This medical term were found from 1 different sources | Health Encyclopedia


A simple compound that is essential for all life. Its molecular structure is H2O (2 atoms of hydrogen bonded to 1 of oxygen). Water is the most common substance in the body, accounting for about 99 per cent of all molecules, but a smaller percentage of total body weight. Approximately 2 thirds of the body’s water content is contained within the body cells, and the remaining third is extracellular (found, for example, in the blood plasma, lymph, and cerebrospinal and tissue fluid).

Water provides the medium in which all metabolic reactions take place (see metabolism), and transports substances around the body. The blood plasma carries water to all body tissues, and excess water from tissues for elimination via the liver, kidneys, lungs, and skin. The passage of water in the tissue fluid into and out of cells takes place by osmosis.

Water is taken into the body in food and drink and is lost in urine and faeces, as exhaled water vapour, and by sweating (see dehydration). The amount of water excreted in urine is regulated by the kidneys (see also ADH). Extra water is needed to excrete excess amounts of substances, such as sugar or salt, in the blood, and high water intake is essential in hot climates where a large amount of water is lost in sweat.

In some disorders, such as kidney failure or heart failure, insufficient water is excreted in the urine, resulting in oedema.

BMA Medical Dictionary | The British Medical Association


Water | Health Encyclopedia

The keywords of this medical terms: Water

Aquae Waters

Aqua waters are weak and simple solutions of volatile oils in distilled water obtained either by distillation or by simple solution. Still popular as harmless carminatives in infantile colic, mild antispasmodics, etc.

A natural basis for skin lotions (Witch Hazel).

Dill water. (Anethi). Dill seeds 4oz; water 2 and a quarter litres. Distil down to 1 and a quarter litres. Dose: 1-3 teaspoon for children’s colic.

Aniseed water. (Anisi). Aniseeds 4oz; distilled water 2 and a quarter litres. Distil down to 1 and a quarter litres. Antispasmodic for children’s colic, teething troubles, etc. Dose: 1-3 teaspoons. Elderflower water. (Sambuci). Elderflowers 8oz; distilled water 1 and a quarter litres. Distil down to one-fifth. Eye lotion.

Eyebright water. (Euphrasia). Eyebright herb and flowers 4oz; distilled water 2 and a quarter litres. Distil down to 1 and a quarter litres. Antihistamine eye lotion. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

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Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

Blackwater Fever

a rare and serious complication of malignant (falciparum) *malaria in which there is massive destruction of the red blood cells, leading to the presence of the blood pigment haemoglobin in the urine. The condition is probably brought on by inadequate treatment with *quinine; it is marked by fever, bloody urine, jaundice, vomiting, enlarged liver and spleen, anaemia, exhaustion, and – in fatal cases – a reduced flow of urine resulting from a blockage of the kidney tubules. Treatment involves rest, administration of alkaline fluids and intravenous glucose, and blood transfusions.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Blackwater Fever

An occasional and life-threatening complication of falciparum malaria (the most dangerous form of malaria). Symptoms include loss of consciousness, fever, and vomiting, and very dark urine (due to pigment from destroyed red blood cells being filtered into the urine), which gives the condition its name.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Blackwater Fever

This is caused by rapid breakdown of red blood cells (acute intravascular haemolysis), with resulting kidney failure as the breakdown products block the vessels serving the kidney ?ltration units (see KIDNEYS). It is associated with severe Plasmodium falciparum infection.

The complication is frequently fatal, being associated with HAEMOGLOBINURIA, JAUNDICE, fever, vomiting and severe ANAEMIA. In an extreme case the patient’s urine appears black. Tender enlarged liver and spleen are usually present. The disease is triggered by quinine usage at subtherapeutic dosage in the presence of P. falciparum infection, especially in the non-immune individual. Now that quinine is rarely used for prevention of this infection (it is reserved for treatment), blackwater fever has become very unusual. Treatment is as for severe complicated P. falciparum infection with renal impairment; dialysis and blood transfusion are usually indicated. When inadequately treated, the mortality rate may be over 40 per cent but, with satisfactory intensive therapy, this should be reduced substantially.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Brash, Water

See waterbrash.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Eyes – Watery

Lacrimal disorder of secretion. See: HAY FEVER. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

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Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

Forewaters

n. the *amniotic fluid that escapes from the uterus through the vagina when that part of the amnion lying in front of the presenting part of the fetus ruptures, either spontaneously or by *amniotomy. Spontaneous rupture is usual in labour but rupture may occur before labour starts (premature rupture of membranes).... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Hard Water

The term applied to water that contains a large amount of calcium and magnesium salts (lime salts). These form an insoluble curd with soap and thus interfere with the use of the water for washing. Hard water is especially found in districts where the soil is chalky. Temporary hardness, which is due mainly to the presence of bicarbonates of lime, can be remedied by boiling, when the lime is precipitated as carbonate of lime. Permanent hardness is not remedied by boiling, and is due to the presence of a large amount of sulphate of lime. It may be removed by the addition of sodium carbonate (washing soda) or by the Permutit process which involves the use of various combinations of silicate of alumina and soda. In the past, hard water was often blamed for many ills – without any convincing evidence. Epidemiologists suggest that drinking soft water may lead to a greater risk of heart disease.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Rice-water

A useful diluent drink for invalids, similar to barley-water.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Spatterdock Or Yellow Water Lily

Nuphar species

Description: This plant has leaves up to 60 centimeters long with a triangular notch at the base. The shape of the leaves is somewhat variable. The plant’s yellow flowers are 2.5 centimeter across and develop into bottle-shaped fruits. The fruits are green when ripe.

Habitat and Distribution: These plants grow throughout most of North America. They are found in quiet, fresh, shallow water (never deeper than 1.8 meters).

Edible Parts: All parts of the plant are edible. The fruits contain several dark brown seeds you can parch or roast and then grind into flour. The large rootstock contains starch. Dig it out of the mud, peel off the outside, and boil the flesh. Sometimes the rootstock contains large quantities of a very bitter compound. Boiling in several changes of water may remove the bitterness.... Medicinal Plants

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Medicinal Plants

Tea For Water Retention

Water retention or Edema is an affection which is more commonly found in the legs and hands due to gravity. Generally, water retention makes your organs grow bigger and decrease their action. The swelling may affect the entire body or just a part of it (lungs, kidney, hands and feet) within days or month- a relatively short amount of time. This affection is caused by flu, cold or by overexposing your body to very low temperatures. How a Tea for Water Retention Works A Tea for Water Retention’s main purpose is to eliminate the surplus of water and heal the affected areas. Traditional medicine has developed some very effective drug combinations during the past years, but alternative medicine fans think that herbal treatments remain the real deal and that there’s no reason to stress out your liver. Efficient Tea for Water Retention When choosing a Tea for Water Retention, you must keep in mind the fact that this must be both very effective (contains a large amount of active constituents) and safe (water retention is an affection which takes time to heal so you don’t want anything to interfere with your treatment). If you don’t know which teas to choose from, here’s a list to give you a hand: - Green Tea – contains the right amount of active ingredients capable to flush all water out of your system and calm the affected areas. Don’t take more than 2 cups per day and don’t take it at all if you are experiencing menstrual or menopausal symptoms in order to avoid stomach ulcerations. - Stinging Nettle Tea – this Tea for Water Retention is a natural purgative and diuretic which is generally used to treat prostate problems. However, this is not one of the safest teas, so may want to check with your doctor before starting an herbal treatment based on it. - Dandelion Tea – the decoction is made from this plant’s roots and it’s well known for its curative properties, which include constipation and urinary tract infections. The Dandelion Tea will help your body get rid of the unnecessary water and improve your general health. - Peppermint Tea – this is one Tea for Water Retention one hundred percent safe! You can also take it to treat ailments of the respiratory and digestive systems, such as cough, flu, colds, pleurisy, pulmonary edema, upset stomach and gastritis. If you’ve decided to give up coffee, peppermint tea is a great alternative! Tea for Water Retention Side Effects When taken properly, these teas are generally safe. However, don’t exceed the number of cups in order to avoid digestive tract problems, such as diarrhea (some of these teas have a powerful diuretic effect), ulcers, uterine contractions or vomiting. If you’ve been taking one of these teas for a while and you’ve noticed some unusual reactions, ask for medical help as soon as possible! Don’t take a Tea for Water Retention if you’re pregnant, breastfeeding, on blood thinners, anti-coagulants or preparing for a surgery. Due to their purgative action, some of these teas can lead to miscarriage. If you have your doctor’s approval and there’s nothing that could interfere with your treatment, choose a tea that fits you best and enjoy its wonderful benefits!... Beneficial Teas

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Beneficial Teas

Water Bed

A bed with a water-?lled mattress can help prevent bed sores (see ULCER – Decubitus ulcer) in patients con?ned to bed for more than a few days. Its ?exibility provides uniform support for the whole body. Air beds are now more often used: they are light and more comfortable and the modern version, called a ripple bed, has a little motor that ?lls and empties tubes in the mattress. The patient’s circulation is stimulated and pressure is regularly changed on susceptible parts of the body – elbows, buttocks and heels – thus reducing the likelihood of pressure sores developing, particularly in the elderly.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Water Bed

a bed with a flexible water-containing mattress. The surface of the bed adapts itself to the patient’s posture, which leads to greater comfort and fewer pressure sores.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Water Chestnut

Trapa natans

Description: The water chestnut is an aquatic plant that roots in the mud and has finely divided leaves that grow underwater. Its floating leaves are much larger and coarsely toothed. The fruits, borne underwater, have four sharp spines on them.

Habitat and Distribution: The water chestnut is a freshwater plant only. It is a native of Asia but has spread to many parts of the world in both temperate and tropical areas.

Edible Parts: The fruits are edible raw and cooked. The seeds are also a source of food.... Medicinal Plants

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Medicinal Plants

Water Dock

Rumex aquaticus. N.O. Polygonaceae.

Synonym: Bloodwort, Red Dock.

Habitat: In, or very near, waterways, lakes, ponds, ditches, and in marshes and swampy places.

Features ? The largest of all the Docks, reaching up to six or seven feet. Stem erect, thick, striated, hollow, branched. Leaves very large, some two feet in length, pale green turning to reddish-brown, broad and sharp-pointed, point turning over towards the water. Flowers (July and August) small, greenish-yellow, with white threads which become brown. Root large, reddish brown, porous bark, large pith with honeycomb-like cells.

Part used ? Root.

Action: Alterative, detergent.

Of value in skin diseases and sluggish liver, in which latter case it should be given in combination with a mild laxative. The dose is 3-4 tablespoonfuls of the decoction of 1 ounce to 1 pint after simmering from

1 1/2 pints. This may be used as a mouthwash for ulcers, etc., and the powder makes a first-rate medicinal cleanser for the teeth.

Hool highly esteems Water Dock, and says ? "It operates kindly and without excitement, being slow but sure in promoting a healthy action of the depurative functions of the system." He also claims diuretic and tonic qualities for the root.... Herbal Manual

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Herbal Manual

Water Intoxication

A disorder resulting from excessive retention of water in the brain. Main symptoms are dizziness, headaches, confusion and nausea. In severe cases the patient may have ?ts (see SEIZURE) or lose consciousness. Several conditions can disturb the body’s water balance causing accumulation of water in the tissues. Heart or kidney failure, CIRRHOSIS of the liver and disorders of the ADRENAL GLANDS can all result in water retention. Other causes are stress as a result of surgery, when increased secretion of antidiuretic hormone (VASOPRESSIN) by the adrenal gland may occur. Treatment is of the underlying condition and the judicious use of DIURETICS, with careful monitoring of the body’s ELECTROLYTES.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Water Intoxication

A condition that is caused by excessive water retention in the brain. The principal symptoms are headaches, dizziness, nausea, confusion, and, in severe cases, seizures and unconsciousness.

Various disorders can disrupt the water balance in the body, leading to accumulation of water in the tissues. Examples include kidney failure, liver cirrhosis, severe heart failure, diseases of the adrenal glands, and certain lung or ovarian tumours producing a substance similar to ADH (antidiuretic hormone). Water intoxication is also seen in association with the use of Ecstasy (MDMA), during which excessive amounts of water are drunk. There is also a risk of water intoxication after surgery, caused by increased ADH production.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Water Lettuce

Ceratopteris species

Description: The leaves of water lettuce are much like lettuce and are very tender and succulent. One of the easiest ways of distinguishing water lettuce is by the little plantlets that grow from the margins of the leaves. These little plantlets grow in the shape of a rosette. Water lettuce plants often cover large areas in the regions where they are found.

Habitat and Distribution: Found in the tropics throughout the Old World in both Africa and Asia. Another kind is found in the New World tropics from Florida to South America. Water lettuce grows only in very wet places and often as a floating water plant. Look for water lettuce in still lakes, ponds, and the backwaters of rivers.

Edible Parts: Eat the fresh leaves like lettuce. Be careful not to dip the leaves in the contaminated water in which they are growing. Eat only the leaves that are well out of the water.

CAUTION

This plant has carcinogenic properties and should only be used as a last resort.... Medicinal Plants

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Medicinal Plants

Water Lily

Nymphaea odorata

Description: These plants have large, triangular leaves that float on the water’s surface, large, fragrant flowers that are usually white, or red, and thick, fleshy rhizomes that grow in the mud.

Habitat and Distribution: Water lilies are found throughout much of the temperate and subtropical regions.

Edible Parts: The flowers, seeds, and rhizomes are edible raw or cooked. To prepare rhizomes for eating, peel off the corky rind. Eat raw, or slice thinly, allow to dry, and then grind into flour. Dry, parch, and grind the seeds into flour.

Other Uses: Use the liquid resulting from boiling the thickened root in water as a medicine for diarrhea and as a gargle for sore throats.... Medicinal Plants

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Medicinal Plants

Water On The Brain

A nonmedical term for hydrocephalus.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Water On The Knee

A popular term for accumulation of fluid within or around the knee joint. The most common cause is bursitis. (See also effusion, joint).... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Water Plantain

Alisma plantago-aquatica

Description: This plant has small, white flowers and heart-shaped leaves with pointed tips. The leaves are clustered at the base of the plant.

Habitat and Distribution: Look for this plant in fresh water and in wet, full sun areas in Temperate and Tropical Zones.

Edible Parts: The rootstocks are a good source of starch. Boil or soak them in water to remove the bitter taste.

CAUTION

To avoid parasites, always cook aquatic plants.... Medicinal Plants

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Medicinal Plants

Water Retention

Accumulation of fluid in body tissues (see oedema).... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Water Tablets

A nonmedical term for diuretic drugs.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Water-borne Infection

A disease caused by infective or parasitic organisms transmitted via water. Infections can be contracted if infected water is drunk, if it contaminates food, or if individuals swim or wade in it. Worldwide, contamination of drinking water is an important mode of transmission for various diseases including hepatitis A, many viral and bacterial causes of diarrhoea, typhoid fever, cholera, amoebiasis, and some types of worm infestation.

Swimming in polluted water should be avoided because, if swallowed, there is a risk of contracting disease. In addition, a form of leptospirosis is caused by contact with water contaminated by rat’s urine. In tropical countries, there is also a risk of contracting schistosomiasis (bilharzia), which is a serious disease caused by a fluke that can burrow through the swimmer’s skin.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Water-deprivation Test

a test for *diabetes insipidus in which fluid and food intake is withheld completely for up to 24 hours, with regular measurement of plasma and urinary *osmolality and body weight. Normally (and in a person with psychogenic *polydipsia) the output of *vasopressin will be increased in order to concentrate the urine as the plasma osmolality rises; correspondingly, the urine osmolality also rises and its volume diminishes. In a patient with diabetes insipidus, however, the urine osmolality will remain low and of high volume while the patient steadily dehydrates. The test must be abandoned if the patient loses 3% of body weight.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Water-hammer Pulse

The peculiarly sudden PULSE that is associated with incompetence of the AORTIC VALVE of the heart.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Waterbrash

Also called pyrosis. A symptom of indigestion; during the course of DIGESTION, the mouth ?lls with tasteless or sour ?uid, which is generally saliva, but is sometimes brought up from the stomach. This is accompanied by a burning pain often felt at the pit of the stomach or in the chest. The condition is a symptom of excessive acidity of the stomach contents, due sometimes to an injudicious diet, and often characteristic of a DUODENAL ULCER. (See also DYSPEPSIA.)... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Waterbrash

n. sudden filling of the mouth with dilute saliva – this often accompanies dyspepsia, particularly if there is nausea – or with acid or bitter fluid in patients with *heartburn.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Waterbrash

The sudden filling of the mouth with tasteless saliva. It is not to be confused with acid reflux (the regurgitation of gastric juices), which has an unpleasant, sour taste. Waterbrash is normally accompanied by other symptoms, and usually indicates a disorder of the upper gastrointestinal tract.

A serious condition caused by infection of the bloodstream by bacteria of the meningococcus group.

The main features are bleeding into the skin, low blood pressure, and shock.

Without urgent medical treatment, coma and death follow in a few hours.

The syndrome is often associated with meningitis.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Watercress

See Berro.... Medicinal Plants

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Medicinal Plants

Waterhouse–friderichsen Syndrome

acute haemorrhage in the adrenal glands with haemorrhage into the skin associated with the sudden onset of acute bacteraemic *shock. It is usually caused by meningococcal septicaemia (see meningitis). [R. Waterhouse (1873–1958), British physician; C. Friderichsen (20th century), Danish physician]... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Watering Eye

An increase in volume of the tear film, usually producing epiphora (overflow of tears). Watering may be caused by excess tear production due to emotion, conjunctival or corneal irritation, or an obstruction to the channel that drains tears from the eye. (See also lacrimal apparatus.)... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Waters’ Projection

a *posteroanterior X-ray film to show the maxillae, maxillary sinuses, and zygomatic bones. [C. A. Waters (1888–1961), US radiologist]... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary