varying from 0.5-2cm according to the age of the trunk or bark. Surface is with minute separating flakes of white tissue. Texture is homogeneously leathery (Warrier et al, 1995).

Stem-bark gives gluanol acetate, -sitosterol, leucocyanidin-3-O- -D-glucopyrancoside, leucopelargonidin-3-O- -D-glucopyranoside, leucopelargonidin -3-O- -L-rhamnopyranoside, lupeol, ceryl behenate, lupeol acetate and -amyrin acetate. Stem- bark is hypoglycaemic and anti-protozoal. Gall is CVS active. Bark is tonic and used in rinder pest diseases of cattle. Root is antidysenteric and antidiabetic. Leaf is antibilious. Latex is antidiarrhoeal and used in piles. Bark and syconium is astringent and used in menorrhagia (Husain et al, 1992).

2. Ficus microcarpa Linn. f. syn. F. retusa auct. Non. Linn.

San: Plaksah; Hin,

Ben: Kamarup;

Mal: Ithi, Ithiyal;

Tam: Kallicci, Icci;

Kan: Itti;

Tel: Plaksa

Plaksah is the Ficus species with few branches and many adventitious roots growing downward. It is widely distributed throughout India and in Sri Lanka, S. China, Ryuku Isles and Britain. Plakasah is one of the five ingredients of the group panchvalkala i.e, five barks, the decoction of which is extensively used to clear ulcers and a douche in leucorrhoea in children. This decoction is administered externally and internally with satisfactory results. Plaksah is acclaimed as cooling, astringent, and curative of raktapitta doshas, ulcers, skin diseases, burning sensation, inflammation and oedema. It is found to have good healing property and is used in preparation of oils and ointments for external application in the treatment of ulcers (Aiyer and Kolammal, 1957). The stem-bark is used to prepare Usirasava, Gandhataila, Nalpamaradi taila, Valiya marmagulika, etc. (Sivarajan et al, 1994). The bark and leaves are used in wounds, ulcers, bruises, flatulent colic, hepatopathy, diarrhoea, dysentery, diabetes, hyperdipsia, burning sensation, haemaorrhages, erysipelas, dropsy, ulcerative stomatitis, haemoptysis, psychopathy, leucorrhoea and coporrhagia (Warrier et al,1995) F. microcarpa is a large glabrous evergreen tree with few aerial roots. Leaves are short- petioled, 5-10cm long, 2-6cm wide and apex shortly and bluntly apiculate or slightly emarginate. Main lateral nerves are not very prominent and stipules are lanceolate. Fruit receptacles are sessile and globose occurring in axillary pairs. It is yellowish when ripe without any characteristic smell. Bark is dark grey or brown with a smooth surface except for the lenticels. Outer bark is corky and crustaceous thin and firmly adherent to inner tissue. Inner bark is light and flesh coloured with firbrous texture (Warrier et al, 1995). It is also equated with many other species of the genus. viz. F. Singh and Chunekar, 1972; Kapoor and Mitra, 1979; Sharma, 1983).

The bark contains tannin, wax and saponin. Bark is antibilious. Powdered leaves and bark is found very good in rheumatic headache. The bark and leaves are astringent, refrigerant, acrid and stomachic.

3. Ficus benghalensis Linn.

Eng: Banyan tree; San: Nyagrodhah, Vatah;

Hin: Bat, Bargad;

Ben: Bar, Bot; Mar: Vada; Mal: Peral, Vatavriksham;

Tam: Alamaram, Peral;

Kan: Ala;

Tel: Peddamarri;

Guj: Vad

Banyan tree is a laticiferous tree with reddish fruits, which is wound round by aerial adventitious roots that look like many legs. It is found in the Sub-Himalayan tract and Peninsular India. It is also grawn throughout India. It is widely used in treatment of skin diseases with pitta and rakta predominance. Stem-bark, root -bark, aerial roots, leaves, vegetative buds and milky exudate are used in medicine. It improves complexion, cures erysepelas, burning sensation and vaginal disorders, while an infusion of the bark cures dysentery, diarrhoea, leucorrhoea, menorrhagia, nervous disorders and reduces blood sugar in diabetes. A decoction of the vegetative buds in milk is beneficial in haemorrhages. A paste of the leaves is applied externally to abcesses and wounds to promote suppuration, while that of young aerial roots cure pimples. Young twigs when used as a tooth brush strengthen gum and teeth (Nadkarni, 1954; Aiyer and Kolammal, 1957; Mooss,1976). The drug forms an important constituent of formulations like Nalpamaradi Coconut oil, Saribadyasava, Kumkumadi taila, Khadi ra gulika, Valiyacandanadi taila, Candanasava, etc. (Sivarajan et al, 1994). The aerial roots are useful in obstinate vomiting and leucorrhoea and are used in osteomalacia of the limbs. The buds are useful in diarrhoea and dysentery. The latex is useful in neuralgia, rheumatism, lumbago, bruises, nasitis, ulorrhagia, ulitis, odontopathy, haemorrhoids, gonorrhoea, inflammations, cracks of the sole and skin diseases (Warrier et al, 1995).

It is a very large tree up to 30m in height with widely spreading branches bearing many aerial roots functioning as prop roots. Bark is greenish white. Leaves are simple, alternate, arranged often in clusters at the ends of branches. They are stipulate, 10-20cm long and 5-12.5cm broad, broadly elliptic to ovate, entire, coriaceous, strongly 3-7 ribbed from the base. The fruit receptacles are axillary, sessile, seen in pairs globose, brick red when ripe and enclosing male, female and gall flowers. Fruits are small, crustaceous, achenes, enclosed in the common fleshy receptacles. The young bark is somewhat smooth with longitudinal and transverse row of lenticels. In older bark, the lenticels are numerous and closely spaced; outer bark easily flakes off. The fresh cut surface is pink or flesh coloured and exudes plenty of latex. The inner most part of the bark adjoining the wood is nearly white and fibrous (Warrier et al, 1995).

The bark yields flavanoid compounds A, B and C; A and C are identified as different forms of a leucoanthocyanidin and compound B a leucoanthocyanin. All the 3 were effective as hypoglycaemic agents. Leaves give friedelin, -sitosterol, flavonoids- quercetin-3-galactoside and rutin. Heart wood give tiglic acid ester of taraxasterol. Bark is hypoglycemic, tonic, astringent, antidiarrhoeal and antidiabetic. Latex is antirheumatic. Seed is tonic. Leaf is diaphoretic. Root fibre is antigonorrhoeic. Aerial root is used in debility and anaemic dysentery (Husain et al, 1992).

.4. Ficus religiosa Linn.

Eng:Peepal tree, Sacred fig; San:Pippalah, Asvatthah; Hin:Pippal, Pipli, Pipar; Mal:Arayal

Ben: Asvatha;

Tam: Arasu, Asvattam;

Kan: Aswatha;

Tel: Ravi; Mar: Ashvata, Pimpala

Peepal tree or Sacred fig is a large deciduous tree with few or no aerial roots. It is common throughout India, often planted in the vicinity of the temples. An aqueous extract of the bark has an antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. It is used in the treatment of gonorrhoea, diarrhoea, dysentery, haemorrhoids and gastrohelcosis. A paste of the powdered bark is a good absorbent for inflammatory swellings. It is also good for burns. Leaves and tender shoots have purgative properties and are also recommended for wounds and skin diseases. Fruits are laxative and digestive. The dried fruit pulverized and taken in water cures asthma. Seeds are refrigerant and laxative. The latex is good for neuralgia, inflammations and haemorrhages (Warrier et al, 1995). Decoction of the bark if taken in honey subdues vatarakta (Nadkarni, 1954; Aiyer and Kolammal, 1957; Mooss, 1976; Kurup et al, 1979). The important preparations using the drug are Nalpamaradi taila, Saribadyasava, Candanasava, Karnasulantaka, Valiyamarma gulika etc (Sivarajan et al, 1994). branches bearing long petioled, ovate, cordate shiny leaves. Leaves are bright green, the apex produced into a linear-lanceolate tail about half as long as the main portion of the blade. The receptacles occurring in pairs and are axillary, depressed globose, smooth and purplish when ripe. The bark is grey or ash coloured with thin or membranous flakes and is often covered with crustose lichen patches. The outer bark is not of uniform thickness, the middle bark in sections appear as brownish or light reddish brown. The inner part consists of layers of light yellowish or orange brown granular tissue (Warrier et al, 1995).

Bark gives -sitosterol and its glucoside. Bark is hypoglycaemic. Stem bark is antiprotozoal, anthelmintic and antiviral. Bark is astringent, antigonorrheic, febrifuge, aphrodisiac and antidysenteric. Syconium, leaf and young shoot is purgative (Husain et al, 1992).

Agrotechnology: Ficus species can be cultivated in rocky areas, unused lands, or other wastelands of the farmyard. The plant is vegetatively propagated by stem cuttings. A few species are also seed propagated. Stem cuttings of pencil thickness taken from the branches are to be kept for rooting. Rooted cuttings are to be transplanted to prepared pits. No regular manuring is required. Irrigation is not a must as a plant is hardy. The plant is not attacked by any serious pests or diseases. Bark can be collected after 15 years. Ficus species generally has an economic life span of more than hundred years. Hence bark can be regularly collected from the tree. Root, bark, leaves, fruits and latex form the economic parts (Prasad et al,1995).... ficus


Health, Protection... figwort


The insertion, in denistry, of a specially prepared material into a cavity drilled into a tooth, usually for the treatment of dental caries (see TEETH, DISORDERS OF).... filling


See also Shellfish, Squid.

Nutritional Profile Energy value (calories per serving): Moderate Protein: High Fat: Low to moderate Saturated fat: Low to moderate Cholesterol: Moderate Carbohydrates: Low Fiber: None Sodium: Low (fresh fish) High (some canned or salted fish) Major vitamin contribution: Vitamin A, vitamin D Major mineral contribution: Iodine, selenium, phosphorus, potassium, iron, calcium

About the Nutrients in This Food Like meat, poultry, milk, and eggs, fish are an excellent source of high- quality proteins with sufficient amount of all the essential amino acids. While some fish have as much or more fat per serving than some meats, the fat content of fish is always lower in saturated fat and higher in unsaturated fats. For example, 100 g/3.5 ounce cooked pink salmon (a fatty fish) has 4.4 g total fat, but only 0.7 g saturated fat, 1.2 g monounsaturated fat, and 1.7 g polyunsaturated fat; 100 g/3.5 ounce lean top sirloin has four grams fat but twice as much saturated fat (1.5 g), plus 1.6 g monounsatu- rated fat and only 0.2 g polyunsaturated fat. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Content of Various Fish (Continued) Fish  Grams/ounce Rainbow trout  0.30 Lake whitefish  0.25 Source: “Food for t he Heart,” American Health, April 1985. Fish oils are one of the few natural food sources of vitamin D. Salmon also has vita- min A derived from carotenoid pigments in the plants eaten by the fish. The soft bones in some canned salmon and sardines are an excellent source of calcium. CAUTION: do not eat the bones in r aw or cook ed fish. the only bones consider ed edible ar e those in the canned products.

The Most Nutritious Way to Serve This Food Cooked, to kill parasites and potentially pathological microorganisms living in raw fish. Broiled, to liquify fat and eliminate the fat-soluble environmental contaminants found in some freshwater fish. With the soft, mashed, calcium-rich bones (in canned salmon and canned sardines).

Diets That May Restrict or Exclude This Food Low-purine (antigout) diet Low-sodium diet (canned, salted, or smoked fish)

Buying This Food Look for: Fresh-smelling whole fish with shiny skin; reddish pink, moist gills; and clear, bulging eyes. The flesh should spring back when you press it lightly. Choose fish fillets that look moist, not dry. Choose tightly sealed, solidly frozen packages of frozen fish. In 1998, the FDA /National Center for Toxicological Research released for testing an inexpensive indicator called “Fresh Tag.” The indicator, to be packed with seafood, changes color if the product spoils. Avoid: Fresh whole fish whose eyes have sunk into the head (a clear sign of aging); fillets that look dry; and packages of frozen fish that are stained (whatever leaked on the package may have seeped through onto the fish) or are coated with ice crystals (the package may have defrosted and been refrozen).

Storing This Food Remove fish from plastic wrap as soon as you get it home. Plastic keeps out air, encouraging the growth of bacteria that make the fish smell bad. If the fish smells bad when you open the package, throw it out. Refrigerate all fresh and smoked fish immediately. Fish spoils quickly because it has a high proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (which pick up oxygen much more easily than saturated or monounsaturated fatty acids). Refrigeration also slows the action of microorgan- isms on the surface of the fish that convert proteins and other substances to mucopolysac- charides, leaving a slimy film on the fish. Keep fish frozen until you are ready to use it. Store canned fish in a cool cabinet or in a refrigerator (but not the freezer). The cooler the temperature, the longer the shelf life.

Preparing This Food Fresh fish. Rub the fish with lemon juice, then rinse it under cold running water. The lemon juice (an acid) will convert the nitrogen compounds that make fish smell “fishy” to compounds that break apart easily and can be rinsed off the fish with cool running water. R insing your hands in lemon juice and water will get rid of the fishy smell after you have been preparing fresh fish. Frozen fish. Defrost plain frozen fish in the refrigerator or under cold running water. Pre- pared frozen fish dishes should not be thawed before you cook them since defrosting will make the sauce or coating soggy. Salted dried fish. Salted dried fish should be soaked to remove the salt. How long you have to soak the fish depends on how much salt was added in processing. A reasonable average for salt cod, mackerel, haddock (finnan haddie), or herring is three to six hours, with two or three changes of water. When you are done, clean all utensils thoroughly with hot soap and hot water. Wash your cutting board, wood or plastic, with hot water, soap, and a bleach-and-water solution. For ultimate safety in preventing the transfer of microorganisms from the raw fish to other foods, keep one cutting board exclusively for raw fish, meats, and poultry, and a second one for everything else. Finally, don’t forget to wash your hands.

What Happens When You Cook This Food Heat changes the structure of proteins. It denatures the protein molecules so that they break apart into smaller fragments or change shape or clump together. These changes force moisture out of the tissues so that the fish turns opaque. The longer you cook fish, the more moisture it will lose. Cooked fish flakes because the connective tissue in fish “melts” at a relatively low temperature. Heating fish thoroughly destroys parasites and microorganisms that live in raw fish, making the fish safer to eat.

How Other Kinds of Processing Affect This Food Marinating. Like heat, acids coagulate the proteins in fish, squeezing out moisture. Fish marinated in citrus juices and other acids such as vinegar or wine has a firm texture and looks cooked, but the acid bath may not inactivate parasites in the fish. Canning. Fish is naturally low in sodium, but can ned fish often contains enough added salt to make it a high-sodium food. A 3.5-ounce ser ving of baked, fresh red salmon, for example, has 55 mg sodium, while an equal ser ving of regular can ned salmon has 443 mg. If the fish is can ned in oil it is also much higher in calories than fresh fish. Freezing. When fish is frozen, ice cr ystals form in the flesh and tear its cells so that mois- ture leaks out when the fish is defrosted. Commercial flash-freezing offers some protec- tion by freezing the fish so fast that the ice cr ystals stay small and do less damage, but all defrosted fish tastes drier and less palatable than fresh fish. Freezing slows but does not stop the oxidation of fats that causes fish to deteriorate. Curing. Fish can be cured (preser ved) by smoking, dr ying, salting, or pickling, all of which coagulate the muscle tissue and prevent microorganisms from growing. Each method has its own particular drawbacks. Smoking adds potentially carcinogenic chemicals. Dr ying reduces the water content, concentrates the solids and nutrients, increases the calories per ounce, and raises the amount of sodium.

Medical Uses and/or Benefits Protection against cardiovascular disease. The most important fats in fish are the poly- unsaturated acids k nown as omega-3s. These fatt y acids appear to work their way into heart cells where they seem to help stabilize the heart muscle and prevent potentially fatal arrhythmia (irregular heartbeat). A mong 85,000 women in the long-run n ing Nurses’ Health Study, those who ate fatt y fish at least five times a week were nearly 50 percent less likely to die from heart disease than those who ate fish less frequently. Similar results appeared in men in the equally long-run n ing Physicians’ Health Study. Some studies suggest that people may get similar benefits from omega-3 capsules. Researchers at the Consorzio Mario Negri Sud in Santa Maria Imbaro ( Italy) say that men given a one-gram fish oil capsule once a day have a risk of sudden death 42 percent lower than men given placebos ( “look-alike” pills with no fish oil). However, most nutrition scientists recom- mend food over supplements. Omega-3 Content of Various Food Fish Fish* (3 oz.)  Omega-3 (grams) Salmon, Atlantic  1.8 Anchovy, canned* 1.7 Mackerel, Pacific 1.6 Salmon, pink, canned* 1.4 Sardine, Pacific, canned* 1.4 Trout, rainbow  1.0 Tuna, white, canned* 0.7 Mussels  0.7 * cooked, wit hout sauce * drained Source: Nat ional Fisheries Inst itute; USDA Nut rient Data Laborator y. Nat ional Nut ri- ent Database for Standard Reference. Available online. UR L : http://w w w.nal.usda. gov/fnic/foodcomp/search /.

Adverse Effects Associated with This Food Allergic reaction. According to the Merck Manual, fish is one of the 12 foods most likely to trigger classic food allergy symptoms: hives, swelling of the lips and eyes, and upset stom- ach. The others are berries (blackberries, blueberries, raspberries, strawberries), chocolate, corn, eggs, legumes (green peas, lima beans, peanuts, soybeans), milk, nuts, peaches, pork, shellfish, and wheat (see wheat cer ea ls). NOTE : Canned tuna products may contain sulfites in vegetable proteins used to enhance the tuna’s flavor. People sensitive to sulfites may suf- fer serious allergic reactions, including potentially fatal anaphylactic shock, if they eat tuna containing sulfites. In 1997, tuna manufacturers agreed to put warning labels on products with sulfites. Environmental contaminants. Some fish are contaminated with methylmercury, a compound produced by bacteria that chemically alters naturally occurring mercury (a metal found in rock and soil) or mercury released into water through industrial pollution. The methylmer- cury is absorbed by small fish, which are eaten by larger fish, which are then eaten by human beings. The larger the fish and the longer it lives the more methylmercury it absorbs. The measurement used to describe the amount of methylmercury in fish is ppm (parts per mil- lion). Newly-popular tilapia, a small fish, has an average 0.01 ppm, while shark, a big fish, may have up to 4.54 ppm, 450 times as much. That is a relatively small amount of methylmercur y; it will soon make its way harmlessly out of the body. But even small amounts may be hazardous during pregnancy because methylmercur y targets the developing fetal ner vous system. Repeated studies have shown that women who eat lots of high-mercur y fish while pregnant are more likely to deliver babies with developmental problems. As a result, the FDA and the Environ men- tal Protection Agency have now warned that women who may become pregnant, who are pregnant, or who are nursing should avoid shark, swordfish, king mackerel, and tilefish, the fish most likely to contain large amounts of methylmercur y. The same prohibition applies to ver y young children; although there are no studies of newborns and babies, the young brain continues to develop after birth and the logic is that the prohibition during pregnancy should extend into early life. That does not mean no fish at all should be eaten during pregnancy. In fact, a 2003 report in the Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health of data from an 11,585-woman study at the University of Bristol (England) shows that women who don’t eat any fish while pregnant are nearly 40 percent more likely to deliver low birth-weight infants than are women who eat about an ounce of fish a day, the equivalent of 1/3 of a small can of tuna. One theory is that omega-3 fatty acids in the fish may increase the flow of nutrient-rich blood through the placenta to the fetus. University of Southern California researchers say that omega-3s may also protect some children from asthma. Their study found that children born to asthmatic mothers who ate oily fish such as salmon at least once a month while pregnant were less likely to develop asthma before age five than children whose asthmatic pregnant mothers never ate oily fish. The following table lists the estimated levels of mercury in common food fish. For the complete list of mercury levels in fish, click onto Mercury Levels in Common Food Fish Low levels (0.01– 0.12 ppm* average) Anchovies, butterfish, catfish, clams, cod, crab (blue, king, snow), crawfish, croaker (Atlantic), flounder, haddock, hake, herring, lobster (spiny/Atlantic) mackerel, mul- let, ocean perch, oysters, pollock, salmon (canned/fresh frozen), sardines, scallops, shad (American), shrimp, sole, squid, tilapia, trout (freshwater), tuna (canned, light), whitefish, whiting Mid levels (0.14 – 0.54 ppm* average) Bass (salt water), bluefish, carp, croaker ( Pacific), freshwater perch, grouper, halibut, lobster (Northern A merican), mackerel (Spanish), marlin, monkfish, orange roughy, skate, snapper, tilefish (Atlantic), tuna (can ned albacore, fresh/frozen), weakfish/ sea trout High levels (0.73 –1.45 ppm* average) King mackerel, shark, swordfish, tilefish * ppm = parts per million, i.e. parts of mercur y to 1,000,000 parts fish Source: U.S. Food and Drug Administ rat ion, Center for Food Safet y and Applied Nut rit ion, “Mercur y Levels in Commercial Fish and Shellfish.” Available online. UR L : w w w.cfsan.fda. gov/~frf/ ml. Parasitical, viral, and bacterial infections. Like raw meat, raw fish may carry various pathogens, including fish tapeworm and flukes in freshwater fish and Salmonella or other microorganisms left on the fish by infected foodhandlers. Cooking the fish destroys these organisms. Scombroid poisoning. Bacterial decomposition that occurs after fish is caught produces a his- taminelike toxin in the flesh of mackerel, tuna, bonito, and albacore. This toxin may trigger a number of symptoms, including a flushed face immediately after you eat it. The other signs of scombroid poisoning—nausea, vomiting, stomach pain, and hives—show up a few minutes later. The symptoms usually last 24 hours or less.

Food/Drug Interactions Monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors. Monoamine oxidase inhibitors are drugs used to treat depression. They inactivate naturally occurring enzymes in your body that metabolize tyramine, a substance found in many fermented or aged foods. Tyramine constricts blood vessels and increases blood pressure. If you eat a food such as pickled herring, which is high in tyramine, while you are taking an M AO inhibitor, your body may not be able to eliminate the tyramine and the result may be a hypertensive crisis.... fish


A term applied both to clefts of normal anatomical structure and also to small narrow ulcers occurring in skin and mucous membrane. The latter type of ?ssure occurs especially at the corners of the mouth and at the anus. (See LIPS; RECTUM, DISEASES OF.)... fissure


An ability to perform daily activities without becoming overtired. Fitness is dependent on strength, ?exibility and endurance, and the level of an individual’s ?tness will often depend on their type of employment and the extent to which they indulge in physical exercise, whether training in the local health club or at home or regularly participating in sports. Regular ?tness improves one’s health and well-being. Fitness exercises should be matched to a person’s age and abilities and there is a health danger if someone regularly exercises beyond their capabilities.... fitness


Relaxed or lacking in sti?ness. Used to describe muscles that are not contracting (or following DENERVATION), and organs – for example, the penis – that are lying loose, empty, or with wrinkles. (Opposite: ?rm or erect.)... flaccid


A section of tissue (usually skin) separated from underlying structures but still attached at its distal end by a PEDICLE through which it receives its blood supply. The free end may then be sutured into a new position to cover a defect caused by trauma or excision of diseased tissue. A free ?ap involves detachment of a section of tissue, often including bone and muscle, to a distant site where the artery and vein supplying it are anastomosed to adjacent vessels and the tissue is sutured into place. (See RECONSTRUCTIVE (PLASTIC) SURGERY.)... flap


Flat-foot, or pes planus, is a deformity of the foot in which its arch sinks down so that the inner edge of the foot comes to rest upon the ground.

Causes The disorder may develop in infancy or occur in adult life, usually resulting from a combination of obesity and/or an occupation involving long periods of standing.

Symptoms Often none, but there may be pain along the instep and beneath the outer ankle. The foot is sti? and broad, walking is tiresome, and the toes turn far out.

Treatment A change of occupation may be necessary, to one which allows sitting. In early cases the leg muscles may be strengthened by tiptoe exercises performed for ten minutes night and morning. A pad to support the arch may have to be worn inside the shoe. Rarely, children may require surgery.... flat-foot


From flavus, Latin for yellow. A 2-benzene ring, 15-carbon molecule, it is formed by many plants (in many forms) for a variety of oxidative-redox enzyme reactions. Brightly pigmented compounds that make many fruits and berries yellow, red, and purple, and that are considered in European medicine to strengthen and aid capillary and blood vessel integrity, they are sometimes (redundantly) called bioflavonoids.... flavonoids


(Latin) Resembling the plant with blue flowers

Flaxx, Flaxe, Flaxxe, Flacks, Flaks... flax


Exorcism, Protection, Chastity... fleabane


The bending of a joint in the SAGITTAL plane. Usually an anterior movement, it is occasionally posterior, as in the case of the knee-joint. Lateral ?exion refers to the bending of the spine in the coronal plane – that is, from side to side.... flexion


A MUSCLE that causes bending of a limb or other body part.... flexor


A bend in an organ or body part. The term is used, for example, to describe the skin on the inner aspect of the elbow or knee, as in the ‘hepatic ?exure’ of the COLON.... flexure


A sign obtained from collections of ?uid by laying the ?ngers of one hand upon one side of the swelling, and, with those of the other, tapping or pressing suddenly on a distant point of the swelling. The ‘thrill’ communicated from one hand to the other through the ?uid is one of the most important signs of the presence of an ABSCESS, or of e?usion of ?uid into joints or into the peritoneal cavity (see PERITONEUM).... fluctuation


A synthetic drug used as an intravenous adjunct to amphotericin to treat severe systemic fungal infections such as candidiasis (see CANDIDA) and cryptococcosis.... flucytosine


Flukes are a variety of parasitic worms. (See FASCIOLIASIS.)... flukes


A drug with the trade name Rohypnol®, ?unitrazepam is one of the BENZODIAZEPINES with a prolonged action prescribed as a hypnotic (see HYPNOTICS). The British National Formulary warns that the drug may be particularly subject to abuse (see DRUG-ASSISTED RAPE).... flunitrazepam


Fluocinolone is one of the CORTICOSTEROIDS and is applied to the skin as a cream, lotion or ointment. It is more potent than hydrocortisone. It must not be given by mouth.... fluocinolone


A dye which has the special property of absorbing blue-light energy and emitting this energy as green light. This property is made use of in examining the cornea for scratches or ulceration; it is also used to detect abnormally permeable (or leaking) blood vessels in the retina and iris – especially in diabetic retinopathy and diseases of the macula (see EYE; EYE, DISORDERS OF).... fluorescein


An apparatus for rendering X-rays visible after they have passed through the body, by projecting them on a screen of calcium tungstate. The technique is known as ?uoroscopy. It provides a method of being able to watch, for instance, the beating of the heart, or the movements of the intestine after the administration of a barium meal. (See also X-RAYS.)... fluoroscope


One of the halogen series of elements. In the form of ?uoride it is one of the constituents of bone and teeth. Supplementing the daily intake of ?uorine diminishes the incidence of dental caries (see TEETH, DISORDERS OF). In America and in Britain, evidence indicates that people who, throughout their lives, have drunk water with a natural ?uorine content of 1 part per million have less dental caries than those whose drinking water is ?uorine-free. All the available evidence indicates that this is the most satisfactory way of giving ?uorine, and that if the concentration of ?uorine in drinking water does not exceed 1 part per million, there are no toxic effects. Several water companies in the UK have added ?uoride to the public water supply, but opponents of this policy, who claim that ?uoride has serious side-effects, have prevented ?uoridation being introduced nationwide.... fluorine


One of the phenothiazine derivatives, of value as an antipsychotic drug. (See also NEUROLEPTICS.)... fluphenazine


An antiandrogen (see ANDROGEN) drug used in the treatment of cancer of the PROSTATE GLAND, sometimes in conjunction with GONADORELIN.... flutamide


The term applied to a form of abnormal cardiac rhythm, in which the atria contract at a rate of 200–400 beats a minute, and the ventricles more slowly. The abnormal rhythm is the result

of a diseased heart. (See HEART, DISEASES OF; FIBRILLATION.)... flutter


One of the STATINS group of drugs used to reduce the levels of LDL-CHOLESTEROL in the blood and thus help to prevent coronary heart disease, which is more prevalent in people with raised blood cholesterol levels (see HEART, DISEASES OF).... fluvastatin


The origin or source of an infection or vector population.... focus


(Plural: folia.) Latin term for leaf: for example, digitalis folium is digitalis leaf.... folium


A traditional term used to include all articles which have been brought into su?ciently close contact with a person sick of some infectious disease to retain the infective material and spread the disease. For example, clothes, bedding, carpets, toys and books may all be fomites until they are disinfected.... fomites


A term applied to various depressions or holes, both on the surface of the body and in internal parts, such as the iliac fossa in each lower corner of the abdomen, and the fossae within the skull which lodge the di?erent parts of the brain.... fossa


Protection... foxglove


See BONE, DISORDERS OF – Bone fractures.... fractures


See FRENUM.... fraenum


A broad-spectrum antibiotic derived from Streptomyces decaris. It is active against a wide range of organisms, and is used in drops to treat infections of the eyes and ears.... framycetin


Also known as ephelides, these are small, brown, ?at spots on the skin. They occur mostly in blonde or red-haired subjects in exposed areas, and darken on exposure to the sun. Melanocytes (see MELANOCYTE) are not increased in the basal layer of the EPIDERMIS.... freckles

Free Association

A psychoanalytic technique in which the therapist encourages the patient to follow up a speci?c line of thought and ideas as they enter his or her consciousness.... free association

Freeze Drying

A technique for ?xating specimens of tissue, involving a minimum of chemical and physical alteration. The histological specimen is immersed in a chemical, isopentane, which has been cooled in liquid air to a temperature just below 200 °C. This preserves the tissue instantly without large ice crystals forming – these would result in structural damage. The specimen is then dehydrated in a vacuum for three days, after which it can be examined using a MICROSCOPE.... freeze drying


Also known as the fraenum or frenulum, this comprises the folds of mucous membrane that anchor the bottom of the tongue to the ?oor of the mouth.... frenum

Frequency Distribution

A complete summary of the frequencies of the values or categories of a variable. Often displayed in a two-column table: the left column lists the individual values or categories, the right column indicates the number of observations in each category.... frequency distribution


Tremors or vibrations in an area of the body, detected by palpating (feeling) with the ?ngers or the hand or by auscultation (listening). The procedure is most commonly used when examining the chest and assessing what happens when the patient breathes, coughs or speaks. This helps the doctor to diagnose whether disorders such as ?uid in the pleural cavity or solidi?cation of a section of the lung have occurred.

Friction fremitus is a grating feeling communicated to the hand by the movements of lungs or heart when the membrane covering them is roughened, as in PLEURISY or PERICARDITIS. Vocal fremitus means the sensation felt by the hand when a person speaks; it is increased when the lung is more solid than usual. The ‘thrills’ felt over a heart affected by valvular disease are also varieties of fremitus.... fremitus

Freudian Theory

A theory that emotional and allied diseases are due to a psychic injury or trauma, generally of a sexual nature, which did not produce an adequate reaction when it was received and therefore remains as a subconscious or ‘affect’ memory to trouble the patient’s mind. As an extension of this theory, Freudian treatment consists of encouraging the patient to tell everything that happens to be associated with trains of thought which lead up to this memory, thus securing a ‘purging’ of the mind from the original ‘affect memory’ which is the cause of the symptoms. This form of treatment is also called psychocatharsis or abreaction.

The general term, psychoanalysis, is applied, in the ?rst place, to the method of helping the patient to recover buried memories by free association of thoughts. In the second place, the term is applied to the body of psychological knowledge and theory accumulated and devised by Sigmund Freud (1856–1939) and his followers. The term ‘psychoanalyst’ has traditionally been applied to those who have undergone Freudian training, but Freud’s ideas are being increasingly questioned by some modern psychiatrists.... freudian theory

Fringe Medicine



Chionanthus virginica. N.O. Oleaceae.

Synonym: Old Man's Beard, Snowdrop Tree.

Habitat: U.S.A

Features ? A small tree with snow-white flowers which hang down like fringe—hence the common name and synonyms. Root about one-eighth inch thick, dull brown with irregular concave scars on outer surface, inside smooth, yellowish-brown. Fracture short, inner layer shows projecting bundles of stone cells. Very bitter taste.

Part used ? Root bark.

Action: Alterative, hepatic, diuretic, tonic.

In stomach and liver disorders, and poor digestive functioning generally. Also finds a place in gall-stone prescriptions and those for certain female disorders, in which latter Pulsatilla is another frequent constituent. The 1 ounce to 1 pint infusion is taken internally in 1-4 tablespoonful doses, and is applied as lotion and injection.... fringe-tree

Frontal Bone

The bone which forms the forehead and protects the frontal lobes of the brain. Before birth, the frontal bone consists of two halves, and this division may persist throughout life – a deep groove remaining down the centre of the forehead. Above each eye is a heavy ridge in the bone, most marked in men; behind this, in the substance of the bone, is a cavity on each side (the frontal sinus) which communicates with the nose. CATARRH in these cavities produces the frontal headache characteristic of a ‘cold in the head’, and sometimes infection develops known as SINUSITIS (see NOSE, DISORDERS OF).... frontal bone

Frontal Lobe

The anterior part of the cerebral hemisphere as far back as the central sulcus. It contains the motor cortex and the parts of the brain concerned with personality, behaviour and learning. (See BRAIN.)... frontal lobe

Frontal Sinus

One of the airspaces that form the paranasal sinuses (see SINUS) within some of the frontal bones of the skull. These sinuses are lined with mucous membrane and open into the nasal cavity.... frontal sinus


Fructose is another name for laevulose, or fruit sugar, which is found along with glucose in most sweet fruits. It is sweeter than sucrose (cane or beet sugar) and this has led to its use as a sweetener.... fructose


A means of DISINFECTION by the vapour of powerful antiseptics.... fumigation


In?ammation of the SPERMATIC CORD, usually arising in men with epididymitis (in?ammation of the EPIDIDYMIS in the TESTICLE). The condition can be painful. ANTIBIOTICS and ANALGESICS are e?ective treatment.... funiculitis

Funnel Chest

See CHEST DEFORMITIES.... funnel chest

Fungus Poisoning

Around 2,000 mushrooms (toadstools) grow in England, of which 200 are edible and a dozen are classi?ed as poisonous. Not all the poisonous ones are dangerous. It is obviously better to prevent mushroom poisoning by ensuring correct identi?cation of those that are edible; books and charts are available. If in doubt, do not eat a fungus.

Severe poisoning from ingestion of fungi is very rare, since relatively few species are highly toxic and most species do not contain toxic compounds. The most toxic species are those containing amatoxins such as death cap (Amanita phalloides); this species alone is responsible for about 90 per cent of all mushroom-related deaths. There is a latent period of six hours or more between ingestion and the onset of clinical effects with these more toxic species. The small intestine, LIVER and KIDNEYS may be damaged – therefore, any patient with gastrointestinal effects thought to be due to ingestion of a mushroom should be referred immediately to hospital where GASTRIC LAVAGE and treatment with activated charcoal can be carried out, along with parenteral ?uids and haemodialysis if the victim is severely ill. In most cases where effects occur, these are early-onset gastrointestinal effects due to ingestion of mushrooms containing gastrointestinal irritants.

Muscarine is the poisonous constituent of some species. Within two hours of ingestion, the victim starts salivating and sweating, has visual disturbances, vomiting, stomach cramps, diarrhoea, vertigo, confusion, hallucinations and coma, the severity of symptoms depending on the amount eaten and type of mushroom. Most people recover in 24 hours, with treatment.

‘Magic’ mushrooms are a variety that contains psilocybin, a hallucinogenic substance. Children who take such mushrooms may develop a high fever and need medical care. In adults the symptoms usually disappear within six hours.

Treatment If possible, early gastric lavage should be carried out in all cases of suspected poisoning. Identi?cation of the mushroom species is a valuable guide to treatment. For muscarine poisoning, ATROPINE is a speci?c antidote. As stated above, hospital referral is advisable for people who have ingested poisonous fungi.... fungus poisoning


A species of gram-negative, rod-shaped BACTERIA. It occurs among the normal ?ora of the human mouth, COLON and reproductive tract. Occasionally, fusobacterium is isolated from abscesses occurring in the lungs, abdomen and pelvis. One variety occurs in patients with VINCENT’S ANGINA (trench mouth).... fusobacterium

Genetic Fingerprinting

This technique shows the relationships between individuals: for example, it can be used to prove maternity or paternity of a child. The procedure is also used in FORENSIC MEDICINE whereby any tissue left behind by a criminal at the scene of a crime can be compared genetically with the tissue of a suspect. DNA, the genetic material in living cells, can be extracted from blood, semen and other body tissues. The technique, pioneered in Britain in 1984, is now widely used.... genetic fingerprinting

Intermittent Fever

A regularly recurring fever... intermittent fever

Liver Fluke

Fasciola hepatica is a parasite infesting sheep and occasionally invading the bile ducts and liver of humans (see FASCIOLIASIS).... liver fluke

Madura Foot

Tropical infection of the foot by deeply invasive fungi which cause chronic swelling and suppuration with multiple discharging sinuses. Antibiotics are of limited value and advanced disease may require amputation of the affected foot.... madura foot

Male Fern

Luck, Love... male fern

Paratyphoid Fever

See ENTERIC FEVER.... paratyphoid fever

Peak Flow Meter

A device that measures the rate at which an individual can expel air from the LUNGS. This is an indication of the reserve in the capacity of the lungs. Narrowed airways (bronchospasm) slow the rate at which air can be expelled; the peak ?ow meter can assess the severity of the condition. ASTHMA causes bronchospasm and the device can measure the e?ectiveness of treatment with BRONCHODILATOR drugs; this should be done regularly to monitor the progress of the disease.... peak flow meter

Post-viral Fatigue Syndrome

See MYALGIC ENCEPHALOMYELITIS (ME).... post-viral fatigue syndrome

Pulmonary Fibrosis

A condition which may develop in both LUNGS (interstitial pulmonary ?brosis) or part of one lung. Scarring and thickening of lung tissues occur as a consequence of previous lung in?ammation, which may have been caused by PNEUMONIA or TUBERCULOSIS. Symptoms include cough and breathlessness and diagnosis is con?rmed with a chest X-ray. The patient’s underlying condition should be treated, but the damage already done to lung tissue is usually irreversible. (See also ALVEOLITIS.)... pulmonary fibrosis

Quartan Fever

Description of intermittent fever with paroxysms developing every fourth day. Usually applied to MALARIA.... quartan fever

Pulmonary Function Tests

Tests to assess how the LUNGS are functioning. They range from simple spirometry (measuring breathing capacity) to sophisticated physiological assessments.

Static lung volumes and capacities can be measured: these include vital capacity – the maximum volume of air that can be exhaled slowly and completely after a maximum deep breath; forced vital capacity is a similar manoeuvre using maximal forceful exhalation and can be measured along with expiratory ?ow rates using simple spirometry; total lung capacity is the total volume of air in the chest after a deep breath in; functional residual capacity is the volume of air in the lungs at the end of a normal expiration, with all respiratory muscles relaxed.

Dynamic lung volumes and ?ow rates re?ect the state of the airways. The forced expiratory volume (FEV) is the amount of air forcefully exhaled during the ?rst second after a full breath – it normally accounts for over 75 per cent of the vital capacity. Maximal voluntary ventilation is calculated by asking the patient to breathe as deeply and quickly as possible for 12 seconds; this test can be used to check the internal consistency of other tests and the extent of co-operation by the patient, important when assessing possible neuromuscular weakness affecting respiration. There are several other more sophisticated tests which may not be necessary when assessing most patients. Measurement of arterial blood gases is also an important part of any assessment of lung function.... pulmonary function tests

Rat-bite Fever

An infectious disease following the bite of a rat. There are two causative organisms – Spirillum minus and Actinobacillus muris – and the incubation period depends upon which is involved. In the case of the former it is 5–30 days; in the case of the latter it is 2–10 days. The disease is characterised by fever, a characteristic skin rash and often muscular or joint pains. It responds well to PENICILLIN.... rat-bite fever

Remittent Fever

The term applied to the form of fever in which, during remissions (see REMISSION), the temperature falls, but not to normal.... remittent fever

Rh Factor

See BLOOD GROUPS.... rh factor

Rhesus Factor

See BLOOD GROUPS.... rhesus factor

Rift Valley Fever

A virus disease, caused by a phlebovirus and transmitted by mosquitoes, at one time con?ned to sub-Saharan Africa and predominantly found in domestic animals such as cattle, sheep and goats. The only humans affected were veterinary surgeons, butchers and others exposed to heavy infection by direct contact with infected animals; these usually recovered. In the 1970s the disease ?ared up in Egypt, probably owing to a more virulent virus. The illness in humans is characterised by fever, haemorrhages, ENCEPHALITIS and involvement of the EYE. An e?ective vaccine protects both animals and human beings against the disease (see IMMUNISATION).... rift valley fever

Root Filling

Also called root-canal therapy, this is the treatment given when the nerve of a tooth (see TEETH) has been exposed while the tooth is being prepared for a ?lling, or if it has died or become infected. The nerve debris is removed and, when the chamber is clear of infection, an inert material is inserted to seal o? the root.... root filling

Spotted Fever


Tertian Fever

The name applied to that type of MALARIA in which the fever reappears every other day.... tertian fever

Sandfly Fever

This is a short, sharp fever occurring in many parts of the tropics and subtropics, including most of the Mediterranean littoral. It is due to a virus, called phlebovirus, conveyed by the bite of a small hairy midge or sandfly (Phlebotomus papatasi). The incubation period is 3–7 days.

Symptoms There are headache, feverishness, general sensations like those of INFLUENZA, flushed face and bloodshot eyes, but no signs of CATARRH. The fever passes off in three days, but the patient may take some time to convalesce.

Treatment As there is no specific remedy, PROPHYLAXIS is important. This consists of the spraying of rooms with an insecticide such as GAMMEXANE; the application of insect repellents such as dimethyl phthalate to the exposed parts of the body (e.g. ankles, wrists and face), particularly at sunset; and the use of sandfly nets at night. Once the infection is acquired, treatment consists of rest in bed, light diet and aspirin and codeine.... sandfly fever

Undulant Fever

Another name for BRUCELLOSIS.... undulant fever

Vesicovaginal Fistula

A false communication between the URINARY BLADDER and the VAGINA. The result is urinary INCONTINENCE. Surgical damage to the bladder during operations for gynaecological disorders is one possible cause. Another is tissue damage following radiotherapy for cancer in the pelvis.... vesicovaginal fistula

Viral Haemorrhagic Fever

Also called EBOLA VIRUS DISEASE. A usually fatal infection caused by a virus related to that of MARBURG DISEASE. Two large outbreaks of it were recorded in 1976 (one in the Sudan and one in Zaïre), with a mortality, respectively, of 50 and 80 per cent, and the disease reappeared in the Sudan in 1979. After an incubation period of 7–14 days, the onset is with headache of increasing severity, and fever. This is followed by diarrhoea, extensive internal bleeding and vomiting. Death usually occurs on the eighth to ninth day. Infection is by person-to-person contact. Serum from patients convalescent from the disease is a useful source of ANTIBODIES to the virus.... viral haemorrhagic fever

White Finger

Spasm of the blood vessels in the ?nger, resulting in a white appearance. The condition is common in RAYNAUD’S DISEASE but it can be caused by the long-term use of percussion implements such as mechanical road drills or hammers. It is a recognised industrial disease. Treatment is to remove or treat the underlying cause.... white finger

Facial Pain

Many causes, including neuralgia, frontal sinusitis, eye troubles (pain of glaucoma being referred to the temples), dental problems, shingles, psychogenic, migraine; pain referred from lungs or heart. See appropriate entries for each of these complaints.

Maria Treben’s Facial Pack: of any of the following – Thyme, Mullein, Chamomile or Yarrow. Fill small muslin bag and steep in boiling water. Ring out. Apply as hot as possible.

Internal: Chamomile tea. ... facial pain


It has been discovered that various cultures round the world, e.g. the Hunza Colony near Pakistan, the 7th-Day Adventists and others who eat high fibre foods have fewer cases of diabetes, heart disease, arthritis and other degenerative diseases. Natives of Hunza may live to great ages and have few dental problems, emotional illness and never require a laxative. Today, foods may be over-processed.

Other diseases recognised to be characteristic of modern western civilisation and claimed to be causally related to diet are: appendicitis, coronary heart disease, hiatus hernia, diverticulosis, piles and other anal disorders, obesity, gall stones, hypertension, deep vein thrombosis and varicose veins.

Low fibre intake results in slow transit of food and exposes potential carcinogens a longer period of time in contact with the alimentary canal. A high fibre diet tends to absorb a variety of environmental pollutants and eliminate them from the body.

Foods rich in fibre: wholemeal bread, grains, cereals, brown rice, beans, peas, boiled cabbage, sweetcorn, banana, prunes (stewed), dried apricots. One of the highest is All Bran, which has the highest proportion of dietary fibre among breakfast cereals with no preserves, artificial colouring or flavouring. Contains one-third fewer calories than most breakfast cereals and because of its glycaemic effect is useful in diabetic diet. ... fibre

Mediterranean Fever

An intermittent fever related to brucellosis. Colchicum. (Martindale 27th Ed. p.370)

See: BRUCELLOSIS. ... mediterranean fever

Breakbone Fever

A tropical viral illness, also called dengue, that is spread by mosquitoes.... breakbone fever

Free Radicals

Both vegetable and animal tissues produce free radicals as a normal metabolic byproduct. They are found in many areas of human activity.

A radical is a group of atoms which can combine in the same way as single atoms to make a molecule. Free means uncombined. A free radical is a state in which a radical can exist before it combines – an incomplete molecule containing oxygen which has an uneven electrical charge. High energy oxygen atoms are known to form atheroma.

As well as being substances that take part in a process of metabolism, free radicals can be found in industrial fumes and cigarette smoke. They are oxidants and have an anti-bacterial effect. But their activity is not confined to bacteria alone. When produced in large amounts as in inflammation and infection, they may have a damaging effect upon the lining of blood vessels and other tissues. An excess is produced in ischaemic heart disease. They have been shown to be involved in jet lag, Alzheimer’s disease, rheumatoid arthritis, thrombosis, heart failure, cancer, irradiation sickness and a weak immune system. Damaging to the DNA, they are probably the greatest single cause of ill health. They hasten the ageing process. Vitamins A, C, E, being antioxidants and the mineral Selenium stimulate certain enzyme systems to limit damage done by these destructive elements.

Losing weight is believed to generate free radicals – a metabolic side-effect of dieting. See: ANTIOXIDANTS. ... free radicals

Friar’s Balsam

Tincture Benzoin Co (BPC).

Action. Expectorant for chronic bronchitis, asthma and other respiratory disorders.

Use. An inhalant. One 5ml teaspoon of the balsam to 500ml boiling water; patient inhales the vapour with a towel over the head.

Still used as an alternative to pressurised devices that may evoke a diminished response by over-use. Children may develop an unhealthy dependence upon a nebuliser resulting in bronchitis, the area of aerosol mists being an area of controversy. Friar’s balsam may still be used with effect.

Formula: macerate Benzoin 10 per cent, prepared Storax 7.5 per cent, Tolu balsam 2.5 per cent and Aloes 2 per cent with alcohol 90 per cent. ... friar’s balsam

Hot Flushes

Hot flashes (American). Flushing and sweating experienced by menopausal women. Waves of redness and intense heat sweep upwards from the neck to face at any time of the day or night. A similar condition (non-hormonal) may happen to men after eating curries or hot spicy foods, or who suffer from diabetes or certain skin complaints. (See: INDIGESTION, DIABETES, etc).

Alternatives. Agnus Castus, Ho-Shou-Wu, Black Cohosh, Damiana, Goldenseal, Lime flowers, Lobelia, Mistletoe, Rue, Sarsaparilla, Shepherd’s Purse, Wild Yam, Chamomile tea. Teas, tablets, liquid extracts, powders, tinctures.

Official treatment may include oestrogenic preparations (HRT) with risks of blood clotting and thrombosis.

Non-hormonal relief: combination.

Tea, equal parts, Lime flowers, Motherwort, Wild Carrot. 2 teaspoons to each cup boiling water; infuse 5-15 minutes. 1 cup freely.

Liquid extracts. Formula. Black Cohosh half; Mistletoe 1; Agnus Castus 1. Dosage: 1 teaspoon thrice daily in water.

Tinctures: same formula, double dose.

Evening Primrose (capsules).

Wessex traditional. Hawthorn flowers and leaves 4; Hops 1. 2 teaspoons to each cup boiling water; infuse 5-10 minutes; 1 cup freely.

Diet. Lacto-vegetarian.

Supplement. Vitamin E, 400iu morning and evening. ... hot flushes

Factor Ix

A protein in blood that plays an important role in the clotting mechanism. A deficiency of factor causes a rare genetic bleeding disorder known as Christmas disease.... factor ix

Faecal Impaction

A condition in which a large mass of hard faeces cannot be evacuated from the rectum. It is usually associated with long-standing constipation. Faecal impaction is most common in very young children and in the elderly, especially those who are bedridden.

The main symptoms are an intense desire to pass a bowel movement; pain in the rectum, anus, and centre of the abdomen; and, in some cases, watery faeces that are passed around the mass. Treatment is with enemas or by manual removal of the faecal mass.... faecal impaction


A small, hard piece of impacted faeces that forms in a sac in the wall of the intestine.

A faecalith is harmless unless it blocks the entrance to the sac, causing diverticulitis, or to the appendix, causing appendicitis.... faecalith

Failure To Thrive

Failure of expected growth in an infant or toddler, usually assessed by comparing the rate at which a baby gains weight with a standardized growth chart. An undiagnosed illness such as a urinary infection may be the cause. Emotional or physical deprivation can also cause failure to thrive. A child who fails to grow at the appropriate rate needs tests to determine the cause.... failure to thrive


A protein that is produced in the liver and gastrointestinal tract of the fetus and by some abnormal tissues in adults.

Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) can be measured in the maternal blood from the latter part of the 1st trimester of pregnancy, and its concentration rises between the 15th and 20th weeks.

Raised levels of are associated with fetal neural tube defects, such as spina bifida or anencephaly, and certain kidney abnormalities. High levels of also occur in multiple pregnancies (see pregnancy, multiple) and threatened or actual miscarriage. levels may be unusually low if the fetus has Down’s syndrome. For this reason, measurement of blood is included in blood tests, which are used to screen pregnant women for an increased risk of Down’s syndrome.

levels are commonly raised in adults with hepatoma (see liver cancer), cancerous teratoma of the testes or ovaries, or cancer of the pancreas, stomach, or lung.

For this reason, is known as a tumour marker.

(AFP) levels can be used to monitor the results of treatment of certain cancers; increasing levels after surgery or chemotherapy may indicate tumour recurrence.

However, levels are also raised in some noncancerous conditions, including viral and alcoholic hepatitis and cirrhosis.... alpha-fetoprotein

Fallot’s Tetralogy

See tetralogy of Fallot.... fallot’s tetralogy

Family Planning

The deliberate limitation or spacing of births. Strategies for family planning include the different methods of contraception. (See also birth control.)... family planning

Fallopian Tube

One of the 2 tubes that extend from the uterus to the ovary. The fallopian tube transports eggs and sperm and is where fertilization takes place.

The tube opens into the uterus at one end, and the other end, which is divided into fimbriae (finger-like projections), lies close to the ovary. The tube has muscular walls lined by cells with cilia (hair-like projections). The fimbriae take up the egg after it is expelled from the ovary. The beating cilia and muscular contractions propel the egg towards the uterus. After intercourse, sperm swim up the fallopian tube from the uterus. The lining of the tube and its secretions sustain the egg and sperm, encouraging fertilization, and nourish the egg until it reaches the uterus.

Salpingitis is inflammation of the fallopian tube, usually the result of a sexually transmitted bacterial infection, that can lead to infertility.

An ectopic pregnancy (development of an embryo outside the uterus) most commonly occurs in the fallopian tube.... fallopian tube

Family Therapy

A form of psychotherapy that aims to promote greater harmony and understanding between members of a family, most often between parents and adolescent children.... family therapy

Fanconi’s Anaemia

A rare type of aplastic anaemia characterized by severely reduced production of all types of blood cells by the bone marrow.... fanconi’s anaemia

Fanconi’s Syndrome

A rare kidney disorder that occurs most commonly in childhood. Various important chemicals, such as amino acids, phosphate, calcium, and potassium, are lost in the urine, leading to failure to thrive, stunting of growth, and bone disorders such as rickets. Possible causes of the syndrome include several rare inherited abnormalities of body chemistry and an adverse reaction to certain drugs.

The child may resume normal growth if an underlying chemical abnormality can be corrected. Alternatively, a kidney transplant may be possible.... fanconi’s syndrome


The process of imagining objects or events that are not actually occurring or present. The term also refers to the mental image. Fantasy can give the illusion that wishes have been met. In this sense, it provides satisfaction and can be a means of helping people to cope when reality becomes too unpleasant. Fantasy can also stimulate creativity. Psychoanalysts believe that some fantasies are unconscious and represent primitive instincts; these fantasies are presented to the conscious mind in symbols.... fantasy


Spontaneous, irregular, and usually continual contractions of a muscle that is apparently at rest. Unlike the contractions of fibrillation, fasciculation is visible through the skin.Minor fasciculation, such as that which occurs in the eyelids, is common and is no cause for concern.

However, persistent fasciculation with weakness in the affected muscle indicates damage to nerve cells in the spine that control the muscle or nerve fibres that connect the spinal nerves to the muscle; motor neuron disease is one such disorder.... fasciculation


A self-regulating mechanism that controls certain body processes such as hormone and enzyme production. If, for example, levels of a hormone are too high, output of any substance

that stimulates the hormone’s release is inhibited; the result is reduced hormone production (negative feedback). The reverse process,(positive feedback) restores the balance if the level of hormone becomes too low.... feedback

Femoral Artery

A major blood vessel that supplies oxygenated blood to the leg. The femoral artery is formed in the pelvis from the iliac artery (the terminal branch of the aorta). It then runs from the groin, down in front of the thigh, and passes behind the knee to become the popliteal artery, which branches again to supply the lower leg.... femoral artery

Femoral Nerve

One of the main nerves of the leg. The nerve fibres making up the femoral nerve emerge from the lower spine and run down into the thigh, where they branch to supply the skin and quadriceps muscles.

Damage to the femoral nerve (which impairs the ability to straighten the knee) is usually caused by a slipped disc in the lumbar region of the spine (see disc prolapse). Damage may also result from a backward dislocation of the hip or a neuropathy.... femoral nerve


A nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that is used to relieve pain and stiffness caused, for example, by rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, and gout. Fenoprofen is also used to treat muscle and ligament sprains; it reduces pain and helps to speed recovery. In common with many NSAIDs, fenoprofen may cause irritation of the stomach.... fenoprofen


An opioid analgesic drug that is given by injection for pain relief during surgery and also to enhance general anaesthesia (see anaesthesia, general). Fentanyl is also used in the form of a skin patch to control the severe chronic pain of conditions such as cancer. In common with other opioid drugs, fentanyl has side effects that include depressed breathing, constipation, nausea, and vomiting. The administration of patches may be associated with local irritation of the skin.... fentanyl


A complex of iron and protein, found mainly in the liver and spleen, which is the principal form of iron storage in the body.... ferritin

Ferrous Sulphate

Another name for iron sulphate (see iron).... ferrous sulphate


A group of lipid-lowering drugs used to treat high blood levels of triglycerides or cholesterol.... fibrates


The transmission of images through bundles of thin, flexible glass or plastic threads which propagate light by total internal reflection. This means that all the light from a powerful external source travels the length of the fibre without losing its intensity. Fibre-optics have led to the development of endoscopes, which enable structures deep within the body to be viewed directly.... fibre-optics


The union of a sperm and an ovum. In natural fertilization, the sperm and ovum unite in the fallopian tube of the woman following sexual intercourse. A single sperm penetrates the ovum by releasing enzymes that can dissolve the outer layers of the ovum. Once inside, the sperm’s nucleus fuses with that of the ovum, and its empty body shell and tail drop off. Then, the newly fertilized ovum, called a zygote, forms an outer layer that is impenetrable to other sperm. The zygote undergoes repeated cell divisions as it passes down the fallopian tube to the uterus, where it implants and will eventually grow into an embryo.

Fertilization may also occur as a result of semen being artificially introduced into the cervix (see artificial insemination) or may take place in a laboratory (see in vitro fertilization).

fetal alcohol syndrome A rare condition consisting of a combination of congenital defects that result from the continuous consumption of excessive amounts of alcohol by the mother throughout pregnancy. The affected baby has diminished growth, delayed mental development, a small head, a small brain, and small eyes. He or she may have a cleft palate, a small jaw, heart defects, and joint abnormalities. As a newborn, the baby sucks poorly, sleeps badly, and is irritable as a result of alcohol withdrawal. Almost one-fifth of affected babies die during the first few weeks of life; and many who survive are, to some degree, mentally and physically handicapped.... fertilization


A poorly understood disorder causing generalized aching and stiffness of the muscles of the trunk, hips, and shoulders. Parts of the affected muscles (known as trigger points) are tender to the touch; common tender sites are the base of the skull and the muscles near the shoulderblades. Fibromyalgia commonly develops during periods of stress and may follow a chronic course. Treatment may consist of heat, massage, and drugs such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and, sometimes, antidepressant drugs, which may relieve the symptoms.... fibromyalgia


In psychoanalytic theory, the process by which an individual becomes or remains emotionally attached to real or imagined objects or events during early childhood. If the fixations are powerful, resulting from traumatic events, they can lead to immature and inappropriate behaviour. Regression to these events is regarded by some analysts as the basis of certain emotional disorders.

Fixation also describes the alignment and stabilization of fractured bones. Fixation may be external, as with a plaster cast, or internal, using pins, plates, or nails introduced surgically.... fixation

Flail Chest

A type of chest injury that usually results from a traffic accident or from violence. In flail chest, several adjacent ribs are broken in more than one place, producing a piece of chest wall that moves in the opposite way to normal as the victim breathes. The injury may lead to respiratory failure and shock.

Emergency treatment consists of turning the person on to the affected side or supporting the flail segment by firm strapping.

In severe cases, artificial ventilation is needed until the chest wall is stable.... flail chest


Any species of worm that has a flattened shape.

Two types of flatworm are parasites of humans: cestodes (tapeworms) and trematodes (flukes, schistosomes; see liver fluke; schistosomiasis).... flatworm


An antiarrhythmic drug used in the treatment of tachycardia, atrial fibrillation, and arrhythmias associated with conditions such as Wolff–Parkinson– White syndrome (a congenital abnormality of heart-rhythm).

It is given, as tablets or injection, to people resistant to or intolerant of other treatment; and treatment is always initiated in hospital.

Side effects may include dizziness, visual disturbances, and worsening, or a new type of, arrhythmia.

Rarely, nausea, vomiting, urticaria, vertigo, and jaundice occur.... flecainide


A mineral that helps to prevent dental caries by strengthening tooth enamel (see teeth), making it more resistant to acid attacks. Fluoride may also reduce the acid-producing ability of microorganisms in plaque. In the , fluoride is added to the water supply; it can also be applied directly to the teeth as part of dental treatment or used in the form of mouthwashes or toothpastes. Ingestion of excess fluoride during tooth formation can lead to fluorosis.... fluoride


Mottling of the tooth enamel caused by ingestion of excess fluoride as the teeth are formed.

In severe cases, the enamel develops brown stains.

Such cases occur mostly where the fluoride level in water is far greater than the recommended level or when additional fluoride supplements are taken.... fluorosis


A nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug used particularly to ease the symptoms of musculoskeletal disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis.... flurbiprofen


Reddening of the face, and sometimes the neck, caused by dilation of the blood vessels near the skin surface.

Flushing may occur during fever or as a result of embarrassment.

Hot flushes are common at the menopause.... flush

Folie à Deux

A French term that is used to describe the unusual occurrence of 2 people sharing the same psychotic illness (see psychosis). Commonly, the 2 are closely related and share one or more paranoid delusions. If the sufferers

are separated, one of them almost always quickly loses the symptoms, which have been imposed by the dominant, and genuinely psychotic, partner.... folie à deux


The foot has 2 vital functions: to support the weight of the body in standing or walking and to act as a lever to propel the body forwards.

The largest bone of the foot, the heelbone (see calcaneus), is jointed with the ankle bone (the talus). In front of the talus and calcaneus are the tarsal bones, which are jointed the 5 metatarsals. The phalanges are the bones of the toes; the big toe has 2 phalanges; all the other toes have 3.

Tendons passing around the ankle connect the muscles that act on the foot bones. The main blood vessels and nerves pass in front of and behind the inside of the ankle to supply the foot. The undersurface of the normal foot forms an arch supported by ligaments and muscles. Fascia (fibrous tissue) and fat form the sole of the foot, which is covered by a layer of tough skin.

Injuries to the foot commonly result in fracture of the metatarsals and phalanges. Congenital foot abnormalities are fairly common and include club-foot (see talipes), and claw-foot. A bunion is a common deformity in which a thickened bursa (fluid-filled pad) lies over the joint at the base of the big toe. Corns are small areas of thickened skin and are usually a result of tight-fitting shoes. Verrucas (see plantar warts) develop on the soles of the feet. Athlete’s foot is a fungal infection that mainly affects the skin in between the toes. Gout often affects the joint at the base of the big toe. An ingrowing toenail (see toenail, ingrowing) commonly occurs on the big toe and may result in inflammation and infection of the surrounding tissues (see paronychia). Foot-drop is the inability to raise the foot properly when walking and is the result of a nerve problem.... foot


An unpleasant sensation, as if ants were crawling over the skin.

This may occur following abuse of certain drugs, such as alcohol or morphine.... formication


A break in a bone, usually across its width. There are 2 main types: closed (simple) or open (compound) fractures. In a closed fracture, the broken bone ends remain beneath the skin and little surrounding tissue is damaged; in an open fracture, 1 or both bone ends project through the skin. If the bone ends are not aligned, the fracture is termed “displaced”. Fractures can be further divided according to the pattern of the break, for example, transverse or spiral fractures of long bones. In a greenstick fracture, the break is not through the full width of the bone. This type of fracture occurs only in children because their bones are more pliable. In an avulsion fracture, a small piece of bone is pulled off by a tendon.Most fractures are the result of a fall, but in osteoporosis the bone is weakened, and fractures such as compression fractures of the vertebrae are common.

Common sites of fracture include the hand, wrist (see Colles’ fracture), ankle joint, clavicle, and the neck of the femur (see femur, fracture of). There is usually swelling and tenderness at the fracture site. The pain is often severe and is usually made worse by movement.

X-rays can confirm a fracture. Because bone begins to heal soon after it has broken, the first aim of treatment is to ensure that the bone ends are aligned. Displaced bone ends are manoeuvred

back into position, under general anaesthetic, by manipulation either through the skin or through an incision. The bone is then immobilized. In some cases the ends of the bone may be fixed with metal pins or plates.

Most fractures heal without any problems. Healing is sometimes delayed because the blood supply to the affected bone is inadequate (as a result of damaged blood vessels) or because the bone ends are not close enough together. If the fracture fails to unite, internal fixation or a bone graft may be needed. Osteomyelitis is a possible complication of open fractures. (See also Monteggia’s fracture; pelvis; Pott’s fracture; rib, fracture of; skull, fracture of.)... fracture

Fragile X Syndrome

An inherited defect of the X chromosome that causes learning difficulties.

The disorder occurs within families according to an X-linked recessive pattern of inheritance (see genetic disorders).

Although mainly males are affected, women can become carriers of the genetic defect.

In addition to having learning difficulties, affected males tend to be tall and physically strong, with large testes, a prominent nose and jaw, increased ear length, and are prone to epileptic seizures.

About a third of female carriers show some intellectual impairment.

The condition cannot be treated.... fragile x syndrome


A tiny patch of pigmentation that occurs on sun-exposed skin.

Freckles tend to become more numerous with continued exposure to sunlight.

A tendency to freckling is inherited and occurs most often in fair and red-haired people.... freckle

Free-floating Anxiety

Vague apprehension or tension, often associated with generalized anxiety disorder.... free-floating anxiety

Friedreich’s Ataxia

A very rare inherited disease in which degeneration of nerve fibres in the spinal cord causes loss of coordinated movement and balance. Once symptoms have developed, the disease becomes progressively more severe. Treatment can help with the symptoms but cannot alter the course of the disease.... friedreich’s ataxia


A term describing the ability to kill fungi (see antifungal drugs).... fungicidal


A diuretic drug used to treat oedema and heart failure.

When given by injection, it has a rapid effect.... furosemide

Growth Factor

Any of various chemicals involved in stimulating new cell growth and maintenance.

Some growth factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor, which stimulates the formation of new blood vessels, are important in the growth and spread of cancers.... growth factor

Heart Failure

Inability of the heart to cope with its workload of pumping blood to the lungs and to the rest of the body. Heart failure can primarily affect the right or the left side of the heart, although it most commonly affects both sides, in which case it is known as congestive, or chronic, heart failure.

Left-sided heart failure may be caused by hypertension, anaemia, hyperthyroidism, a heart valve defect (such as aortic stenosis, aortic incompetence, or mitral incompetence), or a congenital heart defect (see heart disease, congenital). Other causes of left-sided heart failure include coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction, cardiac arrhythmias, and cardiomyopathy.

The left side of the heart fails to empty completely with each contraction, or has difficulty in accepting blood that has been returned from the lungs. The retained blood creates a back pressure that causes the lungs to become congested with blood. This condition leads to pulmonary oedema.

Right-sided heart failure most often results from pulmonary hypertension, which is itself caused by left-sided failure or by lung disease (such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (see pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive). Right-sided failure can also be due to a valve defect, such as tricuspid incompetence, or a congenital heart defect.

There is back pressure in the circulation from the heart into the venous system, causing swollen neck veins, enlargement of the liver, and oedema, especially of the legs and ankles. The intestines may become congested, causing discomfort.

Immediate treatment consists of bed rest, with the patient sitting up. Diuretic drugs are given, and digitalis drugs and vasodilators, especially ACE inhibitors, may also be administered. Morphine and oxygen may be given as emergency treatment in acute left-sided failure.... heart failure

In Vitro Fertilization

A method of treating infertility in which an egg (ovum) is surgically removed from the ovary and fertilized outside the body.

The woman is given a course of fertility drugs to stimulate release of eggs from the ovary. This is followed by ultrasound scanning to check the eggs, which are collected by laparoscopy immediately before ovulation. They are then mixed with sperm in the laboratory. Two, or sometimes more, fertilized eggs are replaced into the uterus. If they become safely implanted in the uterine wall, the pregnancy usually continues normally.

Only about 1 in 10 couples undergoing in vitro fertilization achieves pregnancy at the 1st attempt, and many attempts may be needed before a successful pregnancy is achieved. Modifications of the technique, such as gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT), are simpler and cheaper than the original method. in vivo Biological processes occurring within the body. (See also in vitro.)... in vitro fertilization

Moon Face

Rounded facial appearance that is a feature of Cushing’s syndrome.... moon face

Necrotizing Fasciitis

A rare, serious infection of tissues beneath the skin by a type of streptococcal bacterium.

Necrotizing fasciitis is most likely to occur as a complication following surgery.

The initial symptoms are inflammation and blistering of the skin.

The infection spreads very rapidly, and the bacteria release enzymes and toxins that can cause extensive destruction of deeper tissues and damage internal organs.

Urgent treatment with antibiotic drugs and removal of all infected tissue are essential.

The infection is life-threatening.... necrotizing fasciitis

Periodic Fever

An inherited condition causing recurrent bouts of fever. (See familial Mediterranean fever.)... periodic fever

Retrolental Fibroplasia

Also called retinopathy of prematurity, a condition that mainly affects the eyes of premature infants. The usual cause is high concentrations of oxygen being given as part of the treatment for respiratory distress. Excess oxygen causes the tissues at the margin of the retina to shut down their blood vessels. When oxygen concentrations return to normal, the affected tissues may send strands of new vessels and fibrous scar tissue into the vitreous humour. This may interfere with vision and cause retinal detachment. Laser treatment may be used.... retrolental fibroplasia

Stress Fracture

A fracture that occurs as a result of repetitive jarring of a bone. Common sites include the metatarsal bones in the foot (see March fracture), the tibia or fibula, the neck of the femur, and the lumbar spine. The main symptoms are pain and tenderness at the fracture site. Diagnosis is by bone imaging. Treatment consists of resting the affected area for 4–6 weeks. The fracture may be immobilized in a cast.... stress fracture

Testicular Feminization Syndrome

A rare inherited condition in which a genetic male with internal testes has the external appearance of a female. The syndrome is a form of intersex and is the most common form of male pseudohermaphroditism.

The cause is a defective response of the body tissues to testosterone.

The causative genes are carried on the X chromosome, and so females can be carriers. Affected individuals appear to be girls throughout childhood, and most develop female secondary sexual characteristics at puberty; but amenorrhoea occurs, and a diagnosis is usually made during investigations to find its cause. Chromosome analysis shows the presence of male chromosomes and blood tests show male levels of testosterone. Treatment of testicular feminization syndrome involves surgical removal of the testes, to prevent cancerous change in later life, and therapy with oestrogen drugs. An affected person is not fertile but can live a normal life as a woman.... testicular feminization syndrome

Visual Field

The total area in which visual perception is possible while a person is looking straight ahead.

The visual fields normally extend outwards over an angle of about 90 degrees on either side of the midline of the face, but are more restricted above and below, especially if the eyes are deep-set or the eyebrows are prominent.

The visual fields of the 2 eyes overlap to a large extent, giving binocular vision.

Partial loss of the visual field may occur in glaucoma or stroke.... visual field


(fixing agent) n. a chemical agent, e.g. alcohol or osmium tetroxide, used for the preservation and hardening of tissues for microscopical study. See fixation.... fixative

Acalypha Fruticosa


Family: Euphorbiaceae.

Habitat: Orissa, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Kerala.

English: Birch-leaved Acalypha.

Siddha/Tamil: Kuppaimeni.

Acanthospermum hispidum DC.

Family: Compositae; Asteraceae.

Habitat: Native to Brazil; found as a weed throughout the greater part of India.

Ayurvedic: Trikantaka. (Different from Gokshura; also equated with Martynia diandra, Martineacea, known as Kaakanaasaa.)

Action: Used in dermatological affections.

The essential oil (yield 0.2%) showed antibacterial and antifungal activity.... acalypha fruticosa

Aconitum Falconeri


Family: Ranunculaceae.

Habitat: The sub-alpine and alpine zones of the Garhwal Himalayas.

Ayurvedic: Vatsanaabha (related sp.).

Folk: Bikh, Bis, Meethaa Telia.

Action: Sedative, carminative, anti-inflammatory (used for the treatment of nervous system, digestive system; rheumatism, fever).

The root alkaloids contain bishati- sine, bishaconitine, falconitine and mithaconitine. Treatment with cow's milk reduces cardiotoxic effect of the root. cardiac depression. Topically, aconi- tine has analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anaesthetic activity.... aconitum falconeri

Adapted Living Facility / Housing

Housing that has been specially built for, or changed to a certain standard to accommodate people with disabilities.... adapted living facility / housing

Adult Care Home / Residential Facility

A residence which offers housing and personal care services to a number of residents. Services (such as meals, supervision and transportation) are usually provided by the owner or manager. Usually 24-hour professional health care is not provided on site. See also “assisted living facility”.... adult care home / residential facility

Agua Florida

Floral water; a popular alcohol-based cologne or perfume with a floral scent; used in baths and as part of spiritual cleansing and healing practices.... agua florida

Albizia Tea Fights Insomnia

Albizia tea is largely-spread worldwide and it provides plenty of health benefits to consumers. It is mainly recommended to patients suffering from ailments afflicting the nerve and brain. Albizia Tea description Albizia is a genus of more than 150 species of trees, occurring in large areas of the world, but mainly in the Old World tropics. It is regarded as an invasive species, growing in dry plains and sandy valleys. The parts considered to have healthy properties are the flowers and the bark. The heads of the Albizia flower are said to have sedative and tonic properties, whereas the bark has proven a stimulant and diuretic action. In ancient traditional Chinese literature, the use of the Albizia herb was related to promoting joy, assuaging sorrow and brightening the eyes. Albizia tea is made from dried blossoms of the abovementioned plant. Albizia Tea brewing To prepare Albizia tea:
  • steep the dried blossoms in a 12-gram cup of hot water (5 minutes)
  • alternatively, place a teaspoon of dried Albizia herb powder in newly-boiled water and similarly steep for about 5 minutes
  • drink the tea slowly
Albizia Tea benefits Albizia tea has proved its efficiencyin:
  • fighting insomnia
  • improving the mood, uplifting the spirit and fighting depression, melancholy and anxiety
  • fighting irritability
  • strengthening mental health
  • relieving stress
  • relieving tightness in the chest
Albizia Tea side effects Albizia tea may interfere with other drugs that one intakes. Before drinking Albizia tea, consumers should consider consulting a licensed health care provider to avoid any possible inconvenience. However, Albizia is not recommended for pregnant or breastfeeding women, because there is little scientific evidence that it does not harm the baby. Albizia tea is a healthy type of tea, extensively used to treat insomnia and improve the mood, but it is also recommended to consumers willing to strengthen their mental health.... albizia tea fights insomnia

Alpha-feto Protein

A protein produced in the gut and liver of the FETUS. Abnormality in the fetus, such as neural tube defect, may result in raised levels of alphafeto protein in the maternal blood. In DOWN’S (DOWN) SYNDROME, levels may be abnormally low. In either case, screening of the pregnancy should be carried out, including AMNIOCENTESIS to check the amount of alpha-feto protein in the amniotic ?uid. The protein may also be produced in some abnormal tissues in the adult – in patients with liver cancer, for example.... alpha-feto protein

Assisted Living Facility / Assisted Care Living Facility

Establishment which provides accommodation and care for older or disabled persons who cannot live independently but do not need nursing care. Residents are also provided with domestic assistance (meals, laundry, personal care).... assisted living facility / assisted care living facility

Athlete’s Foot

A somewhat loose term applied to a skin eruption on the foot, usually between the toes. It is commonly due to RINGWORM, but may be due to other infections or merely excessive sweating of the feet. It usually responds to careful foot hygiene and the use of antifungal powder.... athlete’s foot

Asphodelus Fistulosus


Synonym: A. tenuifolius Cav.

Family: Liliaceae.

Habitat: Most parts of the plains from West Bengal westwards to Punjab and Gujarat, as a field weed.

English: Asphodel. Unani: Piyaazi, Khunsaa, Asraash. (Asphodelus tenuifolius Cav. is equated with Shellot, Gandanaa.)

Folk: Bokat.

Action: Seeds—diuretic; applied externally to ulcer and inflamed parts.

Seeds contain an ester, 1-O-17-me- thylstearylmyoinositol. The seed oil yields myristic, palmitic, oleic, linole- ic, linolenic acids, beta-amyrin and beta-sitosterol. The oil, due to its high linolenic content (62.62%), may be of therapeutic value in preventing atherosclerosis.

The mineral elements present in the weed are iron 178.4, zinc 44.5 and copper 6.4 ppm. A triterpenoid, lupeol and quercetin are also present.... asphodelus fistulosus

Bael Fruit

Aegle marmelos

Description: This is a tree that grows from 2.4 to 4.6 meters tall, with a dense spiny growth. The fruit is 5 to 10 centimeters in diameter, gray or yellowish, and full of seeds.

Habitat and Distribution: Bael fruit is found in rain forests and semievergreen seasonal forests of the tropics. It grows wild in India and Burma.

Edible Parts: The fruit, which ripens in December, is at its best when just turning ripe. The juice of the ripe fruit, diluted with water and mixed with a small amount of tamarind and sugar or honey, is sour but refreshing. Like other citrus fruits, it is rich in vitamin C.... bael fruit

Barley Tea May Fight Cancer

Barley tea is widely consumed due to its medicinal properties. It fights effectively against several types of cancer, due to its high content of antioxidants. Barley Tea description Barley is a self-pollinating annual plant, member of the grass family. It grows to a height of 1 to 4 feet, being able to withstand various growing conditions. It is found in grasslands, woodlands, disturbed habitats, roadsides and orchards. The grass of barley is acknowledged to be a source of fiber, vitamins, minerals, and amino acids and it also has a high content of antioxidants. In traditional Chinese medicine, Barley grass has been prescribed to fight diseases of the spleen or poor digestion. It has also been effectively used to treat depression or emotional imbalance. Barley tea is the resulting beverage from brewing the abovementioned plant. This is a very common and appreciated drink in many parts of Asia including Japan, China, Malaysia and Singapore. Barley tea is popular in Japanese and Korean cuisine: the barley grass is often roasted and then stewed in hot water. It is also intaken as a caffeine-free coffee substitute in American cuisine. It is traditionally used for detoxification, to improve digestion and for urinary tract infections. Barley Tea brewing Barley tea is available in loose grains, tea bags or already prepared tea drinks. It is usually made by briefly simmering roasted barley grains. The resulting beverage has a toasty taste, with slight bitter undertones. Barley tea is best consumed hot, though some report that room temperature and even cold barley water is still effective. Barley Tea benefits Studies conducted so far showed that Barley tea is effective in treating:
  • certain forms of cancer
  • digestion
  • prostate
  • sleep disorder
Barley tea is believed to help relieving early symptoms of colds, acting as a daily nutritional supplement and successfully cleansing the body of toxins. This tea may help improve blood sugar levels and also reduce bad cholesterol levels. Barley Tea side effects Barley tea is not recommended for nursing and pregnant women because it may stop lactation. Barley tea is a healthy alternative to caffeine drinks and people choose it daily to replace the first mentioned beverage.... barley tea may fight cancer

Barmah Forest Virus

A mosquito-borne arbovirus causing symptoms similar to Ross River virus infection in Australia. (See also Ross River virus).... barmah forest virus

Bedstraw, Fragrant

Love... bedstraw, fragrant

Bennett’s Fracture

Bennett’s fracture – so-called after an Irish surgeon, Edward Hallaran Bennett (1837–1907) – is a longitudinal fracture of the ?rst metacarpal bone in the wrist, which also involves the carpo-metacarpal joint.... bennett’s fracture

Bird Fancier’s Lung

Also known as pigeon breeder’s lung, this is a form of extrinsic allergic ALVEOLITIS resulting from sensitisation to birds. In bird fanciers, skin tests sometimes show sensitisation to birds’ droppings, eggs, protein and serum, even through there has been no evidence of any illness.... bird fancier’s lung

Blue Flag Tea For A Healthy Liver

Blue Flag tea has a long history in treating liver ailments: Native American tribes used to consume it for its hepatic properties. Blue Flag Tea description Blue flag is a perennial herb also known as the liver lily and the fleur-de-lis, native to North America. It has smooth spear-shaped leaves topped with a light bluish-purple flower. Blue flag plants grow in bunches and bloom during late June and early July. Blue Flag tea is the resulting beverage from brewing the abovementioned plant. Blue Flag Tea brewing To prepare Blue Flag tea, place 1 teaspoon of the dried roots in a cup of boiling water. Let it steep for 10 minutes. The tea can be consumed three times a day. Blue Flag Tea benefits Blue Flag has been successfully used to:
  • stimulate the liver and thus, it is helpful in the treatment of jaundice and hepatitis
  • fight impurities of the blood
  • fight against skin problems like acne and psoriasis
  • detoxify the body by increasing the production of bile, as well as frequency of urination
  • help treat indigestion
  • treat rheumatism
  • help in weight loss
Blue Flag tea can be an effective laxative, diuretic and as an emetic. It is also effective in reducing inflammation of the skin, decreasing the symptoms of skin infections. It is also good in treating burns, bruises and wounds. Blue Flag Tea side effects Until further studies are conducted, pregnant and nursing women should avoid intaking this type of tea. Blue Flag tea has proven its efficiency in dealing with severe liver-related diseases. Also, applied topically, it can treat skin problems, but not only.... blue flag tea for a healthy liver

Blumea Fastulosa

(Roxb.) Kurz.

Synonym: B. glomerata DC.

Family: Compositae; Asteraceae.

Habitat: Tropical Himalayas, and throughout the plains of Assam and Penninsular India.

Ayurvedic: Kukundara (var.).

Unani: Kakarondaa.

Action: Plant—diuretic. Essential oil—CNS depressant.

The steam non-volatile fraction of plant extract contained a mixture of n-alkanes.

Blumea lacera.

Family: Compositae; Asteraceae.

Habitat: Throughout the plains of India, ascending to 700 m.

Ayurvedic: Kukundara, Kukuradru, Taamrachuuda.

Unani: Kakarondaa.

Siddha/Tamil: Narakkarandai, Kaatu Mullangi.

Folk: Kakranda.

Action: Plant—antipyretic. Leaf— astringent, febrifuge, diuretic, deobstruent, anthelmintic (particularly in case of thread worm). Root—anticholerin. Essential oil— antibacterial, antifungal.

The leaves on steam distillation yield 0.5% essential oil from which camphor is isolated.

The oil contains cineol 66, d-fen- chone 10 and citral about 6%. The plant gave a diester of coniferyl alcohol, acetylenic compounds, a thiophene derivative; aerial parts gave campes- terol, hentriacontane, hentriacontanol, alpha-amyrin and its acetate, lupeol and its acetate and beta-sitosterol.

The alcoholic extract of the plant showed marked anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenin and bradykinin- induced inflammation in rats.

Dosage: Root—5-10 g paste. (CCRAS.)... blumea fastulosa

Boils (furunculosis)

A skin infection caused by Staphylococcus aureus, beginning in adjacent hair follicles (see FOLLICLE). As the folliculitis becomes con?uent, a tender red lump develops which becomes necrotic (see NECROSIS) centrally with pus formation. A cluster of boils becoming con?uent is called a carbuncle. Release of the pus and an oral antibiotic lead to rapid healing.

Recurrent boils are usually due to a reservoir of staphylococcal bacteria (see STAPHYLOCOCCUS) in a nostril or elsewhere, so an intranasal antibiotic cream may be prescribed. Underlying DIABETES MELLITUS should always be excluded.... boils (furunculosis)

Brain Fever

Cerebral hyperemia. See Poe, Edgar Allen... brain fever

Bronchopleural Fistula

An abnormal communication between the tracheo-bronchial tree and the pleural cavity (see LUNGS). Most commonly occurring from breakdown of the bronchial stump following pneumonectomy, it may also be caused by trauma, neoplasia or in?ammation.... bronchopleural fistula

Budgerigar-fancier’s Lung

Budgerigar-fancier’s lung is a form of extrinsic allergic ALVEOLITIS, resulting from sensitisation to budgerigars, or parakeets as they are known in North America. Skin tests have revealed sensitisation to the birds’ droppings and/or serum. As it is estimated that budgerigars are kept in 5– 6 million homes in Britain, current ?gures suggest that anything up to 900 per 100,000 of the population are exposed to the risk of developing this condition.... budgerigar-fancier’s lung

Borassus Flabellifer


Family: Palmae; Arecaceae.

Habitat: Coastal areas of Bengal, Bihar and Western and Eastern Peninsula.

English: Palmyra Palm, Brab tree.

Ayurvedic: Taala, Taada, Trinraj, Mahonnata, Lekhyapatra. Siddha/Tamil: Panai, Panaimaram.

Action: Fresh sap—diuretic, cooling, antiphlegmatic, laxative, anti- inflammatory. Slightly fermented juice is given in diabetes. Palm- jaggery—used as an energy food for convalscents. Ash of dry spadix—antacid, antibilious (used in heartburn). Young root, terminal buds, leaf-stalks—used in gastritis and hiccups.

The sap is given as a tonic to asthmatic and anaemic patients. Jaggery is given for anaemia, for diseases characterized by a marked loss of potassium. Palm candy is used in coughs and pulmonary affections and as a laxative for children.

The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia ofIn- dia recommends dried male inflorescence in dysuria.

Jaggery solution may be used in hypertension and oedema due to heart and liver diseases, also as a food for typhoid patients.

The sap is an excellent source of biologically available riboflavin.

Aqueous MeOH extract of young shoots contains heat-stable toxin; edible part of young shoot, neurotoxic to rats, but not hepatotoxic.

Dosage: Dried male inflorescence— 1-3 g (API Vol. III.)... borassus flabellifer

Brahmi Tea Or Food For The Brain

Brahmi Tea isbest known in Indian Ayurvedic medicine for its role against motor and nerve disorders. It possesses a pungent and bitter flavor, being a tonic, a mild sedative and a diuretic. Brahmi Tea description Brahmi is a perennial creeping herb, commonly found in India, Nepal, Sri Lanka, China, Vietnam and in the southern parts of the United States. It grows on wetlands and muddy shores. Brahmi is medicinally and culinary used. It is known as “food for the brain”, brahmi being used since the 6th century in Ayurvedic medicine as a cognitive enhancer. In India, the herb is still used by students and schoolchildren to help their brain functions. Brahmi tea is the resulting beverage from brewing the abovementioned plant. Brahmi Tea brewing Brahmi tea can be made by immersing ½ teaspoon of dried brahmi herbs into one cup of boiling water. Let it soak and steep it for about 5 minutes. Drink it slowly. Brahmi Tea benefits Brahmi tea has proven its efficiency in:
  • improving the memory and enhancing mental functions, agility and alertness (It is helpful in retention of new information)
  • calming the mind and promoting relaxation
  • improving motor learning ability
  • promoting greater concentration and focus
  • treating asthma
  • treating epilepsy
  • treating indigestion
Brahmi Tea side effects High doses of Brahmi tea may causeheadaches, nausea, dizziness and extreme drowsiness. Pregnant and nursing women should not intake this beverage. Brahmi tea is a medicinal beverage successfully used to enhance the memory processes and to promote relaxation. It is also efficient in dealing with indigestion, but not only.... brahmi tea or food for the brain

Bupleurum Flacutum


Family: Umbelliferae; Apiaceae.

Habitat: The Himalayas from Kashmir to Bhutan and the Khasi Hills, at 1,000-4,000 m.

English: Hare's Ear.

Folk: Shingu (Himachal Pradesh), Sipil (Punjab), Thaanyo (Garhwal).

Action: Roots—anti-inflammatory, haemolytic, antipyretic. Used in inflammations, muscle stiffness, neurosis, pain and pyrexia. Roots resolve inflammations of costal margin and diaphragm.

Key application: Extracts have been used for the treatment of chronic hepatitis, nephrotic syndrome and auto-immune diseases (WHO.).

Therapeutic properties are attributed to saikoside or saikosaponins (yield from roots 2.06-3.02%), a complex mixture of triterpenic saponins. Saponin content varies with age. Saikos- aponins are analgesic, antipyretic as well as antitussive; anti-inflammatory on oral administration. In Japan and China, roots have been used traditionally in auto-immune diseases. Saikos- aponins form an ingredient of anti- tumour pharmaceuticals. A water- soluble crude polysaccharide fraction, prepared from the root, was reported to prevent HCl/ethanol-induced ulcero- genesis in mice significantly. Saiko- saponin-d, at a concentration of more than 5 ^m, inactivated measles virus and herpes simplex virus at room temperature.

Several sterols, possessing metabolic activities and plasma cholesterol- lowering activity, have also been isolated from the root.... bupleurum flacutum

Burning Feet

A SYNDROME characterised by a burning sensation in the soles of the feet. It is rare in temperate climes but widespread in India and the Far East. The precise cause is not known, but it is associated with malnutrition; lack of one or more components of the vitamin B complex is the likeliest cause (see APPENDIX 5: VITAMINS).... burning feet

Calycopteris Floribunda


Family: Combretaceae.

Habitat: Madhya Pradesh, Peninsular India and Assam.

Ayurvedic: Sushavi, Paaniyavalli.

Siddha/Tamil: Minnargodi.

Action: Leaf—antidysenteric; used externally for ulcers. Fruit—used in jaundice.

Leaves contain flavanol calycopterin; flowers calycopterin and quercetin.... calycopteris floribunda

Cadaba Fruticosa

(L.) Druce.

Synonym: C. farinosa Forsk. C. indica Lam.

Family: Capparidaceae.

Habitat: Common in Punjab, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh and Tamil Nadu.

Siddha/Tamil: Kattagatti, Vilivi, Villi.

Folk: Kodhab.

Action: Root and leaves— deobstruent, emmenagogue; used for uterine obstructions.

The leaves and stem bark gave alkaloids, L-stachydrine and L-3-hydroxy- stachydrine. Presence of quercetin, isoorientin, hydroxybenzoic acid, sy- ringic acid, vanillic acid and 2-hydro- xy-4-methoxy benzoic acid has also been reported. The stembark contains an alkaloid cadabicine, and dry pods contain cadabalone.... cadaba fruticosa

Capsicum Frutescens


Family: Solanaceae.

Habitat: Cultivated as a condiment crop.

English: Bird Chilli.

Ayurvedic: Katuviraa.

Unani: Surkh Mirch.

Siddha/Tamil: Musi Milagay.

Action: See Capsicum annuum.

Key application: Externally, in painful muscle spasms in areas of shoulder, arm and spine; for treating arthritis, rheumatism, neuralgia, lumbago and chilbains. (German Commission E.) The British Pharmacopoeia reported rubefacient and vasostimulant action.

The plant contains hydroxybenzoic acid, hydroxycinnamic acid and ascorbic acid. Fruits contain up to 1% of capsaicin.... capsicum frutescens

Caraway Tea For Flatulence

Caraway tea is well known for its carminative, antispasmodic and diuretic action, being consumed worldwide due to its pharmaceutical benefits. Caraway Tea description Caraway is a biennial plant which distinguishes itself through an erect branching stem. It grows wild in Europe, North Africa and Asia. Caraway is best known for its long, brownish and rib-shaped seeds, which are used as a condiment to add flavor to several types of food like soups, pasta, breads, cheeses, cakes, biscuits, rice and seafood. Caraway is also part of the Indian, Dutch, German, Russian, and Scandinavian dishes. Caraway is available in capsule form and through brewing it turns into Caraway tea. Caraway Tea brewing To prepare Caraway tea:
  • Infuse 1 teaspoon of crushed caraway seeds into a cup of boiling water.
  • Allow this mix to steep for 10 to 15 minutes.
Caraway tea can be drunk three times a day. Caraway Tea benefits Caraway tea is successfully used to:
  • soothe the digestive tract and relieve colic, cramps and flatulence
  • promote gastric secretion and improve the appetite
  • fight diarrhea
  • ease menstrual cramps, as well as gallbladder spasms
  • fight bronchitis and cough
  • increase the production of breast milk
  • freshen the breath
Caraway Tea side effects Pregnant and nursing women should ask their doctor before consuming Caraway tea. Caraway tea is a healthy beverage, efficient in dealing with cramps, colic and flatulence, but not only.... caraway tea for flatulence

Cassia Fistula


Synonym: C. rhombifolia Roxb.

Family: Caesalpiniaceae.

Habitat: Cultivated as an ornamental throughout India.

English: Indian Laburnum, Purging Cassia, Golden Shower.

Ayurvedic: Aaragvadha, Chatu- raangula, Kritamaala, Kritmaalaka, Karnikaara, Shampaaka, Praagra- ha, Raajvrksha, Nripapaadapa, Raajadruma, Vyaadhighaataka, Aarevata.

Unani: Amaltaas, Khyaarshambar.

Siddha/Tamil: Sarakkonrai.

Folk: Amaltaasa.

Action: Flowers and pods— purgative, febrifugal, astringent, antibilious. Seed powder—used in amoebiasis.

The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India indicated the fruit pulp for constipation, colic, chlorosis and urinary disorders.

Pulp of the pod contains anthraqui- none glycosides, sennosides A and B, rhein and its glucoside, barbaloin, aloin, formic acid, butyric acid, their ethyl esters and oxalic acid. Presence of pectin and tannin is also reported.

Seeds gave galactomannan free sugars and free amino acids; extract laxative, carminative, cooling and antipyretic properties.

Flowers gave ceryl alcohol, kaem- pferol, rhein and a bianthraquinone glycoside, fistulin.

Leaves gave free rhein, its glyco- sides—sennosides A and B.

Cassia javanica L., a related species found in West Bengal, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu, is used as a substitute for Cassia fistula.

Dosage: Fruit pulp—5-10 g powder. (API Vol. I.)... cassia fistula

Chironex Fleckeri

A multi-tentacled box-jellyfish present in tropical Australian waters and responsible for at least 63 deaths since first reported in 1883. Specimens have recently been discovered in Borneo, and are currently believed to be even more widespread in the Indo-Pacific.... chironex fleckeri

Cassytha Filiformis


Family: Lauraceae

Habitat: Throughout the greater parts of India.

English: Doddar-Laurel, Love-Vine.

Ayurvedic: Amarvalli, Aakaashbel. (Cuscuta reflexa is also known as Amarvalli.)

Siddha/Tamil: Erumaikkottan.

Action: Astringent, diuretic (given in dropsy and anasarca, also in biliousness, chronic dysentery, haemoptysis and for supressing lactation after still-birth); piscicidal and insecticidal (used as a hair-wash for killing vermin).

The plant contains aporphine alkaloids. calcium, phosphorus, thiamine, riboflavin and niacin; also tocopherols. Nuts, crushed with vinegar and barley flour, are used against indurations of breast. The extract of nuts exhibits possibility of its use as a platelet inhibitor in thrombosis and atherosclerosis. Leaves are inhibitors of pectinolytic enzymes.

American chestnut and European chestnut are equated with Castanea dentata and C. sativa,respectively. Both are used for respiratory ailments.... cassytha filiformis

Chai Tea - A Famous Indian Blend

Discover the unique features of this Indian blend and learn more about how to get an interesting Chai tea every time and how to combine its ingredients for a special tasty experience. What is Chai tea Many people think Chai tea comes from China like most other types of tea. In fact, the word chai means tea in Hindi where it has its origin. Chai tea is actually a blend that combines black tea with milk, spices (like cinnamon, cloves, pepper and ginger) and sweeteners, creating a full tasty drink, perfect for you and your family. This Indian type of tea is also called “masala tea” and “spyce tea”. The smell of it draws plenty of attention and many people say that it helps them to relax. Drink Chai tea The way you make Chai tea is very important to get the right taste. Being a mixture of spices in different combinations, the brewing methods vary widely. There are traditional methods together with customized ones, depending on the spices contained in the blend. The milk should be added to the black tea while it is still boiling. This will make the tea turn darker and it will get a stronger flavor than many other type of teas. Chai Tea Benefits Learn how the amazing benefits of black tea combine successfully with those of other herbs and spices that form this unique mixture and how can they help you lead a healthier life. Chai tea prevents cardiovascular diseases. Catechins and polyphenols from the black tea lowers blood pressure and reduces bad cholesterol, thus preventing the formation of blood clots. Spices contained are perfect to fight viruses and bacteria. If you suffer from digestion problems, be sure that drinking this tea will help you in this regard. Chai tea is good if you want to treat colds, flu or even fever. It is a very good coffee substitute and the addition of milk and honey provide you even more health benefits within each cup. Chai Tea Side Effects Because it contains many ingredients in one mixture, Chai tea may have some precautions. For example, if you suffer from ulcers and heartburns you shouldn’t drink it as it may worsen your condition. If you have intolerance to lactose, you can abandon the idea of adding milk into it. If you have problems with caffeine, try to chose another blend, based or green tea or anything but black tea. Chai tea is an interesting tea with lots of health benefits. Its numerous ways of mixing its ingredients and the different flavor according to it will certainly not bore you, because you can create a new one every time you drink it.... chai tea - a famous indian blend

Cleft Foot

A rare congenital abnormality characterised by the absence of one or more toes and a deep central cleft that divides the foot into two. It is sometimes known as lobster foot, or lobster claw. It may be accompanied by other congenital defects, such as CLEFT HAND, absent permanent teeth, CLEFT PALATE (and/or lip), absence of the nails, and defects of the eye.... cleft foot

Clicking Finger

A condition usually occurring in middle-aged people in which the victim ?nds on wakening in the morning that he or she cannot straighten the ring or middle ?nger spontaneously, but only by a special e?ort, when it suddenly straightens with a painful click. Hence the name. In due course the ?nger remains bent at all times unless a special e?ort is made to straighten it with the other hand. The condition is due to a swelling developing in one of the tendons of the affected ?nger. If the tendon sheath is slit open surgically, the condition is relieved. Many cases recover spontaneously if the patient is prepared to wait.... clicking finger

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (cfs)

See also MYALGIC ENCEPHALOMYELITIS (ME). A condition characterised by severe, disabling mental and physical fatigue brought on by mental or physical activity and associated with a range of symptoms including muscle pain, headaches, poor sleep, disturbed moods and impaired concentration. The prevalence of the condition is between 0.2 and 2.6 per cent of the population (depending on how investigators de?ne CFS/ME). Despite the stereotype of ‘yuppie ?u’, epidemiological research has shown that the condition occurs in all socioeconomic and ethnic groups. It is commoner in women and can also occur in children.

In the 19th century CFS was called neurasthenia. In the UK, myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME) is often used, a term originally introduced to describe a speci?c outbreak such as the one at the Royal Free Hospital, London in 1955. The term is inaccurate as there is no evidence of in?ammation of the brain and spinal cord (the meaning of encephalomyelitis). Doctors prefer the term CFS, but many patients see this as derogatory, perceiving it to imply that they are merely ‘tired all the time’ rather than having a disabling illness.

The cause (or causes) are unknown, so the condition is classi?ed alongside other ‘medically unexplained syndromes’ such as IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME (IBS) and multiple chemical sensitivity – all of which overlap with CFS. In many patients the illness seems to start immediately after a documented infection, such as that caused by EPSTEIN BARR VIRUS, or after viral MENINGITIS, Q FEVER and TOXOPLASMOSIS. These infections seem to be a trigger rather than a cause: mild immune activation is found in patients, but it is not known if this is cause or e?ect. The body’s endocrine system is disturbed, particularly the hypothalamopituitary-adrenal axis, and levels of cortisol are often a little lower than normal – the opposite of what is found in severe depression. Psychiatric disorder, usually depression and/or anxiety, is associated with CFS, with rates too high to be explained solely as a reaction to the disability experienced.

Because we do not know the cause, the underlying problem cannot be dealt with e?ectively and treatments are directed at the factors leading to symptoms persisting. For example, a slow increase in physical activity can help many, as can COGNITIVE BEHAVIOUR THERAPY. Too much rest can be harmful, as muscles are rapidly weakened, but aggressive attempts at coercing patients into exercising can be counter-productive as their symptoms may worsen. Outcome is in?uenced by the presence of any pre-existing psychiatric disorder and the sufferer’s beliefs about its causes and treatment. Research continues.... chronic fatigue syndrome (cfs)

Congo-crimean Haemorrhagic Fever

A tick-borne arboviral infection extending in distribution from Eastern Europe and Asia through to Southern Africa.... congo-crimean haemorrhagic fever

Consent Form

A document used during the consent process which is the basis for explaining to people the risks and potential benefits of a study or care intervention and the rights and responsibilities of the parties involved.... consent form

Contact A Family

A charity which helps families with disabled children to obtain good-quality information, support and – most of all – contact with other families with children who have the same disorder. This includes children with speci?c and rare conditions and those with special educational needs. The charity has many local parent groups throughout the UK and publishes a comprehensive directory with brief descriptions of each condition followed by contact addresses, phone numbers and web addresses. It also has a central helpline and a team of parent advisers.

See contact a family

Continued Fevers

Continued fevers-are typhus, typhoid and relapsing fevers, so-called because of their continuing over a more or less de?nite space of time.... continued fevers

Continuing Care Facility

A facility which provides continuing care.... continuing care facility


Fertility, Lover ... cuckoo-flower

Dead Fingers

See RAYNAUD’S DISEASE.... dead fingers

Defective Blood Formation

This is the main cause of anaemia in infections. The micro-organism responsible for the infection has a deleterious e?ect upon the blood-forming organs, just as it does upon other parts of the body.

Toxins. In conditions such as chronic glomerulonephritis (see KIDNEYS, DISEASES OF) and URAEMIA there is a severe anaemia due to the e?ect of the disease upon blood formation.

Drugs. Certain drugs, such as aspirin and the non-steroidal anti-in?ammatory drugs, may cause occult gastrointestinal bleeding.... defective blood formation

Corchorus Fascicularis


Family: Tiliaceae.

Habitat: Throughout warmer parts of India.

Ayurvedic: Chanchuka, Chanchu.

Folk: Chanchu shaaka, Baaphali.

Action: Astringent, spasmolytic, restorative, mucilaginous.

The plant contains betulinic acid and beta-sitosterol. Seeds yield cardeno- lides including trilocularin. The glyco- sides of the plant were found to be devoid of any effect of its own on smooth muscle of guinea pig ileum, but produced spasmolytic effect against acetyl- choline, histamine and bradykinin. Direct action of the drug was observed on rabbit intestines. Slight cardiac depressant effect was found on isolated amphibian heart preparation.

Corchorus depressus (L.) Christensen, found in drier parts of North India, is known as Bhauphali (Delhi).

The Plant is used as a cooling medicine in fevers; its mucilage is prescribed in gonorrhoea, also for increasing the viscosity of seminal fluid. An extract of the plant is applied as a paste to wounds.

The plant contains alpha-amyrin derivatives, together with apigenin, luteolin, sitosterol and its glucoside. Presence of quercetin and kaempferol has been reported in leaves and flowers.

The plant exhibits antimicrobial and antipyretic activities.... corchorus fascicularis

Coscinium Fenestratum


Family: Menispermaceae.

Habitat: South India, particularly in Western Ghats.

English: False Calumba.

Ayurvedic: Pitachandana, Pitasaara, Harichandana, Kaaliyaka, Kalam- baka.

Siddha/Tamil: Maramanjal, Man- jalkodi.

Folk: Jharihaldi.

Action: Root—stomachic, diuretic, hypotensive, antidysenteric, antibacterial, antifungal, bitter tonic in dyspepsia and debility.

The stems and roots of Kalambaka contain alkaloids including berberine 3.5-5% and jatorrhizine. Stems contain ceryl palmitic acid and oleic acid.

The plant is also used against fractures; for dressing wounds and ulcers and in cutaneous leishmaniasis.

The stems are used in South India as a substitute for Berberis (Daaruhari- draa); also as an Indian substitute for True Calumba (Jateorhiza palmata Miers).

Dosage: Root—3-5 g powder; decoction—50-100 ml. (CCRAS.)... coscinium fenestratum

Definitive Or Final Host

An animal wherein the adult stage of the parasite resides.... definitive or final host

Dengue Fever

(Syn. “Breakbone fever”) A flavivirus, dengue virus types 1-4, transmitted by infected specific Aedes spp mosquitoes. Sudden abrupt onset of high fever, headache, retrobulbar pain and lumbosacral pain. Fever lasts 6-7 days and may be ‘saddleback’. Initial symptoms followed by generalised myalgia, bone pain, anorexia, nausea, vomiting and weakness. A transient mottled rash may appear on 1st/2nd day and a second rash appears with resolution of fever - at first on trunk, spreading outward. WCC and platelet count depressed. Mild haemorrhagic phenomena in a few.... dengue fever

Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever

Usually a second infection with a different serotype of the dengue virus (see dengue fever). A primary infection at a young age is common finding. Age of patient with DHF is often less than 5 years, but young adults may be affected. Severe illness with abnormal vascular permeability, hypovolaemia and abnormal clotting mechanisms. Bleeding into skin or internally. Dengue shock syndrome may also be a complication.... dengue haemorrhagic fever

Dientamoeba Fragilis

An intestinal flagellate protozoan of humans. May be associated with a mild diarrhoea.... dientamoeba fragilis

Dendrophthoe Falcata

(Linn. f.) Etting.

Family: Loranthaceae.

Habitat: Throughout India.

Ayurvedic: Bandaaka, Vrkshaadani, Vrkshruuhaa.

Siddha: Pulluri, Plavithil (Tamil).

Folk: Baandaa.

Action: Bark—astringent and narcotic; used in menstrual disorders, consumption, asthma, also for treating wounds.

The plant contains several flavo- noids. Being parasitic, different flavo- noids have been recorded in plants growing on different host plants. Quer- citrin has been found to be the major common constituent. The plant also contains gallic, ellagic and chebulinic acids.

Aqueous and alcoholic extracts of the plant were tested in rats for their diuretic and anti-lithiatic activities. Alcoholic extract was found to be more effective than aqueous extract.

Dosage: Leaf, flower—10-20 ml juice. (CCRAS.)

Essential oil from leaves—antibacterial, antifungal.

Dosage: Bark—50-100 ml decoction; leaf—10-20 ml juice. (CCRAS.)... dendrophthoe falcata

Dichroa Febrifuga


Family: Saxifragaceae.

Habitat: The temperate Himalayas from Nepal to Bhutan and Khasi Hills.

Folk: Basak

Action: Febrifuge, antipyretic, antiparasitic (used for malarial fever). Dried roots, known as Chang Shan, dried leafy tops, known as Shu Chi, in Chinese medicine, are used for malarial fever. Dried roots (Chang Shan) contain the alkaloid dichroine A and B, dichrin A and B.

The active principle febrifugine compared to quinine was estimated to be 16 to 64 times more efficacious against Plasmodium gallinaceum in chicks, about 100 times against Plasmodium lophurae in ducks also against Plasmodium relictum in canaries. The aqueous extract of the plant inhibited the infecting rate of the parasite Plasmodium berghei up to 10 days and increased the mean survival time to twice that of untreated control at 2.5 g/kg dose.

Clinical trials with febrifugine indicated that the drug given in four oral doses totalling 2-5 mg/day reduces the parasite count.... dichroa febrifuga

Dolichandrone Falcate


Family: Bignoniaceae.

Habitat: Moist forests of central and southern India.

Ayurvedic: Mesha-shringi (also equated with Gymnena sylvestre R. Br.), Vishaanikaa.

Siddha/Tamil: Kattu Varsana, Kaddalatti, Kaliyacca.

Action: Fruits—bitter, carminative, used in diabetes, urinary disorders, bronchitis and skin diseases. Leaves—applied externally to swollen glands. Abortifacient.

The leaves yield luteolin, chrysin and its 7-rutinoside and glucoside.

Fruits are also known as Rshabhaka in the South.... dolichandrone falcate

Dolichos Falcatus

Seem Klein.

Family: Papilionaceae.

Habitat: The Himalayas from Kumaon to Khasi Hills and in Western Peninsula.

Ayurvedic: Kulatthikaa.

Action: Root—prescribed for constipation and skin diseases. A decoction of seeds is used for rheumatism.... dolichos falcatus

Drop Foot

This is the inability to dorsi?ex the foot at the ankle. The foot hangs down and has to be swung clear of the ground while walking. It is commonly caused by damage to the lateral popliteal nerve or the peroneal muscles.... drop foot

Dryopteris Filix-mas

(Linn.) Schoutt

Synonym: Aspidium filix-mas Linn.

Family: Polypodiaceae.

Habitat: Temperate regions of America, Europe, Asia, near damp and shady terrains.

English: Male Fern, Aspidium.

Unani: Sarakhs, Sarakhs Muzakkar.

Siddha/Tamil: Iruvi.

Action: Taenifuge, vermifuge (normally used in conjunction with a saline purgative, not used with castor oil.) Also, deobstruent, abor- tifacient.Externally for rheumatism, sciatica and neuralgia. No more in use as an anthelmintic as better alternatives are available.

Rhizomes and fonds contain filicin (2%), a mixture of dimeric, trimer- ic and tetrameric butanone chloroglu- cosides, that kills tapeworms. Excessive dose of filicin may cause intestinal cramps and blindness, also liver damage.

Related Himalayan species include: D. odontoloma (Kashmir valley), D. marginata, D. barbigera (Kashmir to Sikkim), D. schimperiana (Mussoorie) and D. blanfordii (Chattri, Cham- ba).The ferns gave filicin 2.3, 2.1, 2.1, 4.4 and 3.5%, respectively.... dryopteris filix-mas

Erythroblastosis Fetalis

See HAEMOLYTIC DISEASE OF THE NEWBORN.... erythroblastosis fetalis

Echinochloa Frumentacea


Synonym: Panicumfrumentaceum Roxb.

Family: Gramineae; Poaceae.

Habitat: Cultivated mainly in Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh.

English: Japanese Barnyard Millet.

Ayurvedic: Shyaamaaka.

Siddha: Kudrraivali pillu (Tamil).

Folk: Shamaa, Saanvaa.

Action: Plant—cooling and digestible, considered useful in biliousness and constipation.

The millet has a well balanced amino acid composition, but is deficient in lysine. Glutelin is the major constituent of protein.... echinochloa frumentacea

Elderberry Tea - A Natural Flu Fighter

Elderberry tea is commonly known as a remedy for flu or cold. This miraculous shrub has many other benefits for your health and can be used in many forms even for wines or sweets. About Elderberry tea Originally native to Europe and Western Africa, elderberry is a bush with white flowers and clusters of berries that are purplish to black in color. The best type of elderberry is considered to be the sambucus nigra, because it is truly the only safe type. Other types can be poisonous (especially stems and leaves) so be careful when you pick it yourself or when you buy it from stores. The elderberry flowers and fruits are usually used to prepare teas, wine, jams, pies and syrups and are sometimes used as flavoring for soft drinks. The elderberry plant is also sometimes used as an ornamental plant. Elderberry tea is rich in vitamin C and has high levels of flavonoids, anthocyanin, sambucin, sambunigrin and potassium nitrate, along with sugars. Only dried white flowers are used to prepare the tea which has a delicate tasty flavor. How to prepare Elderberry tea For a delicious cup of Elderberry tea, take 3 teaspoons of dried flowers and combine them with a cup of boiling water. Let them steep for approximately 10 minutes. Cool, strain and enjoy it afterwards. The same procedure must be followed if you use teabags, but use only 1. Drink it up to three times a day to treat flu or other respiratory conditions. If you add honey, its benefits will be doubled. Benefits of Elderberry tea Elderberry tea has lots of benefits especially when it comes to flu or fever. It helps relieving respiratory conditions caused by a buildup of mucus or phlegm, such as colds, bronchitis, and asthma problems. It clears the system out, lowers fever and eases flu symptoms. Elderberry tea also acts as an antioxidant protecting the body against aging free radicals thanks to the flavonoids contained. It has also a detoxifying effect helping the liver and kidneys to process and remove toxins from the body. Elderberry tea may help in the treatment of various types of allergies. Elderberry tea may be helpful in the quick recovery of patients with eruptive diseases caused by viruses like measles and chicken pox. It is also recommended in the treatment of arthritic and rheumatic pain. Side effects of Elderberry tea Although Elderberry tea is considered generally safe, it can occasionally generate  some side effects like gastrointestinal upset. Please keep in mind that it is always a good idea to ask your physician’s opinion before taking this tea if you are pregnant or breastfeeding. As you can see, Elderberry tea has many benefits for your health and as long as you have chosen the right type and you do not exceed 3 cups a day you can drink it with no worries.... elderberry tea - a natural flu fighter

Enhydra Fluctuans


Family: Compositae; Asteraceae.

Habitat: Hills of Bihar, West Bengal and Assam.

English: Marsh Herb, Water Cress.

Ayurvedic: Hil-mochikaa.

Folk: Harakuch.

Action: Leaf—antibilious, laxative, demulcent, antidermatosis. Used in dyspepsia, diseases of the nervous system and cutaneous affections.

The plant is a good source of beta- carotene (3.7-4.2 mg/100 g fresh basis) which is lost during cooking. Used as a leafy vegetable.... enhydra fluctuans

Extended Care Facility (ecf)

A facility that offers sub-acute care, providing treatment services for people requiring inpatient care who do not currently require continuous acute care services, and admitting people who require convalescent or restorative services or rehabilitative services or people with terminal disease requiring maximal nursing care.... extended care facility (ecf)


(Latin) Feminine form of Fabius; one who grows beans

Fabiah, Fabeea, Fabiya, Fabea, Fabeah, Fabiana, Fabianna, Fabiann, Fabianne, Fabienne, Fabiene, Fabiola, Fabra, Fabria, Fabrea, Favianna, Faviola, Faba, Fabah... fabia

Fabricated And Induced Illness

See MUNCHAUSEN’S SYNDROME.... fabricated and induced illness


(Italian) A laborer Fabriziah, Fabrizea, Fabrizeah, Fabritzia, Fabritziah, Fabritzea, Fabritzeah... fabrizia

Face Validity

See “validity”.... face validity

Eryngium Foetidum


Family: Umbelliferae; Apiaceae.

Habitat: Assam up to 1,700 m, found as a garden plant in Dehra Dun.

Folk: Brahma-Dhaniyaa, Jangali Gaajar (var.).

Action: Root—stomachic. Plant— galactagogue, diuretic. Fresh leaves are used as a vegetable and flavouring agent.

Hot aqueous extract of the plant possesses anticonvulsant property. The ethanolic extract (50%) of aerial parts showed cardiovascular, diuretic and antistrychnine activity. The plant is CVS an CNS active and hypothermic.

Sea Holly, found in sandy soils near the sea in Britain and Europe, is equated with Eryngium maritimum Linn.

The root possesses diuretic and anti- inflammatory properties and is used for urinary tract infections (urethritis, cystitis, polyurea, renal colic, prostatic affections).

The root gave coumarins, saponins, flavonoids, plant acids and polyphe- nolic acids. Saponins are haemolytic, rosmarinic acid is known for its anti- inflammatory activity.... eryngium foetidum

Euryale Ferox


Family: Nymphaeaceae.

Habitat: Kashmir, Bihar, Rajasthan, Assam, Manipur, Tripura, Bengal and Uttar Pradesh, in lakes and ponds.

English: Gorgan Nut, Fox Nut.

Ayurvedic: Makhaann, Paaniyapha- la, Padma-bijaabha, Ankalodya.

Unani: Makhaanaa.

Action: Seed—deobstruent, astringent, nervine tonic. Used in spermatorrhoea and sexual affections (restrains seminal gleet) and debility.

Edible parts of the seeds gave the following values: moisture 12.8, protein 9.7, fat 0.1, mineral matter 0.5, carbohydrates 76.9, calcium 0.02, and phosphorus 0.09%; iron 1.4 mg/100 g.... euryale ferox

Factitious Urticaria

See DERMOGRAPHISM.... factitious urticaria


(Arabic) A virtuous woman Fadhyler, Fadheler, Fadheeler, Fadilah, Fadila, Fadillah, Fadyla, Fadylla, Fadheela, Fadhila, Fadhealer, Fadheiler, Fadhieler... fadhiler


(Arabic) A self-sacrificing woman Fadwah... fadwa


(Arabic) Resembling the jasmine flower

Faghirah, Fagira, Fagirah, Faghyra, Fagheera, Faaghira, Fagheara, Fagheira, Faghiera... faghira

Fagus Sylvatica


Family: Fagaceae.

Habitat: Cooler regions of northern hemisphere. Distributed in Kulu and the Nilgiris.

English: European Beech, Common Beech.

Action: Seeds and fatty oil— used externally in skin diseases, rheumatism and gout. Seeds— poisonous. Saponins cause severe gastrointestinal symptoms. Leaves also contain saponins. Wood tar— antiseptic, analgesic; mixed with talc, used as a dusting powder for gangrene and bed sores.... fagus sylvatica


(Arabic) Form of Fatima, meaning “the perfect woman” Fahima, Fahyma, Fahymah, Fahiema, Fahiemah, Faheima, Faheimah, Faheema, Faheemah, Faheama, Faheamah... fahimah


(Arabic) One who is bountiful Faide, Fayda, Fayde, Faeda, Faede... faida


(Germanic) A birdlike woman Fayga, Faga, Faega... faiga


(French) A delicate and beautiful woman

Faillase, Faillaise, Falace, Falase, Fallase, Fallace... faillace

Fagonia Cretica


Synonym: F. arabica Linn. (Correct name for Indian sp. is Fagonia schweifurthii Hadidi. F. bruguieri DC. is not a synonym of F. cretica, according to CDRI.)

Family: Zygophyllaceae.

Habitat: Western India, upper Gangetic plains and Peninsular India.

Ayurvedic: Dhanvayaasa, Dhan- vayavaasa, Dhanvayaasaka, Duraal- abhaa, Samudraantaa. Gaandhaari, Kachhuraa, Anantaa, Duhsparshaa. (Alhagi pseudalhagi is used as a substitute for F. cretica.)

Unani: Dhamaasaa.

Action: Astringent, antiseptic, blood-purifier and febrifuge. Applied to abscesses, scrofulous glands and wounds; also given as a prophylactic against smallpox. Bark—used for dermatosis Extract of aerial parts—antiviral, antiamphetaminic, spasmogenic. Plant ash—given to children suffering from anaemia.

The aerial parts contain several tri- terpenoid saponins which gave sa- pogenin, nahagenin, oleanolic acid. Aerial parts also gave diterpenes, fa- gonone and its derivatives, besides flavonoids.

The flavonoids, quercetin and kaem- pferol, isolated from the leaves and flowers, showed antimicrobial activity.

The fruits are rich in ascorbic acid.

Dosage: Whole plant—50-100 ml decoction. (CCRAS.)... fagonia cretica

Fagopyrum Esculentum


Family: Polygonaceae.

Habitat: Native to Central Asia; now grown as minor grain-crop in hilly regions of North India and the Nilgiris.

English: Buckwheat.

Ayurvedic: Kotu.

Folk: Kutu, Phaapar.

Action: Used for treating fragile capillaries, chilbains and for strengthening varicose veins. Used at a supporting herb for treating high blood pressure. Rutin is obtained from fresh or dried leaves and flowers. (Rutin is used in a variety of haemorrhagic conditions.)

The seed are commonly used in colic, choleraic diarrhoea and abdominal obstructions. Root decoction is used in rheumatic pains, lung diseases and typhoid; juice in urinary disorders. In China, used in pulmonary sepsis.

The plant is used as a venous and capillary tonic, and for alleviating venous stasis and vericose veins.

It is a potential source of rutin (yield 3-5%). The leaves and blossoms contain most of the rutin (80-90%).

Quercetin caused significant decrease in ulcer index in acute gastric ulcer with respect to control group in rats. Quercetin, rutin or kaempferol inhibited, in dose-dependent manner, gastric damage produced by acidified- ethanol in rats.

The plant also gave hyperoside and anthracene derivatives.

Buckwheat is a good source of lysine and other amino acids. The flour is reported to repress exogenous hy- percholesterolemia and promotes accumulation of triglyceride in the liver of rats.

Seed oil exhibits antimicrobial activity against Bacillus anthrasis, E.coli and Salmonella paratyphi.

Whole plant, dried or green, can cause photosensitization.... fagopyrum esculentum


(Anglo-Saxon) One who is joyful Fainah, Fainia, Fayna, Faena, Fana, Faine, Faene, Fayne... faina


(Irish) One who is free; independent... fainche


(Latin) A beautiful woman; one who is light-skinned Faire, Fayr, Fayre, Fare... fair

Fair Financing

Where members of society should pay the same share of their disposal income to cover their health costs.... fair financing


(English) From the far meadow Fairley, Fairlee, Fairleigh, Fairli, Fairlie, Faerly, Faerli, Faerlie, Faerley, Fayrly, Fayrley, Fayrleigh, Fayrlee, Fayrli, Fayrlie, Fayrlea... fairly


(Arabic) Resembling turquoise; a precious stone

Fairozah, Faroza, Faeroza, Fairozia, Farozia, Faerozia, Fairuza, Fayroza, Fayrozia, Farozea, Fairozea, Faerozea, Fayrozea... fairoza


(English) A tiny mystical being possessing magical powers Fairie, Faerie, Faery, Fairi, Faeri, Fairee, Fairey, Faerey, Faeree, Fayry, Fayrey, Fayri, Fayrie, Fayree... fairy


(English) Having a belief and trust in ° God

Faythe, Faithe, Faithful, Fayana, Fayanna, Fayanne, Fayane, Fayth, Fe, Fealty... faith


(African) A victorious woman Faiza, Fayza, Faza, Faeza, Feyza, Fathia, Fathea, Fathiya, Fauzia, Fawzia, Fawziya, Fawziyyah, Fee’iza... faizah


(Arabic) A magnificent woman Fakhirah, Fakhyra, Fakhyrah, Fakheera, Fakira, Fakirah, Fakeera, Fakyra, Faakhira, Fakhriyya, Fakheara, Fakeara... fakhira


(Native American) Resembling a crow Falah, Falla, Fallah... fala


(Arabic) Resembling a star Falack, Falac... falak


(Spanish) An exotic woman Falesyiah, Falesiya, Falesiyah... falesyia


(American) Born during the autumn season Falle... fall

Falling Sickness

An old name for EPILEPSY.... falling sickness


(Irish) A commanding woman Fallyn, Faline, Falinne, Faleen, Faleene, Falynne, Falyn, Falina, Faleena, Falyna, Falon, Fallan, Falline... fallon

Fallot’s Tetralogy

See TETRALOGY OF FALLOT.... fallot’s tetralogy

False Hookworm

Ternidens deminuus, an intestinal nematode of monkeys in the Old World tropics and recorded from humans in Southern Africa and Mauritius. One of the nodular worms.... false hookworm

False-memory Syndrome

See REPRESSED MEMORY THERAPY.... false-memory syndrome


(American) A fanciful woman Falsett, Falset, Falsete, Falsetta, Falseta... falsette


(Latin) In mythology, the personification of fame

Famah, Famma, Fammah... fama


A taxonomic group of similar, related, animals. The taxonomic group that is below Order, but above Genus.... family

Family Practice

A form of specialty practice in which medical practitioners provide continuing comprehensive primary care within the context of the family unit.... family practice


(African) One who provides light Fanah, Fanna, Fannah... fana


(English) A decorated and sparkling woman

Fancey, Fanci, Fancie, Fansy, Fansie, Fansi, Fancee, Fancea, Fansey, Fansee, Fansea... fancy


(French) One who is crowned with laurels

Faneta, Fanette, Fanett, Fanete, Fanet... fanetta


(American) One who is excited Fanfarah, Fanfarra, Fanfarrah... fanfara


(Chinese) Pleasantly fragrant... fang


(African) Born on a beautiful day Fantah, Fantia, Fantiah, Fantea, Fanteah... fanta


(Latin) From the fantasy land Fantasiah, Fantasea, Fantasiya, Fantazia, Fantazea, Fantaziya... fantasia


(French) One who is playful and childlike

Fantinah, Fanteena, Fantyna, Fantine, Fanteen, Fanteene, Fantyn, Fantyne, Fanteana, Fanteina, Fantiena, Fanteane, Fanteine, Fantiene... fantina


(Irish) A wolflike lady Faoiltiarna... faoiltiama


(Spanish) A weakness... faqueza


(Arabic) One who is joyful; a bringer of happiness

Farhana, Farhanna, Farhane, Farhanne, Farhayne, Farhaine, Farhayna, Farhaina, Farihah, Fariha, Fareeha, Faryha, Farieha, Farhaen, Farhaena... farah


(Italian) Resembling a butterfly Farfallah, Farfala, Farfalle, Farfale, Farfailini, Farfallone, Farfalah... farfalla


(German) A peaceful sovereign Faricah, Farika, Faricka, Faryca, Faryka, Farycka... farica


(Arabic) A unique woman Farida, Faryda, Farydah, Fareeda, Fareedah, Farideh, Fareada, Fareadah, Farieda, Fariedah, Fareida, Fareidah... faridah


(American) A forgiving woman Fariss, Farisse, Farys, Faryss, Farysse, Farris, Farrys... faris


(Arabic) One who is blessed and happy

Farkhand, Farkhanda, Farkhandia, Farkhandea... farkhande


(English) From the fern clearing Farly, Farli, Farlie, Farlee, Farleigh, Farlea, Farleah... farley

Farmer’s Lung

A form of external allergic ALVEOLITIS caused by the inhalation of dust from mouldy hay or straw.... farmer’s lung


(English / Arabic) Fair-haired woman / one who bears the burden Farra... farrah


(English) One who is adventurous; an explorer

Faren, Farin, Faryn, Farran, Farrin, Farron, Farryn, Ferran, Ferryn, Faran, Faron, Farina, Farinna, Farena, Farana... farren


(American) A narrow-minded woman Farow, Farro, Faro... farrow

Farsetia Hamiltonii


Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.

Family: Polygonaceae.

Habitat: Cultivated in the Himalayas, especially in the colder parts of Ladakh, Zaskar and Western Tibet.

English: Tatary Duckwheat.

Ayurvedic: Ukhal.

Folk: Kutu (var.).

Action: See F. esculentum. Duck- wheat is a better source of rutin than the common Buckwheat. It contains 45-80% more rutin than the latter, and maintains its high rutin content for a longer period.

Family: Cruciferae; Brassicaceae.

Habitat: Mediterranean region, eastwards to India and southwards to tropical Africa.

Folk: Farid-booti (Punjab).

Action: Antirheumatic.

Farsetia species contain a volatile oil which gave glucosinolates. Allylglu- cosinolate is the major constituent.... farsetia hamiltonii

Farsetia Jacquemontii

Hook. f. Thoms.

Family: Cruciferae; Brassicaceae.

Habitat: Rajasthan and Northwestern parts of India.

Folk: Farid-booti.

Action: Antirheumatic.... farsetia jacquemontii


(Persian) A princess; born to royalty Farsiriss, Farsirisse, Farsirys, Farsiryss, Farsirysse, Farsyris, Farsyrys... farsiris


(American) One who inspires others Farel, Farelle, Farylle, Faril, Farille... faryl


(Arabic) Having great wisdom and intelligence

Farzanah, Farzanna, Farzann, Farzanne, Farzane, Farzaana, Farzania, Farzanea... farzana


(Latin) A dark beauty Fuscienne, Fasciene, Fusciene... fascienne

Fasciola Hepatica

The common liver fluke. In tropical regions this species is replaced by F. gigantica. Like all trematodes, their intermediate hosts are aquatic snails. Infection occurs when the infective metacercariae are ingested on vegetation in swampy areas. Normal final (definitive) hosts are sheep, cattle and various wild animal species. Humans can acquire fascioliasis if they eat contamiated water cress etc.... fasciola hepatica

Fasciolopsis Buski

The intestinal fluke. Definitive hosts are pigs and humans. Metacercariae encyst on aquatic plants such as water chestnuts in south east Asia.... fasciolopsis buski


(American) A stylish woman Fashyun, Fashyn, Fashon, Fashi, Fashie, Fashy, Fashea, Fasheah, Fashee... fashion


(Arabic) One who is eloquent and literary

Fasihah, Fasyha, Faseeha, Fasieha, Faseaha... fasiha


(Greek) One’s destiny Fayte, Faite, Faete, Faet, Fait, Fayt... fate


(Arabic) The perfect woman; in the Koran, a daughter of Muhammad Fatimah, Fateema, Fatyma, Fateama, Fatime, Fatyme, Fateem, Fateam, Fatuma, Fatiema, Fateima... fatima


(Arabic) A captivating woman Fatina, Fateena, Fateenah, Fatyna, Fatynah, Fatin, Fatine, Faatinah, Fateana, Fateanah, Fatiena, Fatienah, Fateina, Fateinah... fatinah


(American) A respected woman Falk, Fawlk, Faulke, Falke, Fawlke... faulk


(Greek) In mythology, a goddess of nature and fertility Fawna, Faun, Fawn, Faunia, Fawnia, Faunea, Fawnea, Fawne, Faune... fauna


(Latin) One who loves nature Fauny, Fauni, Faunie, Fauney... faunee


(Italian) A lucky lady; one who is fortunate

Fawsta, Faustina, Faustine, Faustyna, Faustyne, Fausteena, Fausteene, Fawstina, Fawstine, Fawstyna, Fawstyne, Fawsteena, Fawsteene... fausta


(French) An uninhibited and untamed woman... fauve


(English) One who grants her approval

Faver, Favar, Favorre... favor


Another name for honeycomb ringworm. (See RINGWORM.)... favus


(Russian) An independent woman Fayinah, Fayena, Fayeena, Fayeana, Fayiena, Fayeina... fayina


(French) A renowned woman who is held in high esteem Faime, Faym, Faim, Fame... fayme


(African) One who walks with honor Fayolah, Fayolla, Fayollah... fayola


(Scottish) One who is dearly loved

Fearcharah, Fearcharra, Fearcharia, Fearcharea... fearchara

Feasibility Study

Preliminary study to determine the practicability of a proposed health programme or procedure, or of a larger study, and to appraise the factors that may influence its practicability.... feasibility study


(American) A lighthearted woman Fether, Fhether, Feathyr... feather


(Polish) A bright woman Febee, Febea, Febeah, Febi, Febie, Feby, Febey... febe


(American) Born in the month of February

Februari, Februarie, Februarey, Februaree, Februarea... february


(African) A woman who worships God

Feechie, Feechy, Feechey, Feechee, Fychi, Fychie, Fychey, Fychy, Feechea, Fychee, Fychea... feechi

Feedback Mechanism

Many glands which produce HORMONES are in?uenced by other hormones, particularly those secreted by the HYPOTHALAMUS (a controlling centre in the brain) and the PITUITARY GLAND. If the amount of hormone produced by a gland rises, negative feedback mechanisms operate by instructing the pituitary gland, via the hypothalamus, to produce less of the stimulating hormones. This cuts activity in the target gland. Should the amount of hormone produced fall, the feedback mechanism weakens with the result that the output of stimulating hormones increases.... feedback mechanism

Feeding Habits

Habits determining the times and places of feeding and the sources of blood meals for mosquitoes.... feeding habits


(Arabic) A generous woman... feeidha


(Irish) Resembling a deer Feynat, Finat, Fianait... feenat


(English) One who is bright Felde, Feldy, Feldea, Feldeah, Feldey, Feldee, Feldi, Feldie... felder


(Latin) Feminine form of Felix; one who is lucky and successful Falisha, Felisha, Felice, Felisa, Feliciona, Felecia, Feleta, Felcia, Fela, Felicienne, Filicia, Felicity, Feliciona, Felicita, Felicitas, Felicite, Felidtas, Felisberta, Felise, Felita, Felka, Felici, Felicie, Felicy, Felicey, Felicee, Felicea... felicia


(Latin) A catlike woman Felinah, Felyna, Feleena, Feline, Felynna, Feliena, Feleyna, Feleana, Feleina... felina


(Arabic) An agricultural worker Fella, Felah, Fela, Fellahin, Fellaheen, Fellahyn, Felahin, Felaheen, Felahyn... fellah

Female Genital Mutilation (fgm)

See CIRCUMCISION.... female genital mutilation (fgm)


(American) A classy lady Femaye, Femae, Femai... femay


(African) God loves me Femmi, Femie, Femy, Femey, Femee, Femea, Femeah... femi


The development of a feminine appearance in a man, often the result of an imbalance in the sex hormones. Castration, especially before puberty, causes feminisation, as may the use of hormones to treat an enlarged PROSTATE GLAND.... feminisation

Feijoa Sellowiana


Synonym: Acca sellowiana Berg.

Family: Myrtaceae.

Habitat: Indigenous to western Paraguay, southern Brazil, Uruguay and parts of Argentina; cultivated in South India in Nilgiris and Kodaikanal hills.

English: Feijoa, Pineapple Guava, New Zealand Banana.

Action: The fruit contains iodine and vitamin C. Iodine content varies according to locality and fluctuates from year to year, usual range is 1.64-3.9 mg/kg Fruit also contains vitamin P-active polyphenols. The fruit is found beneficial only in mild cases of thyrotoxicosis.... feijoa sellowiana


(American) One who desires love Femeese, Femease, Femice, Femeece, Femeace, Femmis, Femmys... femise


(Scandinavian) A gold worker Feniah, Fenea, Feneah, Feniya, Feniyah, Fenya, Fenyah, Fenja, Fenjah... fenia


(American) An intelligent woman Fen... fenn

Fennel Tea

Most of the people have already used it for cooking, but now it is time to consider drinking fennel as a tea. In ancient times it was believed that this herb had mysterious vitalistic properties. About fennel tea Also known as Foeniculum vulgare, fennelis a perennial, edible herb, green and crunchy like celery, with feathery leaves and small yellow flowers. It ressembles to dill as well. Its bulb is white or pale green with closely superimposed stalks. Originated from the Mediterranean regions now it grows almost everywhere. It is rich in vitamins A, B-complex, C and D, antioxidants and it is a great source of amino acids, fatty acids, calcium, iron, potassium, phosphorus, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum, potassium, sodium, sulfur and zinc. Generally, the seeds are used to make fennel tea but some might use the leaves as well. How to make Fennel tea A cup of fennel tea will offer you a world of benefits due to its healthy constituents. For a tasty tea, take one teaspoon of fennel seeds and pour one cup of boiled water. Let the tea steep for about 10 minutes allowing the water to extract the oil from the seeds and then use another cup to drain the tea. Benefits of Fennel tea There is a wide range of health benefits for drinking fennel tea. Find out below some of the most important ones. Fennel tea stimulates milk production (lactation) and has the same impact on the body as estrogen. It also improves the hormone balance and alleviates symptoms of PMS and menopause. Fennel tea has been shown to be diuretic, bile-producing, pain-reducing, fever-reducing and an antimicrobial fighter. The seeds and the tea can help with digestive problems by relaxing the smooth muscles of the intestine and it is often used by people to alleviate bloating, constipation, heartburn, indigestion, and gas. Fennel tea is effective at reducing the symptoms of cold and flu, soothing sore throats, clearing up congestions in the chest and expelling excess phlegm. It is believed to improve the eyesight. Side effects of Fennel tea A part from the many benefits that it has, fennel tea also has some precautions that are better to be taken into consideration. The consumption of fennel in excessive quantities is not indicated because it can lead to muscular convulsions and even hallucinations. Pregnant women should avoid drinking fennel tea because it can act as an uterine stimulant. Do not apply fennel directly to your skin because it can irritate it. Fennel tea is mostly safe for regular consumption as long as you do not drink more than 3 cups a day. Do not ignore its precautions if you want to have a healthy experience.... fennel tea


(Russian) Form of Theodora, meaning “gift of God” Feodorah, Feodorra, Feodore, Feodore, Fedorah, Fedora, Fedoria, Fedoriya, Fedorea, Fedosia, Fedorra... feodora


(Spanish) Feminine form of Fernando; an adventurous woman Fernande, Fernand... fernanda


(American) A successful woman Ferniliah, Fernilea, Fernileah, Fernilya, Fernilyah... fernilia


(English) From the meadow of ferns

Fernly, Fernleigh, Fernlea, Fernleah, Fernlee, Fernli, Fernlie... fernley


(Latin) In mythology, a fertility goddess

Feroniah, Feronea, Feroniya, Feroneah, Feroniyah... feronia


The process by which male and female gametes (spermatozoa and oöcytes respectively) fuse to form a zygote which develops, by a complex process of cell division and di?erentiation, into a new individual of the species. In humans, fertilisation occurs in the FALLOPIAN TUBES. Sperm deposited in the upper vagina traverse the cervix and uterus to enter the Fallopian tube. Many sperm attempt to penetrate the zona pellucida surrounding the oöcyte, but only one is able to penetrate the oöcyte proper and this prevents any other sperm from entering. Once the sperm has entered the oöcyte, the two nuclei fuse before the zygote begins to divide.... fertilisation


(Arabic) Possessing the beauty of light

Feryall, Feryale, Feryalle... feryal


A popular, not a medical, term used to mean any collection or formation of pus. It is applied to both abscesses and ulcers. (See ABSCESS; ULCER; WHITLOW.)... fester

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

A disorder of newborn infants that is caused by the toxic effects on the growing FETUS of excessive amounts of alcohol taken by the mother. Low birth-weight and retarded growth are the main consequences, but affected babies may have hand and facial deformities and are sometimes mentally retarded.... fetal alcohol syndrome

Fenugreek Tea

Fenugreek tea has been used for centuries in alternative medicine and has many purported uses. Read more about its benefits and side effects. About Fenugreek tea Trigonella foenum-graecumor fenugreek is an annual aromatic plant with small round leaves, cultivated worldwide and is a common ingredient in dishes from India and Pakistan. Fenugreek contains several nutrients like protein, vitamin C, alkaloids, potassium, niacin, diosgenin, iodine, chromium, magnesium, selenium, phosphorus, molybdenum, silicon, zinc, sodium, sulfur, iron and manganese among others. It tastes similar to maple syrup or licorice. Fenugreek tea is mild and flavorful and has a variety of medicinal purposes. How to make Fenugreek tea To prepare a tasty fenugreek tea you need one teaspoon of seeds. Put them into a cup and pour boiled water over. Let them steep for around 20 minutes and filter it. Fenugreek tea can be consumed hot or cold. Sweetening is not necessary because the tea is naturally very sweet. Benefits of Fenugreek tea With so many nutrients infused in one, fenugreek tea benefits for health are very diverse. Fenugreek tea helps in combating kidney problems and also regulate sugar absorption, making it suitable for diabetics. Studies have shown that this tealower cholesterol levels and ease a variety of digestive problems. This tea also increases milk secretion in nursing mothers and alsobalances female hormones, making it a natural remedy for an assortment of problems. Fenugreek tea is also widely used in treating cold symptoms, particularly, expelling excess mucus from the throat and the respiratory tract. Side effects of Fenugreek tea Although fenugreek tea is mostly safe, it can occasionally produce some unwanted side effects. Applied topically it can produce skin irritation or allergic reaction. It also can cause nausea, diarrhea, upset stomach or migraines. It may interphere with some medications  so be sure to consult your physician first. Don’t forget that it is not recommended for children. You can include fenugreek tea in your lifestyle and as long as you do not drink too much of it and take the precautions into consideration, you can enjoy its benefits.... fenugreek tea

Feronia Limonia

(Linn.) Swingle.

Synonym: F. elephantum Corr.

Family: Rutaceae.

Habitat: Indigenous to South India; cultivated throughout the plains of India up to 500 m in the western Himalaya.

English: Wood Apple.

Ayurvedic: Kapittha, Dadhittha, Dadhiphala, Surabhichhada, Dantshatha, Kapipriya.

Unani: Kuvet.

Siddha/Tamil: Vilamaram, Vilangai, Narivila.

Folk: Kaith.

Action: Fruit—antiscorbutic, carminative, stimulates the digestive system bark. Pulp is included in a paste to tone the breast. Leaves— astringent; used for indigestion, flatulence, diarrhoea, dysentery and haemorrhoids.

Unripe fruit—prescribed in sprue, malabsorption syndrome. (The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India.)

The leaves and stem bark contain the coumarins, luvangetin, xanthotoxin and limonin and the steroids, sitosterol and sitosterol-O-beta-D-glucoside.

Antifungal compounds, psoralene from stem bark; xanthotoxin and os- thenol from root bark and 2,6-dimeth- oxybenzo-quinone from the fruit shell are reported. Roots contain xanthotoxin and bergapten, used for the treatment of leucoderma, characterized by vitiligo.

Dosage: Dried pulp of mature fruit—1-3 g powder. (API Vol. II.)... feronia limonia

Ferula Foetida


Synonym: F. assafoetida Linn.

Family: Umbelliferae; Apiaceae.

Habitat: Native to Iran, Afghanistan and Pakistan. F. narthex occurs in Kashmir.

English: Asafoetida.

Ayurvedic: Hingu, Hinguka, Raamattha, Baahlika, Jatuka, Sahasravedhi, Vedhi.

Unani: Hilteet, Hing.

Siddha/Tamil: Perunkaayam.

Action: Olea-gum-resin—stimu- lates the intestinal and respiratory tracts and the nervous system bark. Used for simple digestive problems such as bloating, indigestion, constipation; for congested mucus, bronchitis, whooping cough, also for neurological affections, epilepsy, cramps and convulsions.

Key application: In dyspepsia, chronic, gastritis, irritable colon; as spasmolytic. (The British Herbal Pharmocopoeia.) Contraindicated in bleeding disorders, pregnancy, infectious or inflammatory G1 diseases. (Sharon M. Herr.)

Ferula foetida contains: resins about 40-60%, consisting of asaresionotan- nols and their esters; farnesiferols, ferulic acid and other acids; about 25% gum; about 6-17% volatile oil, major constituent being sec-propenyl- isobutyl disulphide; sulphated ter- penes, pinene, cadinene and vanillin; sesquiterpenoid coumarins. Some compounds from Ferula sp. ehibit an- tifertility activity.

Dosage: Detoxified oleo- gum-resin—125-500 mg. (API Vol. I.)... ferula foetida

Ferula Galbaniflua

Boiss. ex Buhse.

Synonym: F. gummosa Boiss.

Family: Umbelliferae; Apiaceae.

Habitat: Native to Persia. Occasionally grown North-Western Himalaya.

Unani: Gaosheer, Jawaasheer. (Galbanum has been wrongly equated with Gandhbirozaa, the oleo-resin of Pine.)

Action: Oleo-gum-resin—digestive stimulant, antispasmodic; used for flatulence and colic; as an expectorant; and as a uterine tonic.

Ferula gummosa contains resinuous substances (60%), major constituents being galbaresenic and galbanic acids; volatile oil (5-30%) containing mono- and sesquiterpenes, alcohols and acetates; azulenes; thiol esters; undeca- triens; resinic acids (30-40%); gums; umbelliferone.... ferula galbaniflua

Ferula Jaeschkeana


Family: Umbelliferae; Apiaceae.

Habitat: Jammu and Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh from 2,000 to 4,000 m.

Ayurvedic: Hingupatri.

Action: Abortifacient, antiimplantation. Being investigated as a potential contraceptive. A related species, F. silphion, was used in ancient Rome as a contraceptive.

The oil extracted from the leaves possesses mycotoxic property against dermatophytes, Trichophyton sp.

The ethanolic extract of the aerial parts produced dilation and congestion and hypertrophy in liver in rats.

The roots contain sesquiterpenoids. A coumarin, ferujol, isolated from the rhizome, showed abortifacient and anti-implantation activity at a single dose of 0.6 mg/kg in rats by oral administration in a suspension of gum acacia. The essential oil shows antimy- cotic activity.

Action: Resin—less strong than asafoetida; used in the same way as asafoetida and galbanum. Used in Middle East for rheumatic affections and backache.... ferula jaeschkeana

Ferula Persica


Family: Umbeliferae; Apiaceae.

Habitat: Native to Arabia and Persia.

English: Sagapenum.

Unani: Sakbeenaj, Sakbekh.

Family: Umbelliferae; Apiaceae.

Habitat: Native to Central Asia.

English: Musk Root.

Folk: Sumbul, Sambala.

Action: Used as a sedative in hysteria and other nervous disorders. Also used as a mild gastrointestinal stimulant. Formerly used for asthma, bronchitis and amenorrhoea.

Ferula sumbul contains 0.2-0.4% volatile oil; 5-15% resin; hydroxy- coumarins including umbelliferone; sumbulic and angelic acids.... ferula persica

Ferula Sumbul

Hook. f.

Family: Umbelliferae; Apiaceae.

Habitat: Kashmir.

English: Narthex asafoetida.

Ayurvedic: Hingu (var.).

Unani: Hilteet, Hing.

Siddha/Tamil: Perungayam.

Action: The gum-resin is used as asafoetida.

The oil is reported to be bacteriocidal. It exhibited antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gramnegative bacteria.

The essential oil, obtained from seeds, shows antioxidant activity comparable to BHT.

The plant gave coumarin derivatives including umbelliferone and scopo- letin.

Dosage: Gum-resin—125-500 mg. (CCRAS.)... ferula sumbul


(American) One who is shy Fevun, Fevon, Fevan, Fevin... feven


(Irish) Having a pale face... ffion


(Italian) A fiery lady Fiammah, Fyamma, Fyammah, Fiama, Fiamah, Fyama, Fyamah... fiamma


(Irish) A warrior huntress Fiannah, Fiana, Fianne, Fiane, Fiann, Fian... fianna


Cells distributed widely throughout CONNECTIVE TISSUE that produce the precursor substances of COLLAGEN, elastic ?bres and reticular ?bres.... fibroblasts

Fibreoptic Endoscopy

A visualising technique enabling the operator to examine the internal organs with the minimum of disturbance or damage to the tissues. The procedure has transformed the management of, for example, gastrointestinal disease. In chest disease, ?breoptic bronchoscopy has now replaced the rigid wide-bore metal tube which was previously used for examination of the tracheo-bronchial tree.

The principle of ?breoptics in medicine is that a light from a cold light source passes down a bundle of quartz ?bres in the endoscope to illuminate the lumen of the gastrointestinal tract or the bronchi. The re?ected light is returned to the observer’s eye via the image bundle which may contain up to 20,000 ?bres. The tip of the instrument can be angulated in both directions, and ?ngertip controls are provided for suction, air insu?ation and for water injection to clear the lens or the mucosa. The oesophagus, stomach and duodenum can be visualised; furthermore, visualisation of the pancreatic duct and direct endoscopic cannulation is now possible, as is visualisation of the bile duct. Fibreoptic colonoscopy can visualise the entire length of the colon and it is now possible to biopsy polyps or suspected carcinomas and to perform polypectomy.

The ?exible smaller ?breoptic bronchoscope has many advantages over the rigid tube, extending the range of view to all segmental bronchi and enabling biopsy of pulmonary parenchyma. Biopsy forceps can be directed well beyond the tip of the bronchoscope itself, and the more ?exible ?breoptic instrument causes less discomfort to the patient.

Fibreoptic laparoscopy is a valuable technique that allows the direct vizualisation of the abdominal contents: for example, the female pelvic organs, in order to detect the presence of suspected lesions (and, in certain cases, e?ect their subsequent removal); check on the development and position of the fetus; and test the patency of the Fallopian tubes.


Fibromyalgia Syndrome

Symptoms These vary, with pain and fatigue generally prominent, sometimes causing considerable disability. Patients can usually dress and wash independently but cannot cope with a job or household activities. Pain is mainly axial, but may affect any region. ANALGESICS, NONSTEROIDAL ANTI-INFLAMMATORY DRUGS (NSAIDS) and local physical treatments are generally ine?ective.

Patients often have a poor sleep pattern, waking exhausted. Unexplained headache, urinary frequency and abdominal symptoms are common, but no cause has been found. Patients generally score highly on measures of anxiety and DEPRESSION. Fibromyalgia is not an ideal description; idiopathic di?use-pain syndrome and non-restorative sleep disorder are increasingly preferred terms.

Clinical ?ndings are generally unremarkable; most important is the presence of multiple hyperalgesic tender sites (e.g. low cervical spine, low lumbar spine, suboccipital muscle, mid upper trapezius, tennis-elbow sites, upper outer quadrants of buttocks, medial fat pad of knees). In ?bromyalgia, hyperalgesia (excessive discomfort) is widespread and symmetrical, but absent at sites normally non-tender. Claims by patients to be tender all over are more likely to be due to fabrication or psychiatric disturbance. OSTEOARTHRITIS and periarticular syndrome are much more common and should be excluded, together with other conditions, such as hypothyroidism (see THYROID GLAND, DISEASES OF), SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS (SLE) and in?ammatory myopathy (see MUSCLES, DISORDERS OF), which may present with similar symptoms.

Cause There is no investigational evidence of in?ammatory, metabolic or structural abnormality, and the problem seems functional rather than pathological. SEROTONIN de?ciency has a signi?cant role in ?bromyalgia syndrome.

Management Controlled trials have con?rmed the usefulness of low-dose AMITRIPTYLINE or DOTHIEPIN together with a graded exercise programme to increase aerobic ?tness. How this works is still unclear; its e?cacy may be due to its normalising effects on the sleep centre or ‘pain gating’ (reduction of pain sensation) at the spinal-cord level. Prognosis is often poor. Nevertheless, suitable advice and training can help most patients to learn to cope better with their condition and avoid unnecessary investigations and drug treatments.... fibromyalgia syndrome

Fibrous Tissue

See CONNECTIVE TISSUE.... fibrous tissue


(Spanish) A bright woman Fibey, Fibee, Fibea, Fibeah, Fibi, Fibie... fiby

Ficus Altissima


Family: Moraceae.

Habitat: Assam, eastwards to Malaysia.

Ayurvedic: Nandi vrksha (var), Choraka-patra (var.).

Folk: Gadgubar (Assam).

Action: Leaves and bark—used in skin diseases. The tree is one of the recorded hosts of the Indian lac insect.... ficus altissima

Ficus Asperrima


Family: Moraceae.

Habitat: Madhya Pradesh and Western Peninsula.

Ayurvedic: Kharapatra (non- classical).

Siddha/Tamil: Kal-arasu.

Folk: Kaala-umar.

Action: Juice of bark—given for enlargement of liver and spleen.... ficus asperrima

Ficus Arnottiana


Family: Moraceae.

Habitat: Cultivated in Rajsthan, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar and Western Peninsula.

Ayurvedic: Nandi Vriksha, Prarohi, Gajapaadapa, Paarasa Pipala.

Siddha/Tamil: Kagoti.

Action: Leaves—a moderate sterilizer, given to women after menses. Leaves and bark—used in skin diseases.

Dosage: Bark—50-100 ml decoction. (CCRAS.)... ficus arnottiana

Ficus Benghalensis


Family: Moraceae.

Habitat: Sub-Himalayan tract and Peninsular India. Planted along roadsides, and in gardens.

English: Banyan tree.

Ayurvedic: Vata, Nyagrodha, Bahupaada, Dhruv.

Unani: Bargad, Darakht-e-Reesh.

Siddha/Tamil: Aalamaram.

Action: Infusion of bark—used in diabetes, dysentery, and in seminal weakness, leucorrhoea, menorrhagia, nervous disorders, erysipelas, burning sensation. Milky juice and seeds—applied topically to sores, ulcers, cracked soles of the feet, rheumatic inflammations. Buds—a decoction in milk is given in haemorrhages. Aerial roots— antiemetic, topically applied to pimples. Leaves—a paste is applied externally to abscesses and wounds for promoting suppuration.

Along with other therapeutic applications, The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India recommends the aerial root in lipid disorders.

Phytosterolin, isolated from the roots, given orally to fasting rabbits at a dose of 25 mg/kg, produced maximum fall in blood sugar level equivalent to 81% of the tolbutamide standard after 4 h. The root bark showed antidiabetic activity in pituitary diabetes and alloxan-induced diabetes.

The alcoholic extract of the stem bark also exhibited antidiabetic activity on alloxan-induced diabetes in albino rats, and brought down the level of serum cholesterol and blood urea. This activity is attributed to a glucoside, bengalenoside and the flavonoid glycosides, leucocyanidin and leucopelargonidin. Bengalenoside is half as potent as tolbutamide. The leucopelargonidin glycoside is practically nontoxic and may be useful in controlling diabetes with hyperlipi- demia. The leucocyanidin, when combined with a low dose of insulin, not only equalled in response the effects brought about by a double dose of insulin, but also excelled in amelioration of serum cholesterol and triglycerides.

(Additional references: Indian J Physiol Pharmacol, 1975, 19(4), 218220; J Ethnopharmacol, 1989, 26(1), 155; Indian J Physiol Pharmacol, 1994, 38(3), 220-222.)... ficus benghalensis

Ficus Benjamina


Family: Moraceae.

Habitat: The Eastern Himalaya, Assam, Bihar, Andhra Pradesh, kerala and the Andaman Islands.

English: Java Fig.

Siddha: Malai Ichi, Pon Ichi, Putrajuvi (Tamil).

Folk: Pimpri (Maharashtra).

Action: Diuretic. Leaves— decoction, mixed with oil, is applied to ulcers.

The fruits gave bergapten. The latex, in addition to bergapten, gave alpha- amyrin and imperatorin.... ficus benjamina

Ficus Carica


Family: Moraceae.

Habitat: Native to the Mediterranean region; now cultivated in Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Punjab, Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra.

English: Common Fig.

Ayurvedic: Phalgu, Manjul, Raajodumbara, Bhadrodumbara.

Unani: Anjeer, Teen.

Siddha/Tamil: Semaiatti.

Action: Fruit—gentle laxative and expectorant. Syrup of figs— a remedy for mild constipation. Fruit pulp-analgesic and anti- inflammatory, used for treating tumours, swellings and gum abscesses. Latex—analgesic and toxic. Used for treating warts, insect bites and stings. Leaf—used in lucoderma. Bark—used for eczema and other skin diseases.

Key application: As a laxative. (Included among unapproved herbs by German Commission E.)

The leaves gave bergapten, psoralen, taraxasterol, beta-sitosterol, rutin and a sapogenin. Calotropenyl acetate, lep- eol acetate and oleanolic acid have been identified in the leaves.

Three peptides which exhibit action against angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) have been isolated from the fresh latex. Their inhibitory activity is similar to that of ACE inhibitors derived from casein. (ACE catalyzes both the production of vasoconstrictor angiotensin II and the inactivation of the vasodilator bradykinin.)

Dosage: Fruit—10-20 ml juice; 510 g paste. (CCRAS.)... ficus carica

Ficus Talbotii

G. King.

Family: Moraceae.

Habitat: Peninsular India.

Ayurvedic: Plaksha (related species).

Siddha/Tamil: Itthi, Kal Itthi.

Action: Bark—antileprotic (used for ulcers and venereal diseases). Aerial parts exhibit diuretic, spasmolytic, CNS depressant and hypothermic activity.... ficus talbotii


(Latin) Feminine form of Fidel; a faithful woman

Fidelina, Fidessa, Fidelma, Fidella, Fidessa, Fedella, Fidelity, Fides, Fidelitey, Fidelitee, Fideliti, Fidelitie, Fidelitea... fidelia


Relating to, or founded upon a trust or confidence. A fiduciary relationship exists where an individual or organization has an explicit or implicit obligation to act on behalf of another person’s or organization’s interests in matters which affect the other person or organization.... fiduciary

Ficus Cordifolia


Synonym: F. rumphii Bl.

Family: Moraceae.

Habitat: Throughout India, up to 1,700 m in the hills.

Ayurvedic: Ashmantaka (var.)

Folk: Gajanaa, Ashtaa, Paakar.

Action: Fruit juice and latex— antiasthmatic and vermifuge.

Siddha/Tamil: Kal Aal, Pei Aal.

Action: Fruit—cardiotonic. Leaves and bark—used in affections of the liver and skin diseases.... ficus cordifolia

Ficus Dalhousiae


Family: Moraceae.

Habitat: Tamil Nadu.

Ayurvedic: Soma-valka (doubtful synonym).

Family: Moraceae.

Habitat: Throughout the warmer parts of India.

Ayurvedic: Traayanti, Traaya- maanaa.

Siddha/Tamil: Kodi Athi.

Folk: Daantiraa (Rajasthan).

Action: Fruits—used for constipation during fevers. Leaf-juice— antidysenteric. Root bark—mixed with water, given internally in coryza, asthma and bronchial diseases. Root—antispasmodic.... ficus dalhousiae

Ficus Heterophylla

Linn. f.

Synonym: F. semicordata Buch.- Ham. ex Sm. F. conglomerata Roxb.

Family: Moraceae.

Habitat: Sub-Himalayan tract from Chenab eastward to Bhutan and in Assam, Bengal and Orissa.

English: Indian Fig.

Ayurvedic: Malayu, Choraka- patra, Laakshaa-vrksha, Laghu- udumbara.

Siddha: Taragadu (Tamil).

Action: See F. carica. Fruits— spasmolytic; used in aphthous complaints. Root—used for bladder and visceral troubles. Bark-decoction—used for washing ulcers; juice and powdered bark— applied to wounds and bruises. Syconium—used for ulcers of mucous membrane. Syconium and bark—antileprotic.

The tree is one of the recorded hosts of the Indian lac insect.... ficus heterophylla

Ficus Hispida

Linn. f.

Synonym: F. daemona Koen. ex Vahl. F. Oppositifolia Roxb.

Family: Moraceae.

Habitat: Outer Himalaya from Chenab eastwards to West Bengal Assam, Central and South India and the Andaman Islands.

Ayurvedic: Kaakodumbara, Kaashtodumbara, Phalgu, Malayu, Malapu.

Unani: Anjir Dashti.

Siddha/Tamil: Peyatti, Chona Atthi.

Action: Syconium—galactagogue. Bark and seed—purgative, emetic.

The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia ofIn- dia recommends the fruit in jaundice, oedema and anaemia; fruit and root in leucoderma, vitiligo.

The fruits, seeds and bark contain beta-sitosterol, beta-amyrin, n- triacontanyl acetate, gluacol acetate, hispidin, a phenanthraindolizidine alkaloid, bergapten and psoralen. A leu- cocyanin has been isolated from the root; oleanolic acid from the leaves.

Dosage: Fruit—10-20 g; root—1- 3 g powder. (API Vol. III.)... ficus hispida

Ficus Lacor


Synonym: F. infectoria auct. non- Willd.

F. viren Aiton.

Family: Moraceae.

Habitat: Plains and lower hills of India.

English: White Fig.

Ayurvedic: Plaksha, Karpari, Pitana, Parkati.

Siddha/Tamil: Kurugu, Itthi, Kallalnaram.

Action: Bark—decoction is used for washing ulcers, as a gargle in salivation; also used for menstrual disorders and leucorrhoea. Leaf— estrogenic. Plant— used in erysipelas, ulcer, epistaxis.

Fresh ripe fruit or powder of dried fruits is used to treat diabetes.

The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia ofIn- dia indicates the use of the fruit and stem bark in syncope, delirium and illusive and unstable state of mind. The stem bark of the plant yield acetates of long-chain alcohols, methyl- ricinolate, beta-sitosterol, lanosterol, caffeic acid, bergenin and sugars. The triterpenoids, lupeol and alpha- and beta-amyrin, are also present in the leaves. Flavonoids including sorbifolin and scutellarein derivatives, have been isolated from the leaves.

Dosage: Stem bark—50 g powder for decoction (API Vol. II); dried fruit—5-10 g. (API Vol. IV.) Leaf, root—10-20 g paste. (CCRAS.)... ficus lacor


(English) From the field Fieldah, Felda, Feldah... fielda

Fievre Boutonneuse

Wide-spread spotted fever. Tick-borne and caused by Rickettsia conori.... fievre boutonneuse


(American) Having dancing eyes Fyfe, Fifer, Fify, Fifey, Fifee, Fifea, Fifi, Fifie... fife


(African) Born on a Friday Fifiah, Fifea, Fifeah, Fifeea, Fifeeah... fifia

Ficus Microcarpa

Linn. f.

Synonym: F. retusa auct. non Linn.

Family: Moraceae.

Habitat: West Bengal, Bihar, Central and Peninsular India and Andaman Islands. Grown in gardens, and as an avenue tree. Quite common in New Delhi.

Ayurvedic: Plaksha (related sp.).

Siddha/Tamil: Kal Ichi.

Folk: Itti.

Action: Bark—antibilious. Leaf— antispasmodic. Root bark and leaf— used in preparations of oils and ointments for ulcers, skin diseases, oedema and inflammations.... ficus microcarpa

Ficus Palmata


Synonym: F. caricoides Roxb. F. virgata Wall. ex Roxb.

Habitat: North-western India and Rajasthan, from Kashmir eastward to Nepal, ascending to 1,000 m.

English: Indian Fig.

Ayurvedic: Phalgu, Anjiri.

Siddha: Manjimedi (Telugu).

Action: Fruit—demulcent and laxative. Latex is applied on pimples. Ripe fruits—hypotensive.

Leaves gave bergapten and beta- sitosterol.... ficus palmata

Ficus Racemosa


Synonym: F. glomerata Roxb.

Family: Moraceae.

Habitat: Throughout India. Grows wild in forests and hills. Often found around subterranean water streams.

English: Cluster Fig, Country Fig.

Ayurvedic: Udumbara, Sadaaphala, Hema-daudhaka, Jantuphala, Yagyaanga.

Unani: Anjir-e-Aadam, Anjir-e- Ahmak, Gular.

Siddha/Tamil: Atthi.

Action: Astringent and antiseptic; used in threatened abortions, menorrhagia, leucorrhoea, urinary disorders, skin diseases, swellings, boils, haemorrhages. Unripe fruits—astringent, carminative, digestive, stomachic; used in diarrhoea, dyspepsia, dysentery, menorrhagia and haemorrhages. Ripe fruits—antiemetic, also

used in haemoptysis. Root and fruit—hypoglycaemic. Bark— decoction is used in skin diseases, inflammations, boils and ulcers.

The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India recommends the use of the bark in lipid disorders and obesity.

Leaves and fruit contain gluacol. The fruit also contains beta-sitosterol, lupeol acetate, friedelin, higher hydrocarbons and other phytosterols.

Petroleum ether extract of the stem bark significantly reduced blood sugar level of rats with streptozotocin- induced diabetes. It completely inhibited glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase from rat liver. Extracts of fruit and latex did not show any significant effect on blood sugar level of diabetic rats, they inhibited only glucose-6- phosphate but not arginase from rat liver.

An alcoholic extract of the bark has been found to be very effective in reducing blood sugar in alloxan-induced diabetic albino rats. It helped in improving the damaged beta cells of islets of Langerhans, thus exerting permanent blood sugar lowering effect.

The ethanolic extract of seeds also showed hypoglycaemic activity.

Lignin, the main fiber constituent of the fruit, prevented the rise in serum cholesterol levels of some extent. Fresh whole fruits, used as a source of dietary fibre, exhibited more hypoc- holesterolemic activity than pure cellulose.

Dosage: Bark—20-30 g for decoction. (API Vol. I.)... ficus racemosa

Ficus Religiosa


Family: Moraceae.

Habitat: Sub-Himalayan tracts, West Bengal, Central and South India; planted throughout India as an avenue tree.

English: Peepal, Bot-tree.

Ayurvedic: Ashvattha, Bodhidru, Bodhivrkisha, Sebya, Chalapa- tra, Gajabhaksha, Kshiradruma, Peeppal.

Unani: Peepal.

Siddha/Tamil: Arasu, Ashvatham.

Action: Bark—astringent, antiseptic, alterative, laxative, haemostatic, vaginal disinfectant (used in diabetes, diarrhoea, leucorrhoea, menorrhagia, nervous disorders; also in skin diseases.) Applied externally on unhealthy ulcers and wounds. Leaves and twigs— laxative.

The bark contains beta-sitosteryl-D- glucoside. Vitamin K, n-octacosanol, methyl oleanolate, lanosterol, stigmas- terol, lupen-3-one are reported from the stem bark.

A hypoglycaemic response is reported for beta-sitosterol-D-glucoside obtained from the bark.

Aerial roots are given to women, also used in prescriptions, for inducing conception. The dried fruits are used as a uterine tonic.

The fruits contain 4.9% protein having the essential amino acids, isoleu- cine and phenylalanine. The chloroform extract of fruits exhibited anti- tumour and antibacterial activities in bioassays.

Various plant parts are included in formulations used for menorrha- gia, metrorrhagia, blood dysentery, bleeding piles, haematuria and haemorrhages.

Dosage: Bark, fruit—50-100 ml decoction. (CCRAS.)... ficus religiosa


A generic term for drugs used to treat ?larial infections (see FILARIASIS).... filaricide


A long, slender, simple and muscular structure as in Strongyloidea.... filariform


(English) Feminine form of Filibert; one who is dearly loved Filiberta, Filbertha, Filibertha, Felabeorht, Felberta, Feliberta, Felbertha, Felibertha, Fulberta, Fulbertha, Fuliberta, Fulibertha... filberta


(Greek) A beloved friend Filiah, Fillia, Filiya, Filea, Fileah... filia


Nutritional Profile Energy value (calories per serving): Moderate (fresh figs) High (dried figs) Protein: Low Fat: Low Saturated fat: Low Cholesterol: None Carbohydrates: High Fiber: Very high Sodium: Low (fresh or dried fruit) High (dried fruit treated with sodium sulfur compounds) Major vitamin contribution: B vitamins Major mineral contribution: Iron (dried figs)

About the Nutrients in This Food Figs, whether fresh or dried, are high-carbohydrate food, an extraordinarily good source of dietary fiber, natural sugars, iron, calcium, and potassium. Ninety-two percent of the carbohydrates in dried figs are sugars (42 percent glucose, 31 percent fructose, 0.1 percent sucrose). The rest is dietary fiber, insoluble cellulose in the skin, soluble pectins in fruit. The most important mineral in dried figs is iron. Gram for gram, figs have about 50 percent as much iron as beef liver (0.8 mg/gram vs. 1.9 mg/gram). One medium fresh fig has 1.4 g dietary fiber, six grams sugars, and 0.18 mg iron (1 percent of the R DA for a woman, 2 percent of the R DA for a man). A similar size dried, uncooked fig has 0.8 g fiber, four grams sugars and the same amount of iron as a fresh fig.

The Most Nutritious Way to Serve This Food Dried (but see How other kinds of processing affect this food, below).

Diets That May Restrict or Exclude This Food Low-fiber, low-residue diets Low-sodium (dried figs treated with sulfites)

Buying This Food Look for: Plump, soft fresh figs whose skin may be green, brown, or purple, depending on the variety. As figs ripen, the pectin in their cell walls dissolves and the figs grow softer to the touch. The largest, best-tasting figs are generally the ones harvested and shipped in late spring and early summer, during June and July. Choose dried figs in tightly sealed airtight packages. Avoid: Fresh figs that smell sour. The odor indicates that the sugars in the fig have fer- mented; such fruit is spoiled.

Storing This Food Refrigerate fresh figs. Dried figs can be stored in the refrigerator or at room temperature; either way, wrap them tightly in an air- and moistureproof container to keep them from los- ing moisture and becoming hard. Dried figs may keep for several months.

Preparing This Food Wash fresh figs under cool water; use dried figs right out of the package. If you want to slice the dried figs, chill them first in the refrigerator or freezer: cold figs slice clean.

What Happens When You Cook This Food Fresh figs contain ficin, a proteolytic (protein-breaking) enzyme similar to papain in papayas and bromelin in fresh pineapple. Proteolytic enzymes split long-chain protein molecules into smaller units, which is why they help tenderize meat. Ficin is most effective at about 140 –160°F, the temperature at which stews simmer, and it will continue to work after you take the stew off the stove until the food cools down. Temperatures higher than 160°F inac- tivate ficin; canned figs—which have been exposed to very high heat in processing—will not tenderize meat. Both fresh and dried figs contain pectin, which dissolves when you cook the figs, mak- ing them softer. Dried figs also absorb water and swell.

How Other Kinds of Processing Affect This Food Drying. Figs contain polyphenoloxidase, an enzyme that hastens the oxidation of phenols in the fig, creating brownish compounds that darken its flesh. To prevent this reaction, figs may be treated with a sulfur compound such as sulfur dioxide or sodium sulfite. People who are sensitive to sulfites may suffer serious allergic reactions, including potentially fatal ana- phylactic shock, if they eat figs that have been treated with one of these compounds. Canning. Canned figs contain slightly less vitamin C, thiamin, riboflavin, and niacin than fresh figs, and no active ficin.

Medical Uses and/or Benefits Iron supplementation. Dried figs are an excellent source of iron. As a laxative. Figs are a good source of the indigestible food fiber lignin. Cells whose walls are highly lignified retain water and, since they are impossible to digest, help bulk up the stool. In addition, ficin has some laxative effects. Together, the lignin and the ficin make figs (particularly dried figs) an efficient laxative food. Lower risk of stroke. Potassium lowers blood pressure. According to new data from the Harvard University Health Professionals Study, a long-running survey of male doctors, a diet rich in high-potassium foods such as bananas may also reduce the risk of stroke. The men who ate the most potassium-rich foods (an average nine servings a day) had 38 percent fewer strokes than men who ate the least (less than four servings a day).

Adverse Effects Associated with This Food Sulfite allergies. See How other kinds of processing affect this food.

Food/Drug Interactions MAO inhibitors. Monoamine oxidase (M AO) inhibitors are drugs used as antidepressants or antihypertensives. They inhibit the action of natural enzymes that break down tyramine, a nitrogen compound formed when proteins are metabolized, so it can be eliminated from the body. Tyramine is a pressor amine, a chemical that constricts blood vessels and raises blood pressure. If you eat a food rich in one of these chemicals while you are taking an M AO inhibitor, the pressor amines cannot be eliminated from your body, and the result may be a hypertensive crisis (sustained elevated blood pressure). There has been one report of such a reaction in a patient who ate canned figs while taking an M AO inhibitor.... figs


(Spanish) Feminine form of Philip; a friend of horses

Filipah, Filipina, Filipeena, Filipyna, Filippa, Fillipa, Fillippa... filipa


(Greek) One who is much loved Fylma, Filmah, Fylmah... filma


(Italian) Form of Philomena, meaning “a friend of strength” Filomina, Filomeena, Filomyna, Filomenia, Filominia, Filomeenia, Filomynia, Filomeana, Filomeania, Filomenea... filomena

Fimbristylis Ovata


Synonym: F. monostachya Hassk.

Family: Cyperaceae.

Habitat: Throughout warmer regions of India, as a weed.

Ayurvedic: Ibha-muulaka. (Also equated with F. annua.)

Action: Used in adenitis, scrofula, syphilis; also in cough, bronchitis and asthma.... fimbristylis ovata

Figwort Tea

Mostly known as a cleansing herb, figwort tea was used in the past to treat tuberculosis. Some of the benefits of figwort tea are the detoxifying properties and the capacity to treat skin conditions. About Figworth tea Botanically called Scrophularia nodosa, figwort is also known as carpenter’s square, knotted figwort, throatwort or rose noble. Figwort is a perennial plant with thick square fleshy stems and green or purple flowers, commonly found in the cooler woodlands of Europe, North America and Central Asia. It is harvested in the summer when it is in bloom. It was used in the past to treat tuberculosis commonly called scrofula. It is commonly known as a powerful diuretic and a detoxifier. In China it is associated with salt and taken as a yin tonic. Figwort is typically prepared as a tea infusion, a tincture or as a compress. Figwort tea is prepared from the aerial parts and the roots. Figwort tea contains saponins, cardioactive, glycosides, flavonoids, resin, sugar and organic acids. Ho to prepare figwort tea To make figwort tea, use two teaspoons of dried figwort herbs in a cup of boiling water. Take it out of the heat, and let the mix infuse for about 10 - 15 minutes. It is recommended to be taken not more than twice a day. Benefits of figwort tea Figwort tea is used externally to treat skin conditions, such as eczema and psoriasis. It may also help heal wounds, ulcers, burns, and hemorrhoids. In homeopathic medicine, figwort tea is used to treat decreased resistance, tonsillitis, and lymph edema. It is used internally for its mild laxative effect and its mild diuretic and heart strengthening properties. Figwort tea may stimulate the lymphatic system. Some people believe that figwort Tea may have anti tumor properties. Side effects of figwort tea Pregnant and breastfeeding women should also avoid use, as well as those with cardiac conditions or diabetes, as it might create cardiac disturbances or slow the heart beatings or interfere with some medication. Figwort tea is mainly considered safe for regular consumption but do not ignore it’s precautions before deciding to drink it regularly.... figwort tea


(English) Feminine form of Joseph; God will add

Finah, Feena, Fyna, Fifine, Fifna, Fifne, Fini, Feana, Fiena, Feina... fina

Financial Feasibility

The projected ability of a provider to pay the capital and operating costs associated with the delivery of a proposed service.... financial feasibility


Function of a health system concerned with the mobilization, accumulation and allocation of money to cover the health needs of the people, individually and collectively, in the care system.... financing


(English) Resembling the bird Fench, Finche, Fenche, Fynch, Fynche... finch

Find Out More About Teas For Babies

A newborn baby needs to be taken care of properly. Parents have to be careful with what they give their baby to drink, as well, among other things. There are a few restrictions even when it comes to tea. Find out which are the proper types of tea for babies. When to give tea to babies Although herbal teas bring adults (and even children) many health benefits, this doesn’t apply to babies, as well. Even if mothers often prepare teas for babies, doctors recommend that this should happen only after the baby is 6 months old. The only thing babies should have until they are over 6 months old is the mother’s milk. The mother’s milk contains everything a newborn baby needs. Forbidden teas for babies While babies who are older than 6 motnhs can drink tea, there are still many types of tea which are forbidden to them. Babies shouldn’t be given teas that contain caffeine. This can lead to harmful side effects, which include an upset stomach or sleeping problems; it might also make the baby easily irritable. Besides caffeine, make sure the tea you give to your baby doesn’t contain polyphenols (it hinders the body’s absorption of iron, which can later cause learning problems), or star anise (Chinese star anise is sometimes contaminated with the Japanese one, which can be poisonous). Don’t give your baby sweetened tea, either. Check for “hidden” sugars, which are used to sweeten a usually bitter tea. Such teas can harm your baby’s developing teeth, and it might also make him refuse breast milk. Teas for babies Herbal teas which are considered safe to be given to children older than 6 months include chamomile, caraway, lemonbalm, fennel, catnip, and dill. All these teas for babies come with health benefits. Fennel, dill, caraway, and catnip tea helps your baby when he’s got stomach aches, trapped wind and colic. You can give lemonbalm and chamomile tea to calm your baby and help him relax. Also, babies don’t need to drink a full cup of tea. Either add a bit to your baby’s sipping cup, or offer your baby a few spoons of tea. Also, the herbs should be added to almost-boiling water, and steeping time shouldn’t last more than 5 minutes. If you choose the right type, tea can be a healthy beverage for your baby. Make sure it doesn’t contain any forbidden substances and only give it to your baby when he’s at least 6 months old.... find out more about teas for babies


(Celtic) Having fair eyebrows; in mythology, the daughter of Medb Findabaire, Finnabair, Finnabaire, Findabhair, Findabhaire, Findabayr, Findabayre, Findabare, Findabaer, Findabaere... findabair


(Irish) A beautiful daughter Fineena, Fineene, Fyneen, Fyneene, Fyneena, Finean, Fineane, Fineana, Fynean, Fyneane, Fyneana... fineen


(American) One who is smooth Finese, Finess, Fines... finesse

Find Out More About Teas For Dogs

The healthiest beverage you could give a dog to drink could be water. However, tea comes with its own health benefits. You just have to be careful with the type of tea you give to your dog, as well as the quantity, and it’ll surely help keep your dog healthy. Recommended teas for dogs There are companies which produce tea blends especially for dogs. They come with many health-related benefits and in various flavors. Still, this doesn’t mean your dog can’t consume a few of the same types of tea you drink. Herbal teas are considered to be good for dogs; these include chamomile and essiac tea. Also, green tea is good for dogs, but only if it is caffeine-free. Benefits of teas for dogs Essiac tea is one tea variety that won’t be harmful for your dog. One important health benefit is that it strengthens your dog’s immunity, muscles, organs, bones, and tissues. It also works to remove toxin (including from the blood and bowel), and fights against cancer by helping the body destroy tumors. Chamomile tea is bound to improve your dog’s digestion, as well as its sleep. It is often recommended if your dog is a restless sleeper. This tea can also be used to clean various cuts, and also to wash the dog’s eyes if your pet has runny eyes. Lastly, green tea also works to strengthen the dog’s immunity, and fight against cancer. It might also make the dog’s fur healthier and shinier than before. How much tea to give your dog Despite the health benefits, you shouldn’t give your dog too much tea to drink. It is best to add a few teaspoons to his bowl of water, or sprinkle its food with the tea. It doesn’t have to be strong either, so don’t let it steep for the whole amount of time it usually requires. Side effects of teas for dogs Be careful with the green tea you give to your dog. Make sure it is caffeine-free, as caffeine can be harmful to dogs. Also, you shouldn’t give essiac tea to your dog if you know it has kidney problems, bowel obstructions, diarrhea, ulcers, colitis, or a brain tumor. If you pick the proper tea, dogs can enjoy its health benefits just as much as humans. Don’t hesitate to share your cup of tea with your pet!... find out more about teas for dogs


(Irish) One who is cool Fin, Fyn, Fynn... finn


(Gaelic) From the stream of the wood

Finneah, Finnia, Fynnea, Finniah, Fynnia... finnea


(Gaelic) One who is fair; a white- shouldered woman Fionna, Fione, Fionn, Finna, Fionavar, Fionnghuala, Fionnuala, Fynballa, Fionnula, Finola, Fenella, Fennella, Finella, Finelle... fiona


(Arabic) From the garden in paradise

Firdaws, Firdoos... firdaus


(American) A feisty and passionate woman

Fyre, Firey, Firy, Firi, Firie, Firee, Firea... fire

Fire Coral

The colloquial name for Millepora.... fire coral

Fire Jelly

See Morbakka.... fire jelly

Fire Weed

The colloquial term for Lytocarpus philippinus.... fire weed


Epilobium angustifolium

Description: This plant grows up to 1.8 meters tall. It has large, showy, pink flowers and lance-shaped leaves. Its relative, the dwarf fireweed (Epilobium latifolium), grows 30 to 60 centimeters tall.

Habitat and Distribution: Tall fireweed is found in open woods, on hillsides, on stream banks, and near seashores in arctic regions. It is especially abundant in burned-over areas. Dwarf fireweed is found along streams, sandbars, and lakeshores and on alpine and arctic slopes.

Edible Parts: The leaves, stems, and flowers are edible in the spring but become tough in summer. You can split open the stems of old plants and eat the pith raw.... fireweed


(French) Feminine form of Firmin; a firm and strong woman Firminah, Firmeena, Firmyna, Fermina, Ferminah, Fermeena, Fermyna, Firmeana, Fermeana... firmina


(Scottish) Woman of the sea Fertha, Fyrtha, Firthe, Fyrthe, Ferthe... firtha


(African) A bringer of happiness Fissehah, Fiseha, Fisehah, Fysseha, Fyseha... fisseha

Fixed Cost

See “cost”.... fixed cost


n. 1. reddening of the skin that spreads outwards from a focus of infection or irritation in the skin. 2. the red area surrounding an urticarial weal. 3. (aqueous flare) the visible passage of a beam of light through the aqueous humour, which is a sign of inflammation of the anterior segment of the eye. The light is scattered by proteins in the aqueous humour that have exuded from blood vessels (see exudation).... flare


n. 1. vivid involuntary reliving of the perceptual abnormalities experienced during a previous episode of drug intoxication, including *hallucinations and *derealization, most commonly experienced with LSD. 2. a symptom of *post-traumatic stress disorder characterized by the reliving of a traumatic experience.... flashback

Flat-panel Detector

a piece of equipment used instead of a conventional X-ray film to acquire the image in *digital radiography.... flat-panel detector


(flavo-) combining form denoting yellow.... flav

Flavin Adenine Dinucleotide

see FAD.... flavin adenine dinucleotide

Flavin Mononucleotide

see FMN.... flavin mononucleotide


n. any member of a genus (and family) of *arboviruses that cause a wide range of diseases in vertebrates (including humans). Transmitted by ticks or mosquitoes, these include *yellow fever, *dengue, *Kyasanur Forest disease, *Russian spring-summer encephalitis, and *West Nile fever.... flavivirus


n. a compound consisting of a protein bound to either *FAD or *FMN (called flavins). Flavoproteins are constituents of several enzyme systems involved in intermediary metabolism.... flavoprotein


n. a small wingless bloodsucking insect with a laterally compressed body and long legs adapted for jumping. Adult fleas are temporary parasites on birds and mammals and those species that attack humans (*Pulex, *Xenopsylla, and *Nosopsyllus) may be important in the transmission of various diseases. Their bites are not only a nuisance but may become a focus of infection. Appropriate insecticide powders are used to destroy fleas in the home.... flea

Fleischer Ring

a deposit of iron in the form of a ring in the epithelium of the cornea, which is seen, for example, around the base of the ‘cone’ of the cornea in *keratoconus. It is best visualized using cobalt blue light. [B. Fleischer (1848–1904), German physician]... fleischer ring

Fleischner Criteria

internationally recognized recommendations for the follow-up for incidentally discovered nodules on a CT scan of the chest that may be early carcinomas. This is designed for nodules smaller than 8 mm and not amenable to biopsy. The patients are divided into low- and high-risk groups. Risk stratification will depend on smoking history and other factors, such as asbestos exposure. Nodules are divided into four groups: less than 4 mm, 4–6 mm, 6–8 mm, and 8 mm or larger. Low-risk patients with nodules smaller than 4 mm receive no follow-up; for larger nodules or in high-risk patients scans are performed at 3, 6, 9, 12, and 24 months according to size and risk levels. [F. Fleischner (1893–1969), Austrian-born US radiologist]... fleischner criteria

Flexibilitas Cerea

see catatonia.... flexibilitas cerea

Flight Of Ideas

accelerated thinking that occurs in psychosis, mania, hypomania, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Speech is rapid, moving from one topic to another and reflecting casual associations between ideas. In contrast to *loosening of associations, the link between themes is preserved, albeit often difficult to follow.... flight of ideas


(carphology) n. plucking at the bedclothes by a delirious patient.... floccillation


n. a reaction in which normally invisible material leaves solution to form a coarse suspension or precipitate as a result of a change in physical or chemical conditions. See also agglutination.... flocculation


adj. describing a fluid containing woolly, fluffy, or flaky white particles, usually due to bacterial contamination.... flocculent


n. a small ovoid lobe of the *cerebellum, overhung by the posterior lobe and connected centrally with the nodulus in the midline.... flocculus

Floppy Baby Syndrome

see amyotonia congenita.... floppy baby syndrome

Flow Cytometry

a technique in which cells are tagged with a fluorescent dye and then directed single file through a laser beam. The intensity of *fluorescence induced by the laser beam is proportional to the amount of DNA in the cells.... flow cytometry


n. an instrument for measuring the flow of a liquid or gas. Anaesthetic equipment has to be fitted with flowmeters so that the administration of anaesthetic gases in different proportions can be controlled. Flowmeters are widely used by asthma sufferers to measure their ability to expire air.... flowmeter


n. a synthetic mineralocorticoid (see corticosteroid) used to treat disorders of the adrenal glands marked by deficient production of aldosterone. Side-effects include muscle weakness, bone disorders, digestive and skin disorders, and fluid retention.... fludrocortisone

Fluid Level

the radiographic finding of a straight line between fluid and gas within a hollow organ or cavity when a horizontal X-ray beam strikes the fluid surface tangentially. Multiple long fluid levels are seen in loops of small bowel that are obstructed. A fluid level in the lung suggests a cavity that is partially filled with fluid (e.g. an abscess).... fluid level


n. a *benzodiazepine antagonist drug, used to reverse the sedative effects of benzodiazepines given during anaesthesia.... flumazenil


n. an anti-inflammatory corticosteroid drug used in the prevention and treatment of hay fever. The most common side-effect is local irritation.... flunisolide

Fluorescein Sodium

a water-soluble orange dye that glows with a brilliant green colour when blue light is shone on it. A dilute solution is used to detect defects in the surface of the cornea, since it stains areas where the *epithelium is not intact. In retinal *angiography it is injected into a vein and its circulation through the blood vessels of the retina is viewed and photographed by a special camera.... fluorescein sodium


n. the emission of light by a material as it absorbs radiation from outside. The radiation absorbed may be visible or invisible (e.g. ultraviolet rays or X-rays). See fluoroscope. —fluorescent adj.... fluorescence

Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization

see fish.... fluorescence in situ hybridization


(FDG) n. a variant of normal glucose in the body that is not metabolized and therefore accumulates in areas of high metabolism, such as tumours and areas of infection. It can be labelled with radioactive fluorine-18 and is in common use in PET scanning (see positron emission tomography).... fluorodeoxyglucose


n. any one of a class of *antimetabolite drugs used in the treatment of gastrointestinal malignancies and breast cancer. They include *fluorouracil and the orally administered drugs *capecitabine and tegafur.... fluoropyrimidine


n. the use of a *fluoroscope to visualize X-ray images. *Videofluoroscopy is synonymous with X-ray screening. It is valuable for observing moving structures (e.g. swallowed barium sulphate) or for guiding *interventional radiology procedures.... fluoroscopy


(flupenthixol) n. a thioxanthene *antipsychotic drug used to treat schizophrenia and other psychoses and depression. Possible side-effects include abnormal involuntary movements (see extrapyramidal effects).... flupentixol

Fluticasone Proprionate

a corticosteroid used for the prophylaxis of asthma, the prophylaxis and treatment of hay fever and perennial rhinitis, and the treatment of dermatitis and eczema.... fluticasone proprionate


n. an *antidepressant drug that acts by prolonging the action of the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) in the brain (see SSRI). Side-effects may include sleepiness, agitation, tremor, vomiting, and diarrhoea.... fluvoxamine


n. an abnormally copious flow from an organ or cavity. Alvine flux is *diarrhoea.... flux


see faecal occult blood test.... fobt

Focal Distance

(of the eye) the distance between the lens and the point behind the lens at which light from a distant object is focused. In a normally sighted person the point of focus is on the retina, but in *myopia (short-sightedness) the focus is in front of the retina and in *hypermetropia (long-sightedness) the point of focus is beyond the retina.... focal distance

Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis

(FSGS) a condition in which there is scarring in some (focal) glomeruli that affects only part (segmental) of the glomerular capillary tuft. Primary FSGS overlaps with *minimal change nephropathy and typically presents with the *nephrotic syndrome. Secondary FSGS has a wide range of causes, from viral infections, including HIV, to haemodynamic changes associated with reduced renal mass, hypertension, and obesity, and is usually associated with less severe proteinuria.... focal segmental glomerulosclerosis

Fishtail Palm

Caryota urens

Description: Fishtail palms are large trees, at least 18 meters tall. Their leaves are unlike those of any other palm; the leaflets are irregular and toothed on the upper margins. All other palms have either fan-shaped or featherlike leaves. Its massive flowering shoot is borne at the top of the tree and hangs downward.

Habitat and Distribution: The fishtail palm is native to the tropics of India, Assam, and Burma. Several related species also exist in Southeast Asia and the Philippines. These palms are found in open hill country and jungle areas.

Edible Parts: The chief food in this palm is the starch stored in large quantities in its trunk. The juice from the fishtail palm is very nourishing and you have to drink it shortly after getting it from the palm flower shoot. Boil the juice down to get a rich sugar syrup. Use the same method as for the sugar palm to get the juice. The palm cabbage may be eaten raw or cooked.... fishtail palm


(Norse) In mythology, goddess of the earth and mother of Thor... fjorgyn

Flacourita Indica

(Burm. f.) Merr.

Synonym: F. ramontchi L'Herit.

Family: Flacourtiaceae.

Habitat: Cultivated in Assam, Maharashtra and Bengal.

English: Ramontchi, Madagascar Plum, Mauritius Plum, Governor's Plum.

Ayurvedic: Vikankata, Yajnya- vrksha, Gopakantaa, Sruva-vrksha.

Siddha/Tamil: Sottai-kala, Katukala.

Folk: Poniol (Assam), Kataaya, Kakaiyaa.

Action: Gum—anticholerin. Used as a gargle. Applied to eczema and skin diseases. Bark—antidysenteric, astringent, diuretic. Seed— antirheumatic. Fruit—stomachic. Root—applied externally in skin diseases. Leaves and young shoots— astringent and stomachic.

The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India recommends the use of the leaf and stem bark in jaundice, oedema and diseases due to vitiated blood.

The bark contains a phenolic gluco- side ester, (-)-flacourtin. The heart- wood contains the steroid, ramonto- side, beta-sitosterol and its beta-D- glucopyranoside.

The fruits contain 3.9-7.2% protein, vitamin C and mineral matter 0.39%; calcium 24.1 and phosphorus 12.5 mg/100 g. Fruits are given in jaundice and enlarged spleen.

Dosage: Leaf—50-100 g for decoction. (API Vol. IV.) (Also bark—CCRAS.)... flacourita indica

Flacourtia Jangomas

(Lour.) Raeusch.

Synonym: F. cataphracta Roxb.

Family: Flacourtiaceae.

Habitat: Bengal, Assam, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh and Eastern Ghats.

English: Puneala Plum.

Ayurvedic: Praachinaamalaka, Paaniyaamalaka. (Taalispatri (Hindi), Taalispatra (Gujarati), Taalisam (Malyalaam), Taalispatramu (Tel- ugu) are confusing synonyms of Paaniyaamalaka.)

Unani: Taalisfar, Nabaq Hindi, Zarnab. In National Formulary of Unani Medicine, Zarnab, synonym Telispattar, is equated with F. catapracta, also with Cinnamonum tamala Nees. (Zarnab is also equated with Salix aegyptiaca Sprengel and Taalisfar with Rhododendron anthapogon D. Don or R. lipidotum by Unani scholars.)

Siddha/Tamil: Saralu, Vayangarai.

Folk: Paniyaalaa (Bihar).

Action: Leaves—astringent, antidiarrhoeal, stomachic. Used in chronic bronchitis. Fruit—used in affections of the liver. Bark and fruit—antibilious. Infusion of bark is used as a gargle. Fruits contain (dry basis) protein 3.9%; vitamin C 218, Ca 175, K 158, P 147, Fe 118, Mg 57 mg/100 g. The fruit stem bark and bark yielded a coumarin, ostruthin, and limonoids, jangomolide and limonin.

(Taalisha, Taalisam, Taalisapatri, Taalisapatra—all the synonyms are now equated with Abies spectabilis (D. Don) Spach., synonym A. webbiana Lindl., Pinus webbiana Wall.)... flacourtia jangomas

Flacourtia Sepiaria


Family: Flacourtiaceae.

Habitat: Kumaon and n the dry forests of Bengal, Bihar, Orissa and South India.

Ayurvedic: Vikankata (related species), Kinkini (provisional classical synonym).

Folk: Kondai, Kondari.

Action: The bark of the plant, triturated in sesame oil, is used as liniment in gout and rheumatism.... flacourtia sepiaria


(English) An elegant woman of natural talent

Flaire, Flare, Flayr, Flayre, Flaer, Flaere... flair


(American) A passionate and fiery woman

Flaym, Flayme, Flaime, Flaim, Flaem, Flaeme... flame


(Latin) A pious woman Flaminah, Flamyna, Flamynah, Flamiena, Flamienah, Flameina, Flameinah, Flameena, Flameenah, Flameana, Flameanah... flamina


(English) Woman from Belgium Flander, Flandars, Flandar, Flande, Fland... flanders


(Irish) A red-haired woman Flan, Flanna, Flana, Flynn, Flanne... flann


(Gaelic) From the flatlands Flanneri, Flannerie, Flannerey, Flannaree, Flannerea, Flannereah... flannery


(American) Emanating bright light Flashe, Flasha, Flashia, Flashea... flash


(Latin) Feminine form of Flavius; a yellow-haired woman Flaviah, Flavea, Flaviya, Fulvia, Fulvea, Fulviya, Flaveah, Flaviyah, Fulviah, Fulveah, Fulviyah, Fulvie, Fulvi, Fulvy, Fulvey, Fulvee... flavia


See ANTISEPTICS.... flavine


An aromatic, alcohol-based liniment containing menthol, eucalyptus oil, methyl salicylate and other ingredients; Chinese formula; manufactured in the Dominican Republic; used externally for joint and muscle pain.... flecha


(English) Woman from Belgium Flemyng, Flemming, Flemmyng... fleming


(Italian) A pretty young woman Flemmie, Flemmy, Flemmey, Flemmea, Flemmeah, Flemmee... flemmi


(English) One who is swift Fletah, Flete, Fleda, Flita, Flyta... fleta

Flexible Training

A term applied to the system of postgraduate medical training that allows young doctors to integrate their domestic commitments with the training requirements necessary to become a fully quali?ed specialist, usually by working part-time.... flexible training


(American) A vivacious young woman

Flicki, Flickie, Flickea, Flickeah, Flickee, Flycki, Flyckie, Flyckee, Flyckea, Flyckeah, Flycky, Flyckey, Flicka... flicky

Flinder’s Island Spotted Fever

A tick-borne disease found on Flinder’s Island, north of Tasmania. Zoonotic and caused by Rickettsia honei.... flinder’s island spotted fever


(American) A playfully romantic woman

Flyrt, Flirti, Flirtie, Flirty, Flirtey, Flirtea, Flirteah, Flirtee... flirt


(Polish) A well-behaved girl Fliss, Flisse, Flys, Flyss, Flysse... flis

Flor De

Means “flower of (plant name)”; look up the plant name which follows this description of the plant part used.... flor de


(Latin) Resembling a flower; in mythology, the goddess of flowers Fleur, Flor, Flori, Floria, Floressa, Floretta, Floriana, Florida, Florinda, Florita, Florrie, Florella, Floramaria, Flordelis, Flo, Florette, Florian, Floriane, Floriann, Florianna, Florice, Florka, Florinia, Flower, Fleurette, Fiorella, Fiorenza, Firenze, Floris, Flos, Floss, Flossie, Floy, Fjola, Forenza... flora


(Spanish) A blooming pearl Flordepearla, Flordeperle, Flordepearle, Flordeperl, Flordepearl... flordeperla


(Latin) A flourishing woman; a blooming flower

Florencia, Florentina, Florenza, Florentine, Florentyna, Florenteena, Florenteene, Florentyne, Florenteane, Florenteana... florence


(English) A young woman in bloom Florizell, Florizelle, Florizele, Florizel, Florizella, Florizela, Florazel, Florazell, Florazelle, Florazele, Florazel, Florazella, Florazela... florizel


See also Bread, Corn, Oats, Pasta, Potatoes, R ice, Soybeans, Wheat cereals.

Nutritional Profile Energy value (calories per serving): High Protein: Moderate Fat: Low Saturated fat: Low Cholesterol: None Carbohydrates: High Fiber: Low to high Sodium: Low (except self-rising flour) Major vitamin contribution: B vitamins Major mineral contribution: Iron

About the Nutrients in This Food Flour is the primary source of the carbohydrates (starch and fiber) in bread, pasta, and baked goods. All wheat and rye flours also provide some of the food fibers, including pectins, gums, and cellulose. Flour also contains significant amounts of protein but, like other plant foods, its proteins are “incomplete” because they are deficient in the essential amino acid lysine. The fat in the wheat germ is primarily polyunsaturated; flour contains no cholesterol. Flour is a good source of iron and the B vitamins. Iodine and iodophors used to clean the equipment in grain-processing plants may add iodine to the flour. In 1998, the Food and Drug Administration ordered food manufac- turers to add folates—which protect against birth defects of the spinal cord and against heart disease—to flour, rice, and other grain products. One year later, data from the Framingham Heart Study, which has fol- lowed heart health among residents of a Boston suburb for nearly half a century, showed a dramatic increase in blood levels of folic acid. Before the fortification of foods, 22 percent of the study participants had a folic acid deficiency; after, the number fell to 2 percent. Whole grain flour, like other grain products, contains phytic acid, an antinutrient that binds calcium, iron, and zinc ions into insoluble com- pounds your body cannot absorb. This has no practical effect so long as your diet includes foods that provide these minerals. Whole wheat flours. Whole wheat flours use every part of the kernel: the fiber-rich bran with its B vitamins, the starch- and protein-rich endosperm with its iron and B vitamins, and the oily germ with its vitamin E.* Because they contain bran, whole-grain flours have much more fiber than refined white flours. However, some studies suggest that the size of the fiber particles may have some bearing on their ability to absorb moisture and “bulk up” stool and that the fiber particles found in fine-ground whole wheat flours may be too small to have a bulking effect. Finely ground whole wheat flour is called whole wheat cake flour; coarsely ground whole wheat flour is called graham flour. Cracked wheat is a whole wheat flour that has been cut rather than ground; it has all the nutrients of whole wheat flour, but its processing makes it less likely to yield its starch in cooking. When dried and parboiled, cracked wheat is known as bulgur, a grain used primarily as a cereal, although it can be mixed with other flours and baked. Gluten flour is a low-starch, high-protein product made by drying and grinding hard- wheat flour from which the starch has been removed. Refined (“white”) flours. Refined flours are paler than whole wheat flours because they do not contain the brown bran and germ. They have less fiber and fat and smaller amounts of vitamins and minerals than whole wheat flours, but enriched refined flours are fortified with B vitamins and iron. Refined flour has no phytic acid. Some refined flours are bleached with chlorine dioxide to destroy the xanthophylls (carotenoid pigments) that give white flours a natural cream color. Unlike carotene, the carotenoid pigment that is converted to vitamin A in the body, xanthophylls have no vita- min A activity; bleaching does not lower the vitamin A levels in the flour, but it does destroy vitamin E. There are several kinds of white flours. All-purpose white flour is a mixture of hard and soft wheats, high in protein and rich in gluten.t Cake flour is a finely milled soft-wheat flour; it has less protein than all-purpose flour. Self-rising flour is flour to which baking powder has been added and is very high in sodium. Instant flour is all-purpose flour that has been ground extra-fine so that it will combine quickly with water. Semolina is a pale high-protein, low- gluten flour made from durum wheat and used to make pasta. Rye flours. Rye flour has less gluten than wheat flour and is less elastic, which is why it makes a denser bread.:j Like whole wheat flour, dark rye flour (the flour used for pumpernickel bread) contains the bran and the germ of the rye grain; light rye flour (the flour used for ordinary rye bread) The bran is t he kernel’s hard, brown outer cover, an ext raordinarily rich source of cellulose and lignin. The endosperm is t he kernel’s pale interior, where t he vitamins abound. The germ, a small part icle in t he interior, is t he part of t he kernel t hat sprouts. Hard wheat has less starch and more protein t han soft wheat. It makes a heavier, denser dough. Gluten is t he st icky substance formed when k neading t he dough relaxes t he long-chain molecules in t he proteins gliadin and glutenin so t hat some of t heir intermolecular bonds (bonds bet ween atoms in t he same molecule) break and new int ramolecular bonds (bonds bet ween atoms on different mol- ecules) are formed. Triticale flour is milled from triticale grain, a rye/wheat hybrid. It has more protein and less gluten than all-purpose wheat flour.

The Most Nutritious Way to Serve This Food With beans or a “complete” protein food (meat, fish, poultry, eggs, milk, cheese) to provide the essential amino acid lysine, in which wheat and rye flours are deficient.

Diets That May Restrict or Exclude This Food Low-calcium diet (whole grain and self-rising flours) Low-fiber diet (whole wheat flours) Low-gluten diet (all wheat and rye flour) Sucrose-free diet

Buying This Food Look for: Tightly sealed bags or boxes. Flours in torn packages or in open bins are exposed to air and to insect contamination. Avoid: Stained packages—the liquid that stained the package may have seeped through into the flour.

Storing This Food Store all flours in air- and moistureproof canisters. Whole wheat flours, which contain the germ and bran of the wheat and are higher in fat than white flours, may become rancid if exposed to air; they should be used within a week after you open the package. If you plan to hold the flour for longer than that, store it in the freezer, tightly wrapped to protect it against air and moisture. You do not have to thaw the flour when you are ready to use it; just measure it out and add it directly to the other ingredients. Put a bay leaf in the flour canister to help protect against insect infections. Bay leaves are natural insect repellents.

What Happens When You Cook This Food Protein reactions. The wheat kernel contains several proteins, including gliadin and glute- nin. When you mix flour with water, gliadin and glutenin clump together in a sticky mass. Kneading the dough relaxes the long gliadin and glutenin molecules, breaking internal bonds between individual atoms in each gliadin and glutenin molecule and allowing the molecules to unfold and form new bonds between atoms in different molecules. The result is a network structure made of a new gliadin-glutenin compound called gluten. Gluten is very elastic. The gluten network can stretch to accommodate the gas (carbon dioxide) formed when you add yeast to bread dough or heat a cake batter made with baking powder or baking soda (sodium bicarbonate), trapping the gas and making the bread dough or cake batter rise. When you bake the dough or batter, the gluten network hardens and the bread or cake assumes its finished shape. Starch reactions. Starch consists of molecules of the complex carbohydrates amylose and amylopectin packed into a starch granule. When you heat flour in liquid, the starch gran- ules absorb water molecules, swell, and soften. When the temperature of the liquid reaches approximately 140°F the amylose and amylopectin molecules inside the granules relax and unfold, breaking some of their internal bonds (bonds between atoms on the same molecule) and forming new bonds between atoms on different molecules. The result is a network that traps and holds water molecules. The starch granules then swell, thickening the liquid. If you continue to heat the liquid (or stir it too vigorously), the network will begin to break down, the liquid will leak out of the starch granules, and the sauce will separate.* Combination reaction. Coating food with flour takes advantage of the starch reaction (absorbing liquids) and the protein reaction (baking a hard, crisp protein crust).

Medical Uses and/or Benefits A lower risk of some kinds of cancer. In 1998, scientists at Wayne State University in Detroit conducted a meta-analysis of data from more than 30 well-designed animal studies mea- suring the anti-cancer effects of wheat bran, the part of grain with highest amount of the insoluble dietary fibers cellulose and lignin. They found a 32 percent reduction in the risk of colon cancer among animals fed wheat bran; now they plan to conduct a similar meta- analysis of human studies. Whole wheat flours are a good source of wheat bran. NOTE : The amount of fiber per serving listed on a food package label shows the total amount of fiber (insoluble and soluble). Early in 1999, however, new data from the long-running Nurses Health Study at Brigham Women’s Hospital/Harvard University School of Public Health showed that women who ate a high-fiber diet had a risk of colon cancer similar to that of women who ate a low-fiber diet. * A mylose is a long, unbranched, spiral molecule; amylopect in is a short, compact, branched molecule. A mylose has more room for forming bonds to water. Wheat flours, which have a higher rat io of amy- lose to amylopect in, are superior t hickeners. Because this study contradicts literally hundreds of others conducted over the past 30 years, researchers are awaiting confirming evidence before changing dietary recommendations.

Adverse Effects Associated with This Food Allergic reactions. According to the Merck Manual, wheat is one of the foods most commonly implicated as a cause of allergic upset stomach, hives, and angioedema (swollen lips and eyes). For more information, see under wheat cer ea ls. Gluten intolerance (celiac disease). Celiac disease is an intestinal allergic disorder that makes it impossible to digest gluten and gliadin (proteins found in wheat and some other grains). Corn flour, potato flour, rice flour, and soy flour are all gluten- and gliadin-free. Ergot poisoning. Rye and some kinds of wheat will support ergot, a parasitic fungus related to lysergic acid (LSD). Because commercial flours are routinely checked for ergot contamina- tion, there has not been a major outbreak of ergot poisoning from bread since a 1951 incident in France. Since baking does not destroy ergot toxins, the safest course is to avoid moldy flour altogether.... flour


(American) A fun-loving young woman

Fluffy, Fluff,, Fluffea, Fluffeah, Fluffee, Fluffie... fluffy

Fluid Balance

The appropriate balance of ?uid input and output (along with dissolved salts essential for life) over 24 hours. During this period, about 2,500 millilitres (ml) of ?uid should be taken in by a 70-kg man and the same amount excreted; of this, 1,500 ml will be drunk, 800 ml will be in the food eaten, and 200 ml produced by food metabolism. Excreted water is made up of 1,500 ml of urine, 800 ml insensible loss and 200 ml in the faeces. A 70-kg man’s total body ?uid is 42 litres – 60 per cent of body weight. Intracellular ?uid comprises 28 litres, extracellular, 14 litres and blood, 5 litres. Water is controlled mainly by the sodium concentration in the body ?uids via the release of antidiuretic hormone (ADH – see VASOPRESSIN) from the posterior part of the PITUITARY GLAND. In seriously ill people, close monitoring of ?uid intake and output, along with measurements of PLASMA sodium and calcium concentrations, is an essential factor in treatment.... fluid balance


An extract of an herb that is made according to official (and unofficial) pharmaceutical practice, with a strength of 1:1. That means each ounce of the fluidextract has the solutes found in an ounce of the dried herb. Advantageous for some herbs (such as Arctium or Taraxacum), where the active constituents retain the same proportions as in the plant, even though reduced to a very small volume of menstruum, it is deadly for others (such as Hydrastis or Lobelia), whose constituents may have wildly varying solubility, and whose fluidextract will contain only the most soluble constituents and lack others completely. The gradual disappearance of herbal preparations in Standard Medicine in the 1930s can partly be attributed to the almost complete reliance on fluidextracts. Some manufacturers (notably Lilly and SK&F) sold Tinctures (1:5 strength and meant to, at the least, contain EVERYTHING in the plant) that were made from diluted fluidextracts. Some fluidextracts were even made from dilutions of what were termed Solid Extracts....heat-evaporated tars, easy to store, easy to make in huge labor-minimal batches, where 100 pounds of Blue Cohosh could be reduced to 25 pounds of solid extract. This convenience pitch, with many constituents oxidized by heat, others never even extracted, could be diluted four times to sell as a fluidextract, TWENTY time to market as a tincture. These practices by American pharmaceutical manufacturers, with eyes perhaps on the larger drug trade (the use of crude drugs being a diminished part of their commerce, yet needing MANY different preparations...and being labor-intensive and profit-minimal...and sort of old-fashioned) ended up supplying terminally impaired products. Their value being reduced, physicians relied more and more on mainstream pharmaceuticals...and the medical use of whole plant preparations died.... fluidextract


A tranquilliser used in the treatment of schizophrenia (see MENTAL ILLNESS).... flupenthixol


An aerosol corticosteroid drug used in the prevention and treatment of attacks of ASTHMA. Inhaled corticosteroids have few or no systemic side-effects unless given in excessive dosage.... fluticasone

Focus Group

A type of group discussion that is designed to elicit information about the wants, needs, viewpoints, beliefs and experiences of the intended audience. Focus groups can aid in better understanding the expressions and terminology commonly used by people in the audience, as well as their attitudes and beliefs about health care. They are useful for helping uncover the reasons behind people’s responses.... focus group


(African) Woman of honor Folah, Folla, Follah... fola

Follicular Hormone

See OESTRADIOL.... follicular hormone

Follow-up Study

A study in which individuals or populations, selected on the basis of whether they have been exposed to risk, have received a specified preventive or therapeutic procedure, or possess a certain characteristic, are followed to assess the outcome of exposure, the procedure or the effect of the characteristic, e.g. occurrence of disease.... follow-up study

Foeniculum Vulgare


Family: Umbelliferae; Apiaceae.

Habitat: Native to the Mediterranean region; now cultivated mainly in Punjab, Assam, Maharashtra and Vadodara (Gujarat).

English: Fennel. (Poison hemlock has been misidentified as fennel.)

Ayurvedic: Mishreyaa, Mishi, Mad- hurikaa, Madhuraa, Shatapushpaa, Shataahvaa. (Shatpushpaa is equated with Saunf and Shataahvaa with Soyaa. Some authors treat these as vice-versa.)

Unani: Baadiyaan, Saunf.

Siddha/Tamil: Sombu.

Action: Carminative, stomachic, antispasmodic, emmenagogue, galactagogue, anti-inflammatory, diuretic. Relieves bloating, nausea, settles stomach and stimulates appetite. Also used in amenorrhoea and enuresis.

Key application: In dyspepsias such as mild, spastic, gastrointestinal afflictions, fullness, flatulence. Fennel syrup or honey can be used for the catarrh of the upper respiratory tract in children. Fennel oil preparations not recommended during pregnancy. (German Commission E, ESCOP, WHO.)

German Commission E reported that fennel seed promotes gastrointestinal motility and in higher concentrations acts as antispasmodic. In experiments anethole and fenchone have been shown to have a secre- tolytic action in respiratory tract. The British Herbal Pharmacopoeia and Indian Herbal Pharmacopoeia report its carminative and spasmolytic property.

Fennel seed contain about 8% volatile oil (about 50-60% anethole, among others 10-15% fenchone and methyl- chavicol), flavonoids, coumarins (including bergapten) and sterols.

The extract of seeds inhibits the growth of micro-organism, especially Streptococcus mutans, that are responsible for dental caries and periodontal diseases.

The essential oil from the seed is reported to be antibacterial, antifungal, antioxidant, emmenagogue, oxytocic and abortifacient.

The fatty acid, petroselenic acid, obtained from the oil, exhibited antimicrobial activity.

Anethole, a major constituent of fennel seed/oil has been found to be an active estrogenic agent with minimal hepatotoxicity and no teratogenic effect.

The oil also exhibits anticarcino- genic activity and can be used as a che- moprotective agent.

It possesses antioxidant activity close to BHT.

Anethole and limonene are used in pharmaceutical compositions for decreasing the side effects of chemotherapy and increasing the immune function.

Limonene showed the capacity to inhibit mammary tumours in rats.

The boiling water extract of leaves shows hypotensive effect in rats.

The methanolic extract of seed showed antispasmodic activity, while aqueous extract accelerated the spontaneous movement of rabbit stomach.

Dosage: Dried fruit—3-6 g powder. (API Vol. I.)... foeniculum vulgare


(Spanish) Grounded to the earth Fondah, Fondiah, Fondia, Fondea, Fondeah... fonda


(American) A friendly woman Fondyce, Fondeece, Fondeace, Fondise, Fondyse, Fondeese, Fondease... fondice


(Italian) From the fountain Fontanah, Fontanna, Fontane, Fontann, Fontanne, Fontaine, Fontayne, Fotina, Fountain, Fontaina, Fontaene, Fontayna, Fontaena... fontana


(French) One who is special... fontenot


Mixture of substances containing CARBOHYDRATE, FAT, PROTEIN, VITAMINS, TRACE ELEMENTS and water consumed by animals, including humans, to provide the necessary nutrients to maintain the body’s METABOLISM.... food

Food Standards Agency

An independent agency recently set up by the UK government. The aim is for the agency to protect consumers’ interests in every aspect of food safety and nutrition. The agency advises ministers and the food industry, conducts research and surveillance, and monitors enforcement of food safety and hygiene laws.... food standards agency


(Scottish) A headstrong young girl Forbah, Forbia, Forbea, Forbiya, Forbiah, Forbeah, Forbiyah... forba

Forced Diuresis

A means of encouraging EXCRETION via the KIDNEYS of a compound by altering the pH and increasing the volume of the urine. Forced diuresis is occasionally used after drug overdoses, but is potentially dangerous and so only suitable where proper intensive monitoring of the patient is possible. Excretion of acid compounds, such as salicylates, can be encouraged by raising the pH of the urine to 7·5–8·5 by the administration of an alkali such as bicarbonate (forced alkali diuresis) and that of bases, such as AMPHETAMINES, by lowering the pH of the urine to 5·5–6·5 by giving an acid such as ammonium chloride (forced acid diuresis).... forced diuresis

Forced Feeding

See ENTERAL FEEDING.... forced feeding


(English) From the water Forde... ford


(English) A woodland dweller Forrest... forest


(American) Everlasting... forever

Formal Assistance

Help provided to persons with one or more disability by organizations, or individuals representing organizations (whether profit-making or non-profit-making, government or private), or by other persons (excluding family, friends or neighbours as described in informal help) who provide assistance on a regular, paid basis and who are not associated with any organization.... formal assistance

Formal Care

See “formal assistance”.... formal care


One of the steroidal AROMATASE INHIBITORS recently introduced for the treatment of patients with advanced postmenopausal breast cancer. It is better tolerated than non-steroidal aromatase inhibitors and acts by blocking the conversion of androgens (see ANDROGEN) to OESTROGEN in peripheral tissue.... formestane


(Latin) Resembling the flower Forsythiah, Forsythea, Forsytheah, Forsithia, Forsithiah, Forsithea, Forsitheah... forsythia


(Latin) Having great strength Fortny, Fortni, Fortnie, Fortnea, Fortneah, Fortnee, Fourtney, Fourtny, Fourtni, Fourtnie, Fourtnea, Fourtneah, Fourtnee... fortney


(Latin) A fortunate woman; in mythology, the goddess of fortune and chance

Fortunah, Fortuin, Fortuyn, Fortunata, Fortunatus... fortuna

Foster Care

A form of assisted housing, usually provided in private homes owned and occupied by individuals or families, offering a place of residence, meals, housekeeping services, minimum supervision, and personal care for a fee to non-family members who do not require supervision by skilled medical personnel.... foster care


(English) One who traps birds Fowlar, Fowlir, Fowla, Fowlia, Fowlea... fowler

Foxtail Grass

Setaria species

Description: This weedy grass is readily recognized by the narrow, cylindrical head containing long hairs. Its grains are small, less than 6 millimeters long. The dense heads of grain often droop when ripe.

Habitat and Distribution: Look for foxtail grasses in open, sunny areas, along roads, and at the margins of fields. Some species occur in wet, marshy areas. Species of Setaria are found throughout the United States, Europe, western Asia, and tropical Africa. In some parts of the world, foxtail grasses are grown as a food crop.

Edible Parts: The grains are edible raw but are very hard and sometimes bitter. Boiling removes some of the bitterness and makes them easier to eat.... foxtail grass

Frail Older Person

An older person in need of a substantial level of care and support.... frail older person


(Latin) Feminine form of Francis; woman from France; one who is free Francesca, Francine, Francene, Francina, Francille, Francena, Franceska, Francisca, France, Francia, Fanceen, Fanchon, Franchesca, Francheska, Franci, Francie, Francique, Franciska, Franciszka, Franca, Fran, Francoise, Frangag, Franki, Frankie, Frannie, Franni, Franny, Frantiska, Franze, Franziska, Fanchone, Fani, Fania, Fannia, Fanny, Fannie, Fanni, Fanya, Fereng, Ferika, Ferike, French, Frenchie, Frenchi, Frenchy, Frenchey, Frenchee, Frenchea... frances


(French) A woman from France Franchell, Franchel, Franchele, Franchella, Franchela... franchelle


(Spanish) A beautiful woman from France

Franisbell, Franisbelle, Franisbele, Franisbela, Franisbella, Fransabel, Fransabell, Fransabelle, Fransabele, Fransabela, Fransabella... franisbel

Fraxinus Griffithii


Family: Oleaceae.

Habitat: Arunachal Pradesh (Mishmi Hills).

Action: Toxic to CNS.

The extract of the bark and leaves are used as an adulterant of illegal opium and are sold in the black market in certain areas in Indonesia.

The bark contains an iridoid glu- coside, ligstroside, and the phenolic glucosides, syringin and sinapaldehyde glucoside.

Family: Oleaceae.

Habitat: F. excelsior Linn.—Great Britain, Europe and North America. F. hookery—Western Himalaya at 2,700-3,350 m.

English: European Ash, Weeping Ash.

Folk: Kum, Sum, Hum, Sinnun (Punjab, Kashmir).

Action: F. excelsior—laxative, antiinflammatory, febrifuge. The bark and leaves are used for arthritis and rheumatism.

The herb gave coumarin derivatives, including fraxin, fraxetin and fraxinol; flavonoids based on aesculetin, including aescin, also rutin and quercetin. A coumarin derivative is actively diuretic.

A saccharine exudate, manna, consisting principally of mannitol, is obtained by incising the stem barks of some Fraxinus sp. found in India. The manna of commerce is derived from F. ornus. F. hookery (bark)—astringent, febrifuge, bitter tonic. Leaves—cathartic.

Ash Bark is used, in decoction, in the treatment of intermittent fever and ague, as a substitute for Peruvian bark. Also used for treating obstructions of the liver and spleen and in rheumatism and arthritic affections.

Preparations of European Ash Bark showed an analgesic, anti-exudative and antiphlogistic action. (German Commission E.)

Habitat: Indigenous to the coasts of the Mediterranean from Spain to Smyrna.

English: Flake Manna.

Unani: Turanjeen.

Action: A children's laxative. Usually prescribed with other purgatives. (Not to be used in the presence of ileus.)

Key application: In constipation where an easier elimination and a soft stool are desirable; in animents such as anal fissures, haemorrhoids and post-rectal and surgery. (German Commission E.)

The exudation contains 40-90% mannitol, 10-15% stachyose and man- notriose, glucose, fructose.... fraxinus griffithii


(Scandinavian) A fertile woman Frayde, Freyda, Freyde, Fraida, Fraide, Fraeda, Fraede... frayda


(Scandinavian) A noble woman... frea


(American) Feminine form of Frederick; a peaceful ruler Fredela, Fredelle, Fredell, Fredele, Fredel... fredella


(German) Feminine form of Frederick; a peaceful ruler Frederika, Fredrika, Fredrica, Fredericka, Fredricka, Frederyca, Federikke, Freda, Frida, Fryda, Fredda, Fridda, Freddi, Freddie, Frieda, Freida, Frici, Frideborg, Friede, Friedegard, Friedegarde, Friederika, Friederike, Frikka, Fritzi, Fritzie... frederica


(American) An independent woman Free... freedom


(Latin) Resembling the flower Freesiah, Freasia, Freasiah, Freesea, Freeseah, Freasea, Freaseah, Freezia, Freazia, Freeziah, Freaziah... freesia


(Spanish) A sister Freirah, Freyira, Freyirah... freira


Violent temporary mental derangement... frenzy


(Norse) A lady; in mythology, the goddess of love, beauty, and fertility Freyah, Freyja, Freja... freya


(Norse) Woman born into the nobility

Freydiss, Freydisse, Freydys, Fredyss, Fraidis, Fradis, Fraydis, Fraedis, Fraidys, Fradys, Fraedys... freydis


The name given either to the FREMITUS felt, or to the grating noise heard, when two rough surfaces of the body move over one another. It is characteristically obtained over the chest in cases of dry PLEURISY.... friction


(German) A gentle young woman

Friedelynde, Friedelind, Friedelynd, Friedelinda, Friedelynda... friedelinde

Friedreich’s Ataxia

A hereditary disease resembling LOCOMOTOR ATAXIA, and due to degenerative changes in nerve tracts and nerve cells of the spinal cord and the brain. It occurs usually in children, or at any rate before the 20th year of life, and affects often several brothers and sisters. Its chief symptoms are unsteadiness of gait, with loss of the knee jerks, followed later by diffculties of speech, tremors of the hands, head and eyes, deformity of the feet, and curvature of the spine. There is often associated heart disease. The sufferer gets gradually worse, but may live, with increasing disability, for 20–30 years.... friedreich’s ataxia


(Norse) In mythology, the mother goddess of the heavens, love, and the household

Frigga, Frig, Friga, Frygg, Frygga, Fryg, Fryga... frigg

Fritillaria Cirrhosa

D. Don.

Family: Liliaceae.

Habitat: Central and Western Himalaya between 3,700 and 5,350 m.

Folk: Yathu.

Action: Corm—antiasthmatic, used for bronchitis and tuberculosis.

The bulbs contain steroidal alkaloids—ebeinone, eduardine, edpeti- lidine, verticinone, isoverticine and isobaimonidine and pimaradienic di- terpene, oblongifolic acid.

Ebeinone exhibited anticholinergic activity... fritillaria cirrhosa

Fritillaria Imperialis


Family: Liliaceae.

Habitat: Kashmir at 1,700-3,000 m.

English: Crown Imperial, Imperial Fritillary.

Action: Bulbs—emollient, diuretic, resolvent, spasmolytic, hypotensive, cardiotonic.... fritillaria imperialis


(Teutonic) A wise and beloved friend

Frodinah, Frodyna, Frodeena, Frodine, Frodyne, Frodeen, Frodeene, Frodeana, Frodeane... frodina

Fröhlich’s Syndrome

A condition in children characterised by obesity, physical sluggishness, and retarded sexual development. It is the result of disturbed PITUITARY GLAND function.... fröhlich’s syndrome


(Latin) Resembling a leafy branch Fronde, Frondah, Frondia, Frondiah, Frondea, Frondeah, Frondiya, Frondiyah, Frond... fronda


(Latin) A wise woman Froniah, Fronea, Froniya, Froneah, Froniyah... fronia

Fritillaria Roylei


Family: Liliaceae.

Habitat: Western temperate Himalaya from Kashmir to Kumaon at 2,700-4,35 m.

Ayurvedic: Kshira-Kaakoli, Viraa, Kaayasthikaa, Vaaysoli.

Action: Used in the treatment of asthma, bronchitis and tuberculosis. (Withania somnifera is a substitute for Kaakoli and Kshira-Kaakoli.)

The bulbs gave alkaloids—peimine, peimisine, peimiphine, perminine, permidine and permitidine. The bulbs also gave neutral compounds—prope- imin and a sterol. The plant gave kash- mirine.

Dosage: Bulb—3-6 g powder. (CCRAS.)... fritillaria roylei


(American) One who is cool and crisp

Frostey, Frostee, Frostea, Frosteah, Frosti, Frostie... frosty


(Latin) One who is bountiful Fructuosa, Fructuosia, Fructuosea, Fruta, Frue, Fru... fructuose


(German) A hardworking woman Frulah, Frulla, Frullah... frula


(Hebrew) One who is religious; pious

Frumma, Frumah, Frummah... fruma

Fruta De

Means “fruit of (plant name)”; look up the plant name which follows this description of the plant part used.... fruta de


(English) One who is calm and tranquil

Fryth, Frytha, Frith, Frithe, Fritha... frythe


(Latin) Resembling the flower Fusha, Fushia, Fushea, Fewsha, Fewshia, Fewshea... fuchsia

Fucus Vesiculosus


Family: Fucaceae. (Laminaria sp.)

Habitat: On the shores of the United Kingdom, North Atlantic Ocean, North Pacific Coast of America; as a weed; found in Indian Ocean on the Manora Rocks. Allied species—F. distichus Linn., and F nodosus Linn. (Included in Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plants, CSIR, also in its second supplement.) F. nodosus is found in India along sea shores.

English: Bladderwrack, Black Tang, Rockweed, Kelp.

Action: Weed—one of the richest source of minerals, chiefly iodine, sodium, manganese, sulphur, silicon, zinc and copper. Effective against obesity, antirheumatic. Stimulates circulation of lymph. Endocrine gland stimulant. Allays onset of arteriosclerosis by maintaining elasticity of walls of blood vessels. Mild diuretic, bulk, laxative, antibiotic. High sodium content may reduce effectiveness of diuretics.

(The herb contains trace metal, particularly iodine from 0.03-1.0%. It may contain waste metals such as cadmium and strontium, when grown in a polluted environment. Variable iodine content and arsenic contamination make the herb unsafe.)

The herb should be used with caution in hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism. Excess thyroid activity maybe aggravated by the iodine content of the herb; it may disrupt thyroid function. One gram of Bladderwrack might contain as much as 600 mcg iodine (Ingesting more than 150 mcg iodine per day may cause hyperthyroidism or exacerbate existing hyperthyroidism.) (Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, 2007.)

Due to the antithrombin effects ofits fucan polysaccharides, consumption of the herb in cases of G1 bleeding disorders is contraindicated.

(Included among unapproved herbs by German Commission E.)... fucus vesiculosus


(American) One who is stubborn; resembling the candy Fudgi, Fudgey, Fudgy, Fudgie, Fudgea, Fudgeah... fudge


(Spanish) From the sacred fountain Fuensantah, Fuensantia, Fuensantea, Fuensantiya, Fuenta... fuensanta


The term applied to mild puffer fish poisoning causing mild paresthesiae around the lips after eating fish prepared by a special cook. Accidental overdose may, and does, cause human fatality in Japan.... fugu


(Egyptian) One who is intelligent Fukaena, Fukaina, Fukana... fukayna


(Latin) A glowing woman Fulgenciah, Fulgencea, Fulgenceah... fulgencia


(Norse) In mythology, one of Frigga’s handmaidens

Fullah, Fula, Fylla, Fyllah, Fyla... fulla

Fumaria Officinalis


Family: Fumariaceae.

Habitat: Native to Europe and North America. Found at high altitudes in Nilgiris and Salem (Tamil Nadu).

English: Fumitory.

Ayurvedic: Parpata (related species).

Unani: Shaahtaraa.

Action: Antispasmodic and amphicholeretic. Stimulant to liver and gall bladder; used for eczema and other skin diseases. Also diuretic and mild laxative.

Key application: In spastic discomforts in the area of gallbladder and bile ducts, as well as the gastrointestinal tract. (German Commission E, The British Herbal Pharmacopoeia.)

The herb contains indenobenzaze- pine alkaloids—fumaritrin and fu- marofine.

Other alkaloids include (-)-scou- lerine, protopine, fumaricine, (+)-fu- mariline. The plant also contain rutin, fumaric acid and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives.

Protopine exhibits antihistaminic, hypotensive, bradycardic and sedative activity in small doses, but excitation and convulsions in large doses. (Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, 2007.)

The seed oil contains myristic 4.2, palmitic 17.6, stearic 2.7, oleic 19.6, linoleic 55.7 and linolenic acid 0.2%.

The upper flowering part of the herb is used for biliary disorders, various skin diseases and fevers. The herb can also treat arteriosclerosis by helping in lowering blood cholesterol level and improving the elasticity of arterial wall.... fumaria officinalis


An imbalance of response, without permanent tissue damage, and generally reversible.... functional

Functional Diseases

See PSYCHOSOMATIC DISEASES.... functional diseases

Fumaria Parviflora


Synonym: F. indica (Haussk.) Pugsley.

Family: Fumariaceae.

Habitat: At high altitudes in Tamil Nadu; up to 2,700 m on the Himalayas.

English: Fumitory.

Ayurvedic: Parpata, Parpata- ka, Varatikta, Renu, Kavacha, Sukshmapatra.

Unani: Shaahtaraa.

Siddha/Tamil: Thura.

Folk: Pittapaaparaa.

Action: Detoxifying, laxative, diuretic, diaphoretic.

The plant contains isoquinoline alkaloids-including protopine, sangui- narine, cryptopine, d-bicuculline, fu- maridine, fumaramine. The leaves contain kaempferol and quercetin glycosides.

Dosage: Whole plant-1-3 g (API Vol. IV); 3-35 g powder; 50-100 ml decoction. (CCRAS.)... fumaria parviflora

Fumaria Vaillantii


Family: Fumariaceae.

Habitat: Throughout India on the hills.

Ayurvedic: Parpata.

Unani: Shaahtaraa.

Folk: Pittapaaparaa.

Action: The plant is used as a substitute for Fumaria parviflora.

A decoction of the herb is used for blood purification and in skin diseases, especially psoriasis.

Methanolic extract of the plant exhibits antimicrobial activity against Sarcina subflava.

The herb contains several isoquino- line alkaloids which are common to Fumaria officinalis and Fumaria parviflora.

Protopine showed smooth muscle relaxant activity in guinea-pigs, rabbits and albino rats and hydrocholeretic activity in anaesthetized dogs. L-tetra- hydrocoptisine showed antipsychotic (neuroleptic) activity in albino rats and mice. Narceimine, narlumidine, adlu- midine and protopine nitrate exhibit anti-inflammatory activity Alkaloids, narlumidine and pro- topine, exhibit significant antifungal activity.... fumaria vaillantii

Fumitory Tea

The health benefits of fumitory tea have been well-known since ancient times as it has a “bringer of long life” fame. Fumitory was once used as an herb to stop the hiccups and sometimes even as a tool to expel evil spirits. About Fumitory tea Fumitory is an annual, climbing herb native to Eurasia, Australia and North America. Also known as fumaria officinalis, it has slender stems, triangular leaves, limp branches and pinkish flowers with purple or white tops. Fumitory can be found in various forms like tea infusion, tincture, capsules or extract form. Active components include alkaloids (including fumarine and protopine), bitter principles, tannic acid, fumaric acid, mucilage, flavonoids, resin, potassium. For fumitory tea, the above ground parts of the plant are usually used. Brew Fumitory tea To prepare fumitory tea, simply place 1 to 2 tablespoons of dried fumitory herbs in a cup of boiling water. Let it infuse for about 10 to 15 minutes and then you can add milk or natural sweetener to taste. Fumitory tea benefits Fumitory tea has many health benefits as long as you drink up to 3 cups a day. Fumitory Tea may help in the treatment of skin problems such as eczema and acne. It is diuretic, laxative, sedative and a general tonic. It supports liver and kidney treatment and may help in the fight against gallstones. Fumitory tea is used also to treat cystitis, atherosclerosis, rheumatism, arthritis as well as to purify the blood. Fumitory tea side effects Please keep in mind not to associate fumitory tea with drugs, alcohol or some medicines as it can create unwanted interactions. Also, if you are a pregnant or nursing woman and you are planning to have children, it’s best to keep away from this tea. Safety Risk Side effects associated with fumitory include hypotension, increased intraocular pressure, and acute renal failure. When applied externally through eyewashes, fumitory tea, may help in the treatment of conjunctivitis. Fumitory tea is mostly safe for regular use. However, take into consideration the possible side effects and adjust the consumption according to your needs.... fumitory tea

Functional Status

The extent to which an individual is able to perform activities that are associated with the routines of daily living. See “activities of daily living”; and “instrumental activities of daily living”.... functional status

Functionally Disabled

A person with a physical or mental impairment that limits the individual’s capacity for independent living.... functionally disabled


Colloquial name for the small area at the back of the elbow where the ULNAR NERVE goes over a prominence at the lower end of the HUMERUS bone. If the nerve is hit, acute pain results, accompanied by tingling in the forearm and hand.... funnybone


(Latin) In mythology, the patroness ofthieves

Furinah, Furyna, Fureena, Furrina, Furryna, Furreena, Fureana, Furreana... furina

Functions The Chief Uses Of The Tongue Are:

to push the food between the teeth for mastication, and then mould it into a bolus preparatory to swallowing;

as the organ of the sense of taste, and as an organ provided with a delicate sense of touch; and

to play a part in the production of speech. (See VOICE AND SPEECH.) It is usual to classify any taste as: sweet, bitter,

salt and acid, since ?ner distinctions are largely dependent upon the sense of smell. The loss of keenness in taste brought about by a cold in the head, or even by holding the nose while swallowing, is well known. Sweet tastes seem to be best appreciated by the tip of the tongue, acids on its edges, and bitters at the back. There are probably di?erent nerve-?bres and end-organs for the di?erent varieties of taste. Many tastes depend upon the ordinary sensations of the tongue.

Like other sensations, taste can be very highly educated for a time, as in tea-tasters and wine-tasters, but this special adaptation is lost after some years.... functions the chief uses of the tongue are:

Fungal And Yeast Infections

These infections, also called mycoses (see MYCOSIS), are common and particularly affect the skin or mucosal membranes in, for example, the mouth, anus or vagina. Fungi consist of threadlike hyphae which form tangled masses or mycelia – common mould. In what is called dermatophyte (multicellular fungi) fungal infection of the hair, nails and SKIN, these hyphae invade the KERATIN. This is usually described as ‘RINGWORM’, although no worm is present and the infection does not necessarily occur in rings. PITYRIASIS versicolor and candidosis (monoliasis – see CANDIDA), called thrush when it occurs in the vulva, vagina and mouth, are caused by unicellular fungi which reproduce by budding and are called yeasts. Other fungi, such as ACTINOMYCOSIS, may cause deep systemic infection but this is uncommon, occurring mainly in patients with immunosuppressive disorders or those receiving prolonged treatment with ANTIBIOTICS.

Diagnosis and treatment Any person with isolated, itching, dry and scaling lesions of the skin with no obvious cause – for example, no history of eczema (see DERMATITIS) – should be suspected of having a fungal infection. Such lesions are usually asymmetrical. Skin scrapings or nail clippings should be sent for laboratory analysis. If the lesions have been treated with topical steroids they may appear untypical. Ultraviolet light ?ltered through glass (Wood’s light) will show up microsporum infections, which produce a green-blue ?uorescence.

Fungal infections used to be treated quite e?ectively with benzoic-acid compound ointment; it has now been superseded by new IMIDAZOLES preparations, such as CLOTRIMAZOLE, MICONAZOLE and terbina?ne creams. The POLYENES, NYSTATIN and AMPHOTERICIN B, are e?ective against yeast infections. If the skin is macerated it can be treated with magenta (Castellani’s) paint or dusting powder to dry it out.

Refractory fungal infection can be treated systematically provided that the diagnosis of the infection has been con?rmed. Terbina?ne, imidazoles and GRISEOFULVIN can all be taken by mouth and are e?ective for yeast infections. (Griseofulvin should not be taken in pregnancy or by people with liver failure or porphyria.) (See also FUNGUS; MICROBIOLOGY.)... fungal and yeast infections


(Greek) An enraged woman; in mythology, a winged goddess who punished wrongdoers

Furey, Furi, Furie, Furee, Furea, Fureah... fury


(American) An animated woman Fushey, Fushi, Fushee, Fushea, Fusheah, Fushie... fushy

Fuzzy Weed

Love, Hunting... fuzzy weed


(Greek) Form of Phyllis, meaning “of the foliage”

Fylis, Fillis, Filis, Fylys, Fyllida, Fylida, Fillida, Filida, Fyllina, Fylina, Fyliss... fyllis

Futile Medical Treatment

Treatment that is usually considered unable to produce the desired benefit either because it cannot achieve its physiological aim or because the burdens of the treatment are considered to outweigh the benefits for the particular individual. There are necessary value judgements involved in coming to an assessment of futility. These judgements must consider the individual’s, or proxy’s, assessment of worthwhile outcome. They should also take into account the medical practitioner or other provider’s perception of intent in treatment. They may also take into account community and institutional standards, which in turn may have used physiological or functional outcome measures.... futile medical treatment

Gaultheria Fragrantissima


Family: Ericaceae.

Habitat: Central and Eastern Himalayas, Khasi Hills, Western Ghats, the Nilgiris and Travancore.

English: Fragrant Wintergreen, Indian Wintergreen. (Wintergreen oil is obtained from G. procumbens Linn., a native of America.)

Ayurvedic: Gandhapuura, Gandha- puurna.

Siddha/Tamil: Kolakkaai.

Action: Leaves—stimulant, carminative, diuretic, antiseptic. Oil (in the form of liniment or ointment)— applied externally in rheumatism, sciatica and neuralgia. The plant is strongly irritant.

The leaves gave hyperoside (quer- cetin-3-galactoside), ursolic acid, beta- sitosterol and essential oil containing methyl salicylate as a major constituent. The yield of oil from Assam plants contains 99.14% methyl salicy- late. Heptyl aldehyde, present in the low boiling fraction of the oil, brought about the regression of tumours in mice and dogs.... gaultheria fragrantissima

Glomerular Filtration Rate (gfr)

Each of the two KIDNEYS ?lters a large volume of blood – 25 per cent of cardiac output, or around 1,300 ml – through its two million glomeruli (see GLOMERULUS) every minute. The glomeruli ?lter out cell, protein, and fat-free ?uid which, after reabsorption of certain chemicals, is excreted as urine. The rate of this ultra?ltration process, which in health is remarkably constant, is called the glomerular ?ltration rate (GFR). Each day nearly 180 litres of water plus some small molecular-weight constituents of blood are ?ltrated. The GFR is thus an indicator of kidney function. The most widely used measurement is CREATININE clearance and this is assessed by measuring the amount of creatinine in a 24-hour sample of urine and the amount of creatinine in the plasma; a formula is applied that gives the GFR.... glomerular filtration rate (gfr)

Granny Flat / Annex

A permanent or temporary residence which adjoins a family home to enable older people to maintain independent living while remaining close to the family. May be newly built or converted.... granny flat / annex

Health Care Institution / Facility

Any establishment that is engaged in direct patient care on site.... health care institution / facility

Health Risk Factor

A chemical, psychological, physiological, social, environmental or genetic factor or conditions that predisposes an individual to the development of a disease or injury.... health risk factor

Hemerocallis Fulva


Habitat: The Himalaya, Khasi Hills; cultivated in Indian gardens.

English: Common Yellow Day-lily, Tawny Day-lily, Orange Day-lily.

Action: Flower—analgesic, especially in child birth; blood purifier. (Flowers are sold in Chinese food shops as Gum-Tsoy or Gum-Jum.)

Hemerocallin, a neurotoxic principle, has been found in Hemerocallis sp. The plant gave amino acid—oxyp- innatanine.... hemerocallis fulva

Hibiscus Flower Tea

(Sorrel) Dried Hibiscus flowers are made into a tea that offers very high health benefits. Hibiscus tea is known to lower blood pressure, reduce high cholesterol and strengthen the immune system (it’s rich in Vitamin C). Hibiscus flower infusions have known to reduce hypertension as well, in people prone to this condition. A recent study reveals that hibiscus tea is rich in antioxidants, which protect the body against cell-damaging free radicals. Red zinger tea and sorrel tea contain hibiscus.... hibiscus flower tea

Hazelnut Or Wild Filbert

Corylus species

Description: Hazelnuts grow on bushes 1.8 to 3.6 meters high. One species in Turkey and another in China are large trees. The nut itself grows in a very bristly husk that conspicuously contracts above the nut into a long neck. The different species vary in this respect as to size and shape.

Habitat and Distribution: Hazelnuts are found over wide areas in the United States, especially the eastern half of the country and along the Pacific coast. These nuts are also found in Europe where they are known as filberts. The hazelnut is common in Asia, especially in eastern Asia from the Himalayas to China and Japan. The hazelnut usually grows in the dense thickets along stream banks and open places. They are not plants of the dense forest.

Edible Parts: Hazelnuts ripen in the autumn when you can crack them open and eat the kernel. The dried nut is extremely delicious. The nut’s high oil content makes it a good survival food. In the unripe stage, you can crack them open and eat the fresh kernel.... hazelnut or wild filbert

High Dependency Care Facility

An establishment primarily engaged in providing inpatient nursing and rehabilitative services to individuals requiring nursing care.... high dependency care facility

Human Fertilisation & Embryology Act 1990

See ASSISTED CONCEPTION.... human fertilisation & embryology act 1990

Human Fertilisation & Embryology Authority (hfea)

See ASSISTED CONCEPTION.... human fertilisation & embryology authority (hfea)

Human-factor Research

The study of the interrelationships between humans, the tools they use, and the environment in which they live and work.... human-factor research

Humidifier Fever

A form of ALVEOLITIS caused by contamination of the water used to humidify, or moisten, the air in air-conditioning plants. The breathing of the contaminated air results in infection of the lung, which is characterised by fever, cough, shortness of breath and malaise – worse on Monday and tending to improve during the

course of the week. (See also LEGIONNAIRE’S DISEASE.)... humidifier fever

Ichnocarpus Frutescens

R. Br.

Family: Apocynaceae.

Habitat: Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Assam and the Sunderbans.

English: Black Creeper.

Ayurvedic: Gopavalli, Krishna Saarivaa (var.), Krishna-muuli, Shyaamalataa.

Siddha/Tamil: Karunannari, Makalikilanzhu.

Folk: Kaalisar, Karantaa.

Action: Root—demulcent, diuretic, alterative, diaphoretic; used in fevers, dyspepsia and cutaneous affections. The roots of the plant are used as a substitute for Indian sarsaparilla and are often mixed with the roots of Hemidesmus indicus (their therapeutic properties for use as sarsaparilla have bot been established).

The root gave 2-hydroxy-4-meth- oxybenzaldehyde.

Alkaloids and flavonoids were present in the roots but not in the leaves and fruits. Saponins were absent in these parts. The whole plant gave n-butyl sorboside, kaempferol and its gluco- side.... ichnocarpus frutescens

Idiopathic Facial Nerve Palsy

See BELL’S PALSY.... idiopathic facial nerve palsy

In Vitro Fertilisation (ivf)

Fertilisation of the egg (ovum) outside the body. The fertilised ovum is then incubated until the blastocyst stage develops, when it is implanted into the UTERUS. The procedure was developed in Britain and the ?rst successful in vitro baby, a girl, was born in 1978. IVF is used when a woman has blocked FALLOPIAN TUBES or when the sperm and ovum are unable to fuse in the reproductive tract. Hormone treatment results in the potential mother’s producing several mature ova, some of which are removed from the ovary using a LAPAROSCOPE and fertilised with her partner’s semen. (See ASSISTED CONCEPTION.)... in vitro fertilisation (ivf)

Independent Living Facility

A rental unit in which services are not included as part of the rent, although services may be available on site and may be purchased by residents for an additional fee.... independent living facility

Intermediate Care Facility (icf)

An institution which is licensed to provide, on a regular basis, health-related care and services to individuals who do not require the degree of care or treatment which a hospital or skilled nursing facility is designed to provide.... intermediate care facility (icf)

International Classification Of Functioning, Disability And Health (icf) A

Classification of health and health-related domains that describe body functions and structures, activities and participation. The domains are classified from body, individual and societal perspectives. Since an individual’s functioning and disability occurs in a context, this classification includes a list of environmental factors.... international classification of functioning, disability and health (icf) a

Interstitial Fluid

The hydrogel that surrounds cells in soft tissues. It is a mucopolysaccaride starch gel, and the serum that leaves the blood capillaries flows through this gel, some to return to the exiting venous blood, some to enter the lymph system. There is an old medical axiom: the blood feeds the lymph, and the lymph feeds the cells. Interstitial fluid that flows through the starch colloid is this lymph.... interstitial fluid

Infant Feeding

The newborn infant may be fed naturally from the breast, or arti?cially from a bottle.

Breast feeding Unless there is a genuine contraindication, every baby should be breast fed. The nutritional components of human milk are in the ideal proportions to promote the healthy growth of the human newborn. The mother’s milk, especially colostrum (the ?uid secreted before full lactation is established) contains immune cells and antibodies that increase the baby’s resistance to infection. From the mother’s point of view, breast feeding helps the womb to return to its normal size and helps her to lose excess body fat gained during pregnancy. Most importantly, breast feeding promotes intimate contact between mother and baby. A ?nal point to be borne in mind, however, is that drugs taken by a mother can be excreted in her milk. These include antibiotics, sedatives, tranquillisers, alcohol, nicotine and high-dose steroids or vitamins. Fortunately this is rarely a cause of trouble. (See also main entry on BREAST FEEDING.)

Arti?cial feeding Unmodi?ed cows’ milk is not a satisfactory food for the human newborn and may cause dangerous metabolic imbalance. If breast feeding is not feasible, one of the many commerciallly available formula milks should be used. Most of these are made from cows’ milk which has been modi?ed to re?ect the composition of human milk as closely as possible. For the rare infant who develops cows’-milk-protein intolerance, a milk based on soya-bean protein is indicated.

Feeding and weight gain The main guide as to whether an infant is being adequately fed is the weight. During the ?rst days of life a healthy infant loses weight, but should by the end of the second week return to birth weight. From then on, weight gain should be approximately 6oz. (170g) each week.

The timing of feeds reffects social convention rather than natural feeding patterns. Among the most primitive hunter-gatherer tribes of South America, babies are carried next to the breast and allowed to suckle at will. Fortunately for developed society, however, babies can be conditioned to intermittent feedings.

As the timing of breast feeding is ?exible – little or no preparation time being required – mothers can choose to feed their babies on demand. Far from spoiling the baby, demand feeding is likely to lead to a contented infant, the only necessary caution being that a crying baby is not always a hungry baby.

In general, a newborn will require feeding every two to four hours and, if well, is unlikely to sleep for more than six hours. After the ?rst months, a few lucky parents will ?nd their infant sleeping through the night.

Weaning Weaning on to solid foods is again a matter of individuality. Most babies will become dissatis?ed with a milk-only diet at around six months and develop enthusiasm for cereal-based weaning foods. Also at about this time they enjoy holding objects and transferring them to their mouths – the mouth being an important sense organ in infants. It is logical to include food items that they can hold, as this clearly brings the baby pleasure at this time. Introduction of solids before the age of four months is unusual and best avoided. The usual reason given for early weaning is that the baby appears hungry, but this is unlikely to be the case; crying due to COLIC, for example, is more probable. Some mothers take the baby’s desire to suck – say, on their ?nger – as a sign of hunger when this is, in fact, re?ex activity.

Delaying the start of weaning beyond nine months is nutritionally undesirable. As weaning progresses, the infant’s diet requires less milk. Once established on a varied solid diet, breast and formula milks can be safely replaced with cows’ milk. There is, however, no nutritional contraindication to continued breast feeding until the mother wishes to stop.

It is during weaning that infants realise they can arouse extreme maternal anxiety by refusing to eat. This can lead to force-feeding and battles of will which may culminate in a breakdown of the mother-child relationship. To avoid this, parents must resist the temptation to coax the child to eat. If the child refuses solid food, the meal should be taken away with a minimum of fuss. Children’s appetites re?ect their individual genetic structure and a well child will eat enough to grow and maintain satisfactory weight gain. If a child is not eating properly, weight gain will be inadequate over a prolonged period and an underlying illness is the most likely cause. Indeed, failure to thrive is the paediatrician’s best clue to chronic illness.

Advice on feeding Many sources of con?icting advice are available to new parents. It is impossible to satisfy everyone, and ultimately it is the well-being of the mother and infant and the closeness of their relationship that matter. In general, mothers should be wary of rigid advice. An experienced midwife, health visitor or well-baby-clinic nursing sister are among the most reliable sources of information.

Protein Fat per Sugar Calories per cent cent per cent per cent

Human milk 1·1 4·2 7·0 70 Cows’ milk 3·5 3·9 4·6 66

Composition of human and cows’ milk... infant feeding

Jasminum Flexile


Synonym: J. azoricum Linn.

Family: Oleaceae.

Habitat: Assam, Mizoram, Meghalaya and Western Ghats.

Ayurvedic: Maalati (var.).

Siddha/Tamil: Ramabanam mullai.

Folk: Chameli (var.).

Action: See Jasminum officinale.... jasminum flexile

Kedrostis Foetidissima

(Jacq.) Cogn.

Synonym: K. rostrata (Rottl.) Cogn. Bryonia rostrata Rottl. Rhynghocarpa foetida Clarke

Family: Cucurbitacease.

Habitat: Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu.

Folk: Appakovay (Tamil Nadu). Kukumadona, Nagadonda (Andhra Pradesh) Nurakvel (Maharashtra).

Action: Root and fruit—demulcent; used in asthma and piles.... kedrostis foetidissima

Larvivorous Fish

Fish species which feed preferentially on mosquito larvae. They may contribute significantly to the reduction of vector densities.... larvivorous fish

Jasmine Tea - A Famous Chinese Scented Tea

Jasmine tea is a Chinese tea made from jasmine flowers. This tea is one of the most popular teas in China, being a specialty for over 800 years. It is basically used as a green, white or oolong tea having a subtle sweet flavor. How To Make Jasmine Tea Brewing jasmine tea is not such a difficult process. First of all you will need to boil the water. Add 1 tablespoon of jasmine leaves into your teapot or infuser and pour the hot water over it. Cover it and let it steep for about 3 minutes, but no longer than 5 minutes because you may obtain a bitter taste. If you didn’t use an infuser, make sure you use a strainer when you pour the tea into your cup to catch the jasmine blooms. Since it already has a sweet, floral taste it is advised not to put any sweetener, but if you want you can add some sugar or honey. Jasmine Tea Benefits Jasmine tea is full of antioxidants that protect your body against the damage that free radicals can cause to your body cells. Jasmine tea helps you lose weight thanks to the combination between caffeine and antioxidants. Also, this tea reduces fat and encourages cholesterol absorption. Some studies revealed that jasmine tea may help prevent cancer. Jasmine is also used for its calming effects in aromatherapy as an essential oil. Judging by this fact, drinking a cup of jasmine tea also provides you relaxation. Jasmine Tea Side Effects Over consumption may lead to certain side effects. For example, jasmine tea has caffeine content that heightens alertness and reduces sleepiness. Also, caffeine increases secretion of stress hormones, insomnia and dehydration so try not to drink too much jasmine tea. One or two cups of jasmine tea a day! Needless to say, pregnant and breastfeeding woman are advised not to drink jasmine tea, also because of its caffeine content. Enjoy this wonderful scented tea and all its benefits! Do not drink more than 2 cups of jasmine tea per day, this way making sure you won’t experience any of its side effects.... jasmine tea - a famous chinese scented tea

Lagerstroemia Flos-reginae


Synonym: L. speciosa (L.) Pers. L. reginae Roxb.

Family: Lythraceae.

Habitat: Tropical Himalaya, and Assam, Western and Eastern Ghats, up to 1,000 m.

English: Pride of India, Queen's Flowers, Queen Crape Myrtle.

Siddha/Tamil: Kadalai, Pumaruttu.

Folk: Jaarul. Kramuk and Arjun are confusing synonyms.

Action: Seed—narcotic. Root— astringent, stimulant, febrifuge. Fruit—used for aphthae of the mouth. Leaves—purgative, diuretic, deobstruent. Bark—an infusion is given in diarrhoea and abdominal pain.

A decoction of the leaves, also of dried fruits, is used like tea for diabetes mellitus in Philippines. Mature leaves and fruits, in fresh condition, exhibit hypoglycaemic activity experimentally The potency decreases on storing the material.

The leaf extract, when administered as powder and as tannin-free extract, showed hypoglycaemic activity in mice. Amino acids constitute the insulin-like principle. The plant contains triterpenoids, colocolic acid and maslinic acid. Colocolic acid is known to possess hypoglycaemic activity.

Leaves contain lageracetal and sitos- terol. Ellagitannins have been isolated from fruits and leaves.... lagerstroemia flos-reginae

Lipoid Factor

An agent involved in the clotting mechanism of the blood. It helps in the activation of THROMBOPLASTIN in the blood PLASMA (see COAGULATION).... lipoid factor

Lipotropic Factors

Various compounds and processes that enable the liver to metabolize fats properly or prevent the formation of cholesterolic stones in the gall bladder by supporting the continued emulsification of gall bladder bile. EXAMPLES: Lecithin, choline, Aristolochia... lipotropic factors

Long-term Care Facility

See “high dependency care facility”.... long-term care facility

Lung Flukes

Trematode worms infecting the lungs of humans and other crab-eating mammals. Belong to the genusParagonimus and are found in parts of Africa, Latin America, Asia and SE Asia.... lung flukes

Keemun Tea - The Black Tea With An Orchid Fragrance

Keemun tea is a popular Chinese black tea produced in Qimen County in the Anhui Province of China. It is classified as being a top quality black tea around the globe, especially in the British market whereKeemun tea is considered a delicacy. The tea gained popularity very quickly in England where it has become an important ingredient in English Breakfast tea blends. Keemun tea comes from a sub-variety of the Chinese tea plant Camellia Sinensis, named Zhu-ye-zhing which grows in a mountainous area covered by forest in Anhui Province. In that area, the lack of sun, high humidity and low temperature allow the growth of perfect thin black tea leaves which are withered, rubbed, twirled and then baked dry. There are many Keemun tea varieties such as:
  • Keemun Gongfu or Congou which has thin, dark and tight shaped leaves.
  • Keemun Mao Feng which has slightly twisted leaf buds and a smoother flavor. For a proper taste, it is recommended to brew a smaller quantity of this type of tea and let it steep for 7 minutes.
  • Keemun Xin Ya - a type of tea with a less bitter taste.
  • Keemun Hao Ya
Keemun Tea brewing If it is properly brewed, you will obtain a clear red color cup of Keemun tea with a fruity, exotic and floral (but not as floral as Darjeeling tea ) aroma. To get a perfect cup of tea, add 1-2 teaspoons of tea leaves per 8 oz cup into the teapot. Boil the water, pour it over the tea leaves and let it steep between 2 - 3 minutes. In China, people drink Keemun tea without any kind of sweetener or milk. Keemun tea benefits Keemun tea has many benefits even though it does not contain as many antioxidants as green or white tea. The caffeine in the Keemun tea helps enhancing your memory and gives you energy during the day. Since this tea is a type of black tea, it has many benefits for the human body:
  • Accelerates your metabolism and allows you to burn fat much easier and faster. With a balanced diet and regular exercise,Keemun tea is a strong allied in the process of weight loss.
  • Keemun tea can be a good alternative for coffee. The caffeine in the black tea will give you the energy that you need in the morning and will make you feel full of energy all day long.
  • Improves your digestion by dissolving the excess acidity.
  • Inhibits the growth of cancer cells and the development of rheumatoid arthritis.
Keemun tea side effects Being a black tea, Keemun tea has a significant amount of caffeine which can cause anxiety, insomnia or irritability if you drink it before bed. Pregnant women are not advised to drink black tea during the pregnancy since it has been related to spontaneous abortions and birth defects. Also, if you are breastfeeding you should consider reducing the amount of black tea. People who suffer from anemia are strongly recommended not to drink Keemun tea since it can cause dizziness, blurred vision or headaches. It is often said that Keemun tea has an orchid fragrance that leaves a lasting impression in people`s memory.  It has a reputation for being a truly exquisite tea with its fruity and wine-like flavor that, combined with the wonderful health benefits, make the tea drinking a delightful experience.... keemun tea - the black tea with an orchid fragrance

Liquidambar Formosana


Family: Altingiaceae; Hamameli- daceae.

Habitat: Native to China; now reported to have been introduced into Lalbagh gardens, Bangalore.

English: Fragrant Maple.

Ayurvedic: Silhak (var.).

Unani: Silaaras (var.).

Action: See Liquidambar orientalis.

Balsam (Chinese Storax) contains cinnamic acid (16%). Cinnamyl alcohol, borneol, a resin alcohol and volatile constituents (1.8-8%). The leaves on steam-distillation yield 005% of a volatile oil consisting principally of terpenes (88%).... liquidambar formosana

Loranthus Falcatus

Linn. f.

Synonym: Dendrophthoe falcate (Linn. f.) Etting.

Family: Loranthaceae.

Habitat: Throughout India, as a parasite.

Ayurvedic: Bandaaka, Sanharshaa, Vrikshaadani, Vrikshaaruha, Vriksha-bhakshaa. (A large bushy parasite, which causes much damage to the host tree.)

Folk: Baandaa.

Action: Tender shoots—contain 10% tannins. Bark—astringent and narcotic.... loranthus falcatus

Marsh Fever

See MALARIA.... marsh fever

Medical Dictionary

Medical Dictionary

[catlist id=11 numberposts=100 pagination=yes instance=2 orderby=title order=asc]

... medical dictionary

Necrotising Fasciitis

Also known as CELLULITIS. A potentially lethal infection caused by the gram-positive (see GRAM’S STAIN) bacterium Streptococcus pyogenes which has the property of producing dangerous exotoxins. The infection, which starts in the layer of FASCIA under the SKIN, may spread very rapidly, destroying tissue as it spreads. Urgent antibiotic treatment may check the infection, and surgery is sometimes required, but even with treatment patients may die (see STREPTOCOCCUS).... necrotising fasciitis

Lygodium Flexuosum

(L.) Sw.

Synonym: L. pinnatifidum Sw.

Family: Schizaeaceae.

Habitat: Throughout India; up to an elevation of 1,500 m in the Himalayas.

Folk: Vallipana (Malyalam); Bhuuta-bhairavi (Bengal), Bhuuta- raaj; Kalzhaa (Bihar). Rudrajataa is a doubtful synonym.

Action: Plant—expectorant. Root— used in external applications for rheumatism, sprains, cut wounds, eczema, scabies, carbuncles. A decoction in drunk in gastric attacks.

The acetone extract of fresh leaves exhibits antifungal activity. The fern contains a methyl ester of gibberellin.

The plant contains lygodinolide, dryocrassol, tectoquinone, kaempfer- ol, beta-sitosterol and stigmasterol. The root contains quercetin.

Alcoholic extract of the plant exhibited potent antifertility activity.

L. japonicum Sw., found in North India from Kashmir to Sikkim and Bhutan, and in Western mountains of South India, is used as an expectorant in China.... lygodium flexuosum

Mango Tea And Its Healthy Freshness

Mango tea is a complex type of tea, due to its ingredients: green tea, black tea and mango pieces. It is considered to be ideal both for tea consumers and fruit lovers worldwide. About Mango Tea Mango, originally coming fromsouth Asia, was brought to the United States in 1880. It symbolizes love and apparently, its leaves are a good choice to be gifted at weddings. It is a delicious and juicy fruit, that can be eaten fresh or cooked, sliced, pureed or, as part of several beverages. Mango tea is a type of tea resulting from mixing green tea, black tea and whole mango pieces. It gathers the freshness of mangoes and the strong flavor of the two teas mentioned above. How to make Mango Tea?
  • infuse 1 tablespoon per cup
  • use boiling water
  • infuse it for 3 minutes
Mango tea can be also consumed cold. In this case, ice is recommended to be added. To boost its freshness, connoisseurs indicate the use of fresh mint leaves use. Mango Tea benefits Owing to the high quantity of contained antioxidants, Mango tea is effectively used in treating cancer and helping cells to recover from this disease. This type of tea has proven its efficiency in dealing with:
  •  Anemia
  •  Stress
  • Muscle cramps
  • Digestion
  • Weight Control
  • Bone Growth
  • Immune Functions
  • Vision
  • Wound Healing
  • Protein Synthesis
  • Dehydration
Mango Tea side effects Mango tea side effects are generallyassociated to overconsumption or, citrus intolerance. It is indicated that individuals suffering from cardiac problems or hypertension to consume it moderately. Pregnant and breast-feeding women are advised to reduce the amount of Mango tea consumed (less than 2 cups per day), in order not to cause agitation to the baby. Mango teacould be successfully introduced in a daily diet, providing energy and enhancing mood for consumers of all ages and thus, carefully strengthening the immune system.... mango tea and its healthy freshness

Mesua Ferrea


Synonym: M. nagassarium (Burm. f.) Kosterm.

Family: Guttiferae; Clusiaceae.

Habitat: Eastern Himalayas, Assam, West Bengal, Western Ghats, Travancore and the Andaman Islands.

English: Iron-wood, Mesu.

Ayurvedic: Naagakeshara, Naa- gapushpa, Chaampeya, Naaga, Naagakinjalika, Ahipushpa. (In Ayurvedic Formulary of India Part I, revised edn 2003, Keshara and Kesara are equated with Mesua ferrea, while Kumkuma is equated with Crocus sativus.)

Unani: Naarmushk.

Siddha/Tamil: Sirunagappo, Nagakesaram. Sirunagappo also consists of the tender fruits of Cinamonum wighti Meissn. Malabar Naagakeshar consists of the fruits of Dillenia pentagyna Roxb.

Action: Flower bud—antidysenteric. Flowers—astringent, haemostatic, anti-inflammatory, stomachic. Used in cough, bleeding piles, metrorrhagia. Essential oil from stamens—antibacterial, antifungal.

The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India recommends the use of dry stamens in gout, haemorrhagic disorders and diseases of the urinary bladder.

The heartwood gave xanthones— euxanthone, mesuaxanthones A and B, which exhibit anti-inflammatory, CNS depressant and antimicrobial activities.

Theseedoil gave4-phenylcoumarin analogues—mesuol, mammeigin, me- suagin, mammeisin and mesuone. Phenol-containing fraction of seed oil is antiasthmatic and antianaphylaxis.

Stamens gave alpha- and beta-amy- rin, beta-sitosterol, biflavonoids, me- suaferrones A and B, and mesuanic acid. Stamens constitute the drug Naa- gakeshar of Indian medicine, used as an astringent, haemostatic, particularly in uterine bleeding and renal diseases.

Ethanolic extract of the plant showed diuretic and hypotensive activity.

Dosage: Dried stamens—1-3 g powder. (API, Vol. II.)... mesua ferrea

Nursing Facility

Licensed facility that provides skilled nursing care and rehabilitation services to functionally disabled, injured or sick individuals.... nursing facility

Oil, Fixed

These are lipids, esters of long-chain fatty acids and alcohols, or generally related oily stuff. If you drop some fixed oil on a blotter, it just stays there-forever. (Example: olive oil.)... oil, fixed

Oral And Maxillo-facial Surgeons

Perform surgery to the mouth and face. This not only includes removal of buried teeth but also treatment for fractured facial bones, removal of cancers and the repair of missing tissue, and the cosmetic restoration of facial anomalies such as CLEFT PALATE or large or small jaws.... oral and maxillo-facial surgeons

Osteitis Fibrosa Cystica

A pathological rather than a clinical entity. The term refers to the replacement of BONE by a highly cellular and vascular connective tissue. It is the result of osteoclastic and osteoblastic activity and is due to excessive PARATHYROID activity. It is thus seen in a proportion of patients with primary hyperparathyroidism and in patients with uraemic osteodystrophy; that is, the secondary hyperparathyroidism that occurs in patients with chronic renal disease.... osteitis fibrosa cystica

Mussaenda Frondosa


Synonym: M.frondosa var. glabrata Hook. f. M. glabrata (Hook. f.) Hutch.

Family: Rubiaceae.

Habitat: Tropical Himalayas, Khasi Hills, Deccan Peninsula and the Andamans.

English: White Lady, White Rag Plant.

Ayurvedic: Shrivati.

Siddha/Tamil: Vellai-yilai, Velli- madandai.

Folk: Shrivara, Bedina, Bebina, Bhutakesha (Maharashtra), Naagaballi (Bengal)

Action: Flower—diuretic, anti- asthmatic, antiperiodic. Leaves and flowers—used in external applications for ulcers. Root—used in the treatment of white leprosy. White petiolate bract—prescribed in jaundice.

The flowers contain anthocyanins, hyperin, quercetin, rutin, ferulic and sinapic acids; beta-sitosterol glucoside.

Mussaenda glabra Vahl (tropical Himalayas from Nepal eastwards, Bihar, Bengal and Assam) is known as Son- aaruupaa in Assam. An infusion of the leaves is used for cough, asthma, recurrent fevers; also as a diuretic in dropsy.... mussaenda frondosa

Myristica Fragrans


Family: Myristicaceae.

Habitat: Native to the Moluccas Islands; grown in the Nilgiris, Kerala, Karnataka and West Bengal.

English: Nutmeg, Mace.

Ayurvedic: Jaatiphala, Jaatishasya, Maalatiphala (seed kernel).

Jaatipatri, Jaatipatra, Jaatipatraka, Jaatikosha (mace).

Unani: Jauzbuwaa (seed), Bisbaasaa (mace).

Siddha/Tamil: Jaathikkai, Saadikai (nutmeg); Saadippatthiri, Jaadip- patiri (mace).

Action: Nutmeg—carminative, spasmolytic, antiemetic, orexi- genic; topically anti-inflammatory. Mace—stimulant carminative. Narcotic in high doses.

Nutmeg is used in flatulency, diarrhoea, nausea and vomiting. Mace is used in rheumatism, chronic bowel complaints and asthma. When roasted, both nutmeg and mace are used for diarrhoea, colic, flatulence and dyspepsia.

Key application: Dried seed and aril—included among unapproved herbs by German Commission E. Following actions have been considered: antispasmodic, MAO inhibition, inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis.

The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India recommends the kernel of the fruit in spermatorrhoea.

An aqueous extract of nutmeg is reported to show anti-secretory activity against E. coli heat-labile enterotoxin; the hexane soluble fraction of the alcoholic extract inhibited the heat-labile and heat-stable-enterotoxin-induced secretory response in animal studies.

The hexane extract contains myris- ticin, an anti-inflammatory principle, and licarin-B and dehydro di- isoeugenol which exhibited CNS depressant properties. The extracts of nutmeg decreased kidney prostaglan- din levels in rats. They also inhibited platelet aggregation (due to eugenol and isoeugenol). The anti-inflammatory activity observed in carrage- enan-induced oedema in rats and enhanced vascular permeability in mice, are attributed to myristicin present in mace.

Mace also activates hepatic detoxification process. Monomeric and dimer- ic phenyl propanoids (myristicin, de- hydro diisoeugenol) from mace, on p.o. administration in mice, produced suppression of lipid peroxidation in liver.

Seeds contain about 0.24% myris- ticin, whereas volatile oil about 3.12%.

The resorcinols, malabaricones B and C, isolated from the seed coat (mace) exhibited strong antibacterial and antifungal activities. Neoplasm inhibitors, phenylpropyl derivatives, have been isolated from pulverized mace.

Dosage: Endosperm of dried seed (kernel of fruit)—0.5-1.0 g powder. (API, Vol. I.)... myristica fragrans

Opuntia Ficus-indica

(Linn.) Mill., known as Prickly Pear or Indian Fig, is a spineless cactus, mostly cultivated in Indian gardens. Ripe fruits are nutritious. Flowers are astringent and reduce bleeding; used for diarrhoea and irritable bowel syndrome; also for enlarged prostate. The flower decoction exhibits a strong diuretic effect.

The cladodes are used as a topical anti-inflammatory remedy for oedemata and arthrosis, as regulators of smooth muscles in the treatment of whooping cough and as anti-infective agent.

The stem or their crude preparations showed hypoglycaemic effect in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mel- litus patients (irrespective of its being heated or blended during preparation).

Neobetanin (14,15-dehydro betanin) is the major constituent in the fruit.... opuntia ficus-indica

Passion Flower

Peace, Sleep, Friendship ... passion flower

Peptonised Foods

Foods which have been predigested by PANCREATIN and thereby rendered more digestible.... peptonised foods

Policy Formulation

The development of a policy.... policy formulation

Pott’s Fracture

A variety of fractures around the ankle, accompanied by a varying degree of dislocation of the ankle. In all cases the ?bula is fractured. Named after Percivall Pott, who suffered from this fracture and was the ?rst to describe it (see BONE, DISORDERS OF), it is often mistaken for a simple sprain of the ankle.... pott’s fracture

Osmanthus Fragrans


Family: Obleaceae.

Habitat: Native to China and Japan. Found in Kumaon, Garhwal and Sikkim.

Ayurvedic: Vasuka (Also equated with Brihat Bakula.)

Folk: Silang, Silingi, Bagahul, Buuk.

Action: Diuretic, genitourinary tract disinfectant.

Flowers—antiseptic, insecticidal. Used for protecting clothes from insects.

The flowers yield an oil containing oleanolic and urosolic acids, beta- sitosterol, glycosides and a wax (0.04%) composed mainly of triacontane. The leaves are reported to contain a philly- rin-like glycoside.

Osmanthus suavis King, known as Silingi in Nepal and Chashing in Bhutan, is found in eastern Himalayas at altitudes of 2,700-3,000 m and in Aka hills in Assam. It is used as a var. of Vasuka.

Dosage: Flower—500 mg to 1 g powder. (CCRAS.)... osmanthus fragrans

Pandanus Facicularis


Synonym: P. tectorius auct. non Soland ex Parkinson. P. odoratissimus Linn. f.

Family: Pandanaceae.

Habitat: Sea coast of the Indian Peninsula on both sides, and the Andaman Islands.

English: Screw Pine.

Ayurvedic: Ketaka, Ketaki, Suuchikaa pushpaa, Jambuka, Trinshunya, Ketakark, Krakchhada.

Unani: Keoraa.

Siddha/Tamil: Thazhai, Thalay.

Action: Flower—carminative, stomachic, cooling, antiseptic. Used for headache, ulcers, dysuria, scabies and other skin diseases. Root— used for osteoarthritis, leucorrhoea and amenorrhoea; contraindicat- ed during pregnancy. Leaves— used for skin diseases, small pox, scabies, leprosy. The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India recommends the decoction of the root in abdominal inflammation. Oil and otto—stimulant, antispasmodic, antirheumatic.

The chief constituent of the oil is methyl ether of beta-phenylethyl alcohol. The oil also contains diterpene, d-linalool, phenylethyl acetate, citral, phenylethyl alcohol, ester of phthalic acid, fatty acids and stearoptene.

The leaves contain the piperidine alkaloids.

Dosage: Root—29-30 g for decoction (API, Vol. I); flower linctus—25-30 ml. (CCRAS.).... pandanus facicularis

Passiflora Foetida


Family: Passifloraceae.

Habitat: Native to America; found willd in Uttar Pradesh, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu.

English: Stinking Passion Flower.

Siddha/Tamil: Siru Ponaikalli.

Action: Leaves and roots—em- menagogue, antihysteric. Fruits— emetic. A decoction is used for biliousness and asthma (for expelling bile and cough).

The plant contains C-glycosides of apigenin and luteolin. Apigenin-8- C-glucoside has been detected in the plant.... passiflora foetida

Perilla Frutescens

(Linn.) Britton.

Family: Labiatae; Lamiacae.

Habitat: Throughout the Himalayas up to an altitude of about 3,500 m, and in the hills of Assam.

English: Perilla, Wild Coleus.

Folk: Bhanjeer, Ban-tulasi, Ban- jiraa, Bhasindi.

Action: Herb—sedative, antispasmodic, antiasthmatic, resolvent.

P. frutescens var. crispa is used in mixtures prescribed for cough and lung affections.

Several chemotypes of Perilla have been detected. The Indian type is rich in rosefuran. Other components are perillene, perilla ketone, beta-caryo- phyllene, phellandrene and a few ses- quiterpenoids. Aerial parts gave ethyl linolenate, linolenic acid and beta- sitosterol. The leaves also gave an an- thocyanin, perillanin. The leaves and flowering tops yield essential oils containing perilla ketone as major com- ponent—94% in leaf oils and 47% in inflorescence oils at fruiting stage.

Perillaldehyde, a major component of the plant extract, inhibits (moderately) a broad range of both bacteria and fungi. The MeOH extract of var. acuta Kudo is reported to prolong hexobarbital-induced sleep in mice. Dillapiol has been isolated as the active principle from the methanolic extract.... perilla frutescens

Psychogeriatric Facility

Institutions which provide a domestic setting for confused, older people who require 24-hour care, but whose behaviour makes them unsuitable for accommodation in a general purpose facility.... psychogeriatric facility

Putrid Fever

An old name for typhus fever (see ENTERIC FEVER).... putrid fever

Queensland Spotted Fever

A tick-borne spotted fever endemic to mainland Australia. Caused by Rickettsia australis.... queensland spotted fever

Pittosporum Floribundum

Wight & Arn.

Family: Pittosporaceae.

Habitat: Subtropical Himalayas, Ganjam, Konkan, Western Ghats and the Nilgiris.

Siddha/Tamil: Kattu Sampangi.

Folk: Tumari. Vikhaari, Vekhali (Maharashtra).

Action: Bark—anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, narcotic; used in chronic bronchitis; also administered in leprous affections; a paste is applied to inflammatory and rheumatic swellings.

The Himalayan plants yielded an essential oil (0.26%) with alpha-pinene, dipentene, linalool, cineol, methyl sal- icylate, decyl aldehyde, anisaldehyde, bergapten, eugenol, indole and salicylic and benzoic acids as major constituents. The oil is applied topically in sprains, bruises, sciatica, rheumatism, chest affections and in certain skin diseases.

The narcotic action of the bark is attributed to the presence of a yellow oleoresin. The bark also contain a saponin, pittosporin.... pittosporum floribundum

Polyscias Fruticosa

(L.) Harms.

Synonym: Nothopanaxfruticosum (L.) Miq.

Panax fruticosus L.

Family: Araliaceae.

Habitat: Cultivated in gardens all over India.

Action: Leaf—used in sinusitis, headache, migraine, tonsillitis. Stem bark—used for promoting expulsion of placenta after child birth. Root— antibacterial, antifungal, diuretic. Leaf and root—used in dysuria.

The root contains polyacetylenes, falcarinol and heptadeca derivatives. Falcarinol and heptadeca exhibited strong antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria and the der- matophytic bacteria, also showed an- tifungal activity. The antibacterial activity of falcarinol was found to be 15 to 35 times stronger than that of erythromycin, chloramphenicol and oxytetracyclin.

Polyscias scutellaria (Burm. f.) F. R. Fosberg (commonly grown in Indian gardens) exhibits anti-inflammatory activity. The leaves contain several tri- terpenoid saponins, polyscisaponins, oleanolic acid derivatives.... polyscias fruticosa

Ray Flowers

The margin flowers on a composite head, usually sterile, that resemble single petals. (Example: the white “petals” of a Daisy.)... ray flowers

Renal Failure (acute)

Inefficient functioning of the kidney, leading to death unless acute medical attention is available. Envenomation (especially snake bite) is a common cause, as well as a range of medical conditions, including infection..... renal failure (acute)

Residential Aged Care Facility

See “residential care”; “assisted living facility”.... residential aged care facility


Reserving money to be spent for a particular service, such as grants to local authorities.... ring-fencing

Research Fraud And Misconduct

Research misconduct is de?ned as behaviour by a researcher that falls short of good ethical and scienti?c standards – whether or not this be intentional. For example, the same data may be sent for publication to more than one medical journal, which might have the e?ect of their being counted twice in any META-ANALYSIS or systematic review; or the data may be ‘salami sliced’ to try to make the maximum number of publications, even though the data may overlap. Fraud in the context of research is de?ned as the generation of false data with the intent to deceive. It is much less frequent than carelessness, but its incidence is estimated as between

0.1 and 1 per cent. A ?gure of 1 per cent means that, in the United Kingdom at any one time, maybe 30 studies are being conducted, or their results published, which could contain false information. Examples include forged ethics-committee approval, patient signatures and diary cards; fabricated ?gures and results; invention of non-existent patient subjects; or sharing one electrocardiogram or blood sample amongst many subjects.

Research fraud should be ?rst suspected by a clinical-trial monitor who recognises that data are not genuine, or by a quality-assurance auditor who cannot reconcile data in clinical-trial report forms with original patient records. Unfortunately, it often comes to light by chance. There may be suspicious similarities between data ostensibly coming from more than one source, or visits may have been recorded when it was known that the clinic was shut. Statistical analysis of a likely irregularity will frequently con?rm such suspicion. The motivation for fraud is usually greed, but a desire to publish at all costs, to be the original author of a medical breakthrough, to bolster applications for research grants, or to strengthen a bid for more departmental resources are other recognised reasons for committing fraud.

In the USA, those proved to have committed fraud are debarred from receiving federal funds for research purposes or from undertaking government-funded therapeutic research. The four Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden) have committees on research dishonesty that investigate all cases of suspected research misconduct. In the United Kingdom, an informal system operated by the pharmaceutical industry, using the disciplinary mechanism of the General Medical Council (GMC), has led to more than 16 doctors in the past ten years being disciplined for having committed research fraud. Editors of many of the world’s leading medical journals have united to form the Committee on Publishing Ethics, which advises doctors on proper practice and assists them in retracting or refusing to publish articles found or known to be false. (See ETHICS; ETHICS COMMITTEES.) Where an author does not o?er a satisfactory explanation, the matter is passed to his or her institution to investigate; where an editor or the committee is not satis?ed with the result they may pass the complaint to the appropriate regulatory body, such as the GMC in Britain.... research fraud and misconduct

Ross River Fever S

ee Epidemic Polyarthritis, Ross River Virus.... ross river fever s

Shu Fang

(Chinese) One who is gentle and kind... shu fang

Skilled Nursing Facility

Nursing homes that are certified to provide a fairly intensive level of care, including skilled nursing care.... skilled nursing facility

Rubus Fruticosus

Linn. (European BlackBerry, European Bramble, known as Vilaayati Anchhu) is cultivated in the valley of Kashmir and in Assam and Tamil Nadu up to 2,000 m. A decoction of the root is used for dysentery and whooping cough. The plant gave a triterpenic acid, rubitic acid, characterized as 7 alpha-hydroxyursolic acid.

Key application: Rubus fruticosus leaf—in nonspecific, acute diarrhoea, mild inflammation of the mucosa of oral cavity and throat. (German Commission E.)

Rubus rugosus Sm. synonym R. moluccanus auct non Linn., (known as Kalsol in Kumaon) is found in Central and Eastern tropical and temperate Himalaya from Nepal to Sikkim and in Assam. The plant contains triter- penes, also afforded rubusic acid and beta-sitosterol; leaves gave tormentic acid. Leaves exhibit astringent, emme- nagogue and abortifacient properties.

Rubus niveus Thunb. (Mysore Raspberry, Mahabaleshwar Raspberry) is common in evergreen forests of Ma- habaleshwar.

European Raspberry is equated with Rubus idaeus Linn. The leaves contain flavonoids, mainly glycosides of kaem- pferol, quercetin and tannins. Raspberry leaf tea has been used in Europe to facilitate child birth. Its uterine relaxant effects have been demonstrated in animals (the extract appears to effect only the pregnant uterus, no activity has been observed on the non- pregnant uterus).

The leaves of European Raspberry (Rubus idaeus) and other species exhibit astringent, carminative and spasmolytic activity. Leaves are used for painful and profuse menstruation and, as mentioned earlier, for making parturition easier. An infusion is used for bowel complains, also as a blood purifier. Leaves contain ascorbic acid (about 80 mg/100 g). Polyphenol content of the fruit (methanolic extract) exhibited scavenging and antilipo-peroxidant activities.

Rubus idaeus has been introduced into India and is cultivated on a small scale in South Indian hill stations.

The leaf of Rubus idaeus has been included among unapproved herbs by German Commission E, as its efficacy has not been documented.... rubus fruticosus

Snapping Finger

See TRIGGER FINGER.... snapping finger

Sutherlandia Frutescens


Family: Papilionaceae; Fabaceae.

Habitat: Native to South Africa; cultivated in Indian gardens.

English: Bladdersenna, Cancerwort, Cape Baloon Pea.

Action: Leaves—infusion or decoction given in stomach and intestinal disorders and hepatic affections. Much milder in action than true Senna.... sutherlandia frutescens

Tick Bite Fever

Tick-borne spotted fever.... tick bite fever

Tree Fern

Various genera

Description: Tree ferns are tall trees with long, slender trunks that often have a very rough, barklike covering. Large, lacy leaves uncoil from the top of the trunk.

Habitat and Distribution: Tree ferns are found in wet, tropical forests.

Edible Parts: The young leaves and the soft inner portion of the trunk are edible. Boil the young leaves and eat as greens. Eat the inner portion of the trunk raw or bake it.... tree fern

Salix Fragilis


Family: Salicaceae.

Habitat: Cultivated in Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh.

English: Crack Willow, Kashmir Willow.

Folk: Tilachaang (Himachal Pradesh).

Action: Bark—antirheumatic.

Key application: For relief of low back pain; symptomatic relief of mild osteoarthritic and rheumatic complaints. (ESCOP.) The bark contains salicin 0.23%, salicase and tannin (6-12%).

The phenol glycosides reported from the plant include fragilin, glycosmin, grandidentatin, picein, populin, sali- cin, salireposide, salicyloyl tremuloi- din, triandrin and tremuloidin.

Willow bark consists of the dried bark or twigs of various species of the genus Salix, including S. purpurea L. and S. daphnoides Vill.

Salicylate concentrations vary greatly among Salix sp. Salix alba bark is reported to contain 0.49-0.98% salicin; Salix purpurea bark 3-9%, Salix daphnoides bark 4.9-5.6% and Salix fragilis bark 3.9-10.2%. (Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, 2007.)... salix fragilis

Scaevola Frutescens

auct. non-Krause.

Synonym: S. koenigii Vahl. S. taccada (Gaertn.) Roxb.

Family: Goodeniaceae.

Habitat: Sea coasts all around India and in the Andaman Islands.

English: Fan Flower, Malay Rice Paper Plant.

Siddha/Tamil: Vella-muttangam.

Folk: Bhadraka, Bhadraaksha.

Action: Leaves—digestive, carminative; applied externally on tumours and swollen legs. Fruit—juice, internally for inducing menstruation. Roots—used for dysentery.

A decoction of the leaves and the bark is reported to combat tachycardia, one of the principal symptoms of beriberi. The drug reduces the frequency of heartbeat, slows down pulse rate and at the same time stimulates the heart to normal contraction (does not possess cumulative action of digitalis). The drug acts as a diuretic by increasing the tension in the renal arteries without causing irritation of the kidney parenchyma; and is used for dropsy.

The aerial parts gave loganin, sylve- stroside III, its dimethyl acetal, cant- leyoside and its dimethyl acetal.... scaevola frutescens

Tylophora Fasciculata

Buch.-Ham ex Wight.

Family: Asclepiadaceae.

Habitat: Sub-Himalayas tract from Uttar Pradesh to Meghalaya and in central and Peninsular India.

Ayurvedic: Go-chandanaa.

Action: Toxic. Used as a substitute for Cephaelis ipecacuanha as emetic, purgative and febrifuge; externally on unhealthy ulcers and wounds.... tylophora fasciculata

Solanum Ferox


Family: Solanaceae.

Habitat: Throughout warmer parts of India, up to an elevation of 1,500 m.

Ayurvedic: Brihati, Brihatikaa, Mahati, Hinguli, Prasaha, Vartaki, Kaantaa, Kshudra-bhantaki, Simhi, Bana-bhantaa. Kateri (bigger var.)

Unani: Katai Kalaan.

Siddha/Tamil: Mulli, Pappara-mulli, Karimulli.

Folk: Raam-begun (Bengal).

Action: Plant and root—stimulant, digestive, carminative, astringent, expectorant, diaphoretic, anthelmintic. Used for catarrhal affections, asthma, dry cough; dysuria; intestinal worms; colic, flatulence, vomiting. Berries—used in asthma and rheumatism.

Air-dried fruits and leaves contain solanine; 0.30 and 0.43% of total alkaloids respectively.

Dosage: Fruit, root—3-6 g powder; 50-100 ml decoction. (CCRAS.)... solanum ferox

Soymida Febrifuga

A. Juss.

Family: Meliaceae.

Habitat: Peninsular India, Rajasthan and Bihar.

English: Indian Red-Wood, Bastard Cedar.

Ayurvedic: Maansrohini, Rohini, Rohinaa, Prahaarvalli.

Siddha/Tamil: Somi-maram, Wond.

Action: Bark—antipyretic (particularly prescribed in malaria), bitter tonic in general debility, astringent (used for diarrhoea and dysentery); used as a gargle in stomatitis, applied to rheumatic swellings. The bark is much inferior to cinchona bark, but a good substitute for oak bark.

The plant contains mainly tetra- nor-triterpenoids and flavonoids. The heartwood gave febrifugine A and B, febrinins A and B; flavonoids— naringenin, quercetin, myricetin and dehydromyricetin. The Root heart- wood yielded sitosterol, obtusifoliol, syringetin and dihydrosyringetin. The bark contains tetranor-triterpenoids with modified furan ring.

Petroleum ether extract of the bark yielded a steroid, methyl angolensate, ether extract yielded a steroid glyco- side.

Dosage: Bark—3-5 g powder. (CCRAS.)... soymida febrifuga

Sterculia Foetida


Family: Sterculiaceae.

Habitat: South India, also cultivated on roadsides.

Habitat: The West Coast from Konkan southwards.

Siddha/Tamil: Pinari, Kudirai Pidukku.

Folk: Jangali Baadaam (in no way related to Prunus amygdalus).

Action: Bark and leaf—aperient, diuretic. Fruit—astringent. Seed oil—carminative, laxative. Wood— antirheumatic. The wood, boiled with seed oil, is used externally in rheumatism.

Beans, called Java Olives, if taken in large quantities, cause nausea, act as violent purgative.

The leaves gave glucuronyl derivatives of procyanidin, scutellarein and luteolin; also taraxerol, n-otacosanol and beta-sitosterol. Lupenone, lupe- ol and betulin were obtained from the heartwood. Seed and root lipid contained cyclopropene fatty acids. Ster- culic and malvalic acids show carcinogenic and co-carcinogenic activities.

Leucoanthoyanidin - 3 - O - alpha - L - rhamnopyranoside and quercetin rhamnoside have been isolated from the root.... sterculia foetida

Stress Fractures

Stress fractures are comparatively common in sportspeople. They tend to occur when an undue amount of exercise is taken – that is, an amount of exercise which an individual is not capable of coping with in his or her state of training. The main initial feature is pain over the affected bone that has been subjected to abnormal physical stress. This is usually insidious in onset, and worse at night and during and after exercise. It is accompanied by tenderness, and a lump may be felt over the affected site. X-ray evidence only appears after several weeks. Treatment consists of rest, some form of external support, and in the initial stage ANALGESICS to deaden or kill the pain. (See also BONE, DISORDERS OF – Bone fractures.)... stress fractures

Typhoid (enteric) Fever

A septicaemic infection of humans caused by Salmonella typhi. A similar but generallymilder enteric fever, paratyphoid, is caused by Salmonella paratyphi A,B,C.... typhoid (enteric) fever

Venus Flytrap

Protection, Love... venus flytrap

Viburnum Foetidum


Family: Caprifoliaceae.

Habitat: Khasi hills at altitudes of 900-1,800 m.

Folk: Narwel (Maharashtra).

Action: Leaves—astringent, antispasmodic. Juice used in menorrhagia and as a sedative (a substitute for American Viburnum bark) in uterine disorders, and in post-partum haemorrhage. See Viburnum coriaceum and V. opulus.... viburnum foetidum

Strobilanthes Flaccidifolius


Synonym: S. cusia (Nees) Imlay.

Family: Acanthaceae.

Habitat: Assam, Meghalaya, West Bengal and Manipur.

English: Assam Indigo.

Folk: Ruum, Raampat (Assam); Khumaa (Manipur).

Action: Leaves—astringent, diuretic and lithotriptic.

The indican content of the leaves has been reported to be 0.4-1.3%. Lupe- ol, betulin, lupenone, indigo, indiru- bin, a quinazolinone and a quinazo- linedione have been isolated.... strobilanthes flaccidifolius

Tea For Fasting

Fasting gain a big popularity among people around the world, during the past years, thanks to a number of alternative medicine adepts, which expressed their belief that fasting, every now and then, is good for your health. Although fasting is an ancient Christian habit, more and more people are adopting it as a way of life and less for its religious purpose. Some people see fasting as a way of losing weight and cleanse their body. When fasting, Christians don’t eat or drink anything but water. Health fasting means only eat or drink one type of food or drinks. Some people choose only to eat grapefruits, for example, some others only to drink tea. If this is your case, this article is for you. How Tea for Fasting Works First of all, not any tea can be used for fasting. You need to choose one with many health benefits and as many active ingredients as possible. Other than that, it must also be safe, since nothing else is ingested and your body needs to feed on something. Also, do not neglect your health by extending the fasting period or you will only starve yourself to death! Your diet must be a well-balanced one, in general, so when you’ve decided to try this type of body cleansing, make sure you take all the necessary measures of precaution so that this treat will only do you good. A Tea for Fasting’s main goal is to keep you energized during this rough time, providing your body with all the necessary supplements, starting from vitamins and ending with natural enzymes. Efficient Tea for Fasting When choosing a Tea for Fasting, you must keep in mind the fact that this one has to be both rich in nutrients and active constituents and one hundred percent safe (during the fasting, your body is very weak and the tea only provides a small quantity of immune defense). If you don’t know which teas are good for your purpose, here is a list to guide you: - Green Tea – is rich in vitamins and has the ability to keep you alive for several hours in which time your body will feel a lot better, rejuvenated and nourished. Also, if you have a cholesterol problem, this Tea for Fasting will lower its level and decrease your blood pressure. It’s an excellent tea if there are a couple of pounds you want to lose. - Yerba Mate Tea – considered “the new green tea” by the specialists, this Tea for Fasting contains all the active ingredients capable to sustain life. Although South Americans are very familiar to this tea, it remains yet unknown to the European public. However, if you find a teashop specialized in Yerba Mate, hold on to it! Make sure you do not drink too much, though! Yerba Mate Tea has a very powerful reaction and in high dosages may lead to death! Tea for Fasting Side Effects When taken properly, these teas are generally safe. However, exceeding the number of cups recommended per day will lead to a number of complications, starting with diarrhea and upset stomach and ending with death. Do not take any of these teas for fasting f you are pregnant, breastfeeding, on blood thinners or anti coagulant, or preparing for a major surgery. Some of these teas may interfere with your anesthetic and cause death. Talk to a specialist or to your doctor in order to gather more information and be aware of the risks. Once you have the medical approval, choose a Tea for Fasting that fits best your needs and enjoy its natural health benefits!... tea for fasting

Tea For Fever

Fever is a medical condition characterized by the elevation of body temperature above the normal range of 36.5-37.5 °C (98-100 °F). It is normally caused by an increase in the temperature regulatory set-point, which leads to increased muscle tone and shivering. Fever can be caused by several conditions: from benign to potentially serious issues. Treatment to reduce fever is not necessary, unless the temperature is very high. Antipyretic medications can lower the temperature. Hydration is vital in dealing with fever. How tea for fever works Tea for fever  is usually successful in lowering the body›s temperature. Efficient teas for fever Studies revealed that Echinacea tea and Anamu tea  are both efficient teas for fever. Echinacea is a herb found in the Unites States: from Texas to Alabama, and from Kansas to Nebraska. The flowers of the Echinacea plant are whitish rose to pale purple. It has brown fruiting heads and a thick, blackish root. Generally, it is known as an immunity enhancer. Echinacea tea is used to treat the common cold, influenza outbreaks and mild to moderate infections of all kinds. Echinacea beverage as a tea for fever contributes to lowering the fever, due to its anti-inflammatory action. To prepare Echinacea tea, infuse the leaves, stems, flowers and roots of the Echinacea plant in hot water. Steep them for 15 minutes. Strain it and drink it warm. Anamu tea is often chosen by consumers due to its anti-tumors and anti-cancer properties. As a tea for fever, Anamu beverage helps the body to fight against infections, boosting its immune system. It enables it to reduce the high temperature. To prepare Anamu tea, place 30 grams of the dried anamu plant in one liter of boiling water. Let it boil for 15 minutes. Take it out of the heat. Let the mix steep for a further 7 minutes. It can be taken three times a day. Anamu can also be found in powder tablet and capsules. Tea for fever: Side effects In large doses, teas for fever may cause side effects: vomiting, nausea, dizziness, heartburn. Teas for fever are good to be purchased instead of traditional drugs. They act as an immunity enhancer and may lower the fever, thus improving the general state of the patients.  ... tea for fever

Sweet Flag

Acorus calamus


San: Vaca, Ugragandha, Bhadra;

Hin: Bacc, Gorbacc;

Ben: Bach; Mal:Vayampu;

Tam: Vasampu;

Kan: Bajai;

Tel: Vasa Vadaja

Importance: The sweet flag is an important medhya drug, capable of improving memory power and intellect. It is used in vitiated conditions of vata and kapha, stomatopathy, hoarseness, colic, flatulence, dyspepsia, helminthiasis, amenorrhoea, dismenorrhoea, nephropathy, calculi, strangury, cough, bronchitis, odontalgia, pectoralgia, hepatodynia, otalgia, inflammations, gout, epilepsy, delirium, amentia, convulsions, depression and other mental disorders, tumours, dysentery, hyperdipsia, haemorrhoids, intermittent fevers, skin diseases, numbness and general debility. It is reportedly useful in improving digestion, clearing speech and curing diarrhoea, dysentery, abdominal obstruction and colic. It is also useful in infantile fever, cough bronchitis and asthma. The drug is reported to cure hysteria, insanity and chronic rheumatic complaints. The rhizome is an ingredient of preparations like Vacaditaila, Ayaskrti, Kompancadi gulika, Valiya rasnadi kashaya, etc.

Distribution: The plant is a native of Europe. It is distributed throughout the tropics and subtropics, especially in India and Sri Lanka. It is found in marshes, wild or cultivated, ascending the Himalayas upto 1800m in Sikkim. It is plentiful in marshy tracts of Kashmir and Sirmoor, in Manipur and Naga Hills.

Botany: Acorus calamus Linn. belonging to the family Araceae is a semi -aquatic rhizomatous perennial herb. Rhizome is creeping, much branched, cylindrical or slightly compressed, light brown or pinkish brown externally, white and spongy within. Leaves are bright green, distichous, ensiform, base equitant, thickened in the middle and with wavy margins. Flowers are light brown and densely packed in sessile cylindric spadix. Fruits are oblong, turbinate berries with a pyramidal top. Seeds are few and pendant from the apex of the cells (Warrier et al, 1993).

Another species belonging to the genus Acorus is A. gramineus Soland, the roots of which are used in tonic, antiseptics and insecticidal preparations (Chopra et al, 1956).

Agrotechnology: Acorus is a hardy plant found growing from tropical to subtropical climates. It needs a good and well distributed rainfall throughout the year. It needs ample sunlight during the growth period as well as after harvest for drying the rhizomes. It may be cultivated in any good but fairly moist soil. It is usually grown in areas where paddy can be grown. It comes up well in clayey soils and light alluvial soils of river bank. The field is laid out and prepared exactly as for rice, irrigated sufficiently and after ploughing twice, watered heavily and again ploughed in the puddle. Sprouted rhizome pieces are used for planting and pressed into the mud at a depth of about 5cm at a spacing of 30x30cm. The rhizomes are planted in such a way that the plants in the second row comes in between the plants of the first row and not opposite to them. FYM is to be applied at 25t/ha. Fertilisers are applied at 25:50:60 kg N:P2O5:K2O/ha/yr. Whole of FYM and 1/3 of N, P2O5 and K2O are to be added in the field during March - April as a basal dose. The remaining 2/3 of nutrients is to be given in two equal split doses at 4 months and 8 months after planting. The field is to be regularly irrigated. About 5 cm of standing water is to be maintained in the field in the beginning. Later, it is to be increased to 10 cm as the plant grows. The field is to be regularly weeded. About 8 weedings are to be carried out in all. At each weeding the plants are pressed into the soil. The plant is attacked by mealy bugs. Both shoot and root mealy bugs can be controlled by spraying the shoot and drenching the roots of grown up plants with 10 ml Methyl parathion or 15ml Oxydemeton methyl or 20ml Quinalphos in 10 litres of water. The crop is ready for harvest at the end of first year. The field is to be dried partially so that sufficient moisture is left in the soil to facilitate deep digging. The leaves start turning yellow and dry, indicating maturity. The rhizome will be at a depth of 60cm and having about 30-60cm spread. Therefore, harvesting is to be done carefully. The rhizomes are to be cut into 5-7.5cm long pieces and all the fibrous roots are to be removed. Yield of rhizome is about 10t/ha (Farooqi et al, 1991).

Properties and Activity:Rhizomes, roots and leaves yield essential oil. The important constituents of the Indian oil are asarone and its -isomer. Other constituents are and -pinene, myrcene, camphene, p-cymene, camphor and linalool, sesquiterpenic ketones like asarone, calamone, calacone, acolamone, iso-acolamone, acoragermacrone, epishyobunone, shyobunone and iso- shyobunone. Alcohol present is preisocalamendiol. Sesquiterpene hydrocarbons like elemene, elemane and calarene are also present. Tricyclic sesquiterpenes present are caryophyllene, humulene, guaiene, S-guaizulene, arcurcumene, -cadinene, cadinane, calamenene, calacorene, dihydrocalacorene(calamenene), cadalene and selinene. Roots yield acoric acid as a main constituent in addition to choline. Plant also yields a flavone diglycoside- luteolin 6,8-C-diglucoside.

-asarone is the ma jor constituent of essential oil from rhizome (Dandiya et al, 1958,1959; Raquibuddoula, 1967).

Rhizome is insecticidal, pisicidal, spasmolytic, hypothermic, CNS active and analgesic. Essential oil is anticonvulsant. Rhizome is acrid, bitter, thermogenic, aromatic, intellect promoting, emetic, laxative, carminative, stomachic, anthelmintic, emmenagogue, diuretic, alexeteric, expectorant, anodyne, antispasmodic, aphrodisiac, antiinflammatory, sudorific, antipyretic, sialagogue, insecticidal, tranquillizer, sedative, analgesic, antithermic, antiasthmatic, hypotensive, respiratory depressant, aperitive and tonic.... sweet flag

Webbed Fingers

Or toes – see also SYNDACTYLY. A deformity sometimes present at birth, and which tends to run in families. The web may be quite a thin structure, or the ?ngers may be closely united by solid tissue. In any case, separation is a matter of considerable di?culty, because, if the web is simply divided, it heals up as before. A special operation is necessary, consisting in turning back a ?ap of the web upon each of the united ?ngers, or some other device to produce healing in the new position.... webbed fingers

Weil-felix Test

An agglutination test used in the laboratory to diagnose rickettsial diseases. It depends on a nonspecific cross reaction between antibodies produced by the rickettsial infection with the OX-2, OX-19 and OXK antigens of the Gram negative rod, Proteus.... weil-felix test

Tea For Fertility

Fertility is a woman’s body capacity to conceive and give birth to children. Unfortunately, less and less women are one hundred percent fertile, due to birth control pills or other health problems that interfere with their reproductive system. Fertility is what makes us women, thought ancient Romans, who banished from the city any infertile woman. Fortunately, things have evolved and modern medicine found a treatment for almost any disease, including infertility. On the other side, alternative medicine also invested a lot of time to find the best herbal treatment in order to solve all fertility problems and turn infertile women around the world into happy and proud mothers. How Tea for Fertility Works A Tea for Fertility’s main purpose is to increase the hormone level and also your glands’ action. When choosing a tea for fertility, you need to look for the ones that have a high level of nutrients and natural enzymes capable to rejuvenate your female reproductive system. In other words, flu or cold teas are rarely helpful in cases of infertility. It’s true that you need to look hard for these teas, but patients around the world say it’s totally worth it. Efficient Tea for Fertility If you want to increase your estrogen level in order to make sure you will avoid miscarriages and you don’t know which Tea for Fertility to choose, here is a list to help you out: - Raspberry Leaf Tea – not only that it contains a high level of vitamin C that can nourish your entire body, but Raspberry Tea can also increase your hormone flow, by inducing a state of relaxation and calmness to your reproductive system. However, it’s best to use it more as a prevention method and less as infertility treatment, since its action is rather mild than powerful. - Green Tea – aside from the fact that is good for almost any affection (except for menstrual and menopausal pains), Green Tea can make your reproductive system work at its full capacity and restore its already lost functions, by triggering the natural body response in cases on infertility. - Chasteberry Tea – is a very safe and efficient Tea for Fertility, which can also be used to calm pains caused by menstruation, menopause or stress. Its active ingredient is responsible for your female reproductive system well being and also well functioning. If you haven’t tried it yet, now would be a good time! - Lemongrass Tea – also a great helper in cases of pulmonary edema, pleurisy, flu or colds, Lemongrass Tea can elevate your hormonal reactions and positive responses from your female reproductive system. However, make sure you don’t drink too much in order to avoid severe diarrhea which may lead to miscarriage. Tea for Fertility Side Effects When taken properly, teas for fertility are generally safe. However, don’t drink more than 3 cups per day in order to avoid other complications, such as diarrhea, vomiting, nausea, headaches, migraines and upset stomach. If you have any doubts regarding any of these teas, talk to an herbalist or to your doctor. It’s best to postpone a treatment based on a Tea for Fertility if you are also suffering from a serious disease. In order to gather more information, ask your doctor about the ups and downs of a Tea for Fertility. Once he gives you the green light, choose a tea that fits your needs best and enjoy its wonderful benefits responsibly!... tea for fertility

Tea For Focus

Chinese people consider the brain a priceless and irreplaceable possession. Its tranquility is very important, this being the reason why they have special rituals and treatments to enhance mental activity. There are several reasons for you to want a focused and concentrated mind: to save energy, time and to be more effective in daily activities, as well as to sharpen the memory and the five senses. How Tea for Focus works Tea for focus usually relaxes the nerves and treats the anxiety and agitation. Efficient Teas for Focus It has been proven that Theanine tea and Cacao tea are efficient teas for focus. Theanine is an adjuvant in the brain’s and nerves’s activities, acting as an enhancer for these processes. It also stimulates the brain’s chemical reactions. Theanine substances are also to be found in green tea . It is acknowledged for improving cognition, concentration and focus, having a long history in dealing with these mental states. It is recommended by Chinese traditional medicine and it is best known for its efficient treatments. Also, Theanine can reduce blood pressure as well as the symptoms of schizophrenia. To prepare Theanine tea, mix the L-theanine powder with water. Cacao fruit is originating from the tropical areas of America. It is best known for its sweet taste and strong lasting flavor. It can be enjoyed as a chocolate bar or as a beverage. Cacao increases the serotonin and endorphin levels. These two chemicals are responsible for enhancing the mood and elevating focus. To prepare Cacao tea, mix the powder with hot water and enjoy it whenever necessary. Tea for Focus: Side effects Teas for focus may lead to insomnia. Rarely, the syndrome of upset stomach has been noticed. Pregnant and nursing women should not take the beverages, as it may cause agitation to the baby. If any of these side effects occur, cease consumption and ask your doctor for advice. Tea for focus is a natural way to enhance mental activities, so as to be more efficient and effective when dealing with daily tasks. Also, they have a nice long-lasting flavor.  ... tea for focus

Xue Fang

(Chinese) Woman of fragrant snow... xue fang

Yeast-like Fungus

A yeast that produces pseudohyphae (germ tubes). Includes Canidida albicans and similar species that infect humans such as C. tropicalis and C. krusei. Fungi belonging to this genus cause candidiasis (thrush) in humans.... yeast-like fungus

Zebra Fish

See Scorpaenidae.... zebra fish

Acid Foods

Foods that produce acid when metabolised. Ash from these foods contains sulphur, phosphoric acid and chlorine, all essential for efficient metabolism. Breads, cereals, cheese, chicken, chocolate, cocoa, coffee, cranberries, eggs, fish, flour, fowl, grain products, lentils, meats (lean), nuts, oats, oatmeal, oysters, pasta, peanuts, peanut butter, pearl barley, plums, prunes, rhubarb, rabbit, rice (white), sugar, sweet corn, tea, veal, wholemeal bread, wheatgerm. ... acid foods

Tea For Fibroids

Fibroids are described as growths of your uterus muscles. This problem doesn’t really affect your uterus, but your cervix and the rest of your female reproductive system. A large number of hysterectomies are performed every month around the world, even if traditional medicine found other treatments as well. However, hysterectomy remains the only permanent remedy, even if it means that your uterus will be removed from your body. Alternative medicine fans advice against it due to the mental state that follows this procedure. It’s true that many women say they feel less of a woman since they had their hysterectomy. If you’re suffering from fibroids and you want to avoid a major surgery and a depression, choose a Tea for Fibroids and see how it goes! How a Tea for Fibroids Works A Tea for Fibroids’ main purpose is to get rid of the unwanted growths and stop them from developing in future. Their effect may take from a couple of days to several months, depending on the organism. Thanks to their anti inflammatory properties, these teas have the ability to restore your general health and your well being. However, don’t forget that this is a medical treatment and it shouldn’t be taken unsupervised. Efficient Tea for Fibroids A Tea for Fibroids must be both efficient and safe (you don’t want more complications). If you don’t know which teas to choose from, here’s a list to guide you on: - Chamomile Tea – has anti inflammatory and anti septic properties which allows you to use it for almost any health problem you have. Doctors prescribe a cure of Chamomile Tea in most fibroids cases mostly because it’s one hundred percent safe. The other reason is that there are no side effects and you can drink as much as you want. It has a pleasant taste and a lovely fragrance, so you can even turn it into a daily habit! - Willow Bark Tea – is a well known pain reliever and a great fever reducer. Its action on abnormal growths consists of decreasing their negative effect on your health and slowly eliminating them. However, don’t drink more than 2 cups per day for no longer than 2 months in order to avoid other health complications. - Nettle Herb Tea – it’s rich in acids and minerals and it’s also good for menopause, infertility in women and menstruation. You can find it in almost any teashop and preparing it at home couldn’t be any easier! Don’t drink more than 2 cups per day for a small amount of time (2 weeks). Tea for Fibroids Side Effects When taken properly, these teas are generally safe. However, exceeding the number of cups recommended per day may lead to vomiting, nausea, headaches or uterine contractions. Don’t take a treatment based on a Tea for Fibroids if you’re breastfeeding, on anti coagulants or blood thinners. When in doubt, always ask your doctor’s opinion. Also, don’t start an herbal treatment without gathering more information! If you’ve been taking one of these teas for a while and you’re experiencing some unusual reactions, ask for medical assistance and don’t try to treat it at home! If you have the green light from your doctor, choose a Tea for Fibroids that fits best your needs and enjoy its health benefits!... tea for fibroids

Thalictrum Foliolosum


Family: Ranunculaceae.

Habitat: The temperate Himalayas from 1,500 to 2,400 m, in the Khasi hills and in Kashmir, Punjab, Delhi, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and Orissa.

Ayurvedic: Pitarangaa, Piyaaraan- gaa. Pitamuulikaa (substitute).

Unani: Mamiri. (Mamiraa is equated with Coptis teeta Wall.)

Action: Plant—used against gout and rheumatism. Root—febrifuge, antiperiodic; a bitter tonic during convalescence.

The root contains alkaloids berberine and magnoflorine. (Berberine causes a stimulant action on the movements of the gastrointestinal tract, a depression of both the auricles and ventricles and distinct dilatation of the heart. Magnoflorine induces hypoten- tion.) Berberine content is reduced to one-fourth and magnoflorine to traces after 6 months. The root also contains palmitine and jatrorrhizine.

Thalictrum sp. (about 17 species are found in India)—alkaloidal structure exhibits antitumoral activity.

Over 60 isoquinoline and diter- penoid alkaloids have been isolated. (See The Wealth of India, Vol. X.)

Following are the important Thalic- trum sp. occurring in India:

T. alpinum Linn. (the alpine Himalayas and western Tibet at altitudes between 3,000 and 5,100 m); T. ele- gans Wall. ex Royle (the sub-alpine Himalayas from Kashmir to Sikkim at altitudes from 3,000 to 3,900 m); T. foetidum Linn. (North-West Himalayas); T. javanicum Blume (the temperate Himalayas from Kashmir to Sikkim, Khasi hills, Kodaikanal and Nilgiri hills); T. minus Linn. (the temperate Himalayas); T. reniforme Wall. (the temperate Himalayas from Kulu to Sikkim between 2,400 and 3,000 m).... thalictrum foliolosum

Alkaline Foods

These are foods the body breaks down into alkali. Alkaline foods are high in sodium and potassium. Almonds, apples, asparagus, bananas, dried beans, beet greens, Brussels sprouts, buttermilk, cabbage, celery, cauliflower, currants, carrots, chestnuts, coconuts, cream; all fruits except prunes, fresh plums and cranberries. Lemons, lima beans, milk, molasses, oranges, parsnips, dried peas, peaches, radishes, raisins, Soya flour, turnips, all green leafy vegetables except sweet corn. Yeast, fresh tomatoes, herb teas, lettuce, watercress. ... alkaline foods


See: CARMINATIVES. ... anti-flatulents


Fungicides. Herbs that destroy fungi, as in the treatment of thrush, candida, etc. Internal or external use: Aloe Vera, Tea Tree oil, Caprycin, Bitter-Sweet, Daisy, Blood root (skin), Castor oil, Common Ivy, Ground Ivy, Marigold, Eucalyptus oil, Scarlet Pimpernel, Echinacea, Life root, Myrrh, Witch Hazel, White Pond Lily, Wild Indigo, Poke root. Thuja and Garlic are perhaps the most widely used. Externally, used as dusting powders, creams, ointments.

Administration of anti-fungals should be accompanied by a sugarless diet. ... anti-fungals

Tea For Flatulence

Flatulence is a negative response from your body to let you know that you have gastric problems. Flatulence or gas can be caused by a number of factors, such as irritable bowel movement, upset stomach, menstruation, menopause or different types of cancer. Also, if you’re drinking and eating acid drinks and foods (sodas and fast food), you might experience this affection as well. Although flatulence doesn’t hurt, it sure is embarrassing. However, traditional medicine developed a series of treatments; most of them are very expensive and not very effective. Not to worry, though: alternative medicine has a few tricks in store for you. How a Tea for Flatulence Works A Tea for Flatulence’s main purpose is to trigger a positive reaction from your body, meaning that your digestive system will be tricked into healing itself. However, if you’re taking a tea to get rid of these unwanted gases, it’s best to avoid acid foods and drinks consumption. These teas are generally rich in vitamins, nutrients, antioxidant and low on acids and volatile oils (which could make your flatulence even worse). Efficient Tea for Flatulence In order to be effective and to work properly, a Tea for Flatulence needs to be both efficient and one hundred percent safe (you need to make sure that some of the active constituents won’t have a negative effect on your body). If you don’t know which teas could help you out, here’s a list to choose from: - Green Tea – contains the right amount of agents to stop flatulence and it’s also good for a number of other conditions, from sore throats and migraines to ulcerative stomach and some types of cancer. However, make sure you don’t take it in case you’re experiencing some menopausal or menstrual symptoms because it may cause uterine contractions and heavy bleedings. - Chamomile Tea – the world’s greatest panacea can reduce the gas level and dissolve the unwanted stomach accumulations. Also, you can take it to treat nausea, vomiting, asthenia, anemia and many other health complaints. It has a pleasant taste and a lovely smell and it’s one hundred percent sure, so you can drink as much as you want. - Peppermint Tea – is probably the most popular Tea for Flatulence, thanks to an active compound called menthol, which inhibits gas accumulations and improves your stomach function. If you’re suffering from internal localized pain, colds or flu, this decoction could be very helpful as well. The herbs can be found almost anywhere in the world and they’re also very safe and very efficient so you should always have peppermint in your medicine cabinet. Tea for Flatulence Side Effects When taken properly, these teas are generally safe. However, exceeding the number of cups recommended per day might lead to a series of health problems, such as diarrhea, nausea or uterine contractions. If you’ve been taking one of these teas for a while and something doesn’t feel right, ask for medical assistance right away! Before starting any kind of herbal treatment, talk to an herbalist or ask for your doctor’s approval. Once he gives you the green light, choose a Tea for Flatulence that fits best your requirements and enjoy nature’s great benefits!... tea for flatulence

Trachelospermum Fragrans

Hook. f.

T. lucidum (D. Don) K.

Family: Apocynaceae.

Habitat: Temperate and subtropical Himalaya from Kumaon to Arunachal Pradesh and in Assam, Meghalaya up to 2,100 m.

Folk: Duudhi (Kumaon), Akhaahi- lataa (Assam).

Action: Used as a substitute for Alstonia scholaris.

T. jasminoides Lem. (Star-Jasmine), native to China and Japan, is cultivated all over India. Alkaline extracts of the leaf and stem show activity against yeast. The leaves and twigs contain dambonitol, cyclitol, arctiin, tracheloside, beta-amyrin and its acetate, lu- peol acetate, and a mixture of beta- stosterol, stigmasterol and campes- terol. A flavone glycoside was isolated from the butanol extract of dried leaves and several indole alkaloids from the alcoholic extract of dried leaves and twigs.

The leaves, stem and twigs are used for treating rheumatic arthritis, nervous disorders, urine retention and as a tonic for weak muscles or nerves.... trachelospermum fragrans

Barker, Arthur Fnimh

Consulting Medical Herbalist. President: National Institute of Medical

Herbalists. Author: The Herbal Pocket Prescriber. (Eardley) ... barker, arthur fnimh

Bloated Feeling

BLOATED FEELING, in women. Abdomen feels heavy and swollen. Helonias. ... bloated feeling

Blue Flesh

Blueness of ears, hands, feet or nose, due to slow circulation of the blood through the small vessels of the skin. See: ACROCYANOSIS. ... blue flesh

Cashew Tree Fruit

Anacardium occidentale L. Active ingredient: anacardic acid – an inhibitor of prostaglandin synthetase. Kills laval mosquitoes and water snails. Dumped by natives into ponds where mosquitoes and snails breed. The apple-like fruit serves as a pesticide to control malaria, schistosomiasis and other parasitic diseases from drinking water. (Dr Isao Kubo, University of California-Berkeley, USA)

Leaves used by natives of West Africa for malaria. ... cashew tree fruit

Tea For Hot Flashes

Even if some say that hot flashes are only present during menopause, many women can experience them since the premenopausal period. Hot flashes are described as a short feverish episode triggered by the estrogen fluctuations. However, scientists are not sure this is the main reason and many studies are focusing their research on this matter. The hot flash episode lasts from a few seconds to several minutes, depending on everybody and the strength of your organism. Some women say that in time their intensity fades away, some other say they remain exactly the same. How a Tea for Hot Flashes Works A Tea for Hot Flashes’ main goal is to bring balance to your hormone level and induce a state of calmness to your reproductive system functions. A Tea for Hot Flashes will decrease your abnormal blood flow and restore your general health by making your body inhibit the hormone surplus. Efficient Tea for Hot Flashes In order to be efficient, a Tea for Hot Flashes needs to be one hundred percent sure and contain the right amount of active constituents. There have been many discussions raised by practitioners around the world concerning a tea’s effect on menopausal symptoms. Although some of them remain skeptic to herbal treatments in these cases, some others actually recommend a decoction if you want to ameliorate your hot flash episodes. In the end, it’s all up to you! If you don’t know which teas might trigger a positive response from your body, here’s a list to choose from: - Licorice Tea – also used as a remedy for diarrhea and menstrual pains, this Tea for Hot Flashes will stabilize your hormone level and improve your general well being. Drink two cups per day for a short amount of time in order to avoid constipation or other digestive tract ailments. - Sage Tea – widely known as a sleeping aid, this decoction can be a great help in cases of stress, anxiety and migraines. Sage Tea contains enough tannins and volatile oils to induce a state or happiness and to heal the affected areas. However, don’t take this remedy for more than 3 or 4 times a day. - Green Tea – although many say that this Tea for Hot Flashes could easily bring relief to your pain, you may want to check this information with your doctor. Remember that Green Tea is under no circumstances recommended to menstrual or menopausal cases since it can cause uterine contractions. If you’re thinking a small amount, however, it might work miracles for you and your health. Tea for Hot Flashes Side Effects When taken according to specifications, these teas are generally safe. However, exceeding the number of cups recommended per day might lead to nausea, vomiting, upset stomach and uterine contractions. Don’t take a Tea for Hot Flashes if you’re on blood thinners, anticoagulants or preparing for a surgery. If you’ve been taking one of these teas for a while and you’re experiencing some unusual reactions, talk to an herbalist or to your doctor as soon as possible! If he says it’s ok to start a treatment based on a Tea for Hot Flashes, choose one that fits best your needs and enjoy its great benefits!... tea for hot flashes

Trigonella Foenum-graecum


Family: Papilionaceae; Fabaceae.

Habitat: Widely cultivated in many parts of India.

English: Fenugreek.

Ayurvedic: Methikaa, Methi, Vastikaa, Selu, Methini, Dipani, Bahupatrikaa, Bodhaini, Gand- haphala.

Unani: Hulbaa, Methi.

Siddha/Tamil: Vendhayam.

Action: Seeds—used in loss of appetite, flatulence, dyspepsia, colic; diarrhoea, dysentery; enlargement of liver and spleen; and as a lactagogue and puerperal tonic.

Key application: German Commission E reported secretolytic, hypermic and mild antiseptic activity of the seed. The British Herbal Pharmacopoeia reported its actions as demulcent and hy- poglycaemic. ESCOP and WHO monographs indicate the use of seeds in adjuvant therapy for diabetes mellitus, anorexia, also in hypercholesterolemia.

The seeds gave alkaloids, including trigonelline, gentianine and carpaine; saponins, based mainly on the sa- pogenins, diosgenin and its isomer yamogenin, gitogenin and tigogenin; flavonoids, including vitexin and its glycosides and esters and luteolin; a volatile oil in small quantities. The mucilage (25-30%) is mostly a galac- tomannan.

A C-steroidal sapogenin peptide ester, fenugreekine, exhibited hypogly- caemic activity.

About 80% of the total content of free amino acids in the seeds is present as 4-hydroxyisoleucine, which appears to directly stimulate insulin. (Eur J Pharmacol, 390, 2000; Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, 2007.)

Saponin rich extracts reduce blood levels of the cholesterol. The fibrous fraction of seeds also causes a reduction in blood lipids.

The aqueous extract is demulcent, promoted healing of gastric ulcers produced experimentally in rats and exhibited a smooth muscle relaxing effect in rabbits without affecting either the heart or blood pressure.

Fenugreek has been reported to stimulate the liver microsomal cy- tochrome P450 dependent aryl hy- droxylase and cytochrome b5 in rats; increased bile secretion has also been observed.

Fenugreek extract containing trigo- nelline and trigonellic acid maybe used as a hair growth stimulant.

Dosage: Seed—3-5 g powder. (CCRAS.)... trigonella foenum-graecum

Cold Feet

Due to poor circulation. Ginger, Cayenne Pepper condiment at meals, Essence of Cinnamon, Horseradish sauce, Mustard. Footbath: Chamomile or Mustard. Vitamins: Niacin, Pangamic acid. Honey. ... cold feet

Drumstick Fingers

Thickening or widening of the fingertips caused by tumour or other permanent congestion, heart or lung trouble. See: HEART DISEASE, TUBERCULOSIS, CHRONIC LUNG COMPLAINTS. ... drumstick fingers

Fabry’s Disease

Rare. Chiefly due to passage of a gene from a parent to an offspring, preventing production of an enzyme giving rise to symptoms including a pin-prick blood vessel rash, loss of weight, allergies, but the person is reasonably fit.

Symptomatic relief. Rutin, Hawthorn, Echinacea. Vitamin E: 200iu daily. ... fabry’s disease

Tussilago Farfara


Family: Compositae; Asteraceae.

Habitat: Western Himalayas from Kashmir to Nepal at 1,500-3,500 m.

English: Coughwort, Coltsfoot, Asses' Foot.

Unani: Fanjiyun.

Action: Leaves and flowers— anticatarrhal, antitussive, expectorant, antispasmodic, demulcent, anti-inflammatory. Used for dry, unproductive, irritative cough, smoker's cough, whooping cough, bronchial asthma (effect shortlived), laryngitis.

Key application: In acute catarrh of the respiratory tract with cough and hoarseness; acute, mild inflammation of the oral and pharyngeal mucosa. Contraindicated during pregnancy and nursing. (German Commission E.)

The leaves and flowers contain flavo- noids including rutin, hyperoside and isoquercetin; pyrrolizidine alkaloids including senkirkine and tussilagine (about 0.015%); mucilage (about 8%) consisting of polysaccharides based on glucose, galactose, fructose, arabinose and xylose; inulin, tannins.

Polysaccharides are antiinflammatory and immuno-stimulating, as well as demulcent. Flavonoids also have anti-inflammatory and antispasmod- ic action. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids have caused hepatotoxicity in rats fed daily on high doses, but not on daily low dose regimes. These are largely destroyed when the herb is boiled.

The leaf contains an inhibitor of platelet activating factor (PAF). The PAF inhibitor can account for Coltsfoot's efficacy in asthma. The constituent, tussilagone has respiratory stimulant and cardiovascular (including pressor) activities. In animal studies, Coltsfoot is reported to have a pres- soreffect similartodopaminebut without tachyphylasis. (Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, 2007.)... tussilago farfara

Typhus Fever

An infective disease of worldwide distribution, the manifestations of which vary in di?erent localities. The causative organisms of all forms of typhus fever belong to the genus RICKETTSIA. These are organisms which are intermediate between bacteria and viruses in their properties, and measure 0·5 micrometre or less in diameter.

Louse typhus, in which the infecting rickettsia is transmitted by the louse, is of worldwide distribution. More human deaths have been attributed to the louse via typhus, louse-borne RELAPSING FEVER and trench fever, than to any other insect with the exception of the MALARIA mosquito. Louse typhus includes epidemic typhus, Brill’s disease – which is a recrudescent form of epidemic typhus – and TRENCH FEVER.

Epidemic typhus fever, also known as exanthematic typhus, classical typhus, and louse-borne typhus, is an acute infection of abrupt onset which, in the absence of treatment, persists for 14 days. It is of worldwide distribution, but is largely con?ned today to parts of Africa. The causative organism is the Rickettsia prowazeki, so-called after Ricketts and Prowazek, two brilliant investigators of typhus, both of whom died of the disease. It is transmitted by the human louse, Pediculus humanus. The rickettsiae can survive in the dried faeces of lice for 60 days, and these infected faeces are probably the main source of human infection.

Symptoms The incubation period is usually 10–14 days. The onset is preceded by headache, pain in the back and limbs and rigors. On the third day the temperature rises, the headache worsens, and the patient is drowsy or delirious. Subsequently a characteristic rash appears on the abdomen and inner aspect of the arms, to spread over the chest, back and trunk. Death may occur from SEPTICAEMIA, heart or kidney failure, or PNEUMONIA about the 14th day. In those who recover, the temperature falls by CRISIS at about this time. The death rate is variable, ranging from nearly 100 per cent in epidemics among debilitated refugees to about 10 per cent.

Murine typhus fever, also known as ?ea typhus, is worldwide in its distribution and is found wherever individuals are crowded together in insanitary, rat-infested areas (hence the old names of jail-fever and ship typhus). The causative organism, Rickettsia mooseri, which is closely related to R. prowazeki, is transmitted to humans by the rat-?ea, Xenopsyalla cheopis. The rat is the main reservoir of infection; once humans are infected, the human louse may act as a transmitter of the rickettsia from person to person. This explains how the disease may become epidemic under insanitary, crowded conditions. As a rule, however, the disease is only acquired when humans come into close contact with infected rats.

Symptoms These are similar to those of louse-borne typhus, but the disease is usually milder, and the mortality rate is very low (about 1·5 per cent).

Tick typhus, in which the infecting rickettsia is transmitted by ticks, occurs in various parts of the world. The three best-known conditions in this group are ROCKY MOUNTAIN SPOTTED FEVER, ?èvre boutonneuse and tick-bite fever.

Mite typhus, in which the infecting rickettsia is transmitted by mites, includes scrub typhus, or tsutsugamushi disease, and rickettsialpox.

Rickettsialpox is a mild disease caused by Rickettsia akari, which is transmitted to humans from infected mice by the common mouse mite, Allodermanyssus sanguineus. It occurs in the United States, West and South Africa and the former Soviet Union.

Treatment The general principles of treatment are the same in all forms of typhus. PROPHYLAXIS consists of either avoidance or destruction of the vector. In the case of louse typhus and ?ea typhus, the outlook has been revolutionised by the introduction of e?cient insecticides such as DICHLORODIPHENYL TRICHLOROETHANE (DDT) and GAMMEXANE.

The value of the former was well shown by its use after World War II: this resulted in almost complete freedom from the epidemics of typhus which ravaged Eastern Europe after World War I, being responsible for 30 million cases with a mortality of 10 per cent. Now only 10,000–20,000 cases occur a year, with around a few hundred deaths. E?cient rat control is another measure which reduces the risk of typhus very considerably. In areas such as Malaysia, where the mites are infected from a wide variety of rodents scattered over large areas, the wearing of protective clothing is the most practical method of prophylaxis. CURATIVE TREATMENT was revolutionised by the introduction of CHLORAMPHENICOL and the TETRACYCLINES. These antibiotics altered the prognosis in typhus fever very considerably.... typhus fever

Vicia Faba


Family: Papilionaceae; Fabaceae.

Habitat: Native to North Africa; commonly grown in North Western India.

English: Broad bean, Windsor bean.

Unani: Baaqlaa.

Action: Fresh beans—cooked alone or with meat, are prescribed in Unani medicine for cough, also for resolving inflammations. Externally, the bean and flowers are used as a poultice for inflammations, warts and burns.

A number of harmful principles are reported in the broad beans. A large amount of Dopa, mainly in free state and partly in the form of its beta- glucoside; and gluco alkaloids, vicine and convicine, have been isolated.

Ingestion of fresh, uncooked or partially cooked beans is not recommended.

The seeds gave positive test for hydrocyanic acid and also contain arsenic.

The fresh beans exhibit an oestro- genic activity. Phytoalexins of the immature seeds exhibit antifungal activity.

Malic, citric and glyceric acids are the principal organic acids present in the pods (also present in the hulls). The glyceric acid on subcutaneous injection produced a marked diuresis in rabbit. (A decoction of the leaves and stems of the field bean, Faba vulgaris Moench, is used as a diuretic.)

An aqueous extract of the root nodules exhibited vasoconstricting activity on rabbits.... vicia faba

Vision, Field Of

When the eye looks at a speci?c point or object, that point is seen clearly. Other objects within a large area away from this ?xation point can also be seen, but less clearly. The area that can be seen around the ?xation point, without moving the eye, is known as the ?eld of vision. The extent of the ?eld is limited inwards by the nose, above by the brow and below by the cheek. The visual ?eld thus has its greatest extent outwards from the side of the head. The ?eld of vision of each eye overlaps to a large extent so that objects in the centre and towards the inner part of each ?eld are viewed by both eyes together. Because the eyes are set slightly apart, each eye sees objects in this overlapping part of the ?eld slightly di?erently. It is because of this slight di?erence that objects can be perceived as three-dimensional.

Defects in the visual ?eld (scotomas) can be produced by a variety of disorders. Certain of these produce speci?c ?eld defects. For example, GLAUCOMA, some types of brain damage and some TOXINS can produce speci?c defects in the visual ?eld. This type of ?eld defect may be very useful in diagnosing a particular disorder. The blind spot is that part of the visual ?eld corresponding to the optic disc. There are no rods nor cones on the optic disc and therefore no light perception from this area. The blind spot can be found temporal (i.e. on the outer side) of the ?xation point. (See also EYE.)... vision, field of

Vocanga Foetida

(Blume) Rolfe.

Synonym: Orchipeda foetida Blume.

Family: Apocynaceae.

Habitat: Indonesia; cultivated in Indian gardens.

Action: Latex—used for treating fistula, pustules and tumours.

The bark contains a bitter alkaloid (yield 0.25%).

A related species, V. grandifolia (Miq.) Rolfe has been introduced into the Indian Botanic Garden, Kolkata. All parts of the plant contain alkaloids which vary seasonally. The trunk bark contains as high as 2.72% of alkaloids on dry basis in November. The leaves contain a mixture of alkaloids (yield up to 1.23% on dry weight basis) containing vobtusine, vobtusine lactone and deoxyvobtusine.... vocanga foetida

Yellow Fever Vaccine Is Prepared From

chick embryos injected with the living, attenuated strain (17D) of pantropic virus. Only one injection is required, and immunity persists for many years. Re-inoculation, however, is desirable every ten years. (See YELLOW FEVER.)

Haemophilus vaccine (HiB) This vaccine was introduced in the UK in 1994 to deal with the annual incidence of about 1,500 cases and 100 deaths from haemophilus MENINGITIS, SEPTICAEMIA and EPIGLOTTITIS, mostly in pre-school children. It has been remarkably successful when given as part of the primary vaccination programme at two, three and four months of age – reducing the incidence by over 95 per cent. A few cases still occur, either due to other subgroups of the organism for which the vaccine is not designed, or because of inadequate response by the child, possibly related to interference from the newer forms of pertussis vaccine (see above) given at the same time.

Meningococcal C vaccine Used in the UK from 1998, this has dramatically reduced the incidence of meningitis and septicaemia due to this organism. Used as part of the primary programme in early infancy, it does not protect against other types of meningococci.

Varicella vaccine This vaccine, used to protect against varicella (CHICKENPOX) is used in a number of countries including the United States and Japan. It has not been introduced into the UK, largely because of concerns that use in infancy would result in an upsurge in cases in adult life, when the disease may be more severe.

Pneumococcal vaccine The pneumococcus is responsible for severe and sometimes fatal childhood diseases including meningitis and septicaemia, as well as PNEUMONIA and other respiratory infections. Vaccines are available but do not protect against all strains and are reserved for special situations – such as for patients without a SPLEEN or those who are immunode?cient.... yellow fever vaccine is prepared from

Father Pierre’s Monastery Herbs

Contain Frangula 2.5 per cent, Senna leaves 65.25 per cent, Ispaghula 6.75 per cent, Meadowsweet 5.125 per cent, Mate leaves 13.5 per cent, Nettles 6.75 per cent. Non-persistent constipation. ... father pierre’s monastery herbs

Female Restorative

Female corrective. A medicine which restores healthy menstrual function by correcting hormone imbalance. Herbs: Agnus Castus, Cramp bark, Motherwort, Oats (endosperm), Raspberry leaves, True Unicorn root (aletris), Wild Yam.

Tea: Agnus Castus, Motherwort, Oats or Raspberry leaves.

Tablets. Agnus Castus, Cramp bark, Motherwort, Raspberry leaves, Wild Yam.

Formula. Agnus Castus 2; Cramp bark 1; Motherwort 1. Dosage: powders: quarter of a teaspoon. Liquid Extracts: 1 teaspoon. Tinctures: 2 teaspoons. In water or honey thrice daily. ... female restorative

Woodfordia Fruticosa


Synonym: W. floribunda Salisb.

Family: Lythraceae.

Habitat: Throughout North India, rather scarce in South India.

English: Fire-flame Bush, Shiran- jitea.

Ayurvedic: Dhaataki, Dhaatri, Kun- jaraa, Taamrapushpi, Bahupushpi, Vahnijwaalaa.

Siddha/Tamil: Velakkai.

Action: Dried flower—purifies blood, heals ulcers, astringent, prescribed in haemetemesis, erysipelas, dysentery, diarrhoea, menorrhagia, leucorrhoea. Flowers are used in alcohol-based tonics for fermentation (a yeast strain, saccharomyces cerevisiae, has been isolated). Bark—uterine sedative.

The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia ofIn- dia recommends the flower in acute diarrhoea, haemorrhages, ulcerations and erysipelas.

The dried flowers are powdered and sprinkled over ulcers and wounds. The flowers also enter into an ointment used on pustules of smallpox.

In small doses the plant stimulates, while in large doses depresses the central nervous system.

The flowers and leaves gave polyphe- nols—ellagic acid, polystachoside and myricetin-3-galactoside. Flowers also gave anthocyanins—pelargonidin- 3,5-diglucoside and cyanidin-3,5-di- glucoside; octacosanol, chrysopha- nol-8-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside and beta-sitosterol. Hecogenin, mesoinos- itol and flavone glycosides—quercetin- 3-rhamnoside, naringenin-7-glucoside and kaempferol, have been reported from flowers.

The bark contains C-glucoside, ber- genin.

The flowers, leaves and bark contain tannins—24.1, 12-20 and 20-27% respectively. Dimeric hydrolyzable tannins—woodfordins A, B and C, and trimeric tannins woodfordin D and oenothein A and B have been isoalt- ed from dried flowers. A new tannin monomer, isoschimawalin A and five oligomers—woodfordin E, F, G, H and I, have also been isoalted.

Oenothein A and B exhibited remarkable host-mediated antitumour activity. Woodfordin C and D also showed antitumour activity. Woodfordin C showed inhibitory activity toward DNA topoisomerase II.

Dosage: Flower—3-6 g powder. (API, Vol. I.)

English: Pala Indigo Plant.

Ayurvedic: Shveta Kutaja. (white- flowered), Punkutaja, Indrayava (seeds).

Unani: Inderjao Shireen.

Siddha/Tamil: Irum-paalai, Nila- paalai.

Action: Bark—antidysenteric. Also used in piles and skin diseases. Seeds—antidysenteric, astringent, febrifuge, anthelmintic. Bark and seeds—prescribed in flatulence and bilious affections.

Pods, without seeds, contain the cycloartanes, cycloartenone and cy- cloeucalenol along with alpha- and beta-amyrin, beta-sitosterol, ursolic acid, oleanolic acid and the terpene, wrightial. The leaves contain beta- amyrin. Stem bark gave beta-amyrin, beta-sitosterol and lupeol.

The seeds, leaves and roots have been shown to contain an indigo- yielding glucoside.

The flowers gave 3-O-rhamnogluco- side which exhibited significant anti- inflammatory activity in carrageenan- induced hind paw oedema.

The bark is commonly used as an adulterant of Kurchi Bark (obtained from Holarrhena antidysenterica).... woodfordia fruticosa

Yucca Filamentosa


Family: Liliaceae; Agavaceae.

Habitat: Indigenous to southern United States; introduced into Indian gardens.

English: Adam's Needle.

Action: Rhizomes and leaves—used for the treatment of glandular and liver and gallbladder disorders; in bilious headaches accompanied by yellow tongue; in despondency and irritability. Root—tincture is used in the treatment of rheumatism; a poultice or salve is used in inflammations.

The leaves contain steroidal sapo- genins sarsasapogenin, gitogenin, tigogenin, diosgenin, kammogenin, yuccagenin, hecogenin, manogenin, mexogenin, chlorogenin and smila- genin. The rhizomes contain mainly sarsasapogenin.

Tincture of the herb is used in Homoeopathic medicine for bilious symptoms with headache.... yucca filamentosa

Fever Powder

No. 10. Equal parts: Lobelia herb, Pleurisy root, Crawley root, Catmint (Catnip), Sage. In powder form. Dose: One heaped teaspoon in cup; fill with boiling water; steep half an hour. 3-5 tablespoons every half hour while fever is on. Dose: small child, quarter of a teaspoon; child, half a teaspoon. For most kinds of fever it is a safe and efficient febrifuge. Never allow fever powder to be boiled. (Dr Melville Keith)

Widely used by the Eclectic School during second half of the 19th century. ... fever powder


Agents that prevent deposition of fibrin in veins. Fibrin deposits may block nutrients and oxygen, which state is a precursor of venous ulceration. Nettles. ... fibrinolytics


Storkbill. “Clocks”. Pinkets. Plant common in the Western United States, especially California. Used by early settlers to fatten herds of cattle. A galactogogue increasing the supply of milk in animals and humans in child rearing. Fresh plant used in spring as a substitute for Alfalfa when the latter is scarce. Dogs, domestic and farmyard animals, especially racehorses savour it. A green tea may be prepared from the fresh plant. Used in salads. ... filaree

Fingernails, Splitting

 Most usual cause is nutrition. High in minerals, Alfalfa tea is known to toughen soft or splitting nails. Liquid Extract Echinacea: 10-20 drops in water, thrice daily. Paint nails with Tincture Myrrh.

Supplementation: zinc. ... fingernails, splitting

Fisherman’s Friend Throat And Chest Lozenges

Contain Eucalyptus oil 0.153 per cent, Cubeb oil 0.305 per cent, Tincture Capsicum 0.02 per cent, Liquorice extract 7.317 per cent, Menthol 0.9 per cent. Specially formulated for Fleetwood Deep Sea fishermen working in Icelandic frost and fog conditions to relieve bronchial congestion, and ease breathing. (Lofthouse) ... fisherman’s friend throat and chest lozenges

Blue Flag Root

Water flag. Iris versicolor L. and I. caroliniana Watson. French: Iris. German: Blaue Iris. Spanish: Mavi Susan. Italian: Giglio azzura. Dried rhizome, root.

Action: anti-inflammatory, astringent (liver), cholagogue, diuretic, laxative, stimulant, anti-emetic, blood and lymph purifier, anti-obesity. A powerful alterative for passive sluggish conditions involving the liver, gall bladder, lymphatics, veins and glandular system. Restores loss of tonicity to involuntary muscle structures.

Uses: Chronic liver conditions to increase flow of bile. Cirrhosis, psoriasis, eczema and scrofulous skin disorders, acne, shingles, anal fissure. Combines well with Yellow Dock, Red Clover. Poke root and Queen’s Delight for skin disorders BHP (1983). Soft goitre (persist for months). Migraine or sick headache of liver origin. Reported to be of value in thyroid deficiency. Jaundice (Dr M.L. Tyler). Uterine fibroids: combined with Goldenseal and Balmony (Priest). Promotes secretions of pancreas, intestines and salivary glands.

Traditional combination: With equal parts Yellow Dock and Sarsaparilla as a powerful lymph cleanser. Henry Smith MD. “I use Blue Flag when there is any local disease involving the lymph glands. The vessels become enlarged and congested because of obstruction. Disease in these vessels is the forerunner of chronic skin disease. Blue Flag can be given in expectation of satisfactory results.”

Colonel Lydius, explorer. “The Indians take the root, wash it clean, boil it a little, then crush it between a couple of stones. They spread this crushed root as a poultice over leg ulcers. At the same time, the leg is bathed with the water in which the root is boiled. I have seen great cures by the use of this remedy. (Travels in North America, II. 606)

Preparations: Thrice daily.

Decoction: half a teaspoon to each cup water; simmer gently 15 minutes: dose – one-third cup. Liquid Extract, BHC Vol 1. 1:1, 45 per cent ethanol. Dose: 0.6-2ml.

Tincture, BHC Vol 1. 1:5, ethanol. Dose: 3-10ml. Powdered root. Half-2g.

Blue Flag is an ingredient of Potter’s Irisine Mixture.

Note: Tincture is best made from fresh root in early spring or autumn. ... blue flag root


See: LICE. ... fleas

Fluid Extracts

Another term for liquid extracts, chiefly used in America and among a modern generation of herbal practitioners. Largely solutions of alcohol and water, strength 1:1. Prepared from crude material or solid extract, the alcohol content differing with each product. See: LIQUID EXTRACTS. ... fluid extracts

Foot Powder

For foot-sweat and general discomfort. Mix into 1oz (30g) cornflour a few drops of any of the following oils, according to personal choice: Lavender, Geranium, Eucalyptus, Lemon, Pine. ... foot powder

Forced March Tablet

Active principles of Kola nut, Coca leaves (caffeine and cocaine). Chiefly used in war. To allay thirst, hunger and sustain strength under mental and physical strain. Instruction to physicians: “Cola is a stimulant, tonic and restorative, decreasing the sensation of fatigue in prolonged muscular exertion or mental effort.”

Dose: One dissolved on the tongue daily. (Burroughs Wellcome during World War I) ... forced march tablet

Breast (female) Tenderness, Pain

May be from hormonal imbalance for which Agnus Castus is almost specific.

Rosemary. 1 teaspoon leaves to cup boiling water; infuse 15 minutes. Half-1 cup 2-3 times daily.

Tea. Formula. Equal parts leaves, Agnus Castus, Rosemary, Balm. 1-2 teaspoons to each cup boiling water; infuse 15 minutes; 1 cup 2-3 times daily.

Evening Primrose oil. 10 drops (or 2 × 250ml capsules) 3 times daily.

Poke root. Internally and externally.

Yorkshire gypsy device: fix a cabbage or a rhubarb leaf beneath brassiere.

Liquid Extract Blue Cohosh BHP (1983): 0.5-1ml, Thrice daily. Alternative: Liquid Extract Rosemary BHP (1983): 2-4ml. Thrice daily.

Vitamins. All-round multivitamin and mineral supplement. Vitamin C (1g daily). Vitamin E (400iu daily). ... breast (female) tenderness, pain

Canary Fancier’s Lung

Bird fancier’s lung. Allergic alveolitis following antigens from pet birds: pigeons, budgerigars, canaries, chickens.

Symptoms: dry cough, difficult breathing usually at night. Loss of weight, tiredness, feverishness with rise of temperature. (Clinical Allergy, 1984. 14,429)

Tea. Yarrow, Elderflowers, Comfrey herb: equal parts.

Tablets/capsules. Garlic. Lobelia. Iceland Moss.

Powders. Formula. Pleurisy root 2; Hyssop 1; Iceland Moss 1. Dose: 500mg (two 00 capsules or one- third teaspoon) thrice daily.

Liquid Extracts. Formula. Pleurisy root 2; Liquorice 1; Hyssop 1. 1 teaspoon in water thrice daily, and when necessary. ... canary fancier’s lung

Cancer – Facial

In October 1967, after three previous surgically removed growths, an 85-year-old cattleman of Mesa, Arizona, refused treatment on the same fourth-recurrent growth, documented as malignant melanoma, in favour of “Chaparral tea”, an old Indian remedy. Of this tea he drank 2-3 cups a day. In September 1968 he was re-examined by the Medical Centre, Utah, USA. They found the growth had decreased from the size of a large lemon to that of a dime. No other medication was used, only the Chaparral tea. In eleven months he gained a needed 25lb with improvements in general health, as previous to Chaparral treatment he was pale, weak and lethargic. (“Indian Herbology”, Alma Hutchens. Pub: Merco, Ontaria).

The facial lesion finally disappeared. ... cancer – facial

Capillary Fragility

A deficiency of Vitamins C or E allows cells to deteriorate, thus weakening capillary walls and placing them at risk of being broken, severed or mashed; with subsequent clot formation, bruising, nose-bleeds, bleeding gums or petechia (small spots due to effusion of blood under the skin).

Large amounts of Vitamins C and E may be given for this condition without toxicity.

Alternatives. Teas. Dried leaves. Buckwheat. Heartsease. Marigold. Yarrow, Butcher’s Broom, Red Vine. One, or more in combination.

Tablets/capsules. Rutin (Buckwheat). Hawthorn, Motherwort.

Tinctures. Formula. Hawthorn 1; Marigold 1; Yarrow 2. One 5ml teaspoon thrice daily.

Dr Alfred Vogel. Yarrow 42; Horse Chestnut 30; St John’s Wort 21; Arnica 7.

BHP (1983). “Fagopyrum (Buckwheat) combines well with Vitamin C in reducing capillary permeability.”

Diet. Low fat. Low salt. High fibre. Bilberries.

Supplementation. Vitamin C 500mg daily. Vitamin E 400iu daily.

See also: CIRCULATION. PHLEBITIS. BRUISES, etc. ... capillary fragility

Chamomile Flowers (german)

Wild Chamomile. Matricaria recutita L. German: Hundskamille. French: Camomille. Italian: Camomilla. Spanish: Camomile. Part used: flowerheads. Contains chamazulene which is active against staphylococcus aureus.

Constituents: volatile oil, flavonoids, tannic acid.

Action. Anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiseptic (mild), anti-peptic ulcer, anodyne (mild), antispasmodic, bitter, carminative, vulnerary. Mild nerve sedative but tonic to the alimentary canal.

Uses: Internal use. Nervous excitability, convulsions, restlessness, hyperactivity in children, insomnia, early stages of fever, measles (warm tea), travel sickness, pin and thread worms, peptic ulcer, gastro- intestinal spasm – calms down digestive system, pre-menstrual tension, hysteria from womb irritation, Candida albicans, inflammation of respiratory and gastro-intestinal tracts, sore throat and mouth. Psychosomatic illness: see CHAMOMILE ROMAN. May be used in pregnancy.

External use. “Inflammation and irritation of skin and mucosa, including the oral cavity and gums, respiratory tract and anal and genital area.” (EM) Conjunctivitis (cold tea). Gangrene (poultice with few drops Tincture Myrrh).

Combinations. With Valerian, Passion flower and Hops (equal parts) for nervous excitability. With Liquorice 1 and Chamomile 4 for gastric ulcer and chronic dyspepsia. Chamomile works well with Peppermint and Balm; equal parts.

Preparations: One teaspoon to each cup boiling water; infuse 5-10 minutes; one cup freely. Powder. Quarter to half a teaspoon; tablets/capsules.

Liquid extract BHC Vol 1. 1:1 in 45 per cent ethanol. Dose: 1-4ml (15-60 drops). Tincture. 1 part to 5 parts 45 per cent alcohol. Dose: 5-10ml (1-2 teaspoons).

Oil of Chamomile. Prepare as for OILS – IMPREGNATED.

Essential oil (Aromatherapy). Externally for neuralgia.

Compress: See: CHAMOMILE FLOWERS, ROMAN. Rinses. Gargles.

Chamomile bath. Add strong infusion to bath water for irritable skin rash, eczema.

Chamomile enema. 1 tablespoon flowers in 2 litres (3 and a half pints) boiling water; infuse, strain and inject warm.

Side-effects: rare contact skin allergy. ... chamomile flowers (german)

Freedom Of Individual To Choose Therapy

The British Government supports freedom of the individual to make an informed choice of the type of therapy he or she wishes to use and has affirmed its policy not to restrict the sale of herbal medicines.

A doctor with knowledge of herbal medicine may prescribe them should he consider them a necessary part of treatment. ... freedom of individual to choose therapy


A herb, usually a gum which, when burnt, releases mixed gases into the atmosphere to cleanse against air-borne infection. An aerial disinfectant such as Myrrh, Frankincense, Incense. ... fumigant

Fungus Infection

Treatment – same as for Athlete’s Foot. Wipe with contents of a Vitamin E capsule. Tea Tree oil, Thuja, Marigold. See: ANTI-FUNGALS. ... fungus infection

Chamomile Flowers (roman)

Anthemis Nobilis. Chamaemelum nobile L. German: Romisch Kamille. French: Chamomille romaine. Italian: Camomilla odorosa. Spanish: Manzanilla.

Constituents: sesquiterpene lactones, flavonoids.

Action: antispasmodic, analgesic (mild), anti-inflammatory (simple acute), bitter, carminative, de- sensitiser (skin), tranquilliser (mild), anti-convulsant, anti-emetic, sedative (mild). One of the chief medicinal plants used by the phytotherapist.

Uses: Children’s convulsions, physical stress, hyperactive children. Indigestion in excitable females. Nausea and indigestion from emotional upset. Facial neuralgia. Insomnia. Meniere’s syndrome. Gastro- intestinal irritation with diarrhoea. Travel sickness (cup hot tea). Wind. Vomiting of pregnancy. Loss of appetite. Sore mouth, nasal catarrh. Infertility (sometimes successful). The oil is active against staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. Skin disorders (steam face with hot tea). Autonomic imbalance. Hot tired feet (strong tea used as a footbath). Hair loss: strong tea, externally. Inflammation of the skin. Psychosomatic:– keynote: irritability. “Cannot bear it”; temper, everything seems intolerable, uncivil, impatient in sickness.

Preparations: As necessary. 4-6 flowerheads to each cup boiling water infuse 15 minutes; half-1 cup. Tincture BHC Vol 1. 1:5, 45 per cent ethanol. Dose: 3-5ml.

Oil of Chamomile. Prepare as for OILS, IMPREGNATED. For cracked lips, dry hands and feet, massage or deodorant.

Essential oil (Aromatherapy): widely used as an inhalant.

Compress. Half-1oz flowers to small muslin or linen bag; immerse in half a pint boiling water; wring out and apply bag over affected area. Repeatedly moisten bag when dry.

Large doses emetic. Not used in pregnancy. Enema. See: GERMAN CHAMOMILE.

Chamomile ointment. Nappy rash, dry skin, irritation. ... chamomile flowers (roman)

Combinations, Formulae

 In the evolution of herbal medicine it was discovered that some remedies have affinities and assist others in therapeutic action. An older generation of herbalists learnt how to ‘blend’ herbs according to their properties. Although empiric, such intelligent observation over centuries has developed into lore handed down as traditional medicine.

Use of herbs in combination enhances activity of the mild ones and modifies effects of the strong. Volatile properties of one may be kept in balance by opposing alkaloids, glycosides, etc.

Present practice views with disfavour the combination of several remedies, approval being given to a maximum of no more than four plant substances.

Herbs may be combined in equal parts or in specific proportions; i.e. Elder 4, Ladies’ Mantle 3 and Pulsatilla 1: represent Elder 4 parts, Ladies’ Mantle 3 parts and Pulsatilla 1 part.

The object of combining medicines is (a) to augment, correct or modify the action of a remedy, (b) to obtain a joint operation of two or more remedies, (c) to obtain a new medicine and (d) to afford a suitable form for administration.

“A combination of similar remedies will produce a more certain, speedy and considerable effect than an equivalent dose of any single one.” (Fordyce) Some herbs used singly may be of little use, their true value lying in a correct combination. Referred to as polypharmacy where a number of remedies are used in one prescription. ... combinations, formulae

Contact Lens Fatigue

Irritation, soreness, friction, inflammation. “People who use extended- wear soft contact lenses are more likely to develop serious microbial keratitis infection than users of other lenses.” (Research team, Moorfields Eye Hospital, London) Risk of keratitis was seen to increase when soft lenses were worn for more than six days.

Alternatives:– Douche. Simple teas: Fennel or German Chamomile; half a teaspoon dried herb or teabag to cup boiling water. Infuse 15 minutes. Half-fill eye-bath and use as douche, tepid. OR: quarter of a teaspoon distilled extract Witch Hazel in eye-bath; half-fill with water. Natural lubricant for contact lens is Evening Primrose oil (contents of a capsule). See: EYES, INFECTION.

Supplements. Daily. Vitamin A 7500iu, Vitamin B2 10mg, Vitamin C 400mg, Vitamin E 400iu, Beta carotene. Zinc 15mg. ... contact lens fatigue

Diet - Gluten-free

Some people cannot absorb the protein gluten present in wheat, barley, rye and oats, and hundreds of foods made from them. Nutritional deficiencies may result in coeliac disease, schizophrenia, allergies and irritable bowel syndrome.

Foods containing gluten include: many breakfast cereals, shredded wheat, wheat germ flakes, white and wholemeal bread, cakes, puddings, biscuits, porridge, rye and wheat crispbreads, crumbled fish and meat, semolina, baked beans, macaroni, baby foods, soups in packets and tins, chocolate, cocoa, spaghetti, muesli, custard, sausages, batter, beer, instant coffee, bedtime drinks and all kinds of pasta.

Natural gluten-free foods include maize, peas, millet, Soya, lima beans, rice. Brown rice is the basic cereal food: cornflakes, puffed rice, rice cereals. Millet flakes, sago, tapioca. These may be prepared in skimmed milk. Gluten-free flours and bread. The potato comes into its own in the gluten-free kitchen, especially for thickening soups and casseroles.

One school of medical thought associates certain nerve dyscrasies with nutritional deficiencies, the gluten-free diet being advised for cases of multiple sclerosis, myasthenia gravis, poliomyelitis, syringomyelia, motor neurone disease.

Book. Gluten-Free cooking Recipes for Coeliacs and Others, by Rita Greer. ... diet - gluten-free

Furunculosis – Folliculitis

A furuncle is another name for a boil caused by staphylococcal infection. Folliculitis is bacterial infection of a hair follicle. A carbunkle: a cluster of boils with more than one opening and deeply pus-forming. See: BOILS. ... furunculosis – folliculitis

Golden Fire

Salve for rheumatic joints, stiff muscles, lumbago, backache and to prepare the spine or skeleton for manipulation as in osteopathy.

Ingredients: Cayenne pods 2oz (or Tincture Capsicum 60 drops); Camphor flowers quarter of an ounce; Peppermint oil 20 drops; Cajuput oil 50 drops; Eucalyptus oil 20 drops; Beeswax 2oz. Sunflower seed oil 16oz.

Method: Gently heat Sunflower seed oil. If Cayenne pods, are used: add pods, steep for one and a half hours. Stir. Strain. Over gentle heat add wax stirring gently until dissolved. Add other ingredients (including Tincture Capsicum if used), stirring well. Pour into jars while fluid. ... golden fire

Diet - High Fibre

A diet high in rich carbohydrate foods with sufficient protein to promote efficient elimination and supply vital trace elements in the form of minerals. Such foods produce moist bulky stools easy to pass and reduce blood cholesterol. It reduces LDLs and increases HDLs.

Fibre-deficient foods lead to poor elimination of body wastes and constipation, disposing the colon to a toxic state. This induces depression, a coated tongue and tiredness during the day. Such foods bring about a change in the balance of bowel bacterial flora, and form gas which may cause pouches of diverticulitis to develop. One of its less obvious effects is to enhance the risk of tooth and gum disease. Soon calcium is expelled by the urine and the intake of magnesium reduced, thus favouring the development of stone.

All plant material; leaves, stalks, seeds etc contain fibre. High-fibre foods include: whole grains, wholemeal bread, wholemeal flour (100 per cent extraction rate), crispbreads, biscuits (digestive, bran, oatmeal or coconut), raw green salad materials, potatoes boiled in their jackets, breakfast cereals (porridge, muesli, All-Bran, Shredded Wheat), brown rice, bran (2 teaspoons thrice daily; increase if necessary), fresh or dried fruit once or twice daily. ... diet - high fibre

Essential Fatty Acids (efa)

A group of unsaturated fatty acids essential for growth and body function. EFA activity requires three polyunsaturated fatty acids (linolenic, linoleic and arachidonic). The most essential are linoleic and arachidonic which are closely involved in metabolism, transport of fats, and maintenance of cell membranes. While linolenic and arachidonic acids can be synthesised in the body, linoleic cannot.

EFA deficiency may be caused by alcohol, particularly Omega-6. Deficiencies may be responsible for a wide range of symptoms from foul-smelling perspiration to psoriasis, pre-menstrual tension and colic. EFAs are precursors of prostaglandin formation.

EFAs are present in oily fish and reduce the adhesion of platelets and the risk of heart disease. They reduce blood cholesterol and increase HDLs.

Common sources: cold pressed seeds, pulses, nuts and nut oils. Evening Primrose oil (15-20 drops daily). The best known source is Cod Liver oil (1-8 teaspoons daily); (children 1 teaspoon daily to strengthen immune system against infection); bottled oil preferred before capsules. To increase palatability pour oil into honey jar half filled with orange or other fruit juice, shake well and drink from the jar.

Margarines, salad dressings, cooking and other refined vegetable oils inhibit complete absorption of EFAs and should be avoided. EFAs require the presence of adequate supply of Vitamins A, B, C, D, E and minerals Calcium, Iron, Magnesium and Selenium. ... essential fatty acids (efa)

Eyes – Foreign Body

From coal dust, insects, pollen, etc.

Symptoms: blinking, watering, acute discomfort. Sensation of grit in the eye does not always imply foreign body, but symptoms of conjunctivitis or keratitis. Automatic blinking is sometimes enough to clear offending object.

Treatment. External. Evert lid and remove. Swab out with dilute Witch Hazel on cotton wool. Inject one drop Castor oil, (also good for scratched cornea), Aloe Vera gel or juice. Fenugreek seed puree. Juice of Houseleek and dairy cream.

Difficult case. Removal of particles of iron or dust, apply mucilage of Slippery Elm powder to eye – patient lying on his back, a second person injecting it into corner of eye, the patient moving eye in opposite direction. Safe and healing. Clean eye and bathe with warm milk.

Referral to consultant ophthalmologist. ... eyes – foreign body

Hair Falling

To arrest recent fall-out where baldness has not been established. See: HAIR LOSS for internal treatments.

Topical. Massage scalp with creams or lotions of Jojoba, Aloe Vera, or wash with strong teas made from Burdock, Sage, Elder leaves, Walnut leaves or Nettles. Apple Cider vinegar.

Aromatherapy. 2 drops each: Sage, Nettles, Thyme to two teaspoons Gin, Vodka or strong spirit. Massage into scalp daily.

Supplements. Biotin, a growth factor, seems to slow down hair loss and is a substitute for oestrogen in a penetrating cream applied to the scalp. Inositol 300mg; Zinc 15mg, daily. ... hair falling

Hamdard National Foundation, Pakistan

Greco-Arabian and Ayurvedic Medicine. Islamic Research and scholarship. Research into natural medicines on the Indian Continent and Far East; traditional medicines of Pakistan. President: Hakim Mohammed Said, distinguished physician, researcher and publisher.

Publications include: Hamdard Pharmacopoeia of Eastern Medicine; Greco-Arabian Concepts of Cardio-vascular Disease; Avicenna’s Tract of Cardiac Drugs and Essays on Arab Cardiotherapy. Scientific journal: Hamdard Medicus – informative articles by world authorities. Hamdard Foundation, Nazimabad, Karachi-18, Pakistan. ... hamdard national foundation, pakistan

Heart – Fibrous Degeneration

Distinct from fatty degeneration. Due to thickening of walls by atheroma. Heart muscle (myocardium) fibres waste away due to lack of nourishment and are replaced by fibrous tissue. The condition usually runs with kidney weakness. Incurable. Partial relief of symptoms – treatment as for arteriosclerosis.

Every cardiac prescription for this condition should include a gentle diuretic to assist kidney function. The kidneys should be borne in mind, the most appropriate diuretic being Dandelion which would also make good any potassium loss. ... heart – fibrous degeneration

Feet – Hot, Sweaty, Smelly

Excessive foot-sweat directs our attention to constitutional weakness, kidney malfunction or to general toxic condition. For fungoid infections: see under FUNGUS. Kidney remedies (diuretics) often reduce foot sweat (Juniper, Buchu, Golden Rod, Horsetail, Parsley root or leaves, Plantain, Thuja). Teas, decoctions, etc.

Constitutional treatment (oral): Liquid Extract Thuja: 5-10 drops morning and evening.

Topical. Foot baths: with teas from Chamomile, Sage, Rosemary, Juniper, or Southernwood. Half an ounce dried or fresh herb in 2 pints boiling water; infuse until warm. Weleda Foot Balm.

Diet. Dandelion coffee. Raw food days. Avoid eggs. Increase protein.

Vitamins. B-complex. B6. B12. E.

Minerals. Dolomite. Zinc.

General. Ban rubber shoes (plimsolls) which prevent adequate ventilation.