The meaning of the symbols of dreams/ seen in a dream.


Inflation of the kidneys... nephritis


A painful affection of the nerves due to functional disturbances or neuritis... neuralgia


Nervous debility... neurasthenia


A chronic neurologic condition characterized by reoccurring and inexplicable drowsiness and sleep. There is no organic cause and no seeming changes in EEG readings.... narcolepsy


A drug that induces sleep... narcotic


New or abnormal uncontrolled growth.... neoplasm

Acoustic Neuroma

A slow-growing, benign tumour in the auditory canal arising from the Schwann cells of the acoustic cranial nerve. The neuroma, which accounts for about 7 per cent of all tumours inside the CRANIUM, may cause facial numbness, hearing loss, unsteady balance, headache, and TINNITUS. It can usually be removed surgically, sometimes with microsurgical techniques that preserve the facial nerve.... acoustic neuroma

Anorexia Nervosa

See under EATING DISORDERS.... anorexia nervosa

Central Nervous System

A collective term for the brain, spinal cord, their nerves, and the sensory end organs. More broadly, this can even include the neurotransmitting hormones instigated by the CNS that control the chemical nervous system, the endocrine glands.... central nervous system


The system of medicine where only natural medicines/treatments are used. Examples include manual manipulation, nutrition-based treatments, hygiene and certain kinds of immunization.... naturopathy


The sensation that VOMITING is about to occur; however, nausea does not always lead to vomiting.... nausea


Death of tissue or cells, either from infection or the loss of normal circulation and autotoxicity.... necrosis


Disease of the kidneys... nephropathy

Nervous System

This extensive, complex and ?nely tuned network of billions of specialised cells called neurones (see NEURON(E)) is responsible for maintaining the body’s contacts with and responses to the outside world. The network also provides internal communication links – in concert with HORMONES, the body’s chemical messengers – between the body’s diverse organs and tissues, and, importantly, the BRAIN stores relevant information as memory. Each neurone has a ?lamentous process of varying length called an AXON along which passes messages in the form of electrochemically generated impulses. Axons are bundled together to form nerves (see NERVE).

The nervous system can be likened to a computer. The central processing unit – which receives, processes and stores information and initiates instructions for bodily activities – is called the central nervous system: this is made up of the brain and SPINAL CORD. The peripheral nervous system – synonymous with the cables that transmit information to and from a computer’s processing unit – has two parts: sensory and motor. The former collects information from the body’s many sense organs. These respond to touch, temperature, pain, position, smells, sounds and visual images and the information is signalled to the brain via the sensory nerves. When information has been processed centrally, the brain and spinal cord send instructions for action via motor nerves to the ‘voluntary’ muscles controlling movements and speech, to the ‘involuntary’ muscles that operate the internal organs such as the heart and intestines, and to the various glands, including the sweat glands in the skin. (Details of the 12 pairs of cranial nerves and the 31 pairs of nerves emanating from the spinal cord are given in respective texts on brain and spinal cord.)

Functional divisions of nervous system As well as the nervous system’s anatomical divisions, the system is divided functionally, into autonomic and somatic parts. The autonomic nervous system, which is split into sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions, deals with the automatic or unconscious control of internal bodily activities such as heartbeat, muscular status of blood vessels, digestion and glandular functions. The somatic system is responsible for the skeletal (voluntary) muscles (see MUSCLE) which carry out intended movements initiated by the brain – for example, the activation of limbs, tongue, vocal cords (speech), anal muscles (defaecation), urethral sphincters (urination) or vaginal muscles (childbirth). In addition, many survival responses – the most powerfully instinctive animal drives, which range from avoiding danger and pain to shivering when cold or sweating when hot – are initiated unconsciously and automatically by the nervous system using the appropriate neural pathways to achieve the particular survival reaction required.

The complex functions of the nervous system include the ability to experience emotions, such as excitement and pleasure, anxiety and frustration, and to undertake intellectual activities. For these experiences an individual can utilise many built-in neurological programmes and he or she can enhance performance through learning – a vital human function that depends on MEMORY, a three stage-process in the brain of registration, storage and recall. The various anatomical and functional divisions of the nervous system that have been unravelled as science has strived to explain how it works may seem confusing. In practical terms, the nervous system works mainly by using automatic or relex reactions (see REFLEX ACTION) to various stimuli (described above), supplemented by voluntary actions triggered by the activity of the conscious (higher) areas of the brain. Some higher functions crucial to human activity – for example, visual perception, thought, memory and speech – are complex and subtle, and the mechanisms are not yet fully understood. But all these complex activities rest on the foundation of relatively simple electrochemical transmissions of impulses through the massive network of billions of specialised cells, the neurones.... nervous system


Nerve inflammation, usually with an abnormal amount of pain, and often part of a degenerative process.... neuritis


Another name for CANCRUM ORIS.... noma


1 The process of nourishing or being nourished, especially the process by which a living organism assimilates food and uses it for growth and for replacement of tissues. 2 The science or study that deals with food and nourishment, especially in humans.... nutrition

Trigeminal Neuralgia

Facial neuralgia or tic doulourex. This is pain of the gasserian ganglion or one or more branches of the trigeminal nerves. It is felt as pain along the side or top of the head, the scalp and around the eyes...a “skin headache”...and sometimes accompanied by facial muscle cramps. It is usually initiated by trigger points, with blood sugar irregularities and substance sensitivities often lowering their threshold of irritation.... trigeminal neuralgia

Atrial Natriuretic Peptide

The atria (see ATRIUM) of the heart contain peptides with potent diuretic and vasodilating properties. It has been known since 1980 that extracts of human atria have potent diuretic and natriuretic effects in animals (see DIURETICS). In 1984 three polypeptide species were isolated from human atria and were called alpha, beta and gamma human atrial natriuretic peptides. Plasma concentration of immunoreactive atrial natriuretic peptide can now be measured: the levels are low in healthy subjects and are increased in patients with congestive heart failure. Infusion of the peptides reduces blood pressure and causes a natriuresis and diuresis.... atrial natriuretic peptide

Auditory Nerve

See VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE.... auditory nerve

Autonomic Nervous System

Part of the nervous system which regulates the bodily functions that are not under conscious control: these include the heartbeat, intestinal movements, salivation, sweating, etc. The autonomic nervous system consists of two main divisions – the SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM and the PARASYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM. The smooth muscles, heart and most glands are connected to nerve ?bres from both systems and their proper functioning depends on the balance between these two. (See also NERVES; NERVOUS SYSTEM.)... autonomic nervous system

Cranial Nerves

Cranial nerves are those arising from the BRAIN.... cranial nerves

Facial Nerve

The seventh cranial nerve (arising from the BRAIN), supplying the muscles of expression in the face, being purely a motor nerve. It enters the face immediately below the ear after splitting up into several branches. (See BELL’S PALSY.)... facial nerve

Hypoglossal Nerve

The 12th cranial nerve, which supplies the muscles of the tongue, together with some others lying near it. This nerve is responsible for movements required for swallowing and talking. (See also NERVOUS SYSTEM.)... hypoglossal nerve

Haemolytic Disease Of The Newborn

A potentially serious disease of the newborn, characterised by haemolytic ANAEMIA (excessive destruction of red blood cells) and JAUNDICE. If severe, it may be obvious before birth because the baby becomes very oedematous (see OEDEMA) and develops heart failure – so-called hydrops fetalis. It may ?rst present on the ?rst day of life as jaundice and anaemia. The disease is due to blood-group incompatibility between the mother and baby, the commoneset being rhesus incompatibility (see BLOOD GROUPS). In this condition a rhesus-negative mother has been previously sensitised to produce rhesus antibodies, either by the delivery of a rhesus-positive baby, a miscarriage or a mismatched blood transfusion. These antibodies cross over into the fetal circulation and attack red blood cells which cause HAEMOLYSIS.

Treatment In severely affected fetuses, a fetal blood transfusion may be required and/or the baby may be delivered early for further treatment. Mild cases may need observation only, or the reduction of jaundice by phototherapy alone (treatment with light, involving the use of sunlight, non-visible ULTRAVIOLET light, visible blue light, or LASER).

Whatever the case, the infant’s serum BILIRUBIN – the bilirubin present in the blood – and its HAEMOGLOBIN concentration are plotted regularly so that treatment can be given before levels likely to cause brain damage occur. Safe bilirubin concentrations depend on the maturity and age of the baby, so reference charts are used.

High bilirubin concentrations may be treated with phototherapy; extra ?uid is given to prevent dehydration and to improve bilirubin excretion by shortening the gut transit time. Severe jaundice and anaemia may require exchange TRANSFUSION by removing the baby’s blood (usually 10 millilitres at a time) and replacing it with rhesus-negative fresh bank blood. Haemolytic disease of the newborn secondary to rhesus incompatibility has become less common since the introduction of anti-D (Rho) immunoglobulin. This antibody should be given to all rhesus-negative women at any risk of a fetomaternal transfusion, to prevent them from mounting an antibody response. Anti-D is given routinely to rhesus-negative mothers after the birth of a rhesus-positive baby, but doctors should also give it after threatened abortions, antepartum haemorrhages, miscarriages, and terminations of pregnancy.

Occasionally haemolytic disease is caused by ABO incompatibility or that of rarer blood groups.... haemolytic disease of the newborn


A congenitally determined tissue abnormality. In the SKIN, naevi of blood vessels are best known, but a MOLE is a MELANOCYTE naevus, and warty streaked and linear naevi of the epidermis occasionally occur. There are several patterns of vascular naevi:

Naevus simplex Also known as ‘salmon patch’. About one-third of white children are born with macular pink areas of ERYTHEMA on the nape, brow or eyelids which usually disappear after a few months, but patches on the nape may persist.

Naevus ?ammeus Also known as ‘portwine stain’ and present at birth. It is unilateral, usually on the face, and may be extensive. It tends to darken with age and is permanent. Laser treatment is e?ective.

Strawberry naevus (cavernous haemangioma) is usually not present at birth but appears within a few weeks and grows rapidly, reaching a peak in size after 6–12 months, when the lobulated red nodule may resemble a ripe strawberry. Untreated, the naevus disappears spontaneously over several years. It may occur anywhere and may be very troublesome when occurring around an eye or on the ‘nappy’ area. If possible it should be left alone, but where it is causing problems other than simply cosmetic ones it is best treated by an expert. This may involve medical treatment with steroids or interferon or laser therapy.

Spider naevus is due to a dilated ARTERIOLE causing a minute red papule in the skin, the small branching vessels resembling spider legs. A few spider naevi are common in young people, but multiple naevi are common in pregnancy and may also be a warning sign of chronic liver disease.... naevus


See SKIN.... nail


A common practice in schoolchildren, most of whom gradually give it up as they approach adolescence. Too much signi?cance should therefore not be attached to it; in itself it does no harm, and punishment or restraining devices are not needed. It is a manifestation of tension or insecurity, the cause of which should be removed. In some people the habit is carried into adulthood.... nail-biting

Nalidixic Acid

An antibiotic drug, active against gram-negative (see GRAM’S STAIN) micro-organisms, used to treat and prevent infections of the URINARY TRACT.... nalidixic acid


An e?ective drug in the treatment of opioid poisoning. It blocks the effects of most opiates; given intravenously, it acts within 2–3 minutes. The drug is also given to newborn babies whose breathing has been depressed by narcotic drugs given to their mothers to relieve pain during childbirth.... naloxone


One of the ANABOLIC STEROIDS, with the property of building PROTEIN. It is of little value in medical care, although is licensed for use in aplastic ANAEMIA; it has also been used in the past to treat osteoporosis in women (see under BONE, DISORDERS OF), but is no longer recommended for this purpose. Its use as a bodybuilder by some athletes and others has caused controversy: those found using it are barred from most recognised athletic events. Nandrolone should never be taken by pregnant women or by people with liver disease or prostate cancer. Side-effects include ACNE; VIRILISATION with high doses including voice changes, cessation of periods, and inhibition of sperm production; and liver tumours after prolonged use.... nandrolone

Nappy Rash

A common form of irritant contact DERMATITIS in the nappy area in babies under one year old. Wetting of the skin by urine, abrasion, and chemical changes due to faecal contamination all play a part. Good hygiene and use of disposable absorbent nappies have much reduced its incidence. An ointment containing a barrier, such as titanium dioxide, may help; other medications such as mild CORTICOSTEROIDS or antibiotics should be used very cautiously and only under the guidance of a doctor, as harmful effects may result – especially from overuse.... nappy rash




An abnormal mental state characterised by excessive admiration of one’s self. In Greek mythology, Narcissus so loved staring at his own re?ection in water that he eventually fell in and drowned.... narcissism


A condition of stupor (see under UNCONSCIOUSNESS), resembling sleep, that is usually caused by a drug. It may also occur as a result of liver or kidney failure which causes URAEMIA. The affected person has signi?cantly reduced awareness and is hard to arouse. Treatment is of the underlying cause and the normal precautions for caring for an unconscious or semiconscious subject should be taken. (See APPENDIX 1: BASIC FIRST AID.).... narcosis

Nasogastric Tube

A small-bore plastic or rubber tube passed into the stomach through the nose, pharynx and then the oesophagus. It is used either to aspirate gas and liquid from the stomach or to pass food or drugs into it.... nasogastric tube

Nasolacrimal Duct

A duct that goes through the nasolacrimal canal in the palatine bone of the SKULL. The duct drains the tears from the lacrimal (tear) glands into the NOSE.... nasolacrimal duct


Nasopharynx is the upper part of the throat, lying behind the nasal cavity. (See NOSE.)... nasopharynx


Navel, or UMBILICUS, is the scar on the abdomen marking the point where the umbilical cord joined the body in embryonic life. (See PLACENTA.)... navel


The term applied to a slight opacity on the cornea (see EYE) producing a haze in the ?eld of vision, and also to any oily preparation to be sprayed from a nebuliser – an apparatus for splitting up a ?uid into ?ne droplets.... nebula


The connecting tissues between the scolex and strobila of a tapeworm. This part is unsegmented.... neck


A traditional term for an autopsy or POSTMORTEM EXAMINATION.... necropsy


Degeneration of the kidney, with high discharge of albumin in the urine. Anaemia, dropsy and protein loss.

Causes: recurrent attacks of nephritis, bacterial toxins, environmental poisons, mineral drugs (mercury etc).

Treatment. Specific hospital treatment essential, (dialysis etc). Simple phytomedicines may bring a measure of relief as supportives to conventional medicine.

Teas. Barley water, Buchu, Clivers, Cornsilk, Couchgrass, Goldenrod, Parsley, Plantain, Wild Carrot. Decoctions. Broom tops, Dandelion root, Marshmallow root, Hydrangea root, Parsley root.

Powders. Alfalfa 45; Bearberry 15; Buchu 10; Couchgrass 15; Wild Carrot 15. Dose: 500-750mg (2-3 00 capsules or one-third to half a teaspoon) thrice or more daily.

Tinctures. Echinacea 2 (to enhance powers of resistance). Parsley root 2; Ginseng 1; Ginger quarter. Dose: 1-2 teaspoons in water thrice or more daily.

Restharrow herb. For weak kidneys and bladder. (R.F Weiss MD. Book: Herbal Medicine, Beaconsfleld Publishers)

Diet. High protein, salt-free, herb teas. Spring water in abundance.

Supplements. Vitamin A, B-complex, B2, C, E. Calcium, Iron, Magnesium.

Supportives. Hot abdominal packs. Castor oil packs. Sweat packs. Induce sweating with aid of diaphoretics.

Subsequent treatment by or in liaison with a qualified medical practitioner. ... nephrosis


A non-irritating, easily-digested agent which provides body nourishment and stimulates metabolic processes.

Alfalfa, Arabic gum, Arrow root, Carob flour, Fenugreek seed, Iceland Moss, Irish Moss, Okra pods, Sago root, Slippery Elm, Oats, Barley. ... nutrient


Neomycin is one of the AMINOGLYCOSIDES, derived from Streptomyces fradiae. It has a wide antibacterial spectrum, being e?ective against the majority of gram-negative (see GRAM’S STAIN) bacilli. Its use is limited by the fact that it is liable to cause deafness and kidney damage. Its main use is for application to the skin – either in solution or as an ointment – for the treatment of infection; it is also given by mouth for the treatment of certain forms of ENTERITIS due to E. coli.... neomycin


The presence of abnormal cells forming a growth or tumor, unable to perform their normal functions, and replacing healthy cells.... neoplasia


An ANTICHOLINESTERASE drug which enhances neuromuscular transmission – the passage of chemical messages between nerve and muscle cells – in voluntary and involuntary muscles in patients with the disorder MYASTHENIA GRAVIS. Its e?ect lasts for about four hours. A disadvantage is that it has a marked cholinergic action – affecting heart rhythm, causing excessive salivation and tear secretion, constricting the BRONCHIOLES and stimulating the gastrointestinal tract.... neostigmine


The operation for removal of the kidney. (See KIDNEYS, DISEASES OF.)... nephrectomy


Nephroblastoma, or Wilm’s tumour, is the commonest kidney tumour in infancy (see also KIDNEYS, DISEASES OF – Tumours of the kidney). It is a malignant tumour, which occurs in around 1 per 10,000 live births. The survival rate with modern treatment (removal of the kidney followed by radiotherapy and chemotherapy) is now around 80 per cent.... nephroblastoma


The branch of medicine concerned with the study and management of kidney disease. A specialist in these diseases is called a nephrologist.... nephrology


Each kidney comprises over a million of these microscopic units which regulate and control the formation of URINE. A tuft of capillaries invaginates the Bowmans capsule, which is the blind-ending tube (GLOMERULUS) of each nephron. Plasma is ?ltered out of blood and through the Bowmans capsule into the renal tubule. As the ?ltrate passes along the tubule, most of the water and electrolytes are reabsorbed. The composition is regulated with the retention or addition of certain molecules (e.g. urea, drugs, etc.). The tubules eventually empty the ?ltrate, which by now is urine, into the renal pelvis from where it ?ows down the ureters into the bladder. (See KIDNEYS.)... nephron


Nephrostomy is the operation of making an opening into the kidney (see KIDNEYS) to drain it.... nephrostomy

Nephrotic Syndrome

Nephrotic syndrome is one of PROTEINURIA, hypo-albuminaemia and gross OEDEMA. The primary cause is the leak of albumin (see ALBUMINS) through the GLOMERULUS. When this exceeds the liver’s ability to synthesise albumin, the plasma level falls and oedema results. The nephrotic syndrome is commonly the result of primary renal glomerular disease (see KIDNEYS, DISEASES OF – Glomerulonephritis). It may also be a result of metabolic diseases such as diabetic glomerular sclerosis and AMYLOIDOSIS. It may be the result of systemic autoimmune diseases such as SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS (SLE) and POLYARTERITIS NODOSA. It may complicate malignant diseases such as MYELOMATOSIS and Hodgkin’s disease (see LYMPHOMA). It is sometimes caused by nephrotoxins such as gold or mercury and certain drugs, and it may be the result of certain infections such as MALARIA and CROHN’S DISEASE.... nephrotic syndrome

Nerve Block

See ANAESTHESIA – Local anaesthetics.... nerve block

Nervous Breakdown

A non-medical description of a variety of emotional crises ranging from an outburst of hysterical behaviour to a major neurotic illness that may have a lasting e?ect on an individual’s life. Sometimes the term is used to describe an overt psychotic illness – for example, SCHIZOPHRENIA (see also MENTAL ILLNESS; NEUROSIS).... nervous breakdown


A nerve is a bundle of conductory ?bres called axons (see AXON) that emanate from neurones (see NEURON(E)) – the basic anatomical and functional units of the NERVOUS SYSTEM. Nerves make up the central nervous system (BRAIN and SPINAL CORD) and connect that system to all parts of the body, transmitting information from sensory organs via the peripheral nerves to the centre and returning instructions for action to the relevant muscles and glands.

Nerves vary in size from the large pencil-sized sciatic nerve in the back of the thigh muscles to the single, hair-sized ?bres distributed to the skin. A nerve, such as the sciatic, possesses a strong, outer ?brous sheath, called the epineurium, within which lie bundles of nerve-?bres, divided from one another by partitions of ?brous tissue, in which run blood vessels that nourish the nerve. Each of these bundles is surrounded by its own sheath, known as the perineurium, and within the bundle ?ne partitions of ?brous tissue, known as endoneurium, divide up the bundle into groups of ?bres. The ?nest subdivisions of the nerves are the ?bres, and these are of two kinds: medullated and non-medullated ?bres. (See NEURON(E) and NERVOUS SYSTEM for more details on structure and functions of neurons and nerves.)... nerve


See URTICARIA.... nettle-rash


Urtica and Laportea species

Description: These plants grow several feet high. They have small, inconspicuous flowers. Fine, hairlike bristles cover the stems, leafstalks, and undersides of leaves. The bristles cause a stinging sensation when they touch the skin.

Habitat and Distribution: Nettles prefer moist areas along streams or at the margins of forests. They are found throughout North America, Central America, the Caribbean, and northern Europe.

Edible Parts: Young shoots and leaves are edible. Boiling the plant for 10 to 15 minutes destroys the stinging element of the bristles. This plant is very nutritious.

Other Uses: Mature stems have a fibrous layer that you can divide into individual fibers and use to weave string or twine.... nettle


A malignant growth comprising embryonic nerve cells. It may start in any part of the AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM. The medulla of the adrenal gland (see under ENDOCRINE GLANDS) is a common site; secondary growths develop in other tissues. Neuroblastomas are the most common extracranial solid tumour of childhood. The incidence is around eight cases per one million children. Treatment is by surgery followed by radiotherapy and CYTOTOXIC drugs. About 30 per cent of sufferers survive for at least ?ve years after treatment.... neuroblastoma


The branch of medical practice and science which is concerned with the study of the NERVOUS SYSTEM and its disorders. Specialists in neurology – neurologists – examine a patient’s nerves, sensory and motor functions and re?exes. They use modern imaging techniques

– for example, CT scanning (see COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY) and MRI – to aid diagnosis. Until relatively recently, many neurological conditions could be treated only with palliative methods. Now there is much improved understanding of the nervous system and its disorders, with closer liaison between psychiatrists (see PSYCHIATRY) and neurologists.... neurology


Neuroma means a TUMOUR connected with a NERVE – such tumours being generally composed of ?brous tissue, and of a painful nature.... neuroma


A disease affecting nerves (see NERVE). It may affect a single nerve (mononeuropathy) or be a generalised disorder (polyneuropathy). Symptoms will depend on whether motor, sensory, or autonomic nerves are affected. Trauma or entrapment of a nerve is a common cause of mononeuropathy, pressure or stretching of a nerve occurring in various situations. Complete recovery in 4–6 weeks is usual. Common causes of polyneuropathy include DIABETES MELLITUS, vitamin B de?ciency (often alcohol-associated) and some viral infections. Genetic and toxic neuropathies are also seen.... neuropathy


Surgery performed on some part of the NERVOUS SYSTEM, whether brain, spinal cord or nerves. Disorders treated by neurosurgeons include damage to the brain, spinal cord and nerves as a result of injury; tumours in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM; abnormalities of blood vessels in or supplying blood to the brain – for example, ANEURYSM; brain abscess; bleeding inside the skull; and certain birth defects such as HYDROCEPHALUS and SPINA BIFIDA.... neurosurgery


A general term applied to mental or emotional disturbance in which, as opposed to PSYCHOSIS, there is no serious disturbance in the perception or understanding of external reality. However, the boundaries between neurosis and psychosis are not always clearly de?ned. Neuroses are usually classi?ed into anxiety neuroses, depressive neuroses, phobias (see PHOBIA), HYPOCHONDRIASIS, HYSTERIA and obsessional neuroses.

Anxiety neurosis, or anxiety state, constitutes the most common form of neurosis; fortunately it is also among the most responsive to treatment. Once the neurosis develops, sufferers are in a state of persistent anxiety and worry, ‘tensed up’, always fatigued and unable to sleep at night. In addition, there are often physical complaints – for example, palpitations, sweating, apparent discomfort on swallowing (‘globus’), and headache.

Obsessional neuroses are much less common and constitute only about 5 per cent of all neuroses. Like other neuroses, they usually develop in early adult life. (See MENTAL ILLNESS.)... neurosis


A chemical substance which transmits the action of a NERVE to a cell (see CELLS). It is released from nerve-endings and transmits the impulse across synapses (see SYNAPSE) to other nerves. In the central nervous system the substances acting as neurotransmitters include ACETYLCHOLINE, NORADRENALINE, DOPAMINE and SEROTONIN. The main transmitter in the peripheral system is acetylcholine, while for the sympathetic system it is noradrenaline. In recent years a new group of neurotransmitters called neuropeptides has been identi?ed, comprising large protein molecules. One of the best-known is that of endorphins, which the brain uses to control pain. (See also NEURON(E); NERVOUS SYSTEM; PAIN.)... neurotransmitter


A type of leucocyte or white blood cell (see LEUCOCYTES; BLOOD).... neutrophil


A widely used anthelmintic drug (see ANTHELMINTICS) for treating TAENIASIS or tapeworm infection.... niclosamide


Nicotinamide, the amide of NICOTINIC ACID, is usually used instead of the latter in the treatment of vitamin B de?ciency.... nicotinamide


An alkaloid which is the principal addictive agent in TOBACCO. The small amount of nicotine in a single cigarette is su?cient to stimulate mental and bodily activities. In larger quantities it acts as a depressant or narcotic – habitual smokers may ?nd its e?ect sedating. Nicotine works by stimulating the production of a chemical called DOPAMINE, a neurotransmitter or chemical messenger between nerve cells. Nicotine mimics the action of a neurotransmitter called ACETYLCHOLINE. Nerve cells that produce dopamine have acetylcholine-receptor molecules on their surfaces; when these ‘nicotine-like’ receptors are occupied by acetylcholine molecules, a cell is prompted to produce dopamine. So nicotine itself can arti?cially stimulate dopamine production. Dopamine is part of the neuronal circuitry that plays a part in the body’s perception of pleasure, which is why smoking is enjoyed by many people.... nicotine

Nicotinic Acid

Nicotinic acid is a member of the vitamin B complex. It is essential for human nutrition, the normal daily requirement for an adult being about 15–20 mg. A de?ciency of nicotinic acid is one of the factors in the etiology of PELLAGRA, and either nicotine acid or NICOTINAMIDE is used in the treatment of this condition. Nicotinic acid also reduces the concentration of blood lipids (see HYPERLIPIDAEMIA).... nicotinic acid


A member of the CALCIUM-CHANNEL BLOCKERS group of cardiovascular drugs. It relaxes vascular smooth muscle and dilates coronary and peripheral arteries. Nifedipine has been used to prevent and treat ANGINA PECTORIS and certain types of HYPERTENSION.... nifedipine

Night Blindness

See under BLINDNESS.... night blindness


The small, sensitive prominence at the tip of each breast (see BREASTS) containing (in women) the small openings through which milk can pass from the milk glands in the breast tissue. The nipple and its surrounding area (the areola) are darker than the adjacent skin. The area becomes darker during pregnancy.... nipple


A tranquilliser introduced as a hypnotic. It is long-acting and may produce drowsiness next day. Addiction can occur. (See TRANQUILLISERS; HYPNOTICS; BENZODIAZEPINES.)... nitrazepam


A synthetic nitrofuran derivative which has a wide range of antibacterial activity and is e?ective against many gram-positive and gram-negative (see GRAM’S STAIN) micro-organisms. It is used mainly in the treatment of infections of the lower URINARY TRACT.... nitrofurantoin


Excess passing of URINE during the night. Among its many causes are glomerulonephritis (see under KIDNEY, DISEASES OF) and enlargement of the PROSTATE GLAND.... nocturia


The term node is widely used in medicine. For instance, the smaller lymphatic glands are often termed LYMPH NODES. It is also applied to a collection of nerve cells forming a subsidiary nerve centre found in various places in the sympathetic nervous system (see NERVOUS SYSTEM), such as the sinuatrial node and the atrioventricular node which control the beating of the HEART.... node


A precursor of ADRENALINE in the medulla of the suprarenal glands (see ADRENAL GLANDS). It is also present in the BRAIN. Its main function is to mediate the transmission of impulses in the SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; it also has a transmitter function in the brain.... noradrenaline


See NORADRENALINE.... norepinephrine


A synthetic preparation that has the action of PROGESTERONE, but is active when given by mouth.... norethisterone


In the course of RESPIRATION, incoming air enters via the nose and is here warmed, moistened, and ?ltered before entering the lungs. The nose has a protective function, irritant air being expelled by SNEEZING. It is also the organ of SMELL.

Several sinuses (see SINUS) lie concealed in the bones of the SKULL, into which air enters freely by apertures connecting them with the nose. These cavities occupy spaces in the frontal bone over the eyebrow (frontal sinus); in the upper jaw-bone, ?lling in the angle between the EYE and the nose (maxillary sinus); in the sphenoid bone (sphenoidal sinus); and in the lateral part of the ethmoid bone (ethmoidal sinus). The sinuses drain into the interior of the nose, as does the Eustachian or auditory tube from the middle ear (see EAR).... nose

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

... nuclear magnetic resonance

Nuclear Medicine

The branch of medicine concerned with the use of radioactive material in the diagnosis, investigation and treatment of disease.... nuclear medicine

Nucleic Acid

Group of chemicals found in cells and which carry biochemical codes for heredity and day-to-dayfunctioning of cells.... nucleic acid


The central body in a cell, which controls the activities of the latter. (See CELLS.)... nucleus


See TOUCH.... numbness


See under EYE, DISORDERS OF.... nystagmus


An antibiotic, isolated from Streptomyces noursei, active against Candida albicans (see CANDIDA). It is not absorbed from the gut but is useful in gastrointestinal and skin candidosis.... nystatin

Optic Nerve

See EYE.... optic nerve

Optic Neuritis

In?ammation of the optic nerve (see EYE) which may result in sudden loss of part of a person’s vision. It is usually accompanied by pain and tenderness on touch. The cause is uncertain, although in some cases it may be a prcursor of MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS (MS): CORTICOSTEROIDS may help by improving the loss of visual acuity, but seems not to check the long-term in?ammatory activity.... optic neuritis

Peripheral Nervous System

See NERVOUS SYSTEM.... peripheral nervous system

Pins And Needles

A form of PARAESTHESIA, or disturbed sensation, such as may occur, for example, in NEURITIS or POLYNEURITIS.... pins and needles

Polyarteritis Nodosa

Also known as periarteritis nodosa. A rare but potentially serious disease, probably caused by a disturbance of the immune system (see IMMUNITY). Prolonged fever and obscure symptoms referable to any system of the body are associated with local areas of in?ammation along the arteries, giving rise to nodules in their walls. Large doses of CORTICOSTEROIDS, coupled with IMMUNOSUPPRESSANT treatment, usually curtail the disorder. Recovery occurs in about 50 per cent of cases.... polyarteritis nodosa

Radial Nerve

This NERVE arises from the BRACHIAL plexus in the axilla. At ?rst descending posteriorly and then anteriorly, it ends just above the elbow by dividing into the super?cial radial and interosseous nerves. It supplies motor function to the muscles which extend the arm, wrist, and some ?ngers, and supplies sensation to parts of the posterior and lateral aspects of the arm, forearm and hand.... radial nerve

Retrobulbar Neuritis

In?ammation of the optic nerve behind (rather than within) the EYE. It usually occurs in young adults and presents with a rapid deterioration in vision over a few hours. Colour vision is also impaired. Usually vision recovers over a few weeks, but colour vision may be permanently lost. It can be associated with certain viral illnesses and with MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS (MS). (See also EYE, DISORDERS OF.)... retrobulbar neuritis

Sacral Nerves

These are five pairs of CNS nerves that exit through the sacral foramen and sacral hiatus, and bring information in and out of the spinal cord. Much of their function relates to the sciatic nerve, and they bring information in from the skin sensory zones (dermatomes) of the heel, back of the legs, buttocks, and the pelvic floor.... sacral nerves

Sinoatrial Node

This is the natural pacemaker of the HEART, and comprises a collection of specialised muscle cells in the wall of the upper chamber (atrium) of the heart. The cells initiate electrical impulses at a rate of up to 100 a minute. These impulses stimulate the muscles of the heart to contract. The rate is altered by the effects of certain hormones and various impulses from the nervous system. Damage or disease of the node affects the regular beating of the heart. (See also CARDIAC PACEMAKER.)... sinoatrial node

Sympathetic Nervous System

Part of the AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM. It consists of scattered collections of grey matter known as ganglia, united by an irregular network of nerve-?bres; those portions where the ganglia are placed most closely and where the network of ?bres is especially dense being known as plexuses. The chief part of the sympathetic system consists of two ganglionated cords that run through the neck, chest, and abdomen, lying close in front of the spine. In conjunction with the other part of the autonomic nervous system – the parasympathetic – this part controls many of the body’s involuntary activities involving glands, organs and other tissues. (For further details, see NERVOUS SYSTEM.)... sympathetic nervous system

Trochlear Nerve

The fourth cranial nerve (arising from the BRAIN), which acts upon the superior oblique muscle of the EYE.... trochlear nerve

Ulnar Nerve

A major NERVE in the arm, it runs from the brachial plexus to the hand. The nerve controls the muscles that move the ?ngers and thumb and conveys sensation from the ?fth and part of the fourth and from the adjacent palm. Muscle weakness and numbness in the areas supplied by the nerve is usually caused by pressure from an abnormal outgrowth from the epicondyle at the bottom of the humerus (upper-arm bone).... ulnar nerve

Vagus Nerve

Also called the pneumogastric nerve, this is the tenth cranial nerve, with many fibers leading to parasympathetic ganglia in internal organs, and can be considered the presynapse starter for the upper parts of the parasympathetic functions.... vagus nerve

Vestibulocochlear Nerve

The eighth cranial nerve. It consists of two sets of ?bres, which constitute two separate nerves. One is known as the vestibular nerve, which connects the semicircular canals and inner ear to the BRAIN and conveys information on posture and movement of the body; it is the nerve of equilibration or balance. The other is known as the cochlear nerve, which links the COCHLEA (organ that responds to sounds) with the brain and is the nerve of hearing. Disturbance of the former causes giddiness (VERTIGO), whilst disturbance of the latter causes DEAFNESS.... vestibulocochlear nerve

Trigeminal Nerve

The ?fth cranial nerve (arising from the BRAIN). It consists of three divisions: (1) the ophthalmic nerve, which is purely sensory in function, being distributed mainly over the forehead and front part of the scalp; (2) the maxillary nerve, which is also sensory and distributed to the skin of the cheek, the mucous membrane of the mouth and throat, and the upper teeth; and (3) the mandibular nerve, which is the nerve of sensation to the lower part of the face, the tongue and the lower teeth, as well as being the motor nerve to the muscles concerned in chewing. The trigeminal nerve is of special interest, owing to its liability to NEURALGIA – TRIGEMINAL NEURALGIA, or tic douloureux as it is also known, being the most painful form known.... trigeminal nerve


Epistaxis. Often Nature’s way of relieving high blood pressure.

Causes: high blood pressure, accident, anticoagulant drugs, infection, blood disorder. As many as fifty- four causes. Usually innocent, from ruptured small vessel on anterior part of the nasal septum. May be spontaneous in the elderly, in which case blood vessels may be strengthened by Nettle tea.

Teas. Marigold flowers, Ephedra, Nettles, Melilot, Yarrow, Shepherd’s Purse, Ladies Mantle, Tormentil. Decoction. Burdock root.

Tablets/capsules. Cranesbill. Goldenseal.

Powders. Alternatives. (1) Cinnamon. (2) Bayberry. (3) Cranesbill. Half a teaspoon in milk or honey. External. Instil juice of Houseleek into nostril. Soak cotton wool in Witch Hazel and plug nostril. Pound fresh Nettles to a pulp in pestal and mortar and instil the juice or pulp. Beth root powder. Artichoke. Soak cotton wool in Cider vinegar and plug nostril. Other astringents, as available. See: ASTRINGENTS. Cold compresses to back of neck. ... nosebleed

Abducent Nerve

This is the sixth nerve rising from the brain and controls the external rectus muscle of the EYE, which turns the eye outwards. It is particularly liable to be paralysed in diseases of the nervous system, thus leading to an inward squint.... abducent nerve

Acanthosis Nigricans

Acanthosis nigricans is a darkly pigmented verrucous skin change, usually occurring around the neck and axilla. It may be inherited but is most commonly acquired, and is associated with adenocarcinoma – usually of the stomach (see CANCER) – and certain hormonal disorders

The group of arthropod insects that include the parasitic MITES and TICKS.... acanthosis nigricans

Amyl Nitrite

A volatile, oily liquid prepared by the action of nitric and nitrous acids on amyl alcohol. It was used for many years to treat angina but has been superseded by other nitrate drugs such as glyceril trinitrate. The substance is misused by drug abusers to produce a ‘high’ and is referred to as ‘poppers’.... amyl nitrite

Barrier Nursing

The nursing of a patient suffering from an infectious disease in such a way that the risk of their passing on the disease to others is reduced. Thus, precautions are taken to ensure that all infective matter – such as stools, urine, sputum, discharge from wounds, and anything that may be contaminated by such infective matter (e.g. nurses’ uniforms, bedding and towels) – is so treated that it will not convey the infection. (See NURSING.)... barrier nursing

Cardiac Neurosis

Obsessional fear about the state of the heart. It tends to occur after a heart attack and may result in the patient’s experiencing the symptoms of another attack.... cardiac neurosis

Community Nurses

A term that includes district nurses, health visitors, practice nurses and school nurses. While customarily based in a general practice or a health centre, they are independent health professionals contracted to the NHS (see NURSING).... community nurses


See SLEEP.... dreams

False Negative

A negative test result for a condition that is, in fact, present.... false negative


Gram’s Method is a staining procedure that separates bacteria into those that stain (positive) and those that don’t (negative). Gram-positive bugs cause such lovely things as scarlet fever, tetanus, and anthrax, while some of the gram negs can give you cholera, plague, and the clap. This is significant to the microbiologist and the pathologist; otherwise I wouldn’t worry. Still, knowing the specifics (toss in anaerobes and aerobes as well), you can impress real medical professionals with your knowledge of the secret, arcane language of medicine.... gram-positive/negative

Lacrimal Nerve

A branch of the ophthalmic nerve supplying the lacrimal gland and conjunctiva of the EYE.... lacrimal nerve

Linea Nigra

During pregnancy, the LINEA ALBA becomes pigmented and appears as a dark line down the middle of the belly, and is called the linea nigra.... linea nigra

Lymph Nodes

The central drainage and metabolic organs strung along the lymph vessels. The mesenchymal structure is native, being present at birth. The functional cells have all migrated there, some recently from the marrow, spleen, thymus or blood, others have resided since a few months after birth. Much of the antibody memory is stored in these nodes, and having only venous blood supply, lymph nodes are constantly shunting metabolized substances back into the blood, so the final lymph drainage from the thoracic duct into the left subclavian vein (or the right subclavian) contains fluid already screened and cleansed by many nodes.... lymph nodes

Medical Negligence

Under the strict legal de?nition, negligence must involve proving a clearly established duty of care which has been breached in a way that has resulted in injury or harm to the recipient of care. There does not need to be any malicious intention. Whether or not a particular injury can be attributed to medical negligence, or must simply be accepted as a reasonable risk of the particular treatment, depends upon an assessment of whether the doctor has fallen below the standard expected of practitioners in the particular specialty. A defence to such a claim is that a respected body of practitioners would have acted in the same way (even though the majority might not) and in doing so would have acted logically.... medical negligence

Motor Neurone Disease (mnd)

A group of disorders of unknown origin. Certain cells in the neurological system’s MOTOR nerves degenerate and die. Upper and lower motor neurones may be affected but sensory cells retain their normal functions. Three types of MND are identi?ed: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (AML – 50 per cent of patients); progressive muscular atrophy (25 per cent), in which the prognosis is better than for AML; and bulbar palsy (25 per cent). Men are affected more than women, and the disorder affects about seven people in every 100,000. Those affected develop progressive weakness and wasting of their muscles. The diagnosis is con?rmed with various tests including the measurement of electrical activity in muscles, electromyography, muscle BIOPSY, blood tests and X-ray examination of the spine. There is no medical treatment: patients need physical and psychological support with aids to help them overcome disabilities. The Motor Neurone Disease Association provides excellent advice and help for sufferers and their relatives. (See APPENDIX 2: ADDRESSES: SOURCES OF INFORMATION, ADVICE, SUPPORT AND SELF-HELP.)... motor neurone disease (mnd)


Baliospermum montanum


San: Danti;

Hin: Danti;

Mal: Danti, Nagadanti;

Tam: Nakatanti;

Tel: Nelajidi

Importance: Danti or Nagadanti is a stout undershrub with numerous flowers. Root, which is the officinal part, is used in abdominal pain, constipation, calculus, general anasarca, piles, helminthic manifestations, scabies, skin disorders, suppurative ulcers and diseases caused by the morbidity of kapha and pitta. Root paste is applied to painful swellings and piles. Leaves cure asthma and seeds are used in snakebite (Kurup et al, 1979; Sharma, 1983). The drug forms an important constituent of preparations like Dantyarishta, Dantiharitakileham, Kaisoraguggulu gulika, etc.(Sivarajan et al, 1994).

Distribution: The plant is found throughout the sub-Himalayan tracts from Kashmir to Khasi Hills. It is common in West Bengal, Bihar and Central and Peninsular India.

Botany: Baliospermum montanum (Willd.) Muell-Arg. syn. B. axillare Bl., B. polyandrum Wt. belongs to the family Euphrobiaceae. It is a stout under-shrub 0.9-1.8m in height with herbaceous branches from the roots. Leaves are simple, sinuate-toothed, upper ones small, lower ones large and sometimes palmately 3-5 lobed. Flowers are numerous, arranged in axillary racemes with male flowers above and a few females below. Fruits are capsules, 8-13mm long and obovoid. Seeds are ellipsoid smooth and mottled (Warrier et al,1993).

Agrotechnology: The tropical plant is suited to almost all soils. It can be cultivated either as pure crop or intercrop. It is propagated vegetatively by cuttings. About 15-20cm long rooted cuttings are used for planting. Pits of size 50cm cube are to be taken at 3m spacing and filled with dried cowdung, sand and top soil and formed into a mound. On these mounds, rooted cuttings are to be planted at 2 cuttings/mound. Cuttings establish within one month. Weeding is to be carried out at this time. Application of organic manure after every 6 months is beneficial. Irrigation during summer months is preferable. The plant is not attacked by any serious pests or diseases. Roots can be collected at the end of second year. The roots are to be cut and dried in sun before marketing. The yield is about one tonne root/ha (Prasad et al,1997).

Properties and activity: Roots contain diterpenes, baliospermin, montanin, phorbol-12-deoxy-13-O-palmitate, phorbol-12-deoxy-16-hydroxy-13-O-palmitate and phorbol-12-deoxy-5 -hydroxy-13 – myristate (Ogura et al, 1978). Alcoholic extract of plant showed hypotensive activity in experimental animals (Bhakuni et al, 1971). Antilukaemic and cytotoxic activities have been demonstrated in the esters of both 12-deoxyphorbol and 12-deoxy-16-hydroxyphorbol, isolated from B. montanum (King-horn, 1979). The roots are acrid, thermogenic, purgative, antiinflammatory, anodyne, digestive, anthelmintic, diuretic, diaphoretic, rubefacient, febrifuge and tonic. Seed is purgative, stimulant, rubefacient and antidote for snakebite. Seed oil is antirheumatic. Leaf is antiasthmatic and wound healing. Root and seed oil is cathartic and antidropsical. Stem is anti-dontalgic.... nagadanti


A drug that is an ANTAGONIST to narcotic substances (see NARCOTICS). Given orally, it is used in the maintenance treatment of HEROIN – and other opiate-dependent people.... naltrexone


A nanometre is a millionth of a millimetre. The approved abbreviation is nm. (See APPENDIX 6: MEASUREMENTS IN MEDICINE.)... nanometre

Nasal Congestion

The nose and nasal sinuses (see SINUS) produce up to a litre of MUCUS in 24 hours, most of which enters the stomach via the NASOPHARYNX. Changes in the nasal lining mucosa occur in response to changes in humidity and atmospheric temperature; these may cause severe congestion, as might an allergic reaction or nasal polyp.

Treatment Topical nasal decongestants include sodium chloride drops and corticosteroid nasal drops (for polyps). For commoncold-induced congestion, vapour inhalants, decongestant sprays and nasal drops, including EPHEDRINE drops, are helpful. Overuse of decongestants, however, can produce a rebound congestion, requiring more treatment and further congestion, a tiresome vicious circle. Allergic RHINITIS (in?ammation of the nasal mucosa) usually responds to ipratropium bromide spray.

Systemic nasal decongestants given by mouth are not always as e?ective as topical administrations but they do not cause rebound congestion. Pseudoephedrine hydrochoride is available over the counter, and most common-cold medicines contain anticongestant substances.... nasal congestion


The excretion of SODIUM in the URINE, particularly if the amount excreted is more than normal. An agent that causes this sodium excretion

– usually a diuretic (see DIURETICS) – is termed a natriuretic.... natriuresis

Needle-stick Injury

Accidental perforation of the skin by an injection needle, commonly of the hand or ?nger and usually by a nurse or doctor administering a therapeutic injection. The term also refers to accidental injuries from injection needles discarded by drug abusers. Dangerous infections such as viral HEPATITIS or HIV may be acquired from needle-stick injuries, and there are strict procedures about the disposal of used syringes and needles in medical settings.... needle-stick injury


An operation performed in the treatment of cataracts (see under EYE, DISORDERS OF), in which the anterior lens capsule of the EYE is torn open with a needle, allowing the aqueous ?uid to dissolve the opaque soft lens matter, which is gradually washed away into the bloodstream. This ‘extra-capsular extraction’ may need to be repeated several times before all the opaque lens matter disperses. Although a relatively simple procedure, it is unsuitable for patients over the age of 35 (when the nucleus of the lens becomes increasingly hard), and CRYOSURGERY and LASER therapy have become the preferred methods of treatment.

Needling is also used for certain minor dermatological procedures, such as removal of small facial cysts and scabies mites.... needling


Azadirachta indica


San: Nimbah, Prabhadrah Hin,

Ben: Nim, Nim Mal: Aryaveppu

Tel: Vepa Ori: Nimba

Tam: Vembu, Veppu Pun: Bakam,Bukhain

Guj: Limba

Kan: Bevu Mar: Limbu

Importance: Neem or margose tree, also known as Indian lilac is a highly exploited medicinal plant of Indian origin, widely grown and cultivated throughout India. Every part of the tree, namely root, bark, wood, twig, leaf, flower, fruit, seed, kernel and oil has been in use from time immemorial in the Ayurvedic and Unani systems of medicine. Nimbarishta, nimbadi churna and nimbharidra khand are well known preparations. It is valuable as an antiseptic, used in the treatment of small pox. Small twigs are used as tooth brushes and as a prophylactic for mouth and teeth complaints. Extract from the leaves are useful for sores, eczema and skin diseases. Boiled and smashed leaves serve as excellent antiseptic. Decoction of leaves is used for purifying blood. Neem oil is used in soaps, toothpaste and as a hair tonic to kill lice. Seed is used in snake bite. The fruits and leaves being renewable, provide sustainable returns. Different parts of the fruit are separated into components and each one produces derivatives of varying chemical nature and utility. Neem derivatives are now used in agriculture, public health, human and veterinary medicines, toiletries, cosmetics and livestock production. Applications as pesticides, allied agrochemicals, plant nutrients and adjuvants for improving nitrogen use efficiency are of much importance. Neem kernel suspension (1%) is a house hold insecticide. Pesticide formulations containing azadirachtin are now commercially available in India, USA, Canada, Australia and Germany. Neem cake is rich in N, P, K, Ca and S. Neem Meliacins like epinimbin and nimbidin are commercially exploited for the preparation of slow and extended release of nutrients including nitrification inhibitors (Eg. Nimin). Extracts of neem seed oil and bark check the activity of male reproductive cells and prevents sperm production. Neem seed oil is more effective than the bark for birth control. Neem based commercial products are also available for diabetes treatment (Nimbola, JK-22), contraceptive effect (Sensal, Nim-76) and mosquito/ insect repelling (Srivastava, 1989; Tewari, 1992; Parmer and Katkar, 1993; Pushpangadan et al, 1993; Mariappan, 1995).

Distribution: Neem is a native of the Siwalik deccan parts of South India. It grows wild in the dry forests of Andra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka. It has spread to Pakistan, Bangladesh , Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, Middle East Sudan and Niger. It is now grown in Australia, Africa, Fiji, Mauritious, Central and South America, the Carribeans, Puerto Rico and Haiti. The largest known plantation of nearly 50,000 trees is at Arafat plains en route to Mecca in Saudi Arabia for providing shade to Haj pilgrims (Ahmed, 1988).

Botany: The genus Azadirachta of family Meliaceae comprises two species: A. indica A. Juss syn. Melia azadirachta Linn. and A. excelsa (Jack) Jacobs syn. A. integrifolia Mers., the latter being found in Philippines, Sumatra, Malaya, Borneo and New Guinea. Neem is a hardy medium to large, mostly evergreen tree attaining 20m height and 2.5m girth. It has a short bole with wide spreading branches and glabrous twigs forming a round to oval crown. The bark is thick, dark-gray with numerous longitudinal furrows and transverse cracks. Leaves are imparipinnately compound, alternate, exstipulate and 20-38cm long. Inflorescence is long, slender, axillary or terminal panicle. Flowers are white or pale yellow, small, bisexual, pentamerous and bracteate. Stamens 10; filaments unite to form a moniliform tube. Gynoecium is tricarpellary and syncarpous, ovary superior, trilocular. Each carpel bears two collateral ovules on parietal placentation. Fruit is one seeded drupe with woody endocarp, greenish yellow when ripe. Seed ellipsoid, cotyledons thick fleshy and oily. Neem has chromosome number 2n = 28. Neem trees tend to become deciduous for a brief period in dry ecology. Ecotypes, exhibiting morphological variation in root growth, leaf size, contents, bole length , canopy, inflorescence, fruit bearing, seed size, shape and quality exist in natural populations.

Agrotechnology: Neem grows in tropical arid regions with high temperatures, altitudes between 50m and 1000m, as little rainfall as 130mm/yr and long stretches of drought. Well drained sunny hill places are ideal. It grows on most kinds of soils including dry, stony, shallow, nutrient deficient soils with scanty vegetation, moderately saline and alkali soils, black cotton, compact clays and laterite crusts. However, silty flats, clayey depressions and land prone to inundation are not conducive for its growth (Chaturvedi, 1993). Soil pH of 5.0 to 10.0 is ideal. It brings surface soil to neutral pH by its leaf litter. It has extensive and deeply penetrating root system capable of extracting moisture and nutrients even from highly leached poor sandy soils.

Neem propagates easily by seed without any pretreatment, though it can be regenerated by vegetative means like root and shoot cuttings. Seeds are collected from June to August. These remain viable for 3-5 weeks only which necessitates sowing within this short time. Seeds may be depulped and soaked in water for 6 hours before sowing. Seeds are sown on nursery beds at 15x5cm spacing, covered with rotten straw and irrigated. Germination takes 15-30 days. Seedlings can be transplanted after two months of growth onwards either to polybags or to mainfield. Neem can be grown along with agricultural crops like groundnut, bean, millets, sorghum and wheat. It is also suitable for planting in roadsides, for afforestation of wastelands and under agroforestry system. For field planting, pits of size 50-75 cm cube are dug 5-6m apart, filled with top soil and well rotten manure, formed into a heap, and seedling is planted at the centre of the heap. FYM is applied at 10-20 kg/plant every year. Chemical fertilizers are not generally applied. Irrigation and weeding are required during the first year for quick establishment.

More than 38 insect pests are reported on Neem which may become serious at times. The important ones are seed and flower insect (Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood), defoliators (Boarmia variegata Moore and Eurema sp.), sap suckers (Helopeltes antonii Signoret and Pulvinaria maxima Green) , root feeders (Hototrichia consanguinea Blanchard), mealy bug (Pseudococus gilbertensis), scale insect (Parlatoria orientalis) and a leaf webber (Loboschiza Koenigiana)(Beeson, 1941, Bhasin et al, 1958, Parmar, 1995). They can be controlled by the application of 0.01-0.02% monocrotophos or dimethoate. No serious diseases are reported in Neem. Flowering starts after 5 years. In India flowering is during January-May and fruits mature from May-August. The leaves are shed during February- March and a full grown tree produces about 350 kg dry leaves and 40-50 kg berries per annum. Fresh fruits give 60% dry fruits which yield 10% kernel which contains 45% fixed oil, on an average. After 10 years of growth the wood can be cut and used as timber.

Properties and Activity: Dry Neem leaves contain carbohydrates 47-51%, crude protein 14-19%, crude fiber 11-24%, fat 2-7%, ash 7-9%, Ca 0.8-2.5% and P 0.1-0.2%. Leaves also contain the flavanoid quercetin, nimbosterol (-sitosterol), kaempferol and myricetin. Seed and oil contains desacetylnimbin, azadirachtin (C35H44O16), nimbidol, meliantriol ,tannic acid, S and amino acids. Neem cake contain the highest sulphur content of 1.07% among all the oil cakes. Trunk bark contains nimbin 0.04%, nimbinin 0.001%, nimbidin 0.4%, nimbosterol 0.03%, essential oil 0.02%, tannins 6.0 %, margosine and desacetylnimbin (Atal and Kapur, 1982; Thakur et al 1989).

Neem bark is bitter, astringent, acrid, refrigerant, depurative, antiperiodic, vulnerary, demulcent, insecticidal, liver tonic, expectorant and anthelmintic. Leaves are bitter, astringent, acrid, depurative, antiseptic, ophthalmic, anthelmintic, alexeteric, appetizer, insecticidal, demulcent and refrigerant. Seed and oil are bitter, acrid, thermogenic, purgative, emollient, anodyne, anthelmintic depurative, vulnerary, uterine stimulant, urinary astringent, pesticidal and antimicrobial (Warrier et al, 1993).... neem


Negativism means a morbid tendency in a person to do the opposite of what he or she is desired or directed to do. It is especially characteristic of those suffering from SCHIZOPHRENIA, but is not uncommon in non-psychotic persons.... negativism


See MEDICAL NEGLIGENCE.... negligence


A roundworm. (See ASCARIASIS.)... nematode


Unsegmented worms having a gut and a body cavity (pseudocoel). Are round in transverse section. Many species are parasitic.... nematodes


The branch of PAEDIATRICS responsible for the medical care of newborn babies. Problems may be short term – for example, those linked to prematurity – or life-long such as CEREBRAL PALSY. After the ?rst few weeks of life, paediatricians take over the responsibility for any specialist medical care required, with general practitioners looking after the infants’ primary-care needs.... neonatology


Pain in the kidney... nephralgia


A condition in which CALCULI are present in the kidney.... nephrolithiasis


Surgical ?xation (to the 12th rib and posterior abdominal wall) of a mobile kidney; this prevents the kidney from descending in the abdomen when the affected person stands up.... nephropexy


The condition in which a kidney (see KIDNEYS) is mobile or ‘?oating’ instead of being ?xed to the back of the abdominal cavity.... nephroptosis


An endoscopic instrument for examining the inside of the kidney (see KIDNEYS). It is normally passed into the renal pelvis of the organ via a route from the surface of the skin. Instruments can be passed through the nephroscope under direct vision to remove CALCULI (stones) or break them up using ULTRASOUND.... nephroscope


Nephrotomy means the operation of cutting into the kidney (see KIDNEYS), in search of CALCULI or for other reasons.... nephrotomy

Nerve Cell

See NEURON(E).... nerve cell

Neural Tube

The structure in the EMBRYO from which the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD develop.... neural tube

Neural Tube Defects

Congenital abnormalities resulting from the failure of the NEURAL TUBE to form normally. The resulting conditions include SPINA BIFIDA, MENINGOCELE and defects in the bones of the SKULL.... neural tube defects


An operation in which part of a NERVE is excised: for example, for the relief of NEURALGIA.... neurectomy


The thin membranous covering which surrounds every nerve-?bre. (See NERVE.)... neurilemma


Sensations or conditions derived solely from the nervous system... neurogenic


The ?ne web of tissue and branching cells which supports the nerve-?bres and cells of the nervous system. (See NERVE.)... neuroglia

Neuromuscular Junction

The area where a motor NERVE ends close to the MUSCLE membrane so can initiate muscle contraction. The motor-nerve ending is separated from the motor end plate by the synaptic cleft which is only 50–70 nm wide. When a nerve impulse arrives at the motor-nerve ending, molecules of ACETYLCHOLINE are released which cross the synaptic cleft and attach to receptors on the motor end plate. This initiates depolarisation of the muscle which in turn initiates the process of contraction. Acetylcholinesterase (an ENZYME) rapidly breaks down the molecules of acetylcholine, thus ending their action and freeing the receptor in preparation for the next impulse.... neuromuscular junction

Neuropathic Bladder

A URINARY BLADDER with complete or partial loss of sensation. As there is no sensation of fullness, the individual either develops complete retention of URINE, or the bladder empties automatically – usually every few hours. The condition predisposes affected individuals to urinary-tract infections and back pressure on the KIDNEYS, leading to renal failure. It may be caused by spinal injury, SPINA BIFIDA or any disorder which produces NEUROPATHY.... neuropathic bladder


The branch of PATHOLOGY that covers the reasons for and consequences of disorders of the NERVOUS SYSTEM (see also NEUROLOGY).... neuropathology


A chemical substance that harms nervous tissue, causing symptoms of numbness or weakness of the body part supplied by the damaged NERVE. The venom of some snakes contains neurotoxic substances, and bacteria may produce neurotoxins: examples are those that cause DIPHTHERIA and TETANUS. Arsenic and lead are examples of inorganic neurotoxins.... neurotoxin


A reduction in the number of neutrophil LEUCOCYTES per cubic millimetre of circulating blood to a ?gure below that found in health. There is still some disagreement over the precise limits of normality, but a count of fewer than 1,500 per mm3 would be generally accepted as constituting neutropenia. Several infective diseases are characterised by neutropenia, including typhoid fever (see ENTERIC FEVER), INFLUENZA and MEASLES. It may also be induced by certain drugs, including chloramphenicol, the sulphonamides and chlorpromazine.... neutropenia


A site of infection within the body from which it can spread to other tissues.... nidus


Chemical compounds that have a valuable role in the treatment of ANGINA PECTORIS. They are very e?ective in dilating the ARTERIES supplying the HEART; their prime bene?t, however, is to reduce the return of venous blood to the heart (via the superior and inferior venae cavae), thus reducing the demands on the left ventricle, which pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs. Undesirable side-effects such as ?ushing, headache and postural HYPOTENSION may restrict the use of nitrates. Among the nitrate drugs used is GLYCERYL TRINITRATE which, taken under the tongue (sublingually), provides quick, symptomatic relief of angina, lasting for up to half an hour. Alternative administration can be via a spray product. Isorbide dinitrate taken sublingually is a more stable preparation, suitable for patients who need nitrates infrequently. The drug’s e?ect may last for 12 hours in modi?ed-release form. Patients taking long-acting nitrates or preparations absorbed through the skin (transdermal) may develop TOLERANCE.... nitrates



Normal Distribution

The symmetrical clustering of values around a central location. The properties of a normal distribution include: (1) it is a continuous, symmetrical distribution: both tails extend to infinity; (2) the arithmetic mean, mode and median are identical; and (3) its shape is completely determined by the mean and standard deviation.... normal distribution


The precursor of an erythrocyte (see ERYTHROCYTES; BLOOD) which still contains the remnant of a NUCLEUS.... normoblast


Having a BLOOD PRESSURE within the NORMAL range for an individual’s age and sex.... normotensive


One of the ANTIDEPRESSANT DRUGS; also a sedative.... nortriptyline

Nosocomial Infection

Infection pertaining to a hospital or an infirmary.... nosocomial infection


The term applied to scienti?c classi?cation of diseases.... nosology


See NOSE.... nostrils

Notifiable Disease

An infectious or other disease required to be notified to the relevant State Government Authorityfor entry onto the Notifiable Diseases Register.... notifiable disease




The Latin name for the back of the neck. (Adjective – nuchal.)... nucha


A molecule that is formed from a structural protein that is combined with nucleic acid, and generally found in cell nuclei and other proliferative points in cells. Upon cell death, nucleoproteins, unlike others, cannot be catabolized and recycled efficiently; instead, part of the protein is degraded to purines, and thence to uric acid. Uric acid, unlike urea, is an excretory dead end.... nucleoprotein

Null Hypothesis

The statistical hypothesis that one variable has no association with another variable or set of variables, or that two or more population distributions do not differ from one another. In simplest terms, the null hypothesis states that the results observed in a study, experiment or test are no different from what might have occurred by chance alone.... null hypothesis


The term applied to a woman who has never borne a child.... nullipara


An individual with advanced training in caring for the sick, aged or injured. A nurse may be defined as a professional qualified by education and authorized by law to practise nursing. There are many different types, specialties and grades of nurses. Those who specialize in care of older adults are often called geriatric or gerontological nurses.... nurse

Nursing Home

See “high dependency care facility”.... nursing home


Night blindness... nyctalopia

Parasympathetic Nervous System

That part of the AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM which is connected with the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD through certain nerve centres in the midbrain, medulla, and lower end of the cord. The nerves from these centres are carried in the third, seventh, ninth and tenth cranial nerves and the second, third and fourth sacral nerves. The action of the parasympathetic system is usually antagonistic to that of the sympathetic system. Thus it inhibits the action of the HEART and augments the action of the INTESTINE; whereas the sympathetic augments the action of the heart and inhibits that of the intestine. (See diagram of sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems under NERVOUS SYSTEM.)... parasympathetic nervous system

Periarteritis Nodosa

See POLYARTERITIS NODOSA.... periarteritis nodosa

Phrenic Nerve

The NERVE which chie?y supplies the DIAPHRAGM. A phrenic nerve arises on each side of the SPINAL CORD from the third, fourth and ?fth cervical spinal nerves; both follow a long course down the neck, and through the chest to the diaphragm. They play a key part in RESPIRATION through control of the diaphragm. Injury to one nerve paralyses one half of the diaphragm. Occasionally the phrenic nerve may be surgically crushed as part of the treatment to repair a HIATUS HERNIA or, rarely, to stop intractable hiccups.... phrenic nerve

Pudendal Nerve

The nerve that operates the lowest muscles of the ?oor of the PELVIS and also the anal SPHINCTER muscle. It may be damaged in childbirth, resulting in INCONTINENCE.... pudendal nerve


A condition in which the head is twisted to one side. It may be caused by the contraction of a scar, such as that resulting from a burn or by paralysis of some of the muscles; as a result of injury at birth; or trauma to the area later in life. Treatment is by an orthopaedic collar, heat or ULTRASOUND, or PHYSIOTHERAPY. Sometimes a local injection of BOTULISM toxin will produce temporary relief. Rarely, surgery is necessary. (See also MUSCLES, DISORDERS OF – Cramp; SPASMODIC TORTICOLLIS.)... wry-neck

West Nile Virus

A mosquito-borne viral infection that is normally harmless to healthy people who, if infected, develop a mild ?u-like illness. However, if the elderly and those in poor health, particularly immunocompromised patients, are infected, they may develop fatal in?ammation of the brain and spinal cord. In Israel in 2000, 12 people died and more than 155 survived an outbreak; and in New York in 1999, more than 60 people were infected, of whom six died. The disease was ?rst reported in Uganda in 1937 and became ENDEMIC in the Middle East and Africa, recently spreading to Europe, central Asia, Oceania and America. Mosquitoes bearing the ?aviviridae-family virus usually contract it by biting infected poultry, but the infection has been found in mammals, such as cats, dogs and horses.... west nile virus

Erythema Nodosum

Appearance of red oval nodules on the skin, later passing from red to brown. Onset sudden. Infection is usually streptococcal for which Myrrh and Goldenseal are specific. Non- infective. Lesions are preceded by sore throat. Stony-hard nodules break down to discharge pus. Symptoms: lesions mostly on shins and forearms; fatigue, aching joints and muscles, sometimes fever. Much physical activity stimulates out-cropping.

Tre atme nt. Bedrest where necessary. Treat underlying cause which may be ulcerative colitis, tuberculosis, toxicity from The Pill, drug reactions.

Alternatives:– Tea. Red Clover, Gotu Kola, Clivers. Combine. 1 heaped teaspoon to each cup boiling water; infuse 5-10 minutes; half-1 cup thrice daily.

Tablets/capsules. Blue Flag root, Devil’s Claw, Poke root, Seaweed and Sarsaparilla, Wild Yam. Formula. Burdock 1; Dandelion 2; Sarsaparilla 1. Dose – Powders: 500mg (two 00 capsules or one-third teaspoon). Liquid Extracts: 1 teaspoon. Tinctures: 2 teaspoons. Thrice daily in water.


Note: Erythema nodosum associated with Crohn’s disease, more frequently recognised in childhood. ... erythema nodosum

Accessory Nerve

The 11th cranial nerve. Unlike the other cranial nerves, most of the accessory nerve originates from the spinal cord. The small part of the nerve that originates from the brain supplies many muscles of the palate, pharynx (throat), and larynx (voice box). Damage to this part of the nerve may cause difficulty in speaking and swallowing. The spinal part of the nerve supplies large muscles of the neck and back, notably the sternomastoid and trapezius. Damage to the spinal fibres of the nerve paralyses these muscles.... accessory nerve

Acoustic Nerve

The part of the vestibulocochlear nerve (the 8th cranial nerve) that is concerned with hearing. It is also known as the auditory nerve.... acoustic nerve


A frightening dream. Night terrors in children.

Causes: excessive mental activity during the day, a heavy meal late in the evening, indigestion, obstruction of free blood return from the brain.

Teas: Alfalfa. English Herb Tea.

Dioscorides, and Pliny, both record: Paeony root. Prepare: 1 part powdered Paeony root mixed with 4 parts honey. 1-2 teaspoons to cup boiling water at bedtime.

France: traditional – Marjoram tea.

Dr Wooster Beach, USA. Cup Skullcap tea with honey and pinch of Cayenne on retiring.

Aromatherapy. Bedtime inhalation or anointing of forehead: oil of Frankincense. Nightly footbath. Practice relaxation at night before falling asleep. ... nightmare

Atrioventricular Node

A small knot of specialized muscle cells in the right atrium of the heart. Electrical impulses from the sinoatrial node pass through the atrioventricular node and along conducting fibres to the ventricles, causing them to contract.... atrioventricular node

Avascular Necrosis

The death of cells in body tissue caused by damage to blood vessels supplying the area.

aversion therapy An outdated form of behaviour therapy in which unpleasant stimuli, such as electric shocks, are administered at the same time as an unwanted behaviour in an attempt to alter behavioural patterns.... avascular necrosis

Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia

Also known as , abnormalities in the cells of the cervix which may become cancerous.

The grading system is used to distinguish levels of change in the surface cells of the cervix in biopsy samples taken during colposcopy, a procedure usually performed following an abnormal cervical smear test.

Grades 1–3 broadly correspond to mild to severe cervical dysplasia in cells obtained from a smear.... cervical intraepithelial neoplasia

Notifiable Diseases

Notifiable diseases under the Public Health (Control of Disease Act, 1984) are:–

Acute encephalitis, acute meningitis, acute poliomyelitis, anthrax, cholera, diphtheria, dysentery (amoebic and bacillary), food poisoning, infective jaundice, leprosy, leptospirosis, lassa fever, mumps, malaria, marburg disease, measles, German measles, ophthalmia neonatorum, paratyphoid fever, plague, rabies, relapsing fever, scarlet fever, smallpox, tetanus, tuberculosis, typhoid fever, typhus, viral haemorrhagic fever, whooping cough and yellow fever.

Six communicable diseases are internationally notifiable to the World Health Organisation: yellow fever, plague, cholera, smallpox, louse-borne relapsing fever, louse-borne typhus.

Notification has to be made to local and central Government authorities. Certain occupational diseases and all cases of cancer must be registered and notified.

It is required that the above diseases and certain others receive modern medical therapy in a hospital or treatment under the supervision of a qualified physician. Failure to conform may expose a practitioner, registered or unregistered, to a charge of negligence. ... notifiable diseases


Myristica fragrans, Houtt. German: Muskatnussbaum. French: Miscadier. Spanish: Nuez Moscado. Italian: Noce moscato. Arabian: Jour-ut-tib. Indian: Jaephal. Iranian: Jowz bo?yah. Chinese: Jou-tou-kou. Part used: dried kernels. Constituents: volatile oil.

Action: prostaglandin inhibitor, anti-diarrhoeal, anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, sedative, diaphoretic, brain stimulant, carminative, aromatic (oil), digestive stimulant.

Uses: children’s diarrhoea, dysentery, colic, nausea, vomiting, to promote acid content of gastric juice. Claimed to dissolve gall-stones. Nervous stomach, throbbing headache caused by stress, palpitation.

Relief of muscle tension back of neck.

“To comfort head and nerves.” (Dr Joseph Mill)

Preparations: Average dose, 0.3-1 gram or equivalent. Thrice daily, after meals. Grains obtained by rubbing a Nutmeg over a metal kitchen grater; may be taken in a beverage, honey, mashed banana, etc. Powder: Fill No 3 gelatin capsules; 1 capsule or 50mg.

Oil: an alternative for internal conditions. 1-2 drops daily.

Massage oil for rheumatic pains and to stimulate circulation: Nutmeg oil (1), Olive oil or Almond oil (10).

Home tincture: one freshly grated Nutmeg to macerate in half pint 60 per cent alcohol (Vodka, gin, etc) 7 days. Decant. Dose: 5-10 drops.

Avoid large doses. ... nutmeg


Insatiable desire for sex in women.

Indicated: Agnus Castus, Hops, Black Willow, Ladyslipper, (Albert Priest) Sweet Marjoram. Traditional: White Pond Lily (emblem of purity).

Chinese Barefoot medicine – Sage tea.

Teas. Agnus Castus, Hops, Sweet Marjoram.

Decoction. Black Willow bark.

Tablets/capsules. Agnus Castus, Black Willow.

Formula. Equal parts: Black Willow, Agnus Castus, Wild Lettuce. Dose: Liquid extracts: 2 teaspoons. Tinctures: 2-3 teaspoons. Powders: 750mg (three 00 capsules or half a teaspoon). Thrice daily.

Oregano (origanum vulgare). Spanish traditional. 5-20 drops tincture or 1 drop oil in honey between meals, thrice daily.

Home-tincture: handful Oregano steeped in bottle of white wine. ... nymphomania

Entrapment Neuropathy

A condition, such as carpal tunnel syndrome, in which local pressure on a nerve causes muscle pain, numbness, and weakness in the area that the nerve supplies.... entrapment neuropathy

Femoral Nerve

One of the main nerves of the leg. The nerve fibres making up the femoral nerve emerge from the lower spine and run down into the thigh, where they branch to supply the skin and quadriceps muscles.

Damage to the femoral nerve (which impairs the ability to straighten the knee) is usually caused by a slipped disc in the lumbar region of the spine (see disc prolapse). Damage may also result from a backward dislocation of the hip or a neuropathy.... femoral nerve

Glossopharyngeal Nerve

The ninth cranial nerve.

This nerve performs both sensory and motor functions.

It conveys sensations, especially taste, from the back of the tongue, regulates secretion of saliva by the parotid gland, and controls movement of the throat muscles.... glossopharyngeal nerve

Lymph Node

A small organ lying along the course of a lymphatic vessel (see lymphatic system); commonly but incorrectly called a lymph gland. Lymph nodes vary considerably in size, from microscopic to about 2.5 cm (1 in) in diameter.

A lymph node consists of a thin, fibrous outer capsule and an inner mass of lymphoid tissue. Penetrating the capsule are several small lymphatic vessels (whichcarry lymph into the node). Each node contains sinuses (spaces), in which the lymph is filtered. The flow of the lymph slows as it moves through narrow channels in the sinuses; this reduction in flow allows macrophages (white blood cells that engulf and destroy foreign and dead material) time to filter microorganisms from the lymph. Germinal centres in the lymph node release white blood cells called lymphocytes, which also help to fight infection. A single, larger vessel carries lymph out of the node.... lymph node

Motor Neuron Disease

A group of disorders in which there is degeneration of the nerves in the central nervous system that control muscular activity. This causes weakness and wasting of the muscles. The cause is unknown.

The most common type of motor neuron disease is amyotrophic lateral sclerosis ( or Lou Gehrig’s disease). It usually affects people over the age of 50 and is more common in men. Some cases run in families. Usually, symptoms start with weakness in the hands and arms or legs, and muscle wasting. There may be irregular muscle contractions, and muscle cramps or stiffness. All four extremities are soon affected.

Progressive muscular atrophy and progressive bulbar palsy both start with patterns of muscle weakness different from but usually develop into.There are 2 types of motor neuron disease that first appear in childhood or adolescence. In most cases, these conditions are inherited. Werdnig–Hoffman disease affects infants at birth or soon afterwards. In almost all cases, progressive muscle weakness leads to death within several years. Chronic spinal muscular atrophy begins in childhood or adolescence, causing progressive weakness but not always serious disability.

There are no specific tests for motor neuron disease. Diagnosis is based on careful clinical examination by a neurologist. Tests including EMG, muscle biopsy, blood tests, myelography, CT scanning, or MRI may be performed.

The disease typically goes on to affect the muscles involved in breathing and swallowing, leading to death within 2–4 years. However, about 10 per cent of sufferers survive for 10 years.

Nerve degeneration cannot be slowed down, but physiotherapy and the use of various aids may help to reduce disability. The drug riluzole is used to extend life (or the time until mechanical ventilation is required).... motor neuron disease


An aerosol device used to administer a drug in the form of a fine mist for inhalation through a face mask or mouthpiece.

Nebulizers are used to administer bronchodilator drugs, especially in the emergency treatment of asthma.... nebulizer

Necrotizing Fasciitis

A rare, serious infection of tissues beneath the skin by a type of streptococcal bacterium.

Necrotizing fasciitis is most likely to occur as a complication following surgery.

The initial symptoms are inflammation and blistering of the skin.

The infection spreads very rapidly, and the bacteria release enzymes and toxins that can cause extensive destruction of deeper tissues and damage internal organs.

Urgent treatment with antibiotic drugs and removal of all infected tissue are essential.

The infection is life-threatening.... necrotizing fasciitis

Nelson’s Syndrome

A rare disorder of the endocrine system that causes increased skin pigmentation. Nelson’s syndrome results from enlargement of the pituitary gland, which can follow removal of the adrenal glands (a treatment for Cushing’s syndrome).

Nelson’s syndrome is treated by hypophysectomy (removal or destruction of the pituitary gland).... nelson’s syndrome


The act of making up new words that have a special meaning for the inventor. The term also refers to the invented words themselves. Persistent neologism can be a feature of speech in people with schizophrenia.... neologism


A newly born infant, under the age of 1 month (see newborn).... neonate


Deposits of calcium within the tissue of 1 or both kidneys. Nephrocalcinosis is not the same as kidney stones (see calculus, urinary tract), in which calcium particles develop inside the drainage channels of the kidney. Nephrocalcinosis may occur in any condition in which the level of calcium in the blood is raised. It may also occur as a result of taking excessive amounts of certain antacid drugs or vitamin D. Treatment is of the underlying cause to prevent further calcification.... nephrocalcinosis


The surgical removal of a calculus (stone) from the kidney.

Nephrolithotomy may be performed through an abdominal incision, or via a puncture incision in the back. Large

calculi may need to be broken up before removal. Other methods of removal are pyelolithotomy and lithotripsy.... nephrolithotomy


Hardening of the arterioles and arteries of the kidney.... nephrosclerosis


A type of nerve injury in which the outward structure of a nerve appears intact, but some of the conducting fibres have been damaged or have degenerated and thus do not transmit signals normally.... neurapraxia


An itchy, eczema-like skin condition caused by repeated

scratching. (See also lichen simplex.)... neurodermatitis


The branch of medicine dealing with the relationship between psychiatric symptoms and neurological disorder.

This may include the effects of head injury and alcohol on the brain, or disorders such as brain tumours, infections, inherited illnesses, and disorders causing brain damage in childhood.... neuropsychiatry


An uncommon disorder that is inherited. Also called von Recklinghausen’s disease, neurofibromatosis is characterized by numerous neurofibromas (soft, fibrous swellings, varying significantly in size), which grow from nerves, and by café au lait spots (pale, coffee-coloured patches) on the skin, usually on the trunk and pelvis. If neurofibromas occur in the central nervous system, they may cause epilepsy and other complications. Neurofibromatosis can lead to bone deformities. Rarely, neurofibromas become cancerous.

Surgical removal of neurofibromas is necessary only if there are complications.

Anyone with this disorder, and parents of an affected child, should seek genetic counselling if planning a pregnancy.... neurofibromatosis


The term used to describe a nerve cell. A typical neuron consists of a cell body, several branching projections called dendrites, and a filamentous projection called an axon (also known as a nerve fibre). An axon branches at its end to form terminals through which electrical signals are transmitted to target cells. Most axons are coated with a layered insulating myelin sheath, which speeds the transmission of the signals. The myelin sheath is punctuated along its length by gaps called nodes of Ranvier, which help this process. Because the myelin sheath is nonconductive, ion exchange (depolarization) only occurs at a node, and signals leap from node to node along the length of the axon.

The nervous system contains billions of neurons, of which there are 3 main types: sensory neurons, which carry signals from sense receptors into the central nervous system (CNS); motor neurons, which carry signals from the CNS to muscles or glands; and interneurons, which form all the complex electrical circuitry within the CNS itself.

When a neuron transmits (“fires”) an electrical impulse, a chemical called a neurotransmitter is released from the axon terminals at synapses (junctions with other neurons). This neurotransmitter may make a muscle cell contract, cause an endocrine gland to release a hormone, or affect an adjacent neuron.

Different stimuli excite different types of neurons to fire. Sensory neurons, for example, may be excited by physical stimuli, such as cold or pressure. The activity of most neurons is controlled by the effects of neurotransmitters released from adjacent neurons. Certain neurotransmitters generate a sudden change in the balance of electrical potential inside and outside the cell (an “action potential”), which occurs at one point on the cell’s membrane and flows at high speed along it. Others stabilize neuronal membranes, preventing an action potential. Thus, the firing pattern of a neuron depends on the balance of excitatory and inhibitory influences acting on it.

If the cell body of a neuron is damaged or degenerates, the cell dies and is never replaced. A baby starts life with the maximum number of neurons, which decreases continuously thereafter.... neuron


Infection of the brain or spinal cord that occurs in untreated syphilis many years after initial infection.

Damage to the spinal cord due to neurosyphilis may cause tabes dorsalis, characterized by poor coordination of leg movements, urinary incontinence, and pains in the abdomen and limbs. Damage to the brain may cause dementia, muscle weakness, and, in rare cases, total paralysis of the limbs.... neurosyphilis


See vitamin B complex.... niacin


A potassium channel opener drug used in the prevention and longterm treatment of angina. Side effects, which include flushing, nausea, vomiting, and dizziness, are mainly due to nicorandil’s vasodilation effects and usually wear off with continued treatment. Rarely, mouth ulcers and muscle pain can occur.... nicorandil

Night Terror

A disorder, occurring mainly in children, that consists of abrupt arousals from sleep in a terrified state. Night terror (also called sleep terror) usually starts between the ages of 4 and 7, gradually disappearing in early adolescence.

Episodes occur during (nonrapid eye movement) sleep, usually half an hour to 3 and a half hours after falling asleep. Sufferers wake up screaming in a semiconscious state and remain frightened for some minutes. They do not recognize familiar faces or surroundings, and usually cannot be comforted. The sufferer gradually falls back to sleep and has no memory of the event the following day.

Night terror in children has no serious significance, but, in adults, is likely to be associated with an anxiety disorder.... night terror

Nitric Oxide

(NO) A gas that is produced both outside the body as a pollutant (for example, in car exhaust fumes), and inside the body, where it takes the form of a molecule that acts as a messenger between cells.

Nitric oxide causes blood vessels to dilate, affecting the flow of oxygenated blood and regulating blood pressure.

Overproduction of nitric oxide is associated with various disorders, including toxic shock, rheumatoid arthritis, and diabetes mellitus; underproduction may cause impotence and angina.

The control of nitric oxide is an important element of many drug treatments.... nitric oxide


A colourless, odourless gas that makes up 78 per cent of the Earth’s atmosphere. Although nitrogen gas cannot be utilized by the body, compounds of nitrogen, such as amino acids, are essential to life.... nitrogen

Nitrous Oxide

(NO) A colourless gas, sometimes called laughing gas. Nitrous oxide is used with oxygen to provide analgesia (pain relief) and light anaesthesia (see anaesthesia, general).

Adverse effects of nitrous oxide and oxygen may include nausea and vomiting during the recovery period.... nitrous oxide


An infection caused by a fungus-like bacterium present in soil. The infection, acquired through inhalation, usually starts in the lung and spreads via the bloodstream to the brain and tissues under the skin. Nocardiosis is rare except in people with immunodeficiency disorders or those already suffering from another serious disease.

The infection causes a pneumonia-like illness, with fever and cough.

It fails to respond to short-term, antibiotic treatment, and progressive lung damage occurs.

Brain abscesses may follow.

Treatment is with sulphonamide drugs, often in conjunction with other antibacterial drugs, for example trimethoprim.... nocardiosis


A small lump of tissue. A nodule may protrude from the skin’s surface or form deep under the skin. Nodules may be either hard or soft.... nodule

Nonaccidental Injury

See child abuse.... nonaccidental injury


A term used to describe any medical procedure that does not involve penetration of the skin or entry into the body through any of the natural openings.

Examples include CT scanning and echocardiography.

The term noninvasive is sometimes also applied to noncancerous tumours that do not spread throughout body tissues.... noninvasive


Abbreviation for nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.... nsaid

Oculomotor Nerve

The 3rd cranial nerve, controlling most of the muscles that move the eye. The oculomotor nerve also supplies the muscle that constricts the pupil, that which raises the upper eyelid, and the ciliary muscle, which focuses the eye. The nerve may be damaged due to a fracture to the base of the skull or a tumour. Symptoms include ptosis, squint, dilation of the pupil, inability to focus the eye, double vision, and slight protrusion of the eyeball. (See also trochlear nerve; abducent nerve.)... oculomotor nerve

Olfactory Nerve

The first cranial nerve, which conveys sensations of smell as nerve impulses from the nose to the brain. Each of the 2 olfactory nerves has receptors in the mucous membrane lining the nasal cavity. These receptors detect smells and send signals along nerve fibres, which pass through tiny holes in the roof of the nasal cavity and combine to form the olfactory bulbs. From here, nerve fibres come together to form the olfactory nerve, leading to the olfactory centre in the brain. Sense of smell may be lost or impaired due to damage to the olfactory nerves, usually as a result of head injury.... olfactory nerve

Ophthalmia Neonatorum

A type of eye inflammation and discharge (ophthalmitis) that occurs in newborn infants, usually as a result of infection with gonorrhoea or chlamydia at birth.

The infection is treated with antibiotic drugs.... ophthalmia neonatorum

Sciatic Nerve

The main nerve in each leg and the largest nerve in the body.The sciatic nerves are formed from nerve roots in the spinal cord.... sciatic nerve

Spider Naevus

A red, raised pinheadsized dot, from which small blood vessels radiate, due to a dilated minor artery and its connecting capillaries. Small numbers of spider naevi are common in children and pregnant women, but in larger numbers, they may indicate liver disease. (See also telangiectasia.)... spider naevus

Spinal Nerves

A set of 31 pairs of nerves that connect to the spinal cord. Spinal nerves emerge in 2 rows from either side of the spinal cord and leave the spine through gaps between adjacent vertebrae. The nerves then branch out to supply all parts of the trunk, arms, and legs with sensory and motor nerve fibres.

Disc prolapse may lead to pressure on a spinal nerve, causing pain. Injury to a nerve may lead to loss of sensation or movement in the area supplied by the nerve. (See also nerve injury; neuropathy.)... spinal nerves

Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation

See TENS.... transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation

Alfalfa Tea: A Nutritional Tea

Alfalfa tea is known for more than 2000 years and its benefits are shown by recent studies to be good in treating ailments such as kidney stones or arthritis. Alfalfa: the plant and the tea Alfalfa, literally meaning “the father of plants”, is also known as lucerne, holy-hay or trefoil. It has a high nutritional content, and is best known for possessing A, B, C, D, E and K vitamins. This plant has been originally used only as horse feed, but due to its nutritional benefits its usage has been extended to human consumption too. It proved to be a good soil fertilizer, especially a plant growth regulator. As part of the human diet, at first, it was used to promote appetite and stop bleeding, but further studies have revealed many other health benefits. Alfalfa tea is the beverage resulting from brewing the dried herbs. Brewing Alfalfa Tea To make Alfalfa tea:
  • take the dried leaves
  • soak them in boiling water
  • steep them for 10 to 15 minutes (depending on the quantity and flavor preferences)
Consumers described the taste of the resulting Alfalfa tea as refreshing and pleasant to drink. For medicinal purposes, it is advisable to have 5,000 to 10,000 mg of alfalfa leaves steeped three times a day. Another efficient way of intaking Alfalfa is through herbal supplements, like tablets or capsules. Alfalfa Tea benefits Alfalfa tea is successfully used to:
  • lower cholesterol levels
  • help keep calcium in bones and out of artery linings
  • help lower blood sugar levels
  • help in treatment of upset stomach
  • alleviate kidney and bladder woes
  • stimulate the immune system
  • purify the blood
  • carry intestinal waste out of the body
  • reduce cancer risks
Alfalfa Tea side effects Studies have shown that consuming Alfalfa tea, especially in high doses,could have side effects, such as: breaking down red blood cells, aggravating or even causing symptoms similar to systemic lupus erythematosus disease (SLE). The abovementioned tea is not recommended to pregnant or nursing women, and its administration is not advisable to children suffering from diabetes or autoimmune disease. Alfalfa tea is a modern cure for a large array of diseases. It is also largely used as cattle food, due to its nutritional content.... alfalfa tea: a nutritional tea

Anaphalis Neelgerriana


Family: Compositae; Asteraceae.

Habitat: The Nilgiri Hills at 2,1002,500 m.

Ayurvedic: Raktaskandana.

Folk: Kaatplaaster (Nilgiri hills).

Action: Antiseptic. Fresh leaves are bruised and applied to wounds and cuts as plaster.

An acyl flavonoid glycoside, ana- phaloside, along with isoquercitrin and astragalin, has been isolated from the flowers of a related sp. Anaphalis contorta, used as an antibacterial and styptic.... anaphalis neelgerriana

B Nosed. The Test For Brain-stem Death Are:

Fixed dilated pupils of the eyes



No cranial motor response to somatic (physical) stimulation

Absent gag and cough re?exes

No respiratory e?ort in response to APNOEA despite adequate concentrations of CARBON DIOXIDE in the arterial blood.... b nosed. the test for brain-stem death are:

Anthemis Nobilis


Synonym: Chamaemelum nobile (L.) Allioni.

Family: Asteraceae.

Habitat: The temperate regions of the Himalayas. Wild at several places.

English: Roman Chamomile, Double Chamomile.

Unani: Gul-e-Baabuuna.

Siddha/Tamil: Shimai chamantipu.

Action: Mild sedative, anticon- vulsant, antispasmodic, anti- inflammatory, mild analgesic; used externally for skin disorders, poultice of flowers in sprains and rheumatism.

Key application: Used mainly in France for mild spasmodic gastrointestinal disturbances and sluggishness of bowels, also for nervousness. (PDR.) (German Chamomile has been included by German Commission E among approved herbs, whereas Roman chamomile remains unapproved due to lack of clinical evidence.) The British Herbal Pharmacopoeia recognizes antispasmodic activity of Anthemis nobilis.

The flower heads contain volatile oil (including azulenes and bisabolol); sesquiterpene lactone (nobilin); flavo- noids, cyanogenic glycoside, bitter glu- coside (anthemic acid); acetylenic salicylic derivatives, coumarins (including scopolin), valerianic acid; tannins.

Azulenes and bisabolol are anti- inflammatory and antispasmodic, reducing histamine-induced reactions, including hay fever and asthma. Flavo- noids, especially anthemidin, are also antispasmodic. Valerianic acid and cyanogenic glycosides are sedative.

Flowers and root—abortifacient. Leaves—astringent. A decoction is used for gargling in stomatitis and aphthae.

Along with other therapeutic applications, The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India indicates the use of dried stembark in disorders of female genital tract and bleeding disorders.

The dried bark contains alkaloids, steroids, reducing sugars and also tannins (4.61%). The ether-soluble alkaloid of the bark shows antibacterial activity.

Dosage: Stembark—0.5-1.5 g powder. (API Vol. II.)... anthemis nobilis

Approved Names For Medicines

The term used for names devised or selected by the British Pharmacopoeia Commission for new drugs. European Union law (1992) requires the use of a Recommended International Non-proprietary Name (rINN) for medicinal substances. In most cases the British Approved Name (BAN) and rINN were the same when the legislation was introduced; where there were di?erences, the BAN was modi?ed to meet the new requirements.

Pharmaceutical manufacturers usually give proprietary (brand) names to the drugs they develop, though doctors in the NHS are expected to prescribe using approved – nonproprietary or generic – titles. Most nonproprietary titles are those in the European Pharmacopoeia, British Pharmacopoeia Commission or the British Pharmaceutical Codex. The USA has its own legislation and arrangements covering the naming and prescribing of medicines. (See PROPRIETARY NAME; GENERIC DRUG; PATENT.)... approved names for medicines

Asplenium Adiantum-nigrum


Family: Aspleniaceae.

Habitat: Kashmir at 1500-2000 m and extending to Dalhousie and Chamba in Himachal Pradesh.

English: Black Spleenwort.

Folk: Krishna fern.

Action: Fond—expectorant, pectoral, emmenagogue. Rhizome— anthelmintic. Plant—bitter, diuretic, laxative, anti-inflammatory. It is used for diseases of spleen and in jaundice; produces sterility in women.

The fonds contain aliphatic hydrocarbons, the chief one being hentri- acontane, non-acosane and triterpe- noid hydrocarbons, mainly of 22 (29)- hopene.

Alcohols, sterols and fatty acids are also reported.

Related sp. include: A. laciniatum D. Don (vitamin K3 and phthiocol have been isolated for the first time from the plant); A. adiantoides (L.) C. Chr., synonym A. falcatum Lam. (used in the treatment of enlarged spleen, in in- contenence of urine, in calculus, jaundice and malaria); A. nidus Linn. synonym Thamnopteris nidus (L.) C. Presl., known as Bird's Nest Fern (used as a depurative and sedative).... asplenium adiantum-nigrum

Black Nightshade

See Hierba mora.... black nightshade

British Approved Names (ban)

The o?cially approved name for a medicinal substance used in the UK. A 1992 European Union directive required the use of a Recommended International Non-proprietary Name (rINN) for these substances. Usually the BAN and rINN were identical; where there was a difference, the rINN nomenclature is now used. An exception is adrenaline, which remains the o?cial name in Europe with the rINN – epinephrine – being a synonym.... british approved names (ban)

Community Health Information Network (chin)

An integrated collection of computer and telecommunication capabilities that permit multiple providers, payers, employers and related health care entities within a geographic area to share and communicate client, clinical and payment information.... community health information network (chin)

Brassica Napus


Family: Cruciferae; Brassicaceae.

Habitat: Cultivated in Punjab, Bengal and Bihar.

English: Mustard, Indian Rape.

Ayurvedic: Krishna-Sarshapa, Raajakshavaka, Kattaka, Katus- neha, Tantubha, Siddhaartha, Siddhaarthaka, Siddhaartha-sita, Rakshogna. (White variety of Sarshapa is also equated with Siddhaartha. Asita and Rakta seed varieties are reddish; Gaur and Siddhaartha are whitish.)

Unani: Kaali Sarson.

Action: Emollient, diuretic, anticatarrhal.

The oil gave brassino steroid—brasi- nolide. Seeds gave a antithyroid compound, 5-vinyl-2-oxazolidinethone; thioglucosides and thioglucosinolates. The seed oil is said to dissolves gallstone.... brassica napus

Brassica Nigra

(Linn.) Koch.

Family: Cruciferae; Brassicaceae.

Habitat: Cultivated in Punjab, Uttar Pradesh and Tamil Nadu.

English: Black Mustard.

Ayurvedic: Banarasi Raai, Raajika (var.).

Unani: Khardal Siyah. Siddha/Tamil: Kadugu. Folk: Raai.

Action: Seeds are used for treating coryza with thin excoriating discharge with lacrimation, sneezing and hacking cough, nostril blockage and dry and hot feeling of pharyngitis.

The seeds contain glucosinolate sin- igrin, which produces allyl isothio- cyanate when mixed with warm water. Allyl isothiocynate acts as a counterir- ritant when diluted (1:50).

Brayera anthelmintica Kunth.

Synonym: Hagenia abyssinica (Bruce) J. F. Gmelin.

Family: Rosaceae.

Habitat: Indigenous to north-east Africa. Imported into Mumbai.

English: Cusso, Brayera.

Folk: Kusso.

Action: Anthelmintic. Administered in the form of an infusion for the expulsion of tapeworm (ineffective against hookworm, roundworm, whipworm). Irritant to mucous membrane; produces nausea, vomiting and colic in large doses.... brassica nigra

Cleavers Tea - Best Tonic For The Lymphatic System Available In Nature

Cleavers tea has been used for centuries, even in ancient Greece. It is considered probably the best tonic for the lymphatic system available. Discover all of its benefits and learn how to make the most of this type of tea. Description of Cleavers tea Cleavers is an annual green plant that grows mostly in Britain, North America and Eurasia regions. The green to white flowers look like small balls and they are very sticky, similar to the leaves. Scientifically named gallium aparine, cleavers is also called bedstraw, barweed, catchweed, grip grass. The entire cleavers plant is used in herbal medicine and is harvested just before it blooms in early summer. The active constituents of cleavers tea are chlorophyll, citric acide, rubichloric acid, galiosin and tannins. To benefit the most from these constituents, you can consume cleavers, usually found in the form of tea, extracts, capsule, or fresh for many cooking recipes. The roasted seeds are used as a coffee substitute and the young leaves can be eaten like spinach. Cleavers tea has a slightly bitter taste and no odor. Cleavers tea brew For a tasty Cleavers tea, take 2 to 3 teaspoons of the dried above-ground parts of the plant and infuse them in a 250 mg cup of hot water for 10 or 15 minutes. You may add sugar or honey to improve its taste and drink up to three times per day. Cleavers tea  Benefits Cleavers tea is a strong detoxifying for the lymphatic system. It is diuretic, thus treating most of urinary tract infections. It cleans the blood, the liver and kidneys. The tea can be used together with Uva Ursi or Echinacea for best results. Applied topically, Cleavers tea helps in the treatment of many skin conditions like acne, eczema, psoriasis, dandruff, itchy scalp, sunburns or even wounds. Cleavers tea can be used as a facial tonner because it helps clear the complexion. Cleavers tea Side effects Cleavers tea has no known side effects. Though it is widely safe, children, pregnant or nursing women should drink it with precaution. Cleavers tea can surely be included in a healthy lifestyle. As long as you don’t exaggerate with it, you can enjoy the benefits of this tea and even use the plant to prepare many tasty recipes and salads.... cleavers tea - best tonic for the lymphatic system available in nature

Concurrent Nonrandomized Control

A control group that is observed by investigators at the same time as the treatment group but that was not established using random assignment of participants to control and treatment groups. Differences in the composition of the treatment and control groups may result.... concurrent nonrandomized control

Council For Nursing And Midwifery

See APPENDIX 7: STATUTORY ORGANISATIONS.... council for nursing and midwifery

Deadly Nightshade

The popular name of Atropa belladonna, from which ATROPINE is procured. Its poisonous black berries are sometimes eaten by children.... deadly nightshade

Cocos Nucifera


Family: Palmae; Arecaceae.

Habitat: Cultivated chiefly in Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka.

English: Coconut Palm.

Ayurvedic: Naarikela, Naalikera, Laangali, Tunga, Skandhaphala, Sadaaphala, Trnaraaja, Kuurch- shirshaka.

Unani: Naarjeel, Naariyal.

Siddha/Tamil: Thenkai. Kopparai (kernel of ripe coconut).

Action: Water from tender fruit— cooling, used in thirst, fever, urinary disorders, gastroenteritis, and as a source of K for cholera patients. Fruit—stomachic, laxative, diuretic, styptic, sedative; useful in dyspepsia and burning sensation. Oil from endosperm—antiseptic; used in alopecia. Root—astringent; used in urinary and uterine and disorders.

Tender coconut water is rich in potassium and other minerals and vitamins. It contains reducing sugars 2.222.85%, total sugars 3.5-4.25%; brix 5.56.2%. It is used as a substitute for normal saline in cases of dehydration.

Alcoholic extract of coconut shell (2% in petroleum jelly, externally) was found very effective in dermatophyto- sis. Lighter fractions of the tar oil are used as antiseptics.

Flowers, mixed with oil, are applied to swellings, leaves to treat abscesses, shoots and ashes of dry meat to deep cuts, grated meat to burns, roots to wounds and gonorrhoea.

Shell and fibre—antimicrobial.

Dosage: Dried endosperm—10- 20 g powder. (API Vol. III.)... cocos nucifera

Commelina Nudiflora


Family: Commelinaceae.

Habitat: Throughout India.

Ayurvedic: Kanchata (var.).

Folk: Kenaa (vegetable) (Maharashtra).

Action: Antidermatosis. The plant is used as a blood purifier.

Commelina diffusa Burm f; C. paludosa Blume synonym C. obliqua Buch.- Ham. and C. salicifolia Roxb. are related species of Kanchata and are known as Kenaa vegetable.

Commiphora sp. (Burseraceae).

Refer to Balsamodendron sp.... commelina nudiflora

Crataeva Nurvala


Synonym: C. magna (Lour.) DC.

Family: Capparidaceae.

Habitat: Wild as well as cultivated in gardens all over India.

Ayurvedic: Varuna, Varana, Barnaa, Setu, Ashmarighna, Kumaarak, Tiktashaaka.

Unani: Baranaa.

Siddha/Tamil: Maavilingam.

Action: Bark—diuretic (finds application in urinary disorders, including urolithiasis, prostatic hypertrophy, neurogenic bladder and urinary infections; uterine and gastro-intestinal problems). Juice of the bark is given to women after childbirth. Extract of root bark, mixed with honey, is applied to scrofulous enlargements of glands. Whole plant powder—cholinergic in smooth muscles including urinary bladder.

Key application: As antiurolithiatic. (Indian Herbal Pharmacopoeia.)

The antiurolithic activity of the stem-bark is attributed to the presence of lupeol. Lupeol not only prevented the formation of vesical calculi, but also reduced the size of the preformed stones in the kidneys of calculogenic rats. It also reversed the biochemical parameters in urine, blood and serum towards normal.

The stem bark also exhibit anti- inflammatory activity, and is reported to stimulate bile secretion, appetite and bowel movement.

Dosage: Stem bark—20-30 g for decoction. (API Vol. I.)... crataeva nurvala

Cymbopogon Nardus

(Linn.) Rendle.

Synonym: Andropogon nardus Linn.

Family: Poaceae.

Habitat: Mainly in South India; cultivated to a small extent in warmer parts of India.

English: Ceylon Citronella Grass.

Ayurvedic: Jambir-trn (var.).

Siddha/Tamil: Kamachipillu.

Action: Leaf—stomachic, carminative, spasmolytic, mild astringent. Essential oil—stimulant, carminative, diaphoretic, rubefacient, antiseptic, antibacterial, antifungal, larvicidal.

Lemongrass and lemongrass oil preparations are used almost exclusively in combinations for disorders and discomforts of gastrointestinal tract, muscle pain and neuralgia, colds, various nervous disturbances and for conditions of exhaustion.

Major constituents of the essential oil are: citronellal 31.6, neral 28.6, cit- ronellol 10.6, elemicine 7.3, geranyl acetate 4.6, elemol 3.7, limonene 3.2 and isopulegol 2.7%.

Citronella oil is also used as an insect repellent.... cymbopogon nardus

Evolvulus Nummularius


Family: Convolvulaceae.

Habitat: A weed of grassy lawns.

Ayurvedic: Aakhukarni, Muusaakarni (substitute for Merremia emarginata (Burm. f.) Hallier f., synonym Ipomoea reniformis Choisy).

Folk: Muusaakaani, Chhinipatra (Bihar).

Action: Weak sedative, anthelmintic.... evolvulus nummularius

Elderberry Tea - A Natural Flu Fighter

Elderberry tea is commonly known as a remedy for flu or cold. This miraculous shrub has many other benefits for your health and can be used in many forms even for wines or sweets. About Elderberry tea Originally native to Europe and Western Africa, elderberry is a bush with white flowers and clusters of berries that are purplish to black in color. The best type of elderberry is considered to be the sambucus nigra, because it is truly the only safe type. Other types can be poisonous (especially stems and leaves) so be careful when you pick it yourself or when you buy it from stores. The elderberry flowers and fruits are usually used to prepare teas, wine, jams, pies and syrups and are sometimes used as flavoring for soft drinks. The elderberry plant is also sometimes used as an ornamental plant. Elderberry tea is rich in vitamin C and has high levels of flavonoids, anthocyanin, sambucin, sambunigrin and potassium nitrate, along with sugars. Only dried white flowers are used to prepare the tea which has a delicate tasty flavor. How to prepare Elderberry tea For a delicious cup of Elderberry tea, take 3 teaspoons of dried flowers and combine them with a cup of boiling water. Let them steep for approximately 10 minutes. Cool, strain and enjoy it afterwards. The same procedure must be followed if you use teabags, but use only 1. Drink it up to three times a day to treat flu or other respiratory conditions. If you add honey, its benefits will be doubled. Benefits of Elderberry tea Elderberry tea has lots of benefits especially when it comes to flu or fever. It helps relieving respiratory conditions caused by a buildup of mucus or phlegm, such as colds, bronchitis, and asthma problems. It clears the system out, lowers fever and eases flu symptoms. Elderberry tea also acts as an antioxidant protecting the body against aging free radicals thanks to the flavonoids contained. It has also a detoxifying effect helping the liver and kidneys to process and remove toxins from the body. Elderberry tea may help in the treatment of various types of allergies. Elderberry tea may be helpful in the quick recovery of patients with eruptive diseases caused by viruses like measles and chicken pox. It is also recommended in the treatment of arthritic and rheumatic pain. Side effects of Elderberry tea Although Elderberry tea is considered generally safe, it can occasionally generate  some side effects like gastrointestinal upset. Please keep in mind that it is always a good idea to ask your physician’s opinion before taking this tea if you are pregnant or breastfeeding. As you can see, Elderberry tea has many benefits for your health and as long as you have chosen the right type and you do not exceed 3 cups a day you can drink it with no worries.... elderberry tea - a natural flu fighter

Eulophia Nuda


Family: Orchidaceae.

Habitat: Tropical Himalayas from Nepal eastward to Assam, and in Deccan from Konkan southwards.

Ayurvedic: Baalakanda, Amarkan- da, Maalaakanda.

Folk: Ambarkanda (Maharashtra).

Action: Tubers—used for bronchitis, diseases due to vitiated blood, tumours, scrofulous glands. Also used as vermifuge.

The tubers yield two phenanthrene derivatives, eulophiol and nudol, along with n-hexacosyl alcohol and lupeol.... eulophia nuda

Euphorbia Neriifolia

Auct. Non Linn.

Synonym: E. ligularia Roxb.

Family: Euphorbiaceae.

Habitat: Grown as a field and boundary fence and as curious on rockeries in gardens.

English: Holy Milk Hedge, Dog's Tongue.

Ayurvedic: Snuhi, Samant-dugdhaa, Sehunda, Singhtunda, Snuk, Gudaa, Sudhaa, Vajra, Vajjri, Vajjradram, Thuuhar.

Siddha/Tamil: Ielaikkali, Perumbu- kalli.

Action: Latex—purgative, diuretic, antiasthmatic, expectorant, rube- facient. Used in ascites, polyuria, anasarca, chlorosis, tympanitis; externally on warts, cutaneous eruptions, scabies, unhealthy ulcers.

A succus compounded of equal parts of the juice and simple syrup is said to be used for giving relief in asthma.

The triterpenoids, euphol, 24-meth- ylenecycloartenol, euphorbol hexa- cosonate, glut-5 (10)-en-1-one, glut-5- en-3 beta-yet-acetate, taraxerol, friede- lan-3 alpha-ol and -3 beta-ol have been reported from the plant.... euphorbia neriifolia

Fat Necrosis

In injury to, or in?ammation of, the PANCREAS, the fat-splitting enzyme in it may escape into the abdominal cavity, causing death of fat-containing cells.... fat necrosis


(Korean) Of the sky... ha-neul


A splitting of the skin (cuticle) at the side of a ?ngernail. In manual workers it is usually caused by trauma, but ISCHAEMIA of the ?ngers (see also RAYNAUD’S DISEASE) may predispose to the condition. Secondary infection and in?ammation may make hang-nail a very tender condition; treatment consists of reducing trauma, and the use of EMOLLIENTS and ANTIBIOTICS if necessary.... hang-nail

Heberden’s Nodes

Small hard knobs which appear at the sides of the last phalanges of the ?ngers in people who have OSTEOARTHRITIS.... heberden’s nodes

Euphorbia Nivulia


Family: Euphorbiaceae.

Habitat: Northern and central India, often planted in dry areas.Ayurvedic: Snuhi (substitute), Patra-Snuhi.Siddha/Tamil: Kalli, Naga-kalli.

Action: Latex—used for treating jaundice, dropsy, enlargement of liver and spleen; colic; syphilis, leprosy; applied to haemorrhoids. Coagulated latex is used for bronchitis. Leaf—juice is used as a purgative. Warmed in mustard oil, applied in cold and headache.The latex gave cycloart-25-en-3 beta-ol, and cyclolaudenol; stem contained cyclolaudenol and sitosterol; leaves gave sitosterol. (None of these triterpenes have been reported from E. neriifolia.) These triterpenes exhibited antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and E. coli.

... euphorbia nivulia

Geranium Nepalense


Synonym: G. affine W. & A.

Family: Geraniaceae.

Habitat: Temperate Himalayas, Kashmir, Khasi Hills and the Nilgiris.

English: Nepal Geranium, Nepalese Crane's Bill.

Ayurvedic: Bhanda, Bhandaa.

Folk: Ratanjot (var.), Roel (Kashmir).

Action: Astringent, styptic, used in renal diseases, diarrhoea, internal and external bleeding. Also used topically for ulcers and haemorrhoids.

The plant gave geraniin, kaempferol- 7-rhamnoside and kaempferitrin. The leaves gave tannins.

EtOH (50%) extract of the plant exhibited hypotensive activity.

A gastrointestinal-contracting cho- line-like substance has been isolated from var. thumbergii and is found useful for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders such as gastroptosis.... geranium nepalense

Idiopathic Facial Nerve Palsy

See BELL’S PALSY.... idiopathic facial nerve palsy

Inguinal Nodes

Lymph nodes in the groin, next to the genitalia... inguinal nodes

Integrated Delivery System / Integrated Services Network (isn)

A network of organizations, usually including hospitals and medical practitioner groups, that provides or arranges to provide a coordinated continuum of services to a defined population and is held both clinically and financially accountable for the outcomes in the populations served.... integrated delivery system / integrated services network (isn)

Interim Nursing Home Care

Care provided in geriatric centres and acute hospitals to older persons who are in need of limited medical care and who are awaiting nursing home placement.... interim nursing home care

Iris Nepalensis

D. Don.

Family: Iridaceae.

Habitat: Temperate Himalaya and in Khasi Hills.

Ayurvedic: Paarseeka Vachaa.

Folk: Sosan, Shoti, Chalnundar, Chiluchi.

Action: Deobstruent (in bilious obstructions), diuretic, cathartic. Used in diseases of the liver.

The plant contains an isoflavone, irisolidone. Rhizomes contain iriso- lone and irigenin.... iris nepalensis

Kuntscher Nail

A surgical nail inserted into the medulla of a fractured bone to ?xate it. First introduced by a 20th-century German surgeon.... kuntscher nail

Hedera Nepalensis


Synonym: H. helix auct. non Linn. H. himalaica Tobler.

Family: Araliaceae.

Habitat: The Himalayas; from Kashmir to Bhutan at 1,5002,000 m and Assam at 1,3502,000 m.

English: Nepal Ivy.

Folk: Baandaa, Bandaa, Lablab.

Action: Leaves and berries— cathartic, diaphoretic, febrifuge, antispasmodic, expectorant. Used in whooping cough. Leaves— used in glandular enlargements. A decoction of the leaves is used topically to destroy lice in the hair. An infusion of berries is given in rheumatism. Gum— emmenagogue.

The inflorescences contain beta- amyrin, beta-sitosterol and its D-glu- coside, oleanolic acid, triterpene gly- cosides, nepalins. Nepalins 1,2 and 3 at 0.5, 0.25 and 0.125% respectively completely immobilize human sperm.

Plant extract exhibited antitumour activity in vivo and in vitro against Ehrich ascites.... hedera nepalensis

Helleborus Niger


Family: Ranunculaceae.

Habitat: Native to sub-alpine woods in Southern and Eastern Europe. Grown in Indian gardens.

English: Black Hellebore, Christmas Rose.

Ayurvedic: Khuraasaani Kutaki.

Unani: Kharbaq Siyah, Kutaki.

Action: Digitalis-like action in cardiac disorders, drastic purgative, abortifacient, diuretic, local anaesthetic, narcotic.

The rhizome contains cardiac glycosides; helleborin, helleborein, hellebrin and others based on helleborigenin.

Helleborin has a burning, acrid taste and is narcotic. Helleborein has a sweetish taste and is a highly active cardiac poison. Helleborin and veratrin (steroidal saponins), helle- brin or helleborein (steroid glycoside) are main constituents of the root and leaves. The plant irritates mucous membranes.

A related species, Helleborus virdis Linn. (Bear's Foot, Green Hellebore) is known as Kaali Kutaki and Krishna- bhedi. The plant contains magno- florine and corytuberine. The roots and rhizomes gave hellebrin, desgluco- hellebrin, hellebrigenin, bufatetraeno- lide, beta-ecdysterone and 5beta-hy- droxyecdysterone.... helleborus niger

Hyoscyamus Niger


Habitat: Native to Europe and Asia. Occurs in the temperate Himalayas from Kashmir to Garhwal.

English: Indian Henbane, Black Henbane.

Ayurvedic: Paarsika-yavaani, Yavaani, Madkaarini, Turushkaa, Khuraashaanikaa, Khuraasaani Ajwaayin.

Unani: Barz-ul-Banj, Khuraasaani Ajwaayin.

Siddha/Tamil: Paarseekayavani, Khurasani Omam.

Action: Sedative. Narcotic drug. Used for convulsions. Action similar to Belladonna.

Key application: In spasms of gastrointestinal tract. (German Commission E, The British Herbal Pharmacopoeia.)

The leaves and flowering tops contain tropane alkaloids, 0.045-00.14%, the principal ones being hyoscyamine and hyoscine. The alkaloids are para- sympatholytic, with similar actions to Belladonna, although with less cerebral excitement.

The seeds show inhibitory activity against digestive enzyme, lipase in vitro.

Contraindicated in tachycardias, prostatic hyperplasia, narrow-angle glaucoma, acute pulmonary oedema, stenosis of gastrointestinal tract, maga colon.

Dosage: Seed—3-5 g powder. (CCRAS.)... hyoscyamus niger

Laurus Nobilis


Family: Lauraceae.

Habitat: Native to the Mediterranean region; cultivated throughout India.

English: Laurel, Sweet Bay.

Unani: Habb-ul-Ghaar, Daphni.

Action: Leaves—mild sedative, gastric tonic, cholagogue, diaphoretic, antiseptic, antifungal. Used as a gargle against sore throat. Oil—used externally for rheumatism and in hair dressings for dandruff. Berry— emmenagogue, antileucorrhoeic, antidiarrhoeal.

Fresh leaves from Lahore (Pakistan) gave an essential oil (0.3-0.36%) with, 1,8-cineole 42.2, eugenol 16.4, sabinene 6.5, alpha terpineol 1.6, alpha-pinene 3.4, methyl eugenol 2.4 and terpinolene 1.9%. Major components of Greek and Russian oils were 1,8-cineole followed by alpha-terpinyl acetate.

The fruit from Kumaon region gave an essential oil (5%), including among others, 1,8-cineol (28.4), methyl cinna- mate (20.1), alpha phellandrene (10.1) and alpha-pinene (9.3%).

The leaves contain sesquiterpene lactones and isoquinoline alkaloids. Ethanolic extract of leaves produces a significant decrease in blood glucose level of diabetic rabbits. It contains amylase inhibitors which can supress sugar metabolism and can be used as an antiobesity agent for pet animals.

The leaf extract has been used as an antidandruff solution.... laurus nobilis

Limnanthemum Nymphaeoides

Hoffm. & Link.

Synonym: Nymphoides peltata (Gmel.) O. Kuntze.

Family: Menyanthaceae.

Habitat: Kashmir.

English: Fringed Water-Lily.

Folk: Kuru, Khairposh (Punjab).

Action: Leaf—used in periodic headache.... limnanthemum nymphaeoides

Lindera Nessiana


Family: Lauraceae.

Habitat: Temperate Himalayas from Nepal eastwards at 1,800-2,400 m, and in Assam.

Folk: Gandha-daaru (Bengal), Siltimur (Nepal).

Action: Carminative.

The plant is reported to yield sassafras, which is substituted for the true sassafras from Cinnamomum glan- duliferum Meissn.

The seeds yield a fatty oil (60.7%). It gave methyl esters : methyl laurate 75.2, methyl caprate 13.3, methyl oleate 5.4, methyl myristate 2.4, and methyl- palmitate 0.5%.... lindera nessiana

Lippia Nodiflora


Synonym: Phyla nodiflora (Linn.) Greene.

Family: Verbenaceae.

Habitat: Throughout India, in wet places and river banks.

English: Wild sage.

Ayurvedic: Jalapippali, Shaaradi, Shakulaadani, Jalakarnaa, Matsya- gandhaa. Laangali (now equated with Gloriosa superba).

Unani: Bukkum Booti.

Siddha/Tamil: Paduthalai.

Action: Plant—cooling, febrifuge, diuretic. Poultice used as maturant for boils. Leaves—an infusion is given to women after delivery.

An alcoholic extract of the leaves shows antibacterial activity against E. coli. The leaf juice enters into hair oils for alopecia areata.

Aerial parts are reported to contain flavonoids, flavone aglycones and flavone sulphates.

Dosage: Whole plant—10-20 ml juice. (CCRAS.)... lippia nodiflora

Lobelia Nicotianaefolia


Family: Campanulaceae; Lobeli- aceae.

Habitat: Deccan, Konkan and Western Ghats, at altitudes of 9002,100 m.

English: Wild Tobacco.

Ayurvedic: Devanala, Nala (var.).

Siddha/Tamil: Kattuppugaiyilai, Upperichedi.

Action: Used as a substitute for Lobelia inflata.

An analysis of Lobelia nicotianae- folia, grown in Maharashtra, shows that the plant contains appreciable quantities of nor-lobelanine and small amounts of lobinine and minor bases.

Lobelia cardinalis Linn., Cardinal Flower, is cultivated in Indian gardens. It contains lobinaline as main alkaloid. Lobinaline depresses blood pressure but has no influence on respiration. L. erinus Linn. and L. succulenta Blume, synonym L. affinis Wall. also contain alkaloids with lobinaline 0.445%.

Lobelia cordigera Cav., synonym L. fulgens Willd., an ornamental Lobelia sp., grown in Indian gardens, contains inulin.

Lobelia pyramidalis Wall. (Himalayas from Kumaon eastwards to Sikkim and Assam at altitudes of900-2,700 m) contains 0.29-0.38% alkaloids as lobeline, and may be used as a substitute for Lobelia inflata.... lobelia nicotianaefolia

Maba Nigrescens

Dalz. & Gibs.

Family: Ebenaceae.

Habitat: Gujarat.

Folk: Ragat-Rohido (Gujarat), Rakta-Rohido.

Action: Used for diseases of liver and spleen. In folk medicine, as a substitute for Rakta-Rohitaka. (Rohitaka is equated with Tecomel- lia undulata Seem., synonym Tecoma undulata G. Don, Bignoni- aceae.)

In Gujarat, Polygonum glabrum Willd. (Polygonaceae) and Myristica attenuta Wall., synonym Knema atten- uata (Wall.) Warb. (Myristicaceae) are also known as Rakta Rohido, and are used for diseases of liver and spleen.

In Mumbai, Rhamnus wightii Wight & Arn. (Rhamnaceae) is known as Rakta-Rohidaa. The bark is used as astringent and deobstruent.

Folk: Phulwaaraa, Maakhaniaa Mahuaa.

Action: Fat used as ointment in rheumatism, for chapped hands and feet during winter.

The flowers contain beta-amyrin acetate, friedelin, erythrodiol monopal- mitate, beta—sitosterol and apha-spi- nasterol. The seeds contain triterpe- noid saponins, butyroside C and buty- roside D. A triterpenoidal sapogenin, butyraceol, has been isolated from the seed. The leaves contain butyracic acid. Defatted seed flour contains 10.4% saponins.

Administration of acute dose of saponins to albino rats caused severe diarrhoea and histopathological changes in liver and kidney and altered, particularly in female rats, levels of serum alkaline phosphatase, cholesterol and proteins.... maba nigrescens

Mucocutaneous Lymph Nodesyndrome

See KAWASAKI DISEASE.... mucocutaneous lymph nodesyndrome

Murdannia Nudiflora

(L.) Brenan.

Synonym: Aneilema nudiflorum (L.) Wall.

Family: Commelinaceae.

Habitat: Throughout India, in moist and marshy places; common in West Bengal.

Ayurvedic: Koshapushpi.

Folk: Kanshura.

Action: Plant—used in burns, boils and sores.... murdannia nudiflora


(Hebrew) Feminine form of Noam; an attractive woman; good-looking Naamah... naama


(Hebrew) A young woman; a girl; in the Bible, one of Ashur’s wives Naarai, Naarae... naarah


(Hebrew) A lovely and pleasant woman

Naavah, Nava, Navah, Navit... naava


(Arabic) One who is intelligent Nabeeha, Nabyha, Nabihah, Nabeehah, Nabyhah, Nabeaha, Nabeahah... nabiha


(Arabic) Daughter born into nobility; a highborn daughter Nabilah, Nabeela, Nabyla, Nabeelah, Nabylah, Nabeala, Nabealah... nabila

Mahonia Napalensis


Synonym: Berberis nepalensis Spreng (in part).

Family: Berberidaceae.

Habitat: Temperate Himalayas from Garhwal to Bhutan at 1,3502,700 m. and in Khasi Hills.

English: Holly Leaved Berberry.

Folk: Chhatri (Nepal), Haldia (Garhwal).

Action: Used as Berberis. Anti- prolific, antipsoriatic, alterative, demulcent, diuretic, antidysenteric.

The plant gave tertiary aporphines, berberine and jatrorrhizine.... mahonia napalensis

Morus Nigra


Family: Moraceae.

Habitat: Native to West Asia; cultivated in Kashmir, also grown in Darjeeling.

English: Black Mulberry.

Unani: Tuut Siyaah.

Action: Berries and root bark— mild laxative and used in the treatment of respiratory catarrh. Berries—refrigerant, given during convalescence.

The fruit contains invert sugar, pectin, fruit acids (including malic and citric acid), ascorbic acid, and fla- vonoids (including rutin). Leaves contain flavonoids, including rutin (26%). Root bark contains calcium malate; the bark of branches contains tannins, phlobaphenes, a sugar, a phy- tosterol, ceryl alcohol, fatty acids and phosphoric acid.

An infusion of leaves causes a drop in blood sugar, sometimes diuresis and a reduction in arterial pressure. It shows no effect on glucosuria.

Morus acidosa Griff., M. australis Poir and Morus indica L. have also been equated with Tuut Siyaah of Unani medicine.... morus nigra

Myrica Nagi

Hook. f. non-Thunb.

Synonym: M. esculenta Buch.-Ham ex Don.

Family: Myricaceae.

Habitat: Subtropical Himalayas from the Ravi eastwards at 9002,100 m.

English: Box Myrtle.

Ayurvedic: Katphala, Kushb- hikaa, Shriparnikaa, Mahaavalkal, Bhadraa, Bhadravati.

Unani: Kaayaphal.

Siddha/Tamil: Marudam.

Action: Bark—carminative, antiseptic. Used in fever, cough and asthma; also as a snuff in catarrh with headache. Fruit wax— used externally for ulcers. Fruit— pectoral, sedative.

The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia ofIn- dia recommends the stem bark and fruit in anaemia and polyuria.

The stembarkgave myricanol, a pro- anthocyanidin. The root bark yielded beta-sitosterol, taraxerol and myricadi- ol. The stem bark exhibited analgesic, spasmolytic, hypotensive and antiar- rhythmic activity.

Dosage: Fruit—3-5 g, stem bark— 3-5 g. (API, Vol. III.)... myrica nagi


A CANNABIS-related drug given by mouth and licensed for use in treating severe nausea and vomiting, particularly when they result from treatment with anticancer drugs.... nabilone


(Egyptian) One who gives birth to twins Naberye... nabirye


(Spanish) A fiery young woman Nacheene, Nachyne, Nachina, Nachinah, Nachyna, Nacheena, Nacheane, Nacheana... nachine


(Arabic) A very generous woman Naddah, Nada, Nadah... nadda


(French) Form of Bernadette, meaning “one who has bearlike strength and courage”

Nadette, Nadett, Nadet, Nadete, Nadeta... nadetta


(Arabic) A flourishing woman; one who is precious

Nadhirah, Naadhira, Nadheera, Nadhyra, Nadhiera, Nadheira, Nadhera, Naadhirah, Nadheerah, Nadhyrah, Nadhierah, Nadheirah, Nadherah, Nadheara... nadhira


(Slavic) One who is full of hope Nadja, Nadya, Naadiya, Nadine, Nadie, Nadiyah, Nadea, Nadija, Nadka, Nadenka, Nadezhda, Nadusha, Nadiah, Nadeen, Nadeene, Nadean, Nadyne, Nadien, Nadin, Nadene, Nadina, Nadena, Nadyna, Nadyn, Nadeana, Nadeane, Nadeena, Naydene, Naydeen, Naydin, Naydyn, Naidene, Naidine, Naidyne, Naideen, Naydine, Nadezda, Nadiya, Nadjae, Nadjah, Nads, Nadyenka, Nadyuiska, Nadzia, Naiya, Naia, Naiyana, Naya, Nadege, Natia... nadia


(African) One who is born between the seasons

Nadifah, Nadeefa, Nadyfa, Nadeefah, Nadyfah, Nadeafa, Nadeafah... nadifa


(Arabic) One who is precious; rare Nadira, Nadyra, Nadyrah, Nadeera, Nadeerah, Nadra, Nadrah... nadirah


(Arabic) One who gives wise counsel

Nadwa... nadwah


(Egyptian) A kind and benevolent woman

Nayma, Nayima, Nayema... naeemah


(Latin) In mythology, the goddess of funerals

Naenie, Naeni, Naeny, Naeney, Naenee, Naenea, Naeniah... naenia


(French) Born in the evening Naevah, Naevia, Naevea, Nayva, Nayvah, Nayvia, Nayvea... naeva


(Arabic) As precious as a gem Nafeesa, Nafeeza, Nafisah, Nafeesah, Nafeezah, Nafysa, Nafysah, Nafeasa, Nafeasah... nafisa


(African) A child who is delivered feetfirst

Nafunah, Nafunna, Nafoona, Nafoonah, Naphuna, Naphunah, Naphoona, Naphoonah, Nafouna, Naphouna... nafuna


(African) Born during the time of harvest Nagesah, Nagessa, Nagessah ... nagesa


(Hebrew) A radiant woman... nagge


(Hebrew) A wealthy woman Nagidah, Nagyda, Nagydah, Negida, Negidah, Negyda, Negydah, Nageeda, Nageedah, Negeeda, Negeedah, Nageada, Nageadah... nagida


(Arabic) As precious as a pearl Nageena, Naginah, Nageenah, Nagyna, Nagynah, Nageana, Nageanah... nagina


(Basque) One who is greatly desired Nahiah, Nahea, Naheah, Nahiya, Nahiyah... nahia


(Persian) One who is elevated; in mythology, the goddess of love Naaheed, Naheed, Naheede, Nahyde, Nahyd, Nahead, Naheade... nahid


(Greek) A water nymph Naiadia, Naidah, Nyad, Nayad, Naiad, Nyada, Nayada, Niadah, Naeda, Naedah... naida


(Arabic) Feminine form of Nail; a successful woman; the acquirer Na’ila, Na’ilah, Naa’ilah, Naila, Nayla, Naylah, Naela, Naelah... nailah


(African / Arabic) A contented woman / one who brings comfort and peace

Na’ima, Na’imah, Naimah, Nayma, Naymah, Naeema, Naeemah, Naema, Naemah... naima


(Native American) A woman with big eyes

Nairah, Nayra, Nayrah, Naera, Naerah... naira


(Armenian) From the mountainous land

Nairie, Nairy, Nairey, Nairee, Nairea... nairi


(Scottish) From the alder-tree river Naime, Nairnia, Nairnea, Naerna, Nayrna... nairna


(African) Woman from the capital of Kenya

Nairobie, Nairoby, Nairobey, Nairobee, Nayrobi, Nayrobie, Nayroby, Nayrobey, Nayrobee, Nairobea, Nayrobea... nairobi

Nairobi Eye

An acute inflammation of the eye resulting from an irritant secreted by beetles of the genus Paederus, getting onto the eye.... nairobi eye


(Arabic) A starlike woman Naja, Najah, Najama, Najma... najam


(Arabic) An independent woman; one who is free Naajia... najia


(Arabic) An intellectually superior woman; born into the nobility Najibah, Najeeba, Najeebah, Najyba, Najybah, Najeaba, Najeabah... najiba

Nails, Diseases Of

Disease may affect the nail fold, nail plate or nail bed (see SKIN – Nail). In?ammation of the nail fold is called paronychia: acute paronychia is usually caused by a minor injury allowing in bacteria, which set up infection; chronic paronychia is often an occupational hazard, due to constant exposure of the hands to water – for example, in the catering industry, agriculture and housework – but may also be caused by impaired circulation in the ?ngers. Often, ANTIBIOTICS are su?cient for treatment, but sometimes surgical incision is needed.

PSORIASIS is a common cause of disease of the nail plate, as are eczema (see DERMATITIS) and fungal infection (see FUNGAL AND YEAST INFECTIONS). Deformity of the nail may point to systemic disease, as in CLUBBING, or the spoon-shaped concave nails (koilonychia) of severe iron de?ciency. Acute toxic illnesses may temporarily disturb nail growth causing horizontal ridges (Beau’s lines) which grow out slowly.

Onycholysis is separation of the nail plate from its bed. It may be due to psoriasis of the nail bed and trauma, or may occur spontaneously. Gross thickening of nails is common in the toes, caused by psoriasis or fungal infection.... nails, diseases of


(Arabic) A woman with shining eyes Najilah, Najyla, Najylah, Najla, Najlah, Nagla, Naglah, Najeela, Najeelah, Najeala, Najealah... najila


(African) The second-born child Najjah... najja


(Arabic) One who is beneficial to others

Najjiyyah, Najiyah, Najiya... najjiyya


(Arabic) A secretve woman Nagwa, Najwah, Nagwah... najwa


(Arabic) A victorious woman Najyah... najya


(American) Form of Keisha, meaning “the favorite child” Nakeesha, Nakysha, Nakeasha, Nakiesha, Nakeysha, Narkeasha... nakeisha


(African) The firstborn daughter Nakie, Naky, Nakey, Nakee, Nakye... naki


(Arabic) One who is pure; chaste Nakiah, Nakea, Nakeah, Nakya, Nakyah, Nakiya, Nakiyah, Nakeya, Nakeyah, Nakiaya, Nakiea, Nakeyia... nakia


(African / Latin) A successful woman / of the olive tree

Nalah, Nalla, Nallah, Nalia, Nalea... nala


(Hawaiian) A calmness of the skies; heaven’s calm

Nalanie, Nalany, Nalaney, Nalany, Nalanee, Nalaneigh, Nalanea, Nalania, Nalanya, Nallely... nalani


(African) A future wife Naliakah, Nalyaka, Naliacca, Naliacka, Nalyacka... naliaka


(Indian) Resembling the lotus flower Naline, Naleen, Nalyne, Nalyn, Nalen... nalin


(Sanskrit) A beautiful and lovely woman

Nalinie, Naliny, Naliney, Nalinee, Nalyni, Nalynie, Nalynee, Nalinea... nalini


(African) A lovable daughter... nalo


Nalorphine reduces or abolishes most of the actions of MORPHINE and similarly acting NARCOTICS, such as PETHIDINE HYDROCHLORIDE. It was used as an antidote in the treatment of overdosage with these drugs but has now been superseded by NALOXONE.... nalorphine


(Japanese) Woman of the waves Namie, Namee, Namy, Namey, Namika, Namiko, Namea... nami


(Native American) A star dancer Namide, Namyd, Namyde... namid


(Papuan) In mythology, a mother goddess

Namitah, Nameeta, Namyta, Nameetah, Namytah, Nameata, Nameatah... namita


(Hawaiian / English) Born during the spring; a star / a grandmother or one who watches over children... nana


(English) Form of Ann, meaning “a woman graced with God’s favor” Nainsey, Nainsi, Nance, Nancee, Nancey, Nanci, Nancie, Nancsi, Nanice, Nann, Nanncey, Nanncy, Nannie, Nanny, Nansee, Nansey, Ninacska, Nin, Ninockha, Nancea, Nansea... nancy


(Indian) One who is full of joy Nandah, Nandia, Nandea... nanda


(Australian) A fiery woman Nandaliah, Nandalea, Nandaleah, Nandali, Nandalie, Nandalei, Nandalee, Nandaleigh, Nandaly, Nandaley, Nandalya... nandalia


(Hindi) In Hinduism, a divine cow who can grant wishes Nandinie, Nandiny, Nandiney, Nandinee, Nandinea... nandini


(Indian) A delightful daughter Nanditah, Nanditia, Nanditea... nandita


(French) Form of Anna, meaning “a woman graced with God’s favor” Nanine, Nannette, Nettie, Netty, Nanetta, Nanete, Naneta, Nanelia, Nanna, Nette, Ninette, Nynette... nanette


(African) Born during travel Nangilah, Nangyla, Nangeela, Nangylah, Nangeelah... nangila


(Greek / Hawaiian) A charming woman / one who is beautiful Nanie, Nanee, Naney, Nany, Nania, Nanya, Naniya, Nanea, Naniah, Naneah, Naniyah... nani


A unit used in electronmicroscopy and virology. 1 nm = 1 thousandth of a um.... nanometer


(French) Form of Ann, meaning “a woman graced with God’s favor” Nanone, Nanona, Nanonia, Nanonea, Nanonya, Ninon, Ninone, Ninona, Ninonia, Ninonea, Ninonya, Ninan... nanon


(Japanese) An obediant daughter... naoko


(Hebrew / Japanese) One who is pleasant / a beauty above all others Naoma, Naomia, Naomie, Nayomi, Naomee, Neoma, Neomi, Noami, Noemi, Noemie, Noemi, Noemie, Nohemi, Naomy, Naomey, Naomea... naomi


(Hawaiian) Young woman of the flowers... napua


(Arabic) A strong leader Naqeeba, Naqyba, Naqibah, Naqeebah, Naqybah... naqiba


(English) A contented woman Narah, Narra, Narrah, Nareen, Nareene, Nareena, Nareane, Nareana... nara

Naranja Agria

Bitter orange (Citrus aurantium).

Plant Part Used: Leaf, fruit.

Dominican Medicinal Uses: Leaves: decoction, orally, common cold, flu, headache; poultice or salve, externally, for headache, sinusitis. Fruit: juice, decoction, for diarrhea.

Safety: Considered safe if used appropriately.

Clinical Data: Human clinical trial: antifungal (essential oil).

Laboratory & Preclinical Data: In vitro: antioxidant (constituent), insecticidal (fruit peel extract), relaxant (essential oil).

* See entry for Naranja agria in “Part 3: Dominican Medicinal Plant Profiles” of this book for more information, including references.... naranja agria

Naravelia Zeylanica

(Linn.) DC.

Family: Ranunculaceae.

Habitat: The tropical forests of eastern Himalayas, Assam, Bengal, Bihar, Deccan Peninsula.

Ayurvedic: Dhanavalli (Kerala), Chhagul-bati (Bengal).

Siddha/Tamil: Vathomkolli, Neen- davalli.

Action: Astringent, antiinflammatory, vulnerary, anthelmintic. Used for colic, headache, inflammations, rheumatic pain, wounds and ulcers, intestinal worms, leprosy and skin diseases. Saps of stem—effective in onychia.... naravelia zeylanica


(Greek) Resembling a daffodil; self-love; in mythology, a youth who fell in love with his reflection Narcisa, Narcisse, Narkissa, Narcissah, Narcisah, Narcessa, Narcissus, Narcyssa, Narcysa, Nargis, Nargiss, Nargys, Naryss, Nargisse, Nargysse... narcissa

Narcissus Tazetta


Family: Amaryllidaceae.

Habitat: All over Europe. Grown in Indian gardens.

English: Narcissus, Daffodil, Lent Lily.

Unani: Nargis.

Action: Bulbs—powerfully emetic, diuretic, purgative. Poisonous. Oil is applied for curing baldness.

The bulbs are imported into India. Dried and sliced bulbs are sold as a substitute for bitter hermodactyls.

Alkaloids, lycorine, pseudolycorine, galanthamine, haemanthamine and narcisine, have been isolated from the bulbs of the species. The alkaloid nar- cisine is toxic.

The mucilage, narcissus T-gluco- mannan, isolated from the bulbs, was found to exhibit significant hypogly- caemic activity in mice.... narcissus tazetta


Substances that induce stupor and eventually UNCONSCIOUSNESS. Used in the relief of severe pain, people can become ?rst tolerant of them – so requiring larger doses – and then dependent (see also ANALGESICS; HYPNOTICS; TOLERANCE; DEPENDENCE).... narcotics


(Latin) One who is fragrantly anointed

Nardah, Nardia, Nardea, Nardiya, Nardya... narda

Nardostachys Jatamansi


Synonym: N. grandiflora DC.

Family: Valerianaceae.

Habitat: Alpine Himalayas, Kumaon, Sikkim and Bhutan.

English: Spikenard, Musk-root.

Ayurvedic: Maansi, Jataamaansi, Bhuutajataa, Tapaswini, Sulo- mashaa, Jatilaa, Naladaa.

Unani: Sumbul-e-Hindi, Sambul-ut- Teeb, Naardeen-e-Hindi, Baalchhar.

Siddha/Tamil: Sadamanchil.

Action: Used as a substitute for Valerian. Tranquilizer, sedative, hypotensive. Used for the treatment of epilepsy, hysteria, convulsive affections, palpitation of heart and in intestinal colic. A decoction of powdered roots is prescribed as a home remedy for high blood pressure. It is used in dysmenorrhoea for pain relief and smooth menstrual flow. It is used in hair oil for arresting hair loss and greying of hair.

The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India recommends dry rhizomes in obstinate skin diseases, erysipelas, disturbed mental state and insomnia.

The rhizome is rich in sesquiter- penoids. The crude drug gave an oil (yield 2.5% v/w), which contains d- nardostachone, valeranone and jata- mansone as the major ketonic sesqui- terpenes. The oil potentiated phenobarbital narcosis in rats, reduced brain serotonin content and decreased the conditioned avoidance performance in cats.

Jatamansone was shown to exert tranquilizing effect in mice and monkeys. In rabbits, jatamansone was found to impair biosynthesis of serotonin in the brain leading to a reduction in brain level of 5-hydroxytrypta- mine. The degradation of serotonin was unaffected. The mode of action of jatamansone was thus in variance with that of reserpine which has direct action on the cell to liberate serotonin.

On the other hand, the alcoholic extract of the roots of Indian Nard caused an overall increase in the levels of central monamines, 5-hydroxy indole acetic acid and the inhibitory amino acids, gamma-aminobutyric acid, norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonin in rat brain.

In a clinical trial on hyperkinetic children, jatamansone showed significant reduction in hyperactivity and improvement in restlessness and aggressiveness, almost at par with D- amphetamine.

The volatile oil was found to be less active than quinidine in several tests. It did not counteract digitalis induced ventricular arrhythmias.

Jatamansone semicarbazone, a sesquiterpene ketone, was found to possess antiestrogenic activity.

N. jatamansi is also used in place of Muraa (Selinum tenuifolium Wall. ex DC.)

Dosage: Root—2-3 g powder; 5-10 g for infusion; 50-100 ml infusion. (API, Vol. I; CCRAS.)... nardostachys jatamansi


(Greek) A bright woman; intelligent Narellah, Narela, Narelah, Narelle, Narell, Narele... narella

Naregamia Alata

Wight & Arn.

Family: Meliaceae.

Habitat: Western Ghats of Tamil Nadu and Karnataka, up to 1,000 m.

English: Goanese Ipecacuanha.

Folk: Nilanaaringa, Bhumi- Naagaranga. Pitta-vela, Tinpaani (Maharashtra).

Action: Root—emetic, cholagogue, expectorant, antidysenteric; plant— antirheumatic; leaf and stem— antibilious.

Creeping roots possess properties similar to ipecacuanha (Cephaelis ipecacuanha).

The plant is used in prescriptions for malarial and chronic fevers, anaemia and enlarged spleen.

The root and stem gave heneicosane, beta-sitosterol, stearic and palmitic acids.... naregamia alata


(Japanese) A gentle child Nari... nariko


(Indian) Woman of the river Narmadah, Narmadia, Narmadea... narmada


(Native American) Resembling an owl... nascha


(Latin) In mythology, goddess of childbirth... nascio


(African) Born during the season of rain

Nashaly, Nashalee, Nashaley, Nashalia, Nashalea, Nashaleigh, Nashalie, Nashali... nasha


(Arabic) A lively woman; one who is energetic

Nashitah, Nashyta, Nasheeta, Nasheata, Nashieta, Nasheita... nashita


(Native American) The second- born of twins

Nashotah, Nashotta, Nashottah... nashota


(Arabic) One who provides a feeling of ecstasy Nashwah... nashwa


(Arabic) Feminine form of Nasib; one who is noble

Naseeba, Nasyba, Nasibah, Nasybah, Naseebah, Naseaba, Naseabah... nasiba


(Arabic) One who gives good advice Naasiha, Nasihah, Naseeha, Naseehah, Nasyha, Nasyhah, Naseaha, Naseahah... nasiha


(Arabic) As gentle as a breeze Naasima, Nasimah, Naseema, Naseemah, Nasyma, Nasymah, Naseama, Naseamah... nasima


(Arabic) One who is victorious; a helper

Naasira, Nasirah, Naseera, Naseerah, Nasyra, Nasyrah, Naseara, Nasearah... nasira


Inflation of the nose... nasitis


(Native American) Filled with music

Nasnane, Nasnana, Nasnann, Nasnanne, Nasnanna... nasnan


(Greek) Form of Anastasia, meaning “one who shall rise again” Nastassia, Nastassija, Nastassja, Nastassiya, Nastassya, Nastasiya, Nastunye, Nastya... nastasia


(Hebrew) A miracle child of God Nasyah, Nasiya, Nasiyah, Nasia, Nasiah, Naysa... nasya


(Latin) A strong swimmer... nata


(Latin) Born on Christmas Day; refers to Christ’s birthday Natala, Natalee, Natalene, Natalia, Natalja, Natalina, Nataline, Nataly, Nataliya, Natalya, Natelie, Nately, Nathalee, Nathalia, Nathalie, Nathaliely, Nathalija, Nathaly, Natilie, Natividad, Nattilie, Nattie, Nettie, Nat, Natuche, Nadalia, Nadalie, Nasia, Natille, Natica, Natalea, Nathalea... natalie


(Hebrew) Feminine form of Nathan; a gift from God Natanah, Natania, Natanna, Nataniela, Nataniella, Natanielle, Nataniele, Nataniya, Natanya, Natanyah, Nathaniella, Nathanielle, Netanela, Netanella, Netania, Netanya, Nethania, Nathania... natana


(Native American) Her father’s daughter Natanne... natane


(Russian) Form of Natalie, meaning “born on Christmas Day” Nastaliya, Nastalya, Natacha, Natascha, Natashenka, Natashia, Natasia, Natosha, Natucha, Natyashenka, Natasa, Nathacha, Nitca... natasha

Nasturtium Officinale

R. Br.

Synonym: Rorippa nasturtium- aquaticum (Linn.) Hayek.

Family: Cruciferae; Brassicaceae.

Habitat: Cultivated in Bengal, Orissa and Punjab.

English: Watercress.

Folk: Piriyaa-Haalim (Punjab), Latputiyaa (Maharashtra).

Action: Leaves—antiscorbutic, expectorant (used in catarrh of the respiratory organs), diuretic (used in kidney and bladder disorders), detoxifying. A lotion of leaves is applied to blotches, spots and blemishes. Fresh herb is used as a blood purifier.

Key application: For catarrh of respiratory tract. (German Commission E.)

Watercress contains vitamin A 4720 IU, ascorbic acid 77 mg/100 g, also thiamine, riboflavin, niacin and biotin; mineral matter 2.2%—calcium 290, phosphorus 140, iron 4.6 mg/100 g, also sulphur, iodine, manganese, zinc, arsenic and copper; proteins 2.9%, amino acid composition includes leucine, phenylalanine, valine, lysine, tyrosine, alanine, threonine, glutamic acid, serine, aspartic acid, cystine, methionine sulphoxide and proline.

The glucosinolate phenethyl isothio- cyanate, which is released upon chewing the leaf, is a chemopreventive agent against lung cancer. (cited in Expanded Commission E Monographs.)

Watercress is contraindicated in gastric and duodenal ulcers and inflammatory kidney diseases. (Francis Brinker.)... nasturtium officinale


(Arabic) One who is pure; clean Nathifah, Nathipha, Nathiphah, Nathyfa, Nathyfah, Nathypha, Nathyphah, Nadhifa, Nadhyfa, Natifa, Natifah, Natyfa... nathifa

National Blood Authority

This body manages regional TRANSFUSION centres. Among its aims are the maintenance and promotion of blood and blood products based on a system of voluntary donors; implementing a cost-e?ective national strategy for ensuring adequate supplies of blood and its products to meet national needs; and ensuring high standards of safety and quality.... national blood authority

National Care Standards Commission

This was set up under the CARE STANDARDS ACT 2000 as an independent regulator in respect of homes for the elderly, the disabled and children in the state and private sectors in the UK.... national care standards commission

National Electronic Library For Health

This National Health Service initiative went online in November 2000. It aims to provide health professionals with easy and fast access to best current knowledge from medical journals, professional group guidelines, etc. Unbiased data can be accessed by both clinicians and the public.... national electronic library for health

National Health Accounts

Information, usually in the form of indicators, a country may collect on its health expenditures. Indicators may include total health expenditure, public expenditure, private expenditure, out-of-pocket expenditure, tax-funded and other public expenditure, and social security expenditure.... national health accounts

National Health Policy

See “health policy”.... national health policy

National Health Service (nhs)

The United Kingdom’s National Health Service was created by Act of Parliament and inaugurated on 5 July 1948. Its original aim was to provide a comprehensive system of health care to everyone, free at the point of delivery. Scotland had its own, similar legislation, as did Northern Ireland. The service is funded by National Insurance contributions and from general taxation, with a small amount from patient charges. The structure, functioning and ?nancing of the NHS have been – and still are – undergoing substantial changes.... national health service (nhs)

National Infection Control And Health Protection Agency

A National Health Service body intended to combat the increasing threat from infectious diseases and biological, chemical and radiological hazards. Covering England, the agency includes the Public Health Laboratory Service, the National Radiological Protection Board, the Centre for Applied Microbiology and Research, and the National Focus Group for Chemical Incidents.... national infection control and health protection agency

National Listening Library

National Listening Library is a charity which produces recorded books for handicapped people who cannot read, with the exception of the blind who have their own separate organisation, the Royal National Institute for the Blind. (See also CALIBRE.)... national listening library

National Plan Of Action

A broad intersectoral master plan for attaining national health goals through implementation of a strategy. It indicates what has to be done, who has to do it, during what time-frame, and with what resources. It is a framework leading to more detailed programming, budgeting, implementation and evaluation. It specifies, in operational terms, the steps to be taken in accordance with the strategy, keeping in mind the various objectives and targets to be attained and the programmes for attaining them.... national plan of action

National Strategy

Based on national health policy, a set of decisions that includes the broad lines of action required in all sectors involved to give effect to the national health policy and indicates the problems and ways of dealing with them.... national strategy


(Spanish) Refers to the Nativity Natividade, Natividada, Natyvydad, Nativydad, Natyvidad... natividad


(Japanese) Child born during the summer Natsu, Natsumi... natsuko


(Spanish) Woman of the outdoors Naturah, Naturia, Naturea, Nature... natura

National Institute For Clinical Excellence (nice)

This special health authority in the National Health Service, launched in 1999, prepares formal advice for all managers and health professionals working in the service in England and Wales on the clinical- and cost-e?ectiveness of new and existing technologies. This includes diagnostic tests, medicines and surgical procedures. The institute also gives advice on best practice in the use of existing treatments.

NICE – its Scottish equivalent is the Scottish Health Technology Assessment Centre – has three main functions:

appraisal of new and existing technologies.

development of clinical guidelines.

promotion of clinical audit and con?dential inquiries. Central to its task is public concern about ‘postcode prescribing’ – that is, di?erent availability of health care according to geography.

In 2003 the World Health Organisation appraised NICE. Amongst its recomendations were that there should be greater consistency in the methods used for appraisal and the way in which results and decisions were reported. WHO was concerned about the need for transparency about the con?ict between NICE’s use of manufacturers’ commercial evidence in con?dence, and believed there should be greater de?nition of justi?cation for ‘threshold’ levels for cost-e?ectiveness in the Centre’s judgement of what represents value for money.

In all, WHO was congratulatory – but questions remain about the practical value and imlementation of NICE guidelines.... national institute for clinical excellence (nice)

Natural Herbs That Increase Sex Drive

Natural Herbs That Increase Sex Drive

[catlist id=14 numberposts=100 pagination=yes instance=2 orderby=title order=asc]

... natural herbs that increase sex drive

Natural History Of Di Sease

The progressive development of a disease that runs its course without treatment. 1. Stage of susceptibility2. Stage of presymptomatic 3. Stage of clinical disease 4. Stage of disability/resolution Necator americanus See hookworm.... natural history of di sease

Naturally Occurring Retirement Communities

Geographic areas or multi-unit buildings that are not restricted to persons over a specified age, but which have evolved over time to include a significant number (typically, over 50%) of residents who are aged 60 and over.... naturally occurring retirement communities


(Egyptian) In mythology, goddess of the watery abyss Nunet... naunet


An agent that causes nausea... nauseant


(Greek) In mythology, a princess who is kind to Odysseus Nausikaa, Nausica, Nausika... nausicaa


(English) Woman of the sea Nautika, Nautia, Nautea, Nautyca, Nautyka... nautica


(Gaelic / Indian) A pleasant, lovely woman / one who is strong-willed Naveena, Navine, Navyne, Navina, Navyna, Navean, Naveana... naveen


(Iranian) Feminine form of Navid; bringer of good news Navyda, Navidah, Navyda, Naveeda, Naveedah, Naveada, Naveadah... navida


(Indian) One who is youthful Navyah, Naviya, Naviyah... navya


(Arabic) A gift of God Nawall, Nawalle, Nawala, Nawalla... nawal


(Arabic) Resembling a flower Nawaar... nawar


(Indian) Having beautiful eyes Nayana, Nayann, Nayane, Nayanne... nayan


(Native American) One who loves and is loved

Nayelie, Nayely, Nayeley, Nayeli, Nayelee, Nayeleigh, Nayelea... nayeli


(Arabic) One who is pure and honest

Nazaha, Nazihah, Naziha... nazahah


(Arabic) A delicate woman Nazaakat... nazakat


(Arabic) One who is motherly Naazima, Nazimah, Nazeema, Nazyma, Nazeama, Naziema, Nazeima... nazima


(Arabic) A spectator Naazira, Nazirah, Nazyra, Nazeera, Nazeara... nazira


(Farsi) A charming and beautiful woman

Nazneene, Naznine, Nazyne, Naazneen, Naznin, Naznean, Nazneane... nazneen


Nordihydroguaiaretic acid, a substance found in abundance in the oleoresins of Larrea (Chaparral) and the Guaiacum genus (Lignum Vitae). It is strongly antioxidant to lipids and is antifungal, antimicrobial and antibacterial. Both plants contain a constellation of related compounds and do not have the potential kidney toxicity found in pure NDGA...and the reason it is no longer used as an EDTA-type edible oil stabilizer in food manufacturing.... ndga


(African) Resembling a goat Ndyla, Ndilah, Ndylah... ndila


(Gaelic) Feminine form of Neal; a champion

Neale, Nealla, Neila, Neile, Neilla, Neille, Neely, Neelie, Nealina, Neilina, Neelle, Neela, Nealie, Neali, Nelia, Nelea, Niall, Niala, Nialla, Niela, Nielsine... neala

Nature Of The Disease Tuberculosis Has

been recognised from earliest times. Evidence of the condition has been found in Egyptian mummies; in the fourth century BC Hippocrates, the Greek physician, called it phthisis because of the lung involvement; and in 1882 Koch announced the discovery of the causative organism, the tubercle bacillus or Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

The symptoms depend upon the site of the infection. General symptoms such as fever, weight loss and night sweats are common. In the most common form of pulmonary tuberculosis, cough and blood-stained sputum (haemoptysis) are common symptoms.

The route of infection is most often by inhalation, although it can be by ingestion of products such as infected milk. The results of contact depend upon the extent of the exposure and the susceptibility of the individual. Around 30 per cent of those closely exposed to the organism will be infected, but most will contain the infection with no signi?cant clinical illness and only a minority will go on to develop clinical disease. Around 5 per cent of those infected will develop post-primary disease over the next two or three years. The rest are at risk of reactivation of the disease later, particularly if their resistance is reduced by associated disease, poor nutrition or immunosuppression. In developed countries around 5 per cent of those infected will reactivate their healed tuberculosis into a clinical problem.

Immunosuppressed patients such as those infected with HIV are at much greater risk of developing clinical tuberculosis on primary contact or from reactivation. This is a particular problem in many developing countries, where there is a high incidence of both HIV and tuberculosis.

Diagnosis This depends upon identi?cation of mycobacteria on direct staining of sputum or other secretions or tissue, and upon culture of the organism. Culture takes 4–6 weeks but is necessary for di?erentiation from other non-tuberculous mycobacteria and for drug-sensitivity testing. Newer techniques involving DNA ampli?cation by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) can detect small numbers of organisms and help with earlier diagnosis.

Treatment This can be preventative or curative. Important elements of prevention are adequate nutrition and social conditions, BCG vaccination (see IMMUNISATION), an adequate public-health programme for contact tracing, and chemoprophylaxis. Radiological screening with mass miniature radiography is no longer used.

Vaccination with an attenuated organism (BCG – Bacillus Calmette Guerin) is used in the United Kingdom and some other countries at 12–13 years, or earlier in high-risk groups. Some studies show 80 per cent protection against tuberculosis for ten years after vaccination.

Cases of open tuberculosis need to be identi?ed; their close contacts should be reviewed for evidence of disease. Adequate antibiotic chemotherapy removes the infective risk after around two weeks of treatment. Chemoprophylaxis – the use of antituberculous therapy in those without clinical disease – may be used in contacts who develop a strong reaction on tuberculin skin testing or those at high risk because of associated disease.

The major principles of antibiotic chemotherapy for tuberculosis are that a combination of drugs needs to be used, and that treatment needs to be continued for a prolonged period – usually six months. Use of single agents or interrupted courses leads to the development of drug resistance. Serious outbreaks of multiply resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis have been seen mainly in AIDS units, where patients have greater susceptibility to the disease, but also in developing countries where maintenance of appropriate antibacterial therapy for six months or more can be di?cult.

Streptomycin was the ?rst useful agent identi?ed in 1944. The four drugs used most often now are RIFAMPICIN, ISONIAZID, PYRAZINAMIDE and ETHAMBUTOL. Three to four agents are used for the ?rst two months; then, when sensitivities are known and clinical response observed, two drugs, most often rifampicin and isoniazid, are continued for the rest of the course. Treatment is taken daily, although thrice-weekly, directly observed therapy is used when there is doubt about the patient’s compliance. All the antituberculous agents have a range of adverse effects that need to be monitored during treatment. Provided that the treatment is prescribed and taken appropriately, response to treatment is very good with cure of disease and very low relapse rates.... nature of the disease tuberculosis has


(Native American) From the flat water land; from the state of Nebraska... nebraska

Necator Americanus

A hookworm, closely resembling but smaller than the Ancylostoma duodenale. (See ANCYLOSTOMIASIS.)... necator americanus


(Hebrew) One who provides comfort

Nehama, Nehamah, Nachmanit, Nachuma, Nechamah, Nechamit... nechama


(Latin) A passionate woman; one who is fiery

Necia, Necie, Necee, Necy, Necey, Necea... neci

Necrotising Fasciitis

Also known as CELLULITIS. A potentially lethal infection caused by the gram-positive (see GRAM’S STAIN) bacterium Streptococcus pyogenes which has the property of producing dangerous exotoxins. The infection, which starts in the layer of FASCIA under the SKIN, may spread very rapidly, destroying tissue as it spreads. Urgent antibiotic treatment may check the infection, and surgery is sometimes required, but even with treatment patients may die (see STREPTOCOCCUS).... necrotising fasciitis


(Slavic) Born on a Sunday Nedda, Nedah, Nedi, Nedie, Neddi, Neddie, Nedaa... neda


(Hebrew) A giving and noble woman

Nedivah, Nedeeva, Nedyva, Nedeevah, Nedyvah, Nedeava, Nedeavah... nediva


A nebuliser makes an aerosol (see under INHALANTS) by blowing air or oxygen through a solution of a drug. Many inhaled drugs such as SALBUTAMOL, ipratropium and beclomethasone can be given in this way. It has the advantage over a metered dose inhaler (MDI) that no special e?ort is required to coordinate breathing, and a nebuliser allows a much greater volume of the drug to be delivered to where it is needed (the airways) compared with that of MDIs. The use of higher doses of bronchodilator drugs made possible by the nebuliser means that the risk of unwanted side-effects is also increased. Fortunately the safety pro?le of anti-asthmatic drugs such as salbutamol is extremely high and overdose is generally well-tolerated.... nebulisers


(English) Woman of the underground

Nedrah, Neddra, Needra, Needrah... nedra


(Indian) Of the morning dew Neharika, Neeharyka, Neharyka... neeharika


(Indian) Resembling a water lily Neejah, Nyja, Neerja, Neerjah, Nyrja, Neaja, Neajah, Nearja... neeja


(Indian) As precious as a sapphire Nelam, Nylam, Nealam, Neylam... neelam


(African) Born into prosperity Neemah, Neama, Neamah, Neyma, Neymah... neema


(Hindi) A woman who has beautiful


Neenah, Neanah, Neana, Neyna, Neynah... neena


(Egyptian) A queenly woman Nefertari, Nefertyty, Nefertity, Nefertitie, Nefertitee, Nefertytie, Nefertitea... nefertiti

Nefopam Hydrochloride

A non-opioid analgesic drug (see ANALGESICS) of use in the relief of pain that fails to respond to other non-opioid analgesics. It causes little depression of respiration but side-effects may be a problem.... nefopam hydrochloride


(Persian) As precious as a gem Negeene, Negyne, Negyn, Negine, Negean, Negeane... negeen


(Hebrew) An accomplished musician

Neginothe, Negynoth, Negynothe, Neginotha, Negynotha... neginoth


The refusal or failure on the part of a person (or persons) in a caring role to fulfil a care-giving obligation, either consciously or unintentionally, which results in physical or emotional distress for an older person. See also “abuse”.... neglect

Negri Bodies

Inclusions found in the cytoplasm of brain neurons in rabies.... negri bodies


(Indian) One who loves and is loved Nehah, Nyha, Nyhah... neha


(Hebrew) One who provides comfort Nehamah, Nehamma, Nehammah, Nehamia, Nehamea, Nehamiya

... nehama


(African) Our beautiful daughter has come to us

Nehandah, Nehandia, Nehandea, Nehandiya... nehanda


(Hebrew) Born of the light Neharah, Neharra, Nehira, Nehirah, Nehura, Nehurah, Nehora, Nehorah, Nahara, Naharah... nehara


(Hebrew) A dreamer Nehelamitte, Nehelamit, Nehelamyte, Nehelamytte, Nehelamyt... nehelamite


(Hebrew) Resembling copper Nehushtah... nehushta

Neighbourhood Health Centre

See “community health centre”.... neighbourhood health centre


A family of bacteria of which three varieties cause disease. Neisseria meningitidis causes meningococcal MENINGITIS and SEPTICAEMIA. It is divided into three groups: A, B and C; group B accounts for most meningitis cases in the UK, mostly affecting children. Neisseria gonorrhoeae causes GONORRHOEA. The bacteria are gram-negative (see GRAM’S STAIN) cocci usually occurring in pairs. A third variety is Moraxella catarrhalis: this occurs in the nose and throat and sometimes causes ear infection and low-grade infection of the respiratory tract.... neisseriaceae

Nervous Bowel Syndrome

Frequent urging to stool due to nervous irritability or emotional distress.

Indicated: astringents, nerve relaxants.

Teas. Hops, Vervain, Chamomile, Cranesbill.

Tablets/capsules. Chamomile, Calamus, Wild Yam, Fenugreek.

Formula. Bayberry 2; Wild Yam 1; Valerian half. Dose: Liquid extracts: 1-2 teaspoons. Tinctures: 2-3 teaspoons. Powders: 750mg (three 00 capsules or half a teaspoon). Thrice daily.

Tincture. Black Catechu BHP (1983). 1:5 in 45 per cent alcohol. Dose 2.5 to 5ml in water, thrice daily. Fenulin. (Gerard House)

Diet. Slippery Elm gruel.

Supplements. Vitamins A, B6, C, Calcium, Dolomite. ... nervous bowel syndrome

Nervous Debility

Nerve weakness; loss of strength and power.

To strengthen nerves and generate vitality: Ginseng, Bee pollen, Oats, Ginkgo, Saw Palmetto, Damiana. Tea. Formula. Equal parts: Betony, Balm, Skullcap. One heaped teaspoon to each cup boiling water; infuse 5-15 minutes. 1 cup thrice daily.

Gentian. One teaspoon fine-cut root in cup cold water; infuse overnight. Strain; drink cold following morning.

Tablets/capsules: Damiana, Skullcap, Lady’s Slipper, Ginseng, Ginkgo.

Formula. Equal parts: Gentian, Oats. Gotu Kola. Dose: Liquid Extracts: 2 teaspoons. Tinctures: 3 teaspoons. Powders: 750mg (three 00 capsules or half a teaspoon). Thrice daily.

After surgical operation: St John’s Wort. Hawthorn. ... nervous debility

Nervous Stomach

Stomach hypersensitivity, with absence of acidity or organic disturbance. Calamus, Cinnamon, Burnett Saxifrage, Lovage, Fumitory, Rosemary, Wormwood, Oats, Skullcap.

German Chamomile tea. ... nervous stomach

Nerve Tension

Nervous excitability, irritability, prone to over-reaction by anger or other destructive emotion.

Teas. Cowslip flowers, St John’s Wort flowers, Passion flower, Valerian, Hops, Lime flowers, Balm, Motherwort, Woodruff, Skullcap, Oats.

Formula, tea: equal parts, Balm, Motherwort, Passion flower. 1 heaped teaspoon to each cup boiling water; infuse 5-10 minutes. 1 cup thrice daily.

Tablets. Valerian. Pulsatilla. Natracalm. (English Grains) 500mg Passion flower tablets: 1 tablet thrice daily.

See: SEDATIVES. ... nerve tension

Nervous Shock

Non-medical term for nervous collapse. “All gone to pieces” syndrome following a period of abnormal stress or shock. Nervous breakdown. Psychiatric illness. Posttraumatic stress disorder.

Alternatives. Betony, Black Cohosh, Hops, Lady’s Slipper, Mistletoe, Oats, Skullcap, Valerian.

Tea. Formula. Equal parts: Skullcap, Mistletoe, Valerian. 1 heaped teaspoon to each cup water gently simmered 10 minutes. Dose: half-1 cup thrice daily.

Formula. Equal parts: Hops, Rosemary, Valerian. Dose: Liquid Extracts: 1 teaspoon. Tinctures: 2 teaspoons. Powders: 500mg (two 00 capsules or one-third teaspoon). Thrice daily.

Supplements. B-complex, B12, B6, E. Magnesium, Dolomite. Calcium. ... nervous shock

Nervousness In Young Women

With menstrual problems, menopausal women, ovarian pain, or weak nerves after childbrith.

Tea. Combine equal parts: Raspberry leaves, Skullcap, Motherwort. 1 heaped teaspoon to each cup boiling water; infuse 15 minutes. 1 cup freely.

Formula. Equal parts: Black Cohosh, Helonias, Valerian. Dose: Liquid Extracts: half a teaspoon. Tinctures: 1 teaspoon. Powders: 250mg thrice daily.

Supplements. B-complex. Vitamin C to aid iron absorption. ... nervousness in young women

Night Blooming Cereus

See: CACTUS. ... night blooming cereus

Nipples, Cracked

See: BREASTS.... nipples, cracked

Noises In Head

(ears). See: TINNITUS. ... noises in head

Nutrition Association, The.

To assist people to find a nutritionist in their area. Concerned with all aspects of diet – proteins, carbohydrates, fats, fibre, vitamins, minerals and other trace components of food. Factors which may affect a person’s nutritional status such as dietary imbalances, food allergies, food processing, additives, drug therapy, metabolic and digestive disorders, personal life-style, stress, exercise and environmental factors. Maintains a directory of practising nutritionists. Promotes educational courses, encourages research.

Address: 24, Harcourt House, 19, Cavendish Square, London W1M 0AB. ... nutrition association, the.

Neem Tea - An Indian Herbal Tea

Neem tea is a refreshing herbal tea, with origins in South Asia. Despite its bitter taste, it is often recommended as a beverage thanks to its many health benefits. Read this article to find out more about neem tea! About Neem Tea Neem tea is made from the leaves of the Neem tree. The tree can be found in India, Bangladesh and Pakistan. It is an evergreen tree which can grow up to twenty feet in just three years, and it starts bearing fruit after 3-5 years. However, during periods of severe drought, it may shed most or even all of its leaves. The green leaves are 20-40cm long, with medium to dark green leaflets about 3-8cm long; the terminal leaflet is usually missing. The tree’s flowers are small, white and fragrant, arranged axillary. The fruit has an olive-like form, with a thin skin and a yellow-white, fibrous and bittersweet pulp. How to prepare Neem Tea To brew a cup of neem tea, you have to follow a few simple steps. First, boil the necessary amount of water. Then, pour it over a cup with includes a few neem leaves. Let it steep for about 5 minutes. Lastly, remove the leaves and, if you think it is needed, flavor it with honey and/or lemon. You can make your own stack of neem leaves for neem tea. If you’ve got neem trees around, gather leaves and leave them to dry. You can use fresh neem leaves, as well. In both cases though, you have to wash the leaves well before you use them. Once you’ve got the leaves ready, whether dry or fresh, just follow the earlier-mentioned steps. You can also make a cup of neem tea by using powdered neem leaf. Neem Tea Benefits Neem leaves have many antibacterial and antiviral properties. Thanks to this, neem tea is full of health benefits. Indians chew on neem twigs to have a good oral hygiene. However, a cup of neem tea can also help you maintain a good oral hygiene. It is useful in treating bad breath and gum disease, and it fights against cavities. Neem tea is also useful in treating fungal infections, such as yeast infections, jock itch, thrush, and ringworm. Neem tea can help you treat both indigestion and constipation. It is also useful when it comes to reducing swelling of the stomach and intestinal tract, and it can be used to counter ulcers and gout. Neem tea, when combined with neem cream, has anti-viral uses. It can help speed up the healing time and pain associated with herpes simplex 1, herpes zoster and warts. Neem tea is also used in the treatment of malaria and other similar diseases. It helps purify and cleanse the blood, as well; therefore, it increases liver function. Other important benefits that are related to consumption of neem tea are: treating pneumonia, treating diabetes, treating hypertension and heart diseases. Also, neem tea doesn’t have to be used only as a beverage. Because of its anti-parasitic use, you can bathe in it. This way, the tea acts as an antiseptic, killing the parasites. Neem Tea Side Effects While we can say that neem tea has plenty of important health benefits, don’t forget that there are a few side effects, as well. First of all, neem oil can be incredibly toxic for infants. Even a small amount of neem oil can cause death. Check to see if the neem tea you drink has neem oil among its ingredients. Or, just to be on the safe side, don’t give infants neem tea to drink. You shouldn’t drink neem tea if you have a history of stomach, liver or kidney problems. Some of its active ingredients can cause you harm in this case. Although rare, neem tea can also lead to allergic reactions. Symptoms in this case include difficulty in breathing, rashes, itching, or swelling of the throat or mouth. If you get any of these, stop drinking neem teaand contact your doctor. Drinking neem tea is a big no if you’re trying to conceive, or you’re already pregnant. In the first case, neem tea can work as a contraceptive, therefore lessening the chances of you getting pregnant. In the second case, consumption of neem tea can lead to miscarriages. Also, don’t drink more than six cups of neem teaa day - or any other type of tea. It won’t do you well, despite its many health benefits. Some of the symptoms you might get are: headaches, dizziness, insomnia, irregular heartbeats, vomiting, diarrhea and loss of appetite. If you get any of these symptoms, reduce the amount of neem tea you drink. As a herbal tea, neem tea is definitely good for your health. Still, despite its many health benefits, there are a few side effects as well. Keep them both in mind when drinking neem tea.... neem tea - an indian herbal tea


(Egyptian) In mythology, goddess of war and hunting

Neitha, Neytha, Neyth, Neit, Neita, Neitia, Neitea, Neithe, Neythe... neith


(Spanish) Woman of sorrow Nekane, Nekania, Nekanea... nekana


(Egyptian) In mythology, a goddess depicted as a vulture Nechbet, Nekbet, Nekhebit... nekhbet


(English) Form of Helen, meaning “the shining light”

Nel, Nelida, Nell, Nella, Nellene, Nellie, Nellwen, Nellwin, Nelle, Nelley, Nelli, Nellee, Nellis, Nelma, Nellwinne, Nellwenne, Nellwyn, Nellwynne, Nelwina, Nelwena, Nellwina, Nellwena, Nelda, Nelleke... nelly


(English) Form of Kelsey, meaning “from the island of ships; of the ship’s victory” Nellsea, Nellseigh, Nellsey, Nellsie, Nelsea, Nelseigh, Nelsie, Nelsy, Nelsee, Nellsee, Nellsy, Nellsi... nelsey


The stinging cells present on the tentacles (and the bell of some species) of cnidarian. Each nematocyst consists of an coiled tube which may be bathed in venom. When the trigger on the outside of the nematocyst is touched, the tube rapidly inverts itself firing rather like a harpoon into the tissues of the prey. Venom on the outside of this tube is thus deposited in the tissues, and possibly into blood vessels during this trajectory. Finally, in some specialised nematocysts venom is then discharged through the open end of this thread tube and is deposited in the tissues o f the prey.... nematocyst


(Hebrew) Resembling a leopard Nemerah, Nemerra, Nemeria, Nemerea, Nemerya, Nemra... nemera

Nelumbo Nucifera


Nelumbium speciosum

Family: Nymphaeaceae.

Habitat: Throughout warmer parts of India, up to 1,800 m.

English: East Indian Lotus, Sacred Lotus.

Ayurvedic: Kamala, Padma, Nalina, Aravinda, Jalaja, Raajeeva, Pushkara, Ambuja, Abja, Pankaja. Pundarika (whitish), kokanada (red), Indivara (Bluish).

Unani: Used as a substitute for Nilofar.

Siddha/Tamil: Thaamarai, Ambel.

Action: Filament—astringent and haemostatic. Prescribed for bleeding piles and menorrhagia. Flowers—a decoction is given in cholera, fever, strangury, palpitation of heart. Rhizomes—given in piles, chronic dyspepsia and dysentery; applied externally to cutaneous eruptions, scabies and ringworm. Rhizome-arrowroot— given to children in diarrhoea and dysentery. Root—astringent, diuretic, antiemetic, cooling. Used for dysentery, dyspepsia, piles, skin affections and for its anticoagulant properties.

The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia ofIn- dia recommends dried rhizomes, with roots attached at nodes, in syncope and vertigo.

Flowers yielded quercetin, luteolin and their glycosides and kaempferol glycosides. Leaves gave quercetin, iso- quercitrin and leucoanthocyanidin.

Isoquinoline alkaloid, nuciferin, is neuroleptic. Active agents in the leaves are the alkaloids, nelumbin and roe- merin.

Dosage: Dried flower—12-24 g for decoction (API, Vol. II); rhizomes— 5-10 m powder; 10-20 ml juice (API, Vol. III). Seed—3-6 g powder; flower—10-20 ml juice. (CCRAS.)... nelumbo nucifera


(Greek) In mythology, goddess of vengeance

Nemisiss, Nemisys, Nemisyss, Nemysis, Nemysiss, Nemysys, Nemysyss... nemesis


(Spanish) Form of Amelia, meaning “one who is industrious and hardworking” Nenecah, Nenica, Nenneca, Nennica... neneca


(Greek) One who is youthful Neolla, Neolah, Neollah... neola


(Greek) Born under the new moon Neomea, Neomenia, Neomia, Neomenea, Neomah, Neona, Neonea, Neonia, Neonah... neoma


Pertaining to the ?rst month of life.... neonatal

Neonatal Intensive Care

The provision of a dedicated unit with special facilities, including one-to-one nursing and appropriate technology, for caring for premature and seriously ill newborn babies. Paediatricians and neonatologists are involved in the running of such units. Not every maternity unit can provide intensive care: for example, the provision of arti?cial ventilation, other than as a holding procedure until a baby can be transferred to a better-equipped and better-serviced unit. Such hospitals tend to have special-care baby units, which are capable of looking after the needs of most, but not all, premature or ill babies.... neonatal intensive care

Neonatal Mortality

Neonatal mortality is the mortality of infants under one month of age. In England and Wales this has fallen markedly in recent decades: from more than 28 per 1,000 live births in 1939 to 3.6 in 2002. This improvement can be attributed to various factors: better antenatal supervision of expectant mothers; care to ensure that expectant mothers receive adequate nourishing food; improvements in the management of the complications of pregnancy and of labour; and more skilled resuscitation at birth for those who need it.

Nearly three-quarters of neonatal deaths occur during the ?rst week of life. For this reason, increasing emphasis is being laid on this initial period of life. In Britain, in the last four decades of the 20th century, the number of deaths in the ?rst week of life fell dramatically from 13.2 to just over 2.7 per 1,000 live births. The chief causes of deaths in this period are extreme prematurity (less than 28 weeks’ gestation), birth asphyxia with oxygen lack to the brain, and congenital abnormalities. After the ?rst week the commonest cause is infection.... neonatal mortality


(Greek) In mythology, a nymph created from a cloud

Nephelle, Nephel, Nephell, Nephelia, Nephelea... nephele


Presence of renal c alculi... nepholithiasis

Nepal Tea

Nepal Tea is a type of black teathat gets its name from the South-Asian country of origin. It is a bright yellow tea which has a delicate floral aroma and combines the ripe fruit sweetness with a tinge of bitterness. This fruity tea is hand-processed and considered one of the best teas in the world, similar in flavour to the more famous Darjeeling Tea. Nepal Tea brewing The first rule of tea-making is the use of fresh water which maintains the flavour intact. Nepal black tea brewingshould last two or three minutes, up to five minutes for a stronger taste, but take care not to over-brew it, because both the aroma and the taste will be spoiled. You can prolong the brewing time only if you want to add milk or sugar to your cup of tea. When to drink Nepal Tea You can sip Nepal Tea at any point during the day because it is a fruity refined beverage, ideal for experiencing an energy surplus. Nepal Tea Health Benefits Nepal Tea consumption can bring numerous health benefits for individuals. People who drink black tea are generally healthier; they have a considerably lower rate of heart attacks or strokes, as well as lower risks of ever suffering from certain types of cancer, such as colon and lung cancer. Research shows that drinking black tea also decreases the risk of osteoporosis and diabetes and improves teeth health. Nepal Tea Side Effects Like other types of black tea, Nepal black Tea contains caffeine which increases mental alertness, but may also lead to insomnia and anxiety. When consumed in large quantities, it may cause unpleasant digestive side effects such as upset stomach symptoms. In a busy and crowded world, almost everyone could use a little bit of help to boost up their energy and at the same time, increase their mental alertness. Apart from having an enchanting aroma, Nepal Tea brings tremendous benefits by relieving stress and keeping tea drinkers stay alert at the same time.... nepal tea

Nepeta Cataria


Family: Labiatae, Lamiaceae.

Habitat: Cultivated in Britain and the USA. Occurs in Himalayas from Kashmir to Nepal at 2,000-3,300 m.

English: Catnip, Catnep, Catmint.

Action: Leaves and flowers— gentle nerve relaxant and sedative, carminative, antispasmodic, an- tidiarrhoeal, diaphoretic, febrifuge. Used in restlessness, convulsions, nervous headache, colic, early stages of fever, colds and influenza. The herb is to be infused (not boiled).

Catnip contains iridoids, tannins and volatile oil, major components being alpha- and beta-nepetalactone (up to 42%), citronellol and geraniol.

The catnip response in the domestic cat is being attributed to iridoid lac- tones, nepetalactone, dihydronepeta- lactone, iso-dihydronepetalactone and neonepetalactone. Its reputation as a hallucinogen has been disputed, but a few studies have shown behavioural effects, although weak, in young chicks, rodents and cats. (Potter's New Cyclopaedia.)

Neptalactone is structurally related to valepotriates found in valerian. (Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, 2007.)... nepeta cataria

Nepeta Hindostana

(Roth) Haines.

Synonym: N. ruderalis Buch-Ham. ex Benth.

Family: Labiatae; Lamiaceae.

Habitat: Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal, Madhya Pradesh and South India up to 2,400 m. (Blue-flowered var.)

Unani: Baadranjboyaa, Billilotan. Also equated with Melissa officinalis.

Action: See Nepeta cataria.

The alcoholic extract of the plant yielded a triterpenoid aldehyde, nepe- hinal. Nepetidone, nepedinol, and a triterpenic acid have also been reported. The plant contains flavonoids including nepitrin, dinatin, nepetin. Flowers and stem gave napetol, hen- triacontane and beta-sitosterol. An aqueous extract of flowers contained Na, K, Ca, Mg, Zn, Cd, Cu, Ni, Mn and Fe. Alcoholic extract of the plant produced marked hypocholesterolaemic effect in experimental animals. It also produced beneficial effects in the histopathology of myocardial infarction. Aqueous extract of the plant, given intravenously, lowered the blood pressure in dogs by 26.87%. It also showed CNS depressant and sedative activities. (In Indian medicine, the plant is used in various cardiac conditions including cardiac asthma.)... nepeta hindostana


(Egyptian) In mythology, one of the nine most important deities; the lady of the house... nephthys

Neptunia Oleracea


Synonym: N. prostrata Baill.

Family: Mimosaceae.

Habitat: Throughout India, in tanks.

Ayurvedic: Lajjaalu (var.), Alam- bushaa. (Provisional synonyms.)

Siddha: Sadai, Sundaikkirai.

Folk: Paani-lajak (Punjab).

Action: Astringent, refrigerant.

Mimosa pudica Linn. is the accepted source of the classical herb Lajjaalu. It is used as astringent and styptic.... neptunia oleracea


(Latin) Feminine form of Neptune, the god of the sea Neptuna, Neptunia, Neptunea, Neptunina, Neptuninia, Neptuninea... neptunine


(Hebrew) Resembling a flickering candle; born during Hannukah Nerah, Neriya, Nerit... nera


(Basque) Daughter of mine Nereah, Neria, Neriah... nerea


(Greek) A sea nymph; in mythology, the Nereids were mermaids Nereyda, Nerida, Nireida, Nerine, Narine, Nerida, Nerina, Neried, Nerin, Ninfa... nereida


(Latin) In mythology, the wife of the god of war... nerio


(Italian / Greek) A black-haired beauty / form of Nereida, meaning “a sea nymph”

Narissa, Naryssa, Nericcia, Neryssa, Narice, Nerice, Neris... nerissa


(Greek) Woman from the sea Neritah, Nereeta, Nereetah, Neryta, Nerytah, Nirita, Nireta, Nyrita, Nyreta, Nereata, Nereatah... nerita


(Italian) Resembling the orange flower

Nerolia, Nerolie, Nerolea, Neroli, Neroley, Neroly, Nerolee, Neroleigh... nerola


(German) In mythology, goddess of fertility Nerthos, Nerthous... nerthus

Nerves Twelve Nerves Come Off The Brain:

I. Olfactory, to the nose (smell).

II. Optic, to the eye (sight).

III. Oculomotor

Trochlear, to eye-muscles.


VI. Trigeminal, to skin of face.

VII. Facial, to muscles of face.

VIII. Vestibulocochlear, to ear (hearing and balancing).

IX. Glossopharyngeal, to tongue (taste).

X. Vagus, to heart, larynx, lungs, and stomach.

XI. Spinal accessory, to muscles in neck.

XII. Hypoglossal, to muscles of tongue.... nerves twelve nerves come off the brain:

Nervilia Aragoana


Synonym: Pogonia flabelliformis Lindl.

Family: Orchidaceae.

Habitat: Tropical Himalayas from Garhwal eastwards at altitudes of 1,200-1,500 m and in Bihar, Konkan, North Kanara and Travancore.

Ayurvedic: Padmachaarini, Shankhaaluka. (Sthala Kamala is a doubtful synonym.)

Action: Astringent, diuretic (used in dysuria).

A decoction of leaves is given after parturition.... nervilia aragoana

Nerium Indicum


Synonym: N. odorum Soland.

Family: Apocynaceae.

Habitat: Native of Mediterranean region; grown in Indian gardens.

English: Indian oleander, White oleander.

Ayurvedic: Karavira, Viraka, Ashva- maaraka, Hayamaaraka, Gauripush- pa, Divyapushpa, Shatakumbha, Siddhapushpa (white-flowered var.). Raktapushpa, Raktaprasava, Ravipriya (red-flowered var.)

Unani: Kaner Safed, Diflaa, Samm-ul-maar, Khar-zaharah.

Siddha/Tamil: Arali, Alari, Aatrulari, Karaviram.

Action: Root—resolvent and attenuant. A paste of the root is externally applied to haemorrhoids and ulcerations in leprosy. Paste of the root bark and leaves is used in ringworm and other skin diseases. An oil extracted from the root bark is used in skin diseases of scaly nature. Leaves—cardioactive (digitalis-like effect) and diuretic, anti-inflammatory, antifungal, insecticidal. Toxic.

The leaves contain several glyco- sides including glycosides of 8 beta- hydroxy-digitoxigenin. Cardenolide glycosides and pregnanolone glyco- sides have been isolated from roots.

The ethanolic extract of the flowers inhibits the growth of dermatophytes.

The plant shows antifungal activity against ringworm fungus, Microspo- rum nanum.

Dosage: Detoxified leaves—30— 125 mg powder (API, Vol. I); root— 30 mg—125 mg powder (API, Vol. III).... nerium indicum

Nerium Oleander


Family: Apocynaceae.

Habitat: Native to Mediterranean region; grown in Indian gardens.

English: Red Oleander, Rose Bay.

Unani: Surkh Kaner.

Action: See N. indicum. (The white- and red-flowered varieties are equated with Nerium oleander; both possess similar properties. The yellow-flowered variety is equated with Thevetia peruviana.)

Key application: Leaf—included among unapproved herbs by German Commission E. Positively inotropic and negatively chronotropic actions have been mentioned; the use of leaf for diseases and functional disorders of the heart, as well as for skin diseases has been indicated.

The leaves and roots gave a number of active principles including gly- cosides, terpenoids, sterols and other compounds. Cardiac steroids, isolated from the leaf, include oleandrin, gen- tiobiosyl oleandrin, odoroside. The stem contained alanine arginine, as- partic acid, cysteine, glutamic acid, glycine, histidine, leucine, isoleucine, lysine, phenylalanine, proline, serine, threonine, tryptophan, tyrosine and valine. A polysaccharide (2.3%), containing galacturonic acid, rhamnose, arabinose and galactose has been isolated from leaves.

Neutral fraction from leaves at low doses caused marked suppression of locomotor activity.

Aqueous extract of leaves showed significant antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The leaves also showed insecticidal activity.... nerium oleander

Nervous Impulse

This is transmitted chemically, by the formation at nerve-endings of chemical substances. When, for example, a NERVE to a muscle is stimulated, there appears at the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION the chemical substance, ACETYLCHOLINE. Acetylcholine also appears at endings of the parasympathetic nerves (see NERVOUS SYSTEM) and transmits the e?ect of the parasympathetic impulse. When an impulse passes down a sympathetic nerve, the e?ect of it is transmitted at the nerve-ending by the chemical liberated there: ADRENALINE or an adrenaline-like substance.... nervous impulse

Nervous System, Disorders Of



(Welsh) A daughter born into nobility Neris, Neriss, Neryss, Nerisse, Nerysse

... nerys


(Hebrew / Greek) A miracle child / form of Agnes, meaning “one who is pure; chaste”

Nesha, Nessah, Nessia, Nessya, Nesta, Neta, Netia, Nessie, Nessy, Nessi, Nessey, Nessee, Nest, Nestia, Nesy, Netta, Netah, Nettah, Neysa, Niesha... nessa


(Hebrew) Those who are set apart; given

Nethinima, Nethynima, Nethynym, Nethynyma, Nethinimia, Nethinimea... nethinim


(Native American) One who is trustworthy

Netiss, Netisse, Netys, Netyss, Netysse... netis

Nerves, Injuries To

These have several causes. Continued or repeated severe pressure may damage a nerve seriously, as in the case of a crutch pressing into the armpit and causing drop-wrist. Bruising due to a blow which drives a super?cially placed nerve against a bone may damage, say, the radial nerve behind the upper arm. A wound may sever nerves, along with other structures; this accident is specially liable to occur to the ulnar nerve in front of the wrist when a person accidentally puts a hand and arm through a pane of glass.

Symptoms When a sensory nerve is injured or diseased, sensation is immediately more or less impaired in the part supplied by the nerve. Ulceration or death of the tissue supplied by the defective nerve may occur. When the nerve in question is a motor one, the muscles governed through it are instantly paralysed. In the latter case, the portion of nerve beyond the injury degenerates and the muscles gradually waste, losing their power of contraction in response to electrical applications. Finally, deformities result and the joints become ?xed. This is particularly noticeable when the ulnar nerve is injured, the hand and ?ngers taking up a claw-like position. The skin may also be affected.

Treatment Damaged or severed (peripheral) nerve ?bres should be sewn together, using microsurgery. Careful realignment of the nerve endings gives the ?bres an excellent chance of regenerating along the right channels. Full recovery is rare but, with regular physiotherapy to keep paralysed muscles in good shape and to prevent their shortening, the patient can expect to obtain a reasonable return of function after a few weeks, with improvement continuing over several months.... nerves, injuries to


An affiliation of providers through formal and informal contracts and agreements. Networks may contract externally to obtain administrative and financial services. The term can also refer to an individual’s social network. See “social network”.... network

Network Adequacy

Standards for provider networks to maintain sufficient numbers and types of providers to ensure accessibility of services without unreasonable delays.... network adequacy

Neuracanthus Sphaerostachyus


Family: Acanthaceae.

Habitat: Western Ghats, Deccan and Gujarat.

Folk: Ganther (Gujarat and Maharashtra), Ghosa-vel (Maharashtra).

Action: Root-paste applied to ringworm.... neuracanthus sphaerostachyus


See under SKIN, DISEASES OF.... neurodermatoses


A microscopic strand of CYTOPLASM that occurs in the cell body of a NEURON(E) as well as in the semi?uid content of the AXON of a nerve cell.... neurofibrils


See VON RECKLINGHAUSEN’S DISEASE.... neurofibromatosis


Drugs used to quieten disturbed patients, whether this is the result of brain damage, MANIA, DELIRIUM, agitated DEPRESSION or an acute behavioural disturbance. They relieve the ?orid PSYCHOTIC symptoms such as hallucinations and thought-disorder in SCHIZOPHRENIA and prevent relapse of this disorder when it is in remission.

Most of these drugs act by blocking DOPAMINE receptors. As a result they can give rise to the extrapyramidal effects of PARKINSONISM and may also cause HYPERPROLACTINAEMIA.

Troublesome side-effects may require control by ANTICHOLINERGIC drugs. The main antipsychotic drugs are: (i) chlorpromazine, methotrimeprazine and promazine, characterised by pronounced sedative effects and a moderate anticholinergic and extrapyramidal e?ect; (ii) pericyazine, pipothiazine and thioridazine, which have moderate sedative effects and marked anticholinergic effects, but less extrapyramidal effects than the other groups; (iii) ?uphenazine, perphenazine, prochlorperazine, sulpiride and tri?uoperazine, which have fewer sedative effects and fewer anticholinergic effects, but more pronounced extrapyramidal effects.... neuroleptics


The cell of a nerve responsible for transmission of the signal along the nerve fibre.... neurone

Neuromuscular Blockade

In clinical practice, the transmission of impulses at the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION may be blocked to paralyse temporarily a patient for a surgical procedure, or to assist treatment on the intensive care unit. There are two main types of drug, both of which competitively block the ACETYLCHOLINE receptors on the motor end plates. (1) Depolarising neuromuscular blocking agents: these act by ?rst producing stimulation at the receptor, and then by blocking it. There are characteristic muscle fasciculations before the rapid onset of paralysis which is of short duration (less than ?ve minutes with the commonly used drug, suxamethonium). The drug is removed from the receptor by the enzyme, CHOLINESTERASE.

(2) Non-depolarising neuromuscular blocking agents: these drugs occupy the receptor and prevent acetylcholine from becoming attached to it. However, in su?ciently high concentrations, acetylcholine will compete with the drug and dislodge it from the receptor; the e?ect of these drugs is reversed by giving an anticholinesterase, which allows the amount of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction to build up. These drugs have varying durations of action, but all are slower in onset and of longer duration than the depolarisers.... neuromuscular blockade


Also known as a nerve cell, this is the basic cellular building-block of the NERVOUS SYSTEM, which contains billions of neurones linked in a complex network and acting in di?erent combinations to keep the body informed about the outside world, and then to organise and activate appropriate responses. There are three main types of neurone:

Sensory These carry signals to the central nervous system (CNS) – the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD – from sensory receptors. These receptors respond to di?erent stimuli such as touch, pain, temperature, smells, sounds and light.

Motor These carry signals from the CNS to activate muscles or glands.

Interneurons These provide the interconnecting ‘electrical network’ within the CNS.

Structure Each neurone comprises a cell body, several branches called dendrites, and a single ?lamentous ?bre called an AXON. Axons may be anything from a few millimetres to a metre long; at their end are several branches acting as terminals through which electrochemical signals are sent to target cells, such as those of muscles, glands or the dendrites of another axon.

Axons of several neurones are grouped

together to form nerve tracts within the brain or spinal cord or nerve-?bres outside the CNS. Each nerve is surrounded by a sheath and contains bundles of ?bres. Some ?bres are medullated, having a sheath of MYELIN which acts as insulation, preventing nerve impulses from spreading beyond the ?bre conveying them.

The cellular part of the neurones makes up the grey matter of the brain and spinal cord – the former containing 600 million neurones. The dendrites meet with similar outgrowths from other neurones to form synapses. White matter is the term used for that part of the system composed of nerve ?bres.

Functions of nerves The greater part of the bodily activity originates in the nerve cells (see NERVE). Impulses are sent down the nerves which act simply as transmitters. The impulse causes sudden chemical changes in the muscles as the latter contract (see MUSCLE). The impulses from a sensory ending in the skin pass along a nerve-?bre to affect nerve cells in the spinal cord and brain, where they are perceived as a sensation. An impulse travels at a rate of about 30 metres (100 feet) per second. (See NERVOUS IMPULSE.)

The anterior roots of spinal nerves consist of motor ?bres leading to muscles, the posterior roots of sensory ?bres coming from the skin. The terms, EFFERENT and AFFERENT, are applied to these roots, because, in addition to motor ?bres, ?bres controlling blood vessels and secretory glands leave the cord in the anterior roots. The posterior roots contain, in addition to sensory ?bres, the nerve-?bres that transmit impulses from muscles, joints and other organs, which among other neurological functions provide the individual with his or her

proprioceptive faculties – the ability to know how various parts of the body are positioned.

The connection between the sensory and motor systems of nerves is important. The simplest form of nerve action is that known as automatic action. In this, a part of the nervous system, controlling, for example, the lungs, makes rhythmic discharges to maintain the regular action of the respiratory muscles. This controlling mechanism may be modi?ed by occasional sensory impressions and chemical changes from various sources.

Re?ex action This is an automatic or involuntary activity, prompted by fairly simple neurological circuits, without the subject’s consciousness necessarily being involved. Thus a painful pinprick will result in a re?ex withdrawal of the affected ?nger before the brain has time to send a ‘voluntary’ instruction to the muscles involved.

Voluntary Actions are more complicated than re?ex ones. The same mechanism is involved, but the brain initially exerts an inhibitory or blocking e?ect which prevents immediate re?ex action. Then the impulse, passing up to the cerebral hemispheres, stimulates cellular activity, the complexity of these processes depending upon the intellectual processes involved. Finally, the inhibition is removed and an impulse passes down to motor cells in the spinal cord, and a muscle or set of muscles is activated by the motor nerves. (Recent advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques have provided very clear images of nerve tracts in the brain which should lead to greater understanding of how the brain functions.) (See BRAIN; NERVOUS SYSTEM; SPINAL CORD.)... neuron(e)


A disease of the central or peripheral nervous systems. In more common reference, a neuropathy is primarily a disorder of peripheral nerves. CNS diseases are often life threatening; neuropathies are generally disorders of the control and sensory nerves out in the body.... neuropathies


A vague term applied to a person of nervous temperament, whose actions are largely determined by emotions or instincts rather than by reason.... neurotic


A neutron is one of the particles that enter into the structure of the atomic nucleus. (See ISOTOPE.)... neutron


Another name for polymorphonuclear leukocytes, the most common type of blood-carried white blood cell, and the first mobile resistance cell to come to the rescue in injury.... neutrophils


(Latin) From the place covered with snow

Nevah, Neve, Nevara, Nevarra, Nevaria, Nevarea, Nieve, Neiva, Nieva, Neive... neva


(Latin) From the state of Nevada; form of Neva, meaning “from the place covered with snow”... nevada


(American) Child from heaven... nevaeh


(Slavic) Resembling a butterfly Nevea, Neviah, Neviya, Nevia, Neviyah... neveah


(Scottish) Feminine form of Nevin; daughter of a saint Nevinah, Neveena, Nevyna, Nevinne, Nevynne, Neveene, Neveana, Neveane... nevina


(Gaelic) Born during the spring Newlynn, Newlynne, Newlin, Newlinn, Newlinne, Newlen, Newlenn, Newlenne... newlyn


(Turkish) The child of our desire Neylana, Neylanna, Neylann, Neylanne, Neylane... neylan


(Hebrew) One who is pure; a victorious woman

Nezia, Nezea, Nezeah, Neza, Nezah, Neziya, Neziyah... neziah


(Maori) From the trees; a clever woman... ngaio


(Maori) A yellow-haired woman Ngare, Ngair, Ngayre, Ngaira, Ngara, Nyree, Nyri, Nyrie, Nyrea, Ngaer, Ngaera... ngaire


(Vietnamese) As precious as jade ... ngoc


(Vietnamese) Woman of the moon... nguyet


(Vietnamese) Resembling velvet... nhung


(Native American) Resembling a fawn Niabie, Niabee, Niabey, Niaby, Nyabi, Nyabie, Niabea, Nyabea, Nyaby, Nyabey, Nyabee... niabi


(English) From the famous waterfall

Niagarah, Niagarra, Niagarrah, Nyagara, Nyagarra... niagara


(Irish) A bright woman; in mythology, daughter of the sea god... niamh


(Norse) In mythology, a follower of Siegfried

Nabelung, Nebelung, Nybelung... nibelung


(Hebrew / Spanish) A conqueror / of the victorious army Nicanora, Nicanorre, Nicanorra, Nicanore... nicanor


(American) A victorious young woman

Nachell, Nichele, Nishell, Nishelle, Nishele, Nychelle, Nychele, Nyshelle, Nyshele... nichelle


(English) Form of Berenice, meaning “one who brings victory” Niciah, Neecia, Nicija, Nicci, Nicea... nicia


(Greek) Feminine form of Nicholas; of the victorious people Necole, Niccole, Nichol, Nichole, Nicholle, Nickol, Nickole, Nicol, Nicola, Nikita, Nikki, Nikkole, Nikky, Niko, Nikol, Nikola, Nikole, Nikoleta, Nikoletta, Nikole, Nikolia, Niquole, Niquolle, Nychole, Nycholl, Nykia, Nycole, Nykole, Nykolia, Nyquole, Nyquolle, Nicoletta, Nicolette, Nicoleta, Nicolete, Nickie, Nicki, Nicky, Nickey, Nickee, Nichola, Nicolleta, Nicollet, Nakeeta, Nakita, Nickita, Nikeeta, Niquita, Nikolaevna, Nijole... nicole


(English) Woman from the capital of Cyprus

Nicosiah, Nicosea, Nicoseah, Nicotia, Nicotea... nicosia

Nicotiana Tabacum


Family: Solanaceae.

Habitat: Native to tropical America; cultivated mainly in Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal.

English: Tobacco.

Ayurvedic: Taamraparna, Dhuu- mrapatraa.

Unani: Tambaakhu.

Action: Leaves—decoction is locally applied for muscle relaxation in dislocation, strangulated hernia and orchitis. Also for arthralgia, lumbago, rheumatism and gout (an ointment is made by simmering the leaves in lard). Not used internally as a medicine.

The plant contains nicotine as the major alkaloid.

Toxic influence of cigarette and bidi smoking on carboxyhaemoglobin levels of the blood of regular smokers was compared and no significant difference was observed in both of them. A py- rolysed tobacco product, used in India as a dentifrice, when administered to rats, showed activity comparable to benzo(a)pyrene, a potent carcinogen.

Habitual consumption of betel quid containing tobacco shows a strong cy- totoxic potential.

Nicotiana rustica Linn. is known as Kalakatiyaa or Vfilaayati tobacco. Its nicotine content is high and is not suitable for cigarettes, cigars or bidis. Different variants of this tobacco are used for hookah, chewing and snuff.... nicotiana tabacum


(Native American / Arabic) An elflike woman

Needah, Nidah, Needa, Nyda, Nydah, Neada, Neadah... nida


(Spanish) One who is gracious Nydia, Nidiah, Nydiah, Nidea, Nideah, Nibia, Nibiah, Nibea, Nibeah, Nydia, Nydea, Nybia, Nybea... nidia


(Arabic) Feminine form of Nigel; a champion

Nigeliah, Nigela, Nigella, Nigelea... nigelia


(African) Daughter of the harvest Nigessa, Nigese, Nigesse, Nygesa, Nygessa... nigesa


(Scottish) A young woman; a maiden

Nighinn, Nigheen... nighean


(American) Born in the evening; child of the darkness Nite, Nyt, Nyte, Nyght... night

Night Sweats

Copious PERSPIRATION occurring in bed at night and found in conditions such as TUBERCULOSIS, BRUCELLOSIS and lymphomas (see LYMPHOMA), as well as thyrotoxicosis (see under THYROID GLAND, DISEASES OF), anxiety states and menopausal ?ushes (see MENOPAUSE).... night sweats

Night-sitting Service

A service that enables a caregiver night rest (e.g. where night disturbances of the older person receiving care are frequent).... night-sitting service

Nigella Damascena


Family: Ranunculaceae.

Habitat: Native to Southern Europe; cultivated in Indian gardens.

English: Love-in-a-mist.

Ayurvedic: Upakunchikaa (var.).

Siddha: Karumcheerakam.

Action: Seeds—carminative, emmenagogue, anthelmintic. A tincture prepared from the ripe seeds is used against catarrhal inflammations of liver and intestines in homoeopathy.... nigella damascena

Nigella Sativa


Habitat: Cultivated in Punjab, Bengal, Assam and Bihar.

English: Black Cumin, Small Fennel.

Ayurvedic: Kaalaajaaji, Kalikaa, Prthvikaa, Sthulajiraka, Sushavi, Upkunchikaa (the plant bears seeds of bigger size).

Unani: Kalonji, Kamaazaruus.

Siddha/Tamil: Karum seeragm.

Action: Seeds—stimulant, carminative, diuretic, lactiferous, em- menagogue (stimulate uterine contractions). Used in puerperal fever. Powdered seeds externally applied to boils. Essential oil— used in common cold, cough and bronchospasm.

The essential oil from seeds contains nigellone and 2-methyl-4-isopropyl-p- quinone. The oil contains carvone (4560%), d-limonene and cymene. Seeds contain fatty acids including palmitic, myristic, stearic, oleic, linoleic and linolenic. Beta-sitosterol is also present in the seeds.

Low concentration of nigellone has been shown to inhibit the release of histamine from mast cells in animals. (Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, 2007.)

The ethanolic extract of the seeds and the volatile oil from seeds showed antispasmodic activity in experimental animals, possibly due to a calcium antagonistic effect.

The oil exhibited CNS depressant and potent analgesic effects on experimental animals, possibly due to the presence of an opioid principle in the oil.

Dosage: Seed—1-3 g powder (API, Vol. I); 3-5 g powder (CCRAS).... nigella sativa


(Russian) Form of Veronica, meaning “displaying her true image” Nyka, Nicka, Nicca, Nica... nika


(Greek) One who brings victory; in mythology, goddess of victory Nikee, Nikey, Nykee, Nyke... nike


(Indian) Feminine form of Nikhil; one who is complete Nikhilah, Nikhilla, Nykhila, Nykhyla... nikhila


(Arabic) Resembling a precious blue stone

Neelam, Nylam, Nilima, Nilyma, Nylyma, Nylima, Nealam, Nealama... nilam


(Italian) Form of Brunhilda, meaning “a dark and noble battlemaiden” Nilda, Nild, Nilde, Nillda, Nillde, Nilld... nilda


(Egyptian) From the Nile river Nilea, Nilia, Nila, Nyla, Naila... nile

Nilgirianthus Ciliatus

(Nees) Bremek.

Synonym: Strobilanthes ciliatus Nees.

Family: Acanthaceae.

Habitat: Western Ghats from South Kanara to Travancore, in evergreen forests.

Ayurvedic: Sahachara (pale-rose- flowered var. used in Kerala). (Sahachara is equated with Barleria prionitis in other regions.)

Siddha/Tamil: Kurinji, Sinnangur- inji.

Action: Used against neurological disorders, sciatica, glandular swellings and oedema.... nilgirianthus ciliatus


(Arabic) Resembling the water lily Neelofar, Nylofar, Nealofar... nilofar


(Indian) Of the heavens... niloufer


(Scandinavian) Feminine form of Neil; a champion

Nilsina, Nilsyne, Nilsyna, Nylsine, Nylsyna, Nylsina, Nylsyne, Nilsa... nilsine


(Arabic) Blessed by God Ni’mah, Nima, Nymah, Nyma, Nimat, Nymat... nimah


(African) A princess; daughter born to royalty

Nimeeshah, Nimiesha, Nimisha, Nimysha, Nymeesha, Nymisha, Nymysha, Nimeasha, Nymeasha... nimeesha


(Spanish / Native American) A little girl / a fiery woman

Ninah, Nyna, Neena, Neenah, Nena, Neneh, Neina, Nenna, Ninacska, Nineta, Ninete, Ninetta, Ninette, Ninnette, Ninon, Ninochka, Ninoska, Ninotchka... nina


(African) As solid as a stone Ninie, Niny, Niney, Ninee, Ninea... nini


(Greek) Resembling a fern; in mythology, a weeping queen who turned to stone

Niobee, Niobeh, Nyobe, Nyobee, Niobey, Nyobey, Niobea, Nyobea, Niobi, Nyobi, Niobie, Nyobie... niobe


(Indian) From the brook Nipah, Nypa, Nypah... nipa

Nipah Virus

Virus first identified from the village of Nipah in Malaysia. Carried by flying foxes (fruit bats). Can infect pigs and humans.... nipah virus

Nipa Palm

Nipa fruticans

Description: This palm has a short, mainly underground trunk and very large, erect leaves up to 6 meters tall. The leaves are divided into leaflets. A flowering head forms on a short erect stern that rises among the palm leaves. The fruiting (seed) head is dark brown and may be 30 centimeters in diameter.

Habitat and Distribution: This palm is common on muddy shores in coastal regions throughout eastern Asia.

Edible Parts: The young flower stalk and the seeds provide a good source of water and food. Cut the flower stalk and collect the juice. The juice is rich in sugar. The seeds are hard but edible.

Other Uses: The leaves are excellent as thatch and coarse weaving material.... nipa palm

Nipples, Diseases Of

See BREASTS, DISEASES OF.... nipples, diseases of


(Hebrew) Of the plowed field Niria, Nirea, Niran, Nirela, Nirit... nira


(Hebrew) Resembling a flowering plant

Nurit, Nurita, Nureet, Nirita, Nureeta... nirit


(English) In a state of ultimate bliss

Nirvanah, Nervana, Nirvanna, Nervanna, Nyrvana, Nyrvanna, Narvana, Narvanna... nirvana


(Arabic) A lady Neesaa, Nisaa, Neesa, Neasa... nisa


(Indian) Born at night Neesha, Niesha, Neisha, Nysha, Neasha... nisha


(African) One who wins awards Nishann, Nishanne, Nishana, Nishanna, Nyshan, Nyshana... nishan


(Japanese) Woman from the West Nishie, Nishee, Nishey, Nishy, Nishea... nishi


(Indian) A woman of faith Nishthia, Nishthea... nishtha


(Scandinavian / Hebrew) A friendly elf / one who tests others Nisse, Nissah, Nissnana, Nissanit, Nyssa, Nysa, Nysse... nissa


(Native American / Spanish / Hebrew) Resembling a bear / God is giving / having grace

Nitah, Neeta, Nyta, Neetah, Nytah, Neata, Neatah... nita


(Indian) One who is deeply rooted Nitarah, Nitarra, Nitarrah, Nytara, Nytarra... nitara


(Native American) As precious as a gem

Nitikah, Nityka, Nytika, Nytyka... nitika

Nitric Oxide (no)

A naturally occurring chemical that performs a wide range of biological roles. It is involved in the laying down of memories in the BRAIN; in killing viruses, bacteria and cancer cells; and in helping to control blood pressure. NO, comprising a nitrogen atom attached to an oxygen one, is one of the smallest of biologically active compounds as well as having such diverse functions. The chemical is a muscle relaxant and is important in maintaining the heart and circulation in good condition. NO is also the toxic agent released by macrophages (see MACROPHAGE) to kill invading germs and spreading cancer cells. It acts as an essential NEUROTRANSMITTER and protects nerve cells against stress. Researchers are studying how it might be used to treat diseases, for example by using it as an inhaled gas in certain respiratory conditions.... nitric oxide (no)

Nitrogen Mustards

The nitrogen analogues of mustard gas are among the most important ALKYLATING AGENTS used in the treatment of various forms of malignant disease. They include chlormethine, busulphan, chlorambucil and melphalan.... nitrogen mustards


A compound or molecule that contains nitrogen; in my context, a substance that is or was a part of protein metabolism.... nitrogenous

Nitrous Oxide Gas

Also known as laughing gas, this is (at ordinary pressures) a colourless, sweetish-smelling gas. It is used with oxygen to provide relief of pain (see ANALGESICS; PAIN) and mild ANAESTHESIA during childbirth, during painful dental procedures, and at the site of major accidents. It has a rapid action and the effects do not last for long.... nitrous oxide gas


(German) Form of Irene, meaning “a peaceful woman” Nitsah, Nytsa, Nytsah... nitsa


(Native American) My daughter Nitunah, Nytuna, Nytunah, Nitunna, Nitoona, Nytoona, Nitouna, Nytouna... nituna


(Indian) An eternal beauty Nithya, Nithyah, Nityah... nitya


(Hebrew) A budding young woman; a blossom

Nitzah, Nitzana, Nitzanna, Nitzaniya, Nytza, Nytzana, Nytzaniya, Nizana... nitza


(Indian) One who is dedicated to helping others

Niveditah, Nivedeeta, Nivedyta, Nyvedita, Nyvedyta, Nivedeata, Nyvedeata... nivedita


(German) A beautiful water sprite Nixi, Nixy, Nixey, Nixee, Nixea... nixie


(Hindi) Realizing one’s destiny; fate Niyatie, Niyatee, Niyatey, Niyaty, Niyatea... niyati


(Native American) A beautiful woman

Nizhonie, Nyzhoni, Nyzhonie, Nizhony, Nizhoney, Nizhonea, Nyzhony, Nyzhoney, Nyzhonea, Nizhonee, Nyzhonee... nizhoni


(African) An upstanding woman Njemille, Njemyle, Njemylle... njemile


(African) One who is loyal Nkechie, Nkechy, Nkechey, Nkechee, Nkechea... nkechi


(Hebrew) A howling woman Noba, Nobia, Nobiah, Nobea, Nobeah... nobah


NERVE endings which detect and respond to painful or unpleasant stimuli.... nociceptors

Nocturnal Enuresis

The involuntary passing of URINE during sleep. It is a condition predominantly of childhood, and usually genetically determined. Sometimes, however, it is a symptom of anxiety in a child, especially if there has been over-rigorous attempts at toilet-training or hostile or unloving behaviour by a parent. It can also be provoked by apparently unimportant changes in a child’s life – for example, moving house. In a small minority of cases it is due to some organic cause such as infection of the genitourinary tract.

The age at which a child achieves full control of bladder function varies considerably. Such control is sometimes achieved in the second year, but much more commonly not until 2–3 years old. Some children do not normally achieve such control until the fourth, or even ?fth, year, so that paediatricians are reluctant to make this diagnosis before a child is aged six.

The approach consists essentially of reassurance and ?rm but kindly and understanding training. In most cases the use of a ‘star chart’ and a buzzer alarm which wakens the child should he or she start passing urine is helpful. Where there are relationship or social problems, these need to be considered in treating the child. The few who have urinary infection or irritable bladders may respond to drug tretament.

Those who do not respond may be helped by DDAVP, an analogue of a pituitary hormone, which reduces the amount of urine produced overnight. It is licensed for use for three months at a time. Some children prefer to reserve it for occasions such as sleeping away from home. The antidepressant imipramine can help some children but has to be used cautiously because of side-effects.

For help, contact nocturnal enuresis

Nodular Worms

Nematodes which live in nodules in the wall of the large intestine. Belong to the genus Oesophagostomum. Infect a range of mammal species including humans.... nodular worms


(French) Born at Christmastime Noelle, Noela, Noele, Noeleen, Noelene, Noeline, Noeliz, Noell, Noella, Noelleen, Noelynn, Nowel, Noweleen, Nowell, Noe, Noelia, Nohely... noel


(Hawaiian) Born of the mist of heaven

Noelanie, Noelany, Noelaney, Noelanee, Nohealani, Nohealanie, Nohealanee, Noelanea, Nohealanea... noelani


(Hebrew) A bright woman; one who is lustrous Noga... nogah


(Native American) A daughter of the moon

Nokomiss, Nokomisse, Nokomys, Nokomyss, Nokomysse... nokomis


(Irish) Form of Finola, meaning “one who is fair; a white-shouldered woman” Nolah, Nolla, Nollah, Nowla, Nuala, Nualla, Nula, Nulla, Noola, Noolla, Nuallan... nola


(Irish) A champion of the people Nollan, Nolana, Noland, Nolanda, Nolen, Nolene, Nolin, Nolynn... nolan


(Native American) Of the sun Nolchia, Nolchea... nolcha


See ANTIDEPRESSANT DRUGS.... nomifensine

Nominal Group Technique

A face-to-face group judgement technique in which participants generate silently, in writing, responses to a given question/problem; responses are collected and posted, but not identified by author, for all to see; responses are openly clarified, often in a round robin format; further iterations may follow; and a final set of responses is established by voting/ranking.... nominal group technique

Nominal Scale

See “measurement scale”.... nominal scale


(African) One who is merciful Nomusah, Nomusha, Nomusia, Nomusea, Nomushia, Nomushea... nomusa

Non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (nsaids)

These act by inhibiting the formation of PROSTAGLANDINS which are mediators of INFLAMMATION. They act both as ANALGESICS to relieve pain, and as inhibitors of in?ammation. Aspirin is a classic example of such a compound. Newer compounds have been synthesised with the aim of producing fewer and less severe side-effects. They are sometimes preferred to aspirin for the treatment of conditions such as RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS, OSTEOARTHRITIS, sprains, strains and sports injuries. Their main side-effects are gastrointestinal: gastric ulcers and gastric haemorrhage may result (see STOMACH, DISEASES OF). This is because prostaglandins are necessary for the production of the mucous protective coat in the stomach and, when the production of prostaglandin is inhibited, the protection of the stomach is compromised. NSAIDs should therefore be used with caution in patients with DYSPEPSIA and gastric ulceration. The various nonsteroidal anti-in?ammatory drugs di?er little from each other in e?cacy, although there is considerable variation in patient response. Ibuprofen is one of the ?rst choices in this group of drugs as it combines good e?cacy with a low incidence of side-effects and administration is only required twice daily. Other drugs in this series include diclofenac, fenbufen, fenclofenac, fenoprofen, feprazone, ?urbiprofen, indomethacin, indoprofen, ketoprofen, ketorolac, naproxen, piroxicam, sulindac, tiaprofenic acid and tolmetin.... non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (nsaids)


(Latin) The ninth-born child Nonah, Noni, Nonie, Nonna, Nonnah, Nonnie, Nonni, Nuna, Nunna... nona


A person who is aged between 90 and 99 years.... nonagenarian

Nongovernmental Organization (ngo)

An independent, national or international organization. These organizations may be run either for profit or not for profit.... nongovernmental organization (ngo)

Nonparametric Statistics

Statistical techniques designed to be used when the data being analysed depart from the distribution that can be analysed with parametric statistics.... nonparametric statistics


(English) Form of Eleanor, meaning “the shining light”; form of Honora, meaning “having a good name and integrity; an honorable woman”

Norah, Noora, Norella, Norelle, Norissa, Norri, Norrie, Norry, Noreen, Noreena, Norene, Norine, Norena, Norina, Norma, Normina, Normie, Normee, Normi, Neorah, Noirin, Norabel... nora


(German) Femining form of Norbert; a bright heroine from the North Norberte, Norbertha, Norberaht, Norberthe... norberta


(German) Woman from the North Nordika, Nordicka, Nordyca, Nordyka, Nordycka, Norda, Norell, Norelle, Norella, Norele, Norela... nordica

Norfolk Island Pine

Protection, anti hunger ... norfolk island pine


(Japanese) One who upholds the law Nori... noriko


The expected value for something measurable. Most people have measurements lying to either side of the norm. Traditionally in medicine, only those lying beyond two standard deviations from the norm are considered likely to be abnormal (approximately 3 per cent of those measured). (See STANDARD DEVIATION.)... norm


A term used in several di?erent senses. Generally speaking, it is applied to anything which agrees with the regular and established type. In chemistry, the term is applied to solutions of acids or bases of such strength that each litre contains the number of grams corresponding to the molecular weight of the substance in question. In physiology the term ‘normal’ is applied to solutions of such strength that, when mixed with a body ?uid, they are ISOTONIC and cause no disturbance: for example, normal saline solution.... normal

Normal Curve

A bell shaped curve that results when a normal distribution is graphed.... normal curve


(French) Woman from Normandy

Normandi, Normandee, Normandy, Normandey, Normandea... normandie


(Scandinavian) In mythology, goddess of fate Nornah, Norne, Norn... norna


(Etruscan) In mythology, goddess of chance Nortiah... nortia

Norwegian Scabies

A severe form of scabies presenting often in immunosuppressed individuals, often presenting with a generalised dermatitis, extensive scaling and occasionally vesiculation and crusting. The severe itch may be reduced or absent. Secondary infection can develop. See also Scabies.... norwegian scabies

Nose, Disorders Of

Certain skin diseases – particularly CHILBLAIN, ACNE, LUPUS and ERYSIPELAS – tend to affect the NOSE, and may be very annoying. Redness of the skin may be caused by poor circulation in cold weather.

Acute in?ammation is generally the result of a viral infection (see COLD, COMMON) affecting the mucous membrane and paranasal sinuses (see SINUSITIS); less commonly it results from the inhalation of irritant gases. Boils may develop just inside the entrance to the nose, causing pain; these are potentially troublesome as infection can spread to the sinuses. HAY FEVER is one distressing form of acute rhinitis.

Malformations are of various kinds. Racial and familial variations in the external nose occur and may be a reason for RHINOPLASTY. Di?erences in the size and shape of the nose occur, often forming the starting point for chronic in?ammation of the nose, perennial rhinitis (all the year round), hay fever, or ASTHMA. More commonly, obstruction results from nasal polyps or adenoids, leading to inhalation through the mouth. Adenoids are an overgrowth of glandular tissue at the back of the throat, into which the nose opens. Polyps are growths of soft jelly-like character: they arise from chronic in?ammation associated with allergic rhinitis, chronic sinusitis, asthma, and aspirin abuse. Large polyps can cause erosion of the nasal bones and should be surgically removed.

Bleeding (see HAEMORRHAGE).

Foreign bodies At ?rst these may not cause any symptoms, but in time they can cause obstruction of the affected nostril with a foul-smelling bloody discharge. The problem is common with small children who tend to push small objects into their noses. Foreign bodies require removal, sometimes in hospital. Anyone attempting to remove a foreign body should take care not to push it further into the nose.

Loss of sense of smell, or anosmia, may be temporary or permanent. Temporary anosmia is caused by conditions of the nose which are reversible, whereas permanent

anosmia is caused by conditions which destroy the OLFACTORY NERVES. Temporary conditions are those such as the common cold, or other in?ammatory conditions of the nasal mucosa or the presence of nasal polyps (see above). Permanent anosmia may follow in?uenzal NEURITIS or it may also follow injuries to the brain and fractures of the skull involving the olfactory nerves.

Injury to nose The commonest injury is a fracture of the nasal bones or displacement of the cartilage that forms the bridge of the nose. The nasal SEPTUM may also be displaced sideways by a lateral blow. Sporting activities, especially boxing and rugby football, are commonly a cause of nasal injury. If a fracture is suspected, or if there is substantial tissue swelling, an X-ray examination is necessary. Resetting a damaged bone should be done either immediately, before swelling makes surgery di?cult, or ten days or so later when the swelling has subsided. Results are usually good, ensuring a clear airway as well as a restored pro?le. It is not unusual for the cheek-bone to sustain a depressed fracture at the same time as the nose is broken. Careful assessment and prompt surgery are called for. (For more information on fractures, see under BONE, DISORDERS OF).

Rhinitis In?ammation of the MUCOUS MEMBRANE lining the nose. Symptoms include nasal discharge and obstruction, sneezing and sometimes pain in the sinuses. There are several types of rhinitis:

•Allergic – due to allergy to dust, pollen or other airborne particles. Also called hay fever, allergic rhinitis causes a runny nose, sneezing and local congestion. It affects up to 10 per cent of the population and is more common in people suffering from other allergic disorders such as asthma or eczema (see DERMATITIS). Skin tests help to identify the causative ALLERGEN which the sufferer can then try to avoid, although in the case of pollen this is di?cult. Decongestant drugs, ANTIHISTAMINE DRUGS, and CORTICOSTEROIDS may help, as can SODIUM CROMOGLYCATE inhaled regularly during the pollen season. A desensitisation course to a particular allergen sometimes provides long-term relief.

Atrophic rhinitis is caused by a deterioration in the nasal mucous membrane as a result of chronic bacterial infection, nasal surgery or AGEING. Symptoms include persistent nasal infection and discharge and loss of sense of smell. ANTIBIOTICS and, in some cases, OESTROGENS alleviate the symptoms.

Hypertrophic rhinitis results from repeated nasal infection, and is characterised by thickened nasal membranes and congestion of the nasal veins. Removal of thickened mucosa may help severe cases.

Vasomotor rhinitis occurs when the mucosa becomes oversensitive to stimuli such as pollutants, temperature changes or certain foods or medicines. It may occur as a result of emotional disturbances and is common in pregnancy.

Viral rhinitis occurs as a result of infection by the common cold virus; treatment is symptomatic. Sinusitis is sometimes a complication.... nose, disorders of


(African) Mother of the homeland... nosiwe


Pain in the back... notalgia

Nothosaerva Brachiata


Family: Amaranthaceae.

Habitat: Distributed in tropical Africa and Asia; found throughout the plains of India.

Folk: Dhaulaa-findauri (Rajasthan).

Action: Used as a substitute for Paashaanabheda (Aerva lanata Juss. ex Schult., Amaranthaceae) for its diuretic and lithotriptic properties.... nothosaerva brachiata

Notifiable Diseases

Diseases, usually of an infectious nature, which are required by law to be made known to a health o?cer or local authority. (See INFECTION.) Certain occupational diseases are also noti?able.

Noti?able diseases in the UK (For more information on a speci?c disease, refer to the separate dictionary entry.) Acute encephalitis Acute poliomyelitis Anthrax Cholera Diphtheria Dysentery (amoebic or bacillary) Ebola virus disease Food poisoning Lassa fever Leprosy (reported to Chief Medical O?cer at the Department of Health) Leptospirosis Malaria Marburg disease Measles Meningitis Meningococcal septicaemia (without meningitis) Mumps Ophthalmia neonatorum Paratyphoid fever Plague Rabies Relapsing fever Rubella Scarlet fever Smallpox Tetanus Tuberculosis Typhoid fever Typhus Viral haemorrhagic fever (including Lassa fever) Viral hepatitis Whooping cough Yellow fever

Reporting AIDS is voluntary (and in con?dence) to the Director, Communicable Diseases Surveillance Centre (PHLS).... notifiable diseases

Notonia Grandiflora


Family: Compositae; Asteraceae.

Habitat: Konkan,Western Ghats, Deccan and hills of South India.

English: Common Fleshy Rag-weed.

Siddha/Tamil: Mosakathu-thalai.

Folk: Waandar-Roti, Gaidar (Maharashtra).

Action: Plant—feebly aperient. Used externally for pimples.... notonia grandiflora


(Arabic) Having an inner light Nureh, Nourah, Nure... noura


(Egyptian) A superior woman Nurbese, Nourbeze, Nurbeze... nourbese


(Iranian) A sweet woman; one who is pleasant

Noushah, Noushia, Noushiah, Noushea, Nousheah... nousha


(Latin / Native American) New; a bright star / a butterfly chaser Novah, Novia, Novea, Novelle, Novele, Novella, Novela, Novy, Novey, Novee, Novie, Novi... nova


(American) Born in the month of November Novimber, Novymber... november


(Spanish) A girlfriend Noviah, Novea, Noveah... novia


(Arabic) One who is beautifully ornamented

Noyah, Noy, Noye... noya


(Japanese) One who brings hope to others

Nozomie, Nozomy, Nozomey, Nozomee, Nozomea... nozomi


(African) The sixth-born child... nsia


(African) The seventh-born child... nsonowa


(African) A starlike woman... nthanan


(Egyptian) A woman from Nubia; resembling a cloud

Nubea, Nubiah, Nubeah, Nubiane, Nubiann, Nubianna, Nubiana, Nubianne... nubia

Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor

See REVERSE TRANSCRIPTASE INHIBITOR.... nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor

Nucleus Pulposus

The inner core of an intervertebral disc. (See SPINAL COLUMN.)... nucleus pulposus


(Arabic) The golden daughter Nudhar, Nudara, Nudaria, Nudarea... nudar


(Arabic) Having great wisdom Nuhah... nuha


(Native American) The younger daughter

Nukah, Nucka, Nucca... nuka


1 The upper portion of a fraction used to calculate a rate or ratio. 2 For a performance measure, the cases in the denominator group that experience events specified in a review criterion. See “denominator”.... numerator


(Italian) One who makes announcements; a messenger Nunziah, Nunzea, Nunzeah, Nunciata, Nuncia, Nuncea, Nunziata, Nunziatina, Nunziateena, Nunziatyna... nunzia


(Arabic) Woman of the light Noor, Nour, Noura, Nur, Nureen, Nurine, Nuru... nura


(Turkish) Born under the bright moon

Nuraye, Nurai, Nurae... nuray


(Catalan) Refers to the Virgin Mary Nuriah, Nurea, Nureah, Nuriya, Nuriyah... nuria


(Arabic) A luminous woman Nurine, Nurina, Nuryne, Nureen, Nureene, Nuryna, Nureena... nurin

Nurse Assistant / Aide

A staff member who has completed a specific requirement of coursework and clinical training and is responsible for lower levels of nursing care and assisting individuals with their daily living activities, such as bathing, toileting, eating and moving about.... nurse assistant / aide

Nurse Logs

In old-growth forests, these are ancient downed trees that rot so slowly that they themselves become the fundus and growth media for new and growing trees and other life-forms.... nurse logs

Nyctanthes Arbor-tristis


Family: Oleaceae; Nyctanthaceae.

Habitat: Outer Himalaya, Assam, West Bengal; cultivated in many parts of India.

English: Tree of Sorrow, Night Jasmine, Coral Jasmine.

Ayurvedic: Paarijaata, Shephaali, Shephaalikaa, Mandaara.

Unani: Harasingaar.

Siddha: Pavazha mattigai.

Action: Leaves—bitter tonic, chola- gogue, febrifuge, anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, hypotensive, respiratory stimulant. Used for fevers, rheumatism, obstinate sciatica.

The leaves and seeds contain iri- doid glycosides; other constituents reported from the leaves are mannitol, beta-amyrin, beta-sitosterol, hentria- contane, benzoic acid, astragalin, nico- tiflorin, oleanolic acid, nyctanthic acid, friedelin and lupeol. The seeds contain a polysaccharide glucomannan.

All parts of the plant are used for allergic disorders. Alcoholic extract of the plant was found to inhibit passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) in experimental animals. The inhibition was comparable to standard drugs used for allergy and bronchial asthma.

Ethanolic extract of the leaves, flowers and seeds demonstrated strong stimulation of antigen specific and non-specific immunity in mice.

The 50% ethanolic extracts of the leaves, flowers, seeds and roots were found effective in treating caecal amoe- biasis caused by Entamoeba histolytica in rats. But the extracts did not exhibit direct amoebicidal activity in vitro against trophozoites of the parasite.

The iridoid glucosides showed an- tileishmanial activity both in vivo and in vitro.

Dosage: Leaf—10-20 ml juice. (CCRAS.)

Seeds—used in diabetes, also in cutaneous diseases. Filaments— astringent and cooling; prescribed for bleeding piles and menorrhagia. Plant—toxic on the nervous system.

The flowers contain flavonoids including quercetin, kaempferol, api- genin. Cardiac glucoside, nymphalin, showed sedative action in small doses.

The petroleum ether extract of the plant of Nymphaea species, given at a dose of 300 mg/kg i.p. prevented necrosis of the liver tissue and promoted, to some extent, liver regeneration in CCl4-induced toxicity.

Dosage: Dried flowers—3-6 g (API, Vol. III); seed—3-6 g. powder (CCRAS.).... nyctanthes arbor-tristis


(English) Of the nest Nydiah... nydia


(Welsh) A pious woman Nefyn, Nyfaine, Nyfayne, Nyfayn, Nefayn, Nefain, Nyfaen, Nefaen... nyfain


(Greek) In mythology, a beautiful minor deity Nymph, Nymphe... nympha

Nymphaea Stellata


Family: Nymphaeaceae.

Habitat: A native to Southeast Asia; found in ponds and ditches throughout India.

English: Indian Blue Water-lily.

Ayurvedic: Nilotpala (blue or voilet-flowered var.).

Unani: Nilofar.

Siddha/Tamil: Neelothpalam.

Action: See N. alba.... nymphaea stellata

Nymphoides Macrospermum


Family: Menyanthaceae.

Habitat: South India.

Folk: Granthik Tagar.

Action: Sedative, antispasmodic. Used in neurological disorders and colic.

Stalks and leaves—pounded with oil and applied to ulcers.

See Limnanthemum cristatum Griseb.... nymphoides macrospermum


Nurses are the largest single group of sta? working in the health service. There are more than 330,000 quali?ed nursing posts in NHS trusts and primary care across the UK. Would-be registered nurses (RNs) do either a three-year diploma programme or a four-year degree. An increasing number of nurses are now acquiring degrees, either as their initial quali?cation or by studying part-time later in their career. This has led to an often heated debate over the nature of nursing and whether there is now too much emphasis on academic theory at the expense of hands-on care.

Nursing is changing rapidly, and today’s nurses are expected to take on an extended role – often performing tasks which were once the sole preserve of doctors, such as diagnosing, prescribing drugs and admitting and discharging patients.

There are four main branches of nursing: adult, child, mental health and learning disability. Student nurses qualify in one of these areas and then apply to go on the nursing register. This is held by nursing’s regulatory body, the Council for Nursing and Midwifery. Nurses are expected to abide by the Council’s Code of Professional Conduct. The organisation’s main role is protecting the public and it is responsible for monitoring standards and dealing with allegations of misconduct. There are more than 637,000 quali?ed nurses on the Council’s register, and this is the main pool from which the NHS and other employers recruit.

The criticisms about nurses’ education being too academic, and persisting problems of recruitment of nurses into the NHS, were among factors prompting a strategic government review of the status, training, pay and career opportunities for nurses and other health professionals. The new model emphasises the practical aspects of the education programme with a better response to the needs of patients and the NHS. It also o?ers nurses a more ?exible career path and education linked more closely with practice development and research, so as to provide greater scope for continuing professional education and development.

About 60 per cent of RNs work in NHS hospitals and community trusts. But an increasing number are choosing to work elsewhere, either in the private sector or in jobs such as school nursing, occupational health or for NHS Direct, the nurse-led telephone helpline. Others have dropped out of nursing altogether. The health service is facing a shortage of quali?ed nurses and many trust employers have resorted to overseas recruitment drives. The government has launched a major nurse recruitment and retention campaign and is promoting family-friendly employment practices to lure those with a nursing quali?cation currently working outside the NHS back into the workforce. Nursing is a mainly female profession and a third of nurses work part-time.

Nurses’ pay has for long compared unfavourably with other professional employment opportunities, despite being determined by an independent Pay Review Body. With the recruitment of nurses a perennial problem, the government’s strategy, Making a Di?erence, is to set up a new pay system o?ering greater ?exibility and opportunities for nurses and other health-service sta?. In 2005, a newly quali?ed sta? nurse earned around £16,000 a year, while one of the new grade of consultant nurses could command an annual salary of between £27,000 and £42,000. Nurse consultants were introduced in spring 2000 as a means of allowing nurses to progress up the career ladder while maintaining a clinical role.

The nurse of today is increasingly likely to be part of a multidisciplinary team, working alongside a range of other professionals from doctors and physiotherapists to social workers and teachers. A further sign of the times is that many registered nurses are being asked to act in a supervisory role, delegating tasks to nonregistered nurses working as health-care assistants and auxiliaries. In recognition of the latter’s increasing role, the Royal College of Nursing, the main professional association and trade union for nurses, has now agreed to extend membership to health-care assistants with a Scottish/National Vocational Quali?cation at level three.

Midwifery Midwives (see MIDWIFE) are practitioners who o?er advice and support to women before, during and after pregnancy. They are regulated by the Council for Nursing and Midwifery (formerly the UK Central Council for Nursing, Midwifery and Health Visiting). Registered nurses can take an 18month course to become a midwife, and there is also a three-year programme for those who wish to enter the profession directly. Midwifery courses lead to a diploma or degree-level quali?cation. Most midwives work for the NHS and, as with nursing, there are problems recruiting and retaining sta?.

Health visiting Health visitors are registered nurses who work in the community with a range of groups including families, the homeless and older people. They focus on preventing ill-health and o?er advice on a range of topics from diet to child behavioural problems. They are employed by health trusts, primary-care groups and primary-care trusts.... nursing

Nursing Facility

Licensed facility that provides skilled nursing care and rehabilitation services to functionally disabled, injured or sick individuals.... nursing facility

Nursing Record

Data recorded by nurses concerning the nursing care given to the patient, including judgement of the patient’s progress.... nursing record


(African) Born during the daylight... nuru


(Hungarian) Woman of grace Nusah, Nussa, Nussah, Nusi, Nusie, Nusia, Nusea... nusa


Fertility, Prosperity, Love, Luck... nuts


(Native American) Child of my heart Nutta... nuttah


(African) Resembling an antelope Nyalah, Nyalla, Nyallah... nyala


(African) One who is humble Nyarae, Nyara, Nyaria, Nyarea... nyarai


(English) In Arthurian legend, another name for the lady of the lake Nineve, Niniane, Ninyane, Nyniane, Ninieve, Niniveve... nyneve

Nymphaea Alba


Family: Nymphaeaceae.

Habitat: Kashmir (in lakes).

English: European White Water-lily.

Ayurvedic: Kumuda, Utpala (white- flowered var.) (Mahotpla is the synonym of Nelumbo nucifera.)

Unani: Nilofar.

Siddha/Tamil: Alli (water lilies).

Action: Flowers and rhizomes—astringent, demulcent, mild sedative, spasmolytic, antiseptic, antimicrobial. Used in the form of an infusion internally for chronic diarrhoea, as a douche for leucorrhoea and vaginitis, as a gargle for sore throat. Also given internally in prostatis.... nymphaea alba

Nymphaea Rubra

Roxb. ex Salisb.

Synonym: N. nouchali Burm. f. N. lotus Hook. f. Thoms non L.

Family: Nymphaeaceae.

Habitat: Throughout the warmer parts of India.

English: Indian Red Water-lily.

Ayurvedic: Kumuda, utpala (red-flowered var.).

Siddha/Tamil: Alli-tamarai, Vellam- bal.

Action: Flower—astringent, cardiac tonic; used in palpitation of heart. Rhizomes—used for dysentery and dyspepsia.... nymphaea rubra


(African) A snakelike woman Nyokah, Nioka, Niokah... nyoka


(Ukrainian) A graceful woman Nyrurah, Nyrurra, Niura, Neura... nyura

Office For National Statistics (ons)

This is an executive agency of the UK government formed by an amalgamation in 1990 of the Central Statistical O?ce and the O?ce of Population Censuses and Surveys (OPCS). The ONS compiles and publishes statistics on national and local populations, including their social and economic situation and contributions to the country’s economy. It also records the demographic patterns of births, marriages and deaths, including the medical cause of death. The former OPCS organised a national ten-yearly census and ONS is carrying on this activity. The census is based on the actual presence of individuals in a house or institutions on a given night. The ?gures provide government departments and local authorities with information for planning services.... office for national statistics (ons)

Olfactory Nerves

The nerves of SMELL. Each nerve detects smell by means of hair-like receptors positioned in the mucous membrane lining the roof of the nasal cavity (see NOSE).... olfactory nerves

Pelagia Noctiluca

A very common jellyfish known as the little mauve stinger, which has occurred in severe `swarms’ in the Mediterranean Sea. The sting causes moderate skin pain, but may also cause systemic symptoms such as cough, sneezing, painful breathing and nasal catarrh. It has not caused death, but one severe case of potentially-fatal anaphylaxis occurred in the wife of the then Greek Prime Minister.... pelagia noctiluca

Peripheral Neuritis

In?ammation of the nerves (see NERVE) in the outlying parts of the body. (See NEURITIS.)... peripheral neuritis

Parenteral Nutrition

In severely ill patients – especially those who have had major surgery or those with SEPSIS, burns, acute pancreatitis (see PANCREAS, DISORDERS OF) and renal failure – the body’s reserves of protein become exhausted. This results in weight loss; reduction in muscle mass; a fall in the serum albumin (see ALBUMINS) and LYMPHOCYTE count; and an impairment of cellular IMMUNITY. Severely ill patients are unable to take adequate food by mouth to repair the body protein loss so that enteral or parenteral nutrition is required. Enteral feeding is through the gastrointestinal tract with the aid of a nasogastric tube; parenteral nutrition involves the provision of carbohydrate, fat and proteins by intravenous administration.

The preferred route for the infusion of hyperosmolar solutions is via a central venous catheter (see CATHETERS). If parenteral nutrition is required for more than two weeks, it is advisable to use a long-term type of catheter such as the Broviac, Hickman or extra-corporeal type, which is made of silastic material and is inserted via a long subcutaneous tunnel; this not only helps to ?x the catheter but also minimises the risk of ascending infection.

Dextrose is considered the best source of carbohydrate and may be used as a 20 per cent or 50 per cent solution. AMINO ACIDS should be in the laevo form and should contain the correct proportion of essential (indispensable) and non-essential amino acids. Preparations are available with or without electrolytes and with or without fat emulsions.

The main hazards of intravenous feeding are blood-borne infections made possible by continued direct access to the circulation, and biochemical abnormalities related to the composition of the solutions infused. The continuous use of hypertonic solutions of glucose can cause HYPERGLYCAEMIA and glycosuria and the resultant POLYURIA may lead to dehydration. Treatment with INSULIN is needed when hyper-osmolality occurs, and in addition the water and sodium de?cits will require to be corrected.... parenteral nutrition

Phyla Nodiflora

(L.) E. Greene.

Synonym: Lippia nodiflora A. Rich.

Family: Verbenaceae.

Habitat: Throughout India, near fresh water bodies.

English: Jalapippali, Shaaradi, Shakulaadani, Matsyagandhaa, Matsyaadani, Laangali, Vashiraa.

Siddha/Tamil: Poduthalai.

Action: Spasmolytic, diuretic, febrifuge.

The plant contains flavone glyco- sides—nodiflorins A and B, lipiflorins A and B, as well as free flavones including 6-hydroxyluteolin, nepetin and nodifloretin along with beta-sitosterol and stigmasterol glucosides.

Dosage: Plant—10-20 ml. juice. (CCRAS.)... phyla nodiflora

Phyllanthus Niruri


Family: Euphorbiaceae.

Habitat: Native to America.

English: Chanca Piedra.

Ayurvedic: Bhuumyaamalaki, assigned to P. niruri, has now been equated with P.fraternus.

Action: Antispasmodic, antipyretic, diuretic, antiviral, bactericidal.

Taking Chanca Piedra orally does not seem to be effective for treating hepatitis B. The herb contains niuride, which inhibits specific HIV-protein binding activity, but does not protect cells from acute HIV infection. (Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, 2007.)... phyllanthus niruri

Piper Nigrum


Family: Piperaceae.

Habitat: Native of the Indo- Malaysian region; cultivated in Western Ghats, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Assam and Kerala.

English: Black Pepper.

Ayurvedic: Maricha, Vellaja, Uushna, Suvrrita, Krishnaa.

Unani: Filfil Siyaah, Safed.

Siddha/Tamil: Milagu. Milaguver (root).

Action: Stimulant, carminative, diuretic, anticholerin, sialagogue, bechic, antiasthmatic. Used in fevers, dyspepsia, flatulence, indigestion, and as mucous membrane and gastro-intestinal stimulant. Externally—rubefacient and stimulant to the skin. Used as a gargle for sore throat. Used with ginger and Piper longum for viral hepatitis.

The fruit yielded piperine, pipera- tine and piperidine; amides, pipery- line, piperoleins A and B, and N-i'so- butyl-cicosa-trans-2-trans-4-dienami- de.

The aqueous extract of roasted black pepper is reported to show cholinomi- metic effect on rat abdominis muscles.

Dosage: Fruit—500 mg to 1 g. (CCRAS.)... piper nigrum

Predictive Value Negative

The probability that a person with a negative test is free of the disease and is not a false negative.... predictive value negative

Plantain, Broad And Narrow Leaf

Plantago species

Description: The broad leaf plantain has leaves over 2.5 centimeters across that grow close to the ground. The flowers are on a spike that rises from the middle of the cluster of leaves. The narrow leaf plantain has leaves up to 12 centimeters long and 2.5 centimeters wide, covered with hairs. The leaves form a rosette. The flowers are small and inconspicuous.

Habitat and Distribution: Look for these plants in lawns and along roads in the North Temperate Zone. This plant is a common weed throughout much of the world.

Edible Parts: The young tender leaves are edible raw. Older leaves should be cooked. Seeds are edible raw or roasted.

Other Uses: To relieve pain from wounds and sores, wash and soak the entire plant for a short time and apply it to the injured area. To treat diarrhea, drink tea made from 28 grams (1 ounce) of the plant leaves boiled in 0.5 liter of water. The seeds and seed husks act as laxatives.... plantain, broad and narrow leaf

Populus Nigra

Linn. var. italica Kochne.

Family: Salicaceae.

Habitat: North-western Himalaya at 900-3,700 m.

English: Black Lombardy Poplar.

Action: Bark and balsam from leaf bud— used for cold. Bark— depurative. Leaf bud—antiseptic, anti- inflammatory.

The bud exudate contains dimethyl- caffeic acid, which was found active against herpes simplex virus type 1.

A 50% ethanol extract of a mixture of flowers and buds showed 11% inhibition of enzymatic conversion of testosterone into 5 alpha-dihydrotesterone and 4-androstene-3,17-dione. The extract was partitioned between ethylac- etate and water and the resultant ethy- lacetate fraction contained the active compounds, pinobanksin, demethyl- quercetin and pinocembrin. It exhibited 15% inhibitory activity on the enzyme. Pinocembrin was the most potent, almost equal to estradiol, which was used as a control.

The bark of all Populus species contains, phenolic glycosides, salicin and populin (salicinbenzoate). Tannins are also present (5-9%).

Both salicin and populin cause elimination of uric acid. Salicin is antiperi- odic and is used like quinine in intermittent fever, also in coryza, rheumatism and neuralgia.... populus nigra

Potentilla Nepalensis


Family: Rosaceae.

Habitat: The Himalayas from Kashmir to Kumaon.

Folk: Ratanjot (substitute).

Action: Rootstocks—depurative; ash, mixed with oil, is applied to burns.

Unani: Baadiyaan-kohi, Karafs-e- kohi, Fitraasaaliyun (also equated with Petroselinum crispum Mill. Nym. ex auct. Kew.).

Folk: Komal.

Action: Root and fruit—diuretic, emmenagogue. An infusion of root is given for indigestion and irregular menses.

The roots and umbels yielded cou- marins and their glycosides. Osthol (7-methoxy-8-isop entenyl-coumarin), which occurs in the dried roots up to the extent of 3.6%, has been found to be a potent respiratory and circulatory stimulant in experimental animals. Its respirotonic effect was more marked than that of coramine, leptazol and caffeine.... potentilla nepalensis

Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve

A branch of the vagus NERVE which leaves the latter low down in its course, and – hooking around the right subclavian artery on the right side and round the arch of the aorta on the left

– runs up again into the neck, where it enters the larynx and supplies branches to the muscles which control the vocal cords.... recurrent laryngeal nerve

Rheum Nobile

Hook. f. & Th.

Family: Polygonaceae.

Habitat: The Himalayas from Nepal to Bhutan at 3,900-4,800 m.

Folk: Tehuka (Sikkim).

Action: The roots resemble those of Rheum emodi, but are spongy and inert. Stems are acidic, used as salad. Dried leaves are sometimes used as a substitute for tobacco.... rheum nobile

Royal College Of Nursing (rcn)

See APPENDIX 8: PROFESSIONAL ORGANISATIONS.... royal college of nursing (rcn)

Rural Health Network

Any of a variety of organizational arrangements to link rural health care providers in a common purpose.... rural health network

Sea Nettle

Colloquial term for the north American jellyfish Chrysaora quinquecirrha.... sea nettle

Singer’s Nodule

A small excrescence on the vocal cords (see LARYNX) which causes hoarseness. This tends to develop in people who abuse their voices – for example, singers, or people who shout excessively.... singer’s nodule

Rhinacanthus Nasutus

(L.) Kurz.

Synonym: R. communis Nees. Justicia nasuta L.

Family: Acanthaceae.

Habitat: Throughout the greater part of India.

English: Snake Jasmine.

Ayurvedic: Yuuthiparni, Yuuthika- parni. Paalaka-Juuhi.

Unani: Gul-baglaa.

Siddha/Tamil: Nagamalli.

Action: Leaf, seed and root—used for skin diseases. A paste of the root, with lime juice, is applied externally to eczema, ringworm and Dhobi's itch.

The roots are reported to contain an antiseptic and antiparasitic active principle, rhinacanthin (1.9%). The plant is rich in potassium salts; also contains oxymethyl anthraquinones. The flowers contain rutin.

Dosage: Leaf, seed, root—5-10 ml juice; 3-5 g powder. (CCRAS.)... rhinacanthus nasutus

Ribes Nigrum


Family: Grossulariaceae.

Habitat: Cold temperate regions extending from Himalayas to northern Asia and Europe.

English: European Black Currant.

Folk: Nabar.

Action: Dried leaves and twigs— a home remedy for coughs. Leaves—diuretic, hypotensive, refrigerant. An infusion is used for inflammatory conditions, sore throat, hoarseness. Fruits— refrigerant, mildly spasmolytic, vasoprotective, anti-inflammatory.

Black currents are very rich in vitamin C (average 150 mg/100g) and contain 0.9-1.7% pectin as calcium pec- tate, also minerals, potassium (372 mg/ 100 g). The acidity of the fruit is mainly due to citric acid; malic acid is present in small amounts. Glucose and fructose are principal sugars; sucrose is a minor component.

The flavonoids in the fruits include kaempferol, quercetin and myricetin. About 0.3% anthocyanosides, concentrated mainly in the skin, consist of glycosides of cyanidol and delphinidol.

The anthocyanosides are reportedly bacteriostatic and exhibit vasopro- tective and anti-inflammatory activity. They are antisecretory against cholera toxin-induced intestinal fluid secretion in vitro.

The leaves contain an anti-inflammatory principle, pycnometol and minute quantities of an essential oil composed mostly of terpenes.

Polyphenolic extract of buds inhibited lipid peroxidation by rat liver mi- crosomes.

Polyphenols present in R. nigrum and R. rubrum (Red Current, Western Himalayas from Kumaon to Kashmir) exhibit free radical scavenging activity. The seed oil lowers VLDL and total cholesterol.

Contraindicated in bleeding disorders. (Sharon M. Herr.)... ribes nigrum

Salix Nigra


Family: Salicaceae.

Habitat: Native to America (New York and Pennsylvania).

English: Black Willow.

Unani: Bed-Siyaah.

Action: Astringent, febrifuge, sedative, nervine tonic. Anaphrodisiac (used for reducing sexual activity; in spermatorrhoea). Largely used in the treatment of nocturnal emissions.

The bark contains tannin, about 1% of glucoside salinigrin. Once considered a substitute for potassium bromide, but without a depressant effect.... salix nigra

Silver Needle Tea

Silver Needle tea is a rare type of white tea,with a delicate flavor and great health benefits. Recommended to consumers willing to reduce the amount of caffeine, it is a special beverage both for connoisseurs and beginners. About Silver Needle Tea Silver Needle Tea is a type of white tea, originating from the Chinese Fuding county, and considered to be the finest type of this kind of tea. It was once reserved to Royal Chinese Family due to its benefits and rareness. Silver Needle Tea is hand-harvested only two days a year, during spring. It contains only the unopened tea buds, one of the reasons the Royal Family was the only one to drink it. Silver Needle Tea brewing Silver Needle Tea has a subtle taste and a low quantity of caffeine. It is recommended to consumers searching for the benefits of green tea, but not enjoying its strong flavor .
  • Silver Needle tea brews best with water at 180 degrees Fahrenheit (the water should be almost boiling, but not rolling)
  • After adding the water to the tea, steep it for five minutes
  • In case of adding more tea to the pot, it needs three minutes to steep
Silver Needle Tea benefits Being a whitetea, Silver Needle tea is helpful in cancer prevention, due to its high content of antioxidants. These compounds are able to fight free radicals, best known for causing tumors growth and spreading cancer cells. Silver Needle tea properties were also acknowledged to:
  • detoxify the body
  • relieve stress
  • lift mood
Silver Needle Tea side effects Silver Needle Tea has few side effects, especially related to overconsumption. It is indicated that individuals suffering from cardiac problems or hypertension should consume it moderately. Silver Needle teais a good choice for consumers who want to keep a good physical and mental state, enjoying both a delicate taste and a healthy beverage.... silver needle tea

Skilled Nursing Care

Daily nursing and rehabilitative care that can only be performed by, or under the supervision of, skilled nursing personnel.... skilled nursing care

Skilled Nursing Facility

Nursing homes that are certified to provide a fairly intensive level of care, including skilled nursing care.... skilled nursing facility

Social Network

An individual’s web of kinship, friendship and community ties.... social network

Social Network Care

See “informal care”.... social network care

Specialized Nursing Care Needs

Nursing care needs that require the advanced and specialized clinical skills and knowledge of a registered nurse.... specialized nursing care needs

Solanum Nigrum


Synonym: S. rubrum Mill.

Family: Solanaceae.

Habitat: Throughout India, in dry parts, up to an elevation of 2,100 m.

English: Black Nightshade.

Ayurvedic: Kaakamaachi, Kaakaahya, Kaakamaataa, Dhvankshamaachi.

Unani: Mako (smallar var., black var.)

Siddha/Tamil: Manittakkali.

Action: Plant—anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, sedative, diuretic, laxative, antiseptic; fresh extract is used for inflammatory swellings, enlargement of liver and spleen and in cirrhosis of liver. Berries— antidiarrhoeal, antipyretic. Berries and flowers—prescribed in cough and cold. Leaves— applied hot to swollen testicles; paste used as poultice to gout, rheumatic swellings and skin diseases.

The berries contain steroidal alkaloid glycosides, solasonine, alpha- and beta-solanigrine, alpha-and beta- solamargine; steroidal sapogenins, di- osgenin and tigogenin; solasodine and solasodine.

Solamargine and solasonine are present also in leaves. The total alkaloid content of fruits and leaves are 0.101 and 0.431% respectively.

Dosage: Whole plant—5-10 ml juice. (API, Vol. II.)... solanum nigrum

Tea For Nerves

Nerve damage can include neuropathy or neuritis, which can be caused by diabetes, nerve injury, autoimmune disease, viral infections, muscle spasms or vitamin deficiencies. Traditional medicine found a lot of treatments for nerve damage, but alternative medicine fans think that you don’t need to take a lot of pills for something that can be treated with just a cup of tea. How a Tea for Nerves Works A Tea for Nerves’ main purpose is to nourish your nervous system and induce a state of relaxation to all your nervous cells. Also, these teas can reconstruct the damaged tissue and make your body heal all affected areas. In order to be useful, a Tea for Nerves needs to contain tannins, volatile oils and minerals (manganese, magnesium, iron, preferably). Efficient Tea for Nerves When choosing a Tea for Nerves, remember that it must be both one hundred percent safe and very efficient. If you don’t know which teas to choose from, here’s a list to help you out: - Saint John’s Wort Tea – is useful for sciatica and it can bring relief to patients suffering from depression and spinal nerves damages. Take only a cup per day and avoid it at all costs if you’re on antidepressants. Also, if you’re pregnant, talk to your doctor before starting a treatment based on Saint John’s Wort Tea. - Skullcap Tea – treats a number of affections such as inflammation, arteriosclerosis, high cholesterol and epilepsy thanks to its active constituents: antioxidant flavonoids, which can repair the nervous damages and baicalin (has anti-spastic and nerve-relaxant properties). Don’t take more than 2 cups per day for a short amount of time and don’t combine it with anti-depressants and sedatives. Basil Tea – this Tea for Nerves has many medical uses and not only that it can repair the nervous ailments, but it’s also a great energy and health enhancer. You can also use it to treat asthenia, anemia, loss of appetite and digestive tract problems. Drink one or two cups per day for a short amount of time and enjoy the health benefits! Tea for Nerves Side Effects When taken properly, these teas are generally safe. However, make sure you don’t exceed the number of cups recommended per day or you’ll get diarrhea, constipation, nausea, headaches or skin rashes. If you’ve been taking one of these teas for a while and you’re experiencing some unusual reactions, talk to your doctor as soon as possible! Don’t take a Tea for Nerves if you’re pregnant, breastfeeding, on blood thinners, anticoagulants or preparing for a major surgery (these teas contains substances that may interfere with your anesthetic). The same advice for children: there are no studies to examine the treatment’s effect on them. If your doctor says it’s ok to try a Tea for Nerves, choose one that fits best your needs and enjoy its wonderful health benefits!... tea for nerves

Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (tens)

A method of electrical stimulation that is being used for the relief of PAIN, including that of MIGRAINE, NEURALGIA and phantom limbs (see AMPUTATION). Known as TENS, its mode of action appears to have some resemblance to that of ACUPUNCTURE. Several controlled trials suggest that it provides at least a modicum of relief of pain after operations, thereby reducing the amount of ANALGESICS that may be called for.... transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (tens)

Trap Nets

Nets used to sample the living mosquito population. By permitting access to a bait but restricting movement away from it, trap nets tend to concentrate female mosquitoes near the bait.... trap nets

Trichosanthes Nervifolia


Family: Cucurbitaceae.

Habitat: Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu.

Ayurvedic: Patoli (related species of Patola).

Siddha/Tamil: Kombu Pudalai.

Action: Herb—bitter tonic, febrifuge. Root—purgative. Fruit— used as dentifrice.... trichosanthes nervifolia

Tea For Lucid Dreams

Having a lucid dream means dreaming while being aware of the fact that you are dreaming. However, many people become lucid in the middle of the dream or, on the contrary, fall lose reality contact after being lucid at first. Although traditional medicine can’t be very helpful in these cases, alternative medicine has a few tricks up its sleeve. How a Tea for Lucid Dreams Works A Tea for Lucid Dreams’ main purpose is to make you recall what you have dreamed by calming your nervous system and improving your memory function. These teas are good for a number of other diseases, such as memory loss, headaches or migraines. However, talk to an herbalist or to your doctor before starting any kind of herbal treatment in order to make sure everything will be alright. Efficient Tea for Lucid Dreams In order to work properly, a Tea for Lucid Dreams needs to be both very efficient and one hundred percent safe (since lucid dreams are not exactly a medical problem, you may want to avoid developing one). A tea that is rich in antioxidants, nutrients, tannins, volatile oils and minerals (sodium, magnesium, iron, manganese) would be very adequate. You may want to avoid teas with a large amount of acid agents (they could cause stomach pain). If you don’t know which teas could be useful for lucid dreams, here’s a list for guidance: - Green Tea – contains all the ingredients necessary to sustain life, so it’s useful for a wide range of ailments, not just lucid dreams. If you’re suffering from infertility, anemia, asthenia, loss of appetite, digestive tract complaints or nervous system failure, this decoction could also be useful. However, you must avoid it at all costs if you’re experiencing some menstrual or menopausal symptoms. The same advice if you’re pregnant (it may cause uterine contractions and therefore miscarriage). - Valerian Tea – was been used as a sleep aid since ancient times, when the Romans and the Greeks took it before going to bed. This Tea for Lucid Dreams, thanks to its active compounds, is a mild sedative and could also work miracles on your nervous system. However, you need to make sure that you don’t exceed the number of cups recommended per day in order to avoid hallucinations, tiredness or even death. - Chamomile Tea – of course, the world’s greatest panacea shouldn’t be left aside. If you’re having trouble remembering your dreams, try a cup of Chamomile Tea before you go to bed! This Tea has a great fragrance and a pleasant smell. Plus, it’s one hundred percent safe so you can drink as much as you want. Tea for Lucid Dreams Side Effects When taken according to specifications, these teas are generally safe. However, exceeding the number of cups recommended per day may lead to a number of health problems, such as diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, upset stomach or even death! If you’ve been taking one of these decoctions for a while and you’re experience a negative response from your body, ask for medical assistance right away! Don’t take a Tea for Lucid Dreams if you’re pregnant, breastfeeding, on blood thinners or anticoagulants. The same advice in case you’re preparing for a surgery. If your doctor says it’s ok to start an herbal treatment, choose a tea that fits best your requirements and enjoy its wonderful benefits!  ... tea for lucid dreams

Trewia Nudiflora


Family: Euphorbiaceae.

Habitat: Throughout moist and hot parts of India.

English: False White Teak, Gutel.

Ayurvedic: Shriparni, Tumri, Pindaara. Shriparni is a synonym of Gambhaari (Gmelina arborea).

Siddha/Tamil: Attarasu, Nay Kumil.

Action: Plant—antibilious, antiflat- ulent, bechic, anti-inflammatory. Root—carminative, antirheumatic.

Applied as poultice in gout and rheumatism. Plant extract showed an- tileukaemic activity.

Plant contains a pyridine alkaloid, N-methyl-5-carboxamide-2-pyridone. Leaves contain an alkaloid, nudiflor- ine.

Bark yields taraxerone and beta- sitosterol. Seeds contain an alkaloid ricinidine. The seeds also contain a maytansinoid compound, trewiasine (TWS). It exhibited significant cyto- toxic activity against various human cell lines in vitro.

The charcoal made from the wood is rich in potassium (21.16%).

Trewia polycarpa Benth. ex Hook. f. (Western Ghats, Konkan and Kerala) is also a related species of Tumri.... trewia nudiflora

Viburnum Nervosum

Hook. f. & Thoms.

Synonym: V. grandiflorum Wall. ex DC.

Family: Caprifoliaceae.

Habitat: The Himalayas from Kashmir to Sikkim at altitudes of 3,000-4,000 m.

Ayurvedic: Tilvaka.

Folk: Telam, Timoi (Kumaon), Tilen, Thelkaa (Garhwal).

Action: Bark—astringent; contain 13.1% tannin on dry basis.... viburnum nervosum

Tea For Nervous System

The nervous system is responsible for almost any reaction that comes from your body. From eyes to muscles and even hair, your body is a very complex electric system directed by your brain. Most of the problems that a person has in a lifetime are related to a nervous system failure. In order to treat this kind of problems or prevent them from happening, you may want to try a tea instead of all those traditional pills. How a Tea for Nervous System Works A Tea for Nervous System is indeed helpful if it contains an important amount of nutrients, enzymes, tannins, volatile oils and minerals (sodium, iron, magnesium and manganese). You may want to avoid a tea that has an elevated acids level since it may cause you even more damages. A Tea for Nervous System will make your body send all the active constituents to the affected areas and heal the damaged tissue. Efficient Tea for Nervous System In order to work properly, a Tea for Nervous System must show results in a short time period and be one hundred percent safe (you don’t want any more complications than you already have). However, before starting any kind of herbal treatment, remember to take the indicated dose and never surpass it in order to avoid other health problems. If you don’t know which teas could be helpful for you, here’s a list for guidance: - Oolong Tea – contains half the amount of caffeine that other teas have so it’s best for your health to give it a try every once in a while. This Tea for Nervous System will also strengthen your entire organism and rejuvenate the aspect of your skin. However, don’t drink more than 2 cups per day. - Green Tea – as the scientists have proved, this decoction contains all the ingredients necessary to sustain life, so it’s good for a number of other health complaints, such as infertility, headaches, nausea, loss of appetite, anemia and asthenia. Just make sure you avoid it at all costs in case you’re experiencing some menstrual or menopausal symptoms (it may cause uterine contractions and internal bleedings). - Black Tea – some say that it does more damages than good for your nervous system and some others think that this tea is worth a try. Having an elevated level of caffeine, this tea is highly addictive. In right amount, it can treat infertility, erectile dysfunctions, sore throats and colds. However, ask an herbalist before starting a treatment based on this Tea for Nervous System in order to find out which are the risks. Tea for Nervous System Side Effects When taken according to specifications, these teas are generally safe. However, exceeding the number of cups recommended per day may lead to other health complaints, such as nausea, diarrhea, uterine contractions, internal bleedings and headaches. If you’ve tried one of these teas and something doesn’t feel quite right, talk to your doctor as soon as possible! Don’t take a Tea for Nervous System if you’re pregnant, breastfeeding, on blood thinners or anticoagulants. The same advice if you’re preparing for a surgery (some of the active compounds in these teas may interfere with your anesthetic and cause death). But if you have the green light from your doctor, choose a tea that fits best your requirements and enjoy its wonderful health benefits!... tea for nervous system

Uvaria Narum


Family: Annonaceae.

Habitat: Western ghats from Maharashtra southwards up to an altitude of 1,200 m.

Siddha/Tamil: Pulichan.

Action: Root and leaves—used in intermittent fevers, biliousness, jaundice; also in rheumatic affections; bruised in salt water, used in skin diseases. A decoction of the root bark is given to women to control fits at the time of delivery.

Acetogenins, including stereoiso- mers, are important constituents of the root bark. Glutinone, glutinol, taraxerol, beta-sitosterol and benzyl benzoate have also been isolated. The essential oil of the root bark of Kerala plant contains bornyl acetate 15.2% and patchoulenone 8.1%.

A decoction and roots of Uvaria gandiflora Roxb., synonym U. purpurea Blume (Indian Botanic Garden, Kolkata) is used for flatulence, stomachache; also after childbirth. A decoction of U. micrantha (A. DC.) Hook. f. & Thoms. (tropical forests of the Andamans) is also administered after childbirth as a prophylactic.... uvaria narum


Herbs that arrest or inhibit vomiting and nausea. Black Horehound. ... anti-nauseants


Herbs that prevent formation or destroy tumour cells. Some reported in the literature to arrest the spread of malignancy. A neoplasm is a new growth and may be malignant or non- malignant. Bayberry (intestinal), Bryonia (lung), Clivers (Genito-urinary tract), Comfrey (general), Condurango (gastric), Dandelion (liver), Echinacea, Greater Celandine (epithelial), Mandrake (face and skin), Mistletoe, Myrrh, Plantain (throat), Poke root (breast), Queen’s Delight, Red Clover (epithelial and breast), Rosebay Willowherb (gastric), Vinca rosea (leukaemia), Thuja (womb), Wild Violet (breast and womb), Yellow Dock. ... anti-neoplastics

Vasomotor Nerves

Small nerve ?bres that lie upon the walls of blood vessels and connect the muscle ?bres of their middle coat with the NERVOUS SYSTEM. Through these nerves the blood vessels are retained in a state of moderate contraction. There are vasodilator nerves, through which are transmitted impulses that dilate the vessels, and, in the case of the skin vessels, produce the condition of blushing; there are also vasoconstrictor nerves which transmit impulses that constrict, or narrow, the blood vessels – as occurs on exposure to cold (see HYPOTHERMIA). Various drugs produce dilatation or contraction of the blood vessels, and several of the substances produced by ENDOCRINE GLANDS in the body have these effects: for example, ADRENALINE.... vasomotor nerves

Vitex Negundo


Family: Verbenaceae.

Habitat: Throughout India in the warmer zones; ascending to 900 m in the North-western Himalaya.

English: Five-leaved Chaste tree.

Ayurvedic: Nirgundi, Shephaa- likaa, Sindhuka, Sindhuvaara, Suvahaa, Sugandhikaa. Nila, Nila- nirgundi, Shveta nirgundi (var.). White-flowered var. is known as Sinduvaara, blue-flowered as Nirgundi or Shephaali,

Unani: Sambhaalu, Fanjankisht.

Siddha/Tamil: Nochi, Nalla Nochi, Vellai Nochchi, Nirkundi.

Action: Seeds—prescribed in spermatorrhoea, and for promoting spermiogenesis (in Unani medicine). Also given as a rejuvenating tonic for retarding old age and for retaining and promoting virility. (in Ayurvedic medicine). Leaf—anti-inflammatory, analgesic; removes foetid discharges and worms from ulcers. Flowers—astringent, febrifuge, antidiarrhoeic; prescribed in liver complaint. Oil— applied to sinus, scrofulous sores.

The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India recommends the leaf (also the root) in excessive vaginal discharges, oedema, skin diseases, pruritus, helmin- thiasis, rheumatism, and puerperal fever.

A water extract of the leaves, when administered to rats, exhibited anti- inflammatory, analgesic, antihistami- nic and membrane stabilizing and an- tioxidant activities. (J. Ethnopharmo- col, 2003, (203), 199-206.) Methano- lic extract of leaves showed remarkable antihistaminic activity.

The leaves contain iridoid glyco- sides, isomeric flavanones and flavo- noids, besides casticin and the gluco- sides, luteolin-7-glucoside and alpha- D-glucoside of a tetrahydroxy mono- methoxy flavone.

Dried powder of roots contains hen- triacontane, beta-sitosterol and its aetat and stigmasterol. Alcoholic extract of the root showed 40-60% antiimplantation activity with no anti- ovulatory effect in rats.

Flavone vitexicarpin (1), isolated from the leaves, exhibited broad cyto- toxicity in human cancer cell line panel. Two pentacyclic triterpenoids, betulin- ic acid and ursolic acid, along with an aliphatic alcohol, n-hentriacontanol, beta-sitosterol and p-hydroxybenzoic acid have been isolated from leaves.

The seeds contain p-hydroxybenz- oic acid, 5-oxyisophthalic acid, glucose and the triterpene, vitextriter- pene. Several anti-inflammatory triter- penoids and flavonoids have also been isolated from the seeds. The flavanone, 5,7,3' trihydroxy-6, 8,4'-trimethoxy- flavone exhibited anti-androgenic activity in adult mice and dogs.

Dosage: Leaf—10-15 ml juice (API, Vol. III); root—10-12 ml juice (API, Vol. IV.)... vitex negundo

Ziziphus Nummularia

(Burm. f) Wight & Arn.

Synonym: Z. rotundifolia Lam. Rhamnus nummularia Burm. f.

Family: Rhamnaceae.

English: Wild Jujube.

Ayurvedic: Karkandhu.

Unani: Jharber, Sadarber.

Action: Fruit—cooling and astringent. Prescribed for bilious affections. Leaves—used in scabies and other skin diseases.

The root bark contains 12% of tannin and cyclopeptide alkaloids—num- mularines A, B and C, mucronine D and amphibine H. The leaves contain ascorbic acid. Nummularine M, R and S, besides frangufoline have been isolated from the stem bark. Num- mularine R and S showed antibacterial activity against Gram-negative bacteria, while frangufoline was active against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. The alkaloid fraction, obtained from the bark, showed significant analgesic activity.... ziziphus nummularia

Bastyr College Of Naturopathic Medicine

An institution for training and granting of the qualification, Doctor of Naturopathic Medicine, including study of two years basic medical sciences and two years clinical sciences. The philosophical approach includes personal responsibility for one’s own health, natural treatment of the whole person, prevention of disease, and to awaken the patient’s inherent healing powers. Of university status. Address: 144 N.E. 54th, Seattle, WA 98105, USA. See: NATUROPATHY. ... bastyr college of naturopathic medicine

Beer, Nettle

Gather basket of nettles, wash and place in a pan with double their quantity of water. Simmer gently one hour. Strain. To every gallon add half an ounce ground Ginger and one pound Barbados sugar or molasses. When cool, ferment with Yeast – three-quarters of an ounce to each gallon. Allow to stand until next day before bottling. Flavour is improved by juice of a lemon. ... beer, nettle

Yohimbe Tea - A Natural Aphrodisiac

Yohimbe Tea has been used for centuries as a very powerful aphrodisiac, although this use was only exploited by the Africans. Later on, the scientists found out that the active constituents of this tea could very well be used to improve erectile function. Many pharmaceutical treatments contain a small dosage of Yohimbe Tea extract. Yohimbe is a small ever-green tree that grows mainly in places like Gabon, Cameroon and Zaire. Also known as pausinystalia yohimbe, this tree is a member of the Rubiaceae family that can be recognized by its lance-like leaves and brownish bark. Yohimbe Tea Properties Aside from its aphrodisiac properties, Yohimbe Tea contains a lot of chemical ingredients used to treat a variety of health problems. The active substances of this tea are yohimbine HCl (indole alkaloid), which can only be found in the bark and which is the responsible constituent for all the medical benefits of this tea. Other than this, Yohimbe Tea also contains pigments and tannis, but in a smaller dosage, almost impractical for the alternative medicine. Yohimbe Tea Benefits Drinking Yohimbe Tea has proven its benefits since ancient times, when African population used it as a medical cure and also as an important element when it came to religious ceremonies and rituals. It was believed that whoever drank a cup of Yohimbe Tea during one of these ceremonies, would have a great sexual life. Some say it only worked thanks to the willing power, other truly believed that this tea can perform miracles. Aside from these legends, scients found out that Yohimbe Tea is actually a good sexual enhancer and an erectile dysfunction treatment. How to make Yohimbe Tea Infusion Preparing Yohimbe Tea is very easy. Use a teaspoon of herbs for every cup of tea you want to make, add boiling water and wait 30 minutes for the health benefits to be released. Strain and drink it hot or cold, adding honey or lemon, if you feel the taste is a bit unpleasant. You can either use dried or freshly picked leaves; the only thing you need to be careful about is where you buy them from. Make sure you only use herbs from a trusted provider. Yohimbe Tea Side Effects When taken properly, Yohimbe Tea is perfectly safe. However, high dosages may lead to a number of complications such as rapid heartbeat, kidney failure, seizure, heart attack and others. Make sure you talk to a doctor the first time you notice something unusual about your health when taking Yohimbe Tea! It’s better to be safe than sorry! Yohimbe Tea Contraindications Don’t take a treatment based on Yohimbe Tea if you are pregnant or breastfeeding or suffer from one of the following disorders: - Schizophrenia (this tea can enhance your psychotic episodes). - Prostate problems. - Post traumatic distress, liver failure, kidney failure, chest pain, anxiety, high or low blood pressur. But if there’s nothing that could interfere with this herb’s ingredients, try Yohimbe Tea and enjoy its wonderful benefits responsibly!... yohimbe tea - a natural aphrodisiac

Blocked-up Nose

Due to many causes from catarrh to infection. May be associated with sinus headache and nasal congestion.

Alternatives. Teas. Plantain leaves, Nasturtium leaves, Marigold flowers (Calendula), Thyme. Tablets/capsules. Garlic, Goldenseal, Iceland Moss.

Tinctures. Formula. Echinacea 2; Goldenseal 1. Mix. 30-60 drops in water thrice daily. Practitioner. Ephedra.

Topical. Decongestants. Olbas oil. Oils of Aromatherapy: Eucalyptus, Garlic, Thyme. Supplementation. Vitamins A, C.

Bedtime: 2-3 Garlic capsules. ... blocked-up nose

Breast, Guitar Nipple

Musician’s breast.

Alternatives:– External treatment. Lotion – few drops Tincture Arnica in eggcup of water. Aloe Vera or Comfrey cream. Marshmallow and Slippery Elm ointment. ... breast, guitar nipple

Breasts, Nipple – To Harden

Bathe nipple with Vodka or gin. ... breasts, nipple – to harden

Breasts, Nipples, Discharge

Due to a number of causes. Unlike colostrum secreted during breast-feeding after delivery. A pathological nipple discharge is non-milky, recurs from time to time, and is usually only from one nipple. It may be watery or a sticky yellow, staining being detected on bra or pyjamas. When blood-flecked it should be promptly investigated by a competent authority.

When the discharge is yellow, indicating pus, an infection is suspected which may develop into an abscess. Herbal treatment can be effective but if, after a week, the condition has not improved surgical exploration may be necessary to remove the affected duct.

Alternatives. Clivers, Goldenseal, Fenugreek, Marigold, Poke root, Queen’s Delight, Wild Indigo. Taken as tea, powder, liquid extract or decoction.

Tea. Formula. Equal parts: Red Clover, Clivers, Gotu Kola. 2 teaspoons to each cup boiling water; infuse 15 minutes. Half-1 cup thrice daily.

Powders. Formula. Wild Indigo 1; Echinacea 2; Poke root 1. Dose: 500mg (two 00 capsules or one-third teaspoon) thrice daily.

Tinctures. Formula. Echinacea 2; Goldenseal 1; Poke root 1. Dose: 30-60 drops thrice daily.

Topical – for sore nipples. Wheatgerm oil, Evening Primrose oil. Lotions: Goldenseal, Marigold, distilled extract of Witch Hazel. Nipples to be washed before a child is again put to the breast. Cracked nipples: Comfrey – pulp from fresh plant, or equal parts powder and milk as a paste.

Minerals: magnesium, zinc. ... breasts, nipples, discharge

Cancer – To Neutralise Odour

Dr Desmartis, in a paper to The American Academy of Sciences announced that Logwood, (Haematoxylum campechianum) was an antiseptic of value in cancer. This was discovered by accident. Having under his care several cancer patients presenting ulcerative sores ‘emitting a nauseous odour’, he composed a plaster of equal parts of Extract of Logwood and hog’s lard. To his surprise, on application the fetter immediately disappeared. ... cancer – to neutralise odour

Culpeper, Nicholas (1616-1654)

Astrologer-physician. In 1649 he issued his “Physical Directory” which attracted the fury of the College of Physicians. Followed by “The Complete Herbal”, (1653) Family Dispensary and Natural System of Healing, which became the herbal best-seller – even today. He practised in Spitalfields, beloved by the poor of the East End. Revolutionary in medicine and politics, was wounded in the chest whilst serving as a Roundhead in the Civil War. See: ASTROLOGY. ... culpeper, nicholas (1616-1654)

Breasts, Nursing Mother Exhaustion

Inability to cope with incessant demands of the child. Heaviness of shoulders and back. Headache, pains, possible anaemia, lack of energy, insomnia, mental depression. Usually a combination of invigorating herb teas suffices. Alcohol-based tinctures, liquid extracts, etc, are contra-indicated. Bananas, to counter potassium deficiency. Oatmeal porridge. Alternatives. Teas. Oats. Raspberry leaves. Ginseng, Wood Betony, Vervain.

Gerard tea. Equal parts: Raspberry leaves, Lemon Balm leaves, Agrimony leaves. Mix. Made as ordinary tea: 2-3 teaspoons to small teapot; infuse few minutes. Drink freely.

Fenugreek tea: consume seeds as well as liquor.

Gentian root. 2 teaspoons to cup cold water left to steep overnight. Half-1 cup before meals.


Diet. Oatmeal porridge. Honey.

Supplements. Multivitamins, B-complex, B6, B12. ... breasts, nursing mother exhaustion

Cancer – Nose And Throat

Usually epithelioma with burning. Lesion may extend upwards into the base of the skull. Thickening of nasal membranes may cause deafness by compressing Eustachian tubes.

Anyone over 40 who has recurrent sore throat for more than six weeks should visit his family doctor. Symptoms. Pain, headache, paralysis of eye muscles.

Of possible value. Alternatives:– Teas. Violet leaves, Red Clover flowers, Plantain. 1-2 teaspoons to each cup boiling water; infuse 5-15 minutes. Drink freely.

Decoction. Combination. Goldenseal 1; Poke root 1; Yellow Dock 3; Marshmallow root 3. Place half an ounce (15g) in 1 pint (500ml) water simmered gently 20 minutes. Half a cup or more, as freely as tolerated.

Formula. Echinacea 2; Goldenseal 1; Poke root half; Thuja quarter; Liquorice half. Mix. Dose: Powders: 500mg (two 00 capsules or one-third teaspoon). Liquid extracts: 1 teaspoon. Tinctures: 2 teaspoons. Three or more times daily as tolerated.

Case of Lady Margaret Marsham, Maidstone. Cured of cancer of the throat by Violet leaf tea. Boiling water was poured on fresh Violet leaves (wild, not cultivated) and allowed to stand 12 hours. Compresses were moistened and applied externally to the throat and covered with oil silk. Relief was immediate. Difficult swallowing, sense of suffocation and the visible swelling disappeared within one week, the growth on the tonsil within a fortnight.

Treatment by a general medical practitioner or hospital oncologist. Diet. See: DIET – CANCER. ... cancer – nose and throat

Candida, Of Skin And Nails

Infection by Candida albicans.

Internal. Goldenseal 1; Myrrh 1; Thuja half; Poke root half. Dose – Powders: 500mg (two 00 capsules or one-third teaspoon). Liquid extracts: one 5ml teaspoon. Tinctures: two 5ml teaspoons. Thrice daily before meals.

Capricin. See entry.

Topical. Thuja lotion: 1 teaspoon Liquid extract Thuja to 1oz (30ml) distilled extract Witch Hazel.

Aloe Vera; fresh juice or gel.

Tea Tree oil; may be diluted many times.

Comfrey cream; Castor oil, Oil of Mullen or Houseleek. Cider vinegar.

Night wash. Warm water to which is added a few drops Tincture Myrrh, Tincture Thuja or Tea Tree oil. Diet and Supplements. Same as for CANDIDA – VAGINAL. ... candida, of skin and nails

Dead Nettle

Lamium album L. Part used: herb.

Constituents: flavone glycosides, mucilage, tannin.

Action: anti-catarrhal.

Uses: Nasal catarrh, leucorrhoea. Anaemia.

Preparations: Tea. As a medicament or daily ‘health’ tea. 1-2 teaspoons to each cup boiling water; infuse 10-15 minutes. 1 cup as desired.

Vaginal douche: 2oz dried (or handful fresh herb) to 2 pints boiling water; infuse, and inject warm. May also be used as a lotion for skin disorders. ... dead nettle

Depression – Post-natal

Extreme anguish after birth of a child. Mental illness: “sinking into gloom”. Baby blues. Bursting into tears; every small problem seems magnified; agoraphobic tendency. Etiology. Some mothers have a genetic predisposition to the condition. Death of a close relative, stressful pregnancy, redundancy, moving house, or sheer physical and mental exhaustion.

Treatment. Conventional medicine advises strong anti-depressants. Alternatives, until “hormones settle down”: Agnus Castus, Helonias, Milk Thistle. Raspberry leaf tea (tablets/capsules/liquid extracts/tinctures). Special attention to the thyroid gland.


Supplements. Vitamins: B group, E. Minerals: Calcium, Iodine, Magnesium, Zinc. Tyrosine. Supportives: Astute GP, helpful health visitor, thoughtful husband. ... depression – post-natal

Eyes  - Night Blindness

Inability to see at night or in imperfect light due to a deficiency of visual purple (rhodopsin) in the rods at the back of the eye due to low level Vitamin A. Night myopia usually affects people during twilight. “One in five people are not fit to drive at night.” May occur in glaucoma and other eye disorders. Other causes: old age, free radical damage.

Alfalfa tea freely.

Of value: Kelp, Irish Moss, Iceland Moss.

Diet. Vitamin A foods, carrots, bilberries, Cod Liver oil.

Supplements. Vitamin A, Beta-carotene. C (2g), E (400iu). B-complex, B2, Niacin, Zinc. ... eyes  - night blindness

Hamdard National Foundation, Pakistan

Greco-Arabian and Ayurvedic Medicine. Islamic Research and scholarship. Research into natural medicines on the Indian Continent and Far East; traditional medicines of Pakistan. President: Hakim Mohammed Said, distinguished physician, researcher and publisher.

Publications include: Hamdard Pharmacopoeia of Eastern Medicine; Greco-Arabian Concepts of Cardio-vascular Disease; Avicenna’s Tract of Cardiac Drugs and Essays on Arab Cardiotherapy. Scientific journal: Hamdard Medicus – informative articles by world authorities. Hamdard Foundation, Nazimabad, Karachi-18, Pakistan. ... hamdard national foundation, pakistan

Kola Nuts

See: COLA. ... kola nuts

Mineral Nutrients


Heart – Nervous

Condition with no specific organic lesion present, but one in which palpitation or cardiac distress may be precipitated by nervous or emotional stimuli.

Alternatives. Neuralgia of the Heart: Lobelia.

Palpitation with sense of suffocation: Pulsatilla.

From physical exhaustion: Ginseng.

With rapid heart beat: Lily of the Valley, Gelsemium.

Tea. Equal parts, Valerian, Motherwort, Lime flowers. Mix. 1-2 teaspoons to each cup boiling water allowed to cool. Drink cold 1 teacup 2 or 3 times daily.

Decoction. Equal parts, Valerian, Hawthorn, Mistletoe. Mix. 1 heaped teaspoon to each cup water simmered gently for 20 minutes. 1 teacup 2 or 3 times daily.

Tablets/capsules. Hawthorn, Mistletoe, Motherwort. Valerian. Passion flower. Lobelia.

Formula. Equal parts: Hawthorn, Lily of the Valley, Mistletoe. Dose: Powders: 500mg (two 00 capsules or one-third teaspoon). Liquid extracts: 1 teaspoon. Tinctures 2 teaspoons. Thrice daily.

Practitioner. Formula. Tincture Hawthorn 2; Tincture Gelsemium 1. Dose: 15-30 drops 2-3 times daily. Alternative formula. Tincture Valerian 2; Strophanthus 1. Dose: 15-30 drops thrice daily.

Diet. Oats (oatmeal porridge), low fat, low salt, high fibre. See also: DIET – HEART AND CIRCULATION. ... heart – nervous

Nabothian Cyst

A cyst on the cervix of the womb. Ducts of the glands may be plugged with mucus and manifest as white pimples of the size of grape shot and which cause little harm. Often the result of irritation from contraceptives.

Treatment: usually by cauterisation.

See: CYST, CERVICAL. ... nabothian cyst


Nail loss. Paronychia. Clubbing. Brittle nails. Deformity (koilonychia). Spoon-shaped, as from iron-deficiency anaemia. A wide range of diseases affect the nails which, themselves, provide useful clues to underlying constitutional disturbance. Brittle and malformed nails are usually due to mineral deficiency. Ridging and grooving show altered nutrition and damage to the nail bed. Psoriasis nails are pitted.

Infections include candidiasis (monilia), ringworm, staphylococcal or streptococcal bacteria. Biting of fingernails reveals anxiety. Colour change and atrophy of nails may be caused by antibiotics, antimalarials, betablockers, gold and arsenic medicines, steroids, “The Pill”; requiring Eliminatives, liver, kidney and possibly Lymphatic agents.

For in-growing toenail – see entry.

Alternatives. General, internal. For antifungals, see: WHITLOW. Mineral-rich herbs for nutrition.

Teas: Alfalfa, Carragheen, Horsetail, Gotu Kola, Red Clover, Oats (for silicon salts), Plantain, Silverweed, Clivers, Dandelion.

Decoctions: Yellow Dock, Burdock, Sarsaparilla, Queen’s Delight.

Tablets or capsules: Alfalfa. Kelp. Bamboo gum.

Formula. Horsetail 2; Gotu Kola 1; Thuja quarter. Dose: Liquid extracts: 1 teaspoon. Tinctures: 2 teaspoons. Powders: 500mg (two 00 capsules or one-third teaspoon). Thrice daily.

Cider Vinegar, See entry. Efficacy recorded.

Topical. Alternatives:– Apply to the nail:

(1) Liquid Extract or Tincture Thuja. (Ellingwood)

(2) Blood root. (J.T Kent MD)

(3) Evening Primrose oil.

(4) Contents of a Vitamin E capsule.

(5) Tincture Myrrh.

Diet. Nails are almost wholly protein. High protein. Onions, Garlic, Soya products, Carrot juice, Cod Liver oil, Kelp.

Vitamins. A. B-complex. B6. B12. Folic acid.

Minerals. Calcium. Dolomite. Copper. Iron. Silica. Stannum, Zinc. ... nails

Nasal Decongestant

Lobelia, Poke root, Ephedra. ... nasal decongestant

National Herbalist Association Of Australia

Professional association of qualified consulting medical herbalists. Founded 1920. Membership is by examination. Members required to adhere to a strict Code of Ethics. Quarterly publication: see – AUSTRALIAN JOURNAL OF MEDICAL HERBALISM.

Address: NHAA – PO Box 65, Kingsgrove, NSW 2208, Australia. Tel: +61(02) 502 2938. ... national herbalist association of australia


For symptomatic relief of nervous tension and stress. Active ingredient: aqueous alcoholic extractive from 500mg Passion flower (Passiflora incarnata). One tablet thrice daily; and at bedtime if required. English Grains Ltd ... natracalm


A dispenser designed to convert a remedy solution into a mist of droplets to effectively convey medication to the respiratory organs. Essential oils suitable for this purpose: Peppermint, Eucalyptus, “Olbas”. For asthma, bronchitis, sinusitis, hay fever.

Nebulisers should carry a warning against misuse. Failure to respond should not be a signal to increase dosage, but an indication that asthma or the complaint is deteriorating. ... nebuliser


Contains Senna leaf 40 per cent, Frangula bark 22.5 per cent, Psyllium seeds 27.5 per cent, Fennel 10 per cent. For non-persistent constipation. ... neoklenz

Napier’s Of Edinburgh

Britain’s oldest herbal establishment. Founded by Duncan Scott Napier, 1860, 17, Bristo Place. While run in the light of modern pharmacy it is still complete with its mahogany fittings, antique tincture bottles and bygones of the Victorian herbalist.

In those early days almost all herbs were collected locally and extracts made on the premises for the queues of patients which formed outside until ten o’clock at night. Today crude material comes from abroad for manufacture into their many preparations: Lobelia syrup, Compound Barberry bark, Composition Essence, Skullcap Herb Compound, Heart Tonic, etc. Ginseng, a supposed modern discovery, has been handled by Napier’s for over a century. ... napier’s of edinburgh


(Garden). Tropaeolum majus. German: Kapuziner-kresse. French: Capucine grande. Spanish: Nasturcia. Italian: Asturzia. Aerial parts used.

Constituents: mineral salts including iodine, iron, phosphates and a sulpho-nigrogenous oil.

Action: antibiotic, antitussive, diuretic, expectorant.

Uses: lung emphysema (fresh juice drunk in milk). Bronchitis, colds, influenza, dry cough. Cystitis, bladder disease. Alopecia – fresh juice rubbed into the scalp is said to stimulate hair growth. Wounds (external use).

Preparations: Thrice daily.

Tea: 2-3 bruised fresh leaves to cup boiling water. Infuse 15 minutes. Dose: one-third-1 cup.

Tincture: 1 part fresh leaves and flowers to 5 parts 45 per cent alcohol (Vodka, gin, etc). Macerate 8 days; shake daily. Filter. Bottle. Dose: 1-3 teaspoons in water.

Tromacaps. (Dr Madaus, West Germany) Antibiotic resistant pneumonia; monilial infections of the genito-urinary tract; acute pyelitis. Adults and children over 8 years: on the first day 2 capsules thrice daily; thereafter 1 capsule thrice daily.

Diet. Its pungent flavour adds a zestful stimulant to a salad. Eaten for general health and especially for skin infections. ... nasturtium

National Association Of Health Stores (nahs)

Founded 1931. Objects:

(a) To promote and protect the interests of Health Foods Stores among members.

(b) To set standards in retailing of health foods and herbs.

(c) To encourage production, marketing and sales of products derived from purely natural and vegetable sources.

((d) To provide qualifications by certificate and diploma courses for those engaged in the industry.

The Association provides advice on aspects of health food and herb retailing and is able to help its members with professional advice and merchandising. NAHS Diploma of Health Food Retailing qualifies for membership of the Institute of Health Food Retailing. Address: Bastow House, Queens Road, Nottingham NG2 3AS. ... national association of health stores (nahs)

National Institute Of Medical Herbalists

Est. 1864. The oldest and only body of professional medical herbalists, now known as phytotherapists, in Europe. Membership by examination after completion of course of training. A stipulated period of clinical practice must be completed before the final examination is taken.

Members are directly involved with patient-care, carrying full responsibility for their recommendations, prescribing medication suitable to the individual biological requirements of each patient. Their role includes patient-counselling, health education and research.

Official recognition of the Institute, indicating its growing importance in the field of medicine came with the historic Grant of Arms by Her Majesty’s College of Heralds. Members regard this as evidence that the Royal Charter of King Henry VIII still stands and that there is no monopoly in healing the sick. See: HENRY VIII, HERBALISTS’ CHARTER.

The Institute played a major role in winning vital concessions for the survival of the herbalist in the passage through Parliament of the Medicine’s Bill. See: MEDICINE’S ACT, 1968.

In connection with the NIMH degree courses in herbal medicine are available at a London University, and Exeter University.

The Institute provides professional indemnity cover for its members, and is engaged in a series of clinical trials to evaluate traditional remedies.

All members are required to adhere to a strict professional Code of Ethics and are entitled to carry after their names the letters of qualification: MNIMH or FNIMH.

Members have a key role in preventative medicine and health promotion in their contribution to improvement of the nation’s health.

Address: 56 Longbrook Street, Exeter EX4 6AH, from which a list of members is obtainable. ... national institute of medical herbalists

Nerve Relaxant

See: SEDATIVE. ... nerve relaxant

Nerve Restoratives

All degenerative changes in the nervous system arise from breakdown of cell integrity through causes including stress, disease or faulty nutrition. J.M. Thurston classifies the restorative effect of herbs as:

Stomach and intestines: Wild Cherry bark, Black Haw.

Heart: Lily of the Valley, Cactus. Liver: Wild Yam.

Eye: Blue Cohosh, Poke root.

Brain: Oats, Black Cohosh.

Spine: Damiana, Oats, Kola, Unicorn root (Aletris). Hops. Womb: False Unicorn root (Helonias).

General Restoratives: St John’s Wort, Vervain. ... nerve restoratives

Nerve Stimulants

Often necessary to bring added vitality to the body or one of its parts. Often combined with circulatory stimulants to help support the nervous system in the presence of nerve weakness and paralysis.

Ephedra, Ginseng, Siberian Ginseng, Oats, Damiana, Kola, Gotu Kola, Thuja, Vervain. ... nerve stimulants

Nerve Tonics

To invigorate and restore. Regarded as nutrients for strengthening nerve fibres and their protective sheaths. Help resolve effects of stress and replace mineral deficiencies in nerve tissue. They bring a new vigour in place of enervation and debility.

Betony, Damiana, Oats, St John’s Wort, Skullcap, Vervain.

Combination. Tea: Equal parts, Skullcap, Betony, Vervain. 1 heaped teaspoon to each cup boiling water; infuse 15 minutes. Half-1 cup freely. ... nerve tonics

Nervous Exhaustion

See: EXHAUSTION. ... nervous exhaustion


Hives. A rash resembling the sting of a nettle. Itchy red or red-white patches appear chiefly on face and trunk. A transient eruption or watery swelling may appear by release of histamine due to allergy. May be a reaction to environmental irritants from plants, insect stings, chemicals or certain foods as after eating strawberries, lobster. Numerous allergens include food additives, acid fruits, pork, bacon, ham, eggs.

Alte rnative s. Oral anti-histamines include: Burdock, Goldenseal, Juniper berries, Marshmallow, Lobelia, Myrrh, Echinacea, Nettles, Parsley root.

Teas. Betony, Boneset, Celery seed, Chamomile, Chickweed, Elderflowers, Hops, Meadowsweet, Motherwort, Red Clover, Sarsaparilla, Skullcap, Yarrow.

Tea, formula. Equal parts: Meadowsweet, Nettles, Red Clover. 1 heaped teaspoon to each cup boiling water; infuse 15 minutes; 1 cup thrice daily.

Decoction (cold). One teaspoon Barberry bark to each cup cold water steeped overnight. Half-1 cup thrice the following day.

Tablets/capsules. Blue Flag. Echinacea.

Formula. Echinacea 2; Blue Flag 1; Valerian 1. Dose – Powders: 500mg (two 00 capsules or one-third teaspoon). Liquid extracts: 1 teaspoon. Tinctures: 2 teaspoons. Thrice daily.

Practitioner’s prescription. Tinctures: Echinacea ang. 20ml; Ephedra sinica, 20ml; Urtica dioica, 10ml.

Aqua et 100ml. Sig: 5ml (3i) tds Aq cal. pc.

Alternative:– Liquid extract Echinacea ang. 1 fl oz (30ml). Liquid extract Urtica dioica. 1 fl oz. Liquid extract Humulus lupulus. Half fl oz (15ml). Syrup Senna. 2 fl oz (60ml). Aqua et 8 fl oz (240ml). Sig: 8ml (3i) tds aq cal. pc. (Arthur Barker, FNIMH)

Topical. Wash with infusion of Chickweed, Elderflowers, Mullein, Chamomile or Eucalyptus leaves.

Oil of Evening Primrose. Aloe Vera gel.

Creams: Vitamin E, Chickweed, Elderflowers, Comfrey, Plantain. Diet. See: DIET – SKIN DISEASES.

Supplements. Daily. Vitamin A (7500iu). Vitamin C (2g). ... nettlerash


Urtica dioica L. German: Grosse Brandnetel. French: Grande ortie. Spanish: Ortiga. Italian: Grande ortica. Part used: dried herb.

Constituents: Chlorophyll (high), vitamins including Vitamin C, serotonin, histamine, acetyl-choline, minerals including iron, calcium, silica.

Action: blood tonic, hypoglycaemic, antiseptic, tonic-astringent (external), diuretic, haemostatic (external), expectorant, vasodilator, hypotensive, galactagogue, splenic, circulatory stimulant, amphoteric (can increase or reduce flow of breast milk, making its own adjustment). Strengthens natural resistance. Re-mineraliser, antirheumatic. Eliminates uric acid from the body. Anti-haemorrhagic. Mild diuretic. Uses: iron-deficiency anaemia, gout (acute painful joints – partial amelioration). First stage of fevers (repeat frequently), malaria. Uvula – inflammation of. Foul-smelling sores. To stimulate kidneys. Detoxifies the blood. Pregnancy (Nettle and Raspberry leaf tea for iron and calcium). To withstand onset of uraemia in kidney disease; chronic skin disease, melaena with blood in stool, splenic disorders, high blood sugar in diabetes, burns (first degree), feeble digestion due to low level HCL; bleeding of stomach, bowels, lung and womb. Has power to eliminate urates; expulsion of gravel. On taking Nettle tea for high blood pressure passage of gravel is possible and should be regarded as a favourable sign. For women desiring an ample bust. Lobster and other shell-fish allergy, strawberry allergy. Nettle rash. Hair – fall out – tea used as a rinse.

“No plant is more useful in domestic medicine.” (Hilda Leyel)

Frequent drinks of Nettle tea often allay itching of Hodgkin’s disease. Preparations. Thrice daily.

Tea: 1oz herb to 1 pint boiling water; infuse 15 minutes. 1 cup.

Liquid Extract: 3-4ml in water.

Tincture BHP (1983): 1 part to 5 parts 45 per cent alcohol. Dose, 2-6ml in water. Powder: 210mg capsules, 6-8 capsules daily. (Arkocaps)

Floradix Herbal Iron Extract contains Nettles. (Salus-Haus)

Nettle shampoo and hair lotion.

Diet. Nettles cooked and eaten as spinach. Fresh juice: 1-2 teaspoons. ... nettles

Neuralgia, Facial

 Trigeminal Neuralgia. Severe lancing pain along one or more branches of the fifth cranial nerve.

Causes include: dental problems, ill-fitting dentures, laughing, yawning, bad teeth.

Symptoms: nervous exhaustion, contracted pupils, flushed face.

Alternatives. Black Cohosh, Cactus, Celery seed, Bogbean, Chamomile, Lady’s Slipper, Ginseng, Hops, Jamaica Dogwood, White Willow, Wild Lettuce, Skullcap, St John’s Wort, Valerian.

Tea. Combine equal parts: Chamomile, Hops, Skullcap. 1 heaped teaspoon to each cup boiling water; infuse 5-10 minutes. 1 cup freely.

Decoction. Combine: Rosemary 2; Ladyslipper 1; Jamaica Dogwood 1.1 heaped teaspoon to each cup water gently simmered 20 minutes. Half-1 cup every 2-3 hours.

Tablets. Passion flower. Ginseng. St John’s Wort, White Willow.

Formula. Equal parts: Jamaica Dogwood, Wild Lettuce, Valerian. Dose: Liquid extracts: 1 teaspoon. Tinctures: 2 teaspoons. Powders: 500mg (two 00 capsules or one-third teaspoon). Thrice daily.

Cayenne pepper (Capsicum). Frequently successful.

Practitioner. Tincture Gelsemium BPC (1973). Dose: 0.3ml (5 drops).

Topical. Poultice: Chamomile, Hops, Linseed or Bran. Acute cases (cold), chronic cases (hot). Grated or bruised Horseradish root. Evening Primrose oil. Hot cider vinegar. Tincture Arnica or Hypericum. Aromatherapy. 2 drops each: Juniper, Lavender, Chamomile to 2 teaspoons vegetable oil. Light massage. Diet, and supplements. Same as for general neuralgia. Australian researchers found that hot curries and spices actually trigger the trigeminal nerve causing a burning sensation. ... neuralgia, facial

Paget’s Disease Of The Nipple

Cancer of the mammary ducts (rare). Nipple: encrusted, red, inflamed. See: CANCER OF THE BREAST. ... paget’s disease of the nipple

Neuralgia, General

 Pain along a nerve, i.e. pain in the shoulders from pressure on a spinal nerve serving the neck.

Alternatives. Black Cohosh, Cactus, Chamomile, Lady’s Slipper, Ginseng, Hops, Jamaica Dogwood, White Willow, Wild Lettuce, Valerian.

Chamomile tea (mild analgesic).

Tablets/capsules. Any of the above.

Formula. Ginseng 4; Black Cohosh 2; Skullcap 2; Mistletoe 1; Motherwort 1. Dose: Liquid Extracts: 1 teaspoon. Tinctures: 2 teaspoons. Powders: 500mg (two 00 capsules or one-third teaspoon). Thrice daily. Children: see: DOSAGE. Cayenne pepper (Capsicum) sometimes successful.

Topical. Poultice: Chamomile, Hops, Linseed or Bran. Acute cases (cold), chronic cases (hot). Grated or bruised Horseradish root. Evening Primrose oil. Hot Cider vinegar, Tincture Arnica or Hypericum. Aromatherapy. 2 drops each: Juniper, Lavender, Chamomile to 2 teaspoons vegetable oil. Light massage. Diet. High protein. Calcium-rich foods.

Supplements. Vitamin B-complex, B6, B12, Niacin, Magnesium, Dolomite, Zinc.

See: FACIAL and INTERCOSTAL NEURALGIA; DYSMENORRHOEA (neuralgia of the womb). ANTISPASMODICS. ... neuralgia, general

Neuralgia, Intercostal

 Pain along a sensory nerve serving the chest, without loss of sensation and power of movement. Differs from neuritis in which nerves are inflamed.

Causes: all kinds of infective diseases. Rheumatism, bad teeth, bony spinal lesions, gall stone, liver disorder, thickening of pleura, fractured ribs, shingles – see: SHINGLES. In simple cases a cup of Chamomile tea may suffice. Persistent cases require one of the following alternatives.

Alternatives. Decoction. Combine equal parts: Black Cohosh, Jamaica Dogwood (or White Willow), Pleurisy root. 1 heaped teaspoon to each cup water gently simmered 20 minutes. Half-1 cup thrice daily. Formula. Cramp bark 2; Black Cohosh 1; Valerian 1. Pinch of Cayenne or few drops Tincture Capsicum. Dose: Liquid Extracts: 1 teaspoon. Tinctures: 2 teaspoons. Powders: 500mg (two 00 capsules or one- third teaspoon). Thrice daily.

Neuralgia associated with bronchi and lung: Formula: Cramp bark 2; Pleurisy root 2; Liquorice half. Dose: as above.

Practitioner. Tincture Gelsemium BPC (1973). 0.3ml (5 drops) in water as necessary.

Dr Finlay Ellingwood. Tincture Pleurisy root (Asclepias). 20 drops, every 2 hours.

Topical. Poultice: Chamomile, Hops, Linseed or Bran. Acute cases (cold), chronic cases (hot). Grated or bruised Horseradish root. Evening Primrose oil. Hot Cider vinegar. Tincture Arnica or Hypericum. Aromatherapy. 2 drops each: Juniper, Lavender, Chamomile, to 2 teaspoons vegetable oil. Massage. Diet, vitamins, minerals. Same as for general neuralgia. Cold water packs. ... neuralgia, intercostal


For relief of non-persistent constipation. Combines the bulking agent Sterculia, with the natural stimulant Frangula. Useful in pregnancy and for management of colostomies and ileostomies. For ‘high residue diet’ management of diverticular disease of the colon and other conditions requiring a high fibre regime. For the initiation and maintenance of bowel action after rectal and anal surgery. Preparation: Oral administration. Brown coated granules containing Sterculia BP 62 per cent and Frangula BPC (1949) 8 per cent. Dosage: adults: 1-2 heaped 5ml spoonfuls, once or twice daily, after meals. Children (6-12 years) half above amount.

Overdosage or where not adequately washed-down with fluid may lead to intestinal obstruction. Contra-indication: intestinal obstruction. ... normacol

Asthenia, Neurocirculatory

See cardiac neurosis.... asthenia, neurocirculatory

Blocked Nose

See nasal congestion; nasal obstruction.... blocked nose

Nose Drops Drill

To have effect upon the nasal mucosa, drops for congestion of the upper respiratory tract should be correctly instilled otherwise they may arrive in the stomach. The patient should lie on his back with his head hanging over the edge of the bed. Drops, blood heat, should be instilled into the nostrils and the patient remain in the same position for two minutes. Drops should be used in this way for no more than three days. Ephedrine BPC, Garlic, Lobelia, Menthol, etc.

Effective oil: Tea Tree oil (1 part) to 20 parts Almond, Olive or Corn oil.

Alternative. Adopt Mecca position. Kneel down, place head on ground and tuck under. The spray will reach the maximum surface of action in the nasal cavity. ... nose drops drill

Childbirth, Natural

The use of relaxation and other techniques to help cope with pain and minimize the use of drugs and medical intervention during childbirth.... childbirth, natural

Compensation Neurosis

A supposed psychological reaction to injury affected by the prospect of financial compensation. In some cases, the condition may delay physical recovery.... compensation neurosis

Natural Tooth

Crown badly decayed or weakened, it may be necessary to remove the entire natural crown of the tooth and then fit the artificial crown onto a post cemented in the root canal.... natural tooth

Deviated Nasal Septum

See nasal septum.... deviated nasal septum

Ear, Nose, And Throat Surgery

See otorhinolaryngology.... ear, nose, and throat surgery

Inverted Nipple

An indrawing of the nipple, which can be longstanding or may develop in later life as a result of changes in the breast.

Causes include normal changes associated with aging or, in some cases, an underlying cancer.... inverted nipple

Contraception, Natural Methods Of

Methods of avoiding conception based on attempts to pinpoint a woman’s fertile period around the time of ovulation, so that sexual intercourse can be avoided at this time. The calendar method is based on the assumption that ovulation occurs around 14 days before menstruation. Because of its high failure rate, it has been largely superseded by other methods. The temperature method is based on the normal rise of a woman’s body temperature in the second half of the menstrual cycle, after ovulation has occurred. The woman takes her temperature daily using an ovulation thermometer. Sex is considered to be only safe after there has been a sustained temperature rise for at least 3 days.

The cervical mucus method attempts to pinpoint the fertile period by observing and charting the amount and appearance of cervical mucus during the menstrual cycle.

Recognized changes in the mucus occur before and often at ovulation.

The symptothermal method combines the temperature and cervical mucus methods.... contraception, natural methods of

Jaundice, Neonatal

Yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes in newborn babies, due to accumulation of bilirubin in the blood. It usually results from the liver being immature and unable to excrete bilirubin efficiently. This form of jaundice is usually harmless and disappears within a week. Rarely, severe or persistent neonatal jaundice is caused by haemolytic disease of the newborn, G6PD deficiency, hepatitis, hypothyroidism, biliary atresia, or infection.

Jaundiced babies usually require extra fluids and may be treated with phototherapy.

Exchange transfusion (see blood transfusion) may be needed in severe cases.

If severe neonatal jaundice is not treated promptly, kernicterus may occur.... jaundice, neonatal

Jogger’s Nipple

Soreness of the nipple caused by clothing rubbing against it, usually during sports such as jogging or long-distance running. Both men and women can be affected. Prevention is by applying petroleum jelly to the nipple before prolonged running.

joint The junction between 2 or more bones. Many joints are highly mobile, while others are fixed or allow only a small amount of movement.

Joints in the skull are fixed joints firmly secured by fibrous tissue. The bone surfaces of mobile joints are coated with smooth cartilage to reduce friction. The joint is sealed within a tough fibrous capsule lined with synovial membrane (see synovium), which produces a lubricating fluid. Each joint is surrounded by strong ligaments that support it and prevent excessive movement. Movement is controlled by muscles that are attached to bone by tendons on either side of the joint. Most mobile joints have at least one bursa nearby, which cushions a pressure point.

There are several types of mobile joint. The hinge joint is the simplest, allowing bending and straightening, as in the fingers. The knee and elbow joints are modified hinge joints that allow some rotation as well. Pivot joints, such as the joint between the 1st and 2nd vertebrae (see vertebra), allow rotation only. Ellipsoidal joints, such as the wrist, allow all types of movement except pivotal. Ball-and-socket joints include the hip and shoulder joints. These allow the widest range of movement (backwards or forwards, sideways, and rotation).

Common joint injuries include sprains, damage to the cartilage, torn ligaments, and tearing of the joint capsule.

Joint dislocation is usually caused by injury but is occasionally congenital.

A less severe injury may cause subluxation (partial dislocation).

Rarely, the bone ends are fractured, which may cause bleeding into the joint (haemarthrosis) or effusion (build-up of fluid in a joint) due to synovitis (inflammation of the joint lining).

Joints are commonly affected by arthritis.

Bursitis may occur as a result of local irritation or strain.... jogger’s nipple

Laryngeal Nerve

One of a pair of nerves that carry instructions from the brain to the larynx and send sensations from the larynx to the brain.... laryngeal nerve

Median Nerve

One of the main nerves of the arm. It is a branch of the brachial plexus and runs down the arm from the shoulder into the hand. The median nerve controls the muscles that carry out bending movements of the wrist, fingers, and thumb, and that rotate the forearm palm-inwards. The nerve also conveys sensations from the thumb and first 3 fingers, and from the region of the palm at their base.

Damage to the nerve may result from injury to the shoulder, a Colles’ fracture just above the wrist, or pressure on the nerve where it passes through the wrist (carpal tunnel syndrome).

Symptoms of damage include numbness and weakness in areas controlled by the nerve.... median nerve

Narcotic Drugs

See opioid analgesic drugs.... narcotic drugs

Nasal Discharge

The emission of fluid from the nose. Nasal discharge is commonly caused by inflammation of the mucous membrane lining the nose and is often accompanied by nasal congestion. A discharge of mucus may indicate allergic rhinitis, a cold, or an infection that has spread from the sinuses (see sinusitis). A persistent runny discharge may be an early indication of a tumour (see nasopharynx, cancer of).

Bleeding from the nose (see nosebleed) is usually caused by injury or a foreign body in the nose.

A discharge of cerebrospinal fluid from the nose may follow a fracture at the base of the skull.... nasal discharge

Nasal Obstruction

Blockage of the nasal passage on 1 or both sides of the nose.

The most common cause of nasal obstruction is inflammation of the mucous membrane lining the passage (see nasal congestion).

Other causes include deviation of the nasal septum, nasal polyps, a haematoma (a collection of clotted blood) usually caused by injury, and, rarely, a cancerous tumour.

In children, enlargement of the adenoids is the most common cause of nasal obstruction.... nasal obstruction

Nasal Polyp

A growth in the lining of the nose, usually attached by a small stalk.

Most nasal polyps are noncancerous, but they may need to be removed if they cause nasal obstruction.... nasal polyp

Nasal Septum

The dividing partition inside the nose. The nasal septum consists of cartilage at the front and bone at the rear, both of which are covered by mucous membrane.

Disorders include a deviated septum (twisting of the septum to one side), which may be present from birth or caused by injury. Surgery may be needed if breathing is obstructed.

Injury may also cause a haematoma (a collection of clotted blood) to form between the cartilage of the septum and the wall of one nasal cavity. A haematoma may obstruct breathing and may become infected, causing an abscess that could require surgical drainage.

Rarely, a hole may be eroded in the nasal septum by tuberculosis, syphilis, Wegener’s granulomatosis, or as a result of sniffing cocaine.... nasal septum

Natural Childbirth

See childbirth, natural.... natural childbirth

Neck Dissection, Radical

A surgical procedure for the removal of cancerous lymph nodes in the neck.

The operation is commonly part of the treatment of cancer of the tongue, tonsils, or other structures in the mouth and throat.... neck dissection, radical

Neck Rigidity

Marked stiffness of the neck caused by spasm of the muscles in the neck and spine.

Neck rigidity is an important clinical sign of meningitis (inflammation of the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord).

Severe neck rigidity may cause the head to arch backwards, especially in babies.... neck rigidity

Necrolysis, Toxic Epidermal

A severe, blistering rash in which the surface layers of the skin peel off, exposing large areas of red raw skin over the body. The condition carries a risk of widespread infection and loss of body fluid and salts.

The most common cause of toxic epidermal necrolysis is an adverse reaction to a drug, particularly a barbiturate, sulphonamide, or penicillin. The condition usually clears up when the drug is discontinued. Intravenous fluid replacement is sometimes necessary.... necrolysis, toxic epidermal


A rare sexual perversion in which orgasm is achieved by means of sexual acts with dead bodies.... necrophilia

Needle Aspiration

See biopsy.... needle aspiration

Needle Exchange

A health scheme that enables intravenous drug abusers to exchange used hypodermic needles for new, sterile ones.

The scheme is aimed at reducing the risks of infections, such as HIV and hepatitis, transmitted by the sharing of contaminated needles.... needle exchange

Needlestick Injury

Accidental puncture of the skin by a contaminated hypodermic needle. Hospital staff are most likely to be at risk. Needlestick injuries carry the risk of serious infections, such as HIV and hepatitis, and need immediate attention. The wound should be cleaned thoroughly; blood tests may be needed to determine whether infection has been transmitted.... needlestick injury


An analgesic drug used to relieve moderate pain caused, for example, by injury, surgery, or cancer.

Possible adverse effects include nausea, nervousness, dry mouth, and difficulty sleeping.... nefopam

Nerve Conduction Studies

Tests carried out to assess the extent of nerve damage caused by disorders of the peripheral nervous system (see neuropathy). In the test, an electrical stimulus is applied to a nerve, and the speed at which the nerve responds to the stimulus and transmits a signal is recorded.

nerve injury Damage or severance of conducting fibres within a nerve as a result of trauma, causing loss of skin sensation and muscle power. (See neuropathy for nerve damage from cause.

other than injury.)

If a peripheral nerve (a nerve outside the brain or spinal cord) is only partially severed, the cut fibres may be able to regenerate. Provided the severed ends are still aligned, new fibres can grow across the cut to rejoin the connection, restoring function. If a nerve is totally severed, the individual fibres cannot regenerate successfully and there is no recovery of function. Nerve tracts within the brain and spinal cord are structurally different from the peripheral nerves, and severed fibres in these tracts do not regenerate. For example, vision cannot be restored if the optic nerves are cut.Microsurgery can sometimes be used to stitch a severed peripheral nerve into place, but recovery is rarely complete.... nerve conduction studies

Nerve, Trapped

Compression or stretching of a nerve, causing numbness, tingling, weakness, and, sometimes, pain. Common examples of a trapped nerve include carpal tunnel syndrome, in which pressure on the median nerve as it passes through the wrist causes symptoms in the thumb, index, and middle fingers; a disc prolapse, in which pressure on the nerve root leading from the spinal cord produces symptoms in the back and legs; and crutch palsy, in which the radial nerve presses against the humerus (upper-arm bone), producing symptoms in the wrist and hand.

A damaged nerve may take some time to heal. In severe cases, surgical decompression to relieve pressure on the nerve may be necessary.... nerve, trapped

Nervous Energy

A nontechnical term for the increased drive and activity of individuals who are always restless, anxious, and on the go.... nervous energy

Nervous Habit

A nontechnical term for a minor repetitive movement or activity. Sometimes a nervous habit consists of involuntary twitches and facial tics, such as in Gilles de la Tourette’s syndrome and some forms of dyskinesia. Voluntary nervous habits, such as nailbiting and thumb-sucking, are common in young children.

All nervous habits increase during periods of tension or anxiety, and may be severe in some forms of depression, anxiety disorder, or drug withdrawal.... nervous habit


An antibiotic drug usually prescribed only to treat serious infection in hospital, when other antibiotic drugs have proved ineffective. In rare circumstances, netilmicin can damage the inner ear or the kidneys.... netilmicin

Neurocutaneous Disorders

A group of conditions characterized by abnormalities of the skin and of the nerves and/or the central nervous system.

The best known of these neurocutaneous disorders is neurofibromatosis, in which there are brown patches on the skin and numerous fibrous nodules on the skin and nerves. Another example is tuberous sclerosis, which is characterized by small skin-coloured swellings over the cheeks and nose, mental deficiency, and epilepsy.... neurocutaneous disorders


The study of the interactions between the nervous system and the endocrine system that control internal body functions and the body’s response to the external environment.... neuroendocrinology

Neural Tube Defect

A developmental failure affecting the spinal cord or brain of the embryo. The most serious defect is anencephaly (total lack of a brain), which is fatal. More common is spina bifida, in which the vertebrae do not form a complete ring around the spinal cord. Spina bifida can occur anywhere on the spine, but it is most common in the lower back.

There are different forms of spina bifida. In spina bifida occulta, the only defect is a failure of the fusion of the bony arches behind the spinal cord, which may not cause any problems. When the bone defect is more extensive, there may be a meningocele, a protrusion of the meninges, or a myelomeningocele, a malformation of the spinal cord. Myelomeningocele is likely to cause severe handicap, with paralysis of the legs, loss of sensation in the lower body, hydrocephalus, and paralysis of the anus and bladder, causing incontinence. Associated problems include cerebral palsy, epilepsy, and mental handicap.

Surgery is usually performed a few days after birth. In mild cases, the defect can usually be corrected, but in myelomeningocele, some handicap will remain.

Genetic factors play a part in neural tube defects, which show multifactorial inheritance. Couples who have had an affected child or who have a family history of neural tube defects should seek genetic counselling. The risk of a neural tube defect occurring can be substantially reduced if the mother takes folic acid supplements for a month before conception and during the early part of the pregnancy.

Ultrasound scanning and amniocentesis allow accurate antenatal testing for neural tube defects.... neural tube defect


An infant at birth and during the 1st few weeks of life (see also prematurity; postmaturity).... newborn


A metallic element that is present in the body in minute amounts. Nickel is thought to activate certain enzymes (substances that promote biochemical reactions), and it may also play a part in stabilizing chromosomal material in the nuclei of cells.

Exposure to nickel may cause dermatitis (inflammation of the skin). Lung cancer has been reported in workers in nickel refineries.... nickel

Nicotine Replacement Therapy

Preparations containing nicotine that are used in place of cigarettes as an aid to stopping smoking.

Nicotine products are available in the form of sublingual tablets, chewing gum, skin patches, nasal spray, or inhaler.

Side effects may include nausea, headache, palpitations, cold or flu-like symptoms, hiccups, and vivid dreaming.

Nicotine replacement therapy should be used as part of a complete package of measures, including the determination to succeed.... nicotine replacement therapy

Neuropathic Joint

A joint that has been damaged by inflammation and a series of injuries, which pass unnoticed due to loss of sensation in the joint resulting from neuropathy (nerve damage caused by disease). Neuropathic joints develop in a number of conditions, including diabetes mellitus and untreated syphilis.

When sensation to pain is lost, abnormal stress and strain on a joint do not stimulate the protective reflex spasm of the surrounding muscles; this failure of the protective reflex allows exaggerated movement that can damage the joint. Osteoarthritis, swelling, and deformity are features of a neuropathic joint.An orthopaedic brace or caliper splint may be necessary to restrict any abnormal movement of the joint.

Occasionally, an arthrodesis (a surgical operation to fuse a joint) is performed.

The nerve damage is irreversible.... neuropathic joint

Nitrate Drugs

A group of vasodilator drugs used to treat angina pectoris (chest pain as a result of impaired blood supply) and severe heart failure (reduced pumping efficiency of the heart). Two commonly used nitrate drugs are glyceryl trinitrate and isosorbide.

Possible side effects of nitrate drugs include headache, flushing, and dizziness. Tolerance (the need for greater amounts of a drug for it to have the same effect) may develop when the drug is taken regularly.... nitrate drugs


Salts of nitrous acid (a nitrogen-containing acid). Sodium nitrite is used in meat preservation. In large amounts, nitrites can cause dizziness, nausea, and vomiting.... nitrites


The eggs of lice. Both head lice and pubic lice produce eggs, which they stick to the base of hairs. Nits measure only about 0.5 mm in diameter. They are light brown when newly laid, and white when hatched. (See also lice; pubic lice.)... nits

Nocturnal Emission

Ejaculation that occurs during sleep, commonly called a ‘wet dream’. Nocturnal emission is normal in male adolescents.... nocturnal emission

Nonoxinol 9

A spermicide used in contraceptive preparations such as gels, foams, and creams.... nonoxinol 9

Nonspecific Urethritis

See nongonococcal urethritis.... nonspecific urethritis

Nose, Broken

Fracture of the nasal bones or dislocation of the cartilage that forms the bridge of the nose. The fracture is usually accompanied by severe swelling of overlying soft tissue. A fractured nose is painful and remains tender for about 3 weeks after injury.

Resetting is usually carried out either before the swelling has started, or when it has subsided, usually about 10 days after the injury. Occasionally, a displaced bridge can be manipulated into position under a local anaesthetic, but, usually, a general anaesthetic is needed. A plaster splint is sometimes required during healing.... nose, broken

Noise-induced Hearing Loss

Hearing loss caused by prolonged exposure to excessive noise or by brief exposure to intensely loud noise.

Exposure to a sudden, very loud noise, usually above 130 decibels, can cause immediate and permanent damage to hearing. Normally, muscles in the middle ear respond to loud noise by altering the position of the ossicles (the chain of bones that pass vibrations to the inner ear), thus damping down the intensity of the noise. If these protective reflexes have no time to respond, the full force of the vibrations is carried to the inner ear, severely damaging the delicate hair cells in the cochlea. Occasionally, loud noises can rupture the eardrum.

More commonly, noise damage occurs over a period of time by prolonged exposure to lower levels of noise. Any noise above 85–90 decibels may cause damage, with gradual destruction of the hair cells of the cochlea, leading to permanent hearing loss. Prolonged exposure to loud noise leads initially to a loss of the ability to hear certain high tones. Later, deafness extends to all high frequencies, and the perception of speech is impaired. Eventually, lower tones are also affected.

Sounds at 85–90 decibels or above may cause pain and temporary deafness. Prolonged tinnitus (ringing or buzzing in

the ears) occurring after a noise has ceased is an indication that some damage has probably occurred.... noise-induced hearing loss

Nongonococcal Urethritis

Formerly known as nonspecific urethritis, inflammation of the urethra due to a cause other than gonorrhoea. Worldwide, nongonococcal urethritis is a very common type of sexually transmitted infection.Almost 50 per cent of cases are known to be caused by chlamydia trachomatis (see chlamydial infections); others are caused by the virus that causes herpes simplex, trichomonas vaginalis infections

(see trichomoniasis), or other microorganisms. In the remainder of cases, the cause remains unknown.

In men, the infection usually causes a clear or a purulent urethral discharge, often accompanied by pain or discomfort on passing urine. The equivalent condition in women, called nonspecific genital infection, may not cause symptoms unless there are complications.

Treatment may be difficult if the cause of symptoms cannot be determined. Antibiotic drugs, such as doxycycline and erythromycin, are given. Follow-up visits may be advised after treatment.

In men, epididymitis, prostatitis and urethral stricture (narrowing of the urethra) can occur as complications of nongonococcal urethritis. Reiter’s syndrome (in which there is arthritis and conjunctivitis as well as urethritis) occurs as a complication in some men who develop nongonococcal urethritis.

In women, pelvic inflammatory disease and cysts of the Bartholin’s glands may occur. Ophthalmia neonatorum, a type of conjunctivitis, sometimes develops in babies born to women with chlamydial cervicitis.... nongonococcal urethritis

Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs

A group of drugs, also known as NSAIDs that produce analgesia (pain relief) and reduce inflammation in joints and soft tissues such as muscles and ligaments.

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are widely used to relieve symptoms caused by types of arthritis, such as rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, and gout. They do not cure or halt the progress of disease. NSAIDs are also used in the treatment of back pain, menstrual pain, headaches, pain after minor surgery, and soft tissue injuries.

The drugs reduce pain and inflammation by blocking the production of prostaglandins (chemicals that cause inflammation and trigger transmission of pain signals to the brain).

NSAIDs may cause a wide range of side effects, the most important of which are nausea, indigestion, bleeding from the stomach, and, sometimes, peptic ulcer.... nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

Nose Reshaping

See rhinoplasty.... nose reshaping


A term meaning associated with hospitals.

A nosocomial infection is one acquired by a patient in hospital.... nosocomial

Nuchal Thickness Scan

Ultrasound scanning performed in early pregnancy in order to identify fetuses at high risk of chromosomal abnormalities such as Down’s syndrome. The scan investigates the nuchal fold, an area of skin at the back of the neck. Excessive thickness of the skin is an indicator of possible chromosomal abnormalities.... nuchal thickness scan

Nuclear Energy

The energy released as a result of changes in the nuclei of atoms. It is also known as atomic energy and is principally released in the form of heat, light, and ionizing radiation, such as gamma rays.

Nuclear energy is released in certain natural processes, including the spontaneous decay of radioactive substances such as uranium ores, and the nuclear reactions that power the sun. It is also what powers nuclear reactors.... nuclear energy

Nucleic Acids

Substances found in all living matter that have a fundamental role in the propagation of life. Nucleic acids provide the inherited coded instructions (or “blueprint”) for an organism’s development.

There are 2 types of nucleic acid: deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA). In all plant and animal cells, including human cells, DNA permanently holds the coded instructions, which are translated and implemented by RNA. DNA is the main constituent of chromosomes, which are carried in the nucleus (central unit) of the cell.

DNA and RNA are similar in structure, both comprising long, chain-like molecules. However, DNA usually consists of 2 intertwined chains, whereas RNA is generally single-stranded.

The basic structure of DNA has been likened to a rope ladder, the chains forming the 2 sides, with interlinking structures in between forming the rungs.

The ladder is twisted into a spiral shape called a double helix.

Each DNA chain has a “backbone” consisting of a string of sugar and phosphate chemical groups. Attached to each sugar is a chemical called a base, which can be any of 4 types (adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine) and forms half a rung of the DNA ladder. The 4 bases can occur in any sequence along the chain. The sequence, which may be many millions of individual bases long, provides the code for the activities of the cell (see genetic code).

RNA is like a single strand of DNA; the main difference is that the base thymine is replaced by another base, uracil.When a cell undergoes mitotic (see mitosis) division, identical copies of its DNA must go to each of the 2 daughter cells. The 2 DNA chains separate, and 2 more chains are formed, side by side with the original chains. Because only certain base pairings are possible, the new double chains are identical to the original DNA molecule. Each of a person’s cells carries the same DNA replica that was present in the fertilized ovum, so the DNA message passes from one generation of cells to the next.... nucleic acids

Nutritional Disorders

Nutritional disorders may be caused by a deficiency or excess of one or more nutrients, or by the presence of a toxin (poisonous element) in the diet.

A diet deficient in carbohydrates is almost inevitably also deficient in protein, leading to the development of protein–calorie malnutrition. Such malnutrition is most often seen as a result of severe poverty and famine (see kwashiorkor; marasmus).

Deficiency of specific nutrients is commonly associated with a disorder of the digestive system, such as coeliac disease, Crohn’s disease, or pernicious anaemia (see anaemia, megaloblastic).

Inadequate intake of protein and calories may also occur in people who excessively restrict their diet to lose weight (see anorexia nervosa), hold mistaken beliefs about diet and health (see food fad), or suffer from a loss of interest in food associated with alcohol dependence or drug dependence.Obesity results from taking in more energy from the diet than is used up by the body. Nutritional disorders may also result from an excessive intake of minerals and vitamins. An excessive intake of saturated fat is thought to be a contributory factor in coronary artery disease and in some forms of cancer.

Naturally occurring toxins can interfere with the digestion, absorption, and/or utilization of nutrients, or can cause specific disorders due to their toxic effects: for example, the ergot fungus found on rye can cause ergotism.... nutritional disorders

Paget’s Disease Of The Nipple

A rare type of breast cancer in which a tumour develops in the nipple.

The disease resembles eczema and can cause itching and a burning feeling.

A non-healing sore may develop.

Without treatment, the tumour may spread into the breast.

Diagnosis is made with a biopsy.... paget’s disease of the nipple

Postherpetic Neuralgia

Burning pain caused by nerve irritation that occurs at the site of a previous attack of herpes zoster (shingles).

See neuralgia.... postherpetic neuralgia

Singer’s Nodes

Small, greyish-white nodules that develop on the vocal cords as the result of constant voice strain.

In acute cases, treatment consists of resting the voice.

In chronic cases, surgical removal of the nodes may be necessary.... singer’s nodes

Stiff Neck

A common symptom, usually due to spasm in muscles at the side or back of the neck. In most cases, it occurs suddenly and for no apparent reason. It may result from a neck injury, such as a ligament sprain, disc prolapse, or whiplash injury. A rare cause is meningitis.

Mild stiffness may be relieved by massage, warming, and use of a liniment. Severe or persistent stiffness requires medical attention. (See also torticollis.)... stiff neck

Strawberry Naevus

A bright red, raised spot which appears in early infancy. It is a type of haemangioma.... strawberry naevus

Stuffy Nose

See nasal congestion.... stuffy nose

Surfer’s Nodules

Multiple bony outgrowths on the foot bones and on the bony prominence just below the knee.... surfer’s nodules

Syphilis, Nonvenereal

An infection due to TREPONEMA PALLIDUM bacteria that is

spread by nonsexual means, such as through broken skin or saliva.

It occurs mainly in the Middle East and Africa.

Treatment is with antibacterial drugs.... syphilis, nonvenereal

Trapped Nerve

See nerve, trapped.... trapped nerve

Urticaria, Neonatal

A very common, harmless skin condition, also known as erythema neonatorum or toxic erythema, that affects newborn infants. A blotchy rash, in which raised white or yellow lumps are surrounded by illdefined red areas of inflammation, forms, mainly affecting the face, chest, arms, and thighs. The cause of neonatal urticaria is unknown. The rash usually clears up without treatment.... urticaria, neonatal

Abducens Nerve

the sixth *cranial nerve (VI), which supplies the lateral rectus muscle of each eyeball, responsible for turning the eye outwards.... abducens nerve

Abrams–griffiths Number

(bladder outlet obstruction index, BOOI) a mathematical index used to estimate the degree of bladder outlet obstruction (*BOO). It categorizes patients as being obstructed, unobstructed, or equivocal.... abrams–griffiths number

Academic Health Science Network

(AHSN, academic health science centre, academic health science system, academic medical partnership) a regional partnership between one or more academic institutions (typically universities) and one or more health-care providers (in England, typically foundation trusts) with a twin focus on promoting economic growth in the region covered and improving the health of the population. Many AHSNs also include third-sector and industry partners and most have a role in providing education and training. The fifteen AHSNs across England were established by NHS England in 2013 and represent a national expansion of the earlier Academic Health Science Partnerships (AHSPs), which were first set up in London in 2007.... academic health science network

Acute Retinal Necrosis

(ARN) severe inflammation and necrosis of the retina associated with inflammation and blockage of retinal blood vessels, haemorrhage and death of retinal tissue, and retinal detachment. It may affect both eyes (bilateral acute retinal necrosis, BARN), and visual prognosis is poor. ARN is thought to be due to viral infection.... acute retinal necrosis

Acute Tubular Necrosis

(ATN) a condition caused by acute renal injury from either ischaemia or toxins and associated with tubular damage that is usually reversible. The earliest feature is *isosthenuria, which may occur while there is still a high urine flow rate. This is followed by a reduction in *glomerular filtration rate. *Oliguria is common and dialysis often needed for survival. If the cause of the initial damage can be removed, recovery of renal function within six weeks can be expected in most cases.... acute tubular necrosis

Analgesic Nephropathy

n. disease of the *tubulointerstitium of the kidney associated with chronic use of mixed analgesic preparations. Phenacetin, paracetamol, and salicylates have all been implicated. The condition is progressive and results in bilateral atrophy of the kidneys and chronic renal failure. In the early stages the condition is asymptomatic. The earliest clinical manifestations relate to disordered tubular function with impaired concentration and acidification of the urine.... analgesic nephropathy

Asymmetric Tonic Neck Reflex

a primitive reflex that is present from birth but should disappear by six months of age. If the infant is lying on its back and the head is turned to one side, the arm and leg on the side to which the head is turned should straighten, and the arm and leg on the opposite side should bend (the ‘fencer’ position). Persistence of the reflex beyond six months is suggestive of *cerebral palsy.... asymmetric tonic neck reflex

Atrioventricular Nodal Re-entry Tachycardia

(AVNRT) *re-entry tachycardia arising from the presence of an abnormal electrical connection between atria and ventricles situated within the *atrioventricular node.... atrioventricular nodal re-entry tachycardia

Auditory Neuropathy Spectrum Disorder

(auditory neuropathy, auditory dyssynchrony) a form of hearing loss characterized by normal cochlear function as measured by *otoacoustic emissions or detection of *cochlear microphonics but abnormal or absent *middle ear reflexes and abnormal *auditory brainstem responses.... auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder

Balkan Nephropathy

a severe and progressive form of tubulointerstitial renal disease (see tubulointerstitium), first described in 1956 and endemic to certain rural areas along the tributaries of the Danube in Bosnia, Bulgaria, Croatia, Romania, and Serbia. The natural course of the disease is progression to end-stage kidney failure and frequent development of tumours in the upper urinary tract. It seems likely that an environmental factor is responsible for the disease, and evidence supports the theory that long-term consumption of food contaminated with seeds from plants of *Aristolochia spp. underlies the pathogenesis.... balkan nephropathy

Artificial Nutrition And Hydration

the use of enteral feeding tubes or cannulas to administer nutrients and fluids directly into the gastrointestinal tract or bloodstream when the oral route cannot be used owing to disability or disease. When other intensive treatments are judged *futile, artificial nutrition and hydration are considered *extraordinary means of prolonging life in patients who have no prospect of recovery. It is permissible to withdraw such treatment when it is no longer in the patient’s interests and when the primary intention is not to kill the patient, although death is foreseen (see doctrine of double effect). In cases of patients in a *persistent vegetative state in England and Wales, the matter must be referred to the courts following the case of Tony Bland. Where food and water are withdrawn it is still considered important to moisten the patient’s lips and to keep him or her comfortable until death.... artificial nutrition and hydration

Becker’s Naevus

(Becker melanosis)... becker’s naevus

Berger’s Nephropathy

(IgA nephropathy) an abnormality of the kidney in which there is a focal area of inflammation (*glomerulonephritis). This causes microscopic amounts of blood in the urine. A quarter of the patients with this condition may develop kidney failure. [J. Berger (20th century), French nephrologist]... berger’s nephropathy

Bladder Neck Incision

an operation that involves an incision through the bladder neck that is extended into the prostate to relieve *lower urinary tract symptoms. This procedure is usually performed under a general or spinal anaesthetic through a cystoscope. It is not as extensive as a transurethral resection of the prostate and is therefore associated with a comparatively lower incidence of side-effects.... bladder neck incision

Bouchard’s Node

a bony thickening arising at the proximal interphalangeal joint of a finger in osteoarthritis. It is often found together with *Heberden’s nodes. [J. C. Bouchard (1837–1915), French physician]... bouchard’s node

Brain Natriuretic Peptide

(BNP) see natriuretic peptide.... brain natriuretic peptide

British National Formulary

(BNF) a reference source published by the Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain and the British Medical Journal (BMJ) Group twice a year (in March and September). It contains comprehensive information on medications from various sources, including the manufacturer as well as regulatory and professional bodies, resulting in information that is relevant to practice and takes into account national guidelines.... british national formulary

Busacca Nodule

a type of nodule seen on the anterior surface of the iris in granulomatous *uveitis. [A. Busacca (20th century), Italian physician]... busacca nodule

Cast Nephropathy

(myeloma kidney) a complication of multiple myeloma seen in approximately half of those who have renal disease. The casts typically involve the distal convoluted and collecting tubules and often have a fractured or crystalline appearance. They are frequently surrounded by multinucleate giant cells. Deposition of the casts is associated with progressive renal failure.... cast nephropathy

Chief Nursing Officer

the UK government’s chief nursing adviser, who is responsible for providing an expert professional contribution and advice on nursing, midwifery, and health visiting matters to ministers and senior officials. There are separate Chief Nursing Officers appointed to advise the devolved governments in Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland.... chief nursing officer

Chinese Herb Nephropathy

a condition that came to prominence in the 1990s when hundreds of young European women developed end-stage renal disease after receiving slimming pills containing Chinese herbs. The condition is also associated with a high incidence of urothelial tumours. It was eventually proved that the product was contaminated with aristolochic acid, a main toxic product of *Aristolochia plant species. Its presence in the slimming regimen was the result of accidental substitution of the prescribed herb Stephania tetrandra (han fang-ji) by A. fangchi (guang fang-ji).... chinese herb nephropathy

Chondrodermatitis Nodularis Helicis

a fairly common painful nodule on the upper part of the ear. It occurs mainly in middle-aged or elderly men and characteristically prevents the sufferer from sleeping on the affected side; it is readily treated by being cut out.... chondrodermatitis nodularis helicis

Circumflex Nerve

a mixed sensory and motor nerve of the upper arm. It arises from the fifth and sixth cervical segments of the spinal cord and is distributed to the deltoid muscle of the shoulder and the overlying skin.... circumflex nerve

Cochlear Nerve

(acoustic nerve, auditory nerve) the nerve connecting the cochlea to the brain and therefore responsible for transmitting the nerve impulses relating to hearing. It forms part of the *vestibulocochlear nerve (cranial nerve VIII).... cochlear nerve

Contrast Nephropathy

deterioration in renal function (of more than 25%) after administration of radiocontrast material. Development of this condition is more likely when there is pre-existing renal disease (the most important factor) or diabetes, vasoconstriction, simultaneous use of NSAIDs, and large amounts of radiocontrast are used. It is thought that the radiocontrast induces vasoconstriction in the vessels supplying the medulla of the kidney and aggravates hypoxia in this part of the kidney.... contrast nephropathy

Crigler–najjar Syndrome

a rare genetic disease in which the liver enzyme glucuronyl transferase, responsible for dealing with bilirubin, is absent. A large amount of unconjugated bilirubin accumulates in the blood leading to refractory jaundice in early childhood. The definitive treatment is a liver transplant; if left untreated, life expectancy is usually less than two years. [J. F. Crigler and V. A. Najjar (20th century), US paediatricians]... crigler–najjar syndrome

Dental Nerve

either of two nerves that supply the teeth; they are branches of the trigeminal nerve. The inferior dental nerve supplies the lower teeth and for most of its length exists as a single large bundle; thus anaesthesia of it has a widespread effect (see inferior dental block). The superior dental nerve, which supplies the upper teeth, breaks into separate branches at some distance from the teeth and it is possible to anaesthetize these individually with less widespread effect for the patient.... dental nerve

Dental Nurse

see dental care professional.... dental nurse

Diabetic Nephropathy

progressive damage to the kidneys seen in some people with long-standing diabetes. Excessive leakage of protein into the urine is followed by gradual decline of the kidney function and even kidney failure. See also diabetic glomerulosclerosis.... diabetic nephropathy

Diabetic Neuropathy

progressive damage to the peripheral nerves seen in some people with long-standing diabetes. It most commonly affects the legs, causing pain or numbness working up from the feet. There is no cure but drugs can sometimes be used to control the discomfort experienced, and good blood glucose control may prevent deterioration over time. See also diabetic holiday foot syndrome.... diabetic neuropathy

District Nurse

a trained nurse with special training in *domiciliary services, usually employed by a clinical commissioning group or health board. District nurses may also be allocated to a designated general practice, an arrangement known as *attachment.... district nurse

Early Neonatal Death

see perinatal mortality rate.... early neonatal death

Empty Nose Syndrome

an *iatrogenic condition that can follow surgery to widen the internal nasal cavity, particularly *turbinectomy. It is characterized by a sensation of dryness, and although the nasal cavity has been enlarged there is often a paradoxical feeling of nasal obstruction.... empty nose syndrome

Fine-needle Aspiration Cytology

(FNA cytology) a technique in which a thin hollow needle is inserted into a mass to extract a tissue sample for microscopic examination. It is useful for detecting the presence of malignant cells, particularly in lumps of the breast and thyroid. See also aspiration cytology.... fine-needle aspiration cytology

Finger–nose Test

a test for *ataxia or cerebral lesions. Using the index finger, the patient alternately touches his or her nose and then the examiner’s finger, which is shifted to a new position for each of the patient’s movements. The test is positive if the patient misses a target or develops a tremor as the target is approached (intention tremor).... finger–nose test

Gestational Trophoblastic Neoplasia

(GTN) a group of disorders characterized by persistence of *gestational trophoblastic disease, with abnormal placental development and very high levels of *human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG). The chorionic villi are fluid-filled with vacuolation of the placenta and destruction of the normal stroma. GTN is rare in the UK, with a calculated incidence of 1/714 live births. It may develop after a molar pregnancy (see hydatidiform mole), a nonmolar pregnancy, or a live birth. The incidence after a live birth is estimated at 1/50,000. A malignant condition may develop (see choriocarcinoma) if the abnormal tissue is not completely removed and the risk of this is monitored by the fall in hCG levels. Choriocarcinoma complicates approximately 3% of complete moles, although in 50% of cases of choriocarcinoma there is no history of immediately preceding trophoblastic disease. It may also occur following a normal pregnancy. In the UK, there is an effective registration and treatment programme. The programme has achieved impressive results, with high cure (98–100%) and low chemotherapy (5–8%) rates.... gestational trophoblastic neoplasia

Haemorrhagic Disease Of The Newborn

a temporary disturbance in blood clotting caused by *vitamin K deficiency and affecting infants on the second to fourth day of life. It varies in severity from mild gastrointestinal bleeding to profuse bleeding into many organs, including the brain. It is more common in breast-fed and preterm infants. The condition can be prevented by giving all babies vitamin K, either by injection or orally, shortly after birth. Medical name: melaena neonatorum.... haemorrhagic disease of the newborn

Heberden’s Node

a bony thickening arising at the terminal joint of a finger in *osteoarthritis. It is often inherited, with women most commonly affected. [W. Heberden (1710–1801), British physician]... heberden’s node

Hemispatial Neglect

(neglect syndrome) a deficit in attention to and awareness of one side of space. It is characterized by inability to process and perceive stimuli on one side of the body or environment that is not due to a lack of sensation. It is generally seen after damage to the right hemisphere, which leads to neglect of the contralateral (left) side of space.... hemispatial neglect

Hensen’s Node

(primitive knot) the rounded front end of the embryonic *primitive streak. [V. Hensen (1835–1924), German pathologist]... hensen’s node

Hereditary Nonpolyposis Colorectal Cancer

(HNPCC, Lynch syndrome) an inherited disorder in which there is an increased incidence of colorectal *polyp formation, although to a lesser extent than in familial adenomatous *polyposis (FAP). HNPCC has also been associated with other types of tumour, particularly ovarian and endometrial tumours. This increased risk is due to inherited mutations that impair DNA mismatch repair.... hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer

Heroin-associated Nephropathy

see HAN.... heroin-associated nephropathy

House–brackmann Facial Nerve Grading System

(House–Brackmann score, House–Brackmann scale, House–Brackmann facial weakness scale) a six-point grading system for patients with *Bell’s palsy or other forms of facial nerve palsy. Grade I is normal function; grade VI is a total palsy. [J. W. House and D. E. Brackmann (21st century), US otorhinolarygologists]... house–brackmann facial nerve grading system

Hypercalcaemic Nephropathy

defects of kidney function related to a high serum calcium, irrespective of cause. Impaired urine-concentrating ability and reduction in glomerular filtration rate are common features. Histologically, calcific deposits in the kidneys (*nephrocalcinosis) may be seen in cases of long-standing hypercalcaemia.... hypercalcaemic nephropathy

Hypokalaemic Nephropathy

abnormalities seen with chronic hypokalaemia (usually K+ <3.0 mmol/l) and manifest by impaired urine-concentrating ability and reduced capacity to excrete sodium. Histological changes include cytoplasmic vacuolation of the renal tubules and medullary fibrosis.... hypokalaemic nephropathy

Iga Nephropathy

see Berger’s nephropathy.... iga nephropathy

International Normalized Ratio

see INR.... international normalized ratio

Interstitial Nephritis

disease of the *tubulointerstitium of the kidney. Acute interstitial nephritis (AIN) represents in many cases an allergic reaction to drugs (especially ampicillin, cephalexin, NSAIDs, allopurinol, and frusemide). AIN can also be associated with acute infections and autoimmune disease. Thirst and polyuria may be prominent, and renal function severely affected. In allergic cases, the use of steroids hastens recovery after the allergen has been removed. Chronic interstitial nephritis (CIN) is associated with progressive scarring of the tubulointerstitium, often with lymphocyte infiltration. Primary causes of CIN include gout, radiation nephropathy, sarcoidosis, *analgesic nephropathy, reflux nephropathy, chronic hypokalaemia and hypercalcaemia, and *Aristolochia-associated nephropathies. Management of CIN involves removal of the precipitating cause, where identified, and control of hypertension.... interstitial nephritis

Intraosseous Needle

a wide-bore needle for insertion directly into the bone marrow of (usually) the tibia in children, used only in emergencies when no other means of intravenous access can be gained. Intraosseous needles enable fluids and drugs to be given rapidly. They are only for use with unconscious patients and must be removed when alternative access is obtained.... intraosseous needle


n. see Küntscher nail.... k-nail

Koeppe Nodule

a type of nodule occurring in the iris at the pupil margin in both granulomatous and nongranulomatous *uveitis. [L. Koeppe (20th century), German ophthalmologist]... koeppe nodule

Küntscher Nail

(K-nail) a metal rod that is inserted down the middle of the femur (thigh bone) to stabilize a transverse fracture of the shaft. [G. Küntscher (1902–72), German orthopaedic surgeon]... küntscher nail

Late Neonatal Death

death of a baby between 7 and 27 completed days of life.... late neonatal death

Lenticular Nucleus

(lentiform nucleus) see basal ganglia.... lenticular nucleus

Lesch–nyhan Disease

a *sex-linked hereditary disease caused by an enzyme deficiency resulting in overproduction of uric acid. Affected boys have learning disabilities and suffer from *spasticity and gouty arthritis. They also have a compulsion for self-mutilation. [M. Lesch (1939–2008) and W. L. Nyhan Jr. (1926– ), US physicians]... lesch–nyhan disease

Lisch Nodules

pigmented *hamartomas of the iris of the eye seen in *neurofibromatosis type I. [K. Lisch (1907–99), Austrian ophthalmologist]... lisch nodules

Local Involvement Networks

(LINks) groups set up to help local people get involved in the development and delivery of health and social care services; they were replaced by local *Healthwatch organizations in 2013.... local involvement networks

Lupus Nephritis

a frequent and serious complication of systemic *lupus erythematosus (SLE). The 2002 WHO/ISN/RPS classification of lupus nephritis recognizes six classes: class I is the presence of mesangial deposits (see juxtaglomerular apparatus) seen on immunofluorescence and/or electron microscopy; class II is the presence of mesangial deposits and mesangial hypercellularity; class III is focal and segmental *glomerulonephritis; class IV is diffuse segmental or global nephritis; class V is *membranous nephropathy; and class VI is advanced sclerotic glomerulonephritis. Untreated, outcomes are poor in classes III and IV, but much improved with immunosuppressant treatment.... lupus nephritis

Medullated Nerve Fibre

(myelinated nerve fibre) see myelin.... medullated nerve fibre

Membranous Nephropathy

a common cause of the *nephrotic syndrome in adults. The diagnosis is established by renal biopsy, which shows diffuse global subepithelial deposits within the glomerulus. Most cases of membranous nephropathy are idiopathic, but there are associations with infection (e.g. hepatitis B), malignancy (especially lung cancer), autoimmune disease (e.g. SLE, Hashimoto’s disease), and drugs (e.g. gold and penicillamine). Recent studies suggest that idiopathic membranous nephropathy is an autoimmune disease with antibodies directed against an antigen (PLA2R, a phospholipase A2 receptor) on the *podocyte cell membrane. Without treatment, outcome is very variable: some patients will make a full recovery, while others will progress to end-stage kidney failure. Immunosuppressant treatment is often tried when there is evidence of declining renal function.... membranous nephropathy

Metanephrine And Normetanephrine

metabolites of the hormones adrenaline and noradrenaline, respectively. Both hormones are released in excess from a *phaeochromocytoma, and measurement of their metabolites is the most reliable screening test for this rare but potentially lethal condition. The test is best carried out on a complete 24-hour urine collection.... metanephrine and normetanephrine

Minimal Change Nephropathy

the commonest cause of *nephrotic syndrome in children and an important cause of this syndrome in adults. The condition is so named because of the apparent lack of abnormalities seen on light microscopy of biopsy samples. Changes can, however, be seen on electron microscopy, with effacement of the *podocyte foot processes along the glomerular basement membrane. It is postulated that minimal change disease is a T-cell disease and that *cytokine damage to the podocytes leads to loss of the selective filtering characteristics of the glomerulus. The condition usually responds to corticosteroids and has a good prognosis, but there is clinical overlap with primary *focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, which may have similar histological appearances in its early stages, tends not to respond to steroids, and is associated with a poor renal prognosis.... minimal change nephropathy

Motor Nerve

one of the nerves that carry impulses outwards from the central nervous system to bring about activity in a muscle or gland. Compare sensory nerve.... motor nerve

Motor Neuron

one of the units (*neurons) that goes to make up the nerve pathway between the brain and an effector organ, such as a skeletal muscle. An upper motor neuron has a cell body in the brain and an axon that extends into the spinal cord, where it ends in synapses. It is thus entirely within the central nervous system. A lower motor neuron, on the other hand, has a cell body in the spinal cord or brainstem and an axon that extends outwards in a cranial or spinal motor nerve to reach an effector.... motor neuron

Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia

(MEN) see MENS.... multiple endocrine neoplasia

Musculocutaneous Nerve

a nerve of the *brachial plexus that supplies some muscles of the arm and the skin of the lateral part of the forearm.... musculocutaneous nerve


n. a drug related to cannabis, used to control severe nausea and vomiting caused by anticancer drugs when this has not responded to other antiemetics. It can cause drowsiness, vertigo, dry mouth, hallucinations, and mood changes.

nabothian follicle (nabothian cyst, nabothian gland) one of a number of retention *cysts on the neck (cervix) of the uterus, near its opening to the vagina. The sacs, which contain mucus, form when the ducts of the glands in the cervix are blocked by a new growth of surface cells (epithelium) over an area damaged because of infection....  nabilone


n. a *beta blocker used mainly in the treatment of angina pectoris and *arrhythmias and to prevent migraine attacks. Side-effects include decreased heart rate, dizziness, and low blood pressure.... nadolol


(nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) see NAD.... nadp

Naegele Rule

a method used to calculate the estimated date of delivery: nine months and seven days are added to the date of the start of the last menstrual period. A correction is required if the woman does not have 28-day menstrual cycles. [F. K. Naegele (1777–1851), German obstetrician]... naegele rule

Naegele’s Obliquity

see asynclitism.... naegele’s obliquity


n. a genus of *amoebae that normally live in damp soil or mud. Naegleria species can, however, live as parasites in humans: N. fowleri is responsible for primary amoebic *meningoencephalitis, a very rare, but fatal, infection of the brain.... naegleria


see nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.... nafld

Naga Sore

see tropical ulcer.... naga sore


combining form denoting 1. extremely small size. 2. one thousand-millionth part (10?9).... nano


n. a congenitally small eye in which all the structures are proportionally reduced.... nanophthalmos


n. a field of science focused on matter 100 nm or smaller (a DNA double helix has a diameter around 2 nm). Such substances (e.g. nanoparticles, nanostructures, nanocrystals) include those at the molecular and atomic levels. Nanomedicine is the use of nanotechnology to deliver diagnostic or treatment modalities (e.g. drugs) directly to the relevant cells (e.g. cancer cells) in the human body.... nanotechnology

Napkin Rash

(nappy rash) a red skin rash within the napkin area, usually caused by chemical irritation (ammoniacal *dermatitis) or infection with *Candida. Ammoniacal dermatitis is caused by skin contact with wet soiled nappies, the stool bacteria reacting with urine to form irritant ammonia. Treatment involves exposure to air, application of barrier creams, and frequent nappy changes. Candidal nappy rash is treated with antifungal creams. Other causes of napkin rash include eczema and psoriasis.... napkin rash


n. a system of medicine based on the belief that a great many diseases are attributable to displacement of ligaments, tendons, and other connective tissues and that cure can be brought about only by manipulation to correct these displacements.... naprapathy


n. see 5HT1 agonist.... naratriptan


combining form denoting narcosis; stupor.... narco


pl. n. (sing. naris) openings of the nose. The two external (or anterior) nares are the nostrils, leading from the nasal cavity to the outside. The two internal (or posterior) nares (choanae) are the openings leading from the nasal cavity into the pharynx.... nares

Narrative Ethics

an approach to ethical problems and practice that involves listening to and interpreting people’s stories rather than applying principles or rules to particular situations. This context-specific empathetic approach to patient and professional life stories is often contrasted with the universalizing rationalist approach of *Kantian ethics. Narrative ethics has an obvious relevance to the doctor–patient relationship and mirrors the clinical context in which moral choices are made.... narrative ethics

Nasal Bone

either of a pair of narrow oblong bones that together form the bridge and root of the nose. See skull.... nasal bone

Nasal Bridle

a fixation device to prevent patients pulling out *nasogastric (NG) tubes. Two tiny catheter-mounted magnets are inserted either side of the nasal septum to meet in the nasopharyngeal space. This leaves tapes exiting from each nostril. A clip then secures the tapes and NG tube together.... nasal bridle

Nasal Cavity

the space inside the nose that lies between the floor of the cranium and the roof of the mouth. It is divided into two halves by a septum: each half communicates with the outside via the nostrils and with the nasopharynx through the posterior nares.... nasal cavity

Nasal Concha

(turbinate bone) any of three thin scroll-like bones that form the sides of the *nasal cavity. The superior and middle nasal conchae are part of the *ethmoid bone; the inferior nasal conchae are a separate pair of bones of the face. See skull.... nasal concha

Nasal Flu Vaccine

(in Britain), a vaccine currently offered to all 2- and 3-year-olds in the form of a spray into each nostril. It contains live forms of the influenza virus that have been attenuated (weakened). The vaccine stimulates the immune system but does not cause disease in healthy people.... nasal flu vaccine


nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. See nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.... nash


n. the point on the bridge of the nose at the centre of the suture between the nasal and frontal bones.... nasion


combining form denoting the nose.... naso


adj. relating to the nose and the lacrimal (tear-producing) apparatus.... nasolacrimal

Nasopharyngeal Airway

a curved tube to be slotted down one nostril of an unconscious patient, to sit behind the tongue, to create a patent airway. See also oropharyngeal airway.... nasopharyngeal airway


n. a monoclonal antibody used for the treatment of severe relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: it reduces demyelination and inflammation by inhibiting migration of leucocytes into the central nervous system. Side-effects include an increased risk of neurological damage and opportunistic infections.... natalizumab

Natal Teeth

teeth that are present at the time of birth.... natal teeth


n. see meglitinides.... nateglinide


pl. n. the buttocks. —natal adj.... nates

National Census

see census; Office for National Statistics.... national census

National Clinical Assessment Service

(NCAS) see Practitioner Performance Advice.... national clinical assessment service

National Health Service

(NHS) (in Britain) a comprehensive service offering therapeutic and preventive medical and surgical care, including the prescription and dispensing of medicines, spectacles, and medical and dental appliances. Exchequer funds pay for the services of doctors, nurses, and other professionals, as well as residential costs in NHS hospitals, and meet a substantial part of the cost of the medicines and appliances. Legislation enacted in 1946 was implemented in 1948 and the services were subjected to substantial reorganization in 1974 and again in 1982, 1991, 1999, and in 2013 as a result of the Health and Social Care Act 2012. In England overall responsibility is vested in the Secretary of State for Health. Responsibility for commissioning most services is held by *clinical commissioning groups, consisting of GPs in a local area, and commissioning for primary care services and some specialized services is undertaken by *NHS England. Public health functions are largely delivered by local authorities, though some specialist functions are provided by *Public Health England. The relationship between the Secretary of State for Health and the NHS also changed in 2013. The Secretary of State for Health, via the *Department of Health and Social Care (DHSC), no longer has direct control of the day-to-day operation of the NHS. This has passed to NHS England. However, the DHSC continues to provide strategic leadership for the NHS.

Different arrangements apply in Northern Ireland, Wales, and Scotland.

NHS website: includes much basic medical information together with a guide to local services... national health service

National Institute For Health And Care Excellence

see NICE.... national institute for health and care excellence

National Institute For Health Research

(NIHR) a national organization, funded through the *Department of Health and Social Care, that coordinates, supports, and funds research within the NHS.

NIHR website... national institute for health research

National Insurance

(in Britain) a compulsory scheme of insurance under the terms of which employers and employees make joint contributions so that those who have contributed for a qualifying period may claim national insurance benefits in times of sickness, injury, maternity leave, unemployment, and retirement; self-employed persons pay all their own contributions. Those who do not qualify under the terms of this insurance scheme may also receive financial payments in times of need, but only subject to a means test.... national insurance

National Patient Safety Agency

(NPSA) formerly, a special health authority that led and coordinated work to improve all aspects of patient safety in England. The NPSA comprised three divisions: the National Reporting and Learning Service, the National Research Ethics Service, and the National Clinical Assessment Service. It closed in 2012, with its key functions transferred to *NHS England. In 2016 the same functions were transferred from NHS England to the newly formed *NHS Improvement.... national patient safety agency

National Service Frameworks

(NSFs) formerly, national standards of care published for a variety of conditions and patient groups (the first were for coronary heart disease and mental health). NSFs were ten-year programmes designed to improve, and reduce variations in, the quality of care by defining long-term strategies for delivery of the standards and by setting specific goals. The NSFs were dropped in the reform of the NHS after 2010 and subsequent establishment of *NHS England.... national service frameworks


n. an agent that promotes the excretion of sodium salts in the urine. Most *diuretics are natriuretics.... natriuretic

Natural Killer Cell

(NK cell) a type of *lymphocyte that is able to kill virus-infected cells and cancerous cells and mediates rejection of bone-marrow grafts. NK cells are a part of natural (or innate) *immunity. Their function is regulated by a balance between activating receptors, which recognize proteins on cancerous or virus-infected cells, and inhibitory receptors specific for certain molecules encoded by the *HLA system.... natural killer cell

Navicular Bone

a boat-shaped bone of the ankle (see tarsus) that articulates with the three cuneiform bones in front and with the talus behind.... navicular bone


see non-epileptic attack disorde.... nead

National Statistics Socio-economic Classification

(NS-SEC) an occupational classification of the national population that was developed to replace older systems based on social classes and socio-economic groups. The groupings are intended to stratify the population according to different forms of employment: households are classified according to the occupation of the household reference person (the person renting, owning, or otherwise responsible for accommodation). The NS-SEC is used for official surveys and statistics, including the *census. The analytic version of the classification has eight classes and is the version used for most analyses.... national statistics socio-economic classification

Natriuretic Peptide

any of several peptides that stimulate diuresis (increased urine production) and vasodilatation (widening of blood vessels). They act on the kidney tubules to promote excretion of sodium (natriuresis) and water. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is produced in the atria of the heart in response to a rise in atrial pressure. Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) is produced in the brain and the ventricles of the heart, mainly in response to stretching of the ventricular muscle (as occurs in congestive heart failure). Measurement of blood levels of BNP can be used as a diagnostic test for heart failure and also as an indicator of prognosis.... natriuretic peptide


n. see pseudarthrosis.... nearthrosis


n. a genus of *hookworms that live in the small intestine. The human hookworm, N. americanus, occurs in tropical Africa, Central and South America, India, and the Pacific Islands. The worm possesses two pairs of sharp cutting plates inside its mouth cavity, which enable it to feed on the blood and tissues of the gut wall. Compare Ancylostoma.... necator


n. an infestation of the small intestine by the parasitic hookworm Necator americanus. See also hookworm disease.... necatoriasis


n. the ethical and legal doctrine that provides justification for doing something that might otherwise be seen as blameworthy when the consequences of not doing so would be worse. For example, doctors have no right to touch a patient without consent, yet might be considered lacking in duty of care if they did not restrain patients who were about to kill themselves. See also paternalism.... necessity


combining form denoting death or dissolution.... necro


n. a gradual process by which cells lose their function and die. Necrobiosis lipoidica is a disease in which degeneration of collagen produces sharply demarcated yellowish-brown plaques, especially on the shins of women. The association with diabetes mellitus is controversial.... necrobiosis


n. the study of the phenomena of death, involving determination of the moment of death and the different changes that occur in the tissues of the body after death.... necrology


n. the presence of either dead or motionless spermatozoa in the semen. See infertility.... necrospermia

Necrotizing Enterocolitis

(NEC) a serious disease affecting the bowel during the first three weeks of life; it is much more common in preterm babies. The abdomen distends and blood and mucus appear in the stools; the bowel may perforate. Treatment is to rest the bowel and administer antibiotics. If the bowel becomes necrotic, surgery may be necessary. The cause is unknown but the disease may be the result of a reduced supply of oxygen to the bowel or infection.... necrotizing enterocolitis


n. a drug, related to sodium *cromoglicate, used to prevent asthma attacks and to treat allergic conjunctivitis. Possible side-effects include local irritation.... nedocromil


n. a slender sharp-pointed instrument used for a variety of purposes. The size and shape of needles used in surgery for stitching tissue depend on the type of surgery. Most surgical needles have suture material fused onto them (so-called atraumatic needles). Hollow needles are used to inject substances into the body (in hypodermic syringes), to obtain specimens of tissue (see puncture), or to withdraw fluid from a cavity (see aspiration; biopsy). See also stop needle.... needle

Negative Feedback Loop

a physiological loop for the control of hormone production by a gland. High levels of a circulating hormone act to reduce production of the releasing factors triggering its own production, i.e. they have a negative *feedback on these trigger factors. As circulating levels of the hormone fall, the negative feedback is reduced and the releasing factor starts to be produced again, allowing the hormone level to rise again.... negative feedback loop

Negative Symptoms

(in psychiatry) symptoms of schizophrenia characterized by a deficiency in or absence of some aspect of functioning, such as social withdrawal, loss of initiative, and blunted affect. Compare positive symptoms.... negative symptoms

Neglect Syndrome

see hemispatial neglect.... neglect syndrome

Neglected Tropical Diseases

(NTDs) as defined by the *World Health Organization (WHO), a diverse group of *communicable diseases found almost entirely among poor populations in tropical and subtropical parts of Africa, Asia, and the Americas. Although they affect more than 1.4 billion people, and countermeasures would in many cases be inexpensive, NTDs have traditionally received far less attention than the major infectious diseases HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria. In 2013 the WHO resolved to intensify its efforts to eradicate or control NTDs. The current WHO list identifies 24 such diseases, including *Buruli ulcer, *chikungunya fever, *dengue, *leishmaniasis, and *Madura foot (mycetoma).... neglected tropical diseases


n. a genus of spherical Gram-negative aerobic nonmotile bacteria characteristically grouped in pairs. They are parasites of animals, and some species are normal inhabitants of the human respiratory tract. The species N. gonorrhoeae (the gonococcus) causes *gonorrhoea. Gonococci are found within pus cells of urethral and vaginal discharge; they can be cultured only on serum or blood agar. N. meningitidis (the meningococcus) causes meningococcal *meningitis. Meningococci are found within pus cells of infected cerebrospinal fluid and blood or in the nasal passages of carriers. They too can only be cultured on serum or blood agar.... neisseria


n. the activation of normal fibroblasts that occurs if they cluster and make cell-to-cell contact. This induces the production of *chemokines, *growth factors, enzymes, etc., which can influence cancer cells and inflammation. It leads to programmed cell death (see apoptosis).... nemosis

Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy

chemotherapy that is given before the (usually) surgical treatment of a primary tumour with the aim of shrinking the tumour and therefore improving the results of surgery or radiotherapy and preventing the development of metastases. Compare adjuvant therapy.... neoadjuvant chemotherapy


n. the middle lobe of the *cerebellum, excluding the pyramid and uvula. In evolutionary terms it is the newest part, occurring only in mammals.... neocerebellum

Neointimal Hyperplasia

a pathological process involved in *atherosclerosis of arteries and vein grafts, and in *restenosis, that may be in response to angioplasty and stent placement. Damage to the endothelium of the artery exposes the underlying smooth muscle cells in the *media to cytokines, growth factors, and other plasma components in the circulation, which results in loss of their contractile characteristics. These abnormal muscle cells migrate to the *intima, where they proliferate and eventually form a thick layer of tissue (neointima), which occludes the artery.... neointimal hyperplasia

Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome

(NAS) symptoms and signs exhibited by a newborn baby (neonate) due to drug withdrawal (see dependence). This results when the fetus has been exposed to addictive drugs through maternal substance abuse or misuse. Symptoms tend to occur in the first few days of life (in the case of methadone, which is a long-acting opioid, symptom onset may be delayed). They include tremors and jerking, high-pitched crying, sneezing, sucking of fists, feeding difficulties, shortened periods of sleep between feeds, rapid breathing, sweating, loose stools, nasal stuffiness, and frequent yawning. Treatment includes swaddling or snugly wrapping in a blanket, as babies with NAS are often difficult to comfort. Other nonpharmacological measures include frequent small feeds using high-calorie formula and intravenous fluids if babies become dehydrated. Drug therapy may be used for seizures and withdrawal symptoms.... neonatal abstinence syndrome

Neonatal Early Warning Score

an assessment tool for newborn babies, consisting of a chart in which a combination of *vital signs, neurological involvement, observation of blue skin and lips, and level of behavioural response indicate the appropriate level of concern. It is colour-coordinated from red to green to enable standardized escalation of concerns about the sick baby.... neonatal early warning score

Neonatal Mortality Rate

see infant mortality rate.... neonatal mortality rate

Neonatal Screening

*screening tests carried out on newborn babies to detect diseases that appear in the neonatal period, such as phenylketonuria (see Guthrie test). If these diseases are detected early enough, treatment may be instigated before any irreversible damage occurs to the baby.... neonatal screening

Neonatal Teeth

teeth that emerge through the gingiva (gums) during the first month of life.... neonatal teeth

Neonatal Urticaria

see erythema.... neonatal urticaria


n. an enlargement of the wall of each cerebral hemisphere. In evolutionary terms it is the newest part of the cerebrum, formed by the development of new pathways for sight and hearing in mammals.... neopallium


n. a substituted muscle or an implant for an absent or ineffective sphincter (see artificial sphincter).... neosphincter


n. the abnormal formation of new and fragile blood vessels, usually in response to ischaemia. In choroidal neovascularization, which occurs in such conditions as *macular degeneration, abnormal vessels, derived from the *choroid, form in the space between the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and the choroid (see retina).... neovascularization


(nephro-) combining form denoting the kidney(s).... nephr


n. a transmembrane protein localized to the slit diaphragm of the *podocyte and necessary for the proper functioning of the renal filtration barrier. The latter consists of fenestrated endothelial cells, the basement membrane, and the epithelial podocyte. A defect in the gene coding for nephrin (NPHS1) on chromosome 19 results in congenital nephrotic syndrome of Finnish type (which is not exclusive to the Finnish population).... nephrin

Nephritic Syndrome

generalized inflammation of the glomeruli of the kidneys resulting in a reduction in *glomerular filtration rate, with mild oedema and hypertension resulting from renal salt and water retention. Urine analysis shows the presence of proteinuria and microscopic haematuria with red cell casts. Common and usually self-limiting causes are *Berger’s nephropathy and poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis. Less common but more serious causes of the nephritic syndrome are the vasculitides (see vasculitis) and *Goodpasture’s disease, which, untreated, usually prove fatal.... nephritic syndrome

Nephrogenic Cord

either of the paired ridges of tissue that run along the dorsal surface of the abdominal cavity of the embryo. Parts of it develop into the kidney, ovary, or testis and their associated ducts. Intermediate stages of these developments are the *pronephros, *mesonephros, and *metanephros.... nephrogenic cord

Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus

(NDI) a condition characterized by *polyuria and *polydipsia and due to failure of the renal tubules to respond, or to respond fully, to *vasopressin. One form of congenital NDI is caused by an X-linked (see sex-linked) dominant mutation of the gene encoding the vasopressin V2 receptor. A rarer form of congenital NDI is an autosomal recessive condition associated with genetic mutations in the gene encoding AQP-2 water channels (see aquaporin). Acquired NDI is much commoner than the congenital form and usually less severe. It is present in most patients with advancing chronic renal failure, is a feature of certain electrolyte disorders (hypokalaemia, hypercalcaemia), and can complicate chronic lithium treatment.... nephrogenic diabetes insipidus

Nephrogenic Systemic Fibrosis

(NSF, nephrogenic fibrosing dermopathy) a rare condition, first reported in 1997, that occurs exclusively in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), who develop large areas of hardened skin with fibrotic nodules and plaques. Flexion contractures with an accompanying limitation of range of motion can also occur. Exposure to gadolinium, used as a contrast agent in magnetic resonance imaging, has been identified as a causative factor, but many patients with severe CKD have been exposed to gadolinium without consequence. Linear gadolinium preparations (Omniscan, OptiMARK) appear to carry the highest risk of NSF. There is no cure for the condition.... nephrogenic systemic fibrosis


n. inspection of the interior of the kidney with a *nephroscope.... nephroscopy


n. X-ray imaging (see fluoroscopy) of the interior of the kidney and ureter after injecting a radiographic *contrast medium through a catheter placed inside the renal pelvis (see nephrostomy). This procedure is done to check for any problems with the drainage of urine from the pelvis to the ureter.... nephrostogram


adj. liable to cause damage to the kidneys. Nephrotoxic drugs include *aminoglycoside antibiotics, sulphonamides, and gold compounds. —nephrotoxicity n.... nephrotoxic


(ureteronephrectomy) n. the surgical removal of a kidney together with its ureter. This operation is performed for cancer of the kidney pelvis or ureter. It is also undertaken when the kidney has been destroyed by *vesicoureteric reflux, to prevent subsequent continuing reflux into the stump of the ureter that would occur if only the kidney were removed.... nephroureterectomy

Nerve Conduction Study

a test done to assess the peripheral nervous system. It involves activating the nerves electronically with electrical pulses and measuring the responses obtained.... nerve conduction study

Nerve Ending

the final part (terminal) of one of the branches of a nerve fibre, where a *neuron makes contact either with another neuron at a synapse or with a muscle or gland cell at a neuromuscular or neuroglandular junction.... nerve ending

Nerve Entrapment Syndrome

any syndrome resulting from pressure on a nerve from surrounding structures. Examples include the *carpal tunnel syndrome and *meralgia paraesthetica.... nerve entrapment syndrome

Nerve Fibre

the long fine process that extends from the cell body of a *neuron and carries nerve impulses. Bundles of nerve fibres running together form a *nerve. Each fibre has a sheath, which in medullated nerve fibres is a relatively thick layer containing the fatty insulating material *myelin.... nerve fibre

Nerve Gas

any gas that disrupts the normal functioning of nerves and thus of the muscles they supply. There are two groups, the G agents and the V agents. The latter are more than 300 times as deadly as mustard gas: one inhalation can kill by paralysing the respiratory muscles. V agents also act through the skin, therefore gas masks are ineffective protection against them.... nerve gas

Nerve Growth Factor

(NGF) a protein (see growth factor), consisting of two polypeptide chains, that is required for the development and longevity of some neurons, including those in the sympathetic nervous system and some central nervous system and sensory neurons. Nerve growth factor is necessary for axon growth and also for initiating new neuronal connections with other cells. The role of NGFs in preventing the degeneration of brain cells is being explored in research into Alzheimer’s disease.... nerve growth factor

Nerve Impulse

the electrical activity in the membrane of a *neuron that – by its rapid spread from one region to the next – is the means by which information is transmitted within the nervous system along the axons of the neurons. The membrane of a resting nerve is charged (polarized) because of the different concentrations of ions inside and outside the cell. When a nerve impulse is triggered, a wave of *depolarization spreads, and ions flow across the membrane (see action potential). Until the nerve has undergone *repolarization no further nerve impulses can pass.... nerve impulse

Nerve Regeneration

the growth of new nerve tissue, which occurs at a very slow rate (1–2 mm per day) after a nerve has been severed and is often partially or totally incomplete. *Microsurgery has improved the results by facilitating primary repair in the immediate aftermath of injury. See also axonotmesis; neurotmesis.... nerve regeneration

Nesbit’s Operation

an operation devised to surgically straighten a congenitally curved penis but now more frequently employed to correct the penile curvature caused by *Peyronie’s disease. The procedure can often result in penile shortening. [R. M. Nesbit (20th century), US surgeon]... nesbit’s operation


n. a rare condition of childhood in which abnormal cells in the pancreas fail to mature properly and secrete a selection of hormones (including insulin) in an uncontrolled manner. This causes a variety of problems, including recurrent *hypoglycaemia. It can sometimes be treated with medication; if this fails, surgical removal of a portion of the pancreas may be necessary.... nesidioblastosis


neuroendocrine tumours. See neuroendocrine system.... nets


(neuro-) combining form denoting nerves or the nervous system.... neur

Neural Arch

see vertebra.... neural arch

Neural Crest

the two bands of ectodermal tissue that flank the *neural plate of the early embryo. Cells of the neural crest migrate throughout the embryo and develop into sensory nerve cells and peripheral nerve cells of the autonomic nervous system.... neural crest

Neural Plate

the strip of ectoderm lying along the central axis of the early embryo that forms the *neural tube and subsequently the central nervous system.... neural plate

Neural Spine

the spinous process situated on the neural arch of a *vertebra.... neural spine


(NA, N) a glycoprotein projecting from the surface layer of the lipid bilayer envelope of *influenza virions. It attacks sialic acid residues on host cells and may be involved in virus release. It is a key target for antibody attack and therefore is important in vaccination.... neuraminidase


n. the surgical procedure for stretching a peripheral nerve.... neurectasis


(neurinoma) n. a benign slow-growing tumour that arises from the neurilemma of a nerve fibre.... neurilemmoma


n. see neurilemmoma.... neurinoma


n. the study of the structure of the nervous system, from the gross anatomy of the brain down to the microscopic details of neurons.... neuroanatomy


n. the predisposition of a nerve cell to move towards the source of its stimuli during development.... neurobiotaxis


n. any of the nerve cells of the embryo that give rise to functional nerve cells (neurons).... neuroblast

Neurocardiogenic Syncope

(malignant vasovagal syndrome) recurrent loss of consciousness due to a drop in blood pressure mediated by *vasodilatation, *bradycardia, or a combination of the two. Attacks resemble a simple faint, but can be very disabling because they are much more frequent and severe. Treatment comprises increased fluid and salt intake together with training in postural manoeuvres that may prevent attacks. A variety of drug treatments is available, but these are commonly ineffective. Implantation of a permanent *pacemaker may be required if profound bradycardia is a feature.... neurocardiogenic syncope


n. the part of the skull that encloses the brain.... neurocranium

Neuroendocrine System

the system of dual control of certain activities of the body by means of both nerves and circulating hormones. The functioning of the autonomic nervous system is particularly closely linked to that of the pituitary and adrenal glands. The system can give rise to neuroendocrine tumours (NETs), which have special structural features and often produce active hormones. See also neurohormone; neurosecretion.... neuroendocrine system


n. a malignant tumour of the retina of the eye. It is a form of *glioma and may spread into the brain if not treated early.... neuroepithelioma