The meaning of the symbols of dream, dictionary/ seen in a dream.


Itching, inflamed skin caused by an allergic reaction to a drug, food, or substance in the environment; also called hives... urticaria


Inflammation of the urethra... urethritis

Gastric Ulcer

A usually chronic condition, started by irritation, with congestion in time, leading to edema, blistering, and the formation of an ulcer. Hylobacter infections seem to prolong and aggravate the condition, but the presence alone of the bacteria, without functional impairment, will not begin the disease. Possessing a certain “workaholic” panache...even boasted of in some business circles as if to validate one’s work ethic, it nonetheless is fatal if untreated.... gastric ulcer

Duodenal Ulcer

This disorder is related to gastric ulcer (see STOMACH, DISEASES OF), both being a form of chronic peptic ulcer. Although becoming less frequent in western communities, peptic ulcers still affect around 10 per cent of the UK population at some time. Duodenal ulcers are 10–15 times more common than gastric ulcers, and occur in people aged from 20 years onwards. The male to female ratio for duodenal ulcer varies between 4:1 and 2:1 in di?erent communities. Social class and blood groups are also in?uential, with duodenal ulcer being more common among the upper social classes, and those of blood group O.

Causes It is likely that there is some abrasion, or break, in the lining membrane (or mucosa) of the stomach and/or duodenum, and that it is gradually eroded and deepened by the acidic gastric juice. The bacterium helicobacter pylori is present in the antrum of the stomach of people with peptic ulcers; 15 per cent of people infected with the bacterium develop an ulcer, and the ulcers heal if H. pylori is eradicated. Thus, this organism has an important role in creating ulcers. Mental stress may possibly be a provocative factor. Smoking seems to accentuate, if not cause, duodenal ulcer, and the drinking of alcohol is probably harmful. The apparent association with a given blood group, and the fact that relatives of a patient with a peptic ulcer are unduly likely to develop such an ulcer, suggest that there is some constitutional factor.

Symptoms and signs Peptic ulcers may present in di?erent ways, but chronic, episodic pain lasting several months or years is most common. Occasionally, however, there may be an acute episode of bleeding or perforation, or obstruction of the gastric outlet, with little previous history. Most commonly there is pain of varying intensity in the middle or upper right part of the abdomen. It tends to occur 2–3 hours after a meal, most commonly at night, and is relieved by some food such as a glass of milk; untreated it may last up to an hour. Vomiting is unusual, but there is often tenderness and sti?ness (‘guarding’) of the abdominal muscles. Con?rmation of the diagnosis is made by radiological examination (‘barium meal’), the ulcer appearing as a niche on the ?lm, or by looking at the ulcer directly with an endoscope (see FIBREOPTIC ENDOSCOPY). Chief complications are perforation of the ulcer, leading to the vomiting of blood, or HAEMATEMESIS; or less severe bleeding from the ulcer, the blood passing down the gut, resulting in dark, tarry stools (see MELAENA).

Treatment of a perforation involves initial management of any complications, such as shock, haemorrhage, perforation, or gastric outlet obstruction, usually involving surgery and blood replacement. Medical treatment of a chronic ulcer should include regular meals, and the avoidance of fatty foods, strong tea or co?ee and alcohol. Patients should also stop smoking and try to reduce the stress in their lives. ANTACIDS may provide symptomatic relief. However, the mainstay of treatment involves four- to six-week courses with drugs such as CIMETIDINE and RANITIDINE. These are H2 RECEPTOR ANTAGONISTS which heal peptic ulcers by reducing gastric-acid output. Of those relapsing after stopping this treatment, 60–95 per cent have infection with H. pylori. A combination of BISMUTH chelate, amoxycillin (see PENICILLIN; ANTIBIOTICS) and METRONIDAZOLE – ‘triple regime’ – should eliminate the infection: most physicians advise the triple regime as ?rst-choice treatment because it is more likely to eradicate Helicobacter and this, in turn, enhances healing of the ulcer or prevents recurrence. Surgery may be necessary if medical measures fail, but its use is much rarer than before e?ective medical treatments were developed.... duodenal ulcer

Peptic Ulcer

A stomach or duodenal ulcer, caused by excess or untimely secretions of gastric acid and pepsin, poor closure of the pyloric sphincter and digestive acid leakage into the duodenum, or poorly mucin-protected membranes resulting from infection or allergen irritation... peptic ulcer

Tropical Ulcer

A cutaneous ulcer seen particularly in malnourished individuals. The cause of these ulcers is often ascribed to a synergistic infection by the spirochaete Treponema vincentii and the anaerobic Gram negative rod, Fusobacterium nucleatum.... tropical ulcer


The tube that carries URINE from the kidney (see KIDNEYS) to the URINARY BLADDER. There are two ureters, one for each kidney, and they originate from the kidney pelvis and track for 25– 30 cm (10–12 inches) through the loins and pelvis. They open by a narrow slit into the base of the bladder. The lower end of the ureter pierces the wall of the bladder so obliquely (lying embedded in the wall for about 21 mm) that, although urine runs freely into the bladder, it is prevented from returning up the ureter as the bladder becomes distended.... ureter

Uric Acid

The final end product of certain native or dietary proteins, especially the nucleoproteins found in the nucleus of cells. Unlike the much smaller nitrogenous waste product urea, which is mostly recycled to form many amino acids, uric acid is an unrecyclable metabolite. It is a bent nail that won’t restraighten, and it must be excreted: nucleoprotein to purine to uric acid to the outside in the urine or the sweat. (See GOUT, PURINES.)... uric acid

Urinary Tract

(UT) The kidneys and the lower urinary tract, which includes the ureters, bladder, and urethra.... urinary tract

Aphthous Ulcer

Single or multiple (and often recurrent) transiently painful ulcers in the oral mucous membrane that are usually self-limiting. The cause is unknown and treatment is symptomatic.... aphthous ulcer

Dendritic Ulcer

A branching ULCER on the surface of the cornea of the eye, caused by HERPES SIMPLEX infection.... dendritic ulcer

Rodent Ulcer

A chronic form of BASAL CELL CARCINOMA, the most common form of skin cancer.... rodent ulcer


A visible break in the body’s surfaces; e.g. skin, gut, urinary tract, which is not caused by acute trauma.... ulcer


The inner of the two bones in the forearm. It is wide at its upper end, and its olecranon process forms the point of the elbow. In its lower part it is more fragile and liable to be broken by a fall upon the forearm while something is grasped in the hand. Chipping-o? of the olecranon process is a not uncommon result of falls upon the elbow. (See BONE, DISORDERS OF – Bone fractures.)... ulna

Ulnar Nerve

A major NERVE in the arm, it runs from the brachial plexus to the hand. The nerve controls the muscles that move the ?ngers and thumb and conveys sensation from the ?fth and part of the fourth and from the adjacent palm. Muscle weakness and numbness in the areas supplied by the nerve is usually caused by pressure from an abnormal outgrowth from the epicondyle at the bottom of the humerus (upper-arm bone).... ulnar nerve

Ulcerative Colitis

Chronic in?ammation of the lining of the COLON and RECTUM. The disease affects around 50 people per 100,000; it is predominantly a disease of young and middle-aged adults.

Symptoms The onset may be sudden or insidious. In the acute form there is severe diarrhoea and the patient may pass up to 20 stools a day. The stools, which may be small in quantity, are ?uid and contain blood, pus and mucus. There is always fever, which runs an irregular course. In other cases the patient ?rst notices some irregularity of the movement of the bowels, with the passage of blood. This becomes gradually more marked. There may be pain but usually a varying amount of abdominal discomfort. The constant diarrhoea leads to emaciation, weakness and ANAEMIA. As a rule the acute phase passes into a chronic stage. The chronic form is liable to run a prolonged course, and most patients suffer relapses for many years. SIGMOIDOSCOPY, BIOPSY and abdominal X-RAYS are essential diagnostic procedures.

Treatment Many patients may be undernourished and need expert dietary assessment and appropriate calorie, protein, vitamin and mineral supplements. This is particularly important in children with the disorder. While speci?c nutritional treatment can initiate improvement in CROHN’S DISEASE, this is not the case with ulcerative colitis. CORTICOSTEROIDS, given by mouth or ENEMA, help to control the diarrhoea. Intravenous nutrition may be required. The anaemia is treated with iron supplements, and with blood infusions if necessary. Blood cultures should be taken, repeatedly if the fever persists. If SEPTICAEMIA is suspected, broad-spectrum antibiotics should be given. Surgery to remove part of the affected colon may be necessary and an ILEOSTOMY is sometimes required. After recovery, the patient should remain on a low-residue diet, with regular follow-up by the physician, Mesalazine and SULFASALAZINE are helpful in the prevention of recurrences.

Patients and their relatives can obtain help and advice from the National Association for Colitis and Crohn’s Disease.... ulcerative colitis


The scienti?c name for the navel, a circular depression in the ABDOMEN that marks the areas where the UMBILICAL CORD was attached when the fetus was in the uterus.... umbilicus


A state of UNCONSCIOUSNESS or a description of mental activities of which an individual is unaware. The term is also used in PSYCHOANALYSIS to characterise that section of a person’s mind in which memories and motives reside. They are normally inaccessible, protected by inbuilt mental resistance. This contrasts with the subconscious, where a person’s memories and motives – while temporarily suppressed – can usually be recalled.... unconscious


Ultrasound, or ultrasonic, waves comprise very-high-frequency sound waves above 20,000 Hz that the human ear cannot hear. Ultrasound is widely used for diagnosis and also for some treatments. In OBSTETRICS, ultrasound can assess the stage of pregnancy and detect abnormalities in the FETUS (see below). It is a valuable adjunct in the investigation of diseases in the bladder, kidneys, liver, ovaries, pancreas and brain (for more information on these organs and their diseases, see under separate entries); it also detects thromboses (clots) in blood vessels and enables their extent to be assessed. A non-invasive technique that does not need ionising radiation, ultrasound is quick, versatile and relatively inexpensive, with scans being done in any plane of the body. There is little danger to the patient or operator: unlike, for example, XRAYS, ultrasound investigations can be repeated as needed. A contrast medium is not required. Its reliability is dependent upon the skill of the operator.

Ultrasound is replacing ISOTOPE scanning in many situations, and also RADIOGRAPHY. Ultrasound of the liver can separate medical from surgical JAUNDICE in approximately 97 per cent of patients; it is very accurate in detecting and de?ning cystic lesions of the liver, but is less accurate with solid lesions – and yet will detect 85 per cent of secondary deposits (this is less than COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY [CT] scanning). It is very accurate in detecting gall-stones (see GALL-BLADDER, DISEASES OF) and more accurate than the oral cholecystogram. It is useful as a screening test for pancreatic disease and can di?erentiate carcinoma of the pancreas from chronic pancreatitis with 85 per cent accuracy.

Ultrasound is the ?rst investigation indicated in patients presenting with renal failure, as it can quickly determine the size and shape of the kidney and whether there is any obstruction to the URETER. It is very sensitive to the presence of dilatation of the renal tract and will detect space-occupying lesions, di?erentiating cysts and tumours. It can detect also obstruction of the ureter due to renal stones by showing dilatations of the collecting system and the presence of the calculus. Adrenal (see ADRENAL GLANDS) tumours can be demonstrated by ultrasound, although it is less accurate than CT scanning.

The procedure is now the ?rst test for suspected aortic ANEURYSM and it can also show the presence of clot and delineate the true and false lumen. It is good at demonstrating subphrenic and subhepatic abscesses (see ABSCESS) and will show most intra-abdominal abscesses; CT scanning is however better for the retroperitoneal region. It has a major application in thyroid nodules as it can di?erentiate cystic from solid lesions and show the multiple lesions characteristic of the nodular GOITRE (see also THYROID GLAND, DISEASES OF). It cannot differentiate between a follicular adenoma and a carcinoma, as both these tumours are solid; nor can it demonstrate normal parathyroid glands. However, it can identify adenomas provided that they are more than 6 mm in diameter. Finally, ultrasound can di?erentiate masses in the SCROTUM into testicular and appendicular, and it can demonstrate impalpable testicular tumours. This is important as 15 per cent of testicular tumours metastasise whilst they are still impalpable.

Ultrasonic waves are one of the constituents in the shock treatment of certain types of gallstones and CALCULI in the urinary tract (see LITHOTRIPSY). They are also being used in the treatment of MENIÈRE’S DISEASE and of bruises and strains. In this ?eld of physiotherapy, ultrasonic therapy is proving of particular value in the treatment of acute injuries of soft tissue. If in such cases it is used immediately after the injury, or as soon as possible thereafter, prompt recovery is facilitated. For this reason it is being widely used in the treatment of sports injuries (see also SPORTS MEDICINE). The sound waves stimulate the healing process in damaged tissue.

Doppler ultrasound is a technique which shows the presence of vascular disease in the carotid and peripheral vessels, as it can detect the reduced blood ?ow through narrowed vessels.

Ultrasound in obstetrics Ultrasound has particular applications in obstetrics. A fetus can be seen with ultrasound from the seventh week of pregnancy, and the fetal heart can be demonstrated at this stage. Multiple pregnancy can also be diagnosed at this time by the demonstration of more than one gestation sac containing a viable fetus. A routine obstetric scan is usually performed between the 16th and 18th week of pregnancy when the fetus is easily demonstrated and most photogenic. The fetus can be measured to assess the gestational age, and the anatomy can also be checked. Intra-uterine growth retardation is much more reliably diagnosed by ultrasound than by clinical assessment. The site of the placenta can also be recorded and multiple pregnancies will be diagnosed at this stage. Fetal movements and even the heartbeat can be seen. A second scan is often done between the 32nd and 34th weeks to assess the position, size and growth rate of the baby. The resolution of equipment now available enables pre-natal diagnosis of a wide range of structural abnormalities to be diagnosed. SPINA BIFIDA, HYDROCEPHALUS and ANENCEPHALY are probably the most important, but other anomalies such as multicystic kidney, achondroplasia and certain congenital cardiac anomalies can also be identi?ed. Fetal gender can be determined from 20 weeks of gestation. Ultrasound is also useful as guidance for AMNIOCENTESIS.

In gynaecology, POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME can readily be detected as well as FIBROID and ovarian cysts. Ultrasound can monitor follicular growth when patients are being treated with infertility drugs. It is also useful in detecting ECTOPIC PREGNANCY. (See also PREGNANCY AND LABOUR.)... ultrasound

Umbilical Cord

The ?eshy tube containing two arteries and a vein through which the mother supplies the FETUS with oxygen and nutrients. The cord, which is up to 60 cm long, ceases to function after birth and is clamped and cut about 2·5 cm from the infant’s abdominal wall. The stump shrivels and falls o? within two weeks, leaving a scar which forms the UMBILICUS. (See also PREGNANCY AND LABOUR.)... umbilical cord


The BRAIN is the organ of the mind. Normal conscious alertness depends upon its continuous adequate supply with oxygen and glucose, both of which are essential for the brain cells to function normally. If either or both of these are interrupted, altered consciousness results. Interruption may be caused by three broad types of process affecting the brain stem: the reticular formation (a network of nerve pathways and nuclei-connecting sensory and motor nerves to and from the cerebrum, cerebellum, SPINAL CORD and cranial nerves) and the cerebral cortex. The three types are di?use brain dysfunction – for example, generalised metabolic disorders such as URAEMIA or toxic disorders such as SEPTICAEMIA; direct effects on the brain stem as a result of infective, cancerous or traumatic lesions; and indirect effects on the brain stem such as a tumour or OEDEMA in the cerebrum creating pressure within the skull. Within these three divisions are a large number of speci?c causes of unconsciousness.

Unconsciousness may be temporary, prolonged or inde?nite (see PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE (PVS)), depending upon the severity of the initiating incident. The patient’s recovery depends upon the cause and success of treatment, where given. MEMORY may be affected, as may motor and sensory functions; but short periods of unconsciousness as a result, say, of trauma have little obvious e?ect on brain function. Repeated bouts of unconsciousness (which can happen in boxing) may, however, have a cumulatively damaging e?ect, as can be seen on CT (COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY) scans of the brain.

POISONS such as CARBON MONOXIDE (CO), drug overdose, a fall in the oxygen content of blood (HYPOXIA) in lung or heart disease, or liver or kidney failure harm the normal chemical working or metabolism of nerve cells. Severe blood loss will cause ANOXIA of the brain. Any of these can result in altered brain function in which impairment of consciousness is a vital sign.

Sudden altered consciousness will also result from fainting attacks (syncope) in which the blood pressure falls and the circulation of oxygen is thereby reduced. Similarly an epileptic ?t causes partial or complete loss of consciousness by causing an abrupt but temporary disruption of the electrical activity in the nerve cells in the brain (see EPILEPSY).

In these events, as the brain’s function progressively fails, drowsiness, stupor and ?nally COMA ensue. If the cause is removed (or when the patient spontaneously recovers from a ?t or faint), normal consciousness is usually quickly regained. Strokes (see STROKE) are sometimes accompanied by a loss of consciousness; this may be immediate or come on slowly, depending upon the cause or site of the strokes.

Comatose patients are graded according to agreed test scales – for example, the GLASGOW COMA SCALE – in which the patient’s response to a series of tests indicate numerically the level of coma.

Treatment of unconscious patients depends upon the cause, and range from ?rst-aid care for someone who has fainted to hospital intensive-care treatment for a victim of a severe head injury or massive stroke.... unconsciousness


The clinical state which results from renal failure (see KIDNEYS, DISEASES OF). It may be due to disease of the KIDNEYS or it may be the result of pre-renal causes where a lack of circulating blood volume inadequately perfuses the kidneys. It may result from acute necrosis in the tubules of the kidney or it may result from obstruction to the out?ow of URINE.

The word uraemia means excess UREA in the blood; however, the symptoms of renal failure are not due to the abnormal amounts of urea circulating, but rather to the electrolyte disturbances (see ELECTROLYTES) and ACIDOSIS which are associated with impaired renal function. The acidosis results from a decreased ability to ?lter hydrogen ions from blood into the glomerular ?uid: the reduced production of ammonia and phosphate means fewer ions capable of combining with the hydrogen ions, so that the total acid elimination is diminished. The fall in glomerular ?ltration also leads to retention of SODIUM and water with resulting OEDEMA, and to retention of POTASSIUM resulting in HYPERKALAEMIA.

The most important causes of uraemia are the primary renal diseases of chronic glomerular nephritis (in?ammation) and chronic PYELONEPHRITIS. It may also result from MALIGNANT HYPERTENSION damaging the kidneys and amyloid disease destroying them. Analgesic abuse can cause tubular necrosis. DIABETES MELLITUS may cause a nephropathy and lead to uraemia, as may MYELOMATOSIS and SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS (SLE). Polycystic kidneys and renal tuberculosis account for a small proportion of cases.

Symptoms Uraemia is sometimes classed as acute – that is, those cases in which the symptoms develop in a few hours or days – and chronic, including cases in which the symptoms are less marked and last over weeks, months, or years. There is, however, no dividing line between the two, for in the chronic variety, which may be said to consist of the symptoms of chronic glomerulonephritis, an acute attack is liable to come on at any time.

Headache in the front or back of the head, accompanied often by insomnia and daytime drowsiness, is one of the most common symptoms. UNCONSCIOUSNESS of a profound type, which may be accompanied by CONVULSIONS resembling those of EPILEPSY, is the most outstanding feature of an acute attack and is a very dangerous condition.

Still another symptom, which often precedes an acute attack, is severe vomiting without apparent cause. The appetite is always poor, and the onset of diarrhoea is a serious sign.

Treatment The treatment of the chronic type of uraemia includes all the measures which should be taken by a person suffering from chronic glomerulonephritis (see under KIDNEYS, DISEASES OF). An increasing number of these patients, especially the younger ones, are treated with DIALYSIS and/or renal TRANSPLANTATION.... uraemia


Urea, or carbomide, is a crystalline substance of the chemical formula CO(NH2)2, which is very soluble in water or alcohol. It is the chief waste product discharged from the body in the URINE, being formed in the liver and carried to the kidneys in the blood. The amount varies considerably with the quantity and nature of the food taken, rising greatly upon an animal (protein) dietary. It also rises during the continuance of a fever. The average amount excreted daily by a healthy adult on a mixed diet is about 33–35 grams. Kidney failure causes a rise in the concentration of urea in the blood (see URAEMIA; KIDNEYS, DISEASES OF).

Urea is usually administered for its diuretic action (see DIURETICS), and also as a test of kidney action, in doses of 5–15 grams. It is used, too, as a cream in the treatment of certain skin diseases, characterised by a dry skin.

Urea is rapidly changed, by a yeast-like micro-organism, into carbonate of ammonia – the cause of the ammoniacal smell associated with INCONTINENCE and inadequately cleaned toilets.... urea


The tube which leads from the URINARY BLADDER to the exterior, and by which the URINE is voided. It is about 20 cm (8 inches) long in the male and 3·5 cm (1••• inches) long in the female. In the male it passes along the PENIS; in the female the urethra opens to the exterior just in front of the VAGINA between the labial folds.... urethra


PROLAPSE of the URETHRA into the wall of the VAGINA. The result is a bulbous swelling in the roof of the vagina which is worse when the woman strains to urinate or defaecate, or during childbirth. The condition is usually the consequence of a previous pregnancy. The condition is treated with surgical repair of the slack tissues to strengthen support for the urethra and vaginal wall.... urethrocele


Analysis of the physical and chemical composition of URINE to detect variations in the substances normally present, and to identify any abnormal constituents such as sugar, blood, drugs or alcohol. Sugar, protein and blood can be identi?ed using chemically impregnated dipsticks which change colour in the presence of these substances. The presence of microscopic HAEMATURIA (blood in the urine) should be con?rmed by microscopic examination of a fresh, midstream urine specimen. The specimen should also be sent for bacteriological culture to exclude or identify infection. If protein in the urine is suspected, a 24-hour collection of urine should be assessed. Cytological examination will identify abnormal or malignant cells in the urinary tract.... urinalysis

Urinary Diversion

One of a variety of procedures for collecting and diverting URINE from its customary channel of excretion following surgical removal of the bladder for disease, usually cancer. The ureters (see URETER) may be implanted in the large bowel, or a reservoir or small pouch may be fashioned using a section of small or large INTESTINE. In the latter method the pouch is emptied through a small STOMA using a catheter (see CATHETERS), thus dispensing with the need for a urinary drainage bag.... urinary diversion


Waste substances resulting from the body’s metabolic processes, selected by the KIDNEYS from the blood, dissolved in water, and excreted. Urine is around 96 per cent water, the chief waste substances being UREA (approximately 25 g/1), common salt (approximately 9 g/l), and phosphates and sulphates of potassium, sodium, calcium, and magnesium. There are also small amounts of URIC ACID, ammonia, creatinine, and various pigments. Poisons, such as MORPHINE, may be excreted in the urine; and in many infections, such as typhoid fever (see ENTERIC FEVER), the causative organism may be excreted.

The daily urine output varies, but averages around 1,500 ml in adults, less in children. The ?uid intake and ?uid output (urine and PERSPIRATION) are interdependent, so as to maintain a relatively constant ?uid balance. Urine output is increased in certain diseases, notably DIABETES MELLITUS; it is diminished (or even temporarily stopped) in acute glomerulonephritis (see under KIDNEYS, DISEASES OF), heart failure, and fevers generally. Failure of the kidneys to secrete any urine is known as anuria, while stoppage due to obstruction of the ureters (see URETER) by stones, or of the URETHRA by a stricture, despite normal urinary secretion, is known as urinary retention.

Normal urine is described as straw- to amber-coloured, but may be changed by various diseases or drugs. Chronic glomerulonephritis or poorly controlled diabetes may lead to a watery appearance, as may drinking large amounts of water. Consumption of beetroot or rhubarb may lead to an orange or red colour, while passage of blood in the urine (haematuria) results in a pink or bright red appearance, or a smoky tint if just small amounts are passed. A greenish urine is usually due to BILE, or may be produced by taking QUININE.

Healthy urine has a faint aroma, but gives o? an unpleasant ammoniacal smell when it begins to decompose, as may occur in urinary infections. Many foods and additives give urine a distinctive odour; garlic is particularly characteristic. The density or speci?c gravity of urine varies normally from 1,015 to 1,025: a low value suggests chronic glomerulonephritis, while a high value may occur in uncontrolled diabetes or during fevers. Urine is normally acidic, which has an important antiseptic action; it may at times become alkaline, however, and in vegetarians, owing to the large dietary consumption of alkaline salts, it is permanently alkaline.

Chemical or microscopical examination of the urine is necessary to reveal abnormal drugs, poisons, or micro-organisms. There are six substances which must be easily detectable for diagnostic purposes: these are ALBUMINS, blood, GLUCOSE, bile, ACETONE, and PUS and tube-casts (casts from the lining of the tubules in the kidneys). Easily used strip tests are available for all of these, except the last.

Excess of urine It is important to distinguish urinary frequency from increase in the total amount of urine passed. Frequency may be due to reduced bladder capacity, such as may be caused by an enlarged PROSTATE GLAND, or due to any irritation or infection of the kidneys or bladder, such as CYSTITIS or the formation of a stone. Increased total urinary output, on the other hand, is often a diagnostic feature of diabetes mellitus. Involuntary passage of urine at night may result, leading to bed wetting, or NOCTURNAL ENURESIS in children. Diagnosis of either condition, therefore, means that the urine should be tested for glucose, albumin, gravel (fragments of urinary calculi), and pus, with appropriate treatment.... urine


The measurement of the pressures within the URINARY BLADDER as well as the pressures of the urethral sphincter. The technique is useful in the investigation of patients with urinary incontinence. Special equipment is needed to carry out the procedure.... urodynamics


Examination of the URINARY TRACT by means of contrast medium X-rays (see PYELOGRAPHY; URETHROGRAPHY).... urography


The branch of medicine which treats disorders and diseases of the KIDNEYS, ureters (see URETER), URINARY BLADDER, PROSTATE GLAND, and URETHRA.... urology

Ursodeoxycholic Acid

A preparation used in the treatment of cholesterol gall-stones when laparoscopic CHOLECYSTECTOMY and endoscopic biliary procedures cannot be used (see GALL-BLADDER, DISEASES OF).... ursodeoxycholic acid


A hollow, triangular organ, ?attened from front to back, the lower angle (or cervix) commincates through a narrow opening (the os uteri) with the VAGINA. The uterus or womb is where the fertilised ovum (egg) normally becomes embedded and in which the EMBRYO and FETUS develop. The normal uterus weighs 30–40 g; during pregnancy, however, enormous growth occurs together with muscular thickening (see MUSCLE – Development of muscle). The cavity is lined by a thick, soft, mucous membrane, and the wall is chie?y composed of muscle ?bres arranged in three layers. The outer surface, like that of other abdominal organs, is covered by a layer of PERITONEUM. The uterus has a copious supply of blood derived from the uterine and ovarian arteries. It has also many lymphatic vessels, and its nerves establish wide connections with other organs (see PAIN). The position of the uterus is in the centre of the PELVIS, where it is suspended by several ligaments between the URINARY BLADDER in front and the RECTUM behind. On each side of the uterus are the broad ligaments passing outwards to the side of the pelvis, the utero-sacral ligament passing back to the sacral bone, the utero-vesical ligament passing forwards to the bladder, and the round ligament uniting the uterus to the front of the abdomen.... uterus


Uvea is a term applied to the middle coat of the EYE, including the iris, ciliary body and choroid.... uvea


An in?ammation of the uveal tract (see EYE). Iritis is in?ammation of the iris; cyclitis, in?ammation of the ciliary body; and choroiditis, in?ammation of the choroid. The symptoms and signs vary according to which part of the uveal tract is involved and tend to be recurrent. The patient may experience varying degrees of discomfort or pain, with or without blurring of vision. In many cases a cause is never found. Some known associations include various types of arthritis, some bowel diseases, virus illnesses, tuberculosis, syphilis, parasites and fungi. Treatment is with anti-in?ammatory drops and occasionally steroid tablets, plus drops to dilate the pupil.... uveitis


The small mass of muscle covered by mucous membrane that hangs down from the middle of the soft PALATE on its posterior aspect. Its function is not certain and it seldom causes problems.... uvula

Genito-urinary Medicine

The branch of medicine that deals with the effects of SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES (STDS) on the URINARY TRACT, REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM and other systems in the body. The specialty overlaps with GYNAECOLOGY (women’s urinary and reproductive systems) and UROLOGY (men’s urinary and reproductive system).... genito-urinary medicine

Haemolytic Uraemic Syndrome

A disease of children resulting in acute RENAL failure. A febrile illness of the gastrointestinal or respiratory tracts is followed by intravascular COAGULATION of blood which results in HAEMOLYSIS, ANAEMIA, THROMBOCYTOPAENIA and renal failure (resulting from ?brin deposition in renal arterioles and glomerular capillaries).

The death rate is 2–10 per cent and the majority of patients survive without renal failure. The longer the period of OLIGURIA, the greater the risk of chronic renal failure.

Treatment is supportive, with replacement of blood and clotting factors, control of HYPERTENSION, and careful observation of ?uid balance.... haemolytic uraemic syndrome

High Dependency Unit

A hospital unit equipped and sta?ed to nurse patients who require a high level of technically supported care. Patients are usually moved to such units when they have made satisfactory progress in an INTENSIVE THERAPY UNIT (ITU) and do not require the one-to-one nursing necessary in ITUs. Patients who have undergone major surgery are often transferred from the recovery ward to a high dependency unit until they are well enough to be cared for in a standard ward.... high dependency unit

Si Units

The international system of measurement-units used throughout the sciences. SI units, which derive from metres, kilograms, and seconds, comprise seven basic units and two supplementary ones. Among the other base units are ampere (electric current) and mole (amount of a substance at molecular level). Derived SI units include joule (energy), pascal (pressure), becquerel (activity), and newton (force). (See APPENDIX 6: MEASUREMENTS IN MEDICINE.)... si units

Ulcer Healing Drugs

A variety of drugs with di?ering actions are available for the treatment of peptic ulcer, the composite title covering gastric ulcer (see STOMACH, DISEASES OF) and DUODENAL ULCER. Peptic ulceration may also involve the lower OESOPHAGUS, and after stomach surgery the junction of the stomach and small intestine.

The drugs used in combination are:

The receptor antagonists, which reduce the output of gastric acid by histamine H2receptor blockade; they include CIMETIDINE, FAMOTIDINE and RANITIDINE.

ANTIBIOTICS to eradicate Helicobacter pylori infection, a major cause of peptic ulceration. They are usually used in combination with one of the PROTON-PUMP INHIBITORS and include clarithomycin, amoxacillin and metronidazole.

BISMUTH chelates.

The prostaglandin analogue misoprostol has antisecretory and protective properties.

Proton-pump inhibitors omeprazole, lansoprazole, pantaprazole and rabeprazole, all of which inhibit gastric-acid secretion by blocking the proton pump enzyme system.... ulcer healing drugs


The use of ULTRASOUND to produce images of structures in the body that can be viewed on a television screen and transferred to photographic ?lm.... ultrasonography


(Latin) From the waves; in mythology, a female water spirit Undene, Undeen, Undyn, Undyne, Undina, Undinah, Undyna, Undinia, Undynia, Undinya... undine

Undulant Fever

Another name for BRUCELLOSIS.... undulant fever


A flowering head where the pedicels (individual flower stems) all spring from one point, usually the end of the peduncle. Compound umbels, found in some Umbelliferae, have umbels branching from peduncle umbels that themselves are branching from the main stem.... umbel


An adjective relating to the ?ngernails or toenails.... ungual


The Latin name for ointment.... unguentum


Having only one polarity; primarily in reference to individuals who only manifest a manic or depressive phase in personality or thyroid bipolarity.... unipolar


A corded structure which extends from the bladder up to the navel, and represents the remains of the canal which in the FETUS joins the bladder with the ALLANTOIS.... urachus

Urena Lobata

Linn. Mast.

Family: Malvaceae.

Habitat: Throughout warmer parts of India, frequent in West Bengal.

Ayurvedic: Naagabalaa (Grewia hirsuta and Sida veronicaefolia are also equated with Naagabalaa). Used as Balaa in Kerala.

Siddha/Tamil: Ottatti.

Action: Root—diuretic, emollient, antispasmodic (roots and stem used in severe windy colic), antirheumatic. Flowers—used as a pectoral and expectorant in dry and inveterate coughs. An infusion is used as a gargle for aphthae amd sore throat.

The aerial parts gave magniferin and quercetin. Alkanes, stigmasterol and beta-sitosterol are reported from the whole plant. The seeds contain protein, pentosan and mucilage.... urena lobata


Pain in the ureter... ureteralgia


Inflammation of the ureter... ureteritis


A surgically produced arti?cial channel between the URETER and the large bowel (see INTESTINE). A form of diversion of the URINE ?ow, the URINARY BLADDER is bypassed and the ureters drain into the sigmoid COLON. The operation is done when a bladder is removed, usually because of cancer.... ureteroenterostomy


A ?exible or rigid endoscopic instrument (see ENDOSCOPE) that is inserted (via the URINARY BLADDER) into the URETER and up into the pelvis of the kidney (see KIDNEYS). The instrument is commonly used to identify a stone in the ureter and to remove it under vision with forceps or a stone basket. If the stone is large it is broken into fragments, using an ultrasound or electrohydraulic LITHOTRIPSY probe that is inserted through the instrument.... ureteroscope


Examination of the URETHRA using X-RAYS. A radio-opaque ?uid is injected into the bladder and any abnormalities of the urethra can be observed on the X-ray ?lms.... urethrography


Surgical repair of the URETHRA, usually to relieve a stricture (see under URETHRA, DISEASES OF AND INJURY TO).... urethroplasty

Uricosuric Drug

A drug that increases the amount of URIC ACID excreted in the URINE. Among the drugs used are PROBENECID or a sulfa derivative. Uricosurics are used to treat GOUT and other disorders which cause raised blood-uric-acid concentrations.... uricosuric drug

Urinary Bladder

The urinary bladder is a highly distensible organ for storing URINE. It consists of smooth muscle known as the detrusor muscle and is lined with urine-proof cells known as transitional cell epithelium.

The bladder lies in the anterior half of the PELVIS, bordered in front by the pubis bone and laterally by the side wall of the pelvis. Superiorly the bladder is covered by the peritoneal lining of the abdomen. The bottom or base of the bladder lies against the PROSTATE GLAND in the male and the UTERUS and VAGINA in the female.... urinary bladder


The act of voiding URINE through the URETHRA. Abnormalities in urination such as di?culty in starting or stopping, greater than normal frequency, unusually small amounts of urine passed, a constant feeling of wanting to urinate or a sudden hard-to-control urge to urinate are all symptoms that suggest possible disorders of the urinary tract which merit investigation.... urination


A simple instrument designed for estimating the speci?c gravity of URINE – a test that can be helpful in diagnosing disorders of the URINARY TRACT.... urinometer


A chemical compound formed when bacteria in the intestine act on BILIRUBIN. Some is reabsorbed and returns to the LIVER and some is eliminated in the faeces.... urobilinogen


A cystic swelling that develops in the SCROTUM when URINE escapes from the URETHRA, usually after injury. Prompt treatment is necessary and this is done by diverting the urine by inserting a suprapubic catheter (see CATHETERS) into the URINARY BLADDER, draining the cystocele and giving the patients antibiotics. The injured urethra can be surgically repaired later.... urocele


An adjective relating to the organs and tissues involved in the anatomically closely related functions of excretion and reproduction.... urogenital


Urokinase is an ENZYME obtained from URINE which dissolves blood clots. It is used to treat THROMBOLYSIS in the EYE, in arteriovenous shunts (see SHUNT) and deep-vein THROMBOSIS. It has the advantage over other ?brinolytic drugs of not causing immunological reactions.... urokinase


(1) Part of the membraneous labyrinth within the vestibule of the EAR.

(2) Prostatic utricle is a small sac extending out of the male URETHRA into the matrix of the PROSTATE GLAND.... utricle


Surgery to excise the UVULA, part of the soft PALATE and the TONSILS. It is done to help people with severe SNORING problems but it does not always achieve a cure.... uvulopalatopharyngoplasty

Corneal Ulcer

See: EYES, INFECTION. ... corneal ulcer


Pertaining to the organs of fluid excretion or reproduction. Genito-Urinary astringent – Horsetail. Genito-Urinary tonics – Beth root, Saw Palmetto, Damiana. Genito-Urinary relaxant – Black Willow. ... genito-urinary

Coronary Care Unit

A specialist ward for the care of acutely ill patients who may be suffering, or who have suffered, a myocardial infarction (heart attack) or another serious cardiovascular disorder.... coronary care unit

Decubitus Ulcer

See bedsores.... decubitus ulcer

Intravenous Urography

An X-ray procedure, commonly abbreviated to , used to give a clear image of the urinary tract. The procedure involves intravenous infusion of a contrast medium into the arm. The medium is carried in the blood to the urinary system, where it passes through the kidneys, ureters, and bladder to be excreted in the urine. X-rays taken at intervals show outlines of the urinary system. detects abnormalities such as tumours and obstructions, and signs of kidney disease.... intravenous urography

Umbilical Hernia

A soft swelling at the umbilicus due to protrusion of the abdominal contents through a weak area of abdominal wall. Umbilical hernias are quite common in newborn babies and occur twice as often in boys as in girls. The swelling increases in size when the baby cries, and it may cause discomfort. Umbilical hernias usually disappear without treatment by age 2. If a hernia is still present at age 4, surgery may be needed.

Umbilical hernias sometimes develop in adults, especially in women after childbirth. Surgery may be necessary for a large, persistent, or disfiguring hernia.... umbilical hernia


The surgical removal of a stone (see calculus, urinary tract) stuck in a ureter.

It is not commonly needed because lithotripsy and cystoscopy can be used to deal with stones.... ureterolithotomy


A suffix relating to urine.... uria


adj. of or relating to the uterus.... uterine

ångström Unit

Called after the Swedish physicist, this is a measurement of length and equals 1/10,000 of a micrometre, or one-hundred-millionth of a centimetre. It is represented by the symbol Å and is used to give the length of electromagnetic waves.... ångström unit

Arctostaphylos Uva-ursi


Family: Ericaceae.

Habitat: Native to North America, Europe and Asia.

English: Bearberry.

Unani: Inbud-dub, Angur-e-khiras, Reechh Daakh.

Action: Astringent, dirutic; used for urinary tract infections, dysuria, cystitis, urethritis, pyelitis.

The leaves gave 0.8-1% of a flavanol glucoside, isoquercitin, arbutin and methyl arbutin. Total arbutin content varies from 7.5 to 10.7%; tannins 15 to 20%. Arbutin hydrolyses to hydro- quinone, a urinary antiseptic.

Arbutin is antimicrobial, but the crude extract of uva-ursi is more effective than isolated arbutin. In rats, uva- ursi showed anti-inflammatory activity against experimentally induced inflammation. (Natural Medicines comprehensive Database, 2007.)... arctostaphylos uva-ursi

Betula Utilis

D. Don.

Synonym: B. bhojpattra Wall.

Family: Betulaceae.

Habitat: Temperate Himalaya from Kashmir to Bhutan.

English: Himalayan Silver Birch, Indian Paper tree.

Ayurvedic: Bhuurja, Bahulvalkala, Bahuputa, Lekhyapatraka, Charmi, Chitrapatra, Bhutahaa.

Folk: Bhojapatra.

Siddha/Tamil: Boorjapattram (leaves).

Action: Resin—laxative. Leaves— diuretic; used in the form of infusion in gout, rheumatism, dropsy, and as a solvent of stones in the kidneys; used in skin affections, especially eczema. Bark—used in convulsions. Oil—astringent, antiseptic.

Key application: (B. pendula) In irrigation therapy for bacterial and inflammatory diseases of the urinary tract and for kidney gravel; supportive therapy for rheumatic ailment. (German Commission E, ESCOP.)

European Silver Birch is equated with Betula alba L., synonym B. pendula Roth. Astringent, diuretic, anti- inflammatory, bitter, cholagogue; contains salicylates. Used for kidney and bladder complaints, sluggish kidney functions, rheumatism and gout. Methyl salicylate is obtained by distillation of the twigs. In an Indian sp., B. acuminata, methyl salicylate (92.8%) has been reported in the essential oil of the bark. B. utilis is also a close relative of B. pendula.

Dosage: Bark—3-5 g powder; decoction—50-100 ml (CCRAS.)... betula utilis

British Thermal Unit (btu)

An o?cially recognised measurement of heat: a unit is equal to the quantity of heat needed to raise the temperature of one pound of water by 1°Fahrenheit. One BTU is equivalent to 1,055 joules (see JOULE).... british thermal unit (btu)

Cervix Uteri

The neck of the womb or uterus, placed partly above and partly within the vagina. (See UTERUS.)... cervix uteri

Coronary Care Unit (ccu)

A specialised hospital unit equipped and sta?ed to provide intensive care (see INTENSIVE THERAPY UNIT (ITU)) for patients who have had severe heart attacks or undergone surgery on the heart.... coronary care unit (ccu)

Cross-utility Analysis

A form of cost-effectiveness analysis of alternative interventions in which costs are measured in monetary units and outcomes are measured in terms of their utility, usually to the individual, e.g. using QALYs.... cross-utility analysis

Drug Utilization Review (dur)

A formal programme for assessing drug prescription and use patterns. DURs typically examine patterns of drug misuse, monitor current therapies, and intervene when prescription or utilization patterns fall outside pre-established standards. DUR is usually retrospective, but can also be performed before drugs are dispensed.... drug utilization review (dur)

Factitious Urticaria

See DERMOGRAPHISM.... factitious urticaria

Genito-urinary Tract

This consists of the KIDNEYS, ureters (see URETER), URINARY BLADDER and URETHRA – and, in the male, also the genital organs.... genito-urinary tract

Derris Uliginosa

Benth. Derris indica (Lamk.) Bennet.

Synonym: Pongamia pinnata Pierre.

Family: Fabaceae.

Habitat: Native to the Western Ghats. Found all over India on the banks of rivers and streams.

English: Indian Beech. Pongamia oil tree.

Ayurvedic: Naktmaal, Guchpush- pak, Ghritpuur, Udkirya, Karanja.

Siddha/Tamil: Pungu.

Action: Used for skin diseases— eczema, scabies, leprosy, and for ulcers, tumours, piles, enlargement of spleen, vaginal and urinary discharges. Juice of root—used for closing fistulous sores and cleaning foul ulcers. Flowers— used in diabetes. Powder of seeds— used for whooping and irritating coughs of children. Seed oil—used in cutaneous affections, herpes and scabies.

The tree is rich in flavonoids and related compounds. These include simple flavones, furanoflavonoids, chro- menoflavones, chromenochalcones, coumarones, flavone glucosides, sterols, triterpenes and a modified pheny- lalanine dipeptide.

Synonym: D. trifoliate Lour.

Family: Fabaceae.

Habitat: Costal forests of India and the Andamans.

Folk: Paan-lataa (Bengal), Kitani (Maharashtra).

Action: Stimulant, antispasmodic, counter-irritant. Bark—alterative in rheumatism. An oil prepared from the plant is used externally as an embrocation.

The roots contain dehydrorotenone, lupeol and a ketone. Bark contains 9.3% tannic acid. Stems contain tan- nic acid, hexoic, arachidic and stearic acids, ceryl alcohol, isomerides of cholesterol, potassium nitrate, gums and resins.... derris uliginosa

In Utero

Literally ‘in the UTERUS’ and used to refer to events occurring to a baby before birth.... in utero

Intravenous Pyelogram (urogram)

A procedure for getting X-ray pictures of the URINARY TRACT. A radio-opaque medium is injected into a vein and, when it is excreted by the kidneys, the substance can be identi?ed on X-rays. Any abnormalities in structure or foreign bodies such as calculi are outlined by the dye (see KIDNEYS, DISEASES OF).... intravenous pyelogram (urogram)

Eugenia Uniflora


Family: Myrtaceae.

Habitat: Native to South America; cultivated in gardens; now naturalized in some parts of In dia at medium elevations under sub-tropical conditions.

English: Pitaanga, Surinam Cherry.

Action: Fruit—used as a source of carotenoids (225.9 mcg/g) and provitamin A (991 RE/100g). Leaves—diuretic, antirheumatic, antifebrile. Used for lowering blood pressure, blood cholesterol, uric acid level, also for reducing body weight. Essential oil— digestive, carminative.

The leaves gave flavonoids, querci- trin, quercetin, myricitrin and myrice- tin as major constituents.

The bark contains 28.5% tannins.... eugenia uniflora

Geum Urbanum

auct. non Linn.

Family: Rosaceae.

Habitat: The temperate Himalayas from Kashmir to Kumaon at 3,0003,700 m Grows wild in Europe and Great Britain.

English: Avens Root, Herb Bennet, Wood Avens.

Action: Astringent, styptic, stomachic, febrifuge.

The herb and root was used in Europe in chronic dysentery, diarrhoea and intermittent fevers. In India, an infusion of the rootstock is used as sudorific in fevers, ague, chills and catarrh.

Eugenol is present in the root stock in combination with vacianose as phenolic glycoside gein. The rootstock contains tannins (30-40%).

A related species, G. elatum Wall., is found in the Himalayas from Kashmir to Sikkim It is used for dysentery and diarrhoea.... geum urbanum

Guazuma Ulmifolia


Synonym: G. tomentosa H. B. & K.

Family: Sterculiaceae.

Habitat: Native to tropical America. Cultivated as a roadside shade tree in warmer parts of the country

English: Bastard Cedar.

Ayurvedic: Pundraaksha, Rudraak- shi (fake Rudraaksha).

Siddha: Rudraksham and allied names are misnomers for this plant. (Rukraaksha is equated with Elaeocarpus ganitrus Roxb.)

Action: Fruit—anticatarrhal (used in bronchitis). Bark—demulcent, sudorific. Used in skin diseases. Seed—astringent, carminative, antidiarrhoeal.

The plant gave kaempferol gly- cosides. Leaves contain octacosanol and taraxerol-OAC, friedelin-3-alpha- OAC, 3 beta-ol and beta-sitosterol. Bark contains friedelin, betulin and beta-sitosterol.... guazuma ulmifolia

Intensive Therapy Unit (itu)

Sometimes called an intensive care unit, this is a hospital unit in which seriously ill patients undergo resuscitation, monitoring and treatment. The units are sta?ed by doctors and nurses trained in INTENSIVE CARE MEDICINE, and patients receive 24-hour, one-to-one care with continuous monitoring of their condition with highly specialised electronic equipment that assesses vital body functions such as heart rate, respiration, blood pressure, temperature and blood chemistry. The average ITU in Britain has four to six beds, although units in larger hospitals, especially those dealing with tertiary-care referrals – for example, neurosurgical or organ transplant cases – are bigger, but 15 beds is usually the maximum. Annual throughput of patients ranges from fewer than 200 to more than 1,500 patients a year. As well as general ITUs, specialty units are provided for neonatal, paediatric, cardiothoracic and neurological patients in regional centres. The UK has 1–2 per cent of its hospital beds allocated to intensive care, a ?gure far below the average of 20 per cent provided in the United States. Thus patients undergoing intensive care in the UK are usually more seriously ill than those in the US. This is re?ected in the shortage of available ITU beds in Britain, especially in the winter. (See CORONARY CARE UNIT (CCU); HIGH DEPENDENCY UNIT.)... intensive therapy unit (itu)

Linum Usitatissimum


Habitat: Cultivated mainly in Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Bihar and Rajasthan.

English: Linseed, Flax.

Ayurvedic: Atasi, Umaa, Masrnaa, Nilapushpi, Kshumaa.

Unani: Kattan.

Siddha/Tamil: (Seed).

Action: Seed—demulcent, emollient, laxative, antilipidemic, antitussive, pectoral (used in bronchitis and cough). Flowers—used as nervine and cardiac tonic. Oil— used in burns, skin injuries and sores.

Key application: Internally, for chronic constipation, for colons damaged by abuse of laxatives, irritable bowel syndrome, diverticular disease, symptomatic short-term treatment of gastritis and enteritis. Externally, for painful skin inflammations. (German Commission E, ESCOP, The British Herbal Pharmacopoeia.)

The plant contains chlorogenic acid and its isomer. Also present are palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic acids, along with amino acids, and sugars. Linseed also contains mucilage (3-10%) in epidermis; fatty oil (30-40%); cyanogenic glycosides (0.05-00.1%) mainly linus- tatin, neolinustatin and linamarin; lig- nans; phenylpropane derivatives including linusitamarin. (Cyanogenic glycosides are not found toxic in therapeutic doses as these are broken down only to a limited extent in the body.)

The seeds are an excellent source of dietary alpha-linolenic acid for modifying plasma and tissue lipids. Flaxseed preparations reduced atherogenic risk in hyperlipemic patients. (Cited in Expanded Commission E Monographs.)

Human studies have indicated Flax- seed's use in atherosclerosis, hyperc- holesterolemia, lupus nephritis, chronic renal diseases and in cancer prevention (active principle: lignan precursor secoisolariciresinol diglycoside). (Sharon M. Herr. Also Am J Clin Nutr, 1999, 69, 395-402.)

The PP glucose response to a 50 g carbohydrate load given as Flaxseed bread was found to be 27% lower when compared with regular white bread.

Taking Flaxseed oil daily for 3 months did not improve symptoms of pain and stiffness in rheumatoid arthritis and no effect was observed on RA, such as C-reactive protein and ESR. (Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, 2007.)

The water-binding capacity and rhe- ological properties of linseed mucilage resembled those of guar gum.

Dosage: Ripe seed—3-6 g powder. (API, Vol. I.) Flower-bud—3-6 g; oil—5-10 ml. (CCRAS.)... linum usitatissimum

Medical Dictionary

Medical Dictionary

[catlist id=11 numberposts=100 pagination=yes instance=2 orderby=title order=asc]

... medical dictionary

Monotropa Uniflora


Family: Monotropaceae.

Habitat: The temperate Himalayas from Himachal Pradesh to Bhutan and in Khasi Hills at 1,800-2,400 m.

English: Indian Pipe.

Action: Root—sedative, nervine, antispasmodic.

The plant gave sitosterol, campes- terol and traces of cholesterol. The oil contained linolenic, palmitic, linoleic and hexadecenoic acids.... monotropa uniflora

Non-specific Urethritis (nsu)

An in?ammatory condition of the URETHRA due to a cause or causes other than GONORRHOEA. The most common is CHLAMYDIA trachomatis – there has been a rise of over 75 per cent in the incidence in the UK over the past ?ve years to around 70,000 a year. It produces pelvic in?ammatory disease in women, which often results in sterility, the risk of ECTOPIC PREGNANCY, and recurrent pelvic pain. Most cases respond well to TETRACYCLINES. Abstinence from sexual intercourse should be observed during treatment and until cure is complete. Children born to infected mothers may have their eyes infected during birth, producing the condition known as ophthalmia neonatorum. This is treated by the application to the eye of chlortetracycline eye ointment. The lungs of such a child may also be infected, resulting in pneumonia.... non-specific urethritis (nsu)

Oldenlandia Umbellata


Synonym: Hedyotis umbellata (Linn.) Lam.

Family: Rubiaceae.

Habitat: Bihar, Orissa, Travancore. Cultivated on the Coromandel coast.

English: Indian Madder, Chay-Root.

Siddha/Tamil: Inbooral.

Folk: Chiraval (Maharashtra).

Action: Leaves and roots—used in bronchitis, asthma, consumption.

The plant gave anthraquinone derivatives. The root gave alizarin, ru- bichloric acid and ruberythric acid, also anthraquinones. Purpurin, pupur- oxanthin carboxylic acid, present in Madder (Rubia tinctorum), are almost entirely absent.... oldenlandia umbellata

Pandanus Utilis


Family: Pandanaceae.

Habitat: Native of Malagasy; grown in Indian gardens.

Ayurvedic: Ketaki (related species).

Action: Root—a decoction is used for the treatment of venereal... pandanus utilis

Phyllanthus Urinaria


Family: Euphorbiaceae.

Habitat: Throughout the plains of India from Punjab to Assam and Southward to Kerala up to 1,000 m.

Ayurvedic: Bhuumyaamataki (var.), Taamravalli.

Siddha/Tamil: Senkeezhnelli.

Folk: Laal-bhui-aamlaa, Hazaar- mani.

Action: See P. amarus.

The leaf and stem gave flavonoids— quercetin, astragalin, quercitrin, iso- quercitrin and rutin; Me-brevifolin- carboxylate and tri-dehydrochebulic acid.... phyllanthus urinaria

Retention Of Urine

See URINE RETENTION.... retention of urine

Scalding Of Urine

Severe burning sensation during micturition... scalding of urine

Sea Urchins

Creatures with needle-sharp spines that are present on rocks or reefs. They cause simple, but painful puncture wounds with spines frequently breaking off in the wounds which leads to infection. Some species also produce toxins that may cause severe localised pain or other systemic symptoms.... sea urchins

Special Care Unit

A long-term care facility unit with services specifically for persons with particular diseases, disorders or injuries.... special care unit

The Unit Of Illumination. The Abbreviation Is

lx.... the unit of illumination. the abbreviation is


(Egyptian) In mythology, a snake goddess

Ujadet, Uajit, Udjit, Ujadit... uadjit

Randia Uliginosa


Synonym: Catunaregam uliginosa (Retz.) Sivarajan.

Family: Rubiaceae.

Habitat: Southern, Central and Eastern India, including Assam and Sikkim.

Ayurvedic: Pindaalu, Pinditaka.

Siddha/Tamil: Wagatta, Perunkarai.

Folk: Mainphal, Pindaar, Pendraa, Pendhar.

Action: Unripe fruit—astringent. Root—diuretic; used for biliousness, diarrhoea and dysentery

Unripe fruits are roasted and used as a remedy for dysentery and diarrhoea. The root, boiled in purified butter, is also prescribed for dysentery and diarrhoea.

The fruits, like those of Randia spinosa, contain a toxic saponin of oleanolic acid. They also contain leu- cocyanidin and mannitol. The flowers yield an essential oil similar to Gardenia oil.... randia uliginosa

Safe Disposal Of Unwanted Medicines

Unwanted medicines are a form of ‘controlled waste’ under the Environmental Protection Act 1990 and must be disposed of in an appropriate way. The best thing is to take any extra or unwanted medicines to a registered pharmacy. Syringes and needles (used by diabetic patients, for example) pose problems: devices exist to cut o? and retain the needle, and some local authorities in the United Kingdom arrange for collection and safe disposal. There are also local ‘needle exchange’ schemes for intravenous drug abusers.

Safe use of medicines All medicines can have unwanted effects (‘side-effects’ or, more strictly, adverse effects) that are unpleasant and sometimes harmful. It is best not to take any medicine, prescribed or otherwise, unless there is a clear reason for doing so; the possible adverse effects of treatment, and the risk of their occurring, have to be set against any likely bene?t. Remember too that one treatment can affect another already being taken. Many adverse events depend upon the recommended dose being exceeded. Some people – for example, those with allergies (see ALLERGY) to a particular group of drugs, or those with kidney or liver disease – are more likely to suffer adverse effects than otherwise healthy people.

When an individual begins a course of treatment, he or she should take it as instructed. With ANTIBIOTICS treatments especially, it is important to take the whole course of tablets prescribed, because brief exposure of bacteria to an antibiotic can make them resistant to treatment. Most drugs can be stopped at once, but some treatments can cause unpleasant, and occasionally dangerous, symptoms if stopped abruptly. Sleeping tablets, anti-EPILEPSY treatment, and medicines used to treat ANGINA PECTORIS are among the agents which can cause such ‘withdrawal symptoms’. CORTICOSTEROIDS are a particularly important group of medicines in this respect, because prolonged courses of treatment with high doses can suppress the ability of the body to respond to severe stresses (such as surgical operations) for many months or even years.... safe disposal of unwanted medicines

Sterculia Urens


Family: Sterculiaceae.

Habitat: Rajasthan, Assam, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, southwards to Western Peninsula.

English: Karaya Gum.

Unani: Gond Kateeraa (the authentic source is Cochlospermum religiosum).

Siddha/Tamil: Kavalam.

Folk: Karai, Kandol (Maharashtra, Gujarat).

Action: Gum used as a substitute for tragacanth in throat affections.

The gum and mucilage contain al- dobiuronic and aldotriouronic acids.

The roots contains a coumarin, sco- poletin.

The leaves afforded flavonol glycosides, quercetin and kaempferol derivatives; beta-amyrin, its acetyl derivative, beta-sitosterol and an ester of terephthalic acid. Stercurensin, a C- methylchalcone, has been isolated from the leaves.

The gum of Sterculia villosa Roxb. (Udall Wood) resembles with that of S. urens. Diometin and chrysoeriol and their 7-O-glucosides were isolated from the wood.... sterculia urens


(Hawaiian) Of the heavenly rain Ualanie, Ualany, Ualaney, Ualanee, Ualanea, Ualania, Ualana... ualani


(Teutonic) A brave ruler Ualda, Ualdah, Ualdia, Ualdaa, Ualdae, Ualdai... uald


(Italian) A bright woman Ubertah, Ubertha, Ubert, Uberte, Uberthe... uberta


(African) Of God’s will Uchechie, Uchechy, Uchechey, Uchechee, Uchechea, Uchecheah... uchechi


(African) God’s will Uchennah, Uchena, Uchenah... uchenna


(American) A thriving woman Udavyne, Udavina, Udavyna, Udevine, Udevyne, Udevina, Udevyna... udavine


(English) One who is wealthy; prosperous

Udelle, Udela, Udella, Udelah, Udellah, Uda, Udah... udele


(American) One who is devoted to God Uelah, Uella, Uellah... uela


(African) From the country in Africa

Ugandah, Ugaunda, Ugaundah, Ugawnda, Ugawndah, Ugonda, Ugondah... uganda


(German) Having a bright spirit; bright mind

Ugolinah, Ugoleena, Ugoliana, Ugolyna, Ugoline, Ugolyn, Ugolyne... ugolina


(African) A young woman Ujanah, Uyana, Uyanah, Ujanna... ujana


United Kingdom Central Council for Nursing, Midwifery and Health Visiting, now known as the Council for Nursing and Midwifery. (See APPENDIX 7: STATUTORY ORGANISATIONS.)... ukcc


United Kingdom Transplant Support Service Authority (see TRANSPLANT SUPPORT SERVICES AUTHORITY).... uktssa

Tea For An Upset Stomach

Upset stomach symptoms include heartburn, a taste of bile in the mouth, pains in the stomach which can worsen if you take coffee, citrus, fatty foods, onions, alcohol and chocolate. Other symptoms have been noticed: irregular bowel movements, constipation and pain when going to the toilet. How tea for Upset stomach works A tea for upset stomach has the ability to mitigate the abovementioned symptoms by releasing the cramps and easing the digestion. Efficient Tea for Upset Stomach When choosinga tea for upset stomach, youshould look for one of the following: Peppermint tea is a remedy for all types of digestive ailments, such as irritable bowel syndrome. It relaxes the muscles in the digestive tract, relieves gas and other side effects of the upset stomach and soothes the feelings of nausea. To prepare Peppermint tea, add 1 tablespoon or 2 tablespoons of dried peppermint leaves to 1 cup of hot water. Allow it to steep for 5 minutes. Drink it slowly. Ginger tea may also help your stomach. It is a natural remedy able to ease the feelings of nausea, prevent vomiting and stop diarrhea. To make this tea, place 1 tablespoon of ginger root in 1 cup of hot water. Steep it for 5 to 10 minutes. Fennel tea could also calm an upset stomach. It relieves bloating and gas. It is also an appetite stimulator. It helps the soothing of muscle movement from the intestines, thus expelling excess gas. To make fennel tea, crush 1.5 tablespoon to 4 tablespoons of the fruit or seeds. Add it to a cup of hot water. Tea for Upset Stomach: side effects In case of constipation, stop drinking teas for upset stomach and ask a doctor’s advice. When in doubt, always ask your doctor for advice. In this way, you get the right tea for your ailment.... tea for an upset stomach

Tea For Ulcerative Colitis

Colitis is an affection of your larger bowel. When the problem gets worse, blood could appear, turning your problem into ulcerative colitis. This affection causes poor water absorption and it makes it harder for the nutrients and enzymes in both food and drink to be processed. Ulcerative Colitis is an autoimmune disease, but is usually linked to poor dieting and stress (an unbalanced nutrition and diet pills could trigger this disease faster). How a Tea for Ulcerative Colitis Works A Tea for Ulcerative Colitis’ main purpose is to make sure that your body increases the immunoglobulin level and directs all antibodies to the affected areas. In order to function properly, a Tea for Ulcerative Colitis needs to contain an important quantity of nutrients, enzymes, volatile oils and minerals (such as sodium, iron, magnesium and manganese) and be very low on acids (since they could induce irritable bowel and upset stomach). Efficient Tea for Ulcerative Colitis If you don’t know which teas could be effective for your condition, here’s a list to choose from: - Licorice Tea – has important health benefits, being able to treat not just Ulcerative Colitis, but many other disorders, such as upset stomach, irritable bowel syndrome and gastritis. However, this tea is not very safe so you need to talk to your doctor before starting a treatment based on Licorice Tea. Drinking less than 3 cups per day will give you an energy boost and restore your general well-being. - Wormwood Tea – is well known around the world thanks to its ability to treat infections and flush parasites out of your system. Other than ulcerative colitis, this decoction can be useful in case of Candida. Take a sip of this Tea for Ulcerative Colitis at every 5 minutes for about an hour every day (for a short period of time: 3-7 days) and enjoy its great benefits! - Chamomile Tea – has anti-inflammatory and antiseptic problems and it’s good for almost any health problem, from sore throats to colds and flu. Some specialists even say that Chamomile Tea has proven its efficiency in many cancer cases. If that is the case or not, the important thing is that this Tea for Ulcerative Colitis will calm your pain and energize your body. Tea for Ulcerative Colitis Side Effects When taken properly, these teas are generally safe. However, exceeding the number of cups recommended per day can lead to a number of problems, from diarrhea, nausea, vomiting to gastritis and ulcers. If you’ve been taking one of these teas for a while and you’re experiencing some unusual symptoms, ask for medical assistance as soon as possible!Don’t take a Tea for Ulcerative Colitis if you’re pregnant, breastfeeding, on blood thinners or anticoagulants. The same advice if you’re preparing for a surgery. If you have your doctor’s approval and there’s nothing that could interfere with your treatment, choose a Tea for Ulcerative Colitis that fits best your needs and enjoy its great benefits!... tea for ulcerative colitis


(Greek) Form of Eulalia, meaning “well-spoken” Ulaliah, Ulalya, Ulalyah... ulalia


(African) Firstborn of twins Ulann, Ulanne... ulan


(American) One who is confident Ulandah, Ulandia, Ulandiah, Ulandea, Ulandeah, Ulandiya, Ulandiyah... ulanda


(Hawaiian) One who is cheerful Ulanie, Ulany, Ulaney, Ulanee, Ulana, Ulanya, Ulania, Ulane... ulani


(American) One who can foretell the future

Uldah, Uldia, Uldiah, Uldea, Uldeah, Uldiya, Uldiyah... ulda


(English) A special and beloved friend

Uldwynah, Uldwina, Uldwaina, Uldweena... uldwyna


Bleeding from the gums... ulemorrhagia


(Irish) Feminine form of Ulik; playful heart

Uliciah, Uliscia, Uleacia, Ulecea, Uleicia, Uleisia, Uleisya, Uleighcia, Uleighsya, Uleighsia, Ulicea, Ulicha, Ulichia, Ulician, Ulicija, Uliecia, Ullicea, Ulisha, Ulishia, Ulishya, Ulishaya, Ulishea, Uleesha... ulicia


(Polynesian) An intelligent lady Ulielmie, Ulielmee, Ulielmy, Ulielmey, Ulielmea, Uleilmeah... ulielmi

Tea For Ulcers

Ulcers are a medical condition, characterized by an inflammation on the lining of the digestive tract. The disease is associated with a constant upper abdominal pain, which may disappear after eating. Hunger is more intensively felt by a person with ulcers, because the protective mucus is destroyed and the stomach is not protected enough against its acids. There are different types of ulcers, depending on what part of the digestive tract is affected: peptic, gastric and duodenal ulcers. The external factors leading to ulcers are still the subject of studies. However, it has been scientifically proven that excessive smoking and drinking, a wrong diet and a stressful lifestyle, together with the abuse of painkillers may cause this disease. There were instances when a bacteria had led to the occurance of ulcers. Family history could also be responsible for developing this medical condition. Efficient Teas for treating Ulcers In case of ulcers, patients should look for teas with anti-inflammatory properties, which calm the sore and soothe the digestive tract. Chamomile tea , Calamus tea and Slippery elm bark tea are natural remedies which alleviate the unpleasant feeling caused by ulcers. Chamomile is a medicinal plant, successfully used to treat a large array of health issues. Due to its efficiency, the plant is known as a “cure-all” treatment. Chamomile tea has a long curative history, being used by ancient Egyptians and modern people as well. It is best known as a treatment for muscle and menstrual cramps, back pain and rheumatism. It acts as an immunity enhancer, boosting the body’s ability to fight against viruses and bacteria. Also, patients suffering from less severe ailments of the liver claim its beneficial effects for improving the function of this organ. To prepare Chamomile tea as Tea for Ulcers, add 2 tablespoons of the dried plant in a cup of hot water. Steep it for 8 to 10 minutes and strain it. Drink it warm, with no sugar (sweets may cause a feeling of burning in a stomach affected by ulcers). Calamus was used by ancient Chinese to restrain stress and to melt phlegm. Nowadays, due to this plant’s scent, it is an important ingredient in the perfume industry. Calamus tea may reduce the pain caused by ulcers, soothing the digestive tract. Also, it may relieve flatulence as well as chest congestion. When trying to give up smoking, Calamus brewing can help the process, by reducing the need for tobacco. To prepare Calamus tea, add a cup of boiling water on 2 tablespoons of the plant’s roots and leaves. Steep it for 15 minutes, strain it. Drink it before you eat. Slippery elmis a plant originating from the Unites States and Canada, used at first by Native Americans as a wound bandage. It has anti-inflammatory properties which help in the treatment of the urinary tract, the skin and the digestive system. It soothes the stomach and counters its acidity. To prepare Slippery elm bark tea, add 2 tablespoons of ground slippery elm bark in a mug of hot water. Steep it for 11-12 minutes and strain it. Drink it before eating. Tea for Ulcers: possible side effects Before consuming Tea for Ulcers, bear in mind to ask your doctor about its safe use for your medical condition. Rarely, when taken in large doses, Tea for Ulcers may lead to diarrhea and vomiting. Tea for Ulcers is a natural way to mitigate or even to treat the painful symptoms of this disease. Also, it is important that people reconsider their diet and bad habits to prevent ulcers.... tea for ulcers

Tecomella Undulata

(G. Don) Seem.

Synonym: Tecoma undulata G. Don.

Bignonia undulata Sm.

Family: Bignoniaceae.

Habitat: North-West and Western India, and in the outer Himalayas.

English: Rohida tree.

Ayurvedic: Rohitaka, Rohi, Daadimpushpaka, Daadimchhada, Plihaghna. (Amoora rohituka is also known as Rohitaka.)

Action: Bark—relaxant, cardiotonic, choleretic. (Heartwood toxic due to lapachol.) Used for the treatment of leucorrhoea, diseases of the liver and spleen, leucoderma, syphilis and other skin diseases.

The bark contains tecomin (veratryl beta-D-glucoside), alkanes, alkanols and beta-sitosterols. The bark also yielded chromone glycosides—undu- latosides A and B, and iridoid glu- cosides—tecomelloside and tecoside.

A quinonoid—lapachol, veratric acid and dehydrotectol are also reported from the bark.

Water soluble portion of the alcoholic as well as chloroform extracts of the bark shows smooth muscle relaxant, mild cardiotonic and chloretic activities.

Dosage: Flower, bark—50-100 ml decoction. (CCRAS.)... tecomella undulata


(Arabic) One who is wise and astute Ulimah, Ullima, Ulimma, Uleema, Uleama, Ulyma, Uleima, Uliema... ulima


Inflammation of the gums... ulitis


(German) A willful woman Ullah, Ullaa, Ullai, Ullae... ulla


Ulceration of the gums... ulocace


Hemorrhage from the gums... ulorrhagia


Bleeding from the gums... ulorrhea

Trigonella Uncata


Family: Papilionaceae, Fabaceae.

Habitat: Afghanistan, Persia.

English: Tonkin Bean, Melilot, King's Crown.

Unani: Iklil-ul-Malik (also equated with Melilotus alba Desv., and Astragalus homosus Linn.).

Folk: Sainji (white-flowered var.).

Action: Beans—anti-inflammatory, anodyne, diuretic, emmenagogue. (Indian species, bearing smaller beans, has been equated with Trigonella corniculata and is known as Pirang.)... trigonella uncata

Turnera Ulmifolia


Synonym: T. angustifolia Mill.

Family: Turneraceae.

Habitat: West Bengal and Orissa and in the Peninsular India, particularly on the coast.

English: West Indian Holly, Sagerose.

Folk: Bhinjir (Maharashtra).

Action: Herb—prescribed in indigestion, biliousness (leaves are used against dysentery), chest ailments and rheumatism.

The fresh plant yields a mixture of cyanohydrin glucosides—deidaclin and tetraphyllin. Seeds, along with normal fatty acids, contain a few unusual fatty acids, including vernolic, malvalic and octanoic acids.

An allied species Turnera diffusa var. aphrodisiaca, a native to the Gulfof Mexico, Southern California, (known as Damiana) is used in India by homoeopathic practitioners as a tonic and sex restorative, and for treating premature ejaculation.

Turnera diffusa Willd. has been included among unapproved herbs by German Commission E. The British Herbal Pharmacopoeia recognizes its thymoleptic activity.... turnera ulmifolia


(American) A lovely woman Ulphie, Ulphy, Ulphey, Ulphee, Ulphea, Ulpheah, Ulphia, Ulphiah, Ulphiya, Ulphiyah... ulphi


(German) Feminine form of Ulric; wolf ruler; ruler of all Ulricah, Ulrika, Ulrikah, Ulrique, Ulrike, Ulryca, Ulryka, Ulricka, Ulrycka, Ulryqua, Ullrica, Ullrika, Ullricka, Ulka, Uli, Ulie, Uly, Uley, Ulee, Uleigh, Ulli... ulrica


(Latin) One who is aloof; endmost Ultimah, Ultyma, Ultymah... ultima


Filtration carried out under pressure. Blood undergoes ultra?ltration in the KIDNEYS to remove the waste products, urea and surplus water that constitute URINE.... ultrafiltration


(Hawaiian) Born of heavenly inspiration

Ululanie, Ululany, Ululaney, Ululanee, Ululanya, Ululania... ululani


(German) Resembling the wolf Ulvah, Ulvia, Ulvya... ulva


(American) Feminine form of Ulysses; one who wanders; an angry woman Ulyssiah, Ulyssea, Ulysseah, Ulissia, Ulissiah, Ulissea, Ulisseah, Ulissya, Ulyssya, Ulyssi, Ulissi, Ulyssie, Ulissie, Ulyssy, Ulissy, Ulyssey, Ulissey, Ulyssee, Ulissee... ulyssia

Ulmus Wallichiana


Family: Ulmaceae.

Habitat: The North Western Himalayas.

English: Himalayan Elm. Slippery Elm is equated with Ulmus fulva.

Folk: Hemar, Kitamaara.

Action: Bark—astringent, demulcent, emollient, expectorant, diuretic.

The bark contains 0.76% tannins. Ulmus fulva Michx, though known as Indian or Sweet Elm, is an American plant and does not occur in India.

Powdered bark of Ulmus fulva gives a mucilage, composed of galactose, 3- methyl galactose, rhamnose and galac- turonic acid residues. As a gruel it is prescribed for patients with gastric or duodenal ulcers. Coarse powdered bark is applied as poultice to burns and skin eruptions.

The mucilages cause reflex stimulation of nerve endings in the GI tract and lead to mucous secretion which protects the GI tract against ulceration and excess acidity. (Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, 2007.)... ulmus wallichiana

Ultraviolet Rays (uvr)

Invisible light rays of very short wavelength beyond the violet end of the sun’s spectrum. Ultraviolet-C (UVC) (wavelength <290 nm [nanometre – see APPENDIX 6: MEASUREMENTS IN MEDICINE]) is entirely absorbed by the earth’s atmosphere and would otherwise be lethally damaging. Ultraviolet-B (UVB – 290– 320 nm) intensity increases with altitude: it is greatest in midsummer and at midday and penetrates cirrhus cloud. UVB causes sunburn and also tanning. Ultraviolet-A (UVA – 320– 400 nm) penetrates deeper into our skins but does not cause sunburn; it is implicated in many photochemical reactions and PHOTODERMATOSES and in CARCINOGENESIS. UVR helps the skin to synthesise vitamin D.

Ultraviolet lamps produce UVR and are used to tan skin but, because of the risk of producing skin cancer (see SKIN, DISEASES OF), the lamps must be used with great caution.... ultraviolet rays (uvr)


(Japanese) One who is patient; a plum-blossom child Umeeko, Umeiko, Umeyo, Ume... umeko


(African) Born of my mother Ummie, Ummy, Ummey, Ummee, Umi... ummi


(Arabic) One who is desired Umniah, Umnea, Umneah, Umniya, Umniyah... umnia

Uncaria Gambier


Family: Rubiaceae.

English: Pale Catechu, Gambier.

Ayurvedic: Khadira (related species).

Folk: Chinai Katthaa.

Action: Intestinal astringent. Uses similar to Black Catechu (Acacia catechu). The extract of the leaves and shoots contains tannins, mainly catechins up to 35% and catechu tannic acid up to 50%; indole alkaloids including gambirine, gambiridine; flavonoids such as quercetin; pigments and gambirfluorescin.

Gambirine is reported to be hypotensive; d-catechu constricts blood vessels. Catechins protect the liver from infection.

A related species, U. rhynchophylla, native to China, known as Gou Teng in Chinese medicine, is used for eclampsia, headache, dizziness, convulsions, high fever and hypertension. (WHO.)... uncaria gambier

Uncinate Fit

A type of temporal lobe EPILEPSY in which a patient has a hallucination of smell or of taste; it may also be the result of a tumour pressing on that part of the BRAIN concerned with the appreciation of smell and taste.... uncinate fit


The use of a service or facility below its potential. universal access The right and ability to receive comprehensive, affordable, appropriate and effective health and care services.... underutilization


In insurance, the process of selecting, classifying, evaluating and assuming risks according to their insurability. Its purpose is to make sure that the insured group or individual has the same probability of loss and probable amount of loss, within reasonable limits, as the universe on which premium rates are based. Since premium rates are based on an expectation of loss, the underwriting process must classify risks into groups with about the same expectation of loss.... underwriting

Undescended Testis

See under TESTICLE, DISEASES OF.... undescended testis


A type of cancer in which the cells have become very primitive and do not look or behave like the cells from which they originated. Usually more malignant than a cancer which is highly differentiated. Anaplastic.... undifferentiated


(American) A long-suffering woman Undrah, Undria, Undriah, Undreah, Undrea, Undriya, Undriyah... undra


(Latin) Woman who is bearlike Unelinah, Uneleena, Unelena, Unelyna, Uneleana, Unelinia... unelina


(Turkish) One who is hopeful Umaa, Umai, Umae... umay


(Arabic) Little mother Umaymah, Umaema, Umaima... umayma


(French) Feminine form of Umber; providing shade; of an earth color Umberlah, Umberly, Umberley, Umberlee, Umberleigh, Umberli, Umberlea, Umberlie, Umberleah, Umberlina, Umberlyna, Umberleina, Umberliena, Umberleena, Umberleana... umberla


Ointment... unguent


(Greek) Form of Eunice, meaning “one who conquers” Unise, Unyce, Unyse... unice


(American) Unlike others; the only one

Unikue, Unik, Uniquia, Uniqia, Uniqua, Unikqua, Unika, Unicka, Unica... unique


The term applied to a quantity assumed as a standard for measurement. Thus, the unit of insulin is the speci?c activity contained in such an amount of the standard preparation as the Medical Research Council may from time to time indicate as the quantity exactly equivalent to the unit accepted for international use. The standard preparation consists of pure, dry, crystalline insulin. (See APPENDIX 6: MEASUREMENTS IN MEDICINE.)... unit

Unit (of Analysis)

The unit to which a performance measure is applied (e.g. subjects, patients, clinicians, group of professionals).... unit (of analysis)


(American) Woman who upholds oneness; togetherness Unitey, Unitie, Uniti, Unitee, Unitea, Unyty, Unytey, Unytie, Unyti, Unytee, Unytea, Unite, Unita, Unyta... unity


Studying the distribution of cases of one variable only.... univariate


(Norse / Hebrew) One who is modest / a musician of the temple Unnie, Unny, Unney, Unnee... unni


(Slavic) From the mountains Urall, Urale, Uralle... ural


(Greek) From the heavens; in mythology, the muse of astronomy Uraniah, Uraniya, Urainia, Urainiah, Uraina, Uranya, Uranie... urania

Uraria Alopecuroides


Family: Papilionaceae; Fabaceae.

Habitat: Grasslands and forest- glades from Uttar Pradesh to Assam and in Orissa, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka.

Ayurvedic: Prishniparni (related species).

Action: Pods and roots—used against ringworm.... uraria alopecuroides


The salts of uric acid, found in the urine, some kidney stones, and (unfortunately) in gouty joints.... urate


See URIC ACID.... urates

Unona Desmos


Synonym: Desmos cochinchinensis Lour.

Family: Annonaceae.

Habitat: Assam.

Action: Root—febrifuge.

The roots contain a desmoflavone. A cycloartane triterpenoid desmosinol has been isolated from stem. The root of U. discolor Vahl, synonym Desmos chinensis Lour. (forests of north-east, south and west India) is given for vertigo.

The root contains a flavonoid des- mal. Desmal inhibited tyrosine kinase in situ in epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor overexpressing NIH3T3 (ERIZ) cells. It also inhibited EGF-induced inositol phosphate formation and morphological changes.... unona desmos

Upper Limb Disorders

A group of injuries resulting from overuse of a part of the limb. One example is TENNIS ELBOW (epicondylitis) caused by in?ammation of the tendon attaching the extensor muscles of the forearm to the humerus because of overuse of the muscles. Overuse of the shoulder muscles may cause in?ammation and pain around the joint. Perhaps the best-known example is repetitive strain injury (RSI) affecting keyboard workers and musicians: the result is pain in and weakness of the wrists and ?ngers. This has affected thousands of people and been the subject of litigation by employees against their employers. Working practices have been improved and the complaint is now being recognised at an early stage. Treatment includes PHYSIOTHERAPY, but some sufferers have been obliged to give up their work.... upper limb disorders

Uraria Crinita


Uraria lagopoides DC.

Synonym: U. lagopodioides Desv.

Family: Papilionaceae; Fabaceae.

Habitat: Grasslands of Bihar, Orissa, West Bengal and Palni Hills. Ayurvedic: Prishniparni. (Prishniparni and Shaaliparni are used together in Indian medicine. Both have been equated with Uraria sp., U. lagopoides and U. picta. Siddha: Moovilai.

Action: Whole plant—anticatarrhal and alterative. Root—used in prescriptions for intermittent fevers, pulmonary inflammation and as a recuperating tonic. Leaves— prescribed in diarrhoea.

Flavonoids, including 5-hydroxy-7, 4'-dimethoxy flavonol, have been isolated from the plant.

The plant is mentioned as an aborti- facient in ancient Ayurvedic texts. Hot aqueous extract of the shoots showed oxytocic activity on both gravid and non-gravid uteri of experimental animals. The aqueous extract of the plant shows anti-implantation activity on rats and spasmogenic effect on the guts of rabbits and uteri of rats.

Family: Papilionaceae; Fabaceae.

Habitat: Throughout Himalayas, up to an altitude of 2,700 m and in Khasi, Aka and Lushai hills.

Prishniparni (related

Action: Prescribed in dysentery, diarrhoea; enlarged spleen and liver; also for the treatment of pustules, tumours and fistula.... uraria crinita


(American) One who is gentle Urbae, Urbay, Urbaye... urbai

Urban Area

A part of a country that is part of a metropolitan statistical area.... urban area


(Latin) From the city; city dweller Urbanah, Urbanna, Urbane, Urbania, Urbanya, Urbanne... urbana


(Egyptian) Born to royalty; a princess Urbie, Urby, Urbey, Urbea, Urbeah, Urbee... urbi

Uraria Picta


Synonym: Hedysarum pictum Jacq.

Family: Papilionaceae; Fabaceae.

Habitat: Throughout India, in dry grasslands. Ayurvedic: Prishniparni, Prithak- parni, Simhapushpi, Kalashi, Dhaavani, Guhaa, Chitraparni.

Siddha/Tamil: Oripai.

Action: Root—prescribed for cough, chills and fevers. Leaves—antiseptic, used for urinary discharges and genitourinary infections.

The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India recommends a decoction of whole plant in alcoholism, insanity, psychosis; cough, bronchitis, dyspnoea; diseases due to vitiated blood; gout; bleeding piles; blood dysentery, acute diarrhoea.

The plant is credited with fracture- healing properties. Its total extract exhibits better and quicker healing of fractures in experimental animals due to early accumulation of phosphorus and more deposition of calcium.

Dosage: Whole plant—20-50 g powder for decoction. (API, Vol. IV.)... uraria picta


A group of micro-organisms which plays a larger part in the causation of disease than was at one time suspected. One of them, Urea-plasma urealyticum, is now recognised as a cause of chronic prostatitis (see under PROSTATE GLAND, DISEASES OF), NON-SPECIFIC URETHRITIS (NSU) – see also URETHRA, DISEASES OF AND INJURY TO – and INFERTILITY.... ureaplasma


Ulceration of the urinary tract... urelcosis


(African) A father’s pride Urennah, Urena, Urenah, Urennia, Urennya, Urenya... urenna

Urethral Syndrome

A group of symptoms of unknown cause. It mainly affects women, and occasionally men, with pain and discomfort in the lower abdomen, a frequent urge to urinate and, in women, pain in the area of the VULVA. Investigation rarely results in any abnormal ?ndings. Postmenopausal women (see MENOPAUSE), who are the most common sufferers, may have in?ammation of the vulva due to thinning of the tissues in that area. Treatment is supportive, with the patient being advised to drink a lot of ?uid and maintain a high standard of personal hygiene.... urethral syndrome

Urethra, Diseases Of And Injury To

Trauma Injury to the urethra is often the result of severe trauma to the pelvis – for example, in a car accident or as the result of a fall. Trauma can also result from catheter insertion (see CATHETERS) or the insertion of foreign bodies into the urethra. The signs are the inability to pass urine, and blood at the exit of the urethra. The major complication of trauma is the development of a urethral stricture (see below).

Urethritis is in?ammation of the urethra from infection.

Causes The sexually transmitted disease GONORRHOEA affects the urethra, mainly in men, and causes severe in?ammation and urethritis. Non-speci?c urethritis (NSU) is an in?ammation of the urethra caused by one of many di?erent micro-organisms including BACTERIA, YEAST and CHLAMYDIA.

Symptoms The classic signs and symptoms are a urethral discharge associated with urethral pain, particularly on micturition (passing urine), and DYSURIA.

Treatment This involves taking urethral swabs, culturing the causative organism and treating it with the appropriate antibiotic. The complications of urethritis include stricture formation.

Stricture This is an abrupt narrowing of the urethra at one or more places. Strictures can be a result of trauma or infection or a congenital abnormality from birth. Rarely, tumours can cause strictures.

Symptoms The usual presenting complaint is one of a slow urinary stream. Other symptoms include hesitancy of micturition, variable stream and terminal dribbling. Measurement of the urine ?ow rate may help in the diagnosis, but often strictures are detected during cystoscopy (see CYSTOSCOPE).

Treatment The traditional treatment was the periodic dilation of the strictures with ‘sounds’

– solid metal rods passed into the urethra. However, a more permanent solution is achieved by cutting the stricture with an endoscopic knife (optical urethrotomy). For more complicated long or multiple strictures, an open operation (urethroplasty) is required.... urethra, diseases of and injury to


Flow of blood from the urethra... urethrorrhagia


Abnormal discharge from the urethra... urethrorrhea

Urgent Condition

A condition requiring medical attention within a few hours; a longer delay presents possible danger to the individual; and the disorder is acute but not necessarily severe.... urgent condition

Urginea Indica

(Roxb.) Kunth.

Synonym: Drimia indica Roxb. non-(Wt.) Baker.

Family: Liliaceae.

Habitat: Western Himalayas, Bihar, Konkan and along the Coromandel Coast. U. maritima (L.) Baker is native to Mediterranean region.

English: Indian Squill, Sea Onion (red and white varieties).

Ayurvedic: Vana-palaandu, Kolakanda, Vajrakanda.

Unani: Unsul-e-Hindi, Isqueel- e-Hindi, Piyaaz-Dasti, Piyaaz- Sahraayi, Jangali Piyaaz.

Siddha/Tamil: Narivengayam.

Action: Used as a substitute for European Squill, Urginea maritima. Expectorant (in dry respiratory conditions, whooping cough and bronchial asthma), antispasmodic, emetic (in large doses), diuretic (promotes fluid elimination in heart disease), cardiac tonic (effect, non-cumulative). Used topically as a hair tonic for dandruff and seborrhoea (active constituent is thought to be scilliroside of the Red Squill.)

Key application: Urginea maritima—in milder cases of heart insufficiency, also for diminished kidney capacity. (German Commission E.)

Bulbs contain cardiac glycosides, scillarens A and B. Bulb, leaves and root contain stigmasterol, sitosterol and campesterol. Bulbs also contain hentriacontanol, octacosanoic acid. Defatted air-dried bulbs afforded 6- desacetoxyscillirosidin.

The plant exhibits cyanogenetic activity.

Urginea maritima (White Squill) is contraindicated in potassium deficiency or when digitalis glycosides are being used (Francis Brinker), in hyper- calcaemia and hyperkalaemia (Sharon M. Herr).

Urginea coromandeliana Hook. f. non-Wight, synonym U. wightiana Hook f. (Coromandel coast and in dry regions of Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu up to 3,000 m) is used as a substitute for Indian Squill (U. indica).

Dosage: Bulb—120-200 mg powder. (CCRAS.)... urginea indica


(Greek) From the unknown; heavenly

Urianah, Urianna, Uryana, Uryanna, Uriane, Uriann, Urianne, Uryan, Uryane, Uryann, Uryanne... uriana


(Hebrew) The angel of light Uriella, Urielle, Uriel, Uriele, Uriell... uriela


(Native American) One who is useful to all

Urikah, Urica, Uricka, Uryka, Uryca, Urycka, Uriqua, Uryqua, Uricca, Urycca... urika

Urinary Bladder, Diseases Of

Diseases of the URINARY BLADDER are diagnosed by the patient’s symptoms and signs, examination of the URINE, and using investigations such as X-RAYS and ULTRASOUND scans. The interior of the bladder can be examined using a cystoscope, which is a ?breoptic endoscope (see FIBREOPTIC ENDOSCOPY) that is passed into the bladder via the URETHRA.

Cystitis Most cases of cystitis are caused by bacteria which have spread from the bowel, especially Escherichia coli, and entered the bladder via the urethra. Females are more prone to cystitis than are males, owing to their shorter urethra which allows easier entry for bacteria. Chronic or recurrent cystitis may result in infection spreading up the ureter to the kidney (see KIDNEY, DISEASES OF).

Symptoms Typically there is frequency and urgency of MICTURITION, with stinging and burning on passing urine (dysuria), which is often smelly or bloodstained. In severe infection patients develop fever and rigors, or loin pain. Before starting treatment a urine sample should be obtained for laboratory testing, including identi?cation of the invading bacteria.

Treatment This includes an increased ?uid intake, ANALGESICS, doses of potassium citrate to make the urine alkaline to discourage bacterial growth, and an appropriate course of ANTIBIOTICS once a urine sample has been ana-lysed in the laboratory to con?rm the diagnosis and determine what antibiotics the causative organism is likely to respond to.

Stone or calculus The usual reason for the formation of a bladder stone is an obstruction to the bladder out?ow, which results in stagnant residual urine – ideal conditions for the crystallisation of the chemicals that form stones – or from long-term indwelling CATHETERS which weaken the natural mechanical protection against bacterial entry and, by bruising the lining tissues, encourage infection.

Symptoms The classic symptom is a stoppage in the ?ow of urine during urination, associated with severe pain and the passage of blood.

Treatment This involves surgical removal of the stone either endoscopically (litholapaxy); by passing a cystoscope into the bladder via the urethra and breaking the stone; or by LITHOTRIPSY in which the stone (or stones) is destroyed by applying ultrasonic shock waves. If the stone cannot be destroyed by these methods, the bladder is opened and the stone removed (cystolithotomy).

Cancer Cancer of the bladder accounts for 7 per cent of all cancers in men and 2·5 per cent in women. The incidence increases with age, with smoking and with exposure to the industrial chemicals, beta-napththylamine and benzidine. In 2003, 2,884 men and 1,507 women died of bladder cancer in England and Wales.

Symptoms The classical presenting symptom of a bladder cancer is the painless passing of blood in the urine – haematuria. All patients with haematuria must be investigated with an X-ray of their kidneys, an INTRAVENOUS PYELOGRAM (UROGRAM) and a cystoscopy.

Treatment Super?cial bladder tumours on the lining of the bladder can be treated by local removal via the cystoscope using DIATHERMY (cystodiathermy). Invasive cancers into the bladder muscle are usually treated with RADIOTHERAPY, systemic CHEMOTHERAPY or surgical removal of the bladder (cystectomy). Local chemotherapy may be useful in some patients with multiple small tumours.... urinary bladder, diseases of


(Hebrew) Emanating a bright light Uryt, Urita, Uritah, Uryta, Urytah, Urice, Urith... urit

Urine Retention

This occurs when URINE is produced by the kidneys but not voided by the bladder. It is generally less serious than ANURIA, in which urine is not produced.

Causes Neurological injury, such as trauma to the spinal cord, may cause bladder weakness, leading to retention, although this is rare. Obstruction to out?ow is more common: this may be acute and temporary, for example after childbirth or following surgery for piles (HAEMORRHOIDS); or chronic, for example, with prostatic enlargement (see PROSTATE GLAND). Commonly seen in elderly men, this leads to reduced bladder capacity, with partial emptying every few hours. Total retention is rare, but may result from a stricture, or narrowing, of the URETHRA (see also URETHRA, DISEASES OF AND INJURY TO) – usually the result of infection or injury – or to pressure from a large neighbouring tumour.

Retention is generally treated by regular use of a urethral catether (see CATHETERS), various types of which are available. Tapping of the bladder with a needle passed above the pubis is rarely necessary, but may occasionally be required in cases of severe stricture.... urine retention


The urinary bladder... urocyst


Inflammation of the urinary bladder... urocystitis


Pain on urination... urodynia

Urol Ithiasis

Urinary calculi... urol ithiasis


Any disease of the urinary tract... uropathy


Excessive secretion of urine... urorrhagia


Involuntary flow of urine... urorrhea


Retention of urine... uroschesis


(Greek) Resembling a little bear Ursulla, Ursela, Ursella, Ursala, Ursalla, Ursola, Ursolla, Ursila, Ursilla, Urzula, Urzulla, Ursel, Ursule, Ursulina, Ursillane, Ursulyna, Ursylyn, Urzuli, Ursule, Ursanne, Ursa, Ursey, Ursy, Ursi, Ursie, Ursee, Ursea, Uschi... ursula


(Latin) Resembling the spiny plant Urtah... urta


An abbreviation for upper respiratory tract infection – that is colds (see COMMON COLD), otitis media (see EAR, DISEASES OF – Diseases of the middle ear), TONSILLITIS, PHARYNGITIS and laryngo-tracheo-bronchitis (see CROUP; LARYNX, DISORDERS OF).... urti

Urtica Dioica


Family: Urticaceae.

Habitat: North-western Himalaya from Kashmir to Simla at 2,4003,600 m.

English: Stinging Nettle.

Ayurvedic: Vrishchhiyaa-shaaka (related species).

Unani: Anjuraa.

Folk: Shisuun (Kumaon).

Action: Plant—diuretic, astringent, antihaemorrhagic; eliminates uric acid from the body, detoxifies the blood. Externally, astringent and haemostatic.

Used internally for the treatment of nephritis, haemoptysis and other haemorrhages.

Key application: Above ground parts—as a supportive therapy for rheumatic ailments (internally and externally). Internally, in irrigation therapy for inflammatory diseases of the lower urinary tract and prevention and treatment of kidney gravel. (German Commission E, ESCOP, The British Herbal Compendium, The British Herbal Pharmacopoeia.) Root—in symptomatic treatment of micturition disorders (dysuria, pol- lakiuria, nocturia, urine retention) in benign prostatic hyperplasia at stages I and II. (German Commission E, ESCOP, WHO, The British Herbal Pharmacopoeia.)

Clinical experiments have confirmed the utility of the herb as a haemostatic in uterine haemorrhage and bleeding from nose. The herb is also used in sciatica, rheumatism and palsy. The treatment for paralysis comprises slapping the patient with a bundle of twigs. Alcoholic extract of Russian sp. is used in the cholecystitis and habitual constipation.

The root exhibits an antiprolifera- tive effect on prostatic epithelial and stromal cells. It may also lessen the effects of androgenic hormones by competitively blocking acess to human sex hormone binding globulin. (Planta Med, 63, 1997; ibid, 66, 2000. Also, ESCOP monograph; Altern Complem Ther, 1998; Simon Mills; Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, 2007.)

In Europe, the juice of the leaves or roots, mixed with honey or sugar, was prescribed forbronchial asthma. In the USA, a freeze-dried preparation of the herb (300 mg gelatin capsules) has been found to improve condition of allergic rhinitis patients. The powdered seeds were considered a cure for goitre. (M. Grieve.)

The urticating properties of the hairs are attributed to the presence of acetyl- choline, histamine and 5-hydroxytryp- tamine (5-HT). A histamine-liberating enzyme is also present.

Acetylcholine is present in the leaves, rootlets, rhizomes and cortex in the ascending order of concentration. Histamine is not present in the underground parts of the plant. Its concentration in the leaves is about four times than that in the stem-cortex. Betaine and choline are present in the leaves.

The leaves gave flavonoids (including rutin), sterols, carotenoids, vitamins (including C, B group, K), minerals, plant phenolic acids. The coumarin scopoletin has been isolated from the flowers and the root.

A polysaccharide fraction obtained from aqueous extract showed anti- inflammatory activity in carrageenan- induced rat paw oedema and lymphocyte transformation test. A lectin was found to stimulate proliferation of human lymphocytes. (Planta Med, 55, 1989.)

The leaf and root is contraindicat- ed in kidney disease and pregnancy. 5-hydroxytryptamine is a uterotropic constituent. (Francis Brinker.)... urtica dioica

Urtica Parviflora


Family: Urticaceae.

Habitat: Temperate Himalayas and the Nilgiris.

Ayurvedic: Vrishchhiyaa-shaaka.

Folk: Shisuun (Kumaon).

Action: Roots—employed for the treatment of fractures and dislocations. Leaves and inflorescences—prescribed as a tonic and as a cleaning agent after parturition.... urtica parviflora

Urva Ursa

Psychic Workings... urva ursa


(Hindi) In Hinduism, the most beautiful of the celestial maidens Urvasie, Urvasy, Urvasey, Urvasee... urvasi


(Japanese) Resembling a rabbit Usagie, Usagy, Usagey, Usagee... usagi

User Empowerment

Strengthening the individual’s capacity to participate in decision-making regarding his or her care.... user empowerment

User Involvement

The involvement of users in the decision-making and evaluation of issues, such as in the provision of community services. direct user involvement: When service users, for example, are involved directly in decision-making. indirect user involvement: This entails information gathering by professionals in order to inform service delivery and development.... user involvement

Urtica Pilulifera


Habitat: Simla and other hill stations.

English: Roman Nettle.

Ayurvedic: Used as a substitute for Vrishchiyaa-shaaka.

Unani: Anjuraa.

Action: Diuretic, astringent, haemostatic.

The leaves and stems contain an indole alkaloid, bufotenin. 5-hydroxy- tryptamine is located mainly in strings.

Urtica urens Linn. (Dog Nettle, Small Nettle) is found in Dehra Dun and is Udhampur district of J. & K. The inflorescence and leaves contain the flavonoid compounds of kaempfer- ol, isorhamnetin, quercetin, apigenin, diosmetin and luteolin. Presence of chlorogenic acid is also reported.

The fluid extract of roots has been found to be useful in mild cases of prostate enlargement by improving micturia in men over 60 years.... urtica pilulifera

User Quality

See “client quality”.... user quality


(Indian) Born at dawn; in mythology, the daughter of heaven, and the name of a demon princess Ushah, Ushas, Ushai... usha


(Latin) From the mouth of the river Ushar, Ushir, Ussher, Usshar, Usshir, Ushur, Usshur... usher


(Chinese) Resembling an ox Ushie, Ushy, Ushey, Ushee... ushi

Usnea Longissima


Family: Usneaceae.

Habitat: Common in temperate and alpine Himalayas, as a moss on trees.

English: Lichen.

Unani: Ushnaa.

Action: Moss—used as an expectorant and in the treatment of ulcers.

Key application: German Commission E approves Usnea (dried thallus of U. barbata, U.florida, U. hirta and U. plicata) for mild inflammations of the oral and pharyngeal mucosa.

Usnea preparations are used clinically by North American herbalists for antibacterial action against Grampositive bacteria in local or systemic infections and for antifungal action against Candida albicans. (Expanded Commission E Monographs.)

U. longissima contains 3-4% usnic acid, also barbatic acid and arabitol. Usnic acid and barbatic acid possess marked anti-tubercular activity. Bar- batic acid produces usnic acid, is active against Streptococcus haemolyticus and pneumococcus sp. and inhibits the growth of tubercle bacillus.... usnea longissima


(Basque) Woman who is dovelike Usoah... usoa


(Native American) People of the mountains; from the state of Utah... utah


(Latin) A glorious woman... utas


Pain in the uterus... uteralgia

Uterine Sedative

An agent that relaxes the muscles of the uterus... uterine sedative


Inflammation of the uterus... uteritis

Uterus, Diseases Of

Absence or defects of the uterus

Rarely, the UTERUS may be completely absent as a result of abnormal development. In such patients secondary sexual development is normal but MENSTRUATION is absent (primary amennorhoea). The chromosomal make-up of the patient must be checked (see CHROMOSOMES; GENES): in a few cases the genotype is male (testicular feminisation syndrome). No treatment is available, although the woman should be counselled.

The uterus develops as two halves which fuse together. If the fusion is incomplete, a uterine SEPTUM results. Such patients with a double uterus (uterus didelphys) may have fertility problems which can be corrected by surgical removal of the uterine septum. Very rarely there may be two uteri with a double vagina.

The uterus of most women points forwards (anteversion) and bends forwards (ante?exion). However, about 25 per cent of women have a uterus which is pointed backwards (retroversion) and bent backwards (retro?exion). This is a normal variant and very rarely gives rise to any problems. If it does, the attitude of the uterus can be corrected by an operation called a ventrosuspension.

Endometritis The lining of the uterine cavity is called the ENDOMETRIUM. It is this layer that is partially shed cyclically in women of reproductive age giving rise to menstruation. Infection of the endometrium is called endometritis and usually occurs after a pregnancy or in association with the use of an intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD – see CONTRACEPTION). The symptoms are usually of pain, bleeding and a fever. Treatment is with antibiotics. Unless the FALLOPIAN TUBES are involved and damaged, subsequent fertility is unaffected. Very rarely, the infection is caused by TUBERCULOSIS. Tuberculous endometritis may destroy the endometrium causing permanent amenorrhoea and sterility.

Menstrual disorders are common. Heavy periods (menorrhagia) are often caused by ?broids (see below) or adenomyosis (see below) or by anovulatory cycles. Anovulatory cycles result in the endometrium being subjected to unopposed oestrogen stimulation and occasionally undergoing hyperplasia. Treatment is with cyclical progestogens (see PROGESTOGEN) initially. If this form of treatment fails, endoscopic surgery to remove the endometrium may be successful. The endometrium may be removed using LASER (endometrial laser ablation) or electrocautery (transcervical resection of endometrium). Hysterectomy (see below) will cure the problem if endoscopic surgery fails. Adenomyosis is a condition in which endometrial tissue is found in the muscle layer (myometrium) of the uterus. It usually presents as heavy and painful periods, and occasionally pain during intercourse. Hysterectomy is usually required.

Oligomenorhoea (scanty or infrequent periods) may be caused by a variety of conditions including thyroid disease (see THYROID GLAND, DISEASES OF). It is most commonly associated with usage of the combined oral contraceptive pill. Once serious causes have been eliminated, the patient should be reassured. No treatment is necessary unless conception is desired, in which case the patient may require induction of ovulation.

Primary amenorrhoea means that the patient has never had a period. She should be investigated, although usually it is only due to an inexplicable delay in the onset of periods (delayed menarche) and not to any serious condition. Secondary amenorrhoea is the cessation of periods after menstruation has started. The most common cause is pregnancy. It may be also caused by endocrinological or hormonal problems, tuberculous endometritis, emotional problems and severe weight loss. The treatment of amenorrhoea depends on the cause.

Dysmenorrhoea, or painful periods, is the most common disorder; in most cases the cause is unknown, although the disorder may be due to excessive production of PROSTAGLANDINS.

Irregular menstruation (variations from the woman’s normal menstrual pattern or changes in the duration of bleeding or the amount) can be the result of a disturbance in the balance of OESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE hormone which between them regulate the cycle. For some time after the MENARCHE or before the MENOPAUSE, menstruation may be irregular. If irregularity occurs in a woman whose periods are normally regular, it may be due to unsuspected pregnancy, early miscarriage or to disorders in the uterus, OVARIES or pelvic cavity. The woman should seek medical advice.

Fibroids (leiomyomata) are benign tumours arising from the smooth muscle layer (myometrium) of the uterus. They are found in 80 per cent of women but only a small percentage give rise to any problems and may then require treatment. They may cause heavy periods and occasionally pain. Sometimes they present as a mass arising from the pelvis with pressure symptoms from the bladder or rectum. Although they can be shrunk medically using gonadorelin analogues, which raise the plasma concentrations of LUTEINISING HORMONE and FOLLICLE-STIMULATING HORMONE, this is not a long-term solution. In any case, ?broids only require treatment if they are large or enlarging, or if they cause symptoms. Treatment is either myomectomy (surgical removal) if fertility is to be retained, or a hysterectomy.

Uterine cancers tend to present after the age of 40 with abnormal bleeding (intermenstrual or postmenopausal bleeding). They are usually endometrial carcinomas. Eighty per cent present with early (Stage I) disease. Patients with operable cancers should be treated with total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral excision of the ovaries and Fallopian tubes. Post-operative RADIOTHERAPY is usually given to those patients with adverse prognostic factors. Pre-operative radiotherapy is still given by some centres, although this practice is now regarded as outdated. PROGESTOGEN treatment may be extremely e?ective in cases of recurrence, but its value remains unproven when used as adjuvant treatment. In 2003 in England and Wales, more than 2,353 women died of uterine cancer.

Disorders of the cervix The cervix (neck of the womb) may produce an excessive discharge due to the presence of a cervical ectopy or ectropion. In both instances columnar epithelium – the layer of secreting cells – which usually lines the cervical canal is exposed on its surface. Asymptomatic patients do not require treatment. If treatment is required, cryocautery – local freezing of tissue – is usually e?ective.

Cervical smears are taken and examined in the laboratory to detect abnormal cells shed from the cervix. Its main purpose is to detect cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) – the presence of malignant cells in the surface tissue lining the cervix – since up to 40 per cent of women with this condition will develop cervical cancer if the CIN is left untreated. Women with abnormal smears should undergo colposcopy, a painless investigation using a low-powered microscope to inspect the cervix. If CIN is found, treatment consists of simply removing the area of abnormal skin, either using a diathermy loop or laser instrument.

Unfortunately, cervical cancer remains the most common of gynaecological cancers. The most common type is squamous cell carcinoma and around 4,000 new cases (all types) are diagnosed in England and Wales every year. As many as 50 per cent of the women affected may die from the disease within ?ve years. Cervical cancer is staged clinically in four bands according to how far it has extended, and treatment is determined by this staging. Stage I involves only the mucosal lining of the cervix and cone BIOPSY may be the best treatment in young women wanting children. In Stage IV the disease has spread beyond the cervix, uterus and pelvis to the URINARY BLADDER or RECTUM. For most women, radiotherapy or radical Wertheim’s hysterectomy – the latter being preferable for younger women – is the treatment of choice if the cancer is diagnosed early, both resulting in survival rates of ?ve years in 80 per cent of patients. Wertheim’s hysterectomy is a major operation in which the uterus, cervix, upper third of vagina and the tissue surrounding the cervix are removed together with the LYMPH NODES draining the area. The ovaries may be retained if desired. Patients with cervical cancer are treated by radiotherapy, either because they present too late for surgery or because the surgical skill to perform a radical hysterectomy is not available. These operations are best performed by gynaecological oncologists who are gynaecological surgeons specialising in the treatment of gynaecological tumours. The role of CHEMOTHERAPY in cervical and uterine cancer is still being evaluated.

Prolapse of the uterus is a disorder in which the organ drops from its normal situation down into the vagina. First-degree prolapse is a slight displacement of the uterus, second-degree a partial displacement and third-degree when the uterus can be seen outside the VULVA. It may be accompanied by a CYSTOCOELE (the bladder bulges into the front wall of the vagina), urethrocoele (the urethra bulges into the vagina) and rectocoele (the rectal wall bulges into the rear wall of the vagina). Prolapse most commonly occurs in middle-aged women who have had children, but the condition is much less common now than in the past when prenatal and obstetric care was poor, women had more pregnancies and their general health was poor. Treatment is with pelvic exercises, surgical repair of the vagina or hysterectomy. If the woman does not want or is not ?t for surgery, an internal support called a pessary can be ?tted – and changed periodically.

Vertical section of female reproductive tract (viewed from front) showing sites of common gynaecological disorders.

Hysterectomy Many serious conditions of the uterus have traditionally been treated by hysterectomy, or removal of the uterus. It remains a common surgical operation in the UK, but is being superseded in the treatment of some conditions, such as persistent MENORRHAGIA, with endometrial ablation – removal of the lining of the uterus using minimally invasive techniques, usually using an ENDOSCOPE and laser. Hysterectomy is done to treat ?broids, cancer of the uterus and cervix, menorrhagia, ENDOMETRIOSIS and sometimes for severely prolapsed uterus. Total hysterectomy is the usual type of operation: it involves the removal of the uterus and cervix and sometimes the ovaries. After hysterectomy a woman no longer menstruates and cannot become pregnant. If the ovaries have been removed as well and the woman had not reached the menopause, hormone replacement therapy (HRT – see MENOPAUSE) should be considered. Counselling helps the woman to recover from the operation which can be an emotionally challenging event for many.... uterus, diseases of


(African) From the ancient city Uticah, Utika, Utikah, Uticka, Utickah, Utyca, Utycah, Utyka, Utykah, Utycka, Utyckah, Uttica, Uttika, Uttyca, Uttyka, Utticka, Uttycka... utica


The relative desirability or preference (usually from the perspective of the patient/client) for a specific health outcome or level of health status.... utility


Use of services and supplies. Utilization is commonly examined in terms of patterns or rates of use of a single service or type of service, such as hospital care, medical practitioner visits or prescription drugs. Measurement of utilization of all medical services in combination is usually done in terms of economic costs. Use is expressed in rates per unit of population at risk for a given period, such as the number of admissions to hospital per 1000 persons over age 65 per year, or the number of visits to a medical practitioner per person per year.... utilization

Utilization Review

Evaluation of the necessity, appropriateness and efficiency of the use of health care services, procedures and facilities. In a hospital, this includes review of the appropriateness of admissions, services ordered and provided, length of a stay, and discharge practices, both on a concurrent and retrospective basis. Utilization review can be done by a peer review group or a public agency.... utilization review

Usnea Tea Infection Treatment

Usnea Tea has been known for centuries as a great remedy in case of infection, bacteria and microbes. Usnea is a plant also known as old man’s beard that grows in many varieties in regions from America and Europe. You can recognize it by its fuzzy strings that actually resemble to a grey beard. These strings are the leaves and they tend to extend to the entire territory that’s to their disposal, being able to invade forests thanks to its parasitic nature. However, Usnea tree is very useful in alternative medicine and not only to treat infection and bacteria. Usnea Tea has also a couple of aces up his sleeves. Usnea Tea Properties The main property of Usnea Tea is that thanks to its active ingredients it allows your health system to recover very fast and fight all kinds of invaders, such as parasites and bacteria. Its action involves bringing strength to your immune system and fighting diseases. The most important substances of this tea are: acid, essential fatty acids, mucilage and sterol. These ingredients turn Usnea Tea into an organic anti-bacterial treatment. Usnea Tea Benefits Aside from its ability to fight bacteria and microbes, Usnea Tea’s benefits also involve bringing relief in case you’re suffering from one of the following problems: - Infections of your digestive track (fungal infections in the mouth, stomach or intestines). - Disorders of your lungs, such as pneumonia, pleurisy, colds or flu. - Bacterial infections, irritated stomach or skin rash. - You can use Usnea smashed leaves to make a antibacterial dressing for the affected areas (in case you want to treat external infections. How to make Usnea Tea Infusion Preparing Usnea Tea infusion is very easy. All you need to do is infuse the usnea lichen in hot water and wait for 8 or 10 minutes. After that, take out the herb and drink the decoction hot or cold. You can take ¼ cups of Usnea Tea every hour, just remember to take some time off from the treatment every now and then. Usnea Tea Side Effects Don’t forget that Usnea Tea is a treatment and should only be taken as long as you are sick and by paying attention to the amount of liquid ingested. Although it has many benefits, this tea cannot replace coffee, so don’t turn it into a daily habit. If you’re unsure concerning this tea, it’s best to ask a specialist in order to find out more about the ups and downs that could interfere with your general well-being. If taken properly, Usnea Tea has no side effects at all. However, high dosages may lead to internal bleedings, nausea and vomiting. If you notice anything unusual when taking this treatment, talk to a doctor as soon as possible! Usnea Tea Contraindications If you are pregnant or breastfeeding, it’s best to avoid taking Usnea Tea. The same advice if you suffer from a serious condition and you’re on blood thinners. This way, you’ll prevent your coronary walls from erupting. If you’ve got the green light from the specialist, ask more about Usnea Tea next time you’re in a teashop and give it a try!... usnea tea infection treatment


(American) From the ideally perfect place

Utopiah, Utopea, Utopeah... utopia

Utricularia Bifida


Family: Lentibulariaceae.

Habitat: Marshy places, as a weed.

English: Bladder wort.

Folk: Jhangi (smallar var.)

Action: Diuretic (used against urinary disorders), anti-inflammatory and antispasmodic (used against cough). Used topically for mucous membrane inflammations, burns and wounds.

U. stellaris is equated with bigger var. of Jhangi.... utricularia bifida


(Indian) A royal daughter Uttarae, Uttarai, Uttaray, Utara, Utarae, Utarai, Utaray... uttara


(Arabic) From the homeland Uttastah, Utasta, Utastah... uttasta


(Turkish) From Uzbekistan Uzbeck, Uzbec, Uzbeka, Uzbecka, Uzbeca... uzbek


(American) One who is serious Uzeta, Uzett, Uzet, Uzette, Uzete... uzetta


(Spanish) A capable woman Uzmah, Usma, Usmah... uzma


(African) One who takes the right path Uzomah, Uzomma, Uzommah... uzoma


(African) A known beauty Uzurie, Uzury, Uzurey, Uzuree... uzuri

Uva Ursi Tea - Bronchitis Treatment

Uva Ursi Tea has been known to practitioners around the globe for many centuries thanks to its active constituents that bring relief in case of liver malfunction. Uva Ursi, also known as bearberry (because the bears seem to be very fond of these berries), is a shrub with wide branches, pale green leaves and pink flowers. The fruits are usually round and red, with black seeds. It’s not very tall: usually, it doesn’t grow taller than 3 to 6 inches and you can find it mainly in the rocky areas. Uva Ursi Tea Properties Uva Ursi Tea is a well known treatment for internal conditions of both the digestive and the respiratory system. The parts used to make tea are the leaves and sometimes the stem fragments which contain phenolic glycoside or arbutin, a strong astringent with antiseptic effects. The pharmaceutical companies used the Uva Ursi extract to facial cleansers and acne treatments. Thanks to its other important ingredients, hydroquinone, tannins, hyperoside, monotropein and triterpenes, Uva Ursi Tea became more popular every year, being used many times as a panacea. Uva Ursi Tea Benefits Aside from its antimicrobial and antibacterial properties, Uva Ursi Tea is a great remedy in case you are suffering from one of the following conditions: - Urinary tract infections or vaginitis, by disinfecting the affected area and enhancing the alkaline level. - Kidney infections caused by accumulations of uric acid that may also lead to kidney stones and other related problems. - Bronchitis and nephritis, by calming the inflammations and inhibiting the mucus and phlegm production. - Back pains, thanks to its elevated vitamin C level that refreshes the entire system and helps you maintain a good general health. - Lithuria, cystitis, dysuria, pyelitis and other internal problems. How to make Uva Ursi Tea Infusion When you are preparing Uva Ursi Tea, there’s one thing you need to keep in mind: Uva Ursi leaves are slightly impervious to water, so what you want to do is soak them in hot water first. Use one teaspoon of leaves for every cup of tea you want to make. Put the herbs in a teapot, add water and let it boil for 15 or 20 minutes. Uva Ursi leaves are quite woody so you need to wait a little longer for the active ingredients to be released. Drink it hot or cold, but not more than 2 cups per day. Uva Ursi Tea has a gentle, aromatic and citric flavor. Uva Ursi Tea Side Effects When taken properly, Uva Ursi Tea is safe. However, high dosages may lead to a number of allergic reactions or problems, such as nausea, vomiting, discoloration of the urine, liver damage, convulsions and even death. If you are experiencing an unusual episode after taking Uva Ursi Tea, ask a specialist and don’t try to treat it yourself at home! Uva Ursi Tea Contraindications Pregnant and breastfeeding women should avoid taking Uva Ursi Tea. Also, if you are allergic to vitamin C, don’t start a treatment based on Uva Ursi Tea under no circumstances! It may cause you irreparable damages. Before taking any kind of herbal treatment, talk to a herbalist or just ask your doctor. If he says it’s ok, add Uva Ursi Tea to your shopping list and give it a try! Enjoy the wonderful benefits of this tea responsibly!... uva ursi tea - bronchitis treatment

Uvaria Narum


Family: Annonaceae.

Habitat: Western ghats from Maharashtra southwards up to an altitude of 1,200 m.

Siddha/Tamil: Pulichan.

Action: Root and leaves—used in intermittent fevers, biliousness, jaundice; also in rheumatic affections; bruised in salt water, used in skin diseases. A decoction of the root bark is given to women to control fits at the time of delivery.

Acetogenins, including stereoiso- mers, are important constituents of the root bark. Glutinone, glutinol, taraxerol, beta-sitosterol and benzyl benzoate have also been isolated. The essential oil of the root bark of Kerala plant contains bornyl acetate 15.2% and patchoulenone 8.1%.

A decoction and roots of Uvaria gandiflora Roxb., synonym U. purpurea Blume (Indian Botanic Garden, Kolkata) is used for flatulence, stomachache; also after childbirth. A decoction of U. micrantha (A. DC.) Hook. f. & Thoms. (tropical forests of the Andamans) is also administered after childbirth as a prophylactic.... uvaria narum


(Hebrew / Arabic) God is my strength / a strong woman

Uzzie, Uzzy, Uzzey, Uzzee, Uzi, Uzie, Uzy, Uzey, Uzee, Uzza, Uza, Uzzia, Uzia, Uzzya, Uzya, Uzziye... uzzi

Venous Ulcer

See under ULCER.... venous ulcer

Vesico-ureteric Reflux

The back ?ow of URINE from the URINARY BLADDER into the ureters (see URETER). The cause is defects in the VALVES which normally prevent this re?ux from occurring. If, in addition, the patient – usually a child – acquires bacteria in the bladder, the consequence may be one or more attacks of PYELONEPHRITIS caused by the infected urine gaining access to the kidney pelvis. Diagnosis is by imaging techniques. Treatment is by long-term antibiotics while awaiting spontaneous recovery. Occassionally, corrective surgery is required.... vesico-ureteric reflux

Women Up To 2 Units A Day, 14 A Week

(Pregnant women should avoid alcohol completely. If this is too di?cult, 1 unit a day seems to be safe for the baby.) Women absorb alcohol more quickly than men.

Men up to 3 units a day, 21 a week... women up to 2 units a day, 14 a week

Underlined Herbs

 remedies are underlined. For instance, leading remedies for treatment of neuralgia are Chamomile and Valerian. ... underlined herbs

Aphthous Ulcers

See: STOMATITIS. ... aphthous ulcers

Breasts, Underdeveloped

To increase size and firm, native women of Costa Rica use Saw Palmetto berries. The traditional combination of Saw Palmetto, Kola and Damiana are available in tablet or capsule form.

Peruvian bark. Liquid Extract, BPC (1954), 0.3-1ml in water, thrice daily.

Diet. Adequate protein is essential for a healthy-looking bust. Fenugreek seed tea. Favourable results reported. ... breasts, underdeveloped

Zehneria Umbellata


Synonym: Melothria heterophylla (Lour.) Cogn.

Solena heterophylla (Lour.) Cogn.

Family: Cucurbitaceae.

Habitat: Throughout India ascending up to 2,100 m.

Siddha/Tamil: Pulivanji.

Folk: Tarali. Gometi (Maharashtra). Banakakaraa (Punjab). Kudri (Bengal).

Action: Root—used for dysuria and spermatorrhoea. Leaves— topically applied to skin inflammation.

The seed contains linolenic and oleic acids; the root gave columbin.... zehneria umbellata

Caruncle, Urethral

 A tender easily-bleeding bright red swelling at the urinary outlet of the vagina. About the size of a large pill. Not cancerous but painful on intercourse and on passing urine. Treatment. Tincture Thuja, 5 drops in water morning and evening, internal. Topical application of much diluted oil of Eucalyptus over a long period has been successful. Surgical intervention usually successful. ... caruncle, urethral

Frequency Of Urine

Bladder instability. Urine is usually passed 4 to 6 times daily; anything in excess of this is known as ‘frequency’. In the elderly it may be due to weak bladder muscles and sphincter, or to unrecognised overflow due to prostatic obstruction.

Causes may also be psychological: worry, excitement, emotional crises such as school exams. Where the trouble is persistent attention should be focussed on the bladder (cystitis), inflammation of the kidneys, even the presence of stone.

Simple frequency may arise from cold weather, nervous excitement, or early pregnancy. Other predisposing factors are: diabetes mellitis, enlarged prostate gland, stone in the kidney or bladder. Alternatives. Teas. American Cranesbill, Agrimony, Cornsilk, Horsetail, Passion flower, Plantain, Skullcap, Uva Ursi, Huang Qi (Chinese). Saw Palmetto (prostate gland).

Tablets/capsules. Cranesbill (American), Gentian, Liquorice.

Powders. Equal parts: Cranesbill, Horsetail, Liquorice. Mix. Dose: 500mg (two 00 capsules or one-third teaspoon). Thrice daily.

Tinctures. Equal parts: Cramp bark and Horsetail. Dose: 30-60 drops, thrice daily.

Practitioner. Tinctures. Alternatives:–

Formula 1. Ephedra 30ml; Geranium 20ml; Rhus aromatica 20ml; Thuja 1ml. Aqua to 100ml. Sig: 5ml (3i) tds aq cal pc.

Formula 2. Equal parts: Ephedra and Horsetail. 15-60 drops thrice daily; last dose bedtime.

A. Barker FNIMH. Dec Jam Sarsae Co Conc BPC 1 fl oz (30ml) . . . Liquid extract Rhus 240 minims (16ml) . . . Liquid extract Passiflora 60 minims (4ml) . . . Syr Althaea 2 fl oz (60ml) . . . Aqua to 8oz (240ml). Dose: 2 teaspoons thrice daily; last dose bedtime.

Tincture Arnica. German traditional. 1 drop in honey at bedtime.

Pelvic exercises. Alternate hot and cold Sitz baths. Swimming, Cycling.

Address. Incontinence Advisory Service, Disabled Living Foundation, 380-384 Harrow Road, London W9 2HU. ... frequency of urine

Haemolytic-uraemia Syndrome (hus)

An uncommon cause of kidney failure in children. The association of three processes: reduced platelets, haemolytic anaemia and kidney failure. Foodborne infection is spread by micro-organisms (E. coli, etc) with an affinity for the alimentary canal. The central nervous system is involved.

Onset: diarrhoea with streaks of blood, vomiting, breathlessness, feverishness, dizziness, jaundice and enlargement of the spleen.

Other causes may be mismatched food transfusion, environmental chemicals, nitrite food preservatives and analgesic drugs.

Alternatives. Tea. Combine herbs: Red Clover (to increase platelets) 3; Yarrow (kidneys) 2; Hops (cerebrospinal supportive) 1. 1-2 teaspoons to each cup boiling water; infuse 15 minutes. Half-1 cup freely.

Formula: Combine, Tinctures. Red Clover 2; Fringe Tree 1; Hops half. Dose: one 5ml teaspoon. Babies: 2 drops in feed; infants 3-5 years 10 drops in water and honey thrice daily.

Supplementation. Vitamin B-complex. C.

To be treated by or in liaison with a qualified medical practitioner. ... haemolytic-uraemia syndrome (hus)

Catheterization, Urinary

Insertion of a sterile catheter into the bladder to drain urine. The procedure is used when a person is unable to empty the bladder normally or is incontinent (see incontinence, urinary). Urinary catheterization is also used during operations, in bladder function tests such as cystometry and cystourethrography, and to monitor urine production in the critically ill.... catheterization, urinary

Contractions, Uterine

Spasms of rhythmic, squeezing muscular activity affecting the walls of the uterus during childbirth. Regular contractions indicate the start of labour and increase in strength and frequency throughout the first stage.

(See also Braxton Hicks’ contractions.)... contractions, uterine

Curling’s Ulcer

A type of stress ulcer that occurs specifically in people who have suffered extensive skin burns.... curling’s ulcer

Genital Ulcer

An eroded area of skin on the genitalia.

The most common cause is a sexually transmitted infection, particularly syphilis and genital herpes (see herpes, genital).

Chancroid and granuloma inguinale are tropical bacterial infections that cause genital ulcers.

Lymphogranuloma venereum is a viral infection producing genital blisters.

Behçet’s syndrome is a rare condition that causes tender, recurrent ulcers in the mouth and on the genitals.

Cancer of the penis or vulva may first appear as a painless ulcer with raised edges.... genital ulcer

Calculus, Urinary Tract

A stone in the kidneys, ureters, or bladder formed from substances in urine.

Most urinary tract stones are composed of calcium oxalate or other salts crystallized from the urine. These may be associated with a diet rich in oxalic acid (found in leafy vegetables and coffee); high levels of calcium in the blood as a result of hyperparathyroidism; or chronic dehydration. Other types of stone are associated with gout and some cancers. An infective stone is usually a result of chronic urinary tract infection.

In developing countries, bladder stones usually occur as a result of dietary deficiencies. In developed countries, they are usually caused by an obstruction to urine flow from the bladder and/or a longstanding urinary tract infection.

The most common symptom of a stone in the kidney or ureter is renal colic (a severe pain in the loin) that may cause nausea and vomiting. There may be haematuria (blood in the urine). A bladder stone is usually indicated by difficulty in passing urine. The site of the stone can usually be confirmed by intravenous or retrograde urography.

Renal colic is treated with bed rest and an opioid analgesic (painkiller).

With an adequate fluid intake, small stones are usually passed in the urine without problems.

The first line of treatment for larger stones is lithotripsy, which uses ultrasonic or shock waves to disintegrate the stones.

Alternatively, cytoscopy can be used to crush and remove stones in the bladder and lower ureter.

In some cases, surgery may be needed.... calculus, urinary tract

Gingivitis, Acute Ulcerative

Painful infection and ulceration of the gums due to abnormal growth of bacteria that usually exist harmlessly in small numbers in gum crevices. Predisposing factors include poor oral hygiene, smoking, throat infections, and emotional stress. In many cases the disorder is preceded by gingivitis or periodontitis. The condition is uncommon, primarily affecting people aged 15–35.

The gums become sore and bleed at the slightest pressure. Crater-like ulcers develop on the gum tips between teeth, and there may be a foul taste in the mouth, bad breath, and swollen lymph nodes. Sometimes, the infection spreads to the lips and cheek lining (see noma).

A hydrogen peroxide mouthwash can relieve the inflammation.

Scaling is then performed to remove plaque.

In severe cases, the antibacterial drug metronidazole may be given to control infection.... gingivitis, acute ulcerative

Haemolytic–uraemic Syndrome

A rare disease in which red blood cells are destroyed prematurely and the kidneys are damaged, causing acute kidney failure. Thrombocytopenia can also occur. Haemolytic–uraemic syndrome most commonly affects young children and may be triggered by a serious bacterial or viral infection. Symptoms include weakness, lethargy, and a reduction in the volume of urine. Seizures may occur. Blood and urine tests can determine the degree of kidney damage. Dialysis may be needed until the kidneys have recovered. Most patients recover normal renal function.... haemolytic–uraemic syndrome

Incontinence, Urinary

Involuntary passing of urine, often due to injury or disease of the urinary tract. There are several types. Stress incontinence refers to the involuntary escape of urine when a person coughs, picks up a heavy package, or moves excessively. It is common in women, particularly after childbirth, when the urethral sphincter muscles are stretched. In urge incontinence, also known as irritable bladder, an urgent desire to pass urine is accompanied by inability to control the bladder as it contracts. Once urination starts, it cannot be stopped. Total incontinence is a complete lack of bladder control due to an absence of sphincter activity, which may be associated with spinal cord damage. Overflow incontinence occurs in longterm urinary retention, often because of an obstruction such as an enlarged prostate gland. The bladder is always full, leading to constant dribbling of urine.Incontinence may also be due to urinary tract disorders (including infections, bladder stones, or tumours) or prolapse of the uterus or vagina. Incontinence due to lack of control by the brain commonly occurs in the young (see enuresis) or elderly and those with learning difficulties.

If weak pelvic muscles are causing stress incontinence, pelvic floor exercises may help. Sometimes, surgery may be needed to tighten the pelvic muscles or correct a prolapse. Anticholinergic drugs may be used to relax the bladder muscle if irritable bladder is the cause.

If normal bladder function cannot be restored, incontinence pants can be worn; men can wear a penile sheath leading into a tube connected to a urine bag. Some people can avoid incontinence by self-catheterization (see catheterization, urinary). Permanent catheterization is necessary in some cases.... incontinence, urinary

Leg Ulcer

An open sore on the leg that fails to heal, usually resulting from poor blood circulation to or from the area.

There are various types of ulcer.

Venous ulcers (also referred to as varicose or stasis ulcers) occur mainly on the ankles and lower legs and are caused by valve failure in veins; they usually appear in conjunction with varicose veins.

Bedsores (decubitus ulcers) develop on pressure spots on the legs due to a combination of poor circulation, pressure, and immobility over a long period.

Leg ulcers can also be due to peripheral vascular disease and diabetes mellitus.

In the tropics, some infections can cause tropical ulcers.... leg ulcer

Mouth Ulcer

An open sore caused by a break in the mucous membrane lining the mouth. The ulcers are white, grey, or yellow spots with an inflamed border. The most common types are aphthous ulcers (see ulcer, aphthous) and ulcers caused by the herpes simplex virus. A mouth ulcer may be an early stage of mouth cancer and may need to be investigated with a biopsy if it fails to heal within a month.... mouth ulcer

Nonspecific Urethritis

See nongonococcal urethritis.... nonspecific urethritis

Nongonococcal Urethritis

Formerly known as nonspecific urethritis, inflammation of the urethra due to a cause other than gonorrhoea. Worldwide, nongonococcal urethritis is a very common type of sexually transmitted infection.Almost 50 per cent of cases are known to be caused by chlamydia trachomatis (see chlamydial infections); others are caused by the virus that causes herpes simplex, trichomonas vaginalis infections

(see trichomoniasis), or other microorganisms. In the remainder of cases, the cause remains unknown.

In men, the infection usually causes a clear or a purulent urethral discharge, often accompanied by pain or discomfort on passing urine. The equivalent condition in women, called nonspecific genital infection, may not cause symptoms unless there are complications.

Treatment may be difficult if the cause of symptoms cannot be determined. Antibiotic drugs, such as doxycycline and erythromycin, are given. Follow-up visits may be advised after treatment.

In men, epididymitis, prostatitis and urethral stricture (narrowing of the urethra) can occur as complications of nongonococcal urethritis. Reiter’s syndrome (in which there is arthritis and conjunctivitis as well as urethritis) occurs as a complication in some men who develop nongonococcal urethritis.

In women, pelvic inflammatory disease and cysts of the Bartholin’s glands may occur. Ophthalmia neonatorum, a type of conjunctivitis, sometimes develops in babies born to women with chlamydial cervicitis.... nongonococcal urethritis

Pyrexia Of Uncertain Origin

Persistent fever with no apparent cause. The cause is usually an illness that is difficult to diagnose or a common disease that presents in an unusual way. These illnesses include various viral infections; tuberculosis; cancer, particularly lymphoma; and collagen diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus and temporal arteritis. Another possible cause is a drug reaction.... pyrexia of uncertain origin

Radiation Unit

Several different internationally agreed units (called units) are used to measure ionizing radiation. For example, the roentgen (R) measures the amount of radiation in the air, and the becquerel is the unit of spontaneous activity of a radioactive source such as uranium. For medical purposes, the most commonly used units are the gray (Gy) and the sievert (Sv).

The gray is the unit of radiation that is actually absorbed by any tissue or substance as a result of exposure to radiation. 1 Gy is the absorption of 1 joule of energy (from gamma radiation or X-rays) per kilogram of irradiated matter. The gray supersedes an older unit called the rad (1 Gy = 100 rads).

Because some types of radiation affect biological organisms more than others, the sievert is used as a measure of the impact of an absorbed dose. It uses additional factors, such as the kind of radiation and its energy, to quantify the effects on the body of equivalent amounts of different types of absorbed energy. The sievert replaces an older unit, the rem (1 Sv=100 rems).... radiation unit

Stomach Ulcer

A type of peptic ulcer.... stomach ulcer

Stress Ulcer

An acute peptic ulcer that develops after shock, severe burns or injuries, or during a major illness.

Stress ulcers are usually multiple and are most common in the stomach.

The exact cause is unknown.

Drugs are often given to severely ill patients in hospital to prevent the development of stress ulcers.... stress ulcer

Testis, Undescended

A testis that has failed to descend from the abdomen to the scrotum. The condition usually affects only 1 testis and occurs in about 1 per cent of full-term and 10 per cent of premature male babies. An undescended testis often descends within months of birth but rarely descends after this time. An undescended testis does not develop normally, is incapable of normal sperm production, and is at increased risk of developing testicular cancer (see testis, cancer of). If both testes are undescended, infertility results.

A diagnosis is made during a physical examination after birth or later in infancy.

Treatment is by orchidopexy, which usually reduces the risk of later infertility or testicular cancer (see testis, cancer of).

A poorly developed undescended testis may be removed if the other is normal.... testis, undescended


The formation or presence of 1 or more ulcers.... ulceration

Ultrasound Treatment

The use of ultrasound to treat soft-tissue injuries (such as injuries to ligaments, muscles, and tendons). Ultrasound treatment reduces inflammation and speeds up healing. It is thought to work by improving blood flow in tissues under the skin.... ultrasound treatment


See prognathism.... underbite

Unsaturated Fats

See fats and oils.... unsaturated fats

Unstable Bladder

Another name for irritable bladder.... unstable bladder


A radioactive metallic element that does not occur naturally in its pure form but is widely found in ores such as pitchblende, carnotite, and uraninite. Radioactive decay of uranium yields a series of radioactive products, including radium and radon. During the various decay stages, radiation is emitted. Uranium is also poisonous.... uranium

Ureteric Colic

See renal colic.... ureteric colic

Ulcer, Aphthous

A small, painful ulcer that occurs, alone or in a group, on the inside of the cheek or lip or underneath the tongue. Aphthous ulcers are most common between the ages of 10 and 40 and affect more women than men. The most severely affected people have continuously recurring ulcers; others have just 1 or 2 ulcers each year.

Each ulcer is usually small and oval, with a grey centre and a surrounding red, inflamed halo. The ulcer, which usually lasts for 1–2 weeks, may be a hypersensitive reaction to haemolytic streptococcus bacteria. Other factors commonly associated with the occurrence of these ulcers are minor injuries(such as at an injection site or from a toothbrush), acute stress, or allergies (such as allergic rhinitis). In women, aphthous ulcers are most common during the premenstrual period. They may also be more likely if other family members suffer from recurrent ulceration.

Analgesic mouth gels or mouthwashes may ease the pain of an aphthous ulcer.

Some ointments form a waterproof covering that protects the ulcer while it is healing.

Ulcers heal by themselves, but a doctor may prescribe a paste containing a corticosteroid drug or a mouthwash containing an antibiotic drug to speed up the healing process.... ulcer, aphthous

Ulna, Fracture Of

A fracture of the ulna, 1 of the 2 bones of the forearm. Ulnar fractures typically occur across the shaft or at the olecranon process.

A fracture to the shaft usually results from a blow to the forearm or a fall onto the hand. Sometimes the radius is fractured at the same time (see radius, fracture of). Surgery is usually needed to reposition the broken bone ends and fix them together using either a plate and screws or a long nail down the centre of the bone. The arm is immobilized in a cast, with the elbow at a rightangle, until the fracture heals.

A fracture of the olecranon process is usually the result of a fall onto the elbow. If the bone ends are not displaced, the arm is immobilized in a cast that holds the elbow at a rightangle. If the bone ends are displaced, however, they are fitted together and fixed with a metal screw.... ulna, fracture of

Ultrasound Scanning

A diagnostic technique in which very high frequency sound waves are passed into the body and the reflected echoes analysed to build a picture of the internal organs or of a fetus in the uterus. The procedure is painless and considered safe.Ultrasonic waves are emitted by a transducer, which is placed on the skin over the part of the body to be viewed. The transducer contains a crystal that converts an electric current into sound waves. These pass readily through soft tissues and fluids, making this procedure useful for examining fluid-filled or soft organs.

One of the most common uses of ultrasound is to view the uterus and fetus, at any time during pregnancy, but often at 18–20 weeks. The age, size, and growth rate of the fetus can be determined; multiple pregnancies detected; and certain problems, such as neural tube defects, diagnosed. Scans may be taken early in pregnancy if problems, such as an ectopic pregnancy, are suspected.

Ultrasound scanning can also be used in newborn babies to examine the brain through a gap in the skull (for example, to investigate hydrocephalus). Ultrasound can help to diagnose disorders such as cirrhosis, gallstones, hydronephrosis, and pancreatitis, as well as problems in the thyroid gland, breasts, bladder, testes, ovaries, spleen, and eyes. The technique is also used during needle biopsy to help guide the needle.Doppler ultrasound is a modified form of ultrasound that uses the Doppler effect to investigate moving objects.

This can be used to examine the fetal heartbeat and to obtain information about the rate of blood flow in vessels.... ultrasound scanning

Ultraviolet Light

Invisible light from the part of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately beyond the violet end of the visible light spectrum. Long wavelength ultraviolet light is termed , intermediate , and short.

Ultraviolet light occurs in sunlight, but much of it is absorbed by the ozone layer. The ultraviolet light (mainly ) that reaches the earth’s surface causes the tanning effects of sunlight and the production of vitamin D in the skin. It can have harmful effects, such as skin cancer (see sunlight, adverse effects of).

Ultraviolet light is sometimes used in phototherapy.

A mercury-vapour lamp (Wood’s light) can also produce ultraviolet light.

This is used to diagnose skin conditions such as tinea because it causes the infected area to fluoresce.... ultraviolet light

Urethral Dilatation

The procedure in which a urethral stricture in a male is widened by inserting a slim, roundtipped instrument through the opening of the urethra at the tip of the penis.... urethral dilatation

Urethral Discharge

A fluid that flows from the urethra in some cases of urethritis caused by infection.... urethral discharge

Urethral Stricture

A rare condition in which the male urethra becomes narrowed and sometimes shortened as a result of shrinkage of scar tissue within its walls. Scar tissue may form after injury to the urethra or after persistent urethritis. The stricture may make passing urine or ejaculation difficult or painful, and it may cause some deformation of the penis when erect. Treatment is usually by urethral dilatation.... urethral stricture

Urethral Syndrome, Acute

A set of symptoms, usually affecting women, that are very similar to cystitis but which occur in the absence of infection.... urethral syndrome, acute


A container for urine, useful for bedridden men (women use a bedpan).... urinal

Urinary System

See urinary tract.... urinary system

Urination, Excessive

The production of more than 2.5 litres of urine per day. The medical term is polyuria.

Causes include psychiatric problems, which may cause a person to drink compulsively; diabetes mellitus; disorders of the kidney known as salt-losing states; and central diabetes insipidus. Any person who passes large quantities of urine should consult a doctor.... urination, excessive

Urinary Retention

Inability to empty the bladder or difficulty in doing so. Urinary retention may be complete (urine cannot be passed voluntarily at all) or incomplete (the bladder fails to empty completely). In males, causes include phimosis, urethral stricture, prostatitis, a stone in the bladder (see calculus, urinary tract), and enlargement or tumour of the prostate (see prostate, enlarged; prostate, cancer of). In females, causes include pressure on the urethra from uterine fibroids or from a fetus. In either sex, the cause may be a bladder tumour. Retention may also be due to defective functioning of the nerve pathways supplying the bladder as a result of general or spinal anaesthesia, drugs affecting the bladder, surgery, injury to the nerve pathways, or disease of the spinal cord.

Complete retention causes discomfort and lower abdominal pain, except when nerve pathways are defective. The full bladder can be felt above the pubic bone. However, chronic or partial retention may not cause any serious symptoms. Retention can lead to kidney damage and, often, a urinary tract infection.Treatment of retention is by catheterization (see catheterization, urinary).

The cause is then investigated.

Obstruction can usually be treated; if nerve damage is the cause, permanent or intermittent catheterization is sometimes necessary.... urinary retention

Urinary Tract Infection

An infection anywhere in the urinary tract. It has differing symptoms, depending on the area affected. Urethritis causes a burning sensation when urine is being passed. Cystitis causes a frequent urge to pass urine, lower abdominal pain, haematuria, and, often, general malaise with a mild fever. Pyelonephritis causes fever and pain in the back under the ribs. Cystitis and pyelonephritis are almost always the result of a bacterial infection. Urethritis is often due to a sexually transmitted infection, such as gonorrhoea, but may have other causes. Urethral infections are more common in men. Infections further up the urinary tract are more common in women. In men, there is often a predisposing factor, such as an enlarged prostate gland (see prostate, enlarged). In women, pregnancy is a risk factor.

In both sexes, causes of urinary tract infections include stones (see calculus, urinary tract), bladder tumours, congenital abnormalities of the urinary tract, or defective bladder emptying as a result of spina bifida or a spinal injury. The risks of developing a urinary tract infection can be reduced by strict personal hygiene, drinking lots of fluids, and regularly emptying the bladder.

Urethritis can lead to the formation of a urethral stricture. Cystitis usually only causes complications if the infection spreads to the kidneys. Pyelonephritis, if it is left untreated, can lead to permanent kidney damage, septicaemia, and septic shock.

The infection is diagnosed by the examination of a urine culture. Further investigations using urography or ultrasound scanning may be necessary. Most infections of the urinary tract are treated with antibiotic drugs.... urinary tract infection

Urination, Frequent

Also known as urinary “frequency”, the passing of urine more often than the average of 4–6 times daily. Causes of frequent urination include excessive production of urine (see urination, excessive), cystitis, anxiety, stones in the bladder (see calculus, urinary tract), enlargement of the prostate gland (see prostate, enlarged) in men, and, rarely, a bladder tumour. Some people who are suffering from kidney failure pass urine more frequently, especially during the night. Treatment of frequent urination is always of the underlying cause.... urination, frequent

Urination, Painful

Pain or discomfort that occurs when urine is being passed. Painful urination is known medically as dysuria. The pain is often described as burning; sometimes it is preceded by difficulty in starting urine flow. Pain after the flow has ceased, with a strong desire to continue, is called strangury.

The most common cause, especially in women, is cystitis. Other causes include a bladder tumour, bladder stone (see calculus, urinary tract), urethritis, balanitis, prostatitis, vaginal candidiasis (thrush), or allergy to vaginal deodorants. Strangury is usually caused by spasm of an inflamed bladder wall, but it may be due to bladder stones. Mild discomfort when passing urine may be caused by highly concentrated urine.

Dysuria may be investigated by physical examination, urinalysis, urography, or cystoscopy. (See also urethral syndrome, acute.)... urination, painful

Urine Tests

See urinalysis.... urine tests

Urticaria, Neonatal

A very common, harmless skin condition, also known as erythema neonatorum or toxic erythema, that affects newborn infants. A blotchy rash, in which raised white or yellow lumps are surrounded by illdefined red areas of inflammation, forms, mainly affecting the face, chest, arms, and thighs. The cause of neonatal urticaria is unknown. The rash usually clears up without treatment.... urticaria, neonatal

Uterine Muscle Relaxants

Drugs that are used to delay the premature delivery of a fetus. Beta2-adrenoceptor stimulants, such as salbutamol, relax the muscle of the uterus and may postpone labour for days or weeks in at-risk pregnancies of 24–33 weeks’ gestation. Delay of premature labour for up to 48 hours allows time for corticosteroid drugs to be given to the mother to help the fetal lungs to mature.... uterine muscle relaxants

Uterovaginal Prolapse

See uterus, prolapse of.... uterovaginal prolapse

Uterus, Retroverted

A normal variation in which the uterus inclines backwards rather than forwards. A retroverted uterus rarely causes problems unless it is combined with a pelvic infection.... uterus, retroverted

Arcuate Uterus

an anomaly or anatomical variation in which there is a slight indentation of the endometrium at the top of the uterus. Unlike a septate uterus, in which the indentation extends into a septum that divides the interior of the uterus, and a *bicornuate uterus, it does not normally affect reproductive function. See also uterus didelphys.... arcuate uterus

Arterial Ulcer

a localized area of damage and breakdown of the skin due to inadequate arterial blood supply (*ischaemia). Usually it is seen on the feet of patients with severe atheromatous narrowings of the arteries supplying the legs.... arterial ulcer

Urine, Abnormal

Urine may be produced in abnormal amounts or have an abnormal appearance or composition.

Conditions of abnormal production of urine include excessive production (see urination, excessive), oliguria, and anuria. Abnormal appearances of urine include cloudiness (which may be caused by a urinary tract infection, a calculus, or the presence of salts); haematuria; discoloration from certain foods or drugs; and frothiness (which may be caused by an excess of protein).Abnormal composition of the urine may occur in diabetes mellitus, kidney failure, and sometimes glomerulonephritis and nephrotic syndrome, as well as in other kidney disorders such as Fanconi’s syndrome and renal tubular acidosis.... urine, abnormal

Uterus, Cancer Of

A malignant growth in the tissues of the uterus. Cancer of the uterus mainly affects the cervix (see cervix, cancer of) and endometrium. In rare cases, the uterine muscle is affected by a type of cancer called a leiomyosarcoma. The term uterine cancer usually refers to cancer of the endometrium.

Risk factors for endometrial cancer include anything that may raise oestrogen levels in the body, such as obesity, a history of failure to ovulate, or taking oestrogen hormones long term if these are not balanced with progestogen drugs. It is also more common in women who have had few or no children.

Before the menopause, the first symptom of cancer of the uterus may be menorrhagia or bleeding between periods or after sexual intercourse; after the menopause, it is usually a bloodstained vaginal discharge. Diagnosis is made by hysteroscopy or biopsy.

Very early endometrial cancer is usually treated by hysterectomy and removal of the fallopian tubes and ovaries.

If the cancer has spread, radiotherapy and anticancer drug treatment may also be used.... uterus, cancer of

Uterus, Prolapse Of

A condition in which the uterus descends from its normal position into the vagina. The degree of prolapse varies from 1st-degree prolapse, in which there is only slight displacement of the uterus, to 3rd-degree prolapse (procidentia), in which the uterus can be seen outside the vulva.

Stretching of the ligaments supporting the uterus (during childbirth, for example) is the most common cause. Prolapse is aggravated by obesity.

There are often no symptoms, but sometimes there is a dragging feeling in the pelvis. Diagnosis is made by physical examination.

Pelvic floor exercises strengthen the muscles of the vagina and thus reduce the risk of a prolapse, especially following childbirth. Treatment usually involves surgery (hysterectomy). Rarely, if surgery is not wanted or is not recommended, a plastic ring-shaped pessary may be inserted into the vagina to hold the uterus in position. (See also cystocele; rectocele; urethrocele.)... uterus, prolapse of

British Thermal Unit

a unit of heat equal to the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 pound of water by 1° Fahrenheit. 1 British thermal unit = 1055 joules. Abbrev.: Btu.... british thermal unit

Buruli Ulcer

a chronic, debilitating illness caused by Mycrobacterium ulcerans. It begins with a painless swelling, most often on the arm or leg, that develops into a necrotizing ulcer. The condition occurs most commonly in sub-Saharan Africa and Australia, with some 2 000 cases being reported annually. At present there is no vaccine; antibiotics are usually effective if prescribed at an early stage.... buruli ulcer

Cameron’s Ulcer

linear *erosion found on the lining of the stomach at or near the level of the diaphragm in patients with large hiatus *hernias. The cause is unclear but interruption in the blood supply (*ischaemia) is one of the likely explanations. Treatment involves *antisecretory drugs and treatment of anaemia, which is often present.... cameron’s ulcer

Chiclero’s Ulcer

a form of *leishmaniasis of the skin caused by the parasite Leishmania tropica mexicana. The disease, occurring in Panama, Honduras, and the Amazon, primarily affects men who visit the forests to collect chicle (gum) and takes the form of an ulcerating lesion on the ear lobe. The sore usually heals spontaneously within six months.... chiclero’s ulcer

Cholinergic Urticaria

see urticaria.... cholinergic urticaria

Collective Unconscious

(in Jungian psychology) structures of the unconscious mind shared by all humans. Jung considered the collective unconscious to exist collectively amongst humans in addition to the personal unconscious mind postulated by Freud. He argued that the collective unconscious, populated by instincts and *archetypes, had a profound influence on the lives of individuals through symbols, rituals, and shared narratives.... collective unconscious

Colour Flow Ultrasound Imaging

see Doppler ultrasound.... colour flow ultrasound imaging

Curling’s Ulcers

see stress ulcers. [T. B. Curling (1811–88), British surgeon]... curling’s ulcers

Cushing’s Ulcers

see stress ulcers. [H. W. Cushing]... cushing’s ulcers

Dental Unit

a major fixed piece of dental equipment to which are attached the dental drills, aspirator, compressed air syringe, and ultrasonic scaler. It is frequently integral with the *dental chair.... dental unit

Double Uterus

see uterus didelphys.... double uterus

Dysfunctional Uterine Bleeding

see menorrhagia.... dysfunctional uterine bleeding

Doppler Ultrasound

a diagnostic technique that utilizes the fact that the frequency of sound or light waves changes when they are reflected from a moving surface (the Doppler effect). It is used to study the flow in blood vessels and the movement of blood in the heart. The frequency detector may be part of an ultrasound imaging probe, which displays an image of the anatomy on a monitor. Simultaneously the Doppler signal from a particular point on the ultrasound image can be displayed superimposed on the anatomical position (duplex imaging). Using electronic techniques, direction and velocity of blood flow can each be allocated different colours and displayed on a colour monitor over the anatomical image (colour flow ultrasound imaging). Power Doppler, a modification of this technique, is more sensitive at detecting flow but does not give information on direction of flow. Doppler ultrasound is a valuable technique to detect vessel thrombosis, such as deep vein thrombosis, and can be safely used in pregnancy without the risk of ionizing radiation. It is extensively used in vascular surgery to assess the status of the blood vessels before surgery, especially in carotid surgery. Doppler measurement of the fetal middle cerebral vessels (MCA Doppler) can predict fetal anaemia as the resistance in these vessels is increased. This noninvasive technique has supplanted serial amniocentesis/fetal cord blood sampling in cases of *haemolytic disease of the newborn. Doppler of other fetal vessels (e.g. the ductus venosus) is used as a screening method for fetal chromosomal and cardiac defects and, later, fetal growth restriction. [C. J. Doppler (1803–53), Austrian physicist]... doppler ultrasound

Emotionally Unstable Personality Disorder

a *personality disorder characterized by a tendency to act impulsively without consideration of the consequences, unpredictable and capricious mood, a tendency towards outbursts of emotion, inability to control behavioural explosions, quarrelsome behaviour, and conflict with others. There is an impulsive type, with particular emphasis on impulsivity and quarrelsome behaviour, especially when criticized; and a borderline type, with an emphasis on disturbance and uncertainty about self-image (including sexual preference), liability to become involved in intense and unstable relationships, excessive efforts to avoid abandonment, recurrent threats or acts of self-harm, and chronic feelings of emptiness. Treatments include cognitive analytical therapy (see cognitive therapy), *antipsychotic medication, and occasionally *SSRIs and *lithium. In DSM-5 the disorder is called borderline personality disorder.... emotionally unstable personality disorder

Endoscopic Ultrasound

the fusion of endoscopy with ultrasonography. An ultrasound probe is incorporated into the endoscope in order to deliver highly detailed images from within the body. Endoscopic ultrasound is used predominantly by gastroenterologists, to assess internal structures or organs within the upper gastrointestinal tract, or by respiratory physicians in the assessment of bronchial disease. It may be used for diagnostic purposes, to accurately stage a confirmed diagnosis of cancer or to obtain tissue samples using fine-needle aspiration. Therapeutic indications include drainage of a pancreatic *pseudocyst, the common bile duct, or the pancreatic duct, and coeliac plexus neurolysis, a technique used to deliver pain relief in cases of intractable abdominal pain, usually resulting from chronic pancreatitis.... endoscopic ultrasound

High-intensity Focused Ultrasound

see HIFU; ultrasound.... high-intensity focused ultrasound

Hounsfield Unit

the numerical unit assigned electronically to each *pixel in a computerized tomography (CT) image, according to its X-ray density. The fixed points on the scale are arbitrarily assigned as ?1000 for air and 0 for water. The CT image is viewed in a ‘window’. The range of Hounsfield units displayed (window width) and the centre point of the range of interest (window level) can be varied by the radiologist in order to observe specific tissues (see windowing). The unit was named after Sir Godfrey Hounsfield (1919–2004), who developed CT scanning in the 1950s. Symbol: HU.... hounsfield unit

Hunner’s Ulcer

see interstitial cystitis. [G. L. Hunner (1868–1957), US urologist]... hunner’s ulcer

Intensive Therapy Unit

(ITU, intensive care unit) a hospital unit designed to give intensive care, provided by specialist multidisciplinary staff, to a selected group of seriously ill patients or to those in need of special postoperative techniques (e.g. those patients undergoing complex heart or lung procedures).... intensive therapy unit

Intravascular Ultrasound

(IVUS) a technique in which a micro *ultrasound transducer is mounted on a catheter, which is then advanced over a guidewire into a blood vessel. IVUS is used to accurately assess the diameter of the blood vessels before any treatment, to assess any internal abnormality within the blood vessels, or to help mark the blood vessel branches during any stent placement.... intravascular ultrasound

Jejunal Ulcer

see peptic ulcer; Zollinger-Ellison syndrome.... jejunal ulcer

Laser-assisted Uvulopalatoplasty

(LAUP) laser surgery to the palate, which is used in the treatment of *obstructive sleep apnoea.... laser-assisted uvulopalatoplasty

Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms

(LUTS) symptoms occurring during urine storage, voiding, or immediately after. These include *frequency, *urgency, *nocturia, *incontinence, *hesitation, *intermittency, *terminal dribble, *dysuria, and *postmicturition dribble. These symptoms used to be known as prostatism. Sometimes they are due to benign prostatic hyperplasia (see prostate gland), but they may be due to *detrusor overactivity, excessive drinking, diuresis due to poorly controlled diabetes, or a urethral stricture.... lower urinary tract symptoms

Hypoglycaemic Unawareness

a serious condition in which a person with diabetes loses the earliest warning signs of an approaching hypoglycaemic episode. Such people may suffer a severe attack of hypoglycaemia, with confusion, seizures, or even coma and death, because they fail to take the necessary measures to abort the episode. The condition is more common in longstanding diabetes and in those who experience frequent hypoglycaemic episodes. People with hypoglycaemic unawareness should not drive. Some awareness of hypoglycaemia may be restored by careful avoidance of more episodes, ensuring that the blood glucose level never falls below 4 mmol/l.... hypoglycaemic unawareness

Lower Uterine Segment

the lower portion of uterus, lying below the loose fold of peritoneum that lies between the uterus and bladder. This does not form until later in pregnancy and is less contractile than the rest of the uterus. A *Caesarean section is performed through the lower segment.... lower uterine segment

Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool

see MUST.... malnutrition universal screening tool

Maple Syrup Urine Disease

(aminoacidopathy) an inborn defect of amino acid metabolism causing an excess of valine, leucine, isoleucine, and alloisoleucine in the urine, which has an odour like maple syrup. Treatment is dietary; if untreated, the condition leads to learning disabilities and death in infancy.... maple syrup urine disease

Marjolin’s Ulcer

a carcinoma that develops at the edge of a chronic *ulcer of the skin, usually a venous ulcer in the ankle region. [J. N. Marjolin (1780–1850), French surgeon]... marjolin’s ulcer

Midstream Specimen Of Urine

(MSU) a specimen of urine that is subjected to examination for the presence of microorganisms. In order to obtain a specimen that is free of contamination, the periurethral area is cleansed and the patient is requested to discard the initial flow of urine before collecting the specimen in a sterile container.... midstream specimen of urine

Mooren’s Ulcer

a severe ulceration at the periphery of the cornea, characterized by an overhanging advancing edge and vascularization of the ulcer bed. It is usually very painful, progressive, and difficult to control. [A. Mooren (1829–99), German ophthalmologist]... mooren’s ulcer

Neonatal Urticaria

see erythema.... neonatal urticaria

Oesophageal Ulcer

see peptic ulcer; oesophagitis.... oesophageal ulcer

Pregnancy Of Unknown Location

(PUL) a positive pregnancy test when no fetus can be seen on an ultrasound scan, which is due to a very early ongoing pregnancy, an early failing pregnancy, or an ectopic pregnancy not located on scan.... pregnancy of unknown location

Psychiatric Intensive Care Unit

see PICU.... psychiatric intensive care unit

Septate Uterus

see arcuate uterus.... septate uterus

Severe Chronic Upper Airway Disease

(SCUAD) severe *rhinitis and *rhinosinusitis that has not been fully controlled by optimal pharmacological treatment.... severe chronic upper airway disease

Solitary Rectal Ulcer Syndrome

an uncommon anorectal condition that produces symptoms of anal pain, rectal bleeding, straining during defecation, and obstructed defecation (dyssynergic defecation). *Proctoscopy reveals one or more benign rectal lesions, which are thought to be due to abnormal straining during defecation leading to prolapse of the distal anterior rectal wall and internal anal *intussusception.... solitary rectal ulcer syndrome

Stress Ulcers

gastric or duodenal ulcers that can be associated with physiological stress from severe head injury (Cushing’s ulcers) or major burns (Curling’s ulcers).... stress ulcers

Sudden Unexpected Death In Epilepsy

(SUDEP) the sudden unexpected nontraumatic death of a person with *epilepsy, with or without evidence of a seizure and with no obvious cause found at post mortem.... sudden unexpected death in epilepsy

Transrectal Ultrasonography

(TRUS) an *ultrasonography technique for examination of the prostate gland and seminal vesicles by placing an ultrasound probe through the anus to lie directly behind these structures in the rectum. Because of the close proximity of the probe, excellent detail is seen. The technique enables transrectal or transperineal biopsies of the prostate to be taken in a systematic manner in the diagnosis of cancer. See also vesiculography.... transrectal ultrasonography


n. the operation of connecting one ureter to the other in the abdomen. The damaged/obstructed ureter is cut above the diseased or damaged segment and joined end-to-side to the other ureter.... transuretero-ureterostomy

Transvaginal Ultrasonography

an *ultrasonography technique for examination of the female pelvis using a vaginal probe instead of an abdominal transducer. It allows the use of a higher frequency, thus providing superior resolution and therefore a more detailed anatomy of the female pelvis and an earlier and more accurate identification of fetal structures.... transvaginal ultrasonography


n. a *coenzyme that acts as an electron transfer agent in the mitochondria of cells (see electron transport chain).

uE3 see unconjugated oestriol....  ubiquinone

Uhthoff Phenomenon

the worsening of neurological symptoms, including vision, in demyelinating conditions such as multiple sclerosis, when the body becomes overheated in hot weather or by exercise, fever, or saunas and hot tubs. [W. Uhthoff (1853–1927), German ophthalmologist]... uhthoff phenomenon


Union international contre le cancer: an international body promoting cancer prevention and treatment. It produces respected texts on the most important types of cancer, particularly on tumour staging classifications.... uicc

Ulcerative Gingivitis

acute painful gingivitis with ulceration, in which the tissues of the gums are rapidly destroyed. Occurring mainly in debilitated patients, it is associated with anaerobic microorganisms (see Fusobacterium; Bacteroides) and is accompanied by an unpleasant odour. Treatment is with *metronidazole and a careful and thorough regime of oral hygiene supplemented with oxidizing mouthwashes. In the past ulcerative gingivitis has been called acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (ANUG), Vincent stomatitis, or Vincent’s angina. A rare complication of severe ulcerative gingivitis is a *noma.... ulcerative gingivitis


n. a synthetic female sex hormone – a *progestogen – used for *postcoital contraception. Because it blocks the action of progesterone, ulipristal is also taken orally to treat *fibroids.... ulipristal

Ulnar Artery

a branch of the brachial artery arising at the elbow and running deep within the muscles of the medial side of the forearm. It passes into the palm of the hand, where it unites with the arch of the radial artery and gives off branches to the hand and fingers.... ulnar artery


prefix denoting 1. beyond. 2. an extreme degree (e.g. of large or small size).... ultra


n. a *centrifuge that works at extremely high speeds of rotation: used for separating large molecules, such as proteins.... ultracentrifuge


adj. denoting a biological rhythm or cycle that occurs more frequently than once in 24 hours. Compare circadian, nyctohemeral.... ultradian


n. filtration under pressure. In the kidney, blood is subjected to ultrafiltration to remove the unwanted water, urea, and other waste material that goes to make up urine.... ultrafiltration


n. a microscope for examining particles suspended in a gas or liquid under intense illumination from one side. Light is scattered or reflected from the particles, which can be seen through the eyepiece as bright objects against a dark background.... ultramicroscope


n. an instrument for cutting extremely thin sections of tissue (not more than 0.1 ?m thick) for electron microscopy. See also microtome.... ultramicrotome


n. the study of the uses and properties of sound waves of very high frequency (see ultrasound). —ultrasonic adj.... ultrasonics

Ultrasound Marker

the appearance, on *ultrasonography of a pregnant woman, of a feature suggesting an abnormality in the fetus. Such markers can be classified as major fetal structural abnormalities or minor ultrasound features called soft markers. The latter are usually transient and may resolve spontaneously, but they may indicate the risk of a serious chromosomal abnormality in the fetus. An example is increased nuchal translucency (see nuchal translucency scanning).... ultrasound marker

Ultraviolet Rays

invisible short-wavelength radiation beyond the violet end of the visible spectrum. Sunlight contains ultraviolet rays, which are responsible for the production of both suntan and – on overexposure – *sunburn. The dust and gases of the earth’s atmosphere absorb most of the ultraviolet radiation in sunlight (see ozone). If this did not happen, the intense ultraviolet radiation from the sun would be lethal to living organisms.... ultraviolet rays

Umbilical Cord Blood Banked Stem Cells

haemopoietic *stem cells collected from umbilical cord blood donated at birth, which can be stored indefinitely and used if a sibling or any other blood-compatible baby develops an illness (such as leukaemia) that could only be treated by cord-blood stem-cell transplantation. This facility is now available in the UK and the USA.... umbilical cord blood banked stem cells

Umbilical Granuloma

an overgrowth of tissue during the healing process of the umbilicus (belly button). It is a moist fleshy red lump of tissue seen in some babies in the first few weeks of life after the umbilical cord remnant has dried and fallen off. It can sometimes be seen in adults after navel piercings. If left untreated, the granuloma can take months to resolve.... umbilical granuloma


n. a projecting centre of a round surface, especially the projection of the inner surface of the eardrum to which the malleus is attached.... umbo


n. the situation in which no diagnostic conclusion can (yet) be reached but the patient remains ill. Professionals vary in their ability to cope with this uncertainty: the best clinical practice is to accept the lack of clarity, to continue to support the patient, and to use the situation creatively in his or her *best interest in the interim.... uncertainty

Unciform Bone

see hamate bone.... unciform bone

Uncinate Fits

a form of temporal lobe *epilepsy in which hallucinations of taste and smell and inappropriate chewing movements are prominent features.... uncinate fits

Unconjugated Oestriol

(uE3) a product of the placenta, levels of which are reduced in pregnancies affected by Down’s syndrome. It is one of the markers used in *prenatal screening tests (see triple test).... unconjugated oestriol


n. any hook-shaped structure, especially a projection of the lower surface of the cerebral hemisphere that is composed of cortex belonging to the temporal lobe.... uncus

Undecenoic Acid

an antifungal agent, applied to the skin for the treatment of athlete’s foot.... undecenoic acid


n. a fingernail or toenail. See nail.... unguis


adj. describing organisms or tissues that consist of a single cell. Unicellular organisms include the protozoans, most bacteria, and some fungi.... unicellular


adj. (in anatomy) relating to or affecting one side of the body or one side of an organ or other part.... unilateral


n. (in a fractured bone) the successful result of healing of a fracture, in which the previously separated bone ends have become firmly united by newly formed bone. Failure of union (non-union) may result if the bone ends are not immobilized or from infection or bone diseases. Compare malunion.... union

Union International Contre Le Cancer

see UICC.... union international contre le cancer

Universal Credit

a welfare benefit in the UK that is due to replace six mean-tested benefits and tax credits, with the intention of simplifying the benefits system and strengthening incentives to work. Rollout of universal credit began in 2013 and is ongoing with a forecast completion date of 2022. It has been criticized by some for its focus on the centralization of administration, particularly the requirement for most claimants to file claims online rather than face-to-face, as well as for delays to the rollout, which was originally supposed to be complete in 2017.... universal credit

Unsaturated Fatty Acid

a *fatty acid in which one (monounsaturated) or many (polyunsaturated) of the carbon atoms are linked by double bonds that are easily split in chemical reactions so that other substances can connect to them. These fats occur in fish and plant-derived foods, and a diet high in unsaturated fats is associated with low serum cholesterol levels. Compare saturated fatty acid.... unsaturated fatty acid


see PCA3.... upm3


n. see uvulopalatopharyngoplasty.... uppp


n. one of the nitrogen-containing bases (see pyrimidine) occurring in the nucleic acid RNA.... uracil


(urano-) combining form denoting the palate.... uran


n. the presence in the blood of sodium urate and other urates, formed by the reaction of uric acid with bases. In *gout, urataemia leads to deposition of urates in various parts of the body.... urataemia


n. the presence in the urine of urates (salts of uric acid). Abnormally high concentrations of urates in urine occur in *gout.... uraturia


n. an enzyme that catalyses the hydrolysis of urea to ammonia and carbon dioxide.... urease


n. the escape of uric acid from the blood into spaces in the connective tissue.... urecchysis


n. surgical removal of a ureter. This usually includes removal of the associated kidney as well (see nephroureterectomy). If previous nephrectomy has been performed to remove a kidney that has been destroyed by *vesicoureteric reflux or because of a tumour of the renal pelvis, subsequent ureterectomy may be necessary to cure reflux into the stump of the ureter or tumour in the ureter, respectively. Less commonly, in certain cases an isolated segment of a ureter may be removed for a short ureteric stricture or ureteric tumour.... ureterectomy


n. a cystic swelling of the wall of the ureter at the point where it passes into the bladder. It may be associated with stenosis of the opening of the ureter and it may cause impaired drainage of the kidney with dilatation of the ureter and *hydronephrosis. Ureteroceles may also be complicated by infection, prolapse, and bladder outflow obstruction.... ureterocele


n. an operation to free one or both ureters from surrounding abnormal adhesions or fibrous tissue (e.g. retroperitoneal fibrosis). It may also be performed prior to pelvic surgery to avoid intraoperative ureteric injury.... ureterolysis


n. the surgical reimplantation of a ureter into the bladder. This is most commonly performed to cure *vesicoureteric reflux. The ureter is reimplanted obliquely through the bladder wall to act as a valve and prevent subsequent reflux. The operation is usually referred to as an antireflux procedure or simply reimplantation of ureter.... ureteroneocystostomy


n. see nephroureterectomy.... ureteronephrectomy


n. surgical reconstruction of the ureter using a segment of bowel or a tube of bladder (see Boari flap). This is necessary if a segment of ureter is damaged by disease or injury.... ureteroplasty


n. inflammation involving both the ureter and the renal pelvis (see ureteritis; pyelitis).... ureteropyelonephritis


n. the inspection of the lumen of the ureter with a *ureteroscope.... ureteroscopy


n. the operation of implanting the ureters into the sigmoid colon (see ureteroenterostomy). This method of permanent urinary diversion may be used after *cystectomy or to bypass a diseased or damaged bladder. The urine is passed together with the faeces, and continence depends upon a normal anal sphincter. The main advantage of this form of diversion is the avoidance of an external opening and appliance to collect the urine; the disadvantages include possible kidney infection, acidosis, and long-term development of cancer of the colon 20–30 years after the procedure.... ureterosigmoidostomy


n. the surgical creation of an external opening from the ureter. This usually involves bringing the ureter to the skin surface through the abdominal wall so that the urine can drain into a suitable appliance (cutaneous ureterostomy). The divided dilated ureter can be brought through the skin to form a spout, but ureters of a normal size need to be implanted into a segment of bowel used for this purpose (see ileal conduit) to avoid narrowing and obstruction.... ureterostomy


n. surgical incision into the ureter. The commonest reason for performing this is to allow removal of a stone (see ureterolithotomy).... ureterotomy


(urethro-) combining form denoting the urethra.... urethr


n. surgical restoration of the continuity of the urethra. This may be required following laceration of the urethra.... urethrorrhaphy


n. a discharge from the urethra. This is a symptom of *urethritis.... urethrorrhoea


n. an *endoscope, consisting of a fine tube fitted with a light and lenses, for examination of the interior of the male urethra, including the prostate region. —urethroscopy n.... urethroscope


n. a *stricture of the urethra.... urethrostenosis


n. the operation of creating an opening of the urethra in the perineum in men. This can be permanent, to bypass a severe *stricture of the urethra in the penis, or it can form the first stage of an operation to cure a stricture of the posterior section of the urethra (*urethroplasty).... urethrostomy


n. the operation of cutting a short *stricture in the urethra. It is performed under direct vision with a urethrotome. This instrument, a type of *endoscope, consists of a sheath down which is passed a fine knife, which is operated by the surgeon viewing the stricture down an illuminated telescope.... urethrotomy

Urge Incontinence

see incontinence.... urge incontinence


n. a *lower urinary tract symptom in which there is a compelling desire to pass urine immediately; this may or may not be associated with incontinence (urge incontinence).... urgency

Urgent Treatment Centre

see NHS walk-in centre.... urgent treatment centre


n. a compound containing uracil and the sugar ribose. See also nucleoside.... uridine


n. the presence of excessive amounts of urea in the sweat; when the sweat dries, a white flaky deposit of urea may remain on the skin. The phenomenon occurs in *uraemia.... uridrosis


(urino-, uro-) combining form denoting urine or the urinary system.... urin

Urine Output

see vital signs.... urine output

Uriniferous Tubule

see renal tubule.... uriniferous tubule


(urogenital) adj. of or relating to the organs and tissues concerned with both excretion and reproduction, which are anatomically closely associated.... urinogenital

Urinogenital Sinus

the duct in the embryo that receives the ureter and the Wolffian and Müllerian ducts and opens to the exterior. The innermost portion forms most of the bladder and the remainder forms the urethra with its associated glands. Part of it may also contribute towards the vagina.... urinogenital sinus


n. the passage of urine through the rectum. This may follow a penetrating injury involving both the lower urinary tract and the bowel.... urochesia


n. see human menopausal gonadotrophins.... urofollitropin


n. an X-ray of the urinary tract or any part of it. It is usually obtained after the intravenous injection of a radiopaque substance, as in *intravenous urography, but the contrast medium can also be introduced percutaneously or, in the case of the bladder, transurethrally (for a cystogram; see cystography).... urogram


n. a stone in the urinary tract. See calculus.... urolith


n. a porphyrin that plays an intermediate role in the synthesis of *protoporphyrin IX. It is excreted in significant amounts in the urine in porphyria.... uroporphyrin

Usual Interstitial Pneumonia

(UIP) see interstitial pneumonia; idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.... usual interstitial pneumonia


(utero-) combining form denoting the uterus. Examples: uterocervical (relating to the cervix (neck) of the uterus); uterovaginal (relating to the uterus and vagina); uterovesical (relating to the uterus and bladder).... uter

Uterine Artery Embolization

a method of embolizing the uterine artery under radiodiagnostic control (see embolization). It has been successful in controlling postpartum haemorrhage and can also be used in treating fibroids, correcting arterial or venous malformations of the genital tract, and terminating abdominal and cervical pregnancies.... uterine artery embolization

Uteroplacental Insufficiency

the most common cause of *intrauterine growth restriction, due to abnormalities in placental development and *trophoblast invasion. The exact cause may be unknown or due to a number of recognizable causes, e.g. pre-eclampsia, inherited *thrombophilias causing placental infarction or thrombosis, and systemic lupus erythematosus. It may lead to stillbirth.... uteroplacental insufficiency

Uterosacral Suspension

(vaginal vault suspension) suturing the uterosacral ligament (attaching the cervix to the sacrum) to the apex of the vagina, which is performed vaginally, laparoscopically, or abdominally to prevent or treat *vault prolapse following hysterectomy.... uterosacral suspension

Uterus Didelphys

(double uterus) a congenital condition resulting from the incomplete midline fusion of the two *Müllerian ducts during early embryonic development. The usual result is a double uterus with one or two cervices and a single vagina. Complete failure of fusion results in a double uterus with double cervices and two separate vaginae.... uterus didelphys


n. the consequentialist theory that maximizing utility (the greatest good or happiness or preferences of the greatest number) has priority over other ethical considerations. Developed in the 19th century by the British philosophers Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill, and thereafter influential in social planning, unadulterated utilitarian policies may threaten the rights (and duties) of individuals and therefore need to be balanced by considerations of *deontology. —utilitarian adj.... utilitarianism

Utilization Behaviour

the correct use of an object at an inappropriate time or in an inappropriate situation: such behaviour is indicative of frontal lobe lesions.... utilization behaviour

Uveal Tract

see uvea.... uveal tract


(uveoparotid fever) n. inflammation of the iris, ciliary body, and choroid regions of the eye (the uvea) and swelling of the parotid salivary gland: one of the mani-festations of the chronic disease *sarcoidosis.... uveoparotitis


see uvulopalatopharyngoplasty.... uvpp


(staphylectomy) n. surgical removal of the uvula.... uvulectomy


n. inflammation of the uvula.... uvulitis

Zinc Undecenoate

(zinc undecylenate) an antifungal agent with uses similar to those of *undecenoic acid.... zinc undecenoate

Genito-urinary And Endocrine Systems

Amenorrhoea/lack of menstruation (M,B):

French basil, carrot seed, celery seed, cinnamon leaf, dill, sweet fennel, hops, hyssop, juniper, laurel, lovage, sweet marjoram, myrrh, parsley, rose (cabbage & damask), sage (clary & Spanish), tarragon, yarrow.

Dysmenorrhoea/cramp, painful or difficult menstruation (M,C,B):

Melissa, French basil, carrot seed, chamomile (German & Roman), cypress, frankincense, hops, jasmine, juniper, lavandin, lavender (spike & true), lovage, sweet marjoram, rose (cabbage & damask), rosemary, sage (clary & Spanish), tarragon, yarrow.

Cystitis (C,B,D):

Canadian balsam, copaiba balsam, bergamot, cedarwood (Atlas, Texas & Virginian), celery seed, chamomile (German & Roman), cubebs, eucalyptus blue gum, frankincense, juniper, lavandin, lavender (spike & true), lovage, mastic, niaouli, parsley, Scotch pine, sandalwood, tea tree, thyme, turpentine, yarrow.

Frigidity (M,S,B,V):

Cassie, cinnamon leaf, jasmine, neroli, nutmeg, parsley, patchouli, black pepper, cabbage rose, rosewood, clary sage, sandalwood, ylang ylang.

Lack of nursing milk (M):

Celery seed, dill, sweet fennel, hops.

Labour pain & childbirth aid (M,C,B):

Cinnamon leaf, jasmine, true lavender, nutmeg, parsley, rose (cabbage & damask), clary sage.

Leucorrhoea/white discharge from the vagina (B,D):

Bergamot, cedarwood (Atlas, Texas & Virginian), cinnamon leaf, cubebs, eucalyptus blue gum, frankincense, hyssop, lavandin, lavender (spike & true), sweet marjoram, mastic, myrrh, rosemary, clary sage, sandalwood, tea tree, turpentine.

Menopausal problems (M,B,V):

Cypress, sweet fennel, geranium, jasmine, rose (cabbage & damask).

Menorrhagia/excessive menstruation (M,B):

Chamomile (German & Roman), cypress, rose (cabbage & damask).

Premenstrual tension/PMT (M,B,V):

Carrot seed, chamomile (German & Roman), geranium, true lavender, sweet marjoram, neroli, tarragon.

Pruritis/itching (D):

Bergamot, Atlas cedarwood, juniper, lavender, myrrh, tea tree.

Sexual overactivity (M,B):

Hops, sweet marjoram.

Thrush/candida (B,D):

Bergamot, geranium, myrrh, tea tree.

Urethritis (B,D):

Bergamot, cubebs, mastic, tea tree, turpentine.

Immune System

Chickenpox (C,S,B):

Bergamot, chamomile (German & Roman), eucalyptus (blue gum & lemon), true lavender, tea tree.

Colds/’flu (M,B,V,I):

Angelica, star anise, aniseed, copaiba balsam, Peru balsam, French basil, West Indian bay, bergamot, borneol, cabreuva, cajeput, camphor (white), caraway, cinnamon leaf, citronella, clove bud, coriander, eucalyptus (blue gum, lemon & peppermint), silver fir, frankincense, ginger, grapefruit, immortelle, juniper, laurel, lemon, lime, sweet marjoram, mastic, mint (peppermint & spearmint), myrtle, niaouli, orange (bitter & sweet), pine (longleaf & Scotch), rosemary, rosewood, Spanish sage, hemlock spruce, tea tree, thyme, turpentine, yarrow.

Fever (C,B):

French basil, bergamot, borneol, camphor (white), eucalyptus (blue gum, lemon & peppermint), silver fir, ginger, immortelle, juniper, lemon, lemongrass, lime, mint (peppermint & spearmint), myrtle, niaouli, rosemary, rosewood, Spanish sage, hemlock spruce, tea tree, thyme, yarrow.

Measles (S,B,I,V):

Bergamot, eucalyptus blue gum, lavender (spike & true), tea tree.... genito-urinary and endocrine systems

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