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Mixture of substances containing CARBOHYDRATE, FAT, PROTEIN, VITAMINS, TRACE ELEMENTS and water consumed by animals, including humans, to provide the necessary nutrients to maintain the body’s METABOLISM.

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Food | Health Encyclopedia

The keywords of this medical terms: Food

Acid Foods

Foods that produce acid when metabolised. Ash from these foods contains sulphur, phosphoric acid and chlorine, all essential for efficient metabolism. Breads, cereals, cheese, chicken, chocolate, cocoa, coffee, cranberries, eggs, fish, flour, fowl, grain products, lentils, meats (lean), nuts, oats, oatmeal, oysters, pasta, peanuts, peanut butter, pearl barley, plums, prunes, rhubarb, rabbit, rice (white), sugar, sweet corn, tea, veal, wholemeal bread, wheatgerm. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

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Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

Alkaline Foods

These are foods the body breaks down into alkali. Alkaline foods are high in sodium and potassium. Almonds, apples, asparagus, bananas, dried beans, beet greens, Brussels sprouts, buttermilk, cabbage, celery, cauliflower, currants, carrots, chestnuts, coconuts, cream; all fruits except prunes, fresh plums and cranberries. Lemons, lima beans, milk, molasses, oranges, parsnips, dried peas, peaches, radishes, raisins, Soya flour, turnips, all green leafy vegetables except sweet corn. Yeast, fresh tomatoes, herb teas, lettuce, watercress. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

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Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

Brahmi Tea Or Food For The Brain

Brahmi Tea isbest known in Indian Ayurvedic medicine for its role against motor and nerve disorders. It possesses a pungent and bitter flavor, being a tonic, a mild sedative and a diuretic. Brahmi Tea description Brahmi is a perennial creeping herb, commonly found in India, Nepal, Sri Lanka, China, Vietnam and in the southern parts of the United States. It grows on wetlands and muddy shores. Brahmi is medicinally and culinary used. It is known as “food for the brain”, brahmi being used since the 6th century in Ayurvedic medicine as a cognitive enhancer. In India, the herb is still used by students and schoolchildren to help their brain functions. Brahmi tea is the resulting beverage from brewing the abovementioned plant. Brahmi Tea brewing Brahmi tea can be made by immersing ½ teaspoon of dried brahmi herbs into one cup of boiling water. Let it soak and steep it for about 5 minutes. Drink it slowly. Brahmi Tea benefits Brahmi tea has proven its efficiency in:
  • improving the memory and enhancing mental functions, agility and alertness (It is helpful in retention of new information)
  • calming the mind and promoting relaxation
  • improving motor learning ability
  • promoting greater concentration and focus
  • treating asthma
  • treating epilepsy
  • treating indigestion
Brahmi Tea side effects High doses of Brahmi tea may causeheadaches, nausea, dizziness and extreme drowsiness. Pregnant and nursing women should not intake this beverage. Brahmi tea is a medicinal beverage successfully used to enhance the memory processes and to promote relaxation. It is also efficient in dealing with indigestion, but not only.... Beneficial Teas

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Beneficial Teas

Food Additives

Any substance added to food for the purposes of preservation or to improve its acceptability in terms of taste, colour, or consistency.

Preservatives, such as sodium nitrate, are added to food to control the growth of bacteria, moulds, and yeasts. Other additives, such as antioxidants, improve the keeping quality of food by preventing undesirable changes (they stop rancidity in foods containing fat, for example). Additives that improve texture include emulsifiers, stabilizers, thickeners, and gelling agents. Appearance and taste are improved by the use of colourings, flavourings, sweeteners, and flavour enhancers. Artificial sweeteners, such as saccharin, may be used instead of sugar, especially in products for diabetics or slimmers.

Certain additives may produce an allergic reaction in some people, and some are thought to be a factor in behavioural problems in children.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Food Allergy

An inappropriate or exaggerated reaction of the immune system to a food. Sensitivity to cow’s milk protein is a fairly common food allergy in young children. Other foods most commonly implicated in food allergy are nuts, wheat, fish, shellfish, and eggs. Food allergy is more common in people who suffer from other forms of allergy or hypersensitivity, such as asthma, allergic rhinitis, and eczema.Immediate reactions, occurring within an hour or sometimes minutes of eating the trigger food, include lip swelling, tingling in the mouth or throat, vomiting, abdominal distension, abnormally loud bowel sounds, and diarrhoea. Some serious allergies can cause anaphylactic shock, requiring immediate self-injection with adrenaline (epinephrine). The only effective treatment for food allergy is avoidance of the offending food. (See also food intolerance.)... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Food And Drug Administration

(FDA) in the USA, the federal agency within the *Department of Health and Human Services responsible for ensuring that foods are safely edible; that medications (for humans and animals), biological products, and medical devices are safe and effective; and that cosmetics and electronic products that emit radiation are safe. The FDA is also responsible for ensuring the accuracy of the advertisements and labelling related to these products.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Food Fad

A like or dislike of a particular food or foods that is taken to extremes. A food fad may lead to undue reliance on, or avoidance of, a particular foodstuff. Fads are common in toddlers, adolescents, and in people who are under stress. When a food fad becomes obsessive or persistent, it may indicate a serious eating disorder. (See also anorexia nervosa; bulimia.)... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Food Intolerance

nonallergic food hypersensitivity: a non-life-threatening reaction (often delayed) to a food, drink, food additive, or compound that results in symptoms in the respiratory system, gut, or skin. It can result from metabolic reactions, pharmacological reactions, or malabsorption; treatment uses *elimination and exclusion diets and the formation of tolerance over a period of time.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Food Intolerance

This is divided into food aversion, where a person simply avoids a food they dislike; food intolerance, where taking the food causes symptoms; and food allergy, where the symptoms are due to an immunological reaction. Some cases of food intolerance are due to idiosyncrasy – that is, a genetic defect in the patient, such as alactasia, where the intestine lacks the enzyme that digests milk sugar, with the result that individuals so affected develop diarrhoea when they drink milk. Intolerance to speci?c foods, as distinct from allergy, is probably quite common and may be an important factor in the aetiology of the IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME (IBS).

For the diagnosis of true food allergy, it is necessary to demonstrate that there is a reproducible intolerance to a speci?c food; also, that there is evidence of an abnormal immunological reaction to it. Occasionally the allergic response may not be to the food itself but to food contaminants such as penicillin, or to food additives such as tartrazine. There may also be reactions to foods which have pharmacological effects, such as ca?eine in strong co?ee or histamine in fermented cheese, or such reactions may be due to the irritant e?ect on the intestinal mucosa (especially if it is already diseased) by, say, highly spiced curries.

Testing blood and skin for food allergy is beloved of some alternative practitioners but, in practice, the results of tests do not necessarily agree with what happens when the food is taken. Therefore, a careful history is as useful as any test in making a diagnosis.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Food Intolerance

An adverse reaction to a food or food ingredient that occurs each time the substance is eaten, that is not due to a psychological cause or to food poisoning, and that does not involve the immune system.

Food intolerance is often of unknown cause. Certain foods may be poorly tolerated due to impaired digestion and absorption associated with disorders of the pancreas or biliary system. Some people have a genetic deficiency of a specific enzyme, such as lactase, which is required to digest the sugar in milk.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Food Poisoning

an illness affecting the digestive system that results from eating food that is contaminated by bacteria or bacterial toxins, viruses, or (less commonly) by residues of insecticides (on fruit and vegetables) or poisonous chemicals such as lead or mercury. It can also be caused by eating poisonous fungi, berries, etc. Symptoms commence 1–24 hours after ingestion and include nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, and abdominal pain. Food-borne infections are caused by bacteria of the genera *Salmonella, *Campylobacter, and *Listeria in foods of animal origin. The disease is transmitted by human carriers who handle the food, by shellfish growing in sewage-polluted waters, or by vegetables fertilized by manure. Toxin-producing bacteria causing food poisoning include those of the genus Staphylococcus, which rapidly multiply in warm foods; pathogenic *Escherichia coli; and the species Clostridium perfringens, which multiplies in reheated cooked meals. A rare form of food poisoning – *botulism – is caused by toxins produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum, which may contaminate badly preserved canned foods. See also gastroenteritis.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Food Poisoning

This illness is characterised by vomiting, diarrhoea and abdominal pain, and results from eating food contaminated with metallic or chemical poisons, certain micro-organisms or microbial products. Alternatively, the foods – such as undercooked red kidney beans or ?sh of the scombroid family (mackerel and tuna) – may contain natural posions. Food poisoning caused by chemical or metallic substances usually occurs rapidly, within minutes or a few hours of eating. Among micro-organisms, bacteria are the leading cause of food poisoning, particularly Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium perfringens (formerly Cl. welchii), Salmonella spp., Campylobacter jejuni, and Escherichia coli O157.

Staphylococcal food poisoning occurs after food such as meat products, cold meats, milk, custard and egg products becomes contaminated before or after cooking, usually through incorrect handling by humans who carry S. aureus. The bacteria produce an ENTEROTOXIN which causes the symptoms of food poisoning 1–8 hours after ingestion. The toxin can withstand heat; thus, subsequent cooking of contaminated food will not prevent illness.

Heat-resistant strains of Cl. perfringens cause food poisoning associated with meat dishes, soups or gravy when dishes cooked in bulk are left unrefrigerated for long periods before consumption. The bacteria are anaerobes (see ANAEROBE) and form spores; the anaerobic conditions in these cooked foods allow the germinated spores to multiply rapidly during cooling, resulting in heavy contamination. Once ingested the bacteria produce enterotoxin in the intestine, causing symptoms within 8–24 hours.

Many di?erent types of Salmonella (about 2,000) cause food poisoning or ENTERITIS, from eight hours to three days after ingestion of food in which they have multiplied. S. brendeny, S. enteritidis, S. heidelberg, S. newport and S. thompson are among those commonly causing enteritis. Salmonella infections are common in domesticated animals such as cows, pigs and poultry whose meat and milk may be infected, although the animals may show no symptoms. Duck eggs may harbour Salmonella (usually S. typhimurium), arising from surface contamination with the bird’s faeces, and foods containing uncooked or lightly cooked hen’s eggs, such as mayonnaise, have been associated with enteritis. The incidence of human S. enteritidis infection has been increasing, by more than 15-fold in England and Wales annually, from around 1,100 a year in the early 1980s to more than 32,000 at the end of the 1990s, but has since fallen to about 10,000. A serious source of infection seems to be poultry meat and hen’s eggs.

Although Salmonella are mostly killed by heating at 60 °C for 15 minutes, contaminated food requires considerably longer cooking and, if frozen, must be completely thawed beforehand, to allow even cooking at a su?cient temperature.

Enteritis caused by Campylobacter jejuni is usually self-limiting, lasting 1–3 days. Since reporting of the disease began in 1977, in England and Wales its incidence has increased from around 1,400 cases initially to nearly 13,000 in 1982 and to over 42,000 in 2004. Outbreaks have been associated with unpasteurised milk: the main source seems to be infected poultry.

ESCHERICHIA COLI O157 was ?rst identi?ed as a cause of food poisoning in the early 1980s, but its incidence has increased sharply since, with more than 1,000 cases annually in the United Kingdom in the late 1990s. The illness can be severe, with bloody diarrhoea and life-threatening renal complications. The reservoir for this pathogen is thought to be cattle, and transmission results from consumption of raw or undercooked meat products and raw dairy products. Cross-infection of cooked meat by raw meat is a common cause of outbreaks of Escherichia coli O157 food poisoning. Water and other foods can be contaminated by manure from cattle, and person-to-person spread can occur, especially in children.

Food poisoning associated with fried or boiled rice is caused by Bacillus cereus, whose heat-resistant spores survive cooking. An enterotoxin is responsible for the symptoms, which occur 2–8 hours after ingestion and resolve after 8–24 hours.

Viruses are emerging as an increasing cause of some outbreaks of food poisoning from shell?sh (cockles, mussels and oysters).

The incidence of food poisoning in the UK rose from under 60,000 cases in 1991 to nearly 79,000 in 2004. Public health measures to control this rise include agricultural aspects of food production, implementing standards of hygiene in abattoirs, and regulating the environment and process of industrial food production, handling, transportation and storage.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Food Poisoning

A notifiable disease under the Public Health (Control of Diseases) Act 1984. Symptoms: vomiting, diarrhoea and abdominal pain. Diseases include Salmonella, Botulism (rare), typhoid and paratyphoid. Ptomaine is now an obsolete term for bacterial decomposition.

Treatment: First aid: Capsicum, Ginger, Cinnamon. Cider vinegar in water, sip slowly every few minutes until specific treatment is available. Spices are powerful germicides. See: SALMONELLA, LISTERIA, SHIGELA, etc.

Re-hydration, after heavy loss of fluids: glass of water containing 1 teaspoon salt and 2 teaspoons sugar. Preventative: 2-3 Garlic tablets/capsules at night.

To be treated by or in liaison with a qualified medical practitioner. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

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Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

Food Poisoning

A term used for any gastrointestinal illness of sudden onset that is suspected of being caused by eating contaminated food. Most cases of food poisoning are due to contamination of food by bacteria or viruses.

The bacteria commonly responsible for food poisoning belong to the groups

SALMONELLA, CAMPYLOBACTER, and E. COLI, certain strains of which are able to multiply rapidly in the intestines to cause widespread inflammation. Food poisoning may also be caused by LISTERIA (see listeriosis). Botulism is an uncommon, life-threatening form of food poisoning caused by a bacterial toxin.

The viruses that most commonly cause food poisoning are astravirus, rotavirus, and Norwalk virus (which affects shellfish). This can occur when raw or partly cooked foods have been in contact with water contaminated by human excrement. Non-infective causes include poisonous mushrooms and toadstools (see mushroom poisoning), fresh fruit and vegetables contaminated with high doses of insecticide, and chemical poisoning from foods such as fruit juice stored in containers made partly from zinc.

The onset of symptoms depends on the cause of poisoning. Symptoms usually develop within 30 minutes in cases of chemical poisoning, between 1 and 12 hours in cases of bacterial toxins, and between 12 and 48 hours with most bacterial and viral infections. Symptoms usually include nausea and vomiting, diarrhoea, stomach pain, and, in severe cases, shock and collapse. Botulism affects the nervous system, causing visual disturbances, difficulty with speech, paralysis, and vomiting.

The diagnosis of bacterial food poisoning can usually be confirmed from examination of a sample of faeces. Chemical poisoning can often be diagnosed from a description of what the person has eaten, and from analysis of a sample of the suspect food.

Mild cases can be treated at home. Lost fluids should be replaced by intake of plenty of clear fluids (see rehydration therapy). In severe cases, hospital treatment may be necessary. Except for botulism, and some cases of mushroom poisoning, most food poisoning is not serious, and recovery generally occurs within 3 days. However, some strains ofE. COLI can seriously damage red blood cells and cause kidney failure. (See also cholera; dysentery; typhoid fever.)... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Food Standards Agency

An independent agency recently set up by the UK government. The aim is for the agency to protect consumers’ interests in every aspect of food safety and nutrition. The agency advises ministers and the food industry, conducts research and surveillance, and monitors enforcement of food safety and hygiene laws.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Food-borne Infection

Any infectious illness caused by eating food contaminated with viruses, bacteria, worms, or other organisms. There are 2 mechanisms by which food can become infected. First, many animals that are kept or caught for food may harbour disease organisms in their tissues or organs; and, if meat or milk from such an animal is eaten without being thoroughly cooked or pasteurized, the organisms may cause illness in their human host. In the , the only common infection of this type is food poisoning. Second, food may be contaminated with organisms spread from an infected person or animal, usually by flies moving from faeces to food.

Immunization is available against certain food- and water-borne infections such as typhoid fever.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Functional Foods

natural or processed foods that contain a known biologically active component that gives clinically proven health benefits in addition to the traditional nutrient value. For example, stanols and sterols added to margarine-type spreads lower cholesterol. See also prebiotics; probiotics.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Health Food

A term applied to any food products thought to promote health.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Institute Of Health Food Retailing

Professional body to ensure status of those whose career is in the health food industry. Encourages training, research and education in health food retailing, health and nutrition, and furthers these objects with meetings and seminars. Holders of the NAHS Diploma of Health Food Retailing may apply for membership. On acceptance they are awarded a certificate with authority to use the designatory letters M Inst HFR.

Address: Byron House, College Street, Nottingham NG1 5AQ. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

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Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

Irradiation Of Food

The treatment of food with ionizing radiation to kill bacteria, moulds, insects, and other parasites. It improves the keeping qualities of food and is a means of controlling some types of food poisoning. It does not destroy bacterial toxins, however, and may destroy vitamins. Irradiation does not render food radioactive.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Peptonised Foods

Foods which have been predigested by PANCREATIN and thereby rendered more digestible.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary