The meaning of the symbols of dream, dictionary/ seen in a dream.

Witch Hazel

Hamamelis virginiana. N.O. Hamamelidaceae.

Synonym: Spotted Alder and Snapping Hazel.

Habitat: This shrub, like the Alders and the Hazel, grows in bunches as high as eight or ten feet, and is found on high lands and the stony banks of streams.

Features ? The branches are flexuous and knotty, the bark smooth and grey with brown spots. The leaves are four to five inches long and about two inches broad, obovate; feather-veined, irregularly notched at the edges, smooth above and downy underneath. Yellow flowers appear in autumn, when the leaves are falling. Taste is astringent, and smell slight and agreeable.

Part used ? Bark and leaves.

Action: Astringent and tonic.

A decoction of the bark, which is more astringent than the leaves, checks external and internal hemorrhages, and this astringency, when in combination with the more specific principles of Pilewort, makes one of the most effective pile medicines known. The compound can be obtained in the form of both ointment and suppositories for external application. For varicose veins an extract of the fresh leaves and young twigs of Witch Hazel is applied on a lint bandage kept constantly moist.

Both decoctions of the bark and infusions of the leaves are made in the proportion of 1 ounce to 1 pint boiling water (after simmering for ten minutes in the case of the bark decoction) and taken in wineglassful doses.... witch hazel



Guinea Worm

Dracunculus medinensis.... guinea worm

Port Wine Stain

See NAEVUS.... port wine stain


An anticoagulant (see ANTICOAGULANTS), usually given by mouth on a daily basis. The initial dose depends upon the PROTHROMBIN or coagulation time; this should be determined before starting treatment, and then at regular intervals during treatment. It is indicated for the prophylaxis of embolisation (see EMBOLISM) in rheumatic heart disease and atrial ?brillation (see HEART, DISEASES OF); after prosthetic heart-valve insertion; prophylaxis and treatment of venous thrombosis and PULMONARY EMBOLISM; and TRANSIENT ISCHAEMIC ATTACKS OR EPISODES (TIA, TIE). When given in tablet form, its maximum e?ect generally occurs within about 36 hours, wearing o? within 48 hours. Special caution is appropriate in patients with disease of the liver or kidneys or who have had recent surgery. Warfarin is contra-indicated throughout pregnancy (especially the ?rst and third trimesters), and in cases of PEPTIC ULCER, severe HYPERTENSION and bacterial ENDOCARDITIS. The most important adverse e?ect is HAEMORRHAGE. Other reported side-effects include HYPERSENSITIVITY, rash, ALOPECIA, diarrhoea, unexplained drop in HAEMATOCRIT readings, purple toes, skin NECROSIS, JAUNDICE, liver dysfunction, nausea, vomiting and pancreatitis (see PANCREAS, DISEASES OF). (See also COAGULATION.)... warfarin


A circumscribed cutaneous excrescence... wart


Also called pyrosis. A symptom of indigestion; during the course of DIGESTION, the mouth ?lls with tasteless or sour ?uid, which is generally saliva, but is sometimes brought up from the stomach. This is accompanied by a burning pain often felt at the pit of the stomach or in the chest. The condition is a symptom of excessive acidity of the stomach contents, due sometimes to an injudicious diet, and often characteristic of a DUODENAL ULCER. (See also DYSPEPSIA.)... waterbrash


The process by which a baby is introduced to solid foods after having only had breast milk or arti?cial milk to drink. The transfer usually starts at around 4–5 months of age but many parents prefer not to wait. (See INFANT FEEDING.)... weaning

Whiplash Injury

An injury to the neck region caused by the neck being forcibly bent backwards and forwards (or the other way around). Car accidents are a common cause, when a driver or passenger is suddenly decelerated. The injury usually affects the ligaments, spinal joints and soft tissues of the neck. Subluxation (partial dislocation) of a cervical joint sometimes occurs and cervical vertebra may occasionally be fractured if the forces are severe. Pain and sti?ness of the neck result and these may worsen after a day or so. Treatment includes immobilisation of the neck in a collar, and analgesic and muscle-relaxing drugs. PHYSIOTHERAPY may be necessary. The patient usually recovers fully but may take several weeks to do so.... whiplash injury


A popular term for PARONYCHIA.... whitlow


Whooping-cough, or pertussis, is a respiratory-tract infection caused by Bordetella pertussis and spread by droplets. It may occur at all ages, but around 90 per cent of cases are children aged under ?ve. Most common during the winter months, it tends to occur in epidemics (see EPIDEMIC), with periods of increased prevalence occurring every three to four years. It is a noti?able disease (see NOTIFIABLE DISEASES). The routine vaccination of infants with TRIPLE VACCINE (see also VACCINE; IMMUNISATION), which includes the vaccine against whooping-cough, has drastically reduced the incidence of this potentially dangerous infection. In the 1990s over 90 per cent of children in England had been vaccinated against whooping-cough by their second birthday. In an epidemic of whooping-cough, which extended from the last quarter of 1977 to mid-1979, 102,500 cases of whooping-cough were noti?ed in the United Kingdom, with 36 deaths. This was the biggest outbreak since 1957 and its size was partly attributed to the fall in vaccination acceptance rates because of media reports suggesting that pertussis vaccination was potentially dangerous and ine?ective. In 2002, 105 cases were noti?ed in England.

Symptoms The ?rst, or catarrhal, stage is characterised by mild, but non-speci?c, symptoms of sneezing, conjunctivitis (see under EYE, DISORDERS OF), sore throat, mild fever and cough. Lasting 10–14 days, this stage is the most infectious; unfortunately it is almost impossible to make a de?nite clinical diagnosis, although analysis of a nasal swab may con?rm a suspected case. This is followed by the second, or paroxysmal, stage with irregular bouts of coughing, often prolonged, and typically more severe at night. Each paroxysm consists of a succession of short sharp coughs, increasing in speed and duration, and ending in a deep, crowing inspiration, often with a characteristic ‘whoop’. Vomiting is common after the last paroxysm of a series. Lasting 2–4 weeks, this stage is the most dangerous, with the greatest risk of complications. These may include PNEUMONIA and partial collapse of the lungs, and ?ts may be induced by cerebral ANOXIA. Less severe complications caused by the stress of coughing include minor bleeding around the eyes, ulceration under the tongue, HERNIA and PROLAPSE of the rectum. Mortality is greatest in the ?rst year of life, particularly among neonates – infants up to four weeks old. Nearly all patients with whooping-cough recover after a few weeks, with a lasting IMMUNITY. Very severe cases may leave structural changes in the lungs, such as EMPHYSEMA, with a permanent shortness of breath or liability to ASTHMA.

Treatment Antibiotics, such as ERYTHROMYCIN or TETRACYCLINES, may be helpful if given during the catarrhal stage – largely in preventing spread to brothers and sisters – but are of no use during the paroxysmal stage. Cough suppressants are not always helpful unless given in high (and therefore potentially narcotic) doses, and skilled nursing may be required to maintain nutrition, particularly if the disease is prolonged, with frequent vomiting.... whooping-cough


The popular name for the TRACHEA, which extends from the LARYNX above to the point in the upper part of the chest where it divides into the two large bronchial tubes, one to each lung. It is about 10 cm (4 inches) in length and consists of a ?brous tube kept permanently open by about 20 strong, horizontally placed hoops of cartilage, each of which forms about two-thirds of a circle, the two ends being joined behind by muscle ?bres. This ?brocartilaginous tube is lined by a smooth mucous membrane, richly supplied with mucous glands and covered by a single layer of ciliated epithelium. (See also AIR PASSAGES.)... windpipe

Wisdom Tooth

A popular name for the last molar tooth on either side of each jaw (see TEETH). These teeth are the last to appear and should develop in early adult life, but often they do not cut the gum till the age of 20 or 25; indeed, they may sometimes remain permanently impacted in the jaw-bone. This occurs in up to 25 per cent of individuals. The lower third molar is often impacted against the second because of the direction in which it erupts.... wisdom tooth


See UTERUS.... womb

Word Blindness

Alexia: a condition in which, as the result of disease in the brain, a person becomes unable to associate their proper meanings with words, although he or she may be quite able to spell the letters.

Word deafness is an associated condition in which, although hearing remains perfect, the patient has lost the power of referring the names heard to the articles they denote. (See also DYSPHASIA.)... word blindness


See DROP WRIST.... wrist-drop


Artemisia absinthium. N.O. Compositae. Synonym: Ajenjo, Old Woman.

Habitat: Waste ground. Features ? Stem two feet high, whitish, silky hairs. Leaves downy, three inches long by one and a half inches broad, pinnatifid, stalked, lobes linear, obtuse. Flowers (August) pale yellow with greenish tint, small, globular, clustered in erect, leafy panicle. Part used ? Herb.

Action: Tonic, stomachic, anthelmintic. Infusion of 1 ounce to 1 pint of boiling water, taken in wineglass doses for poor digestion and debility. A reliable remedy for worms.... wormwood


The joint situated between the arm above and the hand below. The region of the wrist contains eight small carpal bones, arranged in two rows, each containing four bones. Those in the row nearest the forearm are – from the outside inwards when looking at the palm of the hand – the scaphoid, lunate, triquetrum, and pisiform.

Those in the row nearest the hand are the trapezium, trapezoid, capitate and hamate. These latter articulate with the metacarpal bones in the hand and are closely bound to one another by short, strong ligaments; and the wrist-joint is the union of the composite mass thus formed with the RADIUS and ULNA in the forearm. The wrist and the radius and ulna are united by strong outer and inner lateral ligaments, and by weaker ligaments before and behind, whilst the powerful tendons passing to the hand and ?ngers strengthen the wrist.

The joint can move in all directions, and its shape and many ligaments mean that it rarely dislocates – although stretching or tearing of some of these ligaments is a common accident, constituting a sprain. (See JOINTS, DISEASES OF.) In?ammation of the tendon-sheaths may occur as a result of injury or repetitive movement (see UPPER LIMB DISORDERS). A fairly common condition is the presence of a GANGLION, in which an elastic swelling full of ?uid develops on the back or front of the wrist in connection with the sheaths of the tendons. (See also HAND.)... wrist

Circle Of Willis

A circle of arteries at the base of the brain, formed by the junction of the basilar, posterior cerebral, internal carotid and anterior cerebral arteries. Congenital defects may occur in these arteries and lead to the formation of aneurysm (see ANEURYSM).... circle of willis

Meals On Wheels

A service which provides nutritious meals at a nominal fee to people in their homes who are homebound and/or disabled or would otherwise be unable to maintain their dietary needs.... meals on wheels

St John’s Wort

A herbal remedy which has achieved popularity as a treatment for mild depression. It may, however, induce the production of enzymes (see ENZYME) that metabolise drugs, and several important interactions have been identi?ed which may result in unwanted side-effects, even when treatment with St John’s Wort is stopped.... st john’s wort

Waiting List

A term widely used in the NHS to show the number of people waiting for hospital admission, usually for non-acute surgery. The size of the waiting list has come to be perceived over the past 20 years– especially by politicians – as a measure of the Service’s e?ectiveness. To the individual patient, however, what matters is the ‘waiting time’ – how long they have to wait before admission. This ?gure – along with the time a patient has to wait for an outpatient appointment to see a consultant – is increasingly being recognised as one important measurement of how well a hospital is serving its local communities.... waiting list


Juglans species

Description: Walnuts grow on very large trees, often reaching 18 meters tall. The divided leaves characterize all walnut spades. The walnut itself has a thick outer husk that must be removed to reach the hard inner shell of the nut.

Habitat and Distribution: The English walnut, in the wild state, is found from southeastern Europe across Asia to China and is abundant in the Himalayas. Several other species of walnut are found in China and Japan. The black walnut is common in the eastern United States.

Edible Parts: The nut kernel ripens in the autumn. You get the walnut meat by cracking the shell. Walnut meats are highly nutritious because of their protein and oil content.

Other Uses: You can boil walnuts and use the juice as an antifungal agent. The husks of “green” walnuts produce a dark brown dye for clothing or camouflage. Crush the husks of “green” black walnuts and sprinkle them into sluggish water or ponds for use as fish poison.... walnut

Wassermann Reaction

A test introduced for the diagnosis of SYPHILIS by examination of the blood. It has now been largely supplanted by other, more speci?c tests.... wassermann reaction

Water Bed

A bed with a water-?lled mattress can help prevent bed sores (see ULCER – Decubitus ulcer) in patients con?ned to bed for more than a few days. Its ?exibility provides uniform support for the whole body. Air beds are now more often used: they are light and more comfortable and the modern version, called a ripple bed, has a little motor that ?lls and empties tubes in the mattress. The patient’s circulation is stimulated and pressure is regularly changed on susceptible parts of the body – elbows, buttocks and heels – thus reducing the likelihood of pressure sores developing, particularly in the elderly.... water bed

Water Intoxication

A disorder resulting from excessive retention of water in the brain. Main symptoms are dizziness, headaches, confusion and nausea. In severe cases the patient may have ?ts (see SEIZURE) or lose consciousness. Several conditions can disturb the body’s water balance causing accumulation of water in the tissues. Heart or kidney failure, CIRRHOSIS of the liver and disorders of the ADRENAL GLANDS can all result in water retention. Other causes are stress as a result of surgery, when increased secretion of antidiuretic hormone (VASOPRESSIN) by the adrenal gland may occur. Treatment is of the underlying condition and the judicious use of DIURETICS, with careful monitoring of the body’s ELECTROLYTES.... water intoxication



Weil’s Disease

Epidemic jaundice. A severe form of leptospirosis caused by such serovars as Leptospira icterrohaemorrhagiae.... weil’s disease

West Nile Virus

A mosquito-borne viral infection that is normally harmless to healthy people who, if infected, develop a mild ?u-like illness. However, if the elderly and those in poor health, particularly immunocompromised patients, are infected, they may develop fatal in?ammation of the brain and spinal cord. In Israel in 2000, 12 people died and more than 155 survived an outbreak; and in New York in 1999, more than 60 people were infected, of whom six died. The disease was ?rst reported in Uganda in 1937 and became ENDEMIC in the Middle East and Africa, recently spreading to Europe, central Asia, Oceania and America. Mosquitoes bearing the ?aviviridae-family virus usually contract it by biting infected poultry, but the infection has been found in mammals, such as cats, dogs and horses.... west nile virus


A popular name for Trichuris trichiura. (See also TRICHURIASIS.)... whipworm

White Blood Cell

See LEUCOCYTES.... white blood cell

White Finger

Spasm of the blood vessels in the ?nger, resulting in a white appearance. The condition is common in RAYNAUD’S DISEASE but it can be caused by the long-term use of percussion implements such as mechanical road drills or hammers. It is a recognised industrial disease. Treatment is to remove or treat the underlying cause.... white finger

Widal Reaction

See AGGLUTINATION.... widal reaction


(English) From the willow tree; symbol of healing and grace Willo, Willough, Wyllow, Wylow, Wyllo... willow

Wilms’ Tumour

Also called nephroblastoma. This is the commonest kidney tumour in infancy. It is a malignant tumour, which occurs in around one per 10,000 live births. The survival rate with modern treatment (removal of the kidney followed by radiotherapy and chemotherapy) is now around 80 per cent.... wilms’ tumour


(American) Moving air; windy Wynd, Windy, Windie, Windi, Windee, Windea, Windia, Wyndy, Wyndie, Wyndee, Wyndi, Wyndey, Wyndea, Wyndia... wind


Protection, Healing, Hex Breaking ... wintergreen

Withdrawal Bleeding

Loss of blood from the UTERUS via the VAGINA occurring when the women’s level of oestrogen hormones (OESTROGENS), PROGESTERONE hormone or PROGESTOGEN drugs falls quickly. The withdrawal bleeding that happens at the end of each month’s cycle of combined oral contraceptive pills (see CONTRACEPTION) imitates the woman’s menstrual period (see MENSTRUATION) but is normally briefer and less in amount.... withdrawal bleeding

Withdrawal Symptoms

Unpleasant physical and mental symptoms that occur when a person stops using a drug or substance on which he or she is dependent (see DEPENDENCE). The symptoms include tremors, sweating, and vomiting which are reversed if further doses are given. Alcohol and hard drugs, such as morphine, heroin, and cocaine, are among the substances that induce dependence, and therefore withdrawal symptoms, when stopped. Amphetamines and nicotine are other examples.... withdrawal symptoms

Wood Sorrel

Oxalis species

Description: Wood sorrel resembles shamrock or four-leaf clover, with a bell-shaped pink, yellow, or white flower.

Habitat and Distribution: Wood sorrel is found in Temperate Zones worldwide, in lawns, open areas, and sunny woods.

Edible Parts: Cook the entire plant.


Eat only small amounts of this plant as it contains a fairly high concentration of oxalic acid that can be harmful.... wood sorrel


See Apasote.... wormseed


A natural furrow in the skin commonly associated with AGEING. Wrinkles are most prominent on the face and other exposed body parts. Overexposure to sunlight causes premature wrinkling. Cosmetic preparations may temporarily improve excessive wrinkling, but a face lift, which stretches the skin using surgery, can improve a person’s face for up to ?ve years.... wrinkle


Asperula odorata. N.O. Rubiaceae.

Synonym: Waldmeister Tea.

Habitat: Woods and other shady places.

Features ? Stem eight inches to one foot in height, slender, smooth, four-sided, brittle. Leaves lanceolate, rather rough at the edges, in rings of, usually, eight round the stem. Flowers tubular, with flattened mouth, divided into four white, cross-shaped petals, on long, axillary stalk. The dried herb smells like new-mown hay.

Part used ? Herb.

Action: Hepatic, tonic.

In faulty biliary functioning and general liver sluggishness. Tonic properties particularly applicable to the digestive apparatus. Dose, two tablespoonfuls of the 1 ounce to 1 pint boiling water infusion.... woodruff

Worm Killer

Aristolochia bracteolata


San: Kitamari

Hin: Kiramar, Kitamar Mal: Attuthottappala, Atuthinnappala

Tam: Atutinnappalai

Importance: The bracteated birthwort or worm killer is a perennial prostrate herb. As the name suggests it is a killer of intestinal worms especially roundworms. It is also used in vitiated conditions of kapha and vata, constipation, inflammations, amenorrhoea, dysmenorrhoea, foul ulcers, boils, syphilis, gonorrhoea, dyspepsia, colic, skin diseases, eczema, artheralgia and intermittent fevers. The plant is an insect repellent due to the presence of aristolochic acid, which is poisonous to man and livestock. Plant is also used against scorpion sting. Seeds ground in water to form a lotion and used for softening hair. Powdered root is used in fertility control.

Distribution: The plant is found in Sri Lanka, Arabian countries and tropical Africa. In India, the plant is grown in Deccan and Carnatic Plateau.

Botany: Aristolochia bracteolata Lam. syn. A. bracteata Retz. belongs to the family Aristolochiaceae. It is a perennial prostrate herb with weak, glabrous stems. Leaves are simple, alternate, reniform or broadly ovate, cordate at the base with a wide sinus upto 7.5cm in diameter, reticulately veined. Flowers are solitary with a large sessile orbicular bract at the base. Perianth tube is cylindric with dark purple tip having revolute margins. Fruits are oblong-ellipsoid 12-ribbed glabrous capsules. Seeds are deltoid with slightly cordate base (Warrier et al, 1993) Another important species belonging to the genus Aristolochia is A. indica Linn. The plant grows wild throughout the low hills and plains of India from Nepal to West Bengal and South India. It is a valuable anti-dote to snake bite and to bites of poisonous insects as scorpion, etc. It is given in cases of cholera and diarrhoea after macerating with black pepper corns. The juice of the leaves has stimulant, tonic and antiperiodic properties.

Agrotechnology: Shady areas and well-drained soils are most suited to Aristolochia. The plant can be seed propagated. 3-month-old seedlings raised in polybags are required for transplanting. Pits of size 50cm cube are to be taken at a distance of 3m and filled with sand, topsoil and dried cowdung. To these pits, the seedlings are to be transplanted. Regular irrigation and organic manure application is beneficial. The plant is to be trailed on iron wires tied to poles. The plant is not attacked by any serious pests or diseases. Plant attains good spread within one year. Leaves can be collected for the next 10 years. Roots and leaves constitute the economi c parts (Prasad et al, 1997).

Properties and activity: Leaves and fruits yield ceryl alcohol, -sitosterol and aristolochic acid. Root contains aristolochic acid. Seeds give an alkaloid magnoflorine, aristolochic acid, fatty oil comprising palmitic, stearic, lignoseric and oleic acids and -sitosterol.

The plant is anthelmintic, cathartic, antiperiodic and emmenagogue. Leaf is antigonorrhoeic, larvicidal and used in eczema on children’s leg and ulcers. The plant is oxytocic (Husain et al,1992).... worm killer

Plantar Wart

See wart, plantar.... plantar wart

Von Willebrand’s Disease

An inherited lifelong bleeding disorder similar to haemophilia. People with the condition have a reduced concentration in their blood of a substance called von Willebrand factor, which helps platelets in the blood to plug injured blood vessel walls and forms part of factor VIII (a substance vital to blood coagulation). Symptoms of deficiency of this factor include excessive bleeding from the gums and from cuts and nosebleeds. Women may have heavy menstrual bleeding. In severe cases, bleeding into joints and muscles may occur.

The disease is diagnosed by bloodclotting tests and measurement of blood levels of von Willebrand factor. Bleeding episodes can be prevented or controlled by desmopressin (a substance resembling ADH). Factor or concentrated von Willebrand factor may also be used to treat bleeding.... von willebrand’s disease


A raised bump on the skin that is paler than the adjacent tissue and which may be surrounded by an area of red inflammation. Weals are characteristic of urticaria.... weal

Wegener’s Granulomatosis

A rare disorder in which granulomas (nodular collections of abnormal cells), associated with areas of chronic tissue inflammation due to vasculitis, develop in the nasal passages, lungs, and kidneys. It is thought that the condition is an autoimmune disorder (in which the body’s natural defences attack its own tissues). Principal symptoms include a bloody nasal discharge, coughing (which sometimes produces bloodstained sputum), breathing difficulty, chest pain, and blood in the urine. There may also be loss of appetite, weight loss, weakness, fatigue, and joint pains.

Treatment is with immunosuppressant drugs, such as cyclophosphamide or azathioprine, combined with corticosteroids to alleviate symptoms and attempt to bring about a remission.

With prompt treatment, most people recover completely within about a year, although kidney failure occasionally develops.

Without treatment, complications may occur, including perforation of the nasal septum, causing deformity of the nose; inflammation of the eyes; a rash, nodules, or ulcers on the skin; and damage to the heart muscle, which may be fatal.... wegener’s granulomatosis

Weil’s Disease

Another name for leptospirosis.... weil’s disease

Wernicke’s Encephalopathy

See Wernicke–Korsakoff syndrome.... wernicke’s encephalopathy


A high-pitched, whistling sound produced in the chest during breathing, caused by narrowing of the airways. It is a feature of asthma, bronchitis, bronchiolitis, and pulmonary oedema. Inhalation of a foreign body may also be a cause.

(See also breathing difficulty.)... wheeze

Whipple’s Disease

A rare disorder, also called intestinal lipodystrophy, that can affect many organs. Symptoms include steatorrhoea as a result of malabsorption, abdominal pain, joint pains, progressive weight loss, swollen lymph nodes, anaemia, and fever. The heart, lungs, and brain can also be affected. The condition is most common in middle-aged men.

The cause is thought to be bacterial; affected tissues are found to contain macrophages (a type of scavenging cell) containing rod-shaped bacteria. Treatment is with antibiotic drugs for at least 1 year. Dietary supplements are used to correct nutritional deficiencies occurring as a result of malabsorption.... whipple’s disease

White Matter

Tissue in the nervous system composed of nerve fibres (axons). White matter makes up the bulk of the cerebrum (the 2 large hemispheres of the brain) and continues down into the spinal cord; its main role is to transmit nerve impulses. (See also grey matter.)... white matter

Wilson’s Disease

A rare, inherited disorder in which copper accumulates in the liver, resulting in conditions such as hepatitis and cirrhosis. Copper is slowly released into other body parts, damaging the brain, causing mild intellectual impairment, and leading to debilitating rigidity, tremor, and dementia. Symptoms usually appear in adolescence but can occur much earlier or later. Lifelong treatment with penicillamine is needed and, if begun soon enough, can sometimes produce some improvement. If the disease is discovered before the onset of symptoms, the drug may prevent them from developing.... wilson’s disease

Whipple’s Operation

A type of pancreatectomy in which the head of the pancreas and the loop of the duodenum are surgically removed.

whipworm infestation Small, cylindrical whip-like worms, 2.5–5 cm long, that live in the human large intestine. Infestation occurs worldwide but is most common in the tropics. Light infestation causes no symptoms; heavy infestation can cause abdominal pain, diarrhoea, and, sometimes, anaemia, since a small amount of the host’s blood is consumed every day.

Diagnosis is through the identification of whipworm eggs in the faeces. Treatment is with anthelmintic drugs, such as mebendazole. A heavy infestation may require more than 1 course of treatment. whitehead A very common type of skin blemish (see milia).... whipple’s operation


The process of retreating from society and from relationships with others; usually indicated by aloofness, lack of interest in social activities, preoccupation with one’s own concerns, and difficulty in communicating.

The term is also applied to the psychological and physical symptoms that develop on discontinuing use of a substance on which a person is dependent (see withdrawal syndrome).... withdrawal

World Health Organization


An international organization established in 1948 as an agency of the United Nations with responsibilities for international health matters and public health. The headquarters are in Geneva, Switzerland.

The has campaigned effectively against some infectious diseases, most

notably smallpox, tuberculosis, and malaria.

Other functions include sponsoring medical research programmes, organizing a network of collaborating national laboratories, and providing expert advice and specific targets to its 160 member states with regard to health matters.... world health organization


Any damage to the skin and/or underlying tissues caused by an accident, act of violence, or surgery. Wounds in which the skin or mucous membrane is broken are called open; those in which they remain intact are termed closed.

Wounds can be divided into the following categories: an incised wound; an abrasion (or graze); a laceration; a penetrating wound; and a contusion. wound infection Any type of wound is susceptible to the entry of bacteria; the resultant infection can delay healing, result in disability, and may even cause death. Infection of a wound is indicated by redness, swelling, warmth, pain, and sometimes by the presence of pus or the formation of an abscess. Infection may spread locally to adjacent organs or tissue, or to more distant parts of the body via the blood.

The type of infection depends upon how the wound occurred. For example, wounds brought into contact with soil can result in tetanus. STAPHYLOCOCCI, including MRSA, are also common wound infections.

Once infection is discovered, a sample of blood or pus is taken and the patient is given an antibiotic drug. Any abscess should be drained surgically.... wound

Abies Webbiana


Synonym: A. spectabilis (D. Don) Spach.

Pinus webbiana Wall.

Family: Pinaceae.

Habitat: The Himalayas from Kashmir to Assam at altitudes of 1,600-4,000 m.

English: Indian Silver Fir, The West-Himalayan High-Level Fir, The East-Himalayan Fir.

Ayurvedic: Taalisa, Taalisapatra, Taalisha, Patraadhya, Dhaatriparni, Dhaatripatra.

Unani: Taalisapattar.

Siddha/Tamil: Taalispatri.

Folk: Badar, Chilrow, Morinda, Raisalla, Taalispatra. (Tallispatra, Taalispatri and Talespattre are also equated with the leaves of Cinnamomum tamala Nees.)

Action: Expectorant, bronchial sedative, decongestant, anticatarrhal, antiseptic, carminative.

Key application: Fir (Abies alba Miller) needle oil—in catarrhal illness of upper and lower respiratory tract (internally and externally); externally in rheumatic and neuralgic pains. Contraindicated in bronchial asthma and whooping cough. (German Commission E.)

A biflavonoid, abiesin, n-triaconta- nol, beta-sitosterol and betuloside are present in the leaves.

The essential oil from leaves contains alpha-pinene, l-limonene, delta- carene, dipentene, l-bornyl acetate and l-cardinene as major constituents.

Dosage: Needles—2-6 g powder. (API Vol. IV.)... abies webbiana

Aloes, Wood

Love, Spirituality ... aloes, wood

Anal Warts

Also called Condylomata acuminata. A sexually transmitted viral infection, caused by human papillomavirus. See VENEREAL WARTS... anal warts

Arctic Willow

Salix arctica

Description: The arctic willow is a shrub that never exceeds more than 60 centimeters in height and grows in clumps that form dense mats on the tundra.

Habitat and Distribution: The arctic willow is common on tundras in North America. Europe, and Asia. You can also find it in some mountainous areas in temperate regions.

Edible Parts: You can collect the succulent, tender young shoots of the arctic willow in early spring. Strip off the outer bark of the new shoots and eat the inner portion raw. You can also peel and eat raw the young underground shoots of any of the various kinds of arctic willow. Young willow leaves are one of the richest sources of vitamin C, containing 7 to 10 times more than an orange.... arctic willow

Auxiliary Worker

A worker who has less than full professional qualifications in a particular field and is supervised by a professional worker.... auxiliary worker

Betony, Wood

Protection, Purification, Love... betony, wood

Biological Warfare

The use of living organisms – or infectious agents derived from them – to disable or kill men, animals or plants in the pursuit of war. Such warfare, along with chemical warfare, was condemned in 1925 by the Geneva Convention, and the United Nations has endorsed this policy. Even so, some countries have experimented with possible biological agents, including those causing ANTHRAX and BOTULISM, with the intention of delivering them by land, sea or water-based missiles. These developments have prompted other countries to search for ways of annulling the lethal consequences of biological warfare.... biological warfare

Black Haw Tea For The Use Of Women

Black haw tea is made by brewing the bark of the plant. It is largely used for its healing properties in medical issues like menstrual cramps. Black Haw Tea description Black haw is a small deciduous shrub, originating from North America. It grows in moist woods, thickets, and along stream banks. It has red brown bark, flat-topped white flowers, and grooved branches. Black haw possesses edible red berries typically ripen in August. Its berries can be eaten or made into jams or preserves. During the pre-Civil War days in America, the black haw was believed to boost fertility. It is also said that Black haw tea has been drunk by slave women (at the behest of slave owners) to increase their ability to bear more children. Most of the health properties of this plant are derived from its bark. Black haw tea is the resulting beverage from brewing the abovementioned plant. Black Haw Tea brewing To make Black haw tea:
  • Boil two teaspoonfuls of dried Black haw bark in a cup of water (Bring water to a gentle boil).
  • Allowed it to simmer for ten minutes and then cool it and strain it.
The Black haw tea can be taken twice a day during the treatment period. Black Haw Tea benefits Black haw tea has been successfully used to:
  • help in alleviating symptoms of menopause and menstrual cramps in women
  • help prevent a miscarriage in women
  • alleviate labor pains
  • help in easing uterine disorders in women
  • help in the treatment of migraine headaches
  • help lower blood pressure
Black Haw Tea side effects Black haw tea is not recommended to pregnant and nursing women until further studies are conducted. Black haw tea is a medicinal beverage used for years to induce fertility and to alleviate labor pains, but not only.... black haw tea for the use of women

Cold-weather Itch

Cold-weather itch is a common form of itchiness that occurs in cold weather. It is characterised by slight dryness of the skin, and is particularly troublesome in the legs of old people. The dryness may be accompanied by some mild in?ammation of the skin. Treatment is by the application of emollients such as aqueous cream or zinc ointment.... cold-weather itch

Buxus Wallichiana


Synonym: B. sempervirens Linn.

Family: Buxaceae.

Habitat: The Western and Central Himalayas and Punjab.

English: Himalayan Boxwood tree.

Folk: Chikri, Shamshaad. Paapari (Garhwal).

Action: Wood—diaphoretic. Bark— febrifuge. Leaves—purgative, diaphoretic; used in rheumatism. Poisonous. Not a safe drug for "purifying blood". Symptoms of poisoning are severe—abdominal pain, vomiting, convulsions and death.

The mixture of alkaloids is referred to as buxine. Buxenine-G is cytotoxic.

There is preliminary evidence that a specific Boxwood leaf extract (SVP 30) might delay disease progression in HIV-infected patients. The extract is available through internet sources or AIDS Buyers' Clubs. (Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, 2007.)... buxus wallichiana

Community Health Worker

A trained health worker who works with other health and development workers as a team. The community health worker provides the first contact between the individual and the health system. The types of community health worker vary between countries and communities according to their needs and the resources available to meet them. In many societies, these workers come from and are chosen by the community in which they work. In some countries they work as volunteers; normally those who work part-time or full-time are rewarded, in cash or in kind, by the community and the formal health services.... community health worker

Cordia Wallichii

G. Don.

Synonym: C. oblique Willd. var. wallichii.

Family: Boraginaceae.

Habitat: Gujarat, North Kanara and Deccan.

English: Sebestan (bigger var.).

Ayurvedic: Shleshmaataka (bigger var.), Uddaalaka, Bahu- vaaraka.

Siddha/Tamil: Perunaruvili.

Folk: Gondi.

Action: Fruit—astringent, demulcent, expectorant. See C. myxa.... cordia wallichii

Cotton Wool

Cotton wool, or absorbent cotton as it is now technically named by the British Pharmacopoeia, is a downy material made from the hairs on cotton plant seeds (Gossypium herbaceum). It is used in medicine in wound-dressing packs, skin-cleaning procedures, etc.... cotton wool

Delta Waves

Abnormal electrical waves observed in the electroencephalogram (see ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY (EEG)). The frequency of the normal alpha waves is 10 per second; that of the delta waves is 7 or fewer per second. They occur in the region of tumours of the brain, and in the brains of patients with EPILEPSY.... delta waves

Drop Wrist

This is the inability to extend the hand at the wrist. It is usually due to damage to the radial nerve which supplies the extensor muscles.... drop wrist

Fire Weed

The colloquial term for Lytocarpus philippinus.... fire weed

Fuzzy Weed

Love, Hunting... fuzzy weed

Geranium Wallichianum

D. Don ex Sweet.

Family: Geraniaceae.

Habitat: Western Himalayas from Kashmir to Kumaon at 2,3503,700 m.

English: Wallich Crane's Bill.

Ayurvedic: Ratanjot (substitute).

Folk: Laal Jadi, Laal Jahri. Kaoashund (Kashmir).

Action: Astringent.

The root stocks sometimes substituted for those of Coptis teeta Wall.; contain 25-32% tannins and 18% nontannins.... geranium wallichianum

Goat Weed

Goat weed helps enhance both blood testosterone and sperm production in animals. In human men, this herb is known to promote both sperm production and the male sex drive. It also helps in some cases of impotence. In women, this herb helps ease fatigue and postmenopausal hypertension.... goat weed

Joe-pye Weed

Love, Respect... joe-pye weed

Key Worker

A person with defined responsibility towards a specific service user, usually with responsibility for service provision and the monitoring of care. Usually the first point of contact for an individual.... key worker

Lilium Wallichianum

Schutt. f.

Family: Liliaceae.

Habitat: Western Himalayas, Nepal, Lushai hills, Manipur and hills of South India at altitudes of 3002,400 m.... lilium wallichianum

Master Wort

Strength, Courage, Protection ... master wort

Medical Dictionary

Medical Dictionary

[catlist id=11 numberposts=100 pagination=yes instance=2 orderby=title order=asc]

... medical dictionary

Nodular Worms

Nematodes which live in nodules in the wall of the large intestine. Belong to the genus Oesophagostomum. Infect a range of mammal species including humans.... nodular worms

Discover The Teas For Breastfeeding Women

It is well-known that tea should be avoided both during and after pregnancy. After you give birth, the tea you drink can affect the baby through breastfeeding. This is why you should be careful with the types of tea you drink if you are breastfeeding. Check teas for breastfeeding women Herbal teas are mostly considered safe for women who are breastfeeding. Still, there are some things you need to be careful with and check, before you start drinking an herbal tea while nursing. Make sure the herbal tea you drink does not contain caffeine. While it might not affect you, the caffeine found in tea can affect the baby. Also check if the herbal tea contains plants you are allergic to. It is not the baby you have to worry about in this case, but your own health, as it could prove to be harmful for you. It is best to speak with your doctor as well, before you drink a type of tea, even herbal ones. Check to see if the tea you have chosen is safe to take when you are breastfeeding, or if it does not decrease the breast milk supply. Make sure you choose the proper tea for breastfeeding. Teas for breastfeeding women There are many herbal teas which are recommended for breastfeeding women. Most of them help increase the breast milk supply. Organic mother’s milk tea is known to be useful, because of its ingredients (fennel, aniseed, and coriander help with the milk supply). Other herbal teas include raspberry leaf tea, nettle tea, or alfalfa tea. Also, you can drink blessed thistle tea and fennel tea in small amounts. Chamomile tea can also be consumed if you are breastfeeding. It will help you relax and have a peaceful sleep. Motherwort tea also helps you relax, as well as reduces the risk of getting post partum depression. Ginger tea can help with an upset stomach, as well as increase blood circulation. Teas you should avoid while breastfeeding During nursing periods, you should not drink teas that contain caffeine. This means you should avoid teas made from the Camellia Sinensis plant: white tea, black tea, green tea, and oolong tea. There are several types of tea which can reduce your breast milk supply. These include oregano tea, sage tea, spearmint tea, peppermint tea, borage tea, comfrey tea, yarrow tea, chickweed tea, parsley tea or thyme tea. Make sure you do not consume any of these teas while breastfeeding. Topically applied teas for breastfeeding Teas can be used topically, as well. There are some which help during breastfeeding periods when they are applied on the skin. Partridge tea can help in this way. When applied topically, it relieves the soreness you might get from breastfeeding. The tea you drink can affect both you and the baby even during nursing. Because of this, make sure you check to see if what you are drinking is safe. Choose one of these teas for breastfeeding and you will not have to worry about any side effects!... discover the teas for breastfeeding women

Ginger, Wild

Asarum canadense. N.O. Aristolochiaceae.

Synonym: Canadian Snake Root.

Habitat: Woods and shady places in North America.

Features ? Imported rhizome, slender, about four inches long by one-eighth inch thick, quadrangular, greyish to purplish brown, wrinkled ; fracture short; rootlets whitish. Pungent, bitter taste.

Part used ? Rhizome.

Action: Stimulant, carminative, expectorant, diaphoretic.

As a carminative in digestive and intestinal pains, and as a stimulant in colds and amenorrhea resulting therefrom. An infusion of 1/2 ounce of the powdered rhizome to 1 pint boiling water is taken hot for stimulative purposes, and blood warm as a carminative. Dose of the dry powder, 20 to 30 grains.

Practitioners of the American Physio-Medical School hold that this root exerts a direct influence upon the uterus, and prescribe it as a parturient when nervous fatigue is observed.... ginger, wild

Hard Water

The term applied to water that contains a large amount of calcium and magnesium salts (lime salts). These form an insoluble curd with soap and thus interfere with the use of the water for washing. Hard water is especially found in districts where the soil is chalky. Temporary hardness, which is due mainly to the presence of bicarbonates of lime, can be remedied by boiling, when the lime is precipitated as carbonate of lime. Permanent hardness is not remedied by boiling, and is due to the presence of a large amount of sulphate of lime. It may be removed by the addition of sodium carbonate (washing soda) or by the Permutit process which involves the use of various combinations of silicate of alumina and soda. In the past, hard water was often blamed for many ills – without any convincing evidence. Epidemiologists suggest that drinking soft water may lead to a greater risk of heart disease.... hard water

Plot Weed

Protection... plot weed

Rheum Webbianum


Habitat: Western Himalayas. Folk: Archa.

Action: Antispasmodic, muscle relaxant, antiseptic.

The rhizomes contain desoxyrha- pontigenin. The compound, like papaverine, exhibited smooth muscle relaxant activity in a wide variety of in vitro and in vivo tests. Aqueous alcoholic extract showed papaverine-like non-specific spasmolytic activity.

The paste of fresh rhizomes is applied on burns, blisters and boils to prevent scar formation.... rheum webbianum


A useful diluent drink for invalids, similar to barley-water.... rice-water

Rosa Webbiana


Family: Rosaceae.

Habitat: Dry and inner Himalayas from Kashmir to Kumaon at altitudes of 900-4,000 m.

Ayurvedic: Laddaakhi-Sevati. (Flowers— pink or deep red, fruit— red.)... rosa webbiana

Social Work

An intervention designed to enhance an individual’s physical, mental and social functioning through improved coping skills and use of social supports and community health care services. Those who practise social work are generally called social workers. There are many different types, specialties and grades of social worker. Those who specialize in care of older adults are often called geriatric or gerontological social workers.... social work

Drink Tea For Weight Loss

If you’ve decided to go on a diet in order to lose weight, you have to be careful with what you drink and eat. Sodas and some juices are a definite no, and while you can drink water all the time, it might get a bit dull. If you want to try something different, and especially pleasant to the taste, tea’s the best choice. Find out more about the perfect teas for weight loss. Benefits of tea for weight loss If you drink your tea simple, without sugar, then you’ll enjoy a hot beverage with 0 calories. This at least prevents you from gaining weight. However, based on the effect one type of tea may have on the digestive system, drinking tea can even help you lose weight. From green tea to oolong tea, each has its own health benefits which help you when you’re on a diet. Types of tea for weight loss First of all, green tea is perfect when you’re on a diet. Among its active constituents, green tea has catechin polyphenols, which is quite useful when you want to lose weight. Thanks to this, drinking green tea will increase thermogenesis (the amount of calories which are burned) and fat oxidation. You can drink 4-5 cups of tea a day. Oolong tea is also helpful if you’re on a diet. It even has a stronger effect than green tea, by speeding up the body’s metabolism and promoting fat burning. If you include it in your diet, don’t drink more than two cups a day. Peppermint tea is included on the list of teas you can drink while on a diet. Besides the fact that it promotes a good digestion, it helps you burn calories as it speeds up the digestive process. Other teas that help you lose weight include star anise tea, rose petal tea, as well as various types of herbal teas. Tea Steeping Time Steeping time varies from one type of tea to another. If you use teabags, follow the instructions written on the box. If you use dried leaves to make your tea for weight loss, then here are a few steeping instructions. If you’re drinking green tea, it’s best that you let it steep for about 3 minutes. Steeping time for oolong tea can vary from one minute to 5, based on how strong you want the tea’s flavor to be. And as for peppermint tea, you should let it steep for about 4-5 minutes. Tips to sweeten your diet tea If you want to sweeten your tea even when on a diet, you mustn’t use sugar or milk, even if you like those the best. While they won’t add weight, they also won’t help you lose it. The best solution, in this case, is for you to use honey. Other things you can use to sweeten it are fruit juices (especially lemon juice) and stevia leaves. Based on your preferences and the taste of the tea you choose, you can even combine them. Caffeine in tea and weight loss The caffeine found in various types of tea also helps you lose weight. Caffeine acts as a stimulant; therefore it gives you more energy. The more energetic you feel, the more you’re bound to exercise in order to burn more fats. Also, as it acts as a stimulant, it can help reduce your appetite. Caffeine might not be the only stimulant you’ll find in teas. Other stimulants include ginseng, taurine, and guarnine. Side effects related to weight loss tea People who know coffee doesn’t do them good should be careful with teas that contain caffeine. It can cause unpleasant side effects, such as insomnia, anxiety, headache, dizziness, irritability, blurred vision and skin rashes. When you combine your diet tea with a different alimentation and exercising, the side effects might become more unpleasant. Also, make sure you check the amount of tea that’s recommended for drinking. You can have 4-5 cups of green tea per day, while in the case of oolong tea, it is advised that you drink two cups. The amount varies from one tea to another. Now, drinking tea for weight loss sounds like a tempting idea. Considering how helpful tea can be when you’re trying to lose weight, make sure you pick one when you go on a diet.... drink tea for weight loss

Hazelnut Or Wild Filbert

Corylus species

Description: Hazelnuts grow on bushes 1.8 to 3.6 meters high. One species in Turkey and another in China are large trees. The nut itself grows in a very bristly husk that conspicuously contracts above the nut into a long neck. The different species vary in this respect as to size and shape.

Habitat and Distribution: Hazelnuts are found over wide areas in the United States, especially the eastern half of the country and along the Pacific coast. These nuts are also found in Europe where they are known as filberts. The hazelnut is common in Asia, especially in eastern Asia from the Himalayas to China and Japan. The hazelnut usually grows in the dense thickets along stream banks and open places. They are not plants of the dense forest.

Edible Parts: Hazelnuts ripen in the autumn when you can crack them open and eat the kernel. The dried nut is extremely delicious. The nut’s high oil content makes it a good survival food. In the unripe stage, you can crack them open and eat the fresh kernel.... hazelnut or wild filbert

Sorrel Wood

Healing, Health... sorrel wood

Southern Wood

Love, Lust, Protection... southern wood

St.johns Wort

Health, Power, Protection, Strength, Love, Divination, Happiness... st.johns wort

Stomach Washout

See GASTRIC LAVAGE.... stomach washout

Venereal Warts

Caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) and also known as condylomata acuminata, anal warts, and genital warts. It is nearly always transmitted from person to person by sexual contact, can increase the risk for women of cervical cancer, and occurs in near epidemic proportions in sexually active teenage women.... venereal warts

Von Willebrand’s Disease

A genetically determined blood disorder in which the affected person suffers episodes of spontaneous bleeding similar to that occurring in people with HAEMOPHILIA. It may be associated with a lack of FACTOR VIII (see COAGULATION) in the blood. The disorder is inherited as an autosomal dominant gene (see GENETIC DISORDERS).... von willebrand’s disease


(English) To cross the river ford Wayde, Waid, Waide, Waddell, Wadell, Waydell, Waidell, Waed, Waede... wade

Osyris Wightiana

Wall. ex Wight.

Synonym: O. arborea Wall. ex DC. O. quadriparita Salzm. ex Decne.

Family: Santalaceae.

Habitat: Sub-tropical Himalaya, Madhya Pradesh, Tamil Nadu.

Folk: Popli (Maharashtra); Paral (Karnataka, Tamil Nadu); Jhuri (Nepal); Dalmi, Dalmia (Garhwal, Kumaon).

Action: Leaf—emetic.

The leaf contains 20% tannin. It gave cis-4-hydroxy-L-proline, and exhibited antiviral activity.

The heartwood is faintly fragrant and reported to be used for adulterating sandalwood.... osyris wightiana


Parietaria officinalis. N.O. Urticaceae.

Habitat: Old walls.

Features ? Up to two feet high, stem reddish, brittle, angular, rather hairy. Leaves alternate, stalked, lanceolate, edges smooth, one to two inches long by half an inch to one inch broad. Numerous pink flowers (June and July), small, axillar.

Part used ? Herb.

Action: Diuretic, laxative.

Gravel, suppression of urine, and other bladder and kidney disorders. Frequently prescribed in combination with Wild Carrot and Parsley Piert. Wineglass doses of the infusion of 1 ounce to 1 pint boiling water.... pellitory-of-the-wall

Piper Wallichii


Synonym: P aurantiacum Wall ex DC.

Family: Piperaceae.

Habitat: Nepal, Lakhimpur and Khasi Hills in Assam.

Ayurvedic: Wrongly equated with Sambhaaluka. (Sambhaalu has been identified as Vitex negundo.) Renukaa is also a wrong synonym (it is equated with the seed of Vitex agnus-castus).

Siddha/Tamil: Kaattu-milagu.

Action: Fruits—used as uterine stimulant.

The fruit contain piperine, piperet- tine and sylvatine, besides beta-sitos- terol. The seeds gave aurantiamide, its acetate and auranamide.

The fraction, containing alkaloids, showed oxytocic activity. The lignin constituents inhibited platelet aggregation caused by platelet-activating factor.... piper wallichii

Pregnancy Calendar - Week 4 Of Your Pregnancy

4 weeks pregnancy

"Pregnancy calendar" at 4th week: A miracle begins! Your baby, now consisting of a cell stack, is clinging to the walls of your uterus and starting to grow rapidly. Early pregnancy in this period, for example, nausea in pregnancy is extremely normal. Birth is a beautiful yet remote dream.

Your baby in 4 weeks pregnancy

Your baby is a seed of poppy seeds. By the end of the week your baby will be about 1 mm long. Once the fertilized egg is placed on the side of your uterus, it divides into cell layers and becomes an embryo from official care. These cells turn into the body of your baby during pregnancy, forming the nervous system, skeleton, muscles and organs.

Support system in formation

The disc-like organ, which connects your body systems to the baby's systems, begins to form and attaches to the uterine wall where the egg is placed. The umbilical cord comes out of one of the placenta. Amniotic fluid, which will stretch your baby during pregnancy, has begun to form in a circumscribing membrane sac.

Your 4th week pregnancy

As the fertilized egg gets into your uterus, you may experience some bleeding. This is known as implantation hemorrhage and is completely normal.

The results came

Thanks to the brand-new placenta-attacked hCG hormone and a pregnancy test at home after the first period you missed, you will get a positive result, but false negative results can also be seen. This hormone is the greatest cause of nausea or morning sickness that many pregnant women experience in the first three months. If you are not pregnant, but your pregnancy test at home is negative, you may need a doctor.... pregnancy calendar - week 4 of your pregnancy

Pregnancy Calendar - Week 5 Of Your Pregnancy

5-week pregnancy

"Pregnancy calendar" at week 5: Your baby's brain is developing. You may feel fears about pregnancy and birth during this period. These emotional fluctuations are normal, do not worry at all!

Baby for 5 weeks gestation

Your baby, between 1 and 2.5 mm, is a small orange seed.

Installation ready

The placenta and the umbilical cord that begins to form have begun to work to transfer the necessary nutrients from your body to the body of the baby. Oxygen, amino acids, fats and sugars all play a critical role in a healthy development.

Some basics

Some of Baby's cells turn into a nerve pathway that will form the backbone and brain. An incorrectly formed nerve pathway can lead to a complication called "discrete spine", a condition in which the spinal cord is not completely closed. Your best weapon against spinal cord birth defects is to take at least 400 micrograms of folic acid every day.

Heart start

The heart is now a single tube with a few irregular shots. With each passing week these shots will become more regular.

Your 5th week pregnancy

Emotional ocean

You may be very happy because you are pregnant, worried about everything being normal, fearful about birth, or not being sure of yourself as a mothers of mothers. Do not worry about it! All of these feelings are completely normal. By weekly calculation of pregnancy and birth calculation, keep your head busy dreaming about the birth of your baby.

Careful maintenance

At this stage of the pregnancy period, menstrual cramps and back pain are common. Take a break by taking a warm bath, listening to soothing music or taking a nap. Watch your food and if you have not done so, stop smoking, drinking alcohol or taking medication. All of this is harmful to your baby.... pregnancy calendar - week 5 of your pregnancy


(Arabic) One who is faithful; devoted Wafah, Wafaa, Waffa, Wapha, Waffah, Waphah... wafa


(Arabic) A successful woman Wafiqa, Wafiqaa, Wafeeqah, Wafeeqa, Wafyqa, Wafyqah, Wafieqa, Wafieqah, Wafeiqa, Wafeiqah... wafiqah


(African) My sense of value; my price

Wagay, Wagai, Wagae... wagaye


(Arabic) The generous one; a giver

Wahiba, Waheeba, Wahyba, Waheebah, Wahybah, Wahieba, Wahiebah, Waheiba, Waheibah, Waheaba, Waheabah, Wabibah, Wabibah, Wabyba, Wabybah, Wabeeba, Wabeebah, Wabeiba, Wabeibah, Wabieba, Wabiebah, Wabeaba, Wabeabah... wahibah

Rhamnus Wightii

Wight & Arn.

Family: Rhamnaceae.

Habitat: Hills of Peninsular India, up to an altitude of 2,000 m.

Ayurvedic: Rakta-Rohidaa (a name applied to several other astringent herbs).

Action: Bark—bitter, astringent and deobstruent.

The leaves gave chrysophanol, phys- cion, musizin, lupeol, rhamnazin, rhamnocitrin, emodin, frangulin A and beta-sitosterol. A naphthalene- glucoside lactone—beta-sorigenin-1- O-beta-D-glucoside has been isolated from the stem bark. Cynodontin, chrysophanol, physcion, musizin, lu- peol, emodin, beta-syriogenin, beta- sitosterol and its glucoside were also isolated.... rhamnus wightii

Schima Wallichii

(DC.) Korth., Choicy.

Family: Theaceae.

Habitat: Eastern Himalayas from Nepal eastwards to Assam, Khasi Hills and Manipur up to 2,100 m.

English: Chilauni Needle Wood.

Folk: Chilauni. Makria (Assam).

Action: Stem bark—anthelmintic (used for tapeworms), rubefacient. Aerial parts—antifungal.

The plant contains octacosanol, phy- tol, alpha-spinasterol and a saponin, schiwallin. Schiwallin is antidermato- phytic.

The bark and leaves contain 6% and 4% tannin, respectively.... schima wallichii

Spatterdock Or Yellow Water Lily

Nuphar species

Description: This plant has leaves up to 60 centimeters long with a triangular notch at the base. The shape of the leaves is somewhat variable. The plant’s yellow flowers are 2.5 centimeter across and develop into bottle-shaped fruits. The fruits are green when ripe.

Habitat and Distribution: These plants grow throughout most of North America. They are found in quiet, fresh, shallow water (never deeper than 1.8 meters).

Edible Parts: All parts of the plant are edible. The fruits contain several dark brown seeds you can parch or roast and then grind into flour. The large rootstock contains starch. Dig it out of the mud, peel off the outside, and boil the flesh. Sometimes the rootstock contains large quantities of a very bitter compound. Boiling in several changes of water may remove the bitterness.... spatterdock or yellow water lily

St. John`s Wort Tea

St. John’s Wort Tea is an herb that makes serotonin (the happiness substance) to remain active in the brain for an extensive period of time. It is used today in the fight against depressions and sleep problems. Description of St. John’s wort tea St. John’s Wort Tea is a perennial plant that grows throughout North America, Europe, India, China and Brazil. It has bright yellow star-shaped flowers. St. John Wort Tea is a renowned herb used as a natural anti-depressant all around the world. The Greeks used to soak the plant into wine before drinking it to cast away evil spirits. Nowadays we see these dangerous spirits in serious headaches and acute depressions. Benefits of St. John’s Wort Tea St. John’s Wort Tea can be used as a treatment in mild to moderate depression according to British Medical Journal. In the herbalist’s pharmacy St. John Wort Tea was considered a very strong herbal sedative and it was used in accordance with the patient’s own suffering.   St John’s Wort tea has minimal or no effects beyond placebo in the treatment of major depression according to National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM). Recently scientists discovered that St. John’s Wort Tea has antiviral and antibacterial properties. Risks of St. John’s Wort Tea St. John’s Wort Tea shouldn’t be mixed with other antidepressants because they cancel each other. If you get an unexpected rash, a headache or even nausea you should call you doctor at once. Side effects of John’s Wort Tea The side effects that St. Jonh’s Wort Tea can have, similar to placebos, are: gastrointestinal symptoms, sedation, tiredness, confusion or dizziness. It can also increase a sensibility to light and to sunburns. Preparation of St. John’e Wort Tea You can find St. John’s Wort Tea in ready made tea bags and loose leaf teas. Put one teaspoon in a cup of boiling water, let it steep for almost 5 minutes, strain and serve preferably hot with honey or sugar. St. John Wort Tea is a great medicine for depressions, it offers you a sense of well being, brings more peace into your life and it relaxes your mind. Drink a cup of St. John wort tea and forget about your nightmares.... st. john`s wort tea


(Arabic) Feminine form of Wahid; unique; one and only Wahida, Waheeda, Wahyda, Waheedah, Waydah, Wahieda, Wahiedah, Waheida, Waheidah, Waheada, Waheadah... wahidah


(Arabic) Lady-in-waiting; servant Wahifa, Waheefa, Wahyfa, Waheefah, Wahyfah, Waheifa, Waheifah, Wahiefa, Wahiefah, Waheafa, Waheafah... wahifah


Hex-breaking, Courage, Success... wahoo


(Hawaiian) Of the beautiful waters Wainanie, Wainany, Wainaney, Wainanee, Wainanea, Wainaneah... wainani


(Arabic) One who is distinguished; eminent

Wajiha, Wajeeha, Wajyha, Wajeehah, Wajyhah, Wajieha, Wajiehah, Wajeiha, Wajeihah, Wajeaha, Wajeahah... wajihah


(Japanese) A thriving woman Wakanah, Wakanna, Wakannah... wakana

Spearmint Tea Wonderful Benefits

Spearmint Tea is best known for treating excessive body hair or hirsutism, but its benefits involve other areas too. Spearmint looks a lot like peppermint: it has dark green leaves and pale purple flowers. It grows almost everywhere around the worlds and it’s used not only as a medicinal plant, but also as an important ingredient of the international cuisine. Its leaves, flowers and roots are not poisonous, so feel free to use any parts you like. Spearmint tea is probably the most popular tea in the world, not only for its health benefits, but also for its wonderful taste and strong fragrance. Properties of Spearmint Tea Spearmint Tea is not just some randomly boiled water: it contains vitamins and minerals, it’s rich in potassium, niacin, calcium, copper, iron, magnesium and manganese. And the good news is that it’s caffeine free and low in calories, which makes Spearmint Tea a great help in any type of diet. Spearmint Tea Benefits Spearmint Tea is a great remedy for gastrointestinal problems, hirsutism, asthma, digestion, cold and flu. If you suffer from irritable bowel, the soothing properties of this tea may come in hand. Also, the oil made from Spearmint could help with other stomach problems or digestive system conditions. Thanks to its strong fragrance, Spearmint tea can calm your throat pain and clear your stuffy nose at the same time. Also, the rosmarinic acid found in spearmint is used in asthma treatments, giving patients relief by blocking the production of proinflammatory substances (leukotrienes). Spearmint Tea also cures nausea, helps with digestion and treats acne, stomach ache and morning sickness during pregnancy. How to prepare Spearmint Tea First, you need Spearmint leaves or flowers. It doesn’t matter which or if you’re combining them when you’re making Spearmint Tea. Few people like to use the roots, even if the benefits are the same, except for the fact that these have a milder fragrance. You can either boil them for 10-15 minutes depending on the amount of water or make an infusion. Drink as much Spearmint tea as you want, but not more than 6 cups per day. Spearmint Tea Side Effects Spearmint Tea side effects are almost nonexistent; many people who give up coffee use it as a very convenient substitute. However, drinking too much Spearmint Tea may cause diarrhea. Other than that, feel free to try it anytime you want. If you’re thinking about giving up on drinking coffee or you just have a cold, Spearmint Tea is your answer! Spearmint Tea in Cosmetic Treatment Spearmint Tea has been used since ancient times as a face cleanser and its volatile substances have always been at the pick of the cosmetic industry. Even if you are buying the spearmint from the market or pick the leaves from your garden, a Spearmint Tea infusion will open your pores and make your face look healthy and shiny. You don’t need to choose between this or that product when it comes to beauty: give Spearmint Tea a chance and embrace the organic benefits of this wonderful herb! So, if you’re thinking about giving up on drinking coffee or you just have a cold, Spearmint Tea and its wonderful benefits should not be ignored. Give it a try next time you are looking for natural health remedies!... spearmint tea wonderful benefits

Sweet Woodruff Tea Benefits

Sweet  Woodruff Tea it’s a perfect treatment for digestive and liver problems. It strengthens your heart and gives you an overall feeling of calmness and relief. Description of Woodruff Tea Sweet Woodruff Tea comes from a perennial plant known in botanical terms as Galium odorata asperula. The plant grows in shady areas and is spread all over Europe and Middle East. It is related to coffee and henna, bears small white funnel shaped flowers and has a vanilla-like aroma. If crushed or wilted, it releases a very sweet scent similar to fresh hay. The plant contains coumarins, flavonoids, vitamins A, C and K, acids and asperulin. Sweet Woodruff Tea Benefits Sweet Woodruff Tea provides lots of benefits since Middle Ages. Then it was used as a calmative, diuretic and antispasmodic treatment and people believed it can fight jaundice and regulate heart activity. When Benedictine monks created their own wine they used woodruff to flavor it. Its fresh leaves were applied on wounds and tea was a common use to ease stomach cramps. It is also used today to sooth any intestinal discomfort. Moreover, Sweet Woodruff Tea is drank to combat headaches or migraines. It is recognized as a good treatment in liver diseases and kidney stone. It can be mixed with wine or other alcoholic beverage to relax the body and prepare it for a goodnight sleep. Because of  ( Aici as schimba cu “Thanks to”, pentru vorbesti de ceva pozitiv) its wonderful scent, the plant can be used to refresh your room, perfume your clothes or linen. Sweet Woodruff Tea Side Effects Although Sweet Woodruff Tea usually does lots of good, it can also bring some side effects if drank in large quantities. It can produce dizziness, vomiting, and symptoms of poisoning. Pregnant women should not drink this tea or be used in conventional medicine for circulatory issues. Preparation of Sweet Woodruff Tea Pour 1 cup of boiling water over 1 bag of Woodruff Tea. Steep for 5 minutes and strain. Preferably, drink 2 to 3 cups a day and it’s no need to sweeten it, because of (thanks to) its great aroma. Sweet Woodruff Tea valued for centuries for its tonic, diuretic and anti-inflammatory effects can bring a positive change in your life. Drink this extraordinary tea and put a smile of your face.... sweet woodruff tea benefits


(Native American) One who possesses magical powers Wakandah, Wakenda, Wakinda, Wakynda... wakanda


(American) A feisty woman Wakeene, Wakien, Wakiene, Wakein, Wakein, Wakean, Wakeane... wakeen


(American) Filled with happiness Wakeisha, Wakieshah, Wakiesha, Wakesha, Wakeshah, Wakeesha, Wakeeshah, Wakysha, Wakyshah, Wakeasha, Wakeashah... wakeishah


(Native American) A place of protection Wakie, Waky, Wakey, Wakee, Wakeah, Wakea... waki


(German) Ruler of the fortress; protection

Walburgah, Walburgha, Walborgd, Waldhurga, Walba, Walda, Welda... walburga


(German) One who has fame and power

Waldah, Wallda, Walida, Waldine, Waldina, Waldyne, Waldyna, Welda, Wellda, Waldeana... walda

Tea For Water Retention

Water retention or Edema is an affection which is more commonly found in the legs and hands due to gravity. Generally, water retention makes your organs grow bigger and decrease their action. The swelling may affect the entire body or just a part of it (lungs, kidney, hands and feet) within days or month- a relatively short amount of time. This affection is caused by flu, cold or by overexposing your body to very low temperatures. How a Tea for Water Retention Works A Tea for Water Retention’s main purpose is to eliminate the surplus of water and heal the affected areas. Traditional medicine has developed some very effective drug combinations during the past years, but alternative medicine fans think that herbal treatments remain the real deal and that there’s no reason to stress out your liver. Efficient Tea for Water Retention When choosing a Tea for Water Retention, you must keep in mind the fact that this must be both very effective (contains a large amount of active constituents) and safe (water retention is an affection which takes time to heal so you don’t want anything to interfere with your treatment). If you don’t know which teas to choose from, here’s a list to give you a hand: - Green Tea – contains the right amount of active ingredients capable to flush all water out of your system and calm the affected areas. Don’t take more than 2 cups per day and don’t take it at all if you are experiencing menstrual or menopausal symptoms in order to avoid stomach ulcerations. - Stinging Nettle Tea – this Tea for Water Retention is a natural purgative and diuretic which is generally used to treat prostate problems. However, this is not one of the safest teas, so may want to check with your doctor before starting an herbal treatment based on it. - Dandelion Tea – the decoction is made from this plant’s roots and it’s well known for its curative properties, which include constipation and urinary tract infections. The Dandelion Tea will help your body get rid of the unnecessary water and improve your general health. - Peppermint Tea – this is one Tea for Water Retention one hundred percent safe! You can also take it to treat ailments of the respiratory and digestive systems, such as cough, flu, colds, pleurisy, pulmonary edema, upset stomach and gastritis. If you’ve decided to give up coffee, peppermint tea is a great alternative! Tea for Water Retention Side Effects When taken properly, these teas are generally safe. However, don’t exceed the number of cups in order to avoid digestive tract problems, such as diarrhea (some of these teas have a powerful diuretic effect), ulcers, uterine contractions or vomiting. If you’ve been taking one of these teas for a while and you’ve noticed some unusual reactions, ask for medical help as soon as possible! Don’t take a Tea for Water Retention if you’re pregnant, breastfeeding, on blood thinners, anti-coagulants or preparing for a surgery. Due to their purgative action, some of these teas can lead to miscarriage. If you have your doctor’s approval and there’s nothing that could interfere with your treatment, choose a tea that fits you best and enjoy its wonderful benefits!... tea for water retention

Ulmus Wallichiana


Family: Ulmaceae.

Habitat: The North Western Himalayas.

English: Himalayan Elm. Slippery Elm is equated with Ulmus fulva.

Folk: Hemar, Kitamaara.

Action: Bark—astringent, demulcent, emollient, expectorant, diuretic.

The bark contains 0.76% tannins. Ulmus fulva Michx, though known as Indian or Sweet Elm, is an American plant and does not occur in India.

Powdered bark of Ulmus fulva gives a mucilage, composed of galactose, 3- methyl galactose, rhamnose and galac- turonic acid residues. As a gruel it is prescribed for patients with gastric or duodenal ulcers. Coarse powdered bark is applied as poultice to burns and skin eruptions.

The mucilages cause reflex stimulation of nerve endings in the GI tract and lead to mucous secretion which protects the GI tract against ulceration and excess acidity. (Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, 2007.)... ulmus wallichiana

Valeriana Wallichii


Synonym: V. jatamansi Jones. Nardostachys jatamansi (Jones) DC.

Family: Valerianaceae.

Habitat: Temperate Himalayas from Kashmir to Bhutan, above 3,000 m, and Khasia Hills.

English: Indian Valerian.

Ayurvedic: Tagara, Sugandhabaalaa, Kaalaanusaari, Kaalaanusaarikaa, Nata. (Delphinum brunonianum Royle, Ranunculaceae, syn. Kutila, Nata, Vakra, is also used as Tagara.)

Unani: Asaarun, Tagar Reshewaalaa.

Siddha: Tagarai.

Folk: Taggar, Baalaka, Mushkbaalaa, Asaarun, Tagar-ganthodaa.

Action: Rhizomes and roots— used as a substitute for Valeriana officinalis; prescribed as a remedy for hysteria, nervous unrest and emotional troubles, and as a sedative.

Rhizomes and roots contain cyclop entapyrans, acacetin-7-O-rutino- sides, valtrate, didrovaltrate, linarin iso-valerinate, valepotriates and an iri- doid ester glycoside, valerosidatum. Cyclopentapyrans exhibit sedative, tranquilizing and bacteriocidal properties.

Valtrate and didrovaltrate were cy- totoxic to hepatoma cells in culture and inhibited synthesis of DNA and protein in tumor cells.

Root—spasmolytic. Essential oil— antibacterial. (Indian Valerian oils are considered poor as compared to those of V. officinalis oils.) The essential oil from roots contains calarene, beta- bargamotene, valeranone, ar-curcu- mene, maalioxide and maalitol. Main acids present are isovaleric acid and (+)-beta-methyl valeric acid.

Valeriana jatamansi auct. non Jones, synonyms Nardostachys grandiflora DC. and N. jatamansi DC. is equated with Indian Spikenard, Musk-Root and Jataamaansi.

Dosage: Rhizome—1-3 g powder. (API, Vol. I.)... valeriana wallichii


(Polish) A sweet woman Waleriah, Walerea, Walereah, Waleriya, Waleriyah... waleria


(Arabic) Newly born child Walida, Walyda, Waleeda, Walada, Walad, Waleedah, Walydah, Waleida, Waleidah, Walieda, Waliedah, Waleada, Waleadah... walidah

Wagatea Spicata


Family: Caesalpiniaceae.

Habitat: Western Ghats.

Ayurvedic: Guchh-karanja.

Siddha: Okkadi-kodi, Pulinakk- agondai.

Folk: Vaakeri (Maharashtra). Caesalpinia digyna Rottl. is also known as Vaakeri.

Action: Roots—used in pneumonia. Bark—used externally in skin diseases.

The root contains vakerin. Vakerin did not inhibit the stimulating effect of histamine and acetylcholine.

Pods contain considerable quantity of tannic acid.... wagatea spicata

Wahlenbergia Marginata

(Thunb.) A. DC.

Synonym: W. gracilis Schrad.

Family: Campanulaceae.

Habitat: Native to South Africa; occurring throughout India.

Folk: Tosad kesari, Dudma Saaga.

Action: Root—used in pulmonary infections. Herb—used externally for strengthening the loose teeth, also for skin diseases.

The flower contains delphinidin- chloride-3, 5-diglucoside. The roots contain glucose, sucrose, methyl 9, 12-octadecadienoate, beta-sitosterol, beta-sitosterol glucoside and lupenone.... wahlenbergia marginata


(Arabic) A holy lady; saint Waliyyah, Waliya, Waliyah, Waliyyaa, Waliyaa... waliyya


See GAIT.... walk


(English) Walker of the forests Wallker, Walkher... walker


(English) Feminine form of Wallace; from Wales

Walis, Wallise, Walise, Wallys, Wallyse, Walliss, Walice, Wallisa, Wallysa, Waleis... wallis

Walsura Trifoliata

(A. Juss.) Harms.

Synonym: W. piscidia Roxb.

Family: Meliaceae.

Habitat: Karnataka, Western Ghats, Palni and Anaimalai Hills, also western India.

Siddha/Tamil: Cheddavokko, Kanjiram.

Folk: Waalsuuraa.

Action: Bark—stimulant, expectorant, emmenagogue, emetic. Also used to kill vermin in the hair.

The bark contains saponin and tannin.... walsura trifoliata


(African) One who acts as a shield Waltah... walta

Waltheria Indica


Synonym: W. americana Linn.

Family: Sterculiaceae.

Habitat: Tropical regions of India.

Siddha/Tamil: Shembudu.

Folk: Khar-Duudhi (Bengal).

Action: Plant—emollient, bechic, febrifuge, purgative, abortifacient. Root—prescribed in internal haemorrhages.

The plant yields pelargonidin and cyanidin glycoside and apigeninidin. Anthocyanins were also detected. The alkaloid, adouetin-7 sulfamate, induced hypothermia and sedation at low levels and hyperexcitability at high levels.

A decoction of roots possesses anti- syphlitic property.... waltheria indica


(Teutonic) Strong foreign ruler Waltraude, Waltrawd, Waltrawde... waltraud


(African) One who delivers a song; singer Wamboi... wambui


(German) A wanderer Wandah, Wannda, Wahnda, Wonda, Wonnda, Wohnda, Wande, Wandis, Wandy, Wandie, Wandey, Wandee, Wandely, Wandja, Wandzia, Wandea... wanda


(American) From the little tree Wandellah, Wandela, Wandelah... wandella


(Native American) One who changes; a shapeshifter Wanetah, Waneeta, Wanita, Wanneeta, Waneata, Waneita, Wanite, Wanete, Wanneta, Wannete, Waunita, Wonita, Wonyta, Wonnita, Wynita... waneta


(English) A paleskinned woman Wanettah, Wanette, Wannette, Wannetta, Wonetta, Wonette, Wonitta, Wonitte, Wonnyta, Wonnyte, Wann... wanetta


(African) Resembling the leopard Wangarie, Wangarri, Wangary, Wangarey, Wangaria, Wangaree... wangari


(African) Of the bush Wanyikka, Wanyicka, Wanyicca, Wanyica... wanyika


(Native American) One who is skillful; adroit Wapekah... wapeka

Walnut Bark Tea Diarrhea Treatment

Walnut Bark Tea has been known for years thanks to its curative properties. This tea is astringent, purgative, laxative, a good vermifuge and it has many other styptic properties. This tea can be from the leaves of the Walnut Bark tree, also known as juglans regia, that grows almost everywhere, from the south of China to the Balkans. The tree grows up to 25-30 meters long (75-90 feet) and it has a rather short trunk, with a 2 meters diameter (6 feet). It has big green leaves (about 30- 40 cm/ 1-1.3 feet) and yellow flowers that turn into fruits in the fall. The fruits are also green, with a thin brown layer covering the hard seeds. Walnut Bark Tea Properties The main properties of Walnut Bark Tea involve the ability to treat many health conditions, such as gingivitis, mouth infections, bad breath, constipation, cough, inflammation and impotency. Also, the Walnut bark leaves, applied topically, are a great remedy for damaged hair. The entire tree is used in many areas of interest: the wood is considered as being reliable and long lasting, thanks to its vermifuge property, the fruits are a great nutritional source, offering support in almost any type of diet and the seeds are used to treat some affections of the digestive track. Walnut Bark Tea Benefits Aside from its digestive system benefits, Walnut Bark Tea proves to be a good choice when it comes to: - Detoxification and bowel movements, thanks to its acids and amino-acids - Flushing out worms and other parasites out of your system - Diarrhea and dysentery (as an adjuvant to your traditional treatment) - Treating your sore throat, an inflammation in your tonsils or other conditions of the respiratory system - Treating mouth soreness, herpes or some skin conditions, such as eczema or irritation. How to make Walnut Bark Tea Infusion If you want to make Walnut Bark Tea, you’ll need Walnut Bark leaves. You can also use the fruits, but the tea will have a very unpleasant taste (the amino-acids are much more concentrated in the fruits). Use a teaspoon of freshly picked or dried leaves for every cup of tea you want to make, put it in a teapot and add boiling water. Wait for 15-20 minutes (the leaves are quite woody, so they need more time to release their natural benefits), take out the leaves and drink it hot or cold. If you’re thinking about keeping it in your refrigerator, don’t let it stay there for too long. Make a new bottle of tea every 3 or 4 days. Walnut Bark Tea Side Effects When taken properly, Walnut Bark Tea has no side effects. However, taking too much tea can cause rashes, irritated skin and hives. If you’ve been drinking Walnut Bark Tea for a while and are experiencing some of the symptoms mentioned above, see a doctor as soon as possible and don’t try to cure it yourself! Walnut Bark Tea Contraindications If you’re pregnant or breastfeeding, it’s better to avoid taking Walnut Bark Tea. There isn’t enough information that could lead you in the right direction when it comes to these situations. However, keep in mind that Walnut Bark Tea has purgative and laxative properties and these may interfere with your pregnancy. If you still want to start a treatment based on Walnut Bark Tea, talk to your doctor first. If your general health is good, there’s no reason to avoid Walnut Bark Tea. Save yourself a lot of money by treating your bad breath or your mouth soreness at home. Natural remedies, natural health. Try Walnut Bark Tea and enjoy the wonderful benefits of this tea!... walnut bark tea diarrhea treatment


(Arabic) Falling; swooping Waqqi... waqi


(German / Arabic) A guardian / resembling a rose Wardah, Wardia, Wardeh, Wardine, Wardena, Wardenia, Wordah... warda


Person who will call an older person regularly in his or her own home to check on his or her well-being and summon help if necessary.... warden


(American) A caring woman Warm, Warme, Warmia, Warmiah, Warmea, Warmeah... warma


(German) One who defends her loved ones Warnah... warna


(German) Of the defending army Werner, Wernher, Warnher, Worner, Wornher... warner


(Arabic) Feminine form of Waseem; beautiful Waseema, Waseeme, Wasime, Waseme, Wasimah, Wasima, Wasyma... waseemah


Liquid medicinal preparation for external use... wash


(Japanese) Resembling an eagle Washie, Washy, Washey, Washee, Washea, Washeah... washi


See DISINFECTION.... washing

Washing Out Of The Stomach

See GASTRIC LAVAGE.... washing out of the stomach


Warts (verrucae) are small, solid outgrowths from the SKIN arising from the epidermis and caused by various subtypes of ‘human papilloma virus’. The causal viruses are ubiquitous and most people probably harbour them. Whether or not warts develop depends upon age, previous infection and natural resistance.

Common warts (verruca vulgaris) are seen mainly in children and young adults on the backs of the ?ngers and hands, and less often on the knees, face or scalp. They may be single or numerous and range from 1 mm to 10 mm or more in size. Untreated, they often resolve spontaneously after weeks or months. They may be occupationally contracted by butchers and meat-handlers.

Plane warts (verruca plana) are small, ?at-topped, yellowish papules seen mainly on the backs of the hands, wrists and face in young people. They may persist for years.

Digitate warts (verruca digitata) are ?nger- or thread-like warts up to 5 mm in length with a dark rough tip. They tend to grow on the eyelids or neck.

Plantar warts (verruca plantaris) occur on the soles of the feet, most commonly in older children, adolescents and young adults. Spread by walking barefoot in swimming pools, changing rooms, etc., these warts may appear as minor epidemics in institutions, such as schools. They are ?attened, yellow-white discrete lesions in the sole or heel, tender when squeezed. Multiple black points in the wart are thrombosed capillaries. Occasionally, aggregates of plantar warts form a mosaic-like plaque, especially in chronically warm, moist feet.

Genital warts are sexually transmitted. In the male they occur on the shaft of the PENIS and on the PREPUCE or around the anus. In women they occur around the entrance to the VAGINA and LABIA minora. Genital warts vary from 1–2 mm pink papules to ?orid, cauli?ower-like masses. Pregnancy facilitates their development.

Mucosal warts may develop on the mucous membranes of the mouth.

Laryngeal warts may be found in children whose mothers had genital warts (see above) at the time of delivery. Some subtypes of genital wart can infect the uterine cervix (see UTERUS), causing changes which may lead eventually to cancer.

Treatment CRYOTHERAPY – freezing with liquid nitrogen – is the principal weapon against all types of warts, but curettage (scraping out the wart with a CURETTE) and cauterisation (see ELECTROCAUTERY) or LASER therapy may be required for resistant warts. Genital warts may respond to local application of PODOPHYLLIN preparations. Sexual partners should be examined and treated if necessary. Finally, treatment of warts should not be more onerous or painful than the disease itself, since spontaneous resolution is so common.... warts


See ATROPHY.... wasting

Water Chestnut

Trapa natans

Description: The water chestnut is an aquatic plant that roots in the mud and has finely divided leaves that grow underwater. Its floating leaves are much larger and coarsely toothed. The fruits, borne underwater, have four sharp spines on them.

Habitat and Distribution: The water chestnut is a freshwater plant only. It is a native of Asia but has spread to many parts of the world in both temperate and tropical areas.

Edible Parts: The fruits are edible raw and cooked. The seeds are also a source of food.... water chestnut

Water Dock

Rumex aquaticus. N.O. Polygonaceae.

Synonym: Bloodwort, Red Dock.

Habitat: In, or very near, waterways, lakes, ponds, ditches, and in marshes and swampy places.

Features ? The largest of all the Docks, reaching up to six or seven feet. Stem erect, thick, striated, hollow, branched. Leaves very large, some two feet in length, pale green turning to reddish-brown, broad and sharp-pointed, point turning over towards the water. Flowers (July and August) small, greenish-yellow, with white threads which become brown. Root large, reddish brown, porous bark, large pith with honeycomb-like cells.

Part used ? Root.

Action: Alterative, detergent.

Of value in skin diseases and sluggish liver, in which latter case it should be given in combination with a mild laxative. The dose is 3-4 tablespoonfuls of the decoction of 1 ounce to 1 pint after simmering from

1 1/2 pints. This may be used as a mouthwash for ulcers, etc., and the powder makes a first-rate medicinal cleanser for the teeth.

Hool highly esteems Water Dock, and says ? "It operates kindly and without excitement, being slow but sure in promoting a healthy action of the depurative functions of the system." He also claims diuretic and tonic qualities for the root.... water dock

Water Plantain

Alisma plantago-aquatica

Description: This plant has small, white flowers and heart-shaped leaves with pointed tips. The leaves are clustered at the base of the plant.

Habitat and Distribution: Look for this plant in fresh water and in wet, full sun areas in Temperate and Tropical Zones.

Edible Parts: The rootstocks are a good source of starch. Boil or soak them in water to remove the bitter taste.


To avoid parasites, always cook aquatic plants.... water plantain

Water-hammer Pulse

The peculiarly sudden PULSE that is associated with incompetence of the AORTIC VALVE of the heart.... water-hammer pulse

Water Lettuce

Ceratopteris species

Description: The leaves of water lettuce are much like lettuce and are very tender and succulent. One of the easiest ways of distinguishing water lettuce is by the little plantlets that grow from the margins of the leaves. These little plantlets grow in the shape of a rosette. Water lettuce plants often cover large areas in the regions where they are found.

Habitat and Distribution: Found in the tropics throughout the Old World in both Africa and Asia. Another kind is found in the New World tropics from Florida to South America. Water lettuce grows only in very wet places and often as a floating water plant. Look for water lettuce in still lakes, ponds, and the backwaters of rivers.

Edible Parts: Eat the fresh leaves like lettuce. Be careful not to dip the leaves in the contaminated water in which they are growing. Eat only the leaves that are well out of the water.


This plant has carcinogenic properties and should only be used as a last resort.... water lettuce

Water Lily

Nymphaea odorata

Description: These plants have large, triangular leaves that float on the water’s surface, large, fragrant flowers that are usually white, or red, and thick, fleshy rhizomes that grow in the mud.

Habitat and Distribution: Water lilies are found throughout much of the temperate and subtropical regions.

Edible Parts: The flowers, seeds, and rhizomes are edible raw or cooked. To prepare rhizomes for eating, peel off the corky rind. Eat raw, or slice thinly, allow to dry, and then grind into flour. Dry, parch, and grind the seeds into flour.

Other Uses: Use the liquid resulting from boiling the thickened root in water as a medicine for diarrhea and as a gargle for sore throats.... water lily


See Berro.... watercress


(Japanese) From the homeland Watan, Wattane... wattan


(Native American) A snow goose singing

Waunah, Waunakee... wauna


(Slavic) Form of Barbara, meaning “a traveler from a foreign land; a stranger” Wavah, Wavya, Wavia... wava


(English) Of the trembling aspen Waverley, Waverlie, Waverli, Waverlee, Waverleigh, Waverlea, Waverleah... waverly


(English) One who makes wagons Waynett, Waynet, Waynete, Wayneta, Waynetta... waynette


Or wheals: raised white areas of OEDEMA in the skin with reddened margins, which may result from sharp blows, or accompanied by itching, may be a symptom of URTICARIA.... weals

Webbed Fingers

Or toes – see also SYNDACTYLY. A deformity sometimes present at birth, and which tends to run in families. The web may be quite a thin structure, or the ?ngers may be closely united by solid tissue. In any case, separation is a matter of considerable di?culty, because, if the web is simply divided, it heals up as before. A special operation is necessary, consisting in turning back a ?ap of the web upon each of the united ?ngers, or some other device to produce healing in the new position.... webbed fingers

Weber’s Test

A test with a tuning fork that is used to assess a person’s DEAFNESS.... weber’s test


(American) Born on a Wednesday Wensday, Winsday, Windnesday, Wednesdae, Wensdae, Winsdae, Windnesdae, Wednesdai, Wendsai, Winsdai, Wednesdaie... wednesday


(Native American) A beautiful girl Weyko, Wieko, Weiko... weeko


(Hawaiian) A heavenly adornment Wehilanie, Wehilany, Wehilaney, Wehilanee, Wehilanea, Wehilaneah... wehilani

Weighted Data

Any information given different weights in calculation or data in which values for some cases have been adjusted to reflect differences in the number of population units that each case represents.... weighted data

Weights And Measures

It is more than a hundred years since the metric system was legalised in Britain, but it was not until 1969 that it became illegal to use any system of weights and measures other than the metric system for dispensing prescriptions.

A rationalisation of the metric system is now used, known as the International System of Units (SI – see APPENDIX 6: MEASUREMENTS IN MEDICINE).... weights and measures

Weil-felix Test

An agglutination test used in the laboratory to diagnose rickettsial diseases. It depends on a nonspecific cross reaction between antibodies produced by the rickettsial infection with the OX-2, OX-19 and OXK antigens of the Gram negative rod, Proteus.... weil-felix test

Wedelia Biflora


Family: Compositae; Asteraceae.

Habitat: Near sea-coasts and the Andamans.

Ayurvedic: Bhringaraaja (yellow- flowered var).

Action: Leaves—used as poultice on ulcers, sores, varicose veins; paste applied to fungal infections. Leaf decction—vulnerary and antiscabious. The juice of leaf is also given internally with cow's milk as a tonic after child birth.

The dried leaves contain veratryli- dene hydrazide and quercetin derivatives. The stem contains stigmasterol and grandifloric acid. The leaves and stem showed antifungal activity.... wedelia biflora

Wedelia Calendulaceae

Less. non-Rich.

Synonym: W chinensis Merrill.

Family: Compositae; Asteraceae.

Habitat: Bengal, Assam, Konkan, and Tamil Nadu.

Ayurvedic: Bhringaraaja (yellow- flowered var.), Pitabhringi, Pitabhringa-raaja, Avanti, Ke- sharaaja, Kesharaaga.

Siddha/Tamil: Manjal karisaalai, Potralai kaiyan tagarai, Patalai Kaiantakerai.

Action: Leaves—bechic; used in alopecia, juice used for dyeing hair and for promoting hair growth. Plant—deobstruent; used in menorrhagia and abdominal swellings, as a tonic for hepatic and splenic enlargement.

See Eclipta alba.

The expressed juice of the herb contained an oil-soluble black dye 11.2; tannin 220; saponin 500 (contradictory reports) and phytosterol 3.75 mg/100 g among other constituents. The leaves contain isoflavonoids.

The bisdesmosidic oleanolic acid saponins have been isolated from the fresh leaves. Significant hepatoprotec- tive activity has been found in the pro- saponin from ginsenoside Ro (chiku- setsusaponinV); and in coumestans, wedelolactone and demethyl wedelo- lactone, isolated from the methanol extract of the herb.

Wedelolactone has also been found to be a potent and selective 5-lipoxy- genase-inhibitor, the process being an oxygen radical scavenger mechanism.

Wedelolactone (0.05%), isolated from the leaves, is analogous in structure to coumestrol, an estrogen from Melilotus sp. (clover).

Family: Rubiaceae.

Habitat: Sub-Himalayan region, West Bengal, Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra.

Ayurvedic: Tilaka.

Folk: Tiliyaa (Bihar), Tilki, Mimri (Bengal).

Action: Bark—administered in urinary affections.... wedelia calendulaceae

Welfare Service

A type of social care service supported through public funding. Eligibility criteria vary from universal coverage to specialized requirements. See “social care service”.... welfare service


(English) From the West Welsy, Welsi, Welsey, Welsee, Welss, Welssa, Welsia, Welsea, Welseah... welsie


(Teutonic) A wanderer Wendelin, Wendelina, Wendeline, Wendelle, Wendalla, Wendalle, Wendalina, Wendaline, Wendall, Wendella, Wendelly... wende

Wendlandia Tinctoria


Family: Rubiaceae.

Habitat: Sub-Himalayan tract from Garhwal eastwards to Bhutan and Khasi hills.

Ayurvedic: Tilak (related species).

Action: Bark—used for cramps in cholera patients.... wendlandia tinctoria


(Welsh) Form of Gwendolyn, meaning “one who is fair; of the white ring” Wendi, Wendie, Wendee, Wendey, Wenda, Wendia, Wendea, Wendya, Wendye, Wendaine, Wendayne, Wuendy... wendy

Werner’s Syndrome

A rare inherited condition in which the affected person suffers from premature ageing from adolescence onwards. His or her growth may be retarded, the skin become thin, and arterial disease, DIABETES MELLITUS and leg ulcers (see ULCER) develop. Treatment is symptomatic.... werner’s syndrome

Wernicke’s Encephalopathy

Also called the Wernicke-Korsako? syndrome, this uncommon disorder is characterised by mental confusion or DELIRIUM that occurs in combination with an unsteady GAIT, nystagmus (see under EYE, DISORDERS OF), and paralysis of the eye muscles and eventually PSYCHOSIS. It is caused by a de?ciency of vitamin B1 (THIAMINE

– see APPENDIX 5: VITAMINS) which affects the brain and nervous system. It occurs in alcoholic individuals and in patients with persistent vomiting. As soon as the condition is diagnosed, it must be treated with large doses of thiamine. Unless the patient has developed symptoms of psychosis, the condition is usually reversible with treatment.... wernicke’s encephalopathy


(Polish) Form of Veronica, meaning “displaying her true image” Weronicka, Weronykia, Weronikya, Weronika, Weronikka, Weronyka, Weronica, Weronicia... weronikia

Werthheim’s Hysterectomy

A major operation done to remove cancer of the UTERUS or ovary (see OVARIES). The ovaries, FALLOPIAN TUBES, the uterus and its ligaments, the upper VAGINA, and the regional LYMPH NODES are all excised.... werthheim’s hysterectomy


(English) From the western meadow

Wesly, Weslie, Wesli, Weslee, Weslia, Wesleigh, Weslea, Weslei, Weslene, Wesla, Weslya, Weslyn, Wesleah... wesley


An inflammatory response to mild skin irritation, with a well-defined, raised redness, lasting for perhaps an hour and then disappearing. The cause is usually atopic allergies in an IgE-excess person, although mild, subclinical adrenocortical deficiency can be another factor.... wheal


See WEALS.... wheals

Weight And Height

Charts relating height to age have been devised, and give an indication of the normal rate of growth. (See APPENDIX 6: MEASUREMENTS IN MEDICINE for more details.) The wide variation in normal children is immediately apparent on studying such charts. Deviations from the mean of this wide range are called percentiles. Centile or percentile charts describe the distribution of a characteristic in a population. They are obtained by measuring a speci?c characteristic in a large population of at least 1,000 of each sex at each age. For each age there will be a height, above and below which 50 per cent of the population lies: this is called the 50th centile. The 50th centile thus indicates the mean height at a particular age. Such tables are less reliable around the age of PUBERTY, because of variation in age of onset.

Minor variations from the mean do not warrant investigation, but if the height of an individual falls below the third centile (3 per cent of normal children have a height that falls below the third centile) or above the 97th centile, investigation is required. Changes in the rate of growth are also important, and skeletal proportions may provide useful information. There are many children who are normal but who are small in relation to their parents; the problem is merely growth delay. These children take longer to reach maturity and there is also a proportional delay in their skeletal maturation – so that the actual height must always be assessed in relation to maturity. The change in skeletal proportions is one manifestation of maturity, but other features include the maturing of facial features with the growth of nose and jaw, and dental development. Maturity of bone can readily be measured by the radiological bone age.

Failure to gain weight is of more signi?cance. Whilst this may be due to some underlying disease, the most common cause is a diet containing inadequate calories (see CALORIE). Over the last six decades or so there has been quite a striking increase in the heights and weights of European children, with manufacturers of children’s clothing, shoes and furniture having to increase the size of their products. Growth is now completed at 20–21 years, compared with 25 at the turn of the century. It has been suggested that this increase, and earlier maturation, have been due to a combination of genetic mixing as a result of population movements, with the whole range of improvement in environmental hygiene – and not merely to better nutrition.

In the case of adults, views have changed in recent years concerning ‘ideal’ weight. Life-insurance statistics have shown that maximal life expectancy is obtained if the average weight at 25–30 years is maintained throughout the rest of life. These insurance statistics also suggest that it is of advantage to be slightly over the average weight before the age of 30 years; to be of average weight after the age of 40; and to be underweight from ages 30–40. In the past it has been usual, in assessing the signi?cance of an adult’s weight, to allow a 10 per cent range on either side of normal for variations in body-build. A closer correlation has been found between thoracic and abdominal measurements and weight.... weight and height


Fertility, Money... wheat

Wheelchair Housing

Housing designed for wheelchair users.... wheelchair housing


A popular name applied to the various sounds produced in the chest when the bronchial tubes are narrowed. It is applied particularly to the long-drawn breathing of ASTHMA, and to the whistling or purring noises that accompany breathing in cases of BRONCHITIS.... wheezing


(English) One who is soft-spoken Whysper, Wisper, Wysper... whisper

White Hair

The greying or whitening of hair which takes place with age is due to a loss of its pigment, MELANIN, and the collection of air bubbles in the shaft of the hair. There is no evidence that hair ever goes white overnight, whether in response to shock, strain or any other cause. Rapid whitening may occur patchily in a matter of days, but it is more often a matter of weeks or months. In the more rapid cases the cause is thought to be a form of ALOPECIA in which the dark hairs which fall out are replaced by white hairs. An alternative cause is VITILIGO. Certain drugs, including mephenesin and CHLOROQUINE, may also cause whitening of the hair.... white hair

West Indian


Mimusops elengi


San: Bakulah

Hin: Bakul, Maulsiri

Ben: Bakul

Mal: Ilanji, Elanji

Tam: Magilam, Ilanci

Tel: Pogada

Kan: Pagademara Guj:

Barsoli, Bolsari

Importance: Spanish cherry, West Indian Medlar or Bullet wood tree is an evergreen tree with sweet- scented flowers having ancient glamour. Garlands made of its flowers are ever in good demand due to its long lasting scent. Its bark is used as a gargle for odontopathy, ulitis and ulemorrhagia. Tender stems are used as tooth brushes. It is also useful in urethrorrhoea, cystorrhoea, diarrhoea and dysentery. Flowers are used for preparing a lotion for wounds and ulcers. Powder of dried flowers is a brain tonic and is useful as a snuff to relieve cephalgia. Unripe fruit is used as a masticatory and will help to fix loose teeth. Seeds are used for preparing suppositories in cases of constipation especially in children (Warrier et al,1995). The bark and seed coat are used for strengthening the gum and enter into the composition of various herbal tooth powders, under the name of “Vajradanti”, where they may be used along with tannin-containing substances like catechu (Acacia catechu), pomegranate (Punica granatum) bark, etc. The bark is used as snuff for high fever accompanied by pains in various parts of the body. The flowers are considered expectorant and smoked in asthma. A lotion prepared from unripe fruits and flowers is used for smearing on sores and wounds. In Ayurveda, the important preparation of Mimusops is “Bakuladya Taila”, applied on gum and teeth for strengthening them, whereas in Unani system, the bark is used for the diseases of genitourinary system of males (Thakur et al, 1989).

Distribution: It is cultivated in North and Peninsular India and Andaman Islands. It is grown as an avenue tree in many parts of India.

Botany: Mimusops elengi Linn. belongs to the family Sapotaceae. It is an evergreen tree with dark grey fissured bark and densely spreading crown. Leaves are oblong, glabrous and leathery with wavy margins. Flowers are white, fragrant, axillary, solitary or fascicled. Fruits are ovoid or ellipsoid berries. Seeds are 1-2 per fruit, ovoid, compressed, greyish brown and shiny (Warrier et al, 1995). Other important species belonging to the genus Mimusops are M. hexandra Roxb. and M. kauki Linn. syn. Manilkara kauki Dub.(Chopra et al, 1980).

Agrotechnology: Mimusops prefers moist soil rich in organic matter for good growth. The plant is propagated by seeds. Fruits are formed in October-November. Seeds are to be collected and dried. Seeds are to be soaked in water for 12 hours without much delay and sown on seedbeds. Viability of seeds is less. After germination they are to be transferred to polybags. Pits of size 45cm cube are to be taken and filled with 5kg dried cowdung and top soil. To these pits, about 4 months old seedlings from the polybags are to be transplanted with the onset of monsoon. Addition of 10kg FYM every year is beneficial. Any serious pests or diseases do not attack the plant. Flowering commences from fourth year onwards. Bark, flowers, fruit and seeds are the economic parts.

Properties and activity: -sitosterol and its glucoside, -spina-sterol, quercitol, taraxerol and lupeol and its acetate are present in the aerial parts as well as the roots and seeds. The aerial parts in addition gave quercetin, dihydroquercetin, myricetin, glycosides, hederagenin, ursolic acid, hentriacontane and -carotene. The bark contained an alkaloid consisting largely of a tiglate ester of a base with a mass spectrum identical to those of laburinine and iso-retronecanol and a saponin also which on hydrolysis gave -amyrin and brassic acid. Seed oil was comprised of capric, lauric, myristic, palmitic, stearic, arachidic, oleic and linoleic acids.

Saponins from seed are spermicidal and spasmolytic. The aerial part is diuretic. Extract of flower (1mg/kg body weight) showed positive diuretic action in dogs. Bark is tonic and febrifuge. Leaf is an antidote for snakebite. Pulp of ripe fruit is antidysenteric. Seed is purgative. Bark and pulp of ripe fruit is astringent (Husain et al, 1992).... west indian

White Oak Tea - Gingivitis Treatment

For thousands of years, White Oak Tea has been a great homeopathic remedy. White Oak is a tree found mostly in Northern America, from Quebec to Texas. It usually reaches 100 feet height, it has a grey trunk and deep green wavy leaves. White Oak Tea’s main use involves general heath and treating localized pain, such as inflammations and sore throat. White Oak Tea Properties White Oak Tea is well known for both its external and internal use. The active ingredients of this tea are tannins, resins, calcium oxalate, quillaic acid and starch. Some of these substances can also be found in the trunk and branches, but extracting them from these parts is not an easy job. Thanks to its endurance and its unique wood color, White Oak has also a good reputation among craftsmen. White Oak Tea Benefits Aside from improving your general health, White Oak Tea can also come in hand in case of many other diseases. The most popular uses of this tea are: - White Oak can successfully be used to treat kidney stones - Thanks to its active ingredients, White Oak Tea is a great remedy for inflammation - White Oak Tea can treat diarrhea and flush hemorrhoids out of your systems - If you suffer from gout or dysentery, White Oak Tea can bring relief to your body - White Oak Tea treats gingivitis, stops hemorrhages and prevents your gums from swelling. How to make White Oak Tea Infusion When preparing White Oak Tea, you can either use dry powder from the specialized shops or the freshly picked leaves. The only difference is that the powder may have a stronger taste thanks to its higher acids concentration. Use a teaspoon of powder or leaves for every cup of tea you want to make, add boiling water and wait 10 minutes, if you’re using powder, or 15 minutes, if you’re using leaves. You can drink it hot or cold. If you’re keeping it in the refrigerator, make a new bottle of tea every 3 or 4 days. White Oak Tea Side Effects Taken properly, White Oak Tea has no side effects. A high dosage may cause deviations of the nervous system and other conditions. If you’ve taken it for a while and are experiencing some unusual episodes, talk to a doctor as soon as possible. White Oak Tea Contraindications White Oak Tea may interfere with birth control pills and cause internal bleedings. Also, if you’re pregnant or breastfeeding, you should not take White Oak Tea. The same advice if you’re suffering from severe kidney problems or chronic heart diseases. However, if you’re suffering from one of these conditions and are still determined to start a White Oak Tea treatment, talk to your doctor and find out what is the best solution for you and your health. If you feel confident and your doctor gives you the green light, add White Oak Tea to your medicine cabinet and enjoy responsibly the wonderful benefits of this tea!... white oak tea - gingivitis treatment

West Indian Medlar

Mimusops elengi


San: Bakulah

Hin: Bakul, Maulsiri

Ben: Bakul

Mal: Ilanji, Elanji

Tam: Magilam, Ilanci

Tel: Pogada

Kan: Pagademara

Guj: Barsoli, Bolsari

Importance: Spanish cherry, West Indian Medlar or Bullet wood tree is an evergreen tree with sweet- scented flowers having ancient glamour. Garlands made of its flowers are ever in good demand due to its long lasting scent. Its bark is used as a gargle for odontopathy, ulitis and ulemorrhagia. Tender stems are used as tooth brushes. It is also useful in urethrorrhoea, cystorrhoea, diarrhoea and dysentery. Flowers are used for preparing a lotion for wounds and ulcers. Powder of dried flowers is a brain tonic and is useful as a snuff to relieve cephalgia. Unripe fruit is used as a masticatory and will help to fix loose teeth. Seeds are used for preparing suppositories in cases of constipation especially in children (Warrier et al,1995). The bark and seed coat are used for strengthening the gum and enter into the composition of various herbal tooth powders, under the name of “Vajradanti”, where they may be used along with tannin-containing substances like catechu (Acacia catechu), pomegranate (Punica granatum) bark, etc. The bark is used as snuff for high fever accompanied by pains in various parts of the body. The flowers are considered expectorant and smoked in asthma. A lotion prepared from unripe fruits and flowers is used for smearing on sores and wounds. In Ayurveda, the important preparation of Mimusops is “Bakuladya Taila”, applied on gum and teeth for strengthening them, whereas in Unani system, the bark is used for the diseases of genitourinary system of males (Thakur et al, 1989).

Distribution: It is cultivated in North and Peninsular India and Andaman Islands. It is grown as an avenue tree in many parts of India.

Botany: Mimusops elengi Linn. belongs to the family Sapotaceae. It is an evergreen tree with dark grey fissured bark and densely spreading crown. Leaves are oblong, glabrous and leathery with wavy margins. Flowers are white, fragrant, axillary, solitary or fascicled. Fruits are ovoid or ellipsoid berries. Seeds are 1-2 per fruit, ovoid, compressed, greyish brown and shiny (Warrier et al, 1995). Other important species belonging to the genus Mimusops are M. hexandra Roxb. and M. kauki Linn. syn. Manilkara kauki Dub.(Chopra et al, 1980).

Agrotechnology: Mimusops prefers moist soil rich in organic matter for good growth. The plant is propagated by seeds. Fruits are formed in October-November. Seeds are to be collected and dried. Seeds are to be soaked in water for 12 hours without much delay and sown on seedbeds. Viability of seeds is less. After germination they are to be transferred to polybags. Pits of size 45cm cube are to be taken and filled with 5kg dried cowdung and top soil. To these pits, about 4 months old seedlings from the polybags are to be transplanted with the onset of monsoon. Addition of 10kg FYM every year is beneficial. Any serious pests or diseases do not attack the plant. Flowering commences from fourth year onwards. Bark, flowers, fruit and seeds are the economic parts.

Properties and activity: -sitosterol and its glucoside, -spina-sterol, quercitol, taraxerol and lupeol and its acetate are present in the aerial parts as well as the roots and seeds. The aerial parts in addition gave quercetin, dihydroquercetin, myricetin, glycosides, hederagenin, ursolic acid, hentriacontane and -carotene. The bark contained an alkaloid consisting largely of a tiglate ester of a base with a mass spectrum identical to those of laburinine and iso-retronecanol and a saponin also which on hydrolysis gave -amyrin and brassic acid. Seed oil was comprised of capric, lauric, myristic, palmitic, stearic, arachidic, oleic and linoleic acids.

Saponins from seed are spermicidal and spasmolytic. The aerial part is diuretic. Extract of flower (1mg/kg body weight) showed positive diuretic action in dogs. Bark is tonic and febrifuge. Leaf is an antidote for snakebite. Pulp of ripe fruit is antidysenteric. Seed is purgative. Bark and pulp of ripe fruit is astringent (Husain et al, 1992).... west indian medlar

White Sage Tea Benefits

White Sage Tea has been known for centuries as a great remedy for fever or to induce perspiration. White Sage is originally from Northern America. Native Americans used this plant for religious ceremonies thanks to its purifying properties. Since the place where all divine rituals needed to be done had to be a clean one, White Sage was a good choice. This herb has a strong fragrance, silver and green leaves and white or purple flowers. White Sage Tea Properties The most important property of White Sage Tea is that this decoction can sanitize your entire body with just a small amount of liquid. The active substances of this tea are: diterpines and triterpenes, including carnosic acid, oleaolic acid and ursolic acid which you can only find in the leaves. Thanks to these two acids, you can use white sage leaves to sanitize localized infections, such as open wounds or cuts. White Sage Tea Benefits Aside from its cultural and ritual uses, White Sage Tea is also an important piece when it comes to alternative medicine. Some say that White Sage Tea can bring relief if you are suffering from one of the following conditions: - Sinus infections, by clearing all respiratory tracks and sanitizing the lungs. - General organism malfunctions, by inducing sweat and eliminating the toxins. - Nervous system problems, by nourishing your nerves and enhancing your neuronal connections. - Arthritis and other problems of the coronary system, by preventing clotting. - Stomach pains and parasites, such as hemorrhoids. - Premenstrual syndrome pains, by purifying the uterus and increasing the blood flow. How to make White Sage Tea Infusion Making White Sage Tea infusion doesn’t take a lot of time and the steps you need to follow are very few. First, you need White Sage flowers. It doesn’t matter if you’re using them dried or freshly picked. Just use a teaspoon of herbs for every cup of tea you want to make. Put the flowers in a teapot and add boiling water. Wait for about 10 or 15 minutes and drink it hot or cold. Never take more than a cup of White Sage Tea per day! White Sage Tea Side Effects When taken properly, White Sage Tea is safe. However, high dosages may cause convulsions and irritated stomach. If you’ve been taking White Sage Tea for a while and you’re experiencing some unusual health episodes, talk to a doctor as soon as possible! White Sage Tea Contraindications Do not take White Sage Tea if you’re pregnant or breastfeeding. However, if you are in one of these conditions and still determined to go through with a treatment based on White Sage Tea, ask a specialist before making any move. Once you have your doctor’s approval, add White Sage Tea to your shopping list and enjoy the wonderful benefits of this great purifier!... white sage tea benefits

Wheatgrass Tea And Its Great Benefits

The Wheatgrass Tea has gained its popularity recently. Until now, its benefits were not acknowledged by the herbalists or by any other health researchers. However, recent studies have shown that Wheatgrass Tea is the king of alkaline teas, containing many substances that could easily be considered super ingredients. The wheatgrass is the young wheat plant, also known as triticum aestivum. The main use of this plant consists of turning it into a paste that can be added as a nutrient or as a spice in various recipes. However, the Wheatgrass Tea has also been used as a beverage to many menus. Wheatgrass is usually grown by soaking the seeds in water until they sprout and reach the height of 2 inches. Wheatgrass has a deep green color and it’s known for its antioxidant properties. Wheatgrass Tea Properties Wheatgrass Tea fans believe that a cup of tea per day can reduce stress, improve your general health and maintain a good liver function. The active ingredients in Wheatgrass Tea are: chlorophyll, enzymes, fiber, and alkaline. Wheatgrass also contains amino acids, vitamins minerals that are able to detoxify your body, by behaving like any other energy booster you can find at the drug store. Wheatgrass Tea Benefits Aside from its general health benefits, Wheatgrass Tea also helps you improve other areas of your body, by increasing your alkaline level. Wheatgrass Tea is a great help when it comes to: - Improving your digestive system and eliminate constipation - Preventing diabetes and heart problems - Enhancing your blood flow and your circulation - Protecting and preventing your body against colon cancer and detoxifying your organism - Fighting other diseases, such as anemia and heavy metal poisoning. How to make Wheatgrass Tea Preparing Wheatgrass Tea is really easy: gently wash the Wheatgrass plants (freshly picked only) and crush them in order to obtain a green liquid. Add cold water and drink it. Don’t boil the water or the plants. You can only enjoy the benefits of this tea if the wheatgrass keeps its entire flavor. For every cup of tea you want to make, you’ll need about 2 teaspoons of wheatgrass juice. Drink the decoction when cold and immediately after preparation. Wheatgrass Tea Side Effects Wheatgrass Tea is likely safe when taken in normal dosages. However, don’t make a hobby out of drinking Wheatgrass Tea and don’t turn it into a daily habit. This herb is used for medicinal purposes only. Recent studies have shown that this tea is safe for adults, but none of them involved children’s response yet, so it’s best to avoid giving Wheatgrass Tea to your child. Wheatgrass Tea Contraindications Do not take Wheatgrass Tea if you are pregnant or breastfeeding. The possible reactions that your body could have at this treatment remain unknown. However, if you’re in one of these situations and are still determined to start a Wheatgrass Tea cure, talk to your doctor before making any move. Also, if you suffer from a serious disease and you need to take blood thinners, try to postpone taking this tea. Other than that, there’s no reason not to try Wheatgrass Tea. Some say it works, some say it doesn’t. Just add it to your list next time you’re in a teashop and you be the judge of that!... wheatgrass tea and its great benefits

White Tea - Health Benefits, Information

White tea is a fruity low-caffeine beverage with a delicate aroma and a sweet or bittersweet taste. Despite its name, it has a pale yellow colour. White tea originated in the Fujian province of China sometime in the 18th century. Green tea and black tea are made from the leaves of the tea plant, whereas white tea is prepared from its white fuzzy buds. White tea is minimally processed, withered in natural sunlight and only slightly oxidized. White Tea Brewing White tea brewing is a quite easy procedure. When preparing white tea, preferably use water heated at a below boiling temperature of approximately 80 degrees Celsius and steep it for three to five minutes. White tea should be enjoyed plain because milk might neutralize its beneficial properties. White Tea Health Benefits White tea consumption offers your body numerous health benefits by boosting the immune system and strengthening its power to fight against viruses and bacteria. The beverage is also effective in the prevention of dental plaque, one of the main causes of tooth decay, and it may also have a beneficial effect for people afflicted with osteoporosis or arthritis. Research shows that some white tea compounds protect against cancer, reduce the cholesterol level and improve artery function, thus lowering the risk of cardiovascular disease. The antioxidants in white tea protect the skin and make it appear healthy and radiant. Regular consumption of white tea may also prevent obesity and aid in the weight-loss process. White tea increases metabolism, encouraging the burning of fat. White Tea Side Effects Although white tea has low caffeine content, some people may still experience unpleasant side effects which include anxiety, sleeping difficulties, nausea, faster heart rate, tremors or gastrointestinal problems. Enjoy the pleasant aroma ofwhite tea and its health benefits at any time of the day. You have a wide range of white teas you can choose from and you can drink as many as four cups a day. White tea is definitely one of nature’s great gifts!... white tea - health benefits, information


A common benign blemish of the skin (see MILIA).... whitehead


(English) From the white meadow Whitly, Whitlie, Whitli, Whitlee, Whitleigh, Whitlea, Whitlia, Whitlya, Whytley, Whytlie, Whytlea, Whytlee, Whytli, Whytly, Whytlya, Whitlei, Whittley, Whytlei... whitley


(English) From the white island Whitny, Whitnie, Whitni, Whitnee, Whittney, Whitneigh, Whytny, Whytney, Whytnie, Whytni, Whytnee, Whytne, Witney, Whitne, Whiteney, Whitnei, Whitteny, Whitnye... whitney


(English) A white-haired lady Whitsone, Whitsonne, Whytson, Whytsone, Whytsonne, Whitsona, Whytsona... whitson


(English) One who is excited and happy

Whoopey, Whoopy, Whoopie, Whoopee, Whoopea, Whoopeah... whoopi

White Peony Root Tea Benefits

White Peony Root Tea is one of the most important herbs in Asian medicine, being used since ancient times to treat liver problems and to improve women’s general health. White Peony Root Tea can be made from a plant called Chinese peony or common garden peony, a perennial herb that grows in Eastern China, southern Tibet and Siberia. You can recognize it after its big white flowers and yellow stamens. The leaves are deep green and medium sized. White Peony Root Properties The best thing about White Peony Root Tea is that its properties contribute to a better general health of the human body, thanks to a high concentration of acids and amino-acids and also to a great alkaline conductivity. The main ingredient in White Peony Root Tea is paeoniflorin, a substance that has a high anti-spastic action in many areas of your system. The other active substances that can be found in this tea and enhance the paeonflorin’s effect are flavonoids, proanthocyanidins, tannins and polysaccharides. White Peony Root Benefits White Peony Root Tea has anti-inflammatory, sedative, analgesic and diuretic properties. This tea is a great help if you suffer from one of the following conditions: - Liver malfunction, by energizing it thanks to its alkaline property and helping it flush away all the toxins. - Bad blood circulation or poor blood nourishment. Also, White Peony Tea can lower your blood pressure. - Menstrual problems that consist of heavy bleedings and aggravated abdominal pain, by calming the affected area and by bringing relief. - Abdominal and chest pains, dizziness, headaches. - Epilepsy, by stopping seizures and convulsions and by nourishing your nervous system, so that the negative reaction can be eliminated. How to make White Peony Root Tea Infusion Preparing White Peony Root Tea infusion is very easy. Use a teaspoon of White Peony Root for every cup of tea you want to make. Put the herbs in a teapot and add boiling water. Wait for 10 or 15 minutes (depending on the amount of water you’re using) and drink it hot or cold. Don’t take more than 3 cups per day. White Peony Root Tea Side Effects White Peony Root Tea is safe as long as you take it for a short amount of time. Taken in high dosages, it may cause rashes and problems of the nervous system. White Peony Root Tea is not to be taken unsupervised and it’s a medical treatment. Do not drink it as often as you drink your coffee! Also, a higher dosage will not make your general health improve any faster. Follow our recommendations and talk to a doctor before making any move. White Peony Root Tea Contraindications If you are pregnant or breastfeeding, you should not take White Peony Root Tea, because it may cause uterine contractions and blood clotting. But if you have the green light from your doctor, there’s no reason not to try White Peony Root Tea. Add it to your medicine cabinet, follow our instructions and enjoy the wonderful benefits of White Peony Root Tea responsibly!... white peony root tea benefits


(American) A kindhearted woman

Whyneisha, Whyniesha, Whyneasha, Whynysha, Wynesha, Wyneisha, Wyniesha, Wyneasha, Whyneesha, Wyneesha, Whynesa, Whynessa, Wynesa, Wynessa... whynesha


(Scandinavian) A vibrant woman... wibeke

Wicapi Wakan

(Native American) A holy star... wicapi wakan


(Arabic) One offering love and friendship

Widadd, Wydad, Wydadd... widad

Widal Test

A serological test used to detect antibodies in the diagnosis of typhoid. Antigens detected are the O (somatic), H (flagellar) and Vi (virulence) antigens.... widal test


(German) A warrior maiden Wydo... wido

Wigandia Caracasana


Family: Hydrophyllaceae.

Habitat: Native to tropical America; introduced into Indian gardens.

Action: Leaves and branch tips— a decoction is used in rheumatism; also for whooping cough and respiratory problems.

Solvent extracts of the leaves (etha- nol, acetone and M-hexane) were found active against Gram-positive bacteria.

Synonym: W. viridiflora Meissn. W. indica var. virdiflora Hook. f.

Family: Thymelaeaceae.

Habitat: Eastern Assam; as a weed in Tamil Nadu.

English: Small-Leaf Salago.

Folk: Salago.

Action: Root bark—diuretic, vesicant, purgative and piscicidal.

The root bark is reported to contain a flavone glycoside, wikstroemin, which exhibited diuretic activity.

In Chinese folk medicine, the bark is used for schistosomiasis.

The stem contains wikstromol, a lig- nin prototype which exhibited anti- neoplastic activity. Daphnoretin, isolated from the plant, caused platelet aggregation in the blood of rabbits. A polysaccharide, comprising glucose, arabinose, galacturonic acid, galactose and xylose, protected mice against radiation and enhanced the formation of macrophages.... wigandia caracasana


(Arabic) A sentiment Widjan... wijdan


(Arabic) An excited seeker Wijidah, Weejida, Weejidah, Wijeeda, Wijeedah, Wijyda, Wijydah, Wijieda, Wijiedah, Wijeida, Wijeidah, Wijeada, Wijeadah... wijida


(Polish) Form of Victoria, meaning “victorious woman; winner; conqueror” Wiktoriah, Wicktoria, Wyktoria, Wycktoria, Wikitoria, Wiktorja, Wicktorja, Wyktorja, Wycktorja, Wikta... wiktoria

Wild Caper

Capparis aphylla

Description: This is a thorny shrub that loses its leaves during the dry season. Its stems are gray-green and its flowers pink.

Habitat and Distribution: These shrubs form large stands in scrub and thorn forests and in desert scrub and waste. They are common throughout North Africa and the Middle East.

Edible Parts: The fruit and the buds of young shoots are edible raw.... wild caper

Wild Carrot

Daucus carota. N.O. Umbelliferae.

Synonym: Bird's Nest.

Habitat: Wastes, pastures and field borders.

Features ? The branched stems of one to three feet high are tough and bristly. The whole plant is hairy, and the leaves are oblong and bipinnate, with acute segments. Blossoming in June and July, the umbel of white flowers usually contains one crimson flower in the centre. The root tapers, is yellowish-white, sweetish, and faintly aromatic. Wren tells us that "in taste and odour it resembles the garden carrot, but the root is small and white, not large." Ferrier, however, says of this root, "no resemblance in taste or colour to the cultivated carrot." Our own opinion is that Wild Carrot tastes like a rather distant relative of the household carrot—which it probably is.

Part used ? The whole plant.

Action: Pronouncedly diuretic in action, as well as de-obstruent and stimulant.

Wild Carrot naturally, therefore, takes a prominent place in many formulae for the treatment of dropsy, gravel, retention of urine, and bladder trouble generally. Either an infusion or decoction may be prepared in the usual proportions, and doses of 2 fl. ounces taken three or four times daily.

Culpeper comments ? "Wild Carrots belong to Mercury, and therefore breaketh wind, and removeth stitches in the sides, provoketh urine and women's courses, and helpeth to break and expel the stone."... wild carrot

Wild Fig

Ficus species

Description: These trees have alternate, simple leaves with entire margins. Often, the leaves are dark green and shiny. All figs have a milky, sticky juice. The fruits vary in size depending on the species, but are usually yellow-brown when ripe.

Habitat and Distribution: Figs are plants of the tropics and semitropics. They grow in several different habitats, including dense forests, margins of forests, and around human settlements.

Edible Parts: The fruits are edible raw or cooked. Some figs have little flavor.... wild fig

Wild Pistachio

Pistacia species

Description: Some kinds of pistachio trees are evergreen, while others lose their leaves during the dry season. The leaves alternate on the stem and have either three large leaves or a number of leaflets. The fruits or nuts are usually hard and dry at maturity.

Habitat and Distribution: About seven kinds of wild pistachio nuts are found in desert, or semidesert areas surrounding the Mediterranean Sea to Turkey and Afghanistan. It is generally found in evergreen scrub forests or scrub and thorn forests.

Edible Parts: You can eat the oil nut kernels after parching them over coals.... wild pistachio

Wild Rice

Zizania aquatica

Description: Wild rice is a tall grass that averages 1 to 1.5 meters in height, but may reach 4.5 meters. Its grain grows in very loose heads at the top of the plant and is dark brown or blackish when ripe.

Habitat and Distribution: Wild rice grows only in very wet areas in tropical and temperate regions.

Edible Parts: During the spring and summer, the central portion of the lower sterns and root shoots are edible. Remove the tough covering before eating. During the late summer and fail, collect the straw-covered husks. Dry and parch the husks, break them, and remove the rice. Boil or roast the rice and then beat it into flour.... wild rice


(German) One who is untamed; wild; forest dweller

Wildah, Wylda, Willda, Wilde, Wylde, Whilda... wilda

Wild Crab Apple Or Wild Apple

Malus species

Description: Most wild apples look enough like domestic apples that the survivor can easily recognize them. Wild apple varieties are much smaller than cultivated kinds; the largest kinds usually do not exceed 5 to 7.5 centimeters in diameter, and most often less. They have small, alternate, simple leaves and often have thorns. Their flowers are white or pink and their fruits reddish or yellowish.

Habitat and Distribution: They are found in the savanna regions of the tropics. In temperate areas, wild apple varieties are found mainly in forested areas. Most frequently, they are found on the edge of woods or in fields. They are found throughout the Northern Hemisphere.

Edible Parts: Prepare wild apples for eating in the same manner as cultivated kinds. Eat them fresh, when ripe, or cooked. Should you need to store food, cut the apples into thin slices and dry them. They are a good source of vitamins.


Apple seeds contain cyanide compounds. Do not eat.... wild crab apple or wild apple

Wild Desert Gourd Or Colocynth

Citrullus colocynthis

Description: The wild desert gourd, a member of the watermelon family, produces an 2.4- to 3-meter-long ground-trailing vine. The perfectly round gourds are as large as an orange. They are yellow when ripe.

Habitat and Distribution: This creeping plant can be found in any climatic zone, generally in desert scrub and waste areas. It grows abundantly in the Sahara, in many Arab countries, on the southeastern coast of India, and on some of the islands of the Aegean Sea. The wild desert gourd will grow in the hottest localities.

Edible Parts: The seeds inside the ripe gourd are edible after they are completely separated from the very bitter pulp. Roast or boil the seeds--their kernels are rich in oil. The flowers are edible. The succulent stem tips can be chewed to obtain water.... wild desert gourd or colocynth

Wild Dock And Wild Sorrel

Rumex crispus and Rumex acetosella

Description: Wild dock is a stout plant with most of its leaves at the base of its stem that is commonly 15 to 30 centimeters brig. The plants usually develop from a strong, fleshy, carrotlike taproot. Its flowers are usually very small, growing in green to purplish plumelike clusters. Wild sorrel similar to the wild dock but smaller. Many of the basal leaves are arrow-shaped but smaller than those of the dock and contain a sour juice.

Habitat and Distribution: These plants can be found in almost all climatic zones of the world, in areas of high as well as low rainfall. Many kinds are found as weeds in fields, along roadsides, and in waste places.

Edible Parts: Because of tender nature of the foliage, the sorrel and the dock are useful plants, especially in desert areas. You can eat their succulent leaves fresh or slightly cooked. To take away the strong taste, change the water once or twice during cooking. This latter tip is a useful hint in preparing many kinds of wild greens.... wild dock and wild sorrel

Wild Gourd Or Luffa Sponge

Luffa cylindrica

Description: The luffa sponge is widely distributed and fairly typical of a wild squash. There are several dozen kinds of wild squashes in tropical regions. Like most squashes, the luffa is a vine with leaves 7.5 to 20 centimeters across having 3 lobes.

Some squashes have leaves twice this size. Luffa fruits are oblong or cylindrical, smooth, and many-seeded. Luffa flowers are bright yellow. The luffa fruit, when mature, is brown and resembles the cucumber.

Habitat and Distribution: A member of the squash family, which also includes the watermelon, cantaloupe, and cucumber, the luffa sponge is widely cultivated throughout the Tropical Zone. It may be found in a semiwild state in old clearings and abandoned gardens in rain forests and semievergreen seasonal forests.

Edible Parts: You can boil the young green (half-ripe) fruit and eat them as a vegetable. Adding coconut milk will improve the flavor. After ripening, the luffa sponge develops an inedible spongelike texture in the interior of the fruit. You can also eat the tender shoots, flowers, and young leaves after cooking them. Roast the mature seeds a little and eat them like peanuts.... wild gourd or luffa sponge

Wild Grape Vine

Vitis species

Description: The wild grape vine climbs with the aid of tendrils. Most grape vines produce deeply lobed leaves similar to the cultivated grape. Wild grapes grow in pyramidal, hanging bunches and are black-blue to amber, or white when ripe.

Habitat and Distribution: Wild grapes are distributed worldwide. Some kinds are found in deserts, others in temperate forests, and others in tropical areas. Wild grapes are commonly found throughout the eastern United States as well as in the southwestern desert areas. Most kinds are rampant climbers over other vegetation. The best place to look for wild grapes is on the edges of forested areas. Wild grapes are also found in Mexico. In the Old World, wild grapes are found from the Mediterranean region eastward through Asia, the East Indies, and to Australia. Africa also has several kinds of wild grapes.

Edible Parts: The ripe grape is the portion eaten. Grapes are rich in natural sugars and, for this reason, are much sought after as a source of energy-giving wild food. None are poisonous. Other Uses: You can obtain water from severed grape vine stems. Cut off the vine at the bottom and place the cut end in a container. Make a slant-wise cut into the vine about 1.8 meters upon the hanging part. This cut will allow water to flow from the bottom end. As water diminishes in volume, make additional cuts further down the vine.


To avoid poisoning, do not eat grapelike fruits with only a single seed (moonseed).... wild grape vine


(Teutonic) A firm defender Wiline, Wilean, Wileane, Wilyn, Wileene, Wilene, Wyleen, Wyline, Wylean, Wyleane, Wylyn, Wylyne, Wyleen, Wyleene, Wylene, Wileena... wileen


(English) Of the willows Wily, Wilie, Wili, Wilee, Wileigh, Wilea, Wileah... wiley


(English) Feminine form of Wilfred; determined peacemaker Wilfredah, Wilfreeda, Wilfrida, Wilfreada, Wilfryda... wilfreda


(German) Feminine form of Wilhelm; determined protector Wilhelminah, Wylhelmina, Wylhelmyna, Wilhelmine, Willemina, Wilhelmine, Wilhemine, Wilhemina, Willamena, Willene, Willette, Willa, Wimene, Wimine, Vilhelmina, Williamina, Wilma, Wilmetta, Wilmanie, Wilmayra, Wylma, Williemae, Wilmet, Wilna, Wilmot... wilhelmina

Wild Onion And Garlic

Allium species

Description: Allium cernuum is an example of the many species of wild onions and garlics, all easily recognized by their distinctive odor.

Habitat and Distribution: Wild onions and garlics are found in open, sunny areas throughout the temperate regions. Cultivated varieties are found anywhere in the world.

Edible Parts: The bulbs and young leaves are edible raw or cooked. Use in soup or to flavor meat.


There are several plants with onionlike bulbs that are extremely poisonous. Be certain that the plant you are using is a true onion or garlic. Do not eat bulbs with no onion smell.

Other Uses: Eating large quantities of onions will give your body an odor that will help to repel insects. Garlic juice works as an antibiotic on wounds... wild onion and garlic

Wild Rose

Rosa species

Description: This shrub grows 60 centimeters to 2.5 meters high. It has alternate leaves and sharp prickles. Its flowers may be red, pink, or yellow. Its fruit, called rose hip, stays on the shrub year-round.

Habitat and Distribution: Look for wild roses in dry fields and open woods throughout the Northern Hemisphere.

Edible Parts: The flowers and buds are edible raw or boiled. In an emergency, you can peel and eat the young shoots. You can boil fresh, young leaves in water to make a tea. After the flower petals fall, eat the rose hips; the pulp is highly nutritious and an excellent source of vitamin C. Crush or grind dried rose hips to make flour.


Eat only the outer portion of the fruit as the seeds of some species are quite prickly and can cause internal distress.... wild rose


(English) One who is hoped for; desired

Wilonah, Willona, Wilone, Willone, Wylona, Wylone... wilona

Wilson’s Disease

Wilson’s disease, or hepatolenticular degeneration, is a familial disease in which there is an increased accumulation of COPPER in the liver, brain, and other tissues including the kidneys. Its main manifestation is the development of tremor and rigidity, with di?culty in speech. In many cases there is improvement following the administration of dimercaprol, penicillamine, or trientine dihydrochloride; these substances cause an increased excretion of copper.... wilson’s disease


(Teutonic) A determined woman; persistent

Wilvah, Wylva, Wylvah... wilva


(Swahili) A great huntress Windah... winda


(Native American) A female chief Winemah, Wynema, Wynemah... winema


(American) One who is peaceful Wineta, Wynetta, Wyneta, Winet, Winett, Winette, Wynet, Wynett, Wynette... winetta


(Chinese) Woman of glory Winge, Wyng... wing


(German / Gaelic) Peaceful friend / fair; white-skinned

Winafred, Winifrid, Winefred, Winefrid, Winifride, Winifreda, Winfrieda, Winfreda, Winefride, Winifryd, Winnafred, Winifryda, Winnefred, Winnafred, Winniefred, Winnifrid, Wynifred, Wynafred, Wynifrid, Wynafrid, Wynefryd, Wynefred, Winnie, Wynnie... winifred


(African) A beloved friend Winnah, Wina, Wyna, Wynna, Winah, Wynah, Wynnah... winna


(African) A victorious woman Winniell, Winniele, Winniel, Winniella, Winniela... winnielle


(German) Gracious and charming friend

Winolah, Wynola, Winolla, Wynolla, Wynolah, Winollah, Wynollah... winola


(Native American) Firstborn daughter

Winonah, Wynona, Wanona, Wenona, Wynonna, Winonna, Wynnona, Winnona... winona


(English) A kind and beautiful lady

Wynsome, Winsom, Wynsom... winsome


(African) One who is desired Wintah, Whinta, Wynta, Whynta, Whintah, Wyntah, Whyntah... winta


(English) Born during the winter season

Wintr, Wynter, Winteria, Wynteria... winter

Winterbottom’s Sign

A posterior cervical lymphadenopathy indicative of early West African (Gambian) Sleeping Sickness due to Trypanosoma brucei gambiense.... winterbottom’s sign

Winters Bark

Success... winters bark


(Polish) Form of Elvira, meaning “a truthful woman; one who can be trusted” Wirah, Wyra, Wiria, Wirke... wira


(Arabic) Communion in love Wisalle, Wisall... wisal

Winter Vomiting Disease

Winter vomiting disease, or epidemic nausea and vomiting, is a condition caused by subtypes of the genus Norwalk-like virus and is characterised by nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea and giddiness, which occurs during the winter. Outbreaks of it usually involve whole families or may affect communities like schools. The incubation period is 24–48 hours, and attacks seldom persist for more than 72 hours. In England and Wales in 2000, more than 1,600 infections were reported compared to more than 16,400 cases of salmonella infections and 56,420 of CAMPYLOBACTER. However, in England it is estimated that around 1,500 times more people are infected in the community than are reported. Humans are the only known hosts of the virus and infection can be acquired via contaminated food or water or, more commonly, from an infected individual via the faeco-oral route, aerosol-spread and FOMITES.... winter vomiting disease


(French) Gathering of waters; from the state of Wisconsin Wisconsyn, Wisconsen, Wisconson, Wysconsin, Wysconsen, Wysconson... wisconsin


(Polish) Form of Victoria, meaning “victorious woman; winner; conqueror” Wisiah, Wysia, Wysya, Wicia, Wikta, Wiktoria, Wykta, Wyktoria... wisia


(German) One who is respected Whistar, Wystar, Whystar, Wistarr, Wister, Wystarr, Wyster... wistar


(English) Resembling the flowering vine

Whisteria, Wysteria, Whysteria, Wisterea, Whisterea, Wysterea, Whysterea... wisteria

Witch Grass

Happiness, Lust, love, Exorcism... witch grass

Withania Coagulans


Family: Solanaceae.

Habitat: Drier parts of Punjab, Gujarat, Simla and Kumaon.

English: Vegetable Rennet, Indian Cheese-maker.

Unani: Desi Asgandh, Kaaknaj-e- Hindi, Paneer, Paneer-band. Akri (fruit).

Siddha/Tamil: Ammukkura.

Action: Alterative, emetic, diuretic. Ripe fruits—sedative, CNS depressant, antibilious, emetic, antiasth- matic, diuretic, anti-inflammatory; used in chronic liver troubles and strangury. Dried fruits— carminative, depurative; used for dyspepsia, flatulence and strangury. Leaf—alterative, febrifuge. Seeds— anti-inflammatory, emetic, diuretic, emmenagogue.

Though known as Desi Asgandh, the root is not used in Indian medicine. Ashwagandhaa (Bengali) and Ashwa- gandhi (Kannada) are confusing synonyms of W. coagulans. In the market no distinction is made between the berries of W. coagulans and W. somnifera.

The berries contain a milk-coagulating enzyme, esterases, free amino acids, fatty oil, an essential oil and alkaloids. The amino acid composition fairly agrees with that of papain. The essential oil was active against Micro- coccus pyogenes var. aureus and Vibro cholerae; also showed anthelmintic activity.

The withanolides, withacoagin, coagulan and withasomidienone have been isolated from the plant, along with other withanolides and withaferin. 3- beta-hydroxy-2,3- dihydrowithanolide E, isolated from the fruit showed significant hepatoprotective activity and anti-inflammatory activity equal to hydrocortisone. The ethanolic extract of the fruit showed antifungal and that of the leaves and stem antibacterial activity.... withania coagulans

Withania Ashwagandha

Kaul (cultivated var.)

W somnífera (Linn.) Dunal (Chemo- type I, II, III: Israele.) Family: Solanaceae.

Habitat: Throughout the drier and subtropical parts of India.

English: Winter Cherry. (Physalis alkekengi is also known as Winter Cherry.)

Ayurvedic: Ashwagandhaa, Haya- gandhaa, Ashwakanda, Gandharva- gandhaa, Turaga, Turagagandhaa, Turangagandhaa, Vaajigandhaa, Gokarnaa, Vrishaa, Varaahakarni, Varadaa, Balyaa, Vaajikari. (A substitute for Kaakoli and Kshira- kaakoli.) Cultivated var.: Asgandh Naagori. (Indian botanists consider the cultivated plants distinct from the wild ones.)

Unani: Asgandh.

Siddha: Amukkuramkizhangu.

Action: Root—used as an antiinflammatory drug for swellings, tumours, scrofula and rheumatism; and as a sedative and hypnotic in anxiety neurosis. Leaf— anti-inflammatory, hepatopro- tective, antibacterial. Fruits and seeds—diuretic. Withanine— sedative, hypnotic. Withaferin A—major component of biologically active steroids; as effective as hydrocortisone dose for dose. Antibacterial, antitumour, an- tiarthritic, significantly protective against hepatotoxicity in rats.

The root contains several alkaloids, including withanine, withananine, withananinine, pseudo-withanine, somnine, somniferine, somniferinine. The leaves of Indian chemotype contain 12 withanolides, including withaferin A. Steroidal lactones ofwithano- lide series have been isolated.

Withanine is sedative and hypnotic. Withaferin A is antitumour, an- tiarthritic and antibacterial. Anti-inflammatory activity has been attributed to biologically active steroids, of which withaferin A is a major component. The activity is comparable to that of hydrocortisone sodium succinate.

Withaferin A also showed significantly protective effect against CCl4- induced hepatotoxicity in rats. It was as effective as hydrocortisone dose for dose.

The root extract contains an ingredient which has GABA mimetic activity

The free amino acids present in the root include aspartic acid, glycine, tyrosine, alanine, proline, tryptophan, glutamic acid and cystine.

The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia ofIn- dia recommends Ashwagandha in im- potency. This claim could not be sustained in a recent experiment and raises a doubt about the equation of classical Ashwagandha with Withania somnifera. A methanolic extract of With- ania somnifera root induced a marked impairment in libido, sexual performance, sexual vigour and penile dysfunction in male rats. (Llayperuma et al, Asian J Androl, 2002, 295-298.)

The total alkaloids of the root exhibited prolonged hypotensive, brady- cardiac and depressant action of the higher cerebral centres in several experimental animals.

A withanolide-free aqueous fraction isolated from the roots of Withania somnifera exhibited antistress activity in a dose-dependent manner in mice. (Phytother Res 2003, 531-6.)

(See also Simon Mills; American Herbal Pharmacopoeia, 2000; Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, 2007.)

Dosage: Root—3-6 g powder. (API, Vol. I.)... withania ashwagandha

Withholding / Withdrawing Medical Treatment

See “futile medical treatment”; “advanced directive”.... withholding / withdrawing medical treatment

Wolfs Bane

Protection, Invisibility ... wolfs bane

Womb Music

The name given to the playing to crying babies of sounds comparable to those by which the unborn babe is surrounded in the womb (UTERUS), such as the beating of the mother’s heart, the bowel sounds of the baby and the like. The claim is that the replaying of these brings back the ‘peaceful music of the womb’, to which they have become conditioned, and thus ‘sings’ them to sleep.... womb music

Women Up To 2 Units A Day, 14 A Week

(Pregnant women should avoid alcohol completely. If this is too di?cult, 1 unit a day seems to be safe for the baby.) Women absorb alcohol more quickly than men.

Men up to 3 units a day, 21 a week... women up to 2 units a day, 14 a week

Wood Rose

Luck... wood rose


(American) A woman of the forest Woodey, Woodi, Woodie, Woodee, Woodea, Woodeah, Woods... woody

Wool-sorters’ Disease

Another name for ANTHRAX.... wool-sorters’ disease

Working Capital

The sum of the institution’s short-term or current assets, including cash, marketable (short-term) securities, accounts receivable and inventories. Net working capital is defined as the excess of total current assets over total current liabilities.... working capital

World Medical Association

See ETHICS.... world medical association




(American) A brassy woman Wovah, Whova, Whovah... wova

Wood Betony

Stachys betonica. N.O. Labiateae.

Synonym: Bishopswort.

Habitat: Thickets, woods and shady waysides.

Features ? The stem of this well-known wild plant is slender, square and hairy; it gives off a few distant pairs of rough, oblong leaves with rounded teeth. Purplish flowers, arranged in a terminal, oval spike, bloom in July and August. The roots are white and thready. Bitter to the taste, the odour is slight and pleasant.

Part used ? The whole herb.

Action: Aromatic, astringent and alterative.

It is highly recommended for biliousness, stomach cramp and colic, and as a tonic in digestive disorders generally. It is a helpful component of prescriptions in the treatment of rheumatism and blood impurities. A wineglass of the ounce to pint infusion may be taken frequently.

Tilke is interesting on Wood Betony, as his remarks show that the herb was as popular a carminative a hundred years ago as it is to-day ? "This herb boiled with wine or water," he tells us, "is good for those who cannot digest their meals, or have belchings and a continual rising in their stomach."... wood betony

Wood Betony Tea Panacea

Wood Betony Tea has been known since ancient time as an herb able to cure almost any affection (cure-all), from gastric aliments to nervous system deviations. Wood Betony is a perennial herb that grows mainly in areas like Eastern Europe, Asia and Africa. You can recognize it by its oval toothed-like green leaves and bright purple flowers. Also known as stachys officinalis, this herb never grows taller than 70 cm and it can be harvested for medical purposes only during the summer. In ancient times, people believed that wood betony had magical powers and that a ritual made using it could fulfill wishes. Wood Betony Tea Properties Scientific research showed that Wood Betony Tea is a good remedy not only when it comes to external and internal use, but also as a stress releaser and a great purifier. Its main ingredients include betaine, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, harpagide, rosmarinic acid, stachydrine and tannin, which, through their simultaneous action, can heal a large variety of diseases and aliments. Wood Betony Tea Benefits Wood Betony Tea shows its benefits in many areas of the alternative medicine. Not only that is a very good adjuvant in case you want to maintain a good general health, but it also triggers positive reactions from your body in cases of chronic and serious diseases. You may find Wood Betony Tea useful if you suffer from one of the following conditions: - Sore throat, due to flu or long term smoking. Wood Betony tea can clear your respiratory system and also give you a boost of energy. - Headaches or severe migraines, thanks to its wonderful ingredients that prevent inflammations and treat localized pain. - Anxiety, by calming the nerves and increasing the natural endorphins level. - Elevated blood pressure, elevated cholesterol and elevated blood flow. Wood Betony Tea can ease your natural reactions down by inhibiting negative reactions from your heart and brain. - Severe diarrhea and other problems of the digestive track, by fighting bacteria and all possible microbial accumulations. How to make Wood Betony Tea Infusion When preparing Wood Betony Tea infusion, you need freshly picked or dried herbs that you can buy from almost any teashop. Use about 1 teaspoon of herbs for every cup of tea you want to make, add boiling water and wait for 10 minutes. Strain and drink it hot or cold, keeping in mind the fact that this is a medical treatment and cannot replace your coffee habit. Wood Betony Tea Side Effects When taken properly, Wood Betony Tea has no side effects at all. However, high dosages may lead to a series of health problems, such as ulcers, gastritis and nausea. If you’ve been taking Wood Betony Tea for a while and you’re experiencing some unusual reactions, ask for medical help as soon as possible! Wood Betony Tea Contraindications Don’t take Wood Betony Tea if you’re pregnant or breastfeeding. It may lead to uterine contractions and internal bleeding. Also, avoid any treatment based on Wood Betony Tea if you’re preparing for a surgery or need to take blood thinners or anti-coagulant. Children under 2 years should not take this tea since the risks in this case remain unknown. However, if you have your doctor’s approval and you feel confident enough to give it a try, add it to your shopping cart next time you’re in a teashop and enjoy the wonderful benefits of this tea responsibly!... wood betony tea panacea


(English) Resembling a small songbird Wrenn, Wrene, Wrena, Wrenie, Wrenee, Wreney, Wrenny, Wrenna... wren

Wright’s Stain

One of the Romanowski stains used to stain blood films and blood parasites such as those causing relapsing fever, malaria trypanosomiasis and filariasis.... wright’s stain

Writer’s Cramp

A SPASM which affects certain muscles when a person is writing, and which may not occur when the same muscles are employed in other acts. Similar symptoms are observed in the case of musicians (guitar, clarinet and piano in particular), typists, word-processor and computer operators and artists.... writer’s cramp


(Native American) A famously beautiful woman

Wyanete, Wyanette, Wyanett, Wyanetta, Wyaneta, Wynette, Wianet, Wianette, Wianete, Wianett, Wianetta, Wianeta... wyanet


(French) A feisty woman Wyett, Wyeta, Wyette, Wyete... wyetta


(American) A clever and coy woman Wyli, Wylee, Wylea, Wyleah, Wyly, Wyley, Wiley, Wily, Wilee, Wileigh, Wilea, Wileah, Wili, Wilie, Wyleigh... wylie


(Scottish) From the narrow passage Wyndah, Winda, Windah... wynda

Wood Sage

Teucrium scorodonia. N.O. Labiateae.

Synonym: Garlic Sage, Wood Germander.

Habitat: Heaths, commons, woods.

Features ? Very similar in appearance to the ordinary garden, or culinary sage. Part used ? Herb.

Action: Diaphoretic, astringent, emmenagogue, tonic.

In feverish colds and faulty menstruation due to chills. Wineglass doses of the 1 ounce to 1 pint infusions are taken warm. Hool tells us that Wood Sage "combined with Comfrey and Ragwort, freely influences the bladder," and that it is "an appetiser of the first order, and as a tonic will be found equal to Gentian."... wood sage

Woodfordia Fruticosa


Synonym: W. floribunda Salisb.

Family: Lythraceae.

Habitat: Throughout North India, rather scarce in South India.

English: Fire-flame Bush, Shiran- jitea.

Ayurvedic: Dhaataki, Dhaatri, Kun- jaraa, Taamrapushpi, Bahupushpi, Vahnijwaalaa.

Siddha/Tamil: Velakkai.

Action: Dried flower—purifies blood, heals ulcers, astringent, prescribed in haemetemesis, erysipelas, dysentery, diarrhoea, menorrhagia, leucorrhoea. Flowers are used in alcohol-based tonics for fermentation (a yeast strain, saccharomyces cerevisiae, has been isolated). Bark—uterine sedative.

The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia ofIn- dia recommends the flower in acute diarrhoea, haemorrhages, ulcerations and erysipelas.

The dried flowers are powdered and sprinkled over ulcers and wounds. The flowers also enter into an ointment used on pustules of smallpox.

In small doses the plant stimulates, while in large doses depresses the central nervous system.

The flowers and leaves gave polyphe- nols—ellagic acid, polystachoside and myricetin-3-galactoside. Flowers also gave anthocyanins—pelargonidin- 3,5-diglucoside and cyanidin-3,5-di- glucoside; octacosanol, chrysopha- nol-8-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside and beta-sitosterol. Hecogenin, mesoinos- itol and flavone glycosides—quercetin- 3-rhamnoside, naringenin-7-glucoside and kaempferol, have been reported from flowers.

The bark contains C-glucoside, ber- genin.

The flowers, leaves and bark contain tannins—24.1, 12-20 and 20-27% respectively. Dimeric hydrolyzable tannins—woodfordins A, B and C, and trimeric tannins woodfordin D and oenothein A and B have been isoalt- ed from dried flowers. A new tannin monomer, isoschimawalin A and five oligomers—woodfordin E, F, G, H and I, have also been isoalted.

Oenothein A and B exhibited remarkable host-mediated antitumour activity. Woodfordin C and D also showed antitumour activity. Woodfordin C showed inhibitory activity toward DNA topoisomerase II.

Dosage: Flower—3-6 g powder. (API, Vol. I.)

English: Pala Indigo Plant.

Ayurvedic: Shveta Kutaja. (white- flowered), Punkutaja, Indrayava (seeds).

Unani: Inderjao Shireen.

Siddha/Tamil: Irum-paalai, Nila- paalai.

Action: Bark—antidysenteric. Also used in piles and skin diseases. Seeds—antidysenteric, astringent, febrifuge, anthelmintic. Bark and seeds—prescribed in flatulence and bilious affections.

Pods, without seeds, contain the cycloartanes, cycloartenone and cy- cloeucalenol along with alpha- and beta-amyrin, beta-sitosterol, ursolic acid, oleanolic acid and the terpene, wrightial. The leaves contain beta- amyrin. Stem bark gave beta-amyrin, beta-sitosterol and lupeol.

The seeds, leaves and roots have been shown to contain an indigo- yielding glucoside.

The flowers gave 3-O-rhamnogluco- side which exhibited significant anti- inflammatory activity in carrageenan- induced hind paw oedema.

The bark is commonly used as an adulterant of Kurchi Bark (obtained from Holarrhena antidysenterica).... woodfordia fruticosa


(Latin) One who is chaste; pure Wynstell, Wynstele, Wynstella, Wynstela, Winstelle, Winstell, Winstele, Winstel, Wynstel, Winstella, Winstela... wynstelle


(Native American) Of the mountains and valleys; from the state of Wyoming

Wyoma, Wyomin, Wyomine, Wyomia, Wyomya, Wyome, Wyoh, Wyomie, Wyomi, Wyomee, Wyomey, Wyomy, Wyomea, Wyomeah... wyoming


(Welsh) One who is fair Wysse, Whyss, Whysse, Wyse, Whyse... wyss


(Chinese) One with hope... xi-wang

Breasts, Weaning

 Aloe Vera. From time immemorial women of Northern Ethiopia have applied to their nipples raw juice of Aloe Vera to discourage the child from suckling. European tradition favours Rosemary, internally and externally. ... breasts, weaning

Evans, William C. (b.pharm.,, Ph.d., F.r. Pharm. S)

Formerly Reader in Phytochemistry, Department of Pharmacy, University of Nottingham. Research interests: secondary metabolites of the Solanaceae and Erythroxylaceae. Principal author of Trease and Evans’ Pharmacognosy. Visiting lecturer, School of Phytotherapy (Herbal Medicine). ... evans, william c. (b.pharm.,, ph.d., f.r. pharm. s)


A wound is any breach suddenly produced in the tissues of the body by direct violence. An extensive injury of the deeper parts without corresponding injury of the surface is known as a bruise or contusion.

Varieties These are classi?ed according to the immediate e?ect produced: INCISED WOUNDS are usually in?icted with some sharp instrument, and are clean cuts, in which the tissues are simply divided without any damage to surrounding parts. The bleeding from such a wound is apt to be very free, but can be readily controlled. PUNCTURE WOUNDS, or stabs, are in?icted with a pointed instrument. These wounds are dangerous, partly because their depth involves the danger of wounding vital organs; partly because bleeding from a stab is hard to control; and partly because they are di?cult to sterilise. The wound produced by the nickel-nosed bullet is a puncture, much less severe than the ugly lacerated wound caused by an expanding bullet, or by a ricochet, and, if no clothing has been carried in by the bullet, the wound is clean and usually heals at once. LACERATED WOUNDS are those in which tissues are torn, such as injuries caused by machinery.

Little bleeding may occur and a limb can be torn completely away without great loss of blood. Such wounds are, however, especially liable to infection. CONTUSED WOUNDS are those accompanied by much bruising of surrounding parts, as in the case of a blow from a cudgel or poker. There is little bleeding, but healing is slow on account of damage to the edges of the wound. Any of these varieties may become infected.

First-aid treatment The ?rst aim is to check any bleeding. This may be done by pressure upon the edges of the wound with a clean handkerchief, or, if the bleeding is serious, by putting the ?nger in the wound and pressing it upon the spot from which the blood is coming.

If medical attention is available within a few hours, a wound should not be interfered with further than is necessary to stop the bleeding and to cover it with a clean dry handkerchief or bandage. When expert assistance is not soon obtainable, the wound should be cleaned with an antiseptic such as CHLORHEXIDINE or boiled water and the injured part ?xed so that movement is prevented or minimised. A wounded hand or arm is ?xed with a SLING, a wounded leg with a splint (see SPLINTS). If the victim is in SHOCK, he or she must be treated for that. (See also APPENDIX 1: BASIC FIRST AID.)... wounds

Eyes – Watery

Lacrimal disorder of secretion. See: HAY FEVER. ... eyes – watery

Gunshot Wounds

To prevent suppuration and pyaemia – Marigold.

Internally: Marigold petal tea freely.

Externally: Marigold (Calendula) ointment, cream or fomentation with petals. During the Coup d’etat in Paris in 1849, a Dr Jahr saved many limbs with Marigold. Echinacea to allay infection. See entry: WOUNDS. ... gunshot wounds

Wormwood Tea Benefits And Side Effects

Wormwood Tea has been known for centuries as a great herbal treatment. Greeks used it as a treatment for many diseases, mostly concerning the digestive system problems or nervous system affections. Wormwood is a perennial herb that grows mainly in areas like Europe, Asia and Africa. It has speared-like green leaves, bright yellow flowers and its roots resemble to a rhizome. Also known as artemisia absinthus, wormwood has hallucinogenic and psychoactive properties. Wormwood is widely known as absinthe and it is said that great artists like Van Gogh and Hemingway owe a lot of their creation to wormwood consumption. Wormwood Tea Properties Aside from its hallucinogenic properties, Wormwood Tea turns out to be quite a help when it comes to treating certain health problems. Wormwood Tea is one of the bitterest teas on Earth so only take it combined with honey, ginger or lemon. Wormwood is the main ingredient of absinthe liquor and it’s also used as an important additive for wines, vinegar and vermouth. The active substances of this tea are thujone (absinthol or tenacetone), thujyl alcohol, acids, absinthin, tannins, resin, potash, and starch. Wormwood Tea Benefits Wormwood Tea has been used since ancient times as a hallucinogen in many rituals around the world. Africans believed that Wormwood Tea contained the secret to an absolute freedom of mind and that by taking it you could have reached the peak of human creativity. As crazy as these theories may sound, there are still many cults today that base their entire philosophy on Wormwood Tea consumption. Back to the real world, alternative medicine, by its practitioners, found the real medical benefits of this treatment. Wormwood Tea may come in hand if you are suffering from one of the following conditions: - Indigestion, by inhibiting gastric bacterial and by lowering the microbial risk to infections. - Gastric pains, by decreasing the gastric acidity level. - Loss of appetite, by stimulating intestinal actions and stomach functions. - Worms and other parasites of the digestive system, by flushing them away thanks to an active substance called absinthin. - Immune system deficiencies, by increasing the number of antibodies and by redirecting them to the affected areas. How to make Wormwood Tea Infusion When preparing Wormwood Tea infusion, first you need to make sure that the plants you are about to use are exactly what the label says they are. Only buy Wormwood Tea from trusted providers! Second of all, only use a teaspoon of herbs for every two cups of tea you want to make: the wormwood is a very concentrated herb and you need to be careful when dosing the ingredients. Put the dried herbs in a teapot and add boiling water. Wait for 15 or 20 minutes and drink it hot or cold. However, don’t drink more than a cup of tea per day or you’ll poison your entire nervous system! Wormwood Tea Side Effects When taken according to instructions and under supervised care, Wormwood Tea is safe. However, high dosages may lead to hallucinations, paranoia and other severe conditions of the nervous system. If you’ve been taking Wormwood Tea for a more than three weeks and you’ve noticed some unusual changes in your body reaction, talk to a specialist as soon as possible and don’t try to treat it at home! Wormwood Tea Contraindications Wormwood Tea is not recommended for pregnant or breastfeeding women, children, patients suffering from mental deviations or other serious conditions that imply the use of blood thinners and anti-coagulants. The best thing you can do when it comes to Wormwood Tea consumption is to talk to a herbalist or to your doctor in order to find out more about the ups and downs of this very controversial tea. If you get a specialized approval and you feel very confident about this treatment, give it a try and enjoy the benefits of Wormwood Tea responsibly!... wormwood tea benefits and side effects

Wrightia Tomentosa

Roem. & Schult.

Family: Apocynaceae.

Habitat: A tree, found in Rajasthan,

Synonym: W arborea (Dennst.) Mabberley.

Habitat: Punjab, Rajasthan, Bihar, Assam and Western Peninsula.

Ayurvedic: Kutaja (red-flowered). Indrayava (seeds).

Siddha/Tamil: Pala.

Action: Two varieties—male and female—are mentioned in Ayurvedic texts. Mostly, Holarrhena is supposed to be the male and Wrightia the female. In Unani medicine, Inderjao Talkh (bitter) is equated with Holarrhena antidysenterica (Conesse Bark) and Inderjao Shireen (sweet) with Wrightia tinctoria (known as Dyer's Oleander, Blue Dyeing Roseberry).

Dried bark is used as a substitute for Holarrhena antidysenterica bark. Alkaloid conessine is the active principle of both the barks.

Besides conessine, other alkaloids present in the bark are conessine di- hydrate, holarrhine, kurchicine and a very minute quantity of conkurchine. The bark contains beta-sitosterol, lupe- ol, alpha-amyrin and reducing sugars besides alkaloids.

The isoflavone, wrightiadione, isolated from the stem bark, displayed cytotoxic activity. Two aliphatic compounds, n-tritriacont-16-one and hexa- consan-3, 6-diol-12-oic acid, have also been isolated from the bark.

See Wrightia tinctoria and Holar- rhena antidysenterica.... wrightia tomentosa

Memory, Weak

 Amnesia – from slightly impaired to complete loss. Forgetfulness associated with ageing, depression, alcoholism, low thyroid function, Alzheimer’s disease.

Alternatives: to improve concentration.

Teas, Liquid extracts, tinctures or powders: Ginseng, Gotu Kola, Hawthorn (berries or blossoms), Holy Thistle, Horsetail, Kola nuts, Periwinkle (minor), Rosemary, Skullcap, Vervain, Ginkgo.

Ginkgo: impressive results reported.

Practitioner. Ephedra.

Supplements. B-complex, B6, B12, E. Phosphorus, Zinc. ... memory, weak

Nervousness In Young Women

With menstrual problems, menopausal women, ovarian pain, or weak nerves after childbrith.

Tea. Combine equal parts: Raspberry leaves, Skullcap, Motherwort. 1 heaped teaspoon to each cup boiling water; infuse 15 minutes. 1 cup freely.

Formula. Equal parts: Black Cohosh, Helonias, Valerian. Dose: Liquid Extracts: half a teaspoon. Tinctures: 1 teaspoon. Powders: 250mg thrice daily.

Supplements. B-complex. Vitamin C to aid iron absorption. ... nervousness in young women


Recommendations are not intended to take the place of diagnosis and treatment by a medical practitioner or qualified consulting medical herbalist. All information has a record of efficacy, though treatment cannot be expected to be always successful. Any condition that persists for more than ten days should be referred to a doctor, especially if it is not in the nature of a cold or influenza. All reasonable care has been taken in the preparation of this book. The author does not imply any guarantee of cure and cannot accept responsibility for adverse effects arising from the use of thereof.

IN the case of a known serious condition a doctor should be consulted.

ALL medicines should be avoided during pregnancy unless prescribed by a doctor. ... warning

Aquae Waters

Aqua waters are weak and simple solutions of volatile oils in distilled water obtained either by distillation or by simple solution. Still popular as harmless carminatives in infantile colic, mild antispasmodics, etc.

A natural basis for skin lotions (Witch Hazel).

Dill water. (Anethi). Dill seeds 4oz; water 2 and a quarter litres. Distil down to 1 and a quarter litres. Dose: 1-3 teaspoon for children’s colic.

Aniseed water. (Anisi). Aniseeds 4oz; distilled water 2 and a quarter litres. Distil down to 1 and a quarter litres. Antispasmodic for children’s colic, teething troubles, etc. Dose: 1-3 teaspoons. Elderflower water. (Sambuci). Elderflowers 8oz; distilled water 1 and a quarter litres. Distil down to one-fifth. Eye lotion.

Eyebright water. (Euphrasia). Eyebright herb and flowers 4oz; distilled water 2 and a quarter litres. Distil down to 1 and a quarter litres. Antihistamine eye lotion. ... aquae waters

Bartram, John And William

18th century botanists who opened up the then American wilderness in search of medicinal and ornamental plants. They blazed a trail through hostile Indian territory in early pioneering days, bringing back plants to stock the first botanical garden in America. A knowledge of healing by medicinal plants and barks enabled these simple pious Quakers to render aid to other settlers and to the Indians from whom they learnt the art of healing. It is believed their activities would have been devoted exclusively to healing had they not received a commission from King George III to explore and report on the natural history of the country. The Bartrams’ talent in the practice of natural medicine impressed the Swedish explorer/botanist Peter Kalm who noted formulae in his diary.

The Bartrams’ friends included Benjamin Franklin and Washington who often visited their house, resting in the garden with giant trees planted by the Bartrams. John (1699-1777) was described by Linnaeus as the “greatest contemporary natural botanist”. His son, William, was also an explorer- naturalist and artist whose works are now collector’s pieces. ... bartram, john and william

Beach, Dr Wooster (1794-1868)

Scholar and physician. Of the eclectic school of physicians whose pharmacy was drawn from botanic medicine. In 1829 he founded the Medical Society of the United States for teaching the various branches of medical science and botanic medicine. Their methods became so popular that the American Government granted many charters for schools to teach the system.

Beach made many long visits to Britain gleaning information from the British Museum, Guy’s Hospital and from consulting medical herbalists. Ex-Professor of several American universities, he organised herbal medication into a system defined in his books: “American Practice of Medicine”, “Midwifery”, and “Family Physician” which proved a bestseller. ... beach, dr wooster (1794-1868)

Brash, Water

See waterbrash.... brash, water

Contraception, Withdrawal Method Of

See coitus interruptus.... contraception, withdrawal method of

Cramp, Writer’s

Painful spasm in the muscles of the hand caused by repetitive movements, which makes writing or typing impossible.... cramp, writer’s

Genital Warts

See warts, genital.... genital warts

Irrigation, Wound

Cleansing of a deep wound by repeatedly washing it out with a medicated solution or sterile saline.... irrigation, wound

Mallory–weiss Syndrome

A tear at the lower end of the oesophagus, causing vomiting of blood. The syndrome is commonly caused by retching and vomiting after drinking excessive amounts of alcohol. Less often, violent coughing, a severe asthma attack, or epileptic convulsions may be the cause.

An endoscope is passed down the oesophagus to confirm the diagnosis. The tear generally heals within 10 days and no special treatment is usually required. However, a blood transfusion may sometimes be necessary.... mallory–weiss syndrome

Bryony, White

Wild vine. Bryonia alba L. French: Bryone blanche. German: Zaunru?be. Spanish: Brionia. Italian: Briona bianca. Contains cucurbitacins. Sliced dried root.

Action: diaphoretic, expectorant, powerful hydragogue, emetic, cathartic, anti-tumour, anti-rheumatic. Externally: as a rubefacient. Internal use, practitioner only.

Uses: Rheumatism worse from movement, rheumatic fever, acute arthritis. Heart disorder following rheumatic fever. For absorption of serous fluid as in pleurisy. Congested bronchi and lungs. Synovitis, malaria and zymotic diseases.

Combinations: With Black Cohosh for muscular pain. Also for tenderness of the spinal vertebre (an important indication). With Poke root for inflammation of the breast or testicles.

Preparations: Owing to difficulty of the layman to dispense accurately dosage of powder or decoction, use is best confined to liquid extract or tincture; small doses frequently repeated; large doses avoided. Liquid Extract: 10 drops in 4oz water; dose 1 teaspoon every half hour.

Tincture: dose; 2 teaspoons every half hour (acute) cases; thrice daily (chronic).

External. Tincture used as a lotion.

Note: Not used in pregnancy, lactation or in presence of piles. ... bryony, white

Cancer – Womb

The second most common cancer in women. The alarming aspect of national health is the almost epidemic increase of cervical malignancy in younger women due to frequency of coitus, promiscuity, early coitus and contact with the herpes virus. All are mostly squamous cell carcinoma. Research studies have demonstrated a link between cigarette smoking and cancer of the cervix. (Dr Dan Hellberg)

Symptoms. Low backache, bleeding after intercourse, between periods or after ‘the change’. Abdominal swelling after 40 years of age. Sixty per cent of patients have no symptoms. Malodorous vaginal discharge. A positive cervical “pap” smear or cone-shaped biopsy examined by a pathologist confirms. Vaginal bleeding occurs in the later stages.

A letter in the New England Journal of Medicine suggests a strong link between increased risk of cervical cancer and cigarette smoking, nicotine being detected in the cervical fluids of cigarette smokers. This form of cancer is almost unknown in virgins living in closed communities such as those of the Church.

Conventional treatment is usually hysterectomy. Whatever treatment is adopted little ground is lost by supportive cleansing herbal teas. Mullein for pain.

Sponges loaded with powdered Goldenseal held against the cervix with a contraceptive cap can give encouraging results. Replace after three days. Vitamin A supplements are valuable to protect against the disease. The vitamin may also be applied topically in creams.

This form of cancer resists chemical treatment, but has been slowed down and halted by Periwinkle (Vinchristine) without damaging normal cells.

G.B. Ibotson, MD, reported disappearance of cancer of the cervix by infusions of Violet leaves by mouth and by vaginal injection. (Lancet 1917, i, 224)

In a study group of cervical cancer patients it was found that women with carcinoma in situ (CIS) were more likely to have a total Vitamin A intake below the pooled median (3450iu). Vitamin A supplementation is indicated together with zinc. (Bio-availability of Vitamin A is linked with zinc levels.) Vitamin A and zinc may be applied topically in creams and ointments.

Orthodox treatment: radiotherapy, chemotherapy, hysterectomy. As oestrogen can stimulate dormant cells the surgeon may wish to remove ovaries also. Whatever the decision, herbal supportive treatment may be beneficial. J.T Kent, MD, recommends Thuja and Shepherd’s Purse. Agents commonly indicated: Echinacea, Wild Indigo, Thuja, Mistletoe, Wild Yam. Herbal teas may be taken with profit. Dr Alfred Vogel advises Mistletoe from the oak (loranthus europaeus).

Other alternatives:– Teas. Red Clover, Violet, Mistletoe, Plantain, Clivers. 1-2 teaspoons to each cup boiling water. Infuse 15 minutes. 1 cup freely.

Decoctions. White Pond Lily. Thuja. Echinacea. Wild Yam. Any one.

Tablets/capsules. Echinacea. Goldenseal. Wild Yam. Thuja.

Formula No. 1. Red Clover 2; Echinacea 1; Shepherd’s Purse 1; Thuja quarter. Mix. Dose: Powders: 750mg (three 00 capsules or half a teaspoon). Liquid extracts: 1-2 teaspoons. Tinctures: 1-3 teaspoons. Formula No. 2. Equal parts: Poke root, Goldenseal, Mistletoe. Mix. Dose: Powders: 500mg (two 00 capsules or one-third teaspoon). Liquid extracts: 1 teaspoon. Tinctures: 2 teaspoons.

Diet. Women who eat large quantities of meat and fatty foods are up to four times the risk of those eating mainly fruit and vegetables.

Vaginal injection. 1. Strong infusion Red Clover to which 10-15 drops Tincture Goldenseal is added. Follow with tampon smeared with Goldenseal Salve.

2. Strong decoction Yellow Dock to which 10-15 drops Tincture Goldenseal is added. Follow with tampon smeared with Goldenseal salve.

If bleeding is severe douche with neat distilled extract of Witch Hazel.

Chinese Herbalism. See – CANCER: CHINESE PRESCRIPTION. Also: Decoction of ssu-hsieh-lu (Galium gracile) 2-4 liang.

Advice. One-yearly smear test for all women over 40.

Diet. See: DIET – CANCER.

Treatment by a general medical practitioner or hospital oncologist. ... cancer – womb

Penile Warts

See warts, genital.... penile warts

John’s Wort

A herbal remedy derived from the plant HYPERICUM PERFORTUM. Capsules or infusions taken orally are effective in treating mild depression. St. John’s wort is also used in creams for burns, wounds, and joint problems. However, St John’s wort interacts with a wide variety of other medications. People should not take a St John’s wort preparation without first consulting a doctor or pharmacist.... john’s wort

Sturge–weber Syndrome

A rare, congenital condition that affects the skin and the brain. Characteristically, a large purple birthmark (port wine stain) extends over one side of the face, including the eye. Malformation of cerebral blood vessels may cause weakness on one side of the body, progressive mental handicap, and epilepsy. Glaucoma may develop in the affected eye, leading to loss of vision.

Seizures can usually be controlled with anticonvulsant drugs.

In severe cases, brain surgery may be necessary.... sturge–weber syndrome

Sucking Chest Wound

An open wound in the chest wall through which air passes, causing the lung on that side to collapse.

Severe breathlessness and a life-threatening lack of oxygen result.... sucking chest wound

Health Stores (wholesale) Ltd

Registered as a Friendly Society (1932) under the Industrial and Provident Societies Act. The buying society of the independent health food trader. Owned and managed entirely by retailer members and concerned with food standards. Stringent rules govern membership and conduct of business. Members are the only shareholders, who are required to hold 20 withdrawable shares of £5 each.

Financial advantages to members include earning profit-sharing discounts: suppliers are relieved of the burden of collecting separate accounts and benefit from having their products approved by the retailers own organisation. Its meetings are a focal point for reporting on up-to-date research and protecting the public interest. Address: Queen’s Road, Nottingham NG2 3AS. ... health stores (wholesale) ltd

Horehound, White

 Marrubium vulgare L. German: Maurerandorn. French: Marrube blanc. Spanish: Marrubio. Italian: Marrobio bianco. Dutch: Gemeene malrove. Flowering tops and leaves. Keynote: chest.

Constituents: Marrubiin, volatile oil, tannins, alkaloids, diterpene alcohols.

Action: stimulating expectorant, mild antispasmodic, sedative, amphoteric, vulnerary, diuretic, stomach and liver bitter tonic.

Uses: Chronic bronchitis, whooping cough, hard cough with little phlegm, common cold, loss of voice, snake bite, dog bite. Chronic gall bladder disease, fevers, malaria, hepatitis, “Yellowness of the eyes”. Combinations. Teas. (1) with Coltsfoot and Hyssop (equal parts) for hard cough. (2) with Lobelia and Iceland Moss for chronic chest complaints.

Preparations: Thrice daily.

Tea. 1 teaspoon to each cup boiling water; infuse 15 minutes. Dose: half-1 cup. Liquid extract BHC Vol 1. 1:1, 20 per cent ethanol. Dose: 1-2ml.

Tincture BHC Vol 1. 1:5, 25 per cent ethanol. Dose: 3-6ml.

Horehound ale: wholesome beverage.

Horehound, Hyssop and Honey Mixture.

Traditional English syrup.

Note: Horehound, Horseradish, Coriander, Lettuce and Nettles are the five bitter herbs eaten by the Jews at their Passover feast according to the Old Testament. ... horehound, white

Lung Weakness

There is no reason why lung weakness of childhood should not, in later life, resolve into vigorous respiration. However, some cases present a life-long hazard, arresting full development and reducing the body’s ability to defend itself. To strengthen alveolar tissue, allay infection and enhance respiratory function a good pectoral may ensure against future disorders of lungs, trachea, bronchi and bronchioles.

Tablets/capsules. Iceland Moss.

Decoction. Irish Moss.

Tea. Combine equal parts, Comfrey, White Horehound, Liquorice. 1 heaped teaspoon to each cup water simmered gently 1 minute. Dose: half-1 cup morning and evening. Pinch Cayenne improves.

Potential benefits of Comfrey for this condition outweigh risk. ... lung weakness

Guinea Worm Disease

A tropical disease caused by a female parasitic worm more than 1 m long. Infection is the result of drinking water containing the water flea cyclops, which harbours larvae of the worm. The larvae pass through the intestine and mature in body tissues. After about a year, the adult female worm, now pregnant, approaches the skin surface and creates an inflamed blister that bursts, exposing the end of the worm. Urticaria, nausea, and diarrhoea often develop while the blister is forming. The disease occurs in Africa, South America, the Caribbean, Middle East, and India.

The traditional remedy is to wind the worm from the skin on to a small stick. Once the worm is out, the condition usually clears up. The drugs tiabendazole and niridazole are given to reduce inflammation, antibiotics are given to control secondary infection, and the patient is immunized against tetanus.... guinea worm disease

Walking Aids

Equipment for increasing the mobility of people who have a disorder that affects their ability to walk. Aids include walking sticks, crutches, and walking frames.... walking aids

Walking, Delayed

Most children walk by around 15 months of age. Delayed walking may be suspected if the child is unable to walk unassisted by 18 months (see developmental delay).... walking, delayed

Warts, Genital

Fleshy, painless, usually soft lumps that grow in and around the entrance of the vagina, around the anus, and on the penis. Genital warts are transmitted by sexual contact and are caused by a papillomavirus. There may be an interval of from a few weeks up to 18 months between time of infection and the appearance of the warts.

Genital warts have been linked with the development of cervical cancer (see cervix, cancer of).

They may be removed by cryosurgery or by the application of the drug podophyllin, but there is a tendency for them to recur.... warts, genital

Wasp Stings

See insect stings.... wasp stings

Watering Eye

An increase in volume of the tear film, usually producing epiphora (overflow of tears). Watering may be caused by excess tear production due to emotion, conjunctival or corneal irritation, or an obstruction to the channel that drains tears from the eye. (See also lacrimal apparatus.)... watering eye

Water On The Brain

A nonmedical term for hydrocephalus.... water on the brain


A simple compound that is essential for all life. Its molecular structure is H2O (2 atoms of hydrogen bonded to 1 of oxygen). Water is the most common substance in the body, accounting for about 99 per cent of all molecules, but a smaller percentage of total body weight. Approximately 2 thirds of the body’s water content is contained within the body cells, and the remaining third is extracellular (found, for example, in the blood plasma, lymph, and cerebrospinal and tissue fluid).

Water provides the medium in which all metabolic reactions take place (see metabolism), and transports substances around the body. The blood plasma carries water to all body tissues, and excess water from tissues for elimination via the liver, kidneys, lungs, and skin. The passage of water in the tissue fluid into and out of cells takes place by osmosis.

Water is taken into the body in food and drink and is lost in urine and faeces, as exhaled water vapour, and by sweating (see dehydration). The amount of water excreted in urine is regulated by the kidneys (see also ADH). Extra water is needed to excrete excess amounts of substances, such as sugar or salt, in the blood, and high water intake is essential in hot climates where a large amount of water is lost in sweat.

In some disorders, such as kidney failure or heart failure, insufficient water is excreted in the urine, resulting in oedema.... water

Water-borne Infection

A disease caused by infective or parasitic organisms transmitted via water. Infections can be contracted if infected water is drunk, if it contaminates food, or if individuals swim or wade in it. Worldwide, contamination of drinking water is an important mode of transmission for various diseases including hepatitis A, many viral and bacterial causes of diarrhoea, typhoid fever, cholera, amoebiasis, and some types of worm infestation.

Swimming in polluted water should be avoided because, if swallowed, there is a risk of contracting disease. In addition, a form of leptospirosis is caused by contact with water contaminated by rat’s urine. In tropical countries, there is also a risk of contracting schistosomiasis (bilharzia), which is a serious disease caused by a fluke that can burrow through the swimmer’s skin.... water-borne infection

Water On The Knee

A popular term for accumulation of fluid within or around the knee joint. The most common cause is bursitis. (See also effusion, joint).... water on the knee

Water Retention

Accumulation of fluid in body tissues (see oedema).... water retention

Water Tablets

A nonmedical term for diuretic drugs.... water tablets


A flap of skin, such as might occur between adjacent fingers or toes. Webbing is a common congenital abnormality that often runs in families and which may affect 2 or more digits. Mild webbing is completely harmless, but surgical correction may be performed for cosmetic reasons. In severe cases, adjacent digits may be completely fused (see syndactyly). Webbing of the neck is a feature of Turner’s syndrome.... webbing

Welder’s Eye

Acute conjunctivitis and keratopathy (corneal damage) caused by the intense ultraviolet light emitted by an electric welding arc.

Welder’s eye, which is also known as arc eye, results from the failure to wear adequate eye protection while welding.... welder’s eye

Werdnig–hoffmann Disease

A very rare inherited disorder of the nervous system that affects infants. Also known as infantile spinal muscular atrophy, Werdnig–Hoffmann disease is a type of motor neuron disease, affecting the nerve cells in the spinal cord that control muscle movement.

Marked floppiness and paralysis occur during the first few months, and affected children rarely survive beyond age 3.

There is no cure for the disease. Treatment aims to keep the affected infant as comfortable as possible.... werdnig–hoffmann disease

Wernicke’s Area

An area of the cerebral cortex in the brain that is involved in the interpretation of spoken and written language.... wernicke’s area


A chair mounted on wheels used to provide mobility for a person unable to walk.

Manual wheelchairs are designed so that the hand-rims can be easily gripped by a disabled person.

They can also be pushed by a helper.

Powered wheelchairs use batteries and are controlled electronically by finger or chin pressure, or breath control.... wheelchair


The heaviness of a person or object. In children, weight is routinely used as an index of growth. In healthy adults, weight remains more or less stable as dietary energy intake matches energy expenditure (see metabolism).

Weight loss or weight gain occurs if the net balance is disturbed.

Weight can be compared with standardized charts for height, age, and sex. At all ages, divergence from the normal weight for height may have medical implications. For example, if weight is below 80 per cent of the standard weight for height, the individual’s nutrition is probably inadequate as a result of poor diet or disease, and if 20 per cent above the standard, he or she is considered to be suffering from obesity. An alternative method of assessment is use of the body mass index (, or Quetelet’s index), obtained by dividing weight in kilograms by the square of height in metres. A healthy weight is 20–25 ; a of greater than 25 indicates that a person is overweight. weight loss This occurs any time there is a decrease in energy intake compared with energy expenditure. The decrease may be due to deliberate weight reduction or a change in diet or activity level. It may also be a symptom of a disorder. Unexplained weight loss should always be investigated by a doctor.

Many diseases disrupt the appetite, which may lead to weight loss. Depression reduces the motivation to eat, peptic ulcer causes pain and possible food avoidance, and some kidney disorders cause loss of appetite due to the effect of uraemia. In anorexia nervosa and bulimia, complex psychological factors affect an individual’s eating pattern.

Digestive disorders, such as gastroenteritis, lead to weight loss through vomiting. Cancer of the oesophagus (see oesophagus, cancer of) and stomach cancer cause loss of weight, as does malabsorption of nutrients in certain disorders of the intestine or pancreas.

Some disorders cause weight loss by increasing the rate of metabolic activity in cells. Examples are any type of cancer, chronic infection such as tuberculosis, and hyperthyroidism. Untreated diabetes mellitus also causes weight loss due to a number of factors.... weight

Weight Reduction

The process of losing excess body fat. A person who is severely overweight (see obesity) is more at risk of various illnesses, such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension (high blood pressure), and heart disease.

The most efficient way to lose weight is to eat 500–1,000 kcal (2,100–4,200 kJ) a day less than the body’s total energy requirements. Exercise also forms an extremely important part of a reducing regime, burning excess energy and improving muscle tone.

In most circumstances, drugs play little part in a weight loss programme.

However, sibutramine and orlistat may be useful adjuncts to a reducing diet and may be appropriate for some people with a high (see body mass index). Appetite suppressants related to amfetamines are not recommended.... weight reduction

Wernicke–korsakoff Syndrome

An uncommon brain disorder almost always related to malnutrition occurring in chronic alcohol dependence, but occasionally due to that which occurs in other conditions, such as cancer. Wernicke–Korsakoff syndrome is caused by deficiency of thiamine (see vitamin B complex), which affects the brain and nervous system.The disease consists of 2 stages: Wernicke’s encephalopathy and Korsakoff’s psychosis. Wernicke’s encephalopathy usually develops suddenly and produces nystagmus (abnormal, jerky eye movements), ataxia (difficulty in coordinating body movements), slowness, and confusion. Sufferers usually have signs of neuropathy, such as loss of sensation, pins-and-needles, or impaired reflexes. The level of consciousness falls progressively and may lead to coma and death unless treated. The condition is a medical emergency. Treatment with high doses of intravenous thiamine often reverses most of the symptoms, sometimes within a few hours.

Korsakoff’s psychosis may follow Wernicke’s encephalopathy if treatment is not begun promptly enough. Symptoms consist of severe amnesia, apathy, and disorientation. Korsakoff’s psychosis is usually irreversible.... wernicke–korsakoff syndrome

Wilms’ Tumour

A type of kidney cancer, also called nephroblastoma, that occurs mainly in children.... wilms’ tumour

Wiring Of The Jaws

Immobilization of the jaws by means of metal wires to allow a fracture of the jaw to heal or as part of a treatment for obesity.

When a fracture is being treated, the jaws are kept wired in a fixed position for about 6 weeks. For promoting weight loss, the jaws are wired for as long as a year. In both cases, the person is unable to chew and can take only a liquid or semi-liquid diet. This form of diet treatment often fails because the person resumes previous eating habits following removal of the wires.... wiring of the jaws

Witches’ Milk

A thin, white discharge from the nipple of a newborn infant, caused by maternal hormones that entered the fetus’s circulation through the placenta. Witches’ milk occurs quite commonly. It is usually accompanied by enlargement of 1 or both of the baby’s breasts. The condition is harmless and usually disappears spontaneously within a few weeks.... witches’ milk

Withdrawal Method

See coitus interruptus.... withdrawal method

Withdrawal Syndrome

Unpleasant mental and physical symptoms experienced when a person stops using a drug on which he or she is dependent (see drug dependence). Withdrawal syndrome most commonly occurs in those with alcohol dependence or dependence on opioids, in smokers, and in people addicted to tranquillizers, amfetamines, cocaine, marijuana, and caffeine.

Alcohol withdrawal symptoms start 6–8 hours after cessation of intake and may last up to 7 days. They include trembling of the hands, nausea, vomiting, sweating, cramps, anxiety, and, sometimes, seizures. (See also confusion, delirium tremens, and hallucinations.)

Opioid withdrawal symptoms start after 8–12 hours and may last for 7–10 days. Symptoms include restlessness, sweating, runny eyes and nose, yawning, diarrhoea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, dilated pupils, loss of appetite, irritability, weakness, tremor, and depression.

Withdrawal symptoms from barbiturate drugs and meprobamate start after 12–24 hours, beginning with tremor, anxiety, restlessness, and weakness, sometimes followed by delirium, hallucinations, and, occasionally, seizures. A period of prolonged sleep occurs 3–8 days after onset. Withdrawal from benzodiazepine drugs may begin much more slowly and can be life-threatening.

Withdrawal symptoms from nicotine develop gradually over 24–48 hours and include irritability, concentration problems, frustration, headaches, and anxiety. Discontinuation of cocaine or amfetamines results in extreme tiredness, lethargy, and dizziness. Cocaine withdrawal may also lead to tremor, severe depression, and sweating.

Withdrawal symptoms from marijuana include tremor, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, sweating, irritability, and sleep problems. Caffeine withdrawal may lead to tiredness, headaches, and irritability.

Severe withdrawal syndromes require medical treatment.

Symptoms may be suppressed by giving the patient small quantities of the drug he or she had been taking.

More commonly, a substitute drug is given, such as methadone for opioid drugs or diazepam for alcohol.

The dose of the drug is then gradually reduced.... withdrawal syndrome

Wobble Board

A balancing board used during physiotherapy to improve muscle strength and coordination in the feet, ankles, and legs.

A wobble board is sometimes used after an ankle sprain.... wobble board

Writer’s Cramp

See cramp, writer’s.... writer’s cramp

Anogenital Warts

see condyloma; wart.... anogenital warts

Biologic Width

(in dentistry) the combined width of the *junctional epithelium and connective tissue attachment around the root surface of a tooth: in other words, the distance between the deepest point of the gingival sulcus and the *alveolus. Dental restorations must respect this natural dimension if harmful consequences are to be avoided.... biologic width


n. a dental X-ray film that provides a view of the crowns of the teeth together with the alveolar bone in part of both upper and lower jaws. This view is used in the diagnosis of caries and periodontal disease (where alveolar bone does not appear on the bite-wing this indicates loss of bony support).... bite-wing

Case Work

see social services.... case work

Coal-worker’s Pneumoconiosis

a lung disease caused by coal dust. It affects mainly coal miners but also other exposed workers, such as lightermen, if the lungs’ capacity to accommodate and remove the particles is exceeded. See pneumoconiosis.... coal-worker’s pneumoconiosis

Worm Infestation

Several types of worm, or their larvae, existing as parasites of humans. They may live in the intestines, blood, lymphatic system, bile ducts, or in organs such as the liver. In many cases, they cause few or no symptoms, but some can cause chronic illness. There are 2 main classes: roundworms and platyhelminths, which are subdivided into cestodes (tapeworms) and trematodes (flukes).

Worm diseases found in developed countries include threadworm infestation, ascariasis, whipworm infestation, toxocariasis, liver-fluke infestation, and various tapeworm infestations. Those occurring in tropical regions include hookworm infestation, filariasis, guinea worm disease, and schistosomiasis.

Worms may be acquired by eating undercooked, infected meat, by contact with soil or water containing worm larvae, or by accidental ingestion of worm eggs from soil contaminated by infected faeces.

Most infestations can be easily eradicated with anthelmintic drugs.... worm infestation

Cotton-wool Spots

soft fluffy spots in the retina resulting from accumulations of *axoplasm in the nerve-fibre layer of the retina. These may indicate diseases causing hypoxia (oxygen deficiency) in the nerve-fibre layer (e.g. diabetes, hypertension, connective-tissue disease, or AIDS).... cotton-wool spots

Dandy–walker Syndrome

a form of *cerebral palsy in which the *cerebellum is usually the part of the brain affected. It leads to unsteadiness of balance and an abnormal gait and may be associated with *hydrocephalus. [W. E. Dandy (1886–1946) and A. E. Walker (1907–95), US surgeons]... dandy–walker syndrome

Diffusion Weighted Imaging

a method of creating images by *magnetic resonance imaging that relies on the amount of available space that individual water molecules have to move in, which depends on the local microstructure. Pathological tissues generally are less organized, with more space for diffusion and a higher signal.... diffusion weighted imaging

Early Warning System

(EWS) a system to detect deteriorating patients on the ward. Certain physical parameters are accorded scores: the higher the scores for individual patients, the greater the deterioration in their condition. Parameters scored include blood pressure, respiratory rate, pulse rate, blood oxygen saturation, and level of consciousness. Adjustments can be made for increased age.... early warning system

Frozen Watchfulness

the state of a child who is unresponsive to its surroundings but is clearly aware of them. The child is usually expressionless and difficult to engage but of normal intelligence. Frozen watchfulness is usually a marker of *child abuse.... frozen watchfulness

Gunshot Wound

a common cause of both military and civil injuries. Gunshot wounds are usually produced by high-velocity missiles: deep-seated tissue destruction of thermal origin is a major complication.... gunshot wound

Hospital Social Worker

a social worker employed to assist hospital patients with social problems that may arise through illness. See also social services.... hospital social worker

Jaw Wiring

a radical but reversible approach to obtain weight loss in which the jaws are wired together surgically to restrict food intake to simple fluids. Success can be dramatic but weight is often regained once the restriction is removed and normal eating habits are resumed. See also bariatric surgery.... jaw wiring

Jehovah’s Witnesses

a religious movement important in medicine because of its biblical prohibition on using blood or blood products, even to save a life. Individual witnesses who undergo transfusion (even against their will or unknowingly) risk being seen by their community as defiled and damned for eternity. Physicians therefore may have to respond in critical circumstances to a competent adult’s decision to refuse treatment: there may be alternative nonbiological methods of treatment. An accident and emergency department should have a discussed and agreed policy, with senior staff available to help and counsel junior staff.... jehovah’s witnesses

Kimmelstiel–wilson Lesion

n. a nodular form of glomerulosclerosis associated with diabetic nephropathy. See also diabetic glomerulosclerosis. [P. Kimmelstiel and C. Wilson (20th century), US physicians]... kimmelstiel–wilson lesion

Kugelberg–wellander Disease

(juvenile spinal muscular atrophy) see spinal muscular atrophy. [E. Kugelberg and L. Wellander (20th century), Swedish neurologists]... kugelberg–wellander disease

Health And Wellbeing Board

(HWB) a statutory local authority committee that aims to improve integration between local health care, social care, and other public service providers. HWBs (of which there are over 130) also have a responsibility to reduce health inequalities and produce a local joint strategic needs assessment to inform commissioning of local services. Each upper-tier local authority is obliged under the Health and Social Care Act 2012 to have an HWB, whose membership must include: an elected local representative; the local *Directors of Public Health, adult social services, and children’s social services; and representatives from the local *Healthwatch, each local *clinical commissioning group, and *NHS England.... health and wellbeing board

Low-molecular-weight Heparin

a type of *heparin that is more readily absorbed and requires less frequent administration than standard heparin preparations used as *parenteral anticoagulant therapy to prevent and treat deep vein thrombosis following surgery or during kidney dialysis. Preparations in use include, dalteparin sodium, enoxaparin sodium, and tinzaparin sodium.... low-molecular-weight heparin

Mallory–weiss Syndrome

trauma of the mucosal lining at the junction of the oesophagus (gullet) and stomach following protracted vomiting and retching. It is associated with *haematemesis and rarely perforation of the oesophagus. [G. K. Mallory (1926– ), US pathologist; S. Weiss (1899–1942), US physician]... mallory–weiss syndrome

Malt-worker’s Lung

a form of extrinsic allergic *alveolitis seen in people who work with barley.... malt-worker’s lung

Mann–whitney U Test

see significance.... mann–whitney u test

Marcus Gunn Jaw-winking Syndrome

a congenital condition characterized by drooping (*ptosis) of one eyelid. On opening or moving the mouth, the droopy lid elevates momentarily, resembling a wink. It is believed to be due to an abnormal innervation of the levator muscle by the trigeminal nerve. [R. Marcus Gunn (1850–1909), British ophthalmologist]... marcus gunn jaw-winking syndrome

Neonatal Early Warning Score

an assessment tool for newborn babies, consisting of a chart in which a combination of *vital signs, neurological involvement, observation of blue skin and lips, and level of behavioural response indicate the appropriate level of concern. It is colour-coordinated from red to green to enable standardized escalation of concerns about the sick baby.... neonatal early warning score

Nhs Walk-in Centre

a medical centre offering free and fast access to health-care advice and treatment. The first centres were opened in 2000. They provide advice and treatment for minor injuries and illnesses as well as guidance on how to use NHS services. Currently, the NHS offers a mix of walk-in centres, urgent care centres, minor injury units, and urgent treatment centres, all with different levels of service. By the end of 2019, these will all be called urgent treatment centres.... nhs walk-in centre

Osler–rendu–weber Disease

(hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia) a hereditary (autosomal *dominant) disorder characterized by thinning of the blood vessel walls, resulting in abnormally wide and fragile blood vessels. Patients may develop telangiectasia (see telangiectasis), nosebleeds, and arteriovenous malformations (see angioma). It is caused by mutations in the endoglin (ENG) gene or the activin receptor-like kinase (ALK-1) gene. [Sir W. Osler (1849–1919), Canadian physician; H. J. M. Rendu (1844–1902), French physician; F. P. Weber (1863–1962), British physician]... osler–rendu–weber disease

Oval Window

see fenestra.... oval window

Prader–willi Syndrome

(Prader–Willi–Labhart syndrome) a congenital condition that is inherited as an autosomal *dominant trait and is due to an abnormality of chromosome 15 (see imprinting). It is marked by pathological overeating and resulting obesity (affected children often subsequently develop type 2 diabetes), lethargy, short stature, a characteristic facial expression, learning disabilities, and underactivity of the testes or ovaries (*hypogonadism) due to lack of pituitary gonadotrophins. It is a cause of delayed puberty. [A. Prader, H. Willi, and A. Labhart (20th century), Swiss paediatricians]... prader–willi syndrome

Pulmonary Capillary Wedge Pressure

(PCWP) an indirect measurement of the pressure of blood in the left atrium of the heart, which indicates the adequacy of left heart function. It is measured using a catheter wedged in the most distal segment of the pulmonary artery. See also Swan-Ganz catheter.... pulmonary capillary wedge pressure

Q Wave

the downward deflection on an *electrocardiogram that indicates the beginning of ventricular depolarization. An abnormally deep and wide Q wave is an indication of prior heart muscle damage due to heart attack.... q wave

Round Window

see fenestra.... round window


n. see somnambulism.... sleep-walking

Social Worker

see social services.... social worker

Statement Of Fitness For Work

a medical certificate that replaced forms Med 3 and Med 5 in April 2010 (see Appendix 8).... statement of fitness for work

Sturge–weber Syndrome

see angioma. [W. A. Sturge (1850–1919) and F. P. Weber (1863–1962), British physicians]... sturge–weber syndrome

Thought Withdrawal

a symptom of psychosis in which patients believe that their own thoughts are being taken out of their head by an outside force. This is a *Schneiderian first-rank symptom, highly indicative of schizophrenia.... thought withdrawal

Tooth Wear

(tooth surface loss) a condition in which loss of tooth substance is excessive for the patient’s age. It includes *attrition, *erosion, and *abrasion, but the cause is not always obvious. A combination of intrinsic and extrinsic factors may be responsible.... tooth wear

Tooth Whitening

see bleaching.... tooth whitening

 waardenburg’s Syndrome

an inherited form of deafness accompanied by a characteristic white forelock of hair and multiple colours within the irises of the eyes. It is inherited as an autosomal *dominant disease, i.e. the children of an affected parent have a 50% chance of inheriting the disorder, although severity is variable. The gene responsible has been identified. [P. J. Waardenburg (1886–1979), Dutch ophthalmologist]...  waardenburg’s syndrome


n. a thin sheet made from moistened flour, formerly used to enclose a powdered medicine that is taken by mouth.... wafer

Wagr Syndrome

Wilms’ tumour (see nephroblastoma), aniridia, genitourinary abnormalities, and mental retardation: a condition due to a deletion of part of the short arm of chromosome 11.... wagr syndrome

Waist To Hip Ratio

(WHR) the ratio of the circumference of the waist to that of the hips. It is used as a measure of obesity and is a more reliable predictor of obesity-related mortality than *body mass index alone.... waist to hip ratio

Waiter’s-tip Deformity

see Erb’s palsy.... waiter’s-tip deformity

Waldenstrom’s Macroglobulinaemia

(lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma) a type of low-grade relatively slow-growing non-Hodgkin’s *lymphoma characterized by enlarged lymph nodes and high levels of abnormal IgM (*macroglobulin) in the blood (see macroglobulinaemia). [J. G. Waldenstrom (1906–96), Swedish physician]... waldenstrom’s macroglobulinaemia

Waldeyer’s Ring

the ring of lymphoid tissue formed by the *tonsils. [H. W. G. von Waldeyer (1836–1921), German anatomist]... waldeyer’s ring

Walking Distance

the measured distance that a patient can walk before he or she is stopped by pain in the muscles, usually the calf muscles, or breathlessness. It is a useful estimate of the degree of impairment of the blood supply. See claudication.... walking distance

Wallerian Degeneration

degeneration of a ruptured nerve fibre that occurs within the nerve sheath distal to the point of severance. [A. V. Waller (1816–70), British physician]... wallerian degeneration

Warthin’s Tumour

(adenolymphoma) a tumour of the parotid salivary glands, containing epithelial and lymphoid tissues with cystic spaces. [A. S. Warthin (1866–1931), US pathologist]... warthin’s tumour

Waterhouse–friderichsen Syndrome

acute haemorrhage in the adrenal glands with haemorrhage into the skin associated with the sudden onset of acute bacteraemic *shock. It is usually caused by meningococcal septicaemia (see meningitis). [R. Waterhouse (1873–1958), British physician; C. Friderichsen (20th century), Danish physician]... waterhouse–friderichsen syndrome

Waters’ Projection

a *posteroanterior X-ray film to show the maxillae, maxillary sinuses, and zygomatic bones. [C. A. Waters (1888–1961), US radiologist]... waters’ projection


n. the *SI unit of power, equal to 1 joule per second. In electrical terms it is the energy expended per second when a current of 1 ampere flows between two points on a conductor between which there is a potential difference of 1 volt. 1 watt = 107 ergs per second. Symbol: W.... watt

Watzke–allen Sign

a test used in the diagnosis of a macular hole in the retina. A thin line of light is projected over the macula with a *slit lamp and the patient is asked to report on its appearance. A line appearing broken may indicate a macular hole.... watzke–allen sign


n. the *SI unit of magnetic flux, equal to the flux linking a circuit of one turn that produces an e.m.f. of 1 volt when reduced uniformly to zero in 1 second. Symbol: Wb.... weber

Water-deprivation Test

a test for *diabetes insipidus in which fluid and food intake is withheld completely for up to 24 hours, with regular measurement of plasma and urinary *osmolality and body weight. Normally (and in a person with psychogenic *polydipsia) the output of *vasopressin will be increased in order to concentrate the urine as the plasma osmolality rises; correspondingly, the urine osmolality also rises and its volume diminishes. In a patient with diabetes insipidus, however, the urine osmolality will remain low and of high volume while the patient steadily dehydrates. The test must be abandoned if the patient loses 3% of body weight.... water-deprivation test

Weber’s Test

a hearing test in which a vibrating tuning fork is placed at the midpoint of the forehead. A normal individual hears it equally in both ears, but if one ear is affected by conductive *deafness the sound appears louder in the affected ear. If one ear has a sensorineural deafness the sound appears louder in the unaffected ear. [F. E. Weber (1832–91), German otologist]... weber’s test

Wechsler Scales

standardized scales for the measurement of *intelligence quotient (IQ) in adults and children. They are administered by a psychologist. See intelligence test. [D. Wechsler (1896–1981), US psychologist]... wechsler scales

Weigart–meyer Rule

the relationship of the upper and lower parts of a two-part kidney with two ureters and their drainage into the bladder. It states that the upper ureter inserts lower and more medially into the bladder in contrast to the lower ureter, which inserts higher and more laterally into the bladder. [C. Weigert (1845–1904), German pathologist; R. Meyer (1864–1947), German physician]... weigart–meyer rule

Weil–felix Reaction

a diagnostic test for typhus. A sample of the patient’s serum is tested for the presence of antibodies against the organism Proteus vulgaris. Although this relatively harmless organism is not the cause of typhus, it possesses certain antigens in common with the causative agent of the disease and can therefore be used instead of it in laboratory tests. Typhus is suspected if antibodies are found to be present. [E. Weil (1880–1922), German physician; A. Felix (1887–1956), Czech bacteriologist]... weil–felix reaction

Weiss Ring

a ringlike opacity on the posterior vitreous surface, arising as a result of a posterior *vitreous detachment. It is seen as a ring-shaped *floater.... weiss ring

Welch’s Bacillus

see Clostridium. [W. H. Welch (1850–1934), US pathologist]... welch’s bacillus

Werdnig–hoffmann Disease

a hereditary disorder – a severe form of *spinal muscular atrophy – in which the cells of the spinal cord begin to die between birth and the age of six months, causing a symmetrical muscle weakness. Affected infants become floppy and progressively weaker; respiratory and facial muscles become affected. Children usually die by the age of 20 months from respiratory failure and there is no treatment. *Genetic counselling is required for parents of an affected child as each of their subsequent children has a one in four chance of being affected. [G. Werdnig (1844–1919), Austrian neurologist; J. Hoffmann (1857–1919), German neurologist]... werdnig–hoffmann disease

Wermer’s Syndrome

see MENS. [P. Wermer, US physician]... wermer’s syndrome

Werner’s Syndrome

a rare genetic disorder resulting in premature ageing that starts at adolescence. Growth may be retarded and affected individuals may suffer from a thin skin, arterial disease, leg ulcers, and diabetes. Treatment is limited to the management of complications, such as diabetes. The gene responsible codes for an enzyme involved in the mechanisms of DNA replication and repair, which in affected individuals is defective. [C. W. O. Werner (1879–1936), German physician]... werner’s syndrome

Wertheim’s Hysterectomy

a radical operation performed for cervical cancer, in which the uterus, upper vagina, broad ligaments, and parametrium are removed in conjunction with regional lymph nodes. [E. Wertheim (1864–1920), Austrian gynaecologist]... wertheim’s hysterectomy

Western Blot Analysis

a technique for the detection of specific proteins. After separation by *electrophoresis, the proteins are bound to radioactively labelled antibodies and identified by X-ray. Compare Northern blot analysis; Southern blot analysis.... western blot analysis

West Nile Fever

a viral disease caused by the West Nile virus (a *flavivirus), which is spread by the Culex pipiens mosquito. It causes encephalitis, with influenza-like symptoms, enlarged lymph nodes, and a bright red rash on the chest and abdomen. In patients with a weakened immune system (such as the elderly) it can progress to convulsions, coma, and paralysis.... west nile fever

Wharton’s Duct

the secretory duct of the submandibular *salivary gland. [T. Wharton (1614–73), English physician]... wharton’s duct

Wharton’s Jelly

the mesoderm tissue of the umbilical cord, which becomes converted to a loose jelly-like *mesenchyme surrounding the umbilical blood vessels.... wharton’s jelly

Whipple’s Triad

a combination of three clinical features that indicate the presence of an *insulinoma: (1) attacks of fainting, dizziness, and sweating on fasting; (2) severe hypoglycaemia present during the attacks; (3) relief from the attacks achieved by administering glucose. [A. O. Whipple]... whipple’s triad


n. expressing concerns about the professional performance of a member of staff, team, or organization. NHS organizations are required to have a whistle-blowing policy that sets out the procedures to be followed by those who wish to raise questions about an aspect of professional practice. See also public interest disclosure.... whistle-blowing

Whitaker’s Test

a direct percutaneous renal infusion test to investigate possible obstruction of the ureter or kidney. It detects subtle obstructions that cannot be detected by imaging. [R. Whitaker (20th century), British urologist]... whitaker’s test

White Fat

see brown fat.... white fat

White Noise Instrument

a device, resembling a small hearing aid, that produces sounds of many frequencies at equal intensities and is used in the treatment of tinnitus. Also known as a broad-band sound generator, ear-level sound generator, noiser, or wide-band sound generator, it was formerly known as a tinnitus masker.... white noise instrument


n. a noisy convulsive drawing in of the breath following the spasmodic coughing attack characteristic of *whooping cough.... whoop

Williams Syndrome

a hereditary condition, caused by a defect (a *deletion) in chromosome 7, marked by a characteristic ‘elfin’ facial appearance (including large eyes, a wide mouth, and small chin), *hypercalcaemia, short stature, learning disabilities, and *aortic stenosis. Most affected children are highly sociable and have unusual conversational ability, using a rich and complex vocabulary. The condition can be diagnosed prenatally. [J. C. P. Williams (20th century), British physician]... williams syndrome

Williams Vulvovaginoplasty

a surgical technique of vaginal reconstruction, with the formation of a pouch between the urethra and rectum.... williams vulvovaginoplasty

Windigo Psychosis

a delusion of having been transformed into a windigo, a mythical monster that eats human flesh. It is often quoted as an example of a culture-specific syndrome (confined to certain North American Indian tribes).... windigo psychosis


n. a technique of image manipulation commonly used in *cross-sectional imaging to manipulate a *grey scale image. Typically there is too much data obtained in a scan to see on a single image: the radiologist therefore chooses the window level centred on the density of the tissue of interest and a window width wide enough to include the densities of all the tissues that need to be seen. Tissues denser than this window usually appear white, and tissues darker appear black. Sometimes several different images of the same scan are required at different window settings to assess adequately all the necessary detail (for example, window settings to observe the lung are different from those for the bones or the soft tissues in the chest on CT). See also Hounsfield unit.... windowing

Wiskott–aldrich Syndrome

a rare *sex-linked recessive disorder characterized by eczema, *thrombocytopenia, and deficiency in the immune response (*immunodeficiency). It is caused by a decrease in the amount of Wiskott–Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP: a protein occurring in lymphocytes, platelets, and other cells) due to a mutation in the WASP gene.... wiskott–aldrich syndrome


n. a genus of non-bloodsucking flies. Females of the species W. magnifica and W. vigil deposit their parasitic maggots in wounds and the openings of the body. This causes *myiasis, particularly in children.... wohlfahrtia

Wolff–chaikoff Effect

the inhibition of thyroid hormone production by administration of large doses of iodide. This occurs at a critical dosage level below which the addition of iodide to an iodine-deficient individual results in increased production of thyroid hormone. The effect is transient in individuals with normal thyroids but may persist in thyroiditis; it can be utilized medically to induce a hypothyroid state, for example in patients with *thyroid crisis (see Lugol’s solution). [L. Wolff (1898–1972), US cardiologist; I. L. Chaikoff (20th century), US physiologist]... wolff–chaikoff effect

Wolffian Body

see mesonephros. [K. F. Wolff (1733–94), German anatomist]... wolffian body

Wolffian Duct

see mesonephros.... wolffian duct

Wolfram Syndrome

(DIDMOAD syndrome) a rare syndrome consisting of a combination of *diabetes insipidus, *diabetes mellitus, *optic atrophy, and *deafness.... wolfram syndrome

Wood’s Light

ultraviolet light filtered through a nickel oxide prism, which causes fluorescence in skin and hair affected by some fungal and bacterial infections and is therefore useful in diagnosis. For example, *erythrasma fluoresces coral pink, while scalp ringworm caused by Microsporum species fluoresces green. [R. W. Wood (1868–1955), US physician]... wood’s light

Woods’ Screw Manoeuvre

an internal rotational manoeuvre to facilitate delivery in cases of *shoulder dystocia that have not responded to other measures. Using the fingertips of both hands, pressure is applied from behind the anterior shoulder and in front of the posterior shoulder. [C. E. Woods (20th century), US obstetrician]... woods’ screw manoeuvre

Wolff–parkinson–white Syndrome

a congenital abnormality of heart conduction caused by the presence of an *accessory pathway of conduction between the atria and ventricles. It results in premature excitation of one ventricle and is characterized by an abnormal wave (delta wave) at the start of the QRS complex on the electrocardiogram. The accessory pathway predisposes the patient to episodes of fast heart rate due to the rapid self-sustaining circulation of an electrical impulse from the atria to the ventricles and back again (*atrioventricular reciprocating tachycardia). Emergency treatment is in the form of drugs that temporarily block the re-entry circuit. Permanent destruction of the accessory pathway by *radiofrequency ablation is usually curative. [L. Wolff; Sir J. Parkinson (1885–1976), British physician; P. D. White (1886–1973), US cardiologist]... wolff–parkinson–white syndrome

Woolsorter’s Disease

see anthrax.... woolsorter’s disease

Working Tax Credit

a benefit payable to working people with a low income. There are four categories of eligibility: a person responsible for a child; a disabled person; a person who is aged over 50, has recently started work, and was receiving certain benefits before starting work; and a person aged over 25 and working more than 30 hours per week. Working tax credit is in the process of being replaced by *universal credit.... working tax credit


n. any member of several groups of soft-bodied legless animals, including flatworms, nematode worms, earthworms, and leeches, that were formerly thought to be closely related and classified as a single group – Vermes.... worm

Wormian Bone

one of a number of small bones that occur in the cranial sutures.... wormian bone

Wound Colonization

the presence of multiplying bacteria within a wound that do not cause inflammation or clinical symptoms. This may be due to the presence of natural flora or to environmental or endogenous factors. Healing is not delayed.... wound colonization

Woven Bone

immature bone, in which the collagen fibres are arranged haphazardly and the cells have no specific orientation. It is typically found in the early stages of fracture healing, eventually being replaced by mature *lamellar bone.... woven bone


n. see torticollis.... wryneck


n. a genus of white threadlike parasitic worms (see filaria) that live in the lymphatic vessels. W. bancrofti is a tropical and subtropical species that causes *elephantiasis, lymphangitis, and chyluria. The immature forms concentrate in the lungs during the day. At night they become more numerous in the blood vessels of the skin, from which they are taken up by blood-sucking mosquitoes, acting as carriers of the diseases they cause.... wuchereria

Bay, West Indian

Pimenta racemosa

FAMILY: Myrtaceae

SYNONYMS: Myrcia acris, Pimenta acris, myrcia, bay, bay rum tree, wild cinnamon, bayberry, bay leaf (oil).

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: A wild-growing tropical evergreen tree up to 8 metres high, with large leathery leaves and aromatic fruits.

DISTRIBUTION: Native to the West Indies, particularly Dominica where the essential oil is produced.

OTHER SPECIES: There are several other varieties, for example the anise-scented and lemon-scented bay, the oils of which have a totally different chemical composition. Not to be confused with bay laurel, the common household spice, nor with the North American bayberry or wax myrtle (Myrcia cerifera) well known for its wax yielding berries.

HERBAL/FOLK TRADITION: The West Indian bay tree is often grown in groves together with the allspice or pimento bush, then the fruits of both are dried and powdered for the preparation of the household allspice. The so-called bay rum tree also provides the basic ingredient for the famous old hair tonic, which is made from the leaves by being distilled in rum. ‘A hair application with both fragrant and tonic virtues … useful for those who suffer from greasy hair and need a spirit-based, scalp-stimulating lotion to help them to control their locks!’9

ACTIONS: Analgesic, anticonvulsant, antineuralgic, antirheumatic, antiseptic, astringent, expectorant, stimulant, tonic (for hair).

EXTRACTION: Essential oil by water or steam distillation from the leaves. An oleoresin is also produced in small quantities.

CHARACTERISTICS: A dark yellow mobile liquid with a fresh-spicy top note and a sweet-balsamic undertone. It blends well with lavander, lavandin, rosemary, geranium, ylang ylang, citrus and spice oils.

PRINCIPAL CONSTITUENTS: Eugenol (up to 56 per cent), myrcene, chavicol and, in lesser amounts, methyl eugenol, linalol, limonene, among others.

SAFETY DATA: Moderately toxic due to high eugenol content; also a mucous membrane irritant – use in moderation only. Unlike bay laurel, however, it does not appear to cause dermal irritation or sensitization.


Skin Care: Scalp stimulant, hair rinse for dandruff, greasy, lifeless hair, and premoting growth.

Circulation, Muscles And Joints: Muscular and articular aches and pains, neuralgia, poor circulation, rheumatism, sprains, strains.

IMMUNE SYSTEM: Colds, ’flu, infectious diseases.

OTHER USES: Extensively used in fragrance work, in soaps, detergents, perfumes, aftershaves and hair lotions, including bay rum. Employed as a flavour ingredient in many major food categories, especially condiments, as well as alcoholic and soft drinks.... bay, west indian


a circle of leaves around a node.... whorl

Birch, White

Betula alba

FAMILY: Betulaceae

SYNONYMS: B. alba var. pubescens, B. odorata, B. pendula, European white birch, silver birch.

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: Decorative tree, up to 15–20 metres high, with slender branches, silvery-white bark broken into scales, and light green oval leaves. The male catkins are 2–5 cms long, the female up to 15 cms long.

DISTRIBUTION: Native to the northern hemisphere; found throughout Eastern Europe, Russia, Germany, Sweden, Finland, the Baltic coast, northern China and Japan.

OTHER SPECIES: Many cultivars exist of this species of birch. The paper birch (B. papyrifera) and B. verrucosa are also used for the production of birch bud oil and/or birch tar. NB Should not be confused with the oil from the sweet birch (B. lenta) which is potentially toxic.

HERBAL/FOLK TRADITION: Birch buds were formerly used as a tonic in hair preparations. Birch tar is used in Europe for all types of chronic skin complaints: psoriasis, eczema, etc. In Scandinavia the young birch leaflets and twigs are bound into bundles and used in the sauna to tone the skin and promote the circulation. The sap is also tapped in the spring and drunk as a tonic. Buds, leaves and bark are used for ‘rheumatic and arthritic conditions, especially where kidney functions appear to need support … oedematous states; urinary infections and calculi.’.

ACTIONS: Anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, cholagogue, diaphoretic, diuretic, febrifuge, tonic.

EXTRACTION: 1. Essential oil by steam distillation from the leaf-buds. 2. Crude birch tar is extracted by slow destructive distillation from the bark; this is subsequently steam distilled to yield a rectified birch tar oil.

CHARACTERISTICS: 1. Pale yellow, viscous oil with a woody-green balsamic scent. It crystallizes at low temperatures. 2. The crude tar is an almost black, thick oily mass. The rectified oil is a brownish-yellow, clear oily liquid with a smoky, tar-like, ‘Russian leather’ odour. It blends well with other woody and balsamic oils.

PRINCIPAL CONSTITUENTS: 1. Mainly betulenol and other sesquiterpenes. 2. In the tar oil: phenol, cresol, xylenol, guaiacol, creosol, pyrocatechol, pyrobetulin (which gives the ‘leather’ scent).

SAFETY DATA: Non-toxic, non-irritant, non-sensitizing.


Skin Care: Dermatitis, dull or congested skin, eczema, hair care, psoriasis etc.

Circulation Muscles And Joints: Accumulation of toxins, arthritis, cellulitis, muscular pain, obesity, oedema, poor circulation, rheumatism.

OTHER USES: Birch bud oil is used primarily in hair tonics and shampoos, and in some cosmetics for its potential skin-healing effects. The crude tar is used in pharmaceutical preparations, ointments, lotions, etc. for dermatological diseases. It is also used in soap and leather manufacture – rectified birch tar oil provides the heart for many ‘leather’ type perfumes and aftershaves.... birch, white

Savory, Winter

Satureja montana

FAMILY: Lamiaceae (Labiatae)

SYNONYMS: S. obovata, Calamintha montana.

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: A bushy perennial subshrub up to 40 cms high with woody stems at the base, linear leaves and pale purple flowers.

DISTRIBUTION: Native to the Mediterranean region, now found all over Europe, Turkey and the USSR. The oil is mainly produced in Spain, Morocco and Yugoslavia.

OTHER SPECIES: The creeping variety of the winter savory (S. montana subspicata) is also a well-known garden herb. See also summer savory (S. hortensis) and Botanical Classification section.

HERBAL/FOLK TRADITION: It has been used as a culinary herb since antiquity, much in the same way as summer savory. It was used as a digestive remedy especially good for colic, and in Germany it is used particularly for diarrhoea.

When compared against many varieties of thyme, rosemary and lavender, recent research has shown ‘the net superiority of the anti microbial properties of essence of savory’..

ACTIONS: See summer savory.

EXTRACTION: Essential oil by steam distillation from the whole herb. (An oleoresin is also produced by solvent extraction.)

CHARACTERISTICS: A colourless or pale yellow liquid with a sharp, medicinal, herbaceous odour.

PRINCIPAL CONSTITUENTS: Mainly carvacrol, cymene and thymol, with lesser amounts of pinenes, limonene, cineol, borneol and terpineol.

SAFETY DATA: See summer savory.

AROMATHERAPY/HOME: USE None. ‘Should not be used on the skin at all.’.

OTHER USES: Occasionally used in perfumery work. The oil and oleoresin are employed to some extent in flavouring, mainly meats and seasonings.... savory, winter

Ho Wood

Cinnamomum camphora ct linalol

FAMILY: Lauraceae

SYNOYNMS Ho oil, ho-wood il, shiu oil, ho-leaf oil.

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: A tall, tropical evergreen tree, quite dense with small white flowers and black berries, which grows up to 30 metres in height. This is the same tree that produces camphor comes from the wood of the tree.

DISTRIBUTION: Native to China, Japan, Taiwan and south-east Asia. It is now cultivated in many tropical and sub-tropical countries including India, Australia, Madagascar and parts of the USA where it has naturalized.

OTHER SPECIES: Cinnamomum camphora is a large genus with many subspecies which yield a volatile oil on distillation, including ho oil (wood and leaf), camphor, apopin, sassafras and ravintsara. All these essential oils, although derived from the same principal botanical species, differ in their chemical profile enormously depending on their country of origin as well as the part of the plant used to extract the oil. There are thus many different subvarieties of the camphor tree found throughout Asia, for example the Yu-sho in China and the Sho-guy variety found in Taiwan. Ho (wood and leaf) oil is derived both from the Hon-sho and Ho-sho varieties growing mainly in Japan and Taiwan. This variety has linalool as its major constituent.

Rosewood (Aniba rosaedora), a native tree of the Amazon, also yields an oil very rich in linalool. However, rosewood became endangered due to over-harvesting and although plantations have since been planted, it will take time for the trees to mature. Rosewood oil and ho wood oil are very similar in nature, and since ho wood is more renewable, it is increasingly used as a replacement for the former. However, ho leaf oil, distilled from the leaves of C. camphora, is gradually beginning to replace ho wood oil in aromatherapy usage, because its scent is smoother, containing hardly any camphor-like notes.

HERBAL/FOLK TRADITION: Ho wood has traditionally been used for making the handles of Japanese swords and knives because it is soft and will not scratch the blades. It is also used nowadays for ornamental parts of houses, carpentry and cabinet making, as it is of a very similar beauty to rosewood. Ho wood oil became very popular in Taiwan during the 1900s as a linalool-rich product, locally referred to as shiu oil. C. camphora was also heavily exploited as a source of camphor in Japan and Taiwan until World War II.

The high ‘linalool’ content makes Ho oil a potent immune system stimulant (good for infections such as cold or ’flu) as well as a powerful relaxant or sedative … soothing yet uplifting in effect. Recent studies also suggest that the oil may play a role as a cellular stimulant and tissue regenerator, being beneficial for complaints associated with the skin.

ACTIONS: Analgesic, anti-fungal, anti-infectious, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, antiseptic, antispasmodic, bactericidal, immune support, sedative, tonic. It is also believed to be a mild aphrodisiac.

EXTRACTION: Steam distilled from the leaves (ho leaf oil) and wood (ho wood oil)

CHARACTERISTICS: Ho wood oil is a pale yellow liquid with a soft, warm, floral, spicy-woody scent with a slightly camphor-like undertone. The leaf oil has a sweet-fresh, green-floral and woody scent. It blends well with basil, bergamot, cedarwood, chamomile, lavender, lime, geranium, juniper, neroli, petitgrain, myrtle, sandalwood, ylang ylang and spice oils.

PRINCIPAL CONSTITUENTS: Ho (wood and leaf) oil contains up to 99 per cent linalool, with traces of limonene, myrcene, gamma-terpinene and other components. Ho wood oil generally contains higher levels of cineol. Japanese ho oil ‘A’ quality has a linalool content of 94 per cent or more; a ‘B’ grade has 85–90 per cent linalool.

SAFETY DATA: It is non-toxic and non-irritant but with possible sensitization in some individuals.


Skin Care: Acne, cuts, dermatitis, stretch marks, scars, wounds & general skin care: dry, oily, mature and sensitive skin.

Circulation Muscles And Joints: Aches and pains caused by inflammation.

Respiratory System: Chills, coughs and colds, ’flu.

Immune System: Low libido and frigidity: boosts vitality.

Nervous System: Anxiety, depression, insomnia, nervous tension, stress.

OTHER USES: The use of C. camphora as a source of ho leaf and wood oil has expanded in recent years and it is now an important source of natural linalool (which is still preferred over the synthetic form) for some fragrance applications in the perfumery industry. Indeed, ho leaf and wood oil has largely displaced the use of rosewood as a source of natural linalool. It is also an effective insect repellent.... ho wood

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