Habitat: This shrub, like the Alders and the Hazel, grows in bunches as high as eight or ten feet, and is found on high lands and the stony banks of streams.Features ? The branches are flexuous and knotty, the bark smooth and grey with brown spots. The leaves are four to five inches long and about two inches broad, obovate; feather-veined, irregularly notched at the edges, smooth above and downy underneath. Yellow flowers appear in autumn, when the leaves are falling. Taste is astringent, and smell slight and agreeable.Part used ? Bark and leaves.
Action: Astringent and tonic.A decoction of the bark, which is more astringent than the leaves, checks external and internal hemorrhages, and this astringency, when in combination with the more specific principles of Pilewort, makes one of the most effective pile medicines known. The compound can be obtained in the form of both ointment and suppositories for external application. For varicose veins an extract of the fresh leaves and young twigs of Witch Hazel is applied on a lint bandage kept constantly moist.Both decoctions of the bark and infusions of the leaves are made in the proportion of 1 ounce to 1 pint boiling water (after simmering for ten minutes in the case of the bark decoction) and taken in wineglassful doses.... witch hazel
Symptoms The ?rst, or catarrhal, stage is characterised by mild, but non-speci?c, symptoms of sneezing, conjunctivitis (see under EYE, DISORDERS OF), sore throat, mild fever and cough. Lasting 10–14 days, this stage is the most infectious; unfortunately it is almost impossible to make a de?nite clinical diagnosis, although analysis of a nasal swab may con?rm a suspected case. This is followed by the second, or paroxysmal, stage with irregular bouts of coughing, often prolonged, and typically more severe at night. Each paroxysm consists of a succession of short sharp coughs, increasing in speed and duration, and ending in a deep, crowing inspiration, often with a characteristic ‘whoop’. Vomiting is common after the last paroxysm of a series. Lasting 2–4 weeks, this stage is the most dangerous, with the greatest risk of complications. These may include PNEUMONIA and partial collapse of the lungs, and ?ts may be induced by cerebral ANOXIA. Less severe complications caused by the stress of coughing include minor bleeding around the eyes, ulceration under the tongue, HERNIA and PROLAPSE of the rectum. Mortality is greatest in the ?rst year of life, particularly among neonates – infants up to four weeks old. Nearly all patients with whooping-cough recover after a few weeks, with a lasting IMMUNITY. Very severe cases may leave structural changes in the lungs, such as EMPHYSEMA, with a permanent shortness of breath or liability to ASTHMA.
Treatment Antibiotics, such as ERYTHROMYCIN or TETRACYCLINES, may be helpful if given during the catarrhal stage – largely in preventing spread to brothers and sisters – but are of no use during the paroxysmal stage. Cough suppressants are not always helpful unless given in high (and therefore potentially narcotic) doses, and skilled nursing may be required to maintain nutrition, particularly if the disease is prolonged, with frequent vomiting.... whooping-cough
Word deafness is an associated condition in which, although hearing remains perfect, the patient has lost the power of referring the names heard to the articles they denote. (See also DYSPHASIA.)... word blindness
Habitat: Waste ground. Features ? Stem two feet high, whitish, silky hairs. Leaves downy, three inches long by one and a half inches broad, pinnatifid, stalked, lobes linear, obtuse. Flowers (August) pale yellow with greenish tint, small, globular, clustered in erect, leafy panicle. Part used ? Herb.
Action: Tonic, stomachic, anthelmintic. Infusion of 1 ounce to 1 pint of boiling water, taken in wineglass doses for poor digestion and debility. A reliable remedy for worms.... wormwood
Those in the row nearest the hand are the trapezium, trapezoid, capitate and hamate. These latter articulate with the metacarpal bones in the hand and are closely bound to one another by short, strong ligaments; and the wrist-joint is the union of the composite mass thus formed with the RADIUS and ULNA in the forearm. The wrist and the radius and ulna are united by strong outer and inner lateral ligaments, and by weaker ligaments before and behind, whilst the powerful tendons passing to the hand and ?ngers strengthen the wrist.
The joint can move in all directions, and its shape and many ligaments mean that it rarely dislocates – although stretching or tearing of some of these ligaments is a common accident, constituting a sprain. (See JOINTS, DISEASES OF.) In?ammation of the tendon-sheaths may occur as a result of injury or repetitive movement (see UPPER LIMB DISORDERS). A fairly common condition is the presence of a GANGLION, in which an elastic swelling full of ?uid develops on the back or front of the wrist in connection with the sheaths of the tendons. (See also HAND.)... wrist
Habitat: Woods and other shady places.Features ? Stem eight inches to one foot in height, slender, smooth, four-sided, brittle. Leaves lanceolate, rather rough at the edges, in rings of, usually, eight round the stem. Flowers tubular, with flattened mouth, divided into four white, cross-shaped petals, on long, axillary stalk. The dried herb smells like new-mown hay.Part used ? Herb.
Action: Hepatic, tonic.In faulty biliary functioning and general liver sluggishness. Tonic properties particularly applicable to the digestive apparatus. Dose, two tablespoonfuls of the 1 ounce to 1 pint boiling water infusion.... woodruff
The disease is diagnosed by bloodclotting tests and measurement of blood levels of von Willebrand factor. Bleeding episodes can be prevented or controlled by desmopressin (a substance resembling ADH). Factor or concentrated von Willebrand factor may also be used to treat bleeding.... von willebrand’s disease
Treatment is with immunosuppressant drugs, such as cyclophosphamide or azathioprine, combined with corticosteroids to alleviate symptoms and attempt to bring about a remission.
With prompt treatment, most people recover completely within about a year, although kidney failure occasionally develops.
Without treatment, complications may occur, including perforation of the nasal septum, causing deformity of the nose; inflammation of the eyes; a rash, nodules, or ulcers on the skin; and damage to the heart muscle, which may be fatal.... wegener’s granulomatosis
(See also breathing difficulty.)... wheeze
The cause is thought to be bacterial; affected tissues are found to contain macrophages (a type of scavenging cell) containing rod-shaped bacteria. Treatment is with antibiotic drugs for at least 1 year. Dietary supplements are used to correct nutritional deficiencies occurring as a result of malabsorption.... whipple’s disease
whipworm infestation Small, cylindrical whip-like worms, 2.5–5 cm long, that live in the human large intestine. Infestation occurs worldwide but is most common in the tropics. Light infestation causes no symptoms; heavy infestation can cause abdominal pain, diarrhoea, and, sometimes, anaemia, since a small amount of the host’s blood is consumed every day.
Diagnosis is through the identification of whipworm eggs in the faeces. Treatment is with anthelmintic drugs, such as mebendazole. A heavy infestation may require more than 1 course of treatment. whitehead A very common type of skin blemish (see milia).... whipple’s operation
The term is also applied to the psychological and physical symptoms that develop on discontinuing use of a substance on which a person is dependent (see withdrawal syndrome).... withdrawal
An international organization established in 1948 as an agency of the United Nations with responsibilities for international health matters and public health. The headquarters are in Geneva, Switzerland.
The has campaigned effectively against some infectious diseases, most
notably smallpox, tuberculosis, and malaria.
Other functions include sponsoring medical research programmes, organizing a network of collaborating national laboratories, and providing expert advice and specific targets to its 160 member states with regard to health matters.... world health organization
Wounds can be divided into the following categories: an incised wound; an abrasion (or graze); a laceration; a penetrating wound; and a contusion. wound infection Any type of wound is susceptible to the entry of bacteria; the resultant infection can delay healing, result in disability, and may even cause death. Infection of a wound is indicated by redness, swelling, warmth, pain, and sometimes by the presence of pus or the formation of an abscess. Infection may spread locally to adjacent organs or tissue, or to more distant parts of the body via the blood.
The type of infection depends upon how the wound occurred. For example, wounds brought into contact with soil can result in tetanus. STAPHYLOCOCCI, including MRSA, are also common wound infections.
Once infection is discovered, a sample of blood or pus is taken and the patient is given an antibiotic drug. Any abscess should be drained surgically.... wound
Habitat: The Himalayas from Kashmir to Assam at altitudes of 1,600-4,000 m.English: Indian Silver Fir, The West-Himalayan High-Level Fir, The East-Himalayan Fir.Ayurvedic: Taalisa, Taalisapatra, Taalisha, Patraadhya, Dhaatriparni, Dhaatripatra.Unani: Taalisapattar.Siddha/Tamil: Taalispatri.Folk: Badar, Chilrow, Morinda, Raisalla, Taalispatra. (Tallispatra, Taalispatri and Talespattre are also equated with the leaves of Cinnamomum tamala Nees.)
Action: Expectorant, bronchial sedative, decongestant, anticatarrhal, antiseptic, carminative.Key application: Fir (Abies alba Miller) needle oil—in catarrhal illness of upper and lower respiratory tract (internally and externally); externally in rheumatic and neuralgic pains. Contraindicated in bronchial asthma and whooping cough. (German Commission E.)A biflavonoid, abiesin, n-triaconta- nol, beta-sitosterol and betuloside are present in the leaves.The essential oil from leaves contains alpha-pinene, l-limonene, delta- carene, dipentene, l-bornyl acetate and l-cardinene as major constituents.Dosage: Needles—2-6 g powder. (API Vol. IV.)... abies webbiana
Habitat: The Western and Central Himalayas and Punjab.English: Himalayan Boxwood tree.Folk: Chikri, Shamshaad. Paapari (Garhwal).
Action: Wood—diaphoretic. Bark— febrifuge. Leaves—purgative, diaphoretic; used in rheumatism. Poisonous. Not a safe drug for "purifying blood". Symptoms of poisoning are severe—abdominal pain, vomiting, convulsions and death.The mixture of alkaloids is referred to as buxine. Buxenine-G is cytotoxic.There is preliminary evidence that a specific Boxwood leaf extract (SVP 30) might delay disease progression in HIV-infected patients. The extract is available through internet sources or AIDS Buyers' Clubs. (Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, 2007.)... buxus wallichiana
Habitat: Gujarat, North Kanara and Deccan.English: Sebestan (bigger var.).Ayurvedic: Shleshmaataka (bigger var.), Uddaalaka, Bahu- vaaraka.Siddha/Tamil: Perunaruvili.Folk: Gondi.
Action: Fruit—astringent, demulcent, expectorant. See C. myxa.... cordia wallichii
Habitat: Western Himalayas from Kashmir to Kumaon at 2,3503,700 m.English: Wallich Crane's Bill.Ayurvedic: Ratanjot (substitute).Folk: Laal Jadi, Laal Jahri. Kaoashund (Kashmir).
Action: Astringent.The root stocks sometimes substituted for those of Coptis teeta Wall.; contain 25-32% tannins and 18% nontannins.... geranium wallichianum
Habitat: Western Himalayas, Nepal, Lushai hills, Manipur and hills of South India at altitudes of 3002,400 m.... lilium wallichianum
Habitat: Woods and shady places in North America.Features ? Imported rhizome, slender, about four inches long by one-eighth inch thick, quadrangular, greyish to purplish brown, wrinkled ; fracture short; rootlets whitish. Pungent, bitter taste.Part used ? Rhizome.
Action: Stimulant, carminative, expectorant, diaphoretic.As a carminative in digestive and intestinal pains, and as a stimulant in colds and amenorrhea resulting therefrom. An infusion of 1/2 ounce of the powdered rhizome to 1 pint boiling water is taken hot for stimulative purposes, and blood warm as a carminative. Dose of the dry powder, 20 to 30 grains.Practitioners of the American Physio-Medical School hold that this root exerts a direct influence upon the uterus, and prescribe it as a parturient when nervous fatigue is observed.... ginger, wild
Habitat: Western Himalayas. Folk: Archa.
Action: Antispasmodic, muscle relaxant, antiseptic.The rhizomes contain desoxyrha- pontigenin. The compound, like papaverine, exhibited smooth muscle relaxant activity in a wide variety of in vitro and in vivo tests. Aqueous alcoholic extract showed papaverine-like non-specific spasmolytic activity.The paste of fresh rhizomes is applied on burns, blisters and boils to prevent scar formation.... rheum webbianum
Habitat: Dry and inner Himalayas from Kashmir to Kumaon at altitudes of 900-4,000 m.Ayurvedic: Laddaakhi-Sevati. (Flowers— pink or deep red, fruit— red.)... rosa webbiana
Habitat: Sub-tropical Himalaya, Madhya Pradesh, Tamil Nadu.Folk: Popli (Maharashtra); Paral (Karnataka, Tamil Nadu); Jhuri (Nepal); Dalmi, Dalmia (Garhwal, Kumaon).
Action: Leaf—emetic.The leaf contains 20% tannin. It gave cis-4-hydroxy-L-proline, and exhibited antiviral activity.The heartwood is faintly fragrant and reported to be used for adulterating sandalwood.... osyris wightiana
Habitat: Old walls.Features ? Up to two feet high, stem reddish, brittle, angular, rather hairy. Leaves alternate, stalked, lanceolate, edges smooth, one to two inches long by half an inch to one inch broad. Numerous pink flowers (June and July), small, axillar.Part used ? Herb.
Action: Diuretic, laxative.Gravel, suppression of urine, and other bladder and kidney disorders. Frequently prescribed in combination with Wild Carrot and Parsley Piert. Wineglass doses of the infusion of 1 ounce to 1 pint boiling water.... pellitory-of-the-wall
Habitat: Nepal, Lakhimpur and Khasi Hills in Assam.Ayurvedic: Wrongly equated with Sambhaaluka. (Sambhaalu has been identified as Vitex negundo.) Renukaa is also a wrong synonym (it is equated with the seed of Vitex agnus-castus).Siddha/Tamil: Kaattu-milagu.
Action: Fruits—used as uterine stimulant.The fruit contain piperine, piperet- tine and sylvatine, besides beta-sitos- terol. The seeds gave aurantiamide, its acetate and auranamide.The fraction, containing alkaloids, showed oxytocic activity. The lignin constituents inhibited platelet aggregation caused by platelet-activating factor.... piper wallichii
Wahiba, Waheeba, Wahyba, Waheebah, Wahybah, Wahieba, Wahiebah, Waheiba, Waheibah, Waheaba, Waheabah, Wabibah, Wabibah, Wabyba, Wabybah, Wabeeba, Wabeebah, Wabeiba, Wabeibah, Wabieba, Wabiebah, Wabeaba, Wabeabah... wahibah
Habitat: Hills of Peninsular India, up to an altitude of 2,000 m.Ayurvedic: Rakta-Rohidaa (a name applied to several other astringent herbs).
Action: Bark—bitter, astringent and deobstruent.The leaves gave chrysophanol, phys- cion, musizin, lupeol, rhamnazin, rhamnocitrin, emodin, frangulin A and beta-sitosterol. A naphthalene- glucoside lactone—beta-sorigenin-1- O-beta-D-glucoside has been isolated from the stem bark. Cynodontin, chrysophanol, physcion, musizin, lu- peol, emodin, beta-syriogenin, beta- sitosterol and its glucoside were also isolated.... rhamnus wightii
Habitat: Eastern Himalayas from Nepal eastwards to Assam, Khasi Hills and Manipur up to 2,100 m.English: Chilauni Needle Wood.Folk: Chilauni. Makria (Assam).
Action: Stem bark—anthelmintic (used for tapeworms), rubefacient. Aerial parts—antifungal.The plant contains octacosanol, phy- tol, alpha-spinasterol and a saponin, schiwallin. Schiwallin is antidermato- phytic.The bark and leaves contain 6% and 4% tannin, respectively.... schima wallichii
Wajiha, Wajeeha, Wajyha, Wajeehah, Wajyhah, Wajieha, Wajiehah, Wajeiha, Wajeihah, Wajeaha, Wajeahah... wajihah
Habitat: The North Western Himalayas.English: Himalayan Elm. Slippery Elm is equated with Ulmus fulva.Folk: Hemar, Kitamaara.
Action: Bark—astringent, demulcent, emollient, expectorant, diuretic.The bark contains 0.76% tannins. Ulmus fulva Michx, though known as Indian or Sweet Elm, is an American plant and does not occur in India.Powdered bark of Ulmus fulva gives a mucilage, composed of galactose, 3- methyl galactose, rhamnose and galac- turonic acid residues. As a gruel it is prescribed for patients with gastric or duodenal ulcers. Coarse powdered bark is applied as poultice to burns and skin eruptions.The mucilages cause reflex stimulation of nerve endings in the GI tract and lead to mucous secretion which protects the GI tract against ulceration and excess acidity. (Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, 2007.)... ulmus wallichiana
Walburgah, Walburgha, Walborgd, Waldhurga, Walba, Walda, Welda... walburga
Waldah, Wallda, Walida, Waldine, Waldina, Waldyne, Waldyna, Welda, Wellda, Waldeana... walda
Walis, Wallise, Walise, Wallys, Wallyse, Walliss, Walice, Wallisa, Wallysa, Waleis... wallis
Habitat: Temperate Himalayas from Kashmir to Bhutan, above 3,000 m, and Khasia Hills.English: Indian Valerian.Ayurvedic: Tagara, Sugandhabaalaa, Kaalaanusaari, Kaalaanusaarikaa, Nata. (Delphinum brunonianum Royle, Ranunculaceae, syn. Kutila, Nata, Vakra, is also used as Tagara.)Unani: Asaarun, Tagar Reshewaalaa.Siddha: Tagarai.Folk: Taggar, Baalaka, Mushkbaalaa, Asaarun, Tagar-ganthodaa.
Action: Rhizomes and roots— used as a substitute for Valeriana officinalis; prescribed as a remedy for hysteria, nervous unrest and emotional troubles, and as a sedative.Rhizomes and roots contain cyclop entapyrans, acacetin-7-O-rutino- sides, valtrate, didrovaltrate, linarin iso-valerinate, valepotriates and an iri- doid ester glycoside, valerosidatum. Cyclopentapyrans exhibit sedative, tranquilizing and bacteriocidal properties.Valtrate and didrovaltrate were cy- totoxic to hepatoma cells in culture and inhibited synthesis of DNA and protein in tumor cells.Root—spasmolytic. Essential oil— antibacterial. (Indian Valerian oils are considered poor as compared to those of V. officinalis oils.) The essential oil from roots contains calarene, beta- bargamotene, valeranone, ar-curcu- mene, maalioxide and maalitol. Main acids present are isovaleric acid and (+)-beta-methyl valeric acid.Valeriana jatamansi auct. non Jones, synonyms Nardostachys grandiflora DC. and N. jatamansi DC. is equated with Indian Spikenard, Musk-Root and Jataamaansi.Dosage: Rhizome—1-3 g powder. (API, Vol. I.)... valeriana wallichii
Habitat: Western Ghats.Ayurvedic: Guchh-karanja.Siddha: Okkadi-kodi, Pulinakk- agondai.Folk: Vaakeri (Maharashtra). Caesalpinia digyna Rottl. is also known as Vaakeri.
Action: Roots—used in pneumonia. Bark—used externally in skin diseases.The root contains vakerin. Vakerin did not inhibit the stimulating effect of histamine and acetylcholine.Pods contain considerable quantity of tannic acid.... wagatea spicata
Habitat: Native to South Africa; occurring throughout India.Folk: Tosad kesari, Dudma Saaga.
Action: Root—used in pulmonary infections. Herb—used externally for strengthening the loose teeth, also for skin diseases.The flower contains delphinidin- chloride-3, 5-diglucoside. The roots contain glucose, sucrose, methyl 9, 12-octadecadienoate, beta-sitosterol, beta-sitosterol glucoside and lupenone.... wahlenbergia marginata
Habitat: Karnataka, Western Ghats, Palni and Anaimalai Hills, also western India.Siddha/Tamil: Cheddavokko, Kanjiram.Folk: Waalsuuraa.
Action: Bark—stimulant, expectorant, emmenagogue, emetic. Also used to kill vermin in the hair.The bark contains saponin and tannin.... walsura trifoliata
Habitat: Tropical regions of India.Siddha/Tamil: Shembudu.Folk: Khar-Duudhi (Bengal).
Action: Plant—emollient, bechic, febrifuge, purgative, abortifacient. Root—prescribed in internal haemorrhages.The plant yields pelargonidin and cyanidin glycoside and apigeninidin. Anthocyanins were also detected. The alkaloid, adouetin-7 sulfamate, induced hypothermia and sedation at low levels and hyperexcitability at high levels.A decoction of roots possesses anti- syphlitic property.... waltheria indica
Common warts (verruca vulgaris) are seen mainly in children and young adults on the backs of the ?ngers and hands, and less often on the knees, face or scalp. They may be single or numerous and range from 1 mm to 10 mm or more in size. Untreated, they often resolve spontaneously after weeks or months. They may be occupationally contracted by butchers and meat-handlers.
Plane warts (verruca plana) are small, ?at-topped, yellowish papules seen mainly on the backs of the hands, wrists and face in young people. They may persist for years.
Digitate warts (verruca digitata) are ?nger- or thread-like warts up to 5 mm in length with a dark rough tip. They tend to grow on the eyelids or neck.
Plantar warts (verruca plantaris) occur on the soles of the feet, most commonly in older children, adolescents and young adults. Spread by walking barefoot in swimming pools, changing rooms, etc., these warts may appear as minor epidemics in institutions, such as schools. They are ?attened, yellow-white discrete lesions in the sole or heel, tender when squeezed. Multiple black points in the wart are thrombosed capillaries. Occasionally, aggregates of plantar warts form a mosaic-like plaque, especially in chronically warm, moist feet.
Genital warts are sexually transmitted. In the male they occur on the shaft of the PENIS and on the PREPUCE or around the anus. In women they occur around the entrance to the VAGINA and LABIA minora. Genital warts vary from 1–2 mm pink papules to ?orid, cauli?ower-like masses. Pregnancy facilitates their development.
Mucosal warts may develop on the mucous membranes of the mouth.
Laryngeal warts may be found in children whose mothers had genital warts (see above) at the time of delivery. Some subtypes of genital wart can infect the uterine cervix (see UTERUS), causing changes which may lead eventually to cancer.
Treatment CRYOTHERAPY – freezing with liquid nitrogen – is the principal weapon against all types of warts, but curettage (scraping out the wart with a CURETTE) and cauterisation (see ELECTROCAUTERY) or LASER therapy may be required for resistant warts. Genital warts may respond to local application of PODOPHYLLIN preparations. Sexual partners should be examined and treated if necessary. Finally, treatment of warts should not be more onerous or painful than the disease itself, since spontaneous resolution is so common.... warts
Habitat: In, or very near, waterways, lakes, ponds, ditches, and in marshes and swampy places.Features ? The largest of all the Docks, reaching up to six or seven feet. Stem erect, thick, striated, hollow, branched. Leaves very large, some two feet in length, pale green turning to reddish-brown, broad and sharp-pointed, point turning over towards the water. Flowers (July and August) small, greenish-yellow, with white threads which become brown. Root large, reddish brown, porous bark, large pith with honeycomb-like cells.Part used ? Root.
Action: Alterative, detergent.Of value in skin diseases and sluggish liver, in which latter case it should be given in combination with a mild laxative. The dose is 3-4 tablespoonfuls of the decoction of 1 ounce to 1 pint after simmering from1 1/2 pints. This may be used as a mouthwash for ulcers, etc., and the powder makes a first-rate medicinal cleanser for the teeth.Hool highly esteems Water Dock, and says ? "It operates kindly and without excitement, being slow but sure in promoting a healthy action of the depurative functions of the system." He also claims diuretic and tonic qualities for the root.... water dock
For wax in the ear, see under EAR, DISORDERS OF.... wax
Habitat: Near sea-coasts and the Andamans.Ayurvedic: Bhringaraaja (yellow- flowered var).
Action: Leaves—used as poultice on ulcers, sores, varicose veins; paste applied to fungal infections. Leaf decction—vulnerary and antiscabious. The juice of leaf is also given internally with cow's milk as a tonic after child birth.The dried leaves contain veratryli- dene hydrazide and quercetin derivatives. The stem contains stigmasterol and grandifloric acid. The leaves and stem showed antifungal activity.... wedelia biflora
A rationalisation of the metric system is now used, known as the International System of Units (SI – see APPENDIX 6: MEASUREMENTS IN MEDICINE).... weights and measures
Habitat: Bengal, Assam, Konkan, and Tamil Nadu.Ayurvedic: Bhringaraaja (yellow- flowered var.), Pitabhringi, Pitabhringa-raaja, Avanti, Ke- sharaaja, Kesharaaga.Siddha/Tamil: Manjal karisaalai, Potralai kaiyan tagarai, Patalai Kaiantakerai.
Action: Leaves—bechic; used in alopecia, juice used for dyeing hair and for promoting hair growth. Plant—deobstruent; used in menorrhagia and abdominal swellings, as a tonic for hepatic and splenic enlargement.See Eclipta alba.The expressed juice of the herb contained an oil-soluble black dye 11.2; tannin 220; saponin 500 (contradictory reports) and phytosterol 3.75 mg/100 g among other constituents. The leaves contain isoflavonoids.The bisdesmosidic oleanolic acid saponins have been isolated from the fresh leaves. Significant hepatoprotec- tive activity has been found in the pro- saponin from ginsenoside Ro (chiku- setsusaponinV); and in coumestans, wedelolactone and demethyl wedelo- lactone, isolated from the methanol extract of the herb.Wedelolactone has also been found to be a potent and selective 5-lipoxy- genase-inhibitor, the process being an oxygen radical scavenger mechanism.Wedelolactone (0.05%), isolated from the leaves, is analogous in structure to coumestrol, an estrogen from Melilotus sp. (clover).Family: Rubiaceae.
Habitat: Sub-Himalayan region, West Bengal, Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra.Ayurvedic: Tilaka.Folk: Tiliyaa (Bihar), Tilki, Mimri (Bengal).
Action: Bark—administered in urinary affections.... wedelia calendulaceae
Minor variations from the mean do not warrant investigation, but if the height of an individual falls below the third centile (3 per cent of normal children have a height that falls below the third centile) or above the 97th centile, investigation is required. Changes in the rate of growth are also important, and skeletal proportions may provide useful information. There are many children who are normal but who are small in relation to their parents; the problem is merely growth delay. These children take longer to reach maturity and there is also a proportional delay in their skeletal maturation – so that the actual height must always be assessed in relation to maturity. The change in skeletal proportions is one manifestation of maturity, but other features include the maturing of facial features with the growth of nose and jaw, and dental development. Maturity of bone can readily be measured by the radiological bone age.
Failure to gain weight is of more signi?cance. Whilst this may be due to some underlying disease, the most common cause is a diet containing inadequate calories (see CALORIE). Over the last six decades or so there has been quite a striking increase in the heights and weights of European children, with manufacturers of children’s clothing, shoes and furniture having to increase the size of their products. Growth is now completed at 20–21 years, compared with 25 at the turn of the century. It has been suggested that this increase, and earlier maturation, have been due to a combination of genetic mixing as a result of population movements, with the whole range of improvement in environmental hygiene – and not merely to better nutrition.
In the case of adults, views have changed in recent years concerning ‘ideal’ weight. Life-insurance statistics have shown that maximal life expectancy is obtained if the average weight at 25–30 years is maintained throughout the rest of life. These insurance statistics also suggest that it is of advantage to be slightly over the average weight before the age of 30 years; to be of average weight after the age of 40; and to be underweight from ages 30–40. In the past it has been usual, in assessing the signi?cance of an adult’s weight, to allow a 10 per cent range on either side of normal for variations in body-build. A closer correlation has been found between thoracic and abdominal measurements and weight.... weight and height
Habitat: Sub-Himalayan tract from Garhwal eastwards to Bhutan and Khasi hills.Ayurvedic: Tilak (related species).
Action: Bark—used for cramps in cholera patients.... wendlandia tinctoria
– see APPENDIX 5: VITAMINS) which affects the brain and nervous system. It occurs in alcoholic individuals and in patients with persistent vomiting. As soon as the condition is diagnosed, it must be treated with large doses of thiamine. Unless the patient has developed symptoms of psychosis, the condition is usually reversible with treatment.... wernicke’s encephalopathy
Wesly, Weslie, Wesli, Weslee, Weslia, Wesleigh, Weslea, Weslei, Weslene, Wesla, Weslya, Weslyn, Wesleah... wesley
Hin: Bakul, MaulsiriBen: BakulMal: Ilanji, ElanjiTam: Magilam, IlanciTel: PogadaKan: Pagademara Guj:Barsoli, BolsariImportance: Spanish cherry, West Indian Medlar or Bullet wood tree is an evergreen tree with sweet- scented flowers having ancient glamour. Garlands made of its flowers are ever in good demand due to its long lasting scent. Its bark is used as a gargle for odontopathy, ulitis and ulemorrhagia. Tender stems are used as tooth brushes. It is also useful in urethrorrhoea, cystorrhoea, diarrhoea and dysentery. Flowers are used for preparing a lotion for wounds and ulcers. Powder of dried flowers is a brain tonic and is useful as a snuff to relieve cephalgia. Unripe fruit is used as a masticatory and will help to fix loose teeth. Seeds are used for preparing suppositories in cases of constipation especially in children (Warrier et al,1995). The bark and seed coat are used for strengthening the gum and enter into the composition of various herbal tooth powders, under the name of “Vajradanti”, where they may be used along with tannin-containing substances like catechu (Acacia catechu), pomegranate (Punica granatum) bark, etc. The bark is used as snuff for high fever accompanied by pains in various parts of the body. The flowers are considered expectorant and smoked in asthma. A lotion prepared from unripe fruits and flowers is used for smearing on sores and wounds. In Ayurveda, the important preparation of Mimusops is “Bakuladya Taila”, applied on gum and teeth for strengthening them, whereas in Unani system, the bark is used for the diseases of genitourinary system of males (Thakur et al, 1989).Distribution: It is cultivated in North and Peninsular India and Andaman Islands. It is grown as an avenue tree in many parts of India.Botany: Mimusops elengi Linn. belongs to the family Sapotaceae. It is an evergreen tree with dark grey fissured bark and densely spreading crown. Leaves are oblong, glabrous and leathery with wavy margins. Flowers are white, fragrant, axillary, solitary or fascicled. Fruits are ovoid or ellipsoid berries. Seeds are 1-2 per fruit, ovoid, compressed, greyish brown and shiny (Warrier et al, 1995). Other important species belonging to the genus Mimusops are M. hexandra Roxb. and M. kauki Linn. syn. Manilkara kauki Dub.(Chopra et al, 1980).Agrotechnology: Mimusops prefers moist soil rich in organic matter for good growth. The plant is propagated by seeds. Fruits are formed in October-November. Seeds are to be collected and dried. Seeds are to be soaked in water for 12 hours without much delay and sown on seedbeds. Viability of seeds is less. After germination they are to be transferred to polybags. Pits of size 45cm cube are to be taken and filled with 5kg dried cowdung and top soil. To these pits, about 4 months old seedlings from the polybags are to be transplanted with the onset of monsoon. Addition of 10kg FYM every year is beneficial. Any serious pests or diseases do not attack the plant. Flowering commences from fourth year onwards. Bark, flowers, fruit and seeds are the economic parts.Properties and activity: -sitosterol and its glucoside, -spina-sterol, quercitol, taraxerol and lupeol and its acetate are present in the aerial parts as well as the roots and seeds. The aerial parts in addition gave quercetin, dihydroquercetin, myricetin, glycosides, hederagenin, ursolic acid, hentriacontane and -carotene. The bark contained an alkaloid consisting largely of a tiglate ester of a base with a mass spectrum identical to those of laburinine and iso-retronecanol and a saponin also which on hydrolysis gave -amyrin and brassic acid. Seed oil was comprised of capric, lauric, myristic, palmitic, stearic, arachidic, oleic and linoleic acids.Saponins from seed are spermicidal and spasmolytic. The aerial part is diuretic. Extract of flower (1mg/kg body weight) showed positive diuretic action in dogs. Bark is tonic and febrifuge. Leaf is an antidote for snakebite. Pulp of ripe fruit is antidysenteric. Seed is purgative. Bark and pulp of ripe fruit is astringent (Husain et al, 1992).... west indian
Ben: BakulMal: Ilanji, ElanjiTam: Magilam, IlanciTel: PogadaKan: PagademaraGuj: Barsoli, BolsariImportance: Spanish cherry, West Indian Medlar or Bullet wood tree is an evergreen tree with sweet- scented flowers having ancient glamour. Garlands made of its flowers are ever in good demand due to its long lasting scent. Its bark is used as a gargle for odontopathy, ulitis and ulemorrhagia. Tender stems are used as tooth brushes. It is also useful in urethrorrhoea, cystorrhoea, diarrhoea and dysentery. Flowers are used for preparing a lotion for wounds and ulcers. Powder of dried flowers is a brain tonic and is useful as a snuff to relieve cephalgia. Unripe fruit is used as a masticatory and will help to fix loose teeth. Seeds are used for preparing suppositories in cases of constipation especially in children (Warrier et al,1995). The bark and seed coat are used for strengthening the gum and enter into the composition of various herbal tooth powders, under the name of “Vajradanti”, where they may be used along with tannin-containing substances like catechu (Acacia catechu), pomegranate (Punica granatum) bark, etc. The bark is used as snuff for high fever accompanied by pains in various parts of the body. The flowers are considered expectorant and smoked in asthma. A lotion prepared from unripe fruits and flowers is used for smearing on sores and wounds. In Ayurveda, the important preparation of Mimusops is “Bakuladya Taila”, applied on gum and teeth for strengthening them, whereas in Unani system, the bark is used for the diseases of genitourinary system of males (Thakur et al, 1989).Distribution: It is cultivated in North and Peninsular India and Andaman Islands. It is grown as an avenue tree in many parts of India.Botany: Mimusops elengi Linn. belongs to the family Sapotaceae. It is an evergreen tree with dark grey fissured bark and densely spreading crown. Leaves are oblong, glabrous and leathery with wavy margins. Flowers are white, fragrant, axillary, solitary or fascicled. Fruits are ovoid or ellipsoid berries. Seeds are 1-2 per fruit, ovoid, compressed, greyish brown and shiny (Warrier et al, 1995). Other important species belonging to the genus Mimusops are M. hexandra Roxb. and M. kauki Linn. syn. Manilkara kauki Dub.(Chopra et al, 1980).Agrotechnology: Mimusops prefers moist soil rich in organic matter for good growth. The plant is propagated by seeds. Fruits are formed in October-November. Seeds are to be collected and dried. Seeds are to be soaked in water for 12 hours without much delay and sown on seedbeds. Viability of seeds is less. After germination they are to be transferred to polybags. Pits of size 45cm cube are to be taken and filled with 5kg dried cowdung and top soil. To these pits, about 4 months old seedlings from the polybags are to be transplanted with the onset of monsoon. Addition of 10kg FYM every year is beneficial. Any serious pests or diseases do not attack the plant. Flowering commences from fourth year onwards. Bark, flowers, fruit and seeds are the economic parts.Properties and activity: -sitosterol and its glucoside, -spina-sterol, quercitol, taraxerol and lupeol and its acetate are present in the aerial parts as well as the roots and seeds. The aerial parts in addition gave quercetin, dihydroquercetin, myricetin, glycosides, hederagenin, ursolic acid, hentriacontane and -carotene. The bark contained an alkaloid consisting largely of a tiglate ester of a base with a mass spectrum identical to those of laburinine and iso-retronecanol and a saponin also which on hydrolysis gave -amyrin and brassic acid. Seed oil was comprised of capric, lauric, myristic, palmitic, stearic, arachidic, oleic and linoleic acids.Saponins from seed are spermicidal and spasmolytic. The aerial part is diuretic. Extract of flower (1mg/kg body weight) showed positive diuretic action in dogs. Bark is tonic and febrifuge. Leaf is an antidote for snakebite. Pulp of ripe fruit is antidysenteric. Seed is purgative. Bark and pulp of ripe fruit is astringent (Husain et al, 1992).... west indian medlar
Whoopey, Whoopy, Whoopie, Whoopee, Whoopea, Whoopeah... whoopi
Whyneisha, Whyniesha, Whyneasha, Whynysha, Wynesha, Wyneisha, Wyniesha, Wyneasha, Whyneesha, Wyneesha, Whynesa, Whynessa, Wynesa, Wynessa... whynesha
Habitat: Native to tropical America; introduced into Indian gardens.
Action: Leaves and branch tips— a decoction is used in rheumatism; also for whooping cough and respiratory problems.Solvent extracts of the leaves (etha- nol, acetone and M-hexane) were found active against Gram-positive bacteria.Synonym: W. viridiflora Meissn. W. indica var. virdiflora Hook. f.Family: Thymelaeaceae.
Habitat: Eastern Assam; as a weed in Tamil Nadu.English: Small-Leaf Salago.Folk: Salago.
Action: Root bark—diuretic, vesicant, purgative and piscicidal.The root bark is reported to contain a flavone glycoside, wikstroemin, which exhibited diuretic activity.In Chinese folk medicine, the bark is used for schistosomiasis.The stem contains wikstromol, a lig- nin prototype which exhibited anti- neoplastic activity. Daphnoretin, isolated from the plant, caused platelet aggregation in the blood of rabbits. A polysaccharide, comprising glucose, arabinose, galacturonic acid, galactose and xylose, protected mice against radiation and enhanced the formation of macrophages.... wigandia caracasana
Habitat: Wastes, pastures and field borders.Features ? The branched stems of one to three feet high are tough and bristly. The whole plant is hairy, and the leaves are oblong and bipinnate, with acute segments. Blossoming in June and July, the umbel of white flowers usually contains one crimson flower in the centre. The root tapers, is yellowish-white, sweetish, and faintly aromatic. Wren tells us that "in taste and odour it resembles the garden carrot, but the root is small and white, not large." Ferrier, however, says of this root, "no resemblance in taste or colour to the cultivated carrot." Our own opinion is that Wild Carrot tastes like a rather distant relative of the household carrot—which it probably is.Part used ? The whole plant.
Action: Pronouncedly diuretic in action, as well as de-obstruent and stimulant.Wild Carrot naturally, therefore, takes a prominent place in many formulae for the treatment of dropsy, gravel, retention of urine, and bladder trouble generally. Either an infusion or decoction may be prepared in the usual proportions, and doses of 2 fl. ounces taken three or four times daily.Culpeper comments ? "Wild Carrots belong to Mercury, and therefore breaketh wind, and removeth stitches in the sides, provoketh urine and women's courses, and helpeth to break and expel the stone."... wild carrot
Wildah, Wylda, Willda, Wilde, Wylde, Whilda... wilda
Wilonah, Willona, Wilone, Willone, Wylona, Wylone... wilona
Winafred, Winifrid, Winefred, Winefrid, Winifride, Winifreda, Winfrieda, Winfreda, Winefride, Winifryd, Winnafred, Winifryda, Winnefred, Winnafred, Winniefred, Winnifrid, Wynifred, Wynafred, Wynifrid, Wynafrid, Wynefryd, Wynefred, Winnie, Wynnie... winifred
Winolah, Wynola, Winolla, Wynolla, Wynolah, Winollah, Wynollah... winola
Winonah, Wynona, Wanona, Wenona, Wynonna, Winonna, Wynnona, Winnona... winona
Wintr, Wynter, Winteria, Wynteria... winter
Whisteria, Wysteria, Whysteria, Wisterea, Whisterea, Wysterea, Whysterea... wisteria
Habitat: Throughout the drier and subtropical parts of India.English: Winter Cherry. (Physalis alkekengi is also known as Winter Cherry.)Ayurvedic: Ashwagandhaa, Haya- gandhaa, Ashwakanda, Gandharva- gandhaa, Turaga, Turagagandhaa, Turangagandhaa, Vaajigandhaa, Gokarnaa, Vrishaa, Varaahakarni, Varadaa, Balyaa, Vaajikari. (A substitute for Kaakoli and Kshira- kaakoli.) Cultivated var.: Asgandh Naagori. (Indian botanists consider the cultivated plants distinct from the wild ones.)Unani: Asgandh.Siddha: Amukkuramkizhangu.
Action: Root—used as an antiinflammatory drug for swellings, tumours, scrofula and rheumatism; and as a sedative and hypnotic in anxiety neurosis. Leaf— anti-inflammatory, hepatopro- tective, antibacterial. Fruits and seeds—diuretic. Withanine— sedative, hypnotic. Withaferin A—major component of biologically active steroids; as effective as hydrocortisone dose for dose. Antibacterial, antitumour, an- tiarthritic, significantly protective against hepatotoxicity in rats.The root contains several alkaloids, including withanine, withananine, withananinine, pseudo-withanine, somnine, somniferine, somniferinine. The leaves of Indian chemotype contain 12 withanolides, including withaferin A. Steroidal lactones ofwithano- lide series have been isolated.Withanine is sedative and hypnotic. Withaferin A is antitumour, an- tiarthritic and antibacterial. Anti-inflammatory activity has been attributed to biologically active steroids, of which withaferin A is a major component. The activity is comparable to that of hydrocortisone sodium succinate.Withaferin A also showed significantly protective effect against CCl4- induced hepatotoxicity in rats. It was as effective as hydrocortisone dose for dose.The root extract contains an ingredient which has GABA mimetic activityThe free amino acids present in the root include aspartic acid, glycine, tyrosine, alanine, proline, tryptophan, glutamic acid and cystine.The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia ofIn- dia recommends Ashwagandha in im- potency. This claim could not be sustained in a recent experiment and raises a doubt about the equation of classical Ashwagandha with Withania somnifera. A methanolic extract of With- ania somnifera root induced a marked impairment in libido, sexual performance, sexual vigour and penile dysfunction in male rats. (Llayperuma et al, Asian J Androl, 2002, 295-298.)The total alkaloids of the root exhibited prolonged hypotensive, brady- cardiac and depressant action of the higher cerebral centres in several experimental animals.A withanolide-free aqueous fraction isolated from the roots of Withania somnifera exhibited antistress activity in a dose-dependent manner in mice. (Phytother Res 2003, 531-6.)(See also Simon Mills; American Herbal Pharmacopoeia, 2000; Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, 2007.)Dosage: Root—3-6 g powder. (API, Vol. I.)... withania ashwagandha
Habitat: Drier parts of Punjab, Gujarat, Simla and Kumaon.English: Vegetable Rennet, Indian Cheese-maker.Unani: Desi Asgandh, Kaaknaj-e- Hindi, Paneer, Paneer-band. Akri (fruit).Siddha/Tamil: Ammukkura.
Action: Alterative, emetic, diuretic. Ripe fruits—sedative, CNS depressant, antibilious, emetic, antiasth- matic, diuretic, anti-inflammatory; used in chronic liver troubles and strangury. Dried fruits— carminative, depurative; used for dyspepsia, flatulence and strangury. Leaf—alterative, febrifuge. Seeds— anti-inflammatory, emetic, diuretic, emmenagogue.Though known as Desi Asgandh, the root is not used in Indian medicine. Ashwagandhaa (Bengali) and Ashwa- gandhi (Kannada) are confusing synonyms of W. coagulans. In the market no distinction is made between the berries of W. coagulans and W. somnifera.The berries contain a milk-coagulating enzyme, esterases, free amino acids, fatty oil, an essential oil and alkaloids. The amino acid composition fairly agrees with that of papain. The essential oil was active against Micro- coccus pyogenes var. aureus and Vibro cholerae; also showed anthelmintic activity.The withanolides, withacoagin, coagulan and withasomidienone have been isolated from the plant, along with other withanolides and withaferin. 3- beta-hydroxy-2,3- dihydrowithanolide E, isolated from the fruit showed significant hepatoprotective activity and anti-inflammatory activity equal to hydrocortisone. The ethanolic extract of the fruit showed antifungal and that of the leaves and stem antibacterial activity.... withania coagulans
Men up to 3 units a day, 21 a week... women up to 2 units a day, 14 a week
Habitat: Thickets, woods and shady waysides.Features ? The stem of this well-known wild plant is slender, square and hairy; it gives off a few distant pairs of rough, oblong leaves with rounded teeth. Purplish flowers, arranged in a terminal, oval spike, bloom in July and August. The roots are white and thready. Bitter to the taste, the odour is slight and pleasant.Part used ? The whole herb.
Action: Aromatic, astringent and alterative.It is highly recommended for biliousness, stomach cramp and colic, and as a tonic in digestive disorders generally. It is a helpful component of prescriptions in the treatment of rheumatism and blood impurities. A wineglass of the ounce to pint infusion may be taken frequently.Tilke is interesting on Wood Betony, as his remarks show that the herb was as popular a carminative a hundred years ago as it is to-day ? "This herb boiled with wine or water," he tells us, "is good for those who cannot digest their meals, or have belchings and a continual rising in their stomach."... wood betony
Habitat: Heaths, commons, woods.Features ? Very similar in appearance to the ordinary garden, or culinary sage. Part used ? Herb.
Action: Diaphoretic, astringent, emmenagogue, tonic.In feverish colds and faulty menstruation due to chills. Wineglass doses of the 1 ounce to 1 pint infusions are taken warm. Hool tells us that Wood Sage "combined with Comfrey and Ragwort, freely influences the bladder," and that it is "an appetiser of the first order, and as a tonic will be found equal to Gentian."... wood sage
Habitat: Throughout North India, rather scarce in South India.English: Fire-flame Bush, Shiran- jitea.Ayurvedic: Dhaataki, Dhaatri, Kun- jaraa, Taamrapushpi, Bahupushpi, Vahnijwaalaa.Siddha/Tamil: Velakkai.
Action: Dried flower—purifies blood, heals ulcers, astringent, prescribed in haemetemesis, erysipelas, dysentery, diarrhoea, menorrhagia, leucorrhoea. Flowers are used in alcohol-based tonics for fermentation (a yeast strain, saccharomyces cerevisiae, has been isolated). Bark—uterine sedative.The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia ofIn- dia recommends the flower in acute diarrhoea, haemorrhages, ulcerations and erysipelas.The dried flowers are powdered and sprinkled over ulcers and wounds. The flowers also enter into an ointment used on pustules of smallpox.In small doses the plant stimulates, while in large doses depresses the central nervous system.The flowers and leaves gave polyphe- nols—ellagic acid, polystachoside and myricetin-3-galactoside. Flowers also gave anthocyanins—pelargonidin- 3,5-diglucoside and cyanidin-3,5-di- glucoside; octacosanol, chrysopha- nol-8-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside and beta-sitosterol. Hecogenin, mesoinos- itol and flavone glycosides—quercetin- 3-rhamnoside, naringenin-7-glucoside and kaempferol, have been reported from flowers.The bark contains C-glucoside, ber- genin.The flowers, leaves and bark contain tannins—24.1, 12-20 and 20-27% respectively. Dimeric hydrolyzable tannins—woodfordins A, B and C, and trimeric tannins woodfordin D and oenothein A and B have been isoalt- ed from dried flowers. A new tannin monomer, isoschimawalin A and five oligomers—woodfordin E, F, G, H and I, have also been isoalted.Oenothein A and B exhibited remarkable host-mediated antitumour activity. Woodfordin C and D also showed antitumour activity. Woodfordin C showed inhibitory activity toward DNA topoisomerase II.Dosage: Flower—3-6 g powder. (API, Vol. I.)English: Pala Indigo Plant.Ayurvedic: Shveta Kutaja. (white- flowered), Punkutaja, Indrayava (seeds).Unani: Inderjao Shireen.Siddha/Tamil: Irum-paalai, Nila- paalai.
Action: Bark—antidysenteric. Also used in piles and skin diseases. Seeds—antidysenteric, astringent, febrifuge, anthelmintic. Bark and seeds—prescribed in flatulence and bilious affections.Pods, without seeds, contain the cycloartanes, cycloartenone and cy- cloeucalenol along with alpha- and beta-amyrin, beta-sitosterol, ursolic acid, oleanolic acid and the terpene, wrightial. The leaves contain beta- amyrin. Stem bark gave beta-amyrin, beta-sitosterol and lupeol.The seeds, leaves and roots have been shown to contain an indigo- yielding glucoside.The flowers gave 3-O-rhamnogluco- side which exhibited significant anti- inflammatory activity in carrageenan- induced hind paw oedema.The bark is commonly used as an adulterant of Kurchi Bark (obtained from Holarrhena antidysenterica).... woodfordia fruticosa
Varieties These are classi?ed according to the immediate e?ect produced: INCISED WOUNDS are usually in?icted with some sharp instrument, and are clean cuts, in which the tissues are simply divided without any damage to surrounding parts. The bleeding from such a wound is apt to be very free, but can be readily controlled. PUNCTURE WOUNDS, or stabs, are in?icted with a pointed instrument. These wounds are dangerous, partly because their depth involves the danger of wounding vital organs; partly because bleeding from a stab is hard to control; and partly because they are di?cult to sterilise. The wound produced by the nickel-nosed bullet is a puncture, much less severe than the ugly lacerated wound caused by an expanding bullet, or by a ricochet, and, if no clothing has been carried in by the bullet, the wound is clean and usually heals at once. LACERATED WOUNDS are those in which tissues are torn, such as injuries caused by machinery.
Little bleeding may occur and a limb can be torn completely away without great loss of blood. Such wounds are, however, especially liable to infection. CONTUSED WOUNDS are those accompanied by much bruising of surrounding parts, as in the case of a blow from a cudgel or poker. There is little bleeding, but healing is slow on account of damage to the edges of the wound. Any of these varieties may become infected.
First-aid treatment The ?rst aim is to check any bleeding. This may be done by pressure upon the edges of the wound with a clean handkerchief, or, if the bleeding is serious, by putting the ?nger in the wound and pressing it upon the spot from which the blood is coming.
If medical attention is available within a few hours, a wound should not be interfered with further than is necessary to stop the bleeding and to cover it with a clean dry handkerchief or bandage. When expert assistance is not soon obtainable, the wound should be cleaned with an antiseptic such as CHLORHEXIDINE or boiled water and the injured part ?xed so that movement is prevented or minimised. A wounded hand or arm is ?xed with a SLING, a wounded leg with a splint (see SPLINTS). If the victim is in SHOCK, he or she must be treated for that. (See also APPENDIX 1: BASIC FIRST AID.)... wounds
Wyanete, Wyanette, Wyanett, Wyanetta, Wyaneta, Wynette, Wianet, Wianette, Wianete, Wianett, Wianetta, Wianeta... wyanet
Habitat: A tree, found in Rajasthan,Synonym: W arborea (Dennst.) Mabberley.
Habitat: Punjab, Rajasthan, Bihar, Assam and Western Peninsula.Ayurvedic: Kutaja (red-flowered). Indrayava (seeds).Siddha/Tamil: Pala.
Action: Two varieties—male and female—are mentioned in Ayurvedic texts. Mostly, Holarrhena is supposed to be the male and Wrightia the female. In Unani medicine, Inderjao Talkh (bitter) is equated with Holarrhena antidysenterica (Conesse Bark) and Inderjao Shireen (sweet) with Wrightia tinctoria (known as Dyer's Oleander, Blue Dyeing Roseberry).Dried bark is used as a substitute for Holarrhena antidysenterica bark. Alkaloid conessine is the active principle of both the barks.Besides conessine, other alkaloids present in the bark are conessine di- hydrate, holarrhine, kurchicine and a very minute quantity of conkurchine. The bark contains beta-sitosterol, lupe- ol, alpha-amyrin and reducing sugars besides alkaloids.The isoflavone, wrightiadione, isolated from the stem bark, displayed cytotoxic activity. Two aliphatic compounds, n-tritriacont-16-one and hexa- consan-3, 6-diol-12-oic acid, have also been isolated from the bark.See Wrightia tinctoria and Holar- rhena antidysenterica.... wrightia tomentosa
Wyoma, Wyomin, Wyomine, Wyomia, Wyomya, Wyome, Wyoh, Wyomie, Wyomi, Wyomee, Wyomey, Wyomy, Wyomea, Wyomeah... wyoming
Internally: Marigold petal tea freely.
Externally: Marigold (Calendula) ointment, cream or fomentation with petals. During the Coup d’etat in Paris in 1849, a Dr Jahr saved many limbs with Marigold. Echinacea to allay infection. See entry: WOUNDS. ... gunshot wounds
Alternatives: to improve concentration.
Teas, Liquid extracts, tinctures or powders: Ginseng, Gotu Kola, Hawthorn (berries or blossoms), Holy Thistle, Horsetail, Kola nuts, Periwinkle (minor), Rosemary, Skullcap, Vervain, Ginkgo.
Ginkgo: impressive results reported.
Supplements. B-complex, B6, B12, E. Phosphorus, Zinc. ... memory, weak
Tea. Combine equal parts: Raspberry leaves, Skullcap, Motherwort. 1 heaped teaspoon to each cup boiling water; infuse 15 minutes. 1 cup freely.
Formula. Equal parts: Black Cohosh, Helonias, Valerian. Dose: Liquid Extracts: half a teaspoon. Tinctures: 1 teaspoon. Powders: 250mg thrice daily.
Supplements. B-complex. Vitamin C to aid iron absorption. ... nervousness in young women
IN the case of a known serious condition a doctor should be consulted.
ALL medicines should be avoided during pregnancy unless prescribed by a doctor. ... warning
A natural basis for skin lotions (Witch Hazel).
Dill water. (Anethi). Dill seeds 4oz; water 2 and a quarter litres. Distil down to 1 and a quarter litres. Dose: 1-3 teaspoon for children’s colic.
Aniseed water. (Anisi). Aniseeds 4oz; distilled water 2 and a quarter litres. Distil down to 1 and a quarter litres. Antispasmodic for children’s colic, teething troubles, etc. Dose: 1-3 teaspoons. Elderflower water. (Sambuci). Elderflowers 8oz; distilled water 1 and a quarter litres. Distil down to one-fifth. Eye lotion.
Eyebright water. (Euphrasia). Eyebright herb and flowers 4oz; distilled water 2 and a quarter litres. Distil down to 1 and a quarter litres. Antihistamine eye lotion. ... aquae waters
The Bartrams’ friends included Benjamin Franklin and Washington who often visited their house, resting in the garden with giant trees planted by the Bartrams. John (1699-1777) was described by Linnaeus as the “greatest contemporary natural botanist”. His son, William, was also an explorer- naturalist and artist whose works are now collector’s pieces. ... bartram, john and william
Beach made many long visits to Britain gleaning information from the British Museum, Guy’s Hospital and from consulting medical herbalists. Ex-Professor of several American universities, he organised herbal medication into a system defined in his books: “American Practice of Medicine”, “Midwifery”, and “Family Physician” which proved a bestseller. ... beach, dr wooster (1794-1868)
Action: diaphoretic, expectorant, powerful hydragogue, emetic, cathartic, anti-tumour, anti-rheumatic. Externally: as a rubefacient. Internal use, practitioner only.
Uses: Rheumatism worse from movement, rheumatic fever, acute arthritis. Heart disorder following rheumatic fever. For absorption of serous fluid as in pleurisy. Congested bronchi and lungs. Synovitis, malaria and zymotic diseases.
Combinations: With Black Cohosh for muscular pain. Also for tenderness of the spinal vertebre (an important indication). With Poke root for inflammation of the breast or testicles.
Preparations: Owing to difficulty of the layman to dispense accurately dosage of powder or decoction, use is best confined to liquid extract or tincture; small doses frequently repeated; large doses avoided. Liquid Extract: 10 drops in 4oz water; dose 1 teaspoon every half hour.
Tincture: dose; 2 teaspoons every half hour (acute) cases; thrice daily (chronic).
External. Tincture used as a lotion.
Note: Not used in pregnancy, lactation or in presence of piles. ... bryony, white
An endoscope is passed down the oesophagus to confirm the diagnosis. The tear generally heals within 10 days and no special treatment is usually required. However, a blood transfusion may sometimes be necessary.... mallory–weiss syndrome
Symptoms. Low backache, bleeding after intercourse, between periods or after ‘the change’. Abdominal swelling after 40 years of age. Sixty per cent of patients have no symptoms. Malodorous vaginal discharge. A positive cervical “pap” smear or cone-shaped biopsy examined by a pathologist confirms. Vaginal bleeding occurs in the later stages.
A letter in the New England Journal of Medicine suggests a strong link between increased risk of cervical cancer and cigarette smoking, nicotine being detected in the cervical fluids of cigarette smokers. This form of cancer is almost unknown in virgins living in closed communities such as those of the Church.
Conventional treatment is usually hysterectomy. Whatever treatment is adopted little ground is lost by supportive cleansing herbal teas. Mullein for pain.
Sponges loaded with powdered Goldenseal held against the cervix with a contraceptive cap can give encouraging results. Replace after three days. Vitamin A supplements are valuable to protect against the disease. The vitamin may also be applied topically in creams.
This form of cancer resists chemical treatment, but has been slowed down and halted by Periwinkle (Vinchristine) without damaging normal cells.
G.B. Ibotson, MD, reported disappearance of cancer of the cervix by infusions of Violet leaves by mouth and by vaginal injection. (Lancet 1917, i, 224)
In a study group of cervical cancer patients it was found that women with carcinoma in situ (CIS) were more likely to have a total Vitamin A intake below the pooled median (3450iu). Vitamin A supplementation is indicated together with zinc. (Bio-availability of Vitamin A is linked with zinc levels.) Vitamin A and zinc may be applied topically in creams and ointments.
Orthodox treatment: radiotherapy, chemotherapy, hysterectomy. As oestrogen can stimulate dormant cells the surgeon may wish to remove ovaries also. Whatever the decision, herbal supportive treatment may be beneficial. J.T Kent, MD, recommends Thuja and Shepherd’s Purse. Agents commonly indicated: Echinacea, Wild Indigo, Thuja, Mistletoe, Wild Yam. Herbal teas may be taken with profit. Dr Alfred Vogel advises Mistletoe from the oak (loranthus europaeus).
Other alternatives:– Teas. Red Clover, Violet, Mistletoe, Plantain, Clivers. 1-2 teaspoons to each cup boiling water. Infuse 15 minutes. 1 cup freely.
Decoctions. White Pond Lily. Thuja. Echinacea. Wild Yam. Any one.
Tablets/capsules. Echinacea. Goldenseal. Wild Yam. Thuja.
Formula No. 1. Red Clover 2; Echinacea 1; Shepherd’s Purse 1; Thuja quarter. Mix. Dose: Powders: 750mg (three 00 capsules or half a teaspoon). Liquid extracts: 1-2 teaspoons. Tinctures: 1-3 teaspoons. Formula No. 2. Equal parts: Poke root, Goldenseal, Mistletoe. Mix. Dose: Powders: 500mg (two 00 capsules or one-third teaspoon). Liquid extracts: 1 teaspoon. Tinctures: 2 teaspoons.
Diet. Women who eat large quantities of meat and fatty foods are up to four times the risk of those eating mainly fruit and vegetables.
Vaginal injection. 1. Strong infusion Red Clover to which 10-15 drops Tincture Goldenseal is added. Follow with tampon smeared with Goldenseal Salve.
2. Strong decoction Yellow Dock to which 10-15 drops Tincture Goldenseal is added. Follow with tampon smeared with Goldenseal salve.
If bleeding is severe douche with neat distilled extract of Witch Hazel.
Chinese Herbalism. See – CANCER: CHINESE PRESCRIPTION. Also: Decoction of ssu-hsieh-lu (Galium gracile) 2-4 liang.
Advice. One-yearly smear test for all women over 40.
Diet. See: DIET – CANCER.
Treatment by a general medical practitioner or hospital oncologist. ... cancer – womb
Financial advantages to members include earning profit-sharing discounts: suppliers are relieved of the burden of collecting separate accounts and benefit from having their products approved by the retailers own organisation. Its meetings are a focal point for reporting on up-to-date research and protecting the public interest. Address: Queen’s Road, Nottingham NG2 3AS. ... health stores (wholesale) ltd
Seizures can usually be controlled with anticonvulsant drugs.
In severe cases, brain surgery may be necessary.... sturge–weber syndrome
Severe breathlessness and a life-threatening lack of oxygen result.... sucking chest wound
Genital warts have been linked with the development of cervical cancer (see cervix, cancer of).
They may be removed by cryosurgery or by the application of the drug podophyllin, but there is a tendency for them to recur.... warts, genital
Constituents: Marrubiin, volatile oil, tannins, alkaloids, diterpene alcohols.
Action: stimulating expectorant, mild antispasmodic, sedative, amphoteric, vulnerary, diuretic, stomach and liver bitter tonic.
Uses: Chronic bronchitis, whooping cough, hard cough with little phlegm, common cold, loss of voice, snake bite, dog bite. Chronic gall bladder disease, fevers, malaria, hepatitis, “Yellowness of the eyes”. Combinations. Teas. (1) with Coltsfoot and Hyssop (equal parts) for hard cough. (2) with Lobelia and Iceland Moss for chronic chest complaints.
Preparations: Thrice daily.
Tea. 1 teaspoon to each cup boiling water; infuse 15 minutes. Dose: half-1 cup. Liquid extract BHC Vol 1. 1:1, 20 per cent ethanol. Dose: 1-2ml.
Tincture BHC Vol 1. 1:5, 25 per cent ethanol. Dose: 3-6ml.
Horehound ale: wholesome beverage.
Horehound, Hyssop and Honey Mixture.
Traditional English syrup.
Note: Horehound, Horseradish, Coriander, Lettuce and Nettles are the five bitter herbs eaten by the Jews at their Passover feast according to the Old Testament. ... horehound, white
Tablets/capsules. Iceland Moss.
Decoction. Irish Moss.
Tea. Combine equal parts, Comfrey, White Horehound, Liquorice. 1 heaped teaspoon to each cup water simmered gently 1 minute. Dose: half-1 cup morning and evening. Pinch Cayenne improves.
Potential benefits of Comfrey for this condition outweigh risk. ... lung weakness
The traditional remedy is to wind the worm from the skin on to a small stick. Once the worm is out, the condition usually clears up. The drugs tiabendazole and niridazole are given to reduce inflammation, antibiotics are given to control secondary infection, and the patient is immunized against tetanus.... guinea worm disease
Water provides the medium in which all metabolic reactions take place (see metabolism), and transports substances around the body. The blood plasma carries water to all body tissues, and excess water from tissues for elimination via the liver, kidneys, lungs, and skin. The passage of water in the tissue fluid into and out of cells takes place by osmosis.
Water is taken into the body in food and drink and is lost in urine and faeces, as exhaled water vapour, and by sweating (see dehydration). The amount of water excreted in urine is regulated by the kidneys (see also ADH). Extra water is needed to excrete excess amounts of substances, such as sugar or salt, in the blood, and high water intake is essential in hot climates where a large amount of water is lost in sweat.
In some disorders, such as kidney failure or heart failure, insufficient water is excreted in the urine, resulting in oedema.... water
Swimming in polluted water should be avoided because, if swallowed, there is a risk of contracting disease. In addition, a form of leptospirosis is caused by contact with water contaminated by rat’s urine. In tropical countries, there is also a risk of contracting schistosomiasis (bilharzia), which is a serious disease caused by a fluke that can burrow through the swimmer’s skin.... water-borne infection
Weight loss or weight gain occurs if the net balance is disturbed.
Weight can be compared with standardized charts for height, age, and sex. At all ages, divergence from the normal weight for height may have medical implications. For example, if weight is below 80 per cent of the standard weight for height, the individual’s nutrition is probably inadequate as a result of poor diet or disease, and if 20 per cent above the standard, he or she is considered to be suffering from obesity. An alternative method of assessment is use of the body mass index (, or Quetelet’s index), obtained by dividing weight in kilograms by the square of height in metres. A healthy weight is 20–25 ; a of greater than 25 indicates that a person is overweight. weight loss This occurs any time there is a decrease in energy intake compared with energy expenditure. The decrease may be due to deliberate weight reduction or a change in diet or activity level. It may also be a symptom of a disorder. Unexplained weight loss should always be investigated by a doctor.
Many diseases disrupt the appetite, which may lead to weight loss. Depression reduces the motivation to eat, peptic ulcer causes pain and possible food avoidance, and some kidney disorders cause loss of appetite due to the effect of uraemia. In anorexia nervosa and bulimia, complex psychological factors affect an individual’s eating pattern.
Digestive disorders, such as gastroenteritis, lead to weight loss through vomiting. Cancer of the oesophagus (see oesophagus, cancer of) and stomach cancer cause loss of weight, as does malabsorption of nutrients in certain disorders of the intestine or pancreas.
Some disorders cause weight loss by increasing the rate of metabolic activity in cells. Examples are any type of cancer, chronic infection such as tuberculosis, and hyperthyroidism. Untreated diabetes mellitus also causes weight loss due to a number of factors.... weight
Welder’s eye, which is also known as arc eye, results from the failure to wear adequate eye protection while welding.... welder’s eye
Marked floppiness and paralysis occur during the first few months, and affected children rarely survive beyond age 3.
There is no cure for the disease. Treatment aims to keep the affected infant as comfortable as possible.... werdnig–hoffmann disease
The most efficient way to lose weight is to eat 500–1,000 kcal (2,100–4,200 kJ) a day less than the body’s total energy requirements. Exercise also forms an extremely important part of a reducing regime, burning excess energy and improving muscle tone.
In most circumstances, drugs play little part in a weight loss programme.
However, sibutramine and orlistat may be useful adjuncts to a reducing diet and may be appropriate for some people with a high (see body mass index). Appetite suppressants related to amfetamines are not recommended.... weight reduction
Korsakoff’s psychosis may follow Wernicke’s encephalopathy if treatment is not begun promptly enough. Symptoms consist of severe amnesia, apathy, and disorientation. Korsakoff’s psychosis is usually irreversible.... wernicke–korsakoff syndrome
See also nocturnal emission.... wet dream
Manual wheelchairs are designed so that the hand-rims can be easily gripped by a disabled person.
They can also be pushed by a helper.
Powered wheelchairs use batteries and are controlled electronically by finger or chin pressure, or breath control.... wheelchair
When a fracture is being treated, the jaws are kept wired in a fixed position for about 6 weeks. For promoting weight loss, the jaws are wired for as long as a year. In both cases, the person is unable to chew and can take only a liquid or semi-liquid diet. This form of diet treatment often fails because the person resumes previous eating habits following removal of the wires.... wiring of the jaws
Alcohol withdrawal symptoms start 6–8 hours after cessation of intake and may last up to 7 days. They include trembling of the hands, nausea, vomiting, sweating, cramps, anxiety, and, sometimes, seizures. (See also confusion, delirium tremens, and hallucinations.)
Opioid withdrawal symptoms start after 8–12 hours and may last for 7–10 days. Symptoms include restlessness, sweating, runny eyes and nose, yawning, diarrhoea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, dilated pupils, loss of appetite, irritability, weakness, tremor, and depression.
Withdrawal symptoms from barbiturate drugs and meprobamate start after 12–24 hours, beginning with tremor, anxiety, restlessness, and weakness, sometimes followed by delirium, hallucinations, and, occasionally, seizures. A period of prolonged sleep occurs 3–8 days after onset. Withdrawal from benzodiazepine drugs may begin much more slowly and can be life-threatening.
Withdrawal symptoms from nicotine develop gradually over 24–48 hours and include irritability, concentration problems, frustration, headaches, and anxiety. Discontinuation of cocaine or amfetamines results in extreme tiredness, lethargy, and dizziness. Cocaine withdrawal may also lead to tremor, severe depression, and sweating.
Withdrawal symptoms from marijuana include tremor, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, sweating, irritability, and sleep problems. Caffeine withdrawal may lead to tiredness, headaches, and irritability.
Severe withdrawal syndromes require medical treatment.
Symptoms may be suppressed by giving the patient small quantities of the drug he or she had been taking.
More commonly, a substitute drug is given, such as methadone for opioid drugs or diazepam for alcohol.
The dose of the drug is then gradually reduced.... withdrawal syndrome
A wobble board is sometimes used after an ankle sprain.... wobble board
Worm diseases found in developed countries include threadworm infestation, ascariasis, whipworm infestation, toxocariasis, liver-fluke infestation, and various tapeworm infestations. Those occurring in tropical regions include hookworm infestation, filariasis, guinea worm disease, and schistosomiasis.
Worms may be acquired by eating undercooked, infected meat, by contact with soil or water containing worm larvae, or by accidental ingestion of worm eggs from soil contaminated by infected faeces.
Most infestations can be easily eradicated with anthelmintic drugs.... worm infestation
SYNONYMS: Myrcia acris, Pimenta acris, myrcia, bay, bay rum tree, wild cinnamon, bayberry, bay leaf (oil).
GENERAL DESCRIPTION: A wild-growing tropical evergreen tree up to 8 metres high, with large leathery leaves and aromatic fruits.
DISTRIBUTION: Native to the West Indies, particularly Dominica where the essential oil is produced.
OTHER SPECIES: There are several other varieties, for example the anise-scented and lemon-scented bay, the oils of which have a totally different chemical composition. Not to be confused with bay laurel, the common household spice, nor with the North American bayberry or wax myrtle (Myrcia cerifera) well known for its wax yielding berries.
HERBAL/FOLK TRADITION: The West Indian bay tree is often grown in groves together with the allspice or pimento bush, then the fruits of both are dried and powdered for the preparation of the household allspice. The so-called bay rum tree also provides the basic ingredient for the famous old hair tonic, which is made from the leaves by being distilled in rum. ‘A hair application with both fragrant and tonic virtues … useful for those who suffer from greasy hair and need a spirit-based, scalp-stimulating lotion to help them to control their locks!’9
ACTIONS: Analgesic, anticonvulsant, antineuralgic, antirheumatic, antiseptic, astringent, expectorant, stimulant, tonic (for hair).
EXTRACTION: Essential oil by water or steam distillation from the leaves. An oleoresin is also produced in small quantities.
CHARACTERISTICS: A dark yellow mobile liquid with a fresh-spicy top note and a sweet-balsamic undertone. It blends well with lavander, lavandin, rosemary, geranium, ylang ylang, citrus and spice oils.
PRINCIPAL CONSTITUENTS: Eugenol (up to 56 per cent), myrcene, chavicol and, in lesser amounts, methyl eugenol, linalol, limonene, among others.
SAFETY DATA: Moderately toxic due to high eugenol content; also a mucous membrane irritant – use in moderation only. Unlike bay laurel, however, it does not appear to cause dermal irritation or sensitization.
Skin Care: Scalp stimulant, hair rinse for dandruff, greasy, lifeless hair, and premoting growth.
Circulation, Muscles And Joints: Muscular and articular aches and pains, neuralgia, poor circulation, rheumatism, sprains, strains.
IMMUNE SYSTEM: Colds, ’flu, infectious diseases.
OTHER USES: Extensively used in fragrance work, in soaps, detergents, perfumes, aftershaves and hair lotions, including bay rum. Employed as a flavour ingredient in many major food categories, especially condiments, as well as alcoholic and soft drinks.... bay, west indian
SYNONYMS: B. alba var. pubescens, B. odorata, B. pendula, European white birch, silver birch.
GENERAL DESCRIPTION: Decorative tree, up to 15–20 metres high, with slender branches, silvery-white bark broken into scales, and light green oval leaves. The male catkins are 2–5 cms long, the female up to 15 cms long.
DISTRIBUTION: Native to the northern hemisphere; found throughout Eastern Europe, Russia, Germany, Sweden, Finland, the Baltic coast, northern China and Japan.
OTHER SPECIES: Many cultivars exist of this species of birch. The paper birch (B. papyrifera) and B. verrucosa are also used for the production of birch bud oil and/or birch tar. NB Should not be confused with the oil from the sweet birch (B. lenta) which is potentially toxic.
HERBAL/FOLK TRADITION: Birch buds were formerly used as a tonic in hair preparations. Birch tar is used in Europe for all types of chronic skin complaints: psoriasis, eczema, etc. In Scandinavia the young birch leaflets and twigs are bound into bundles and used in the sauna to tone the skin and promote the circulation. The sap is also tapped in the spring and drunk as a tonic. Buds, leaves and bark are used for ‘rheumatic and arthritic conditions, especially where kidney functions appear to need support … oedematous states; urinary infections and calculi.’.
ACTIONS: Anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, cholagogue, diaphoretic, diuretic, febrifuge, tonic.
EXTRACTION: 1. Essential oil by steam distillation from the leaf-buds. 2. Crude birch tar is extracted by slow destructive distillation from the bark; this is subsequently steam distilled to yield a rectified birch tar oil.
CHARACTERISTICS: 1. Pale yellow, viscous oil with a woody-green balsamic scent. It crystallizes at low temperatures. 2. The crude tar is an almost black, thick oily mass. The rectified oil is a brownish-yellow, clear oily liquid with a smoky, tar-like, ‘Russian leather’ odour. It blends well with other woody and balsamic oils.
PRINCIPAL CONSTITUENTS: 1. Mainly betulenol and other sesquiterpenes. 2. In the tar oil: phenol, cresol, xylenol, guaiacol, creosol, pyrocatechol, pyrobetulin (which gives the ‘leather’ scent).
SAFETY DATA: Non-toxic, non-irritant, non-sensitizing.
Skin Care: Dermatitis, dull or congested skin, eczema, hair care, psoriasis etc.
Circulation Muscles And Joints: Accumulation of toxins, arthritis, cellulitis, muscular pain, obesity, oedema, poor circulation, rheumatism.
OTHER USES: Birch bud oil is used primarily in hair tonics and shampoos, and in some cosmetics for its potential skin-healing effects. The crude tar is used in pharmaceutical preparations, ointments, lotions, etc. for dermatological diseases. It is also used in soap and leather manufacture – rectified birch tar oil provides the heart for many ‘leather’ type perfumes and aftershaves.... birch, white
FAMILY: Lamiaceae (Labiatae)
SYNONYMS: S. obovata, Calamintha montana.
GENERAL DESCRIPTION: A bushy perennial subshrub up to 40 cms high with woody stems at the base, linear leaves and pale purple flowers.
DISTRIBUTION: Native to the Mediterranean region, now found all over Europe, Turkey and the USSR. The oil is mainly produced in Spain, Morocco and Yugoslavia.
OTHER SPECIES: The creeping variety of the winter savory (S. montana subspicata) is also a well-known garden herb. See also summer savory (S. hortensis) and Botanical Classification section.
HERBAL/FOLK TRADITION: It has been used as a culinary herb since antiquity, much in the same way as summer savory. It was used as a digestive remedy especially good for colic, and in Germany it is used particularly for diarrhoea.
When compared against many varieties of thyme, rosemary and lavender, recent research has shown ‘the net superiority of the anti microbial properties of essence of savory’..
ACTIONS: See summer savory.
EXTRACTION: Essential oil by steam distillation from the whole herb. (An oleoresin is also produced by solvent extraction.)
CHARACTERISTICS: A colourless or pale yellow liquid with a sharp, medicinal, herbaceous odour.
PRINCIPAL CONSTITUENTS: Mainly carvacrol, cymene and thymol, with lesser amounts of pinenes, limonene, cineol, borneol and terpineol.
SAFETY DATA: See summer savory.
AROMATHERAPY/HOME: USE None. ‘Should not be used on the skin at all.’.
OTHER USES: Occasionally used in perfumery work. The oil and oleoresin are employed to some extent in flavouring, mainly meats and seasonings.... savory, winter
SYNOYNMS Ho oil, ho-wood il, shiu oil, ho-leaf oil.
GENERAL DESCRIPTION: A tall, tropical evergreen tree, quite dense with small white flowers and black berries, which grows up to 30 metres in height. This is the same tree that produces camphor comes from the wood of the tree.
DISTRIBUTION: Native to China, Japan, Taiwan and south-east Asia. It is now cultivated in many tropical and sub-tropical countries including India, Australia, Madagascar and parts of the USA where it has naturalized.
OTHER SPECIES: Cinnamomum camphora is a large genus with many subspecies which yield a volatile oil on distillation, including ho oil (wood and leaf), camphor, apopin, sassafras and ravintsara. All these essential oils, although derived from the same principal botanical species, differ in their chemical profile enormously depending on their country of origin as well as the part of the plant used to extract the oil. There are thus many different subvarieties of the camphor tree found throughout Asia, for example the Yu-sho in China and the Sho-guy variety found in Taiwan. Ho (wood and leaf) oil is derived both from the Hon-sho and Ho-sho varieties growing mainly in Japan and Taiwan. This variety has linalool as its major constituent.
Rosewood (Aniba rosaedora), a native tree of the Amazon, also yields an oil very rich in linalool. However, rosewood became endangered due to over-harvesting and although plantations have since been planted, it will take time for the trees to mature. Rosewood oil and ho wood oil are very similar in nature, and since ho wood is more renewable, it is increasingly used as a replacement for the former. However, ho leaf oil, distilled from the leaves of C. camphora, is gradually beginning to replace ho wood oil in aromatherapy usage, because its scent is smoother, containing hardly any camphor-like notes.
HERBAL/FOLK TRADITION: Ho wood has traditionally been used for making the handles of Japanese swords and knives because it is soft and will not scratch the blades. It is also used nowadays for ornamental parts of houses, carpentry and cabinet making, as it is of a very similar beauty to rosewood. Ho wood oil became very popular in Taiwan during the 1900s as a linalool-rich product, locally referred to as shiu oil. C. camphora was also heavily exploited as a source of camphor in Japan and Taiwan until World War II.
The high ‘linalool’ content makes Ho oil a potent immune system stimulant (good for infections such as cold or ’flu) as well as a powerful relaxant or sedative … soothing yet uplifting in effect. Recent studies also suggest that the oil may play a role as a cellular stimulant and tissue regenerator, being beneficial for complaints associated with the skin.
ACTIONS: Analgesic, anti-fungal, anti-infectious, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, antiseptic, antispasmodic, bactericidal, immune support, sedative, tonic. It is also believed to be a mild aphrodisiac.
EXTRACTION: Steam distilled from the leaves (ho leaf oil) and wood (ho wood oil)
CHARACTERISTICS: Ho wood oil is a pale yellow liquid with a soft, warm, floral, spicy-woody scent with a slightly camphor-like undertone. The leaf oil has a sweet-fresh, green-floral and woody scent. It blends well with basil, bergamot, cedarwood, chamomile, lavender, lime, geranium, juniper, neroli, petitgrain, myrtle, sandalwood, ylang ylang and spice oils.
PRINCIPAL CONSTITUENTS: Ho (wood and leaf) oil contains up to 99 per cent linalool, with traces of limonene, myrcene, gamma-terpinene and other components. Ho wood oil generally contains higher levels of cineol. Japanese ho oil ‘A’ quality has a linalool content of 94 per cent or more; a ‘B’ grade has 85–90 per cent linalool.
SAFETY DATA: It is non-toxic and non-irritant but with possible sensitization in some individuals.
Skin Care: Acne, cuts, dermatitis, stretch marks, scars, wounds & general skin care: dry, oily, mature and sensitive skin.
Circulation Muscles And Joints: Aches and pains caused by inflammation.
Respiratory System: Chills, coughs and colds, ’flu.
Immune System: Low libido and frigidity: boosts vitality.
Nervous System: Anxiety, depression, insomnia, nervous tension, stress.
OTHER USES: The use of C. camphora as a source of ho leaf and wood oil has expanded in recent years and it is now an important source of natural linalool (which is still preferred over the synthetic form) for some fragrance applications in the perfumery industry. Indeed, ho leaf and wood oil has largely displaced the use of rosewood as a source of natural linalool. It is also an effective insect repellent.... ho wood