The SYNOVITIS usually starts acutely and is frequently asymmetrical, with the knees and ankles most commonly affected. Often there are in?ammatory lesions of tendon sheaths and entheses (bone and muscle functions) such as plantar fasciitis (see FASCIITIS). The severity and duration of the acute episode are extremely variable. Individuals with the histocompatibility antigen HLA B27 are particularly prone to severe attacks.... reactive arthritis
(2) A small, discrete area on the cell membrane or within the cell with which molecules or molecular complexes (e.g. hormones, drugs, and other chemical messengers) interact. When this interaction takes place it initiates a change in the working of the cell.... receptor
common pain pathways in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. (See also PAIN.)... referred pain
The term is also applied to the return to the mouth of food already swallowed and present in the gullet or stomach (see also REFLUX).... regurgitation
Louse-borne relapsing fever is an EPIDEMIC disease, usually associated with wars and famines, which has occurred in practically every country in the world. For long confused with TYPHUS FEVER and typhoid fever (see ENTERIC FEVER), it was not until the 1870s that the causal organism was described by Obermeier. It is now known as the Borrelia recurrentis, a motile spiral organism 10–20 micrometres in length. The organism is transmitted from person to person by the louse, Pediculus humanus.
Symptoms The incubation period is up to 12 days (but usually seven). The onset is sudden, with high temperature, generalised aches and pains, and nose-bleeding. In about half of cases, a rash appears at an early stage, beginning in the neck and spreading down over the trunk and arms. JAUNDICE may occur; and both the LIVER and the SPLEEN are enlarged. The temperature subsides after ?ve or six days, to rise again in about a week. There may be up to four such relapses (see the introductory paragraph above).
Treatment Preventive measures are the same as those for typhus. Rest in bed is essential, as are good nursing and a light, nourishing diet. There is usually a quick response to PENICILLIN; the TETRACYCLINES and CHLORAMPHENICOL are also e?ective. Following such treatment the incidence of relapse is about 15 per cent. The mortality rate is low, except in a starved population.
Tick-borne relapsing fever is an ENDEMIC disease which occurs in most tropical and sub-tropical countries. The causative organism is Borrelia duttoni, which is transmitted by a tick, Ornithodorus moubata. David Livingstone suggested that it was a tick-borne disease, but it was not until 1905 that Dutton and Todd produced the de?nitive evidence.
Symptoms The main di?erences from the louse-borne disease are: (a) the incubation period is usually shorter, 3–6 days (but may be as short as two days or as long as 12); (b) the febrile period is usually shorter, and the afebrile periods are more variable in duration, sometimes only lasting for a day or two; (c) relapses are much more numerous.
Treatment Preventive measures are more di?cult to carry out than in the case of the louse-borne infection. Protective clothing should always be worn in ‘tick country’, and old, heavily infected houses should be destroyed. Curative treatment is the same as for the louse-borne infection.... relapsing fever
Mechanism of respiration For the structure of the respiratory apparatus, see AIR PASSAGES; CHEST; LUNGS. The air passes rhythmically into and out of the air passages, and mixes with the air already in the lungs, these two movements being known as inspiration and expiration. INSPIRATION is due to a muscular e?ort which enlarges the chest, so that the lungs have to expand in order to ?ll up the vacuum that would otherwise be left, the air entering these organs by the air passages. The increase of the chest in size from above downwards is mainly due to the diaphragm, the muscular ?bres of which contract and reduce its domed shape and cause it to descend, pushing down the abdominal organs beneath it. EXPIRATION is an elastic recoil, the diaphragm rising and the ribs sinking into the position that they naturally occupy, when muscular contraction is ?nished. Occasionally, forced expiration may occur, involving powerful muscles of the abdomen and thorax; this is typically seen in forcible coughing.
Nervous control Respiration is usually either an automatic or a REFLEX ACTION, each expiration sending up sensory impulses to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, from which impulses are sent down various other nerves to the muscles that produce inspiration. Several centres govern the rate and force of the breathing, although all are presided over by a chief respiratory centre in the medulla oblongata (see under BRAIN – Divisions). This in turn is controlled by the higher centres in the cerebral hemispheres, so that breathing can be voluntarily stopped or quickened.
Quantity of air The lungs do not completely empty themselves at each expiration and re?ll at each inspiration. With each breath, less than one-tenth of the total air in the lungs passes out and is replaced by the same quantity of fresh air, which mixes with the stale air in the lungs. This renewal, which in quiet breathing amounts to about 500 millilitres, is known as the tidal air. By a special inspiratory e?ort, an individual can draw in about 3,000 millilitres, this amount being known as complemental air. By a special expiratory e?ort, too, after an ordinary breath one can expel much more than the tidal air from the lungs – this extra amount being known as the supplemental or reserve air, and amounting to about 1,300 millilitres. If an individual takes as deep an inspiration as possible and then makes a forced expiration, the amount expired is known as the vital capacity, and amounts to around 4,000 millilitres in a healthy adult male of average size. Figures for women are about 25 per cent lower. The vital capacity varies with size, sex, age and ethnic origin.
Over and above the vital capacity, the lungs contain air which cannot be expelled; this is known as residual air, and amounts to another 1,500 millilitres.
Tests of respiratory e?ciency are used to assess lung function in health and disease. Pulmonary-function tests, as they are known, include spirometry (see SPIROMETER), PEAK FLOW METER (which measures the rate at which a person can expel air from the lungs, thus testing vital capacity and the extent of BRONCHOSPASM), and measurements of the concentration of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood. (See also LUNG VOLUMES.)
Abnormal forms of respiration Apart from mere changes in rate and force, respiration is modi?ed in several ways, either involuntarily or voluntarily. SNORING, or stertorous breathing, is due to a ?accid state of the soft palate causing it to vibrate as the air passes into the throat, or simply to sleeping with the mouth open, which has a similar e?ect. COUGH is a series of violent expirations, at each of which the larynx is suddenly opened after the pressure of air in the lungs has risen considerably; its object is to expel some irritating substance from the air passages. SNEEZING is a single sudden expiration, which di?ers from coughing in that the sudden rush of air is directed by the soft palate up into the nose in order to expel some source of irritation from this narrow passage. CHEYNE-STOKES BREATHING is a type of breathing found in persons suffering from stroke, heart disease, and some other conditions, in which death is impending; it consists in an alternate dying away and gradual strengthening of the inspirations. Other disorders of breathing are found in CROUP and in ASTHMA.... respiration
A. (See APPENDIX 5: VITAMINS.)... retinol
Retroviruses are also used in the development of gene therapy (see GENETIC ENGINEERING).... retrovirus
Rheumatic fever is now extremely uncommon in developed countries, but remains common in developing areas. Diagnosis is based on the presence of two or more major manifestations – endocarditis (see under HEART, DISEASES OF), POLYARTHRITIS, chorea, ERYTHEMA marginatum, subcutaneous nodules – or one major and two or more minor ones – fever, arthralgia, previous attacks, raised ESR, raised white blood cell count, and ELECTROCARDIOGRAM (ECG) changes. Evidence of previous infection with streptococcus is also a criterion.
Clinical features Fever is high, with attacks of shivering or rigor. Joint pain and swelling (arthralgia) may affect the knee, ankle, wrist or shoulder and may migrate from one joint to another. TACHYCARDIA may indicate cardiac involvement. Subcutaneous nodules may occur, particularly over the back of the wrist or over the elbow or knee. Erythema marginatum is a red rash, looking like the outline of a map, characteristic of the condition.
Cardiac involvement includes PERICARDITIS, ENDOCARDITIS, and MYOCARDITIS. The main long-term complication is damage to the mitral and aortic valves (see HEART).
The chief neurological problem is chorea (St Vitus’s dance) which may develop after the acute symptoms have subsided.
Chronic rheumatic heart disease occurs subsequently in at least half of those who have had rheumatic fever with carditis. The heart valve usually involved is the mitral; less commonly the aortic, tricuspid and pulmonary. The lesions may take 10–20 years to develop in developed countries but sooner elsewhere. The heart valves progressively ?brose and ?brosis may also develop in the myocardium and pericardium. The outcome is either mitral stenosis or mitral regurgitation and the subsequent malfunction of this or other heart valves affected is chronic failure in the functioning of the heart. (see HEART, DISEASES OF).
Treatment Eradication of streptococcal infection is essential. Other features are treated symptomatically. PARACETAMOL may be preferred to ASPIRIN as an antipyretic in young children. One of the NON-STEROIDAL ANTIINFLAMMATORY DRUGS (NSAIDS) may bene?t the joint symptoms. CORTICOSTEROIDS may be indicated for more serious complications.
Patients who have developed cardiac-valve abnormalities require antibiotic prophylaxis during dental treatment and other procedures where bacteria may enter the bloodstream. Secondary cardiac problems may occur several decades later and require replacement of affected heart valves.... rheumatic fever
Causes There is a major immunogenetic predisposition to rheumatoid arthritis in people carrying the HLA-DR4 antigen (see HLA SYSTEM). Other minor immunogenetic factors have also been implicated. In addition, there is a degree of familial clustering which suggests other unidenti?ed genetic factors. Genetic factors cannot alone explain aetiology, and environmental and chance factors must be important, but these have yet to be identi?ed.
Epidemiology Rheumatoid arthritis more commonly occurs in women from the age of 30 onwards, the sex ratio being approximately 4:1. Typical rheumatoid arthritis may occur in adolescence, but in childhood chronic SYNOVITIS usually takes one of a number of di?erent patterns, classi?ed under juvenile chronic arthritis.
Pathology The primary lesion is an in?ammation of the synovial membrane of joints. The synovial ?uid becomes diluted with in?ammatory exudate: if this persists for months it leads to progressive destruction of articular CARTILAGE and BONE. Cartilage is replaced by in?ammatory tissue known as pannus; a similar tissue invades bone to form erosions. Synovitis also affects tendon sheaths, and may lead to adhesion ?brosis or attrition and rupture of tendons. Subcutaneous and other bursae may be involved. Necrobiotic nodules also occur at sites outside synovium, including the subcutaneous tissues, the lungs, the pericardium and the pleura.
Clinical features Rheumatoid arthritis varies from the very mild to the severely disabling. Many mild cases probably go undiagnosed. At least 50 per cent of patients continue to lead a reasonably normal life; around 25 per cent are signi?cantly disabled in terms of work and leisure activities; and a minority become markedly disabled and are limited in their independence. There is often an early acute phase, followed by substantial remission, but in other patients gradual step-wise deterioration may occur, with progressive involvement of an increasing number of joints.
The diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis is largely based on clinical symptoms and signs. Approximately 70 per cent of patients have rheumatoid factor ANTIBODIES in the SERUM but, because of the large number of false positives and false negatives, this test has very little value in clinical practice. It may be a useful pointer to a worse prognosis in early cases if the level is high. X-RAYS may help in diagnosing early cases and are particularly helpful when considering surgery or possible complications such as pathological fracture. Patients commonly develop ANAEMIA, which may be partly due to gastrointestinal blood loss from antiin?ammatory drug treatment (see below).
Treatment involves physical, pharmacological, and surgical measures, together with psychological and social support tailored to the individual patient’s needs. Regular activity should be maintained. Resting of certain joints such as the wrist with splints may be helpful at night or to assist prolonged manual activities. Sound footwear is important. Early use of antirheumatic drugs reduces long-term disability. Drug treatment includes simple ANALGESICS, NON-STEROIDAL ANTI-INFLAMMATORY DRUGS (NSAIDS), and slow-acting drugs including GOLD SALTS (in the form of SODIUM AUROTHIOMALATE), PENICILLAMINE, SULFASALAZINE, METHOTREXATE and AZATHIOPRINE.
The non-steroidal agents are largely e?ective in reducing pain and early-morning sti?ness, and have no e?ect on the chronic in?ammatory process. It is important, especially in the elderly, to explain to patients the adverse effects of NSAIDs, the dosage of which can be cut by prescribing paracetamol at the same time. Combinations of anti-rheumatic drugs seem better than single agents. The slow-acting drugs take approximately three months to act but have a more global e?ect on chronic in?ammation, with a greater reduction in swelling and an associated fall in erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and rise in the level of HAEMOGLOBIN. Local CORTICOSTEROIDS are useful, given into individual joints. Systemic corticosteroids carry serious problems if continued long term, but may be useful under special circumstances. Much research is currently going on into the use of tumour necrosis factor antagonists such as INFLIXIMAB and etanercept, but their precise role remains uncertain.... rheumatoid arthritis
Ribavarin, along with INTERFERON alpha-2b, is given orally to treat patients with chronic HEPATITIS C infection. It is also used to treat LASSA FEVER.... ribavirin
Treatment Long-term, low-dose, oral tetracycline (see ANTIBIOTICS; TETRACYCLINES) is the treatment of choice. In mild cases, METRONIDAZOLE gel can be helpful. Potent topical CORTICOSTEROIDS are contraindicated and make rosacea worse.... rosacea
Cause A virus spread by close contact with infected individuals. Rubella is infectious for a week before the rash appears and at least four days afterwards. It occurs in epidemics (see EPIDEMIC) every three years or so, predominantly in the winter and spring. Children are more likely to be affected than infants. One attack gives permanent IMMUNITY. The incubation period is usually 14–21 days.
Symptoms are very mild, and the disease is not at all serious. On the day of onset there may be shivering, headache, slight CATARRH with sneezing, coughing and sore throat, with very slight fever – not above 37·8 °C (100 °F). At the same time the glands of the neck become enlarged. Within 24 hours of the onset a pink, slightly raised eruption appears, ?rst on the face or neck, then on the chest, and the second day spreads all over the body. The clinical signs and symptoms of many other viral infections are indistinguishable from rubella so a precise diagnosis cannot be made without taking samples (such as saliva) for antibody testing, but this is rarely done in practice.
An attack of German measles during the early months of pregnancy may be responsible for CONGENITAL defects in the FETUS (for information on fetal abnormalities, see under PREGNANCY AND LABOUR). The incidence of such defects is not precisely known, but probably around 20 per cent of children whose mothers have had German measles in the ?rst three months of the pregnancy are born with congenital defects. These defects take a variety of forms, but the most important ones are: low birth weight with retarded physical development; malformations of the HEART; cataract (see under EYE, DISORDERS OF); and DEAFNESS.
Treatment There is no speci?c treatment. Children who develop the disease should not return to school until they have recovered, and in any case not before four days have passed from the onset of the rash.
In view of the possible dangerous e?ect of the disease upon the fetus, particular care should be taken to isolate pregnant mothers from contact with infected subjects. As the risk is particularly high during the ?rst 16 weeks of pregnancy, any pregnant mother exposed to infection during this period should be given an intramuscular injection of GAMMA-GLOBULIN. A vaccine is available to protect an individual against rubella (see IMMUNISATION).
In the United Kingdom it is NHS policy for all children to have the combined measles, mumps and rubella vaccine (see MMR VACCINE), subject to parental consent. All women of childbearing age, who have been shown by a simple laboratory test not to have had the disease, should be vaccinated, provided that the woman is not pregnant at the time and has not been exposed to the risk of pregnancy during the previous eight weeks.... rubella
The rays are part of the electro-magnetic spectrum; their wavelengths are between 10?9 and 10? 13 metres; in behaviour and energy they are identical to the gamma rays emitted by radioactive isotopes. Diagnostic X-rays are generated in an evacuated tube containing an anode and cathode. Electrons striking the anode cause emission of X-rays of varying energy; the energy is largely dependent on the potential di?erence (kilovoltage) between anode and cathode. The altered tissue penetration at di?erent kilovoltages is used in radiographing di?erent regions, for example in breast radiography (25–40 kV) or chest radiography (120–150 kV). Most diagnostic examinations use kilovoltages between 60 and 120. The energy of X-rays enables them to pass through body tissues unless they make contact with the constituent atoms. Tissue attenuation varies with atomic structure, so that air-containing organs such as the lung o?er little attenuation, while material such as bone, with abundant calcium, will absorb the majority of incident X-rays. This results in an emerging X-ray pattern which corresponds to the structures in the region examined.
Radiography The recording of the resulting images is achieved in several ways, mostly depending on the use of materials which ?uoresce in response to X-rays. CONTRAST X-RAYS Many body organs are not shown by simple X-ray studies. This led to the development of contrast materials which make particular organs or structures wholly or partly opaque to X-rays. Thus, barium-sulphate preparations are largely used for examining the gastrointestinal tract: for example, barium swallow, barium meal, barium follow-through (or enteroclysis) and barium enema. Water-soluble iodine-containing contrast agents that ionise in solution have been developed for a range of other studies.
More recently a series of improved contrast molecules, chie?y non-ionising, has been developed, with fewer side-effects. They can, for example, safely be introduced into the spinal theca for myeloradiculography – contrast X-rays of the spinal cord. Using these agents, it is possible to show many organs and structures mostly by direct introduction, for example via a catheter (see CATHETERS). In urography, however, contrast medium injected intravenously is excreted by the kidneys which are outlined, together with ureters and bladder. A number of other more specialised contrast agents exist: for example, for cholecystography – radiological assessment of the gall-bladder. The use of contrast and the attendant techniques has greatly widened the range of radiology. IMAGE INTENSIFICATION The relative insensitivity of ?uorescent materials when used for observation of moving organs – for example, the oesophagus – has been overcome by the use of image intensi?cation. A faint ?uorographic image produced by X-rays leads to electron emission from a photo-cathode. By applying a high potential di?erence, the electrons are accelerated across an evacuated tube and are focused on to a small ?uorescent screen, giving a bright image. This is viewed by a TV camera and the image shown on a monitor and sometimes recorded on videotape or cine. TOMOGRAPHY X-ray images are two-dimensional representations of three-dimensional objects. Tomography (Greek tomos
– a slice) began with X-ray imaging produced by the linked movement of the X-ray tube and the cassette pivoting about a selected plane in the body: over- and underlying structures are blurred out, giving a more detailed image of a particular plane.
In 1975 Godfrey Houns?eld introduced COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY (CT). This involves
(i) movement of an X-ray tube around the patient, with a narrow fan beam of X-rays; (ii) the corresponding use of sensitive detectors on the opposite side of the patient; (iii) computer analysis of the detector readings at each point on the rotation, with calculation of relative tissue attenuation at each point in the cross-sectional plant. This invention has enormously increased the ability to discriminate tissue composition, even without the use of contrast.
The tomographic e?ect – imaging of a particular plane – is achieved in many of the newer forms of imaging: ULTRASOUND, magnetic resonance imaging (see MRI) and some forms of nuclear medicine, in particular positron emission tomography (PET SCANNING). An alternative term for the production of images of a given plane is cross-sectional imaging.
While the production of X-ray and other images has been largely the responsibility of radiographers, the interpretation has been principally carried out by specialist doctors called radiologists. In addition they, and interested clinicians, have developed a number of procedures, such as arteriography (see ANGIOGRAPHY), which involve manipulative access for imaging – for example, selective coronary or renal arteriography.
The use of X-rays, ultrasound or computerised tomography to control the direction and position of needles has made possible guided biopsies (see BIOPSY) – for example, of pancreatic, pulmonary or bony lesions – and therapeutic procedures such as drainage of obstructed kidneys (percutaneous nephrostomy), or of abscesses. From these has grown a whole series of therapeutic procedures such as ANGIOPLASTY, STENT insertion and renal-stone track formation. This ?eld of interventional radiology has close a?nities with MINIMALLY INVASIVE SURGERY (MIS).
Radiotherapy, or treatment by X-rays The two chief sources of the ionising radiations used in radiotherapy are the gamma rays of RADIUM and the penetrating X-rays generated by apparatus working at various voltages. For super?cial lesions, energies of around 40 kilovolts are used; but for deep-seated conditions, such as cancer of the internal organs, much higher voltages are required. X-ray machines are now in use which work at two million volts. Even higher voltages are now available through the development of the linear accelerator, which makes use of the frequency magnetron which is the basis of radar. The linear accelerator receives its name from the fact that it accelerates a beam of electrons down a straight tube, 3 metres in length, and in this process a voltage of eight million is attained. The use of these very high voltages has led to the development of a highly specialised technique which has been devised for the treatment of cancer and like diseases.
Protective measures are routinely taken to ensure that the patient’s normal tissue is not damaged during radiotherapy. The operators too have to take special precautions, including limits on the time they can work with the equipment in any one period of time.
The greatest value of radiotherapy is in the treatment of malignant disease. In many patients it can be used for the treatment of malignant growths which are not accessible to surgery, whilst in others it is used in conjunction with surgery and chemotherapy.... x-rays
A lack of oestrogen induces hot flushes, night sweats, thinning of the bones (osteoporosis) with possible fractures, and a wide range of physical and emotional disorders.
HRT also prevents the increased frequency of coronary disease which may follow the menopause. With oestrogen only, HRT appears to increase the incidence of cancer of the uterine body. Use of oestrogen and progestogen avoids this.
HRT is available as a tablet, transdermal patch, implant or topical cream. Most women notice temporary improvement in their appearance and hot flushes as long as treatment is continued. HRT is not prescribed by the herbal practitioner. Soya and Hops are a mild alternative.
Side-effects of such treatment include blood pressure rise, weight gain and periods probably continue with a monthly bleed. Elderly women taking HRT for osteoporosis may develop bleeding problems, the risk of blood clot and gall bladder diseases.
Helonias has proved a useful alternative, effective in eliminating excess fluids, reducing hot flushes, and relieving that bloated feeling, thus helping the older woman to live a normal life.
Damiana. 1 heaped teaspoon leaves to each cup boiling water; infuse 5-10 minutes; strain. 1 cup 2-3 times daily for 3-6 weeks.
Sarsaparilla. 1oz (30g) root in 1 pint (500ml) water; simmer gently 20 minutes; strain. 1 cup 2-3 times daily for 3-6 weeks.
Supplementation. Daily. Vitamin E, 400iu. Vitamin B-complex (high potency). Evening Primrose oil capsules, 500mg morning and evening. Dolomite, for Calcium and Magnesium, 2 tablets morning and evening.
Note: An extensive study of breast cancer risks with HRT revealed a positive link between the risk of cancer and length of use. Risk of the disease increased with all types of women using HRT with every year of use. Pre-menstrual women were more than twice at risk. It would appear that oestrogens cannot be taken without risk. (Centre for Disease Control, Atlanta, USA) See: OESTROGENS. ... hormone replacement therapy (hrt)
Habitat: Indigenous to North America.Features ? Root is nearly three-quarters of an inch thick, light brown, transversely- wrinkled bark, easily parting from white, woody centre ; groups of stone cells in outer bark. Whole plant gives a gelatinous, milky juice when wounded.Part used ? Root.
Action: Cathartic, diuretic, detergent, emetic, tonic.2-5 grains thrice daily as a general tonic, useful in dyspepsia. 5-15 grain doses in cardiac dropsy. Has been recommended in the treatment of Bright's disease. Large doses cause vomiting. Tendency to gripe can be eliminated by adding Peppermint, Calamus or other carminative.... bitter root
Habitat: Widely distributed throughout North America.Features ? Root reddish-brown, wrinkled lengthwise, about half-inch thick. Fracture short. Section whitish, with many small, red resin cells which sometimes suffuse the whole. Heavy odour, bitter and harsh to the taste.Part used ? Root.
Action: Stimulant, tonic, expectorant.Pulmonary complaints and bronchitis. Should be administered in whooping-cough and croup until emesis occurs. The powdered root is used as a snuff in nasal catarrh, and externally in ringworm and other skin eruptions. The American Thomsonians use it in the treatment of adenoids. Dose, 10 to 20 grains of the powdered root.... blood root
Habitat: Gravel Root is a native of the United States, and must not be confused with the English Queen of the Meadow or Meadowsweet (Spiraea ulmaria).Features ? Our present subject is a member of the Boneset (Eupatorium perfoliatum) family, and sometimes reaches six feet in height at full growth. It is peculiar for a purple band about an inch broad round the leaf joint. Pale purple to white flowers bloom in August and September. The rhizome, as the medicinal "root" should more properly be termed, is hard and tough, up to an inch thick, with a nearly white wood and thin grey-brown bark. Short, lateral branches give off thin, tough root several inches long.Part used ? Root.
Action: Diuretic and stimulant.Gravel root is much prescribed for cases of stone in the bladder and certain other troubles of the kidneys and urinary apparatus. A decoction of 1 ounce of the root to 1 pint (reduced from 1 1/2 pints) of water is made, and taken in wineglass doses. Gravel root is also met with in nervine formulae, in which its tonic properties are recognised.The American physio-medical or "Thomsonite" M.D., F. H. England, has said that Gravel Root "induces very little stimulation. It expends nearly all its influence on the kidneys, bladder and uterus. It probably influences the whole sympathetic nervous system. Its use promotes the flow of urine as scarcely anything else will."... gravel root
Ionising radiation comprises X-RAYS, GAMMA RAYS and particle radiation. X-rays are part of the continuous electromagnetic-wave spectrum: this also includes gamma rays, infra-red radiation, ultraviolet light and visible light. They have a very short wavelength and very high frequency, and their ability to penetrate matter depends upon the electrical energy generating them. X-rays that are generated by 100,000 volts can pass through body tissue and are used to produce images – popularly known as X-rays. X-rays, generated at several million volts can destroy tissue and are used in RADIOTHERAPY for killing cancer cells. Gamma rays are similar to X-rays but are produced by the decay of radioactive materials. Particle radiation, which can be produced electrically or by radioactive decay, comprises parts of atoms which have mass as well as (usually) an electrical charge.
Non-ionising radiation includes ultraviolet light, radio waves, magnetic ?elds and ULTRASOUND. Magnetic ?elds are used in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasound, which is inaudible high-frequency sound waves, and is used for both diagnoses and treatment in medicine.... radiation
Habitat: Pastures and waysides, especially near the sea-coast.Features ? Stem erect, striate, tough, two to three feet high. Leaves alternate, lower lyrate-pinnatifid, stalked; upper bi-pinnatifid, sessile. Yellow flowers (July and August) florets of the ray smooth, of the disc hairy. Root consists of many long, thick fibres.Part used ? Herb.
Action: Diaphoretic, detergent, antiseptic.In coughs, colds, influenza, catarrhs, and for the relief of sciatica and rheumatic pains, wineglass doses of the ounce to pint decoction are taken as needed. Makes a good gargle, and is applied externally to ulcers and wounds. Ragwort ointment is prepared from the fresh herb and used for inflammation of the eyes.... ragwort
Anxiety, DEPRESSION and POST-TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER (PTSD) are common after rape: many victims are now given help by rape crisis counselling. A recent report suggests that in at least 50 per cent of reported rapes, the attacker was known to, or had been a friend of, the victim. The deliberate misuse of alcohol or drugs to reduce a potential victim’s resistance seems to be increasing (see DRUG ASSISTED RAPE; FLUNITRAZEPAM.)... rape
Habitat: Woods and heaths ; dry, gravelly or stony ground. Also cultivated in gardens. Features ? Stem erect, freely branched, three or four feet high, covered with small,straight, slender prickles. Leaves stalked, pinnate, with two pairs of ovate leaflets andlarger terminal leaflet, rounded base, doubly serrate, pale green above, grey-whitedown beneath, about three inches long by two inches broad. Small white, pendulousflowers (May or June) in simple clusters. Astringent to the taste.Part used ? Leaves.
Action: Astringent, stimulant.The 1 ounce to 1 pint infusion is widely used as a mouth-wash and gargle, and for the cleansing of wounds and ulcers. Frequently combined with Slippery Elm as a poultice. With a little Ginger and Pennyroyal it is recommended for the stomach and bowel disorders of children.Thomson and his immediate successors strongly advised the free drinking of the Raspberry leaves infusion for several months before confinement as an aid to parturition, and it is still much in demand for this purpose.... raspberry
(2) A public o?cial responsible for registering births, deaths, and marriages.... registrar
Respiratory distress syndrome is a complication of SHOCK, systemic SEPSIS and viral respiratory infections. It was ?rst described in 1967, and – despite advances with assisted ventilation
– remains a serious disease with a mortality of more than 50 per cent. The maintenance of adequate circulating blood volume, peripheral PERFUSION, acid-base balance and arterial oxygenation is important, and assisted ventilation should be instituted early.
In newborns the mechanism is diferent, being provoked by an inability of the lungs to manufacture SURFACTANT.... respiratory distress syndrome
– see CELLS). Consisting of approximately 65 per cent RNA and 35 per cent PROTEIN, they are the sites where protein is made.... ribosome
Visceral rickettsia is a disease transmitted by mites from an infected house mouse, which occurs in the USA, South Africa, Korea and the former Soviet Union. The causal organism is Rickettsia akari. The incubation period is 7–14 days and the characteristic features are fever, headache, and a non-irritating rash on the face, trunk and extremities. The disease is non-fatal and responds rapidly to TETRACYCLINES.... rickettsia
Rifampicin is given by mouth; during the ?rst two months it often causes transient disturbance of LIVER function, with raised concentrations of serum transaminases, but usually treatment need not be interrupted. In patients with pre-existing liver disease more severe toxicity may occur, and liver function should be carefully monitored both before starting and during rifampicin treatment. It induces hepatic enzymes which accelerate the metabolism of various drugs including ANTICOAGULANTS, SULPHONYLUREAS, PHENYTOIN SODIUM, CORTICOSTEROIDS and OESTROGENS. The e?ectiveness of oral contraceptives is reduced and alternative family-planning advice should be o?ered.
Rifampicin should be avoided during pregnancy and breast feeding, and extra caution should be applied if there is renal impairment, JAUNDICE or PORPHYRIAS. Adverse effects include gastrointestinal symptoms, in?uenza-like symptoms, collapse and SHOCK, haemolytic ANAEMIA, acute ?ushing and URTICARIA; body secretions may be coloured red.... rifampicin
Rimah, Reema, Reemah, Ryma, Rymah, Rim, Reem, Reama, Reamah... rima
Secondly – and more commonly termed the ‘At-risk register’ – this is a list held by social-service departments, and accessible to doctors in A&E departments, of children whom a local-authority social-services case conference has deemed to have been harmed or to be at risk of harm from mental, physical or sexual abuse (see also CHILD ABUSE).... risk register
Action: Hips—applied to wounds, injuries, sprains and foul ulcers.R. chinensis Jacq. and R. borboni- ana Desp. are synonyms of Rosa indica, found and cultivated throughout India. This variety is also known as Edward Rose or Kat Gulaab.... rosa macrophylla
Rasia, Rasine, Rasja, Rasya, Rosa, Rosella, Roselle, Rosena, Rosenah, Rosene, Rosetta, Rosette, Rosey, Rosheen, Rosie, Rosina, Rosine, Rosio, Rosita, Rosy, Roza, Roze, Rozele, Rozella, Rozene, Rozina, Rozsa, Rozsi, Rozsika, Rozy, Ruza, Ruzena, Ruzenka, Ruzha, Ruzsa, Rosai, Rosay, Rosee, Rosae, Roesia, Rohais, Rhosyn, Rois, Roisin, Ros, Russu, Ruusu, Rozeena, Rozyuka, Rhodia... rose
Habitat: Throughout India, in moist places.English: Common Bala.Ayurvedic: Mahaabalaa, Mahaa- samangaa, Sahadevaa, Kshetrabalaa.Unani: Bariyaara (red-flowered var.).Siddha/Tamil: Athi Bala-chedi, Chitrmutti, Tennacham.
Action: Plant—used as a supporting drug in pulmonary tuberculosis, nervous diseases and rheumatism. Leaves—applied to swelling as paste. Stem-mucilage—demulcent and emollient. Used internally in skin diseases and as a diuretic and febrifuge.The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India recommends the root in deficient spermatogensis and oedema.Alkaloids, ephedrine, si-ephedrine and cryptolepine, are reported from aerial parts. The root contains 0.054% alkaloids, beta-phenethylamine, N- methyl-beta-phenethylamine, vasici- nol, vasicinone, vasicine, choline and betaine. These alkaloids are also present in the aerial parts.Alcoholic extract of the root exhibited antibacterial and antipyretic activities.Proteins, linoleic, malvlic and ster- culic acids have been reported from seeds.Dosage: Root—3-6 g powder. (API, Vol. III.)... sida rhombifolia
Teething. Teas: Spearmint, Roman Chamomile, Peppermint. 1 heaped teaspoon to cup boiling water; infuse 15 minutes; frequent teaspoon doses. Alternative: place one Chamomile flower in feeding bottle. Essential oils: rub gums with diluted oils: Spearmint, German Chamomile, Peppermint or Mullein. Urinary Tract Infection, Cystitis or urethritis.
Teas: Horsetail, Couch Grass, Golden Rod, Rosehip. Dandelion coffee. For pus in the urine: 1-5 drops Tincture Myrrh in cup of warm water: Dose: 1-2 teaspoons thrice daily. Fullness under the eyes may indicate Bright’s Disease for which specialist opinion should be obtained without delay.
Diet. Wholegrain cereals, wholemeal bread, pasta, two servings fresh fruit and vegetables daily. Little lean meat, poultry, fish. Dairy products: yoghurt, cheese, milk in moderation. Fresh orange juice, raw fresh vegetable salads. Oatmeal (porridge oats) is sustaining to the nervous system.
Avoid: crisps, fizzy drinks, hamburgers, biscuits, chocolate, sugar-filled snacks, alcohol, strong tea and coffee.
Supplement. Most children may benefit from one zinc tablet weekly.
Medicine doses. See: DOSAGE.
Fish oils. As well as to help children guard against winter illnesses, Cod Liver oil supplements may help them later in life against arthritis, heart disease, psoriasis, eczema and other inflammatory disorders.
Aspirin. It is clear that a link exists between Reye’s syndrome and aspirin. Aspirin is not advised for minor viral illness in children. ... roseola
A radical is a group of atoms which can combine in the same way as single atoms to make a molecule. Free means uncombined. A free radical is a state in which a radical can exist before it combines – an incomplete molecule containing oxygen which has an uneven electrical charge. High energy oxygen atoms are known to form atheroma.
As well as being substances that take part in a process of metabolism, free radicals can be found in industrial fumes and cigarette smoke. They are oxidants and have an anti-bacterial effect. But their activity is not confined to bacteria alone. When produced in large amounts as in inflammation and infection, they may have a damaging effect upon the lining of blood vessels and other tissues. An excess is produced in ischaemic heart disease. They have been shown to be involved in jet lag, Alzheimer’s disease, rheumatoid arthritis, thrombosis, heart failure, cancer, irradiation sickness and a weak immune system. Damaging to the DNA, they are probably the greatest single cause of ill health. They hasten the ageing process. Vitamins A, C, E, being antioxidants and the mineral Selenium stimulate certain enzyme systems to limit damage done by these destructive elements.
Losing weight is believed to generate free radicals – a metabolic side-effect of dieting. See: ANTIOXIDANTS. ... free radicals
the hand, are applied to the lower breastbone until trained help arrives.
Both these measures are used to restore blood circulation to the brain.
Brain damage is likely if the brain is starved of oxygen for more than 3–4 minutes.... cardiopulmonary resuscitation
The response consists of the production of cells called lymphocytes, substances called antibodies, or immunoglobulins, and other substances and cells that act to destroy the antigenic material.
(See also immune system.)... immune response
As many body tissues are radiolucent, some X-ray imaging procedures require the introduction of radiopaque substances into the body to make organs stand out clearly.... radiopaque
Side effects include insomnia, sweating, and dizziness on standing.... reboxetine
On exposure to cold, the digits turn white due to lack of blood. As sluggish blood flow returns, the digits become blue; when they are warmed and normal blood flow returns, they turn red. During an attack, there is often tingling, numbness, or a burning feeling in the affected fingers or toes. In rare cases, the artery walls gradually thicken, permanently reducing blood flow. Eventually painful ulceration or even gangrene may develop at the tips of the affected digits.
Diagnosis is made from the patient’s history. Treatment involves keeping the hands and feet as warm as possible. Vasodilator drugs or calcium channel blockers may be helpful in severe cases. (See also Raynaud’s phenomenon.)... raynaud’s disease
rectal examination Examination of the anus and rectum, performed as part of a general physical examination, to assess symptoms of pain or changes in bowel habits, and to check for the presence of tumours of the rectum or prostate gland. rectal prolapse Protrusion outsid.
nent in elderly people. If the prolapse is large, leakage of faeces may occur.
Treatment is with a fibre-rich diet.
Surgery may also be performed.... rectal bleeding
A rectocele is usually associated with a cystocele or a prolapsed uterus (see uterus, prolapse of).
There may be no symptoms, or the rectocele may cause constipation.
Pelvic floor exercises may help.
If not, an operation to tighten the tissues at the back of the vagina may be recommended.... rectocele
In the simplest reflex, a sensory nerve cell reacts to a stimulus, such as heat or pressure, and sends a signal along its nerve fibre to the central nervous system. There, another nerve cell becomes stimulated and causes a muscle to contract or a gland to increase its secretory activity. The passage of the nerve signal.
from original sensation to final action is called a reflex arc.
Reflexes may be inborn or conditioned. Some inborn reflexes occur only in babies (see reflex, primitive). Inborn reflexes include those that control basic body functions, such as contraction of the bladder after it has filled beyond a certain point, and are managed by the autonomic nervous system. Conditioned reflexes are acquired through experience in a process called conditioning.
Several simple reflexes, such as the knee-jerk, are tested in a physical examination. Changes in the reflexes may indicate damage to the nervous system. The examination of vital reflexes controlled by the brainstem is the basis for diagnosing brain death.... reflex
A common type of reflux is regurgitation of acid fluid from the stomach (see acid reflux).... reflux
The syndrome is caused by an immune response and usually develops only in people with a genetic predisposition. Most patients have the -B27 tissue type (see histocompatability antigens). The syndrome’s development is induced by infection: usually nongonococcal urethritis, but sometimes bacillary dysentery. Reiter’s syndrome usually starts with a urethral discharge, which is followed by conjunctivitis and then arthritis. The arthritis usually affects 1 or 2 joints (usually the knee and/or ankle) and is often associated with fever and malaise. Attacks can last for several months. Tendons, ligaments, and tissue in the soles of the feet may also become inflamed. Skin rashes are common.
Diagnosis is made from the symptoms.
Analgesic drugs and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs relieve symptoms but may have to be taken for a long period.
Relapses occur in about 1 in 3 cases.... reiter’s syndrome
The blood is more acidic than normal, and the urine less acidic.
Causes include kidney damage due to disease, drugs, or a genetic disorder; but in many cases the cause is unknown.
The acidosis may result in osteomalacia, kidney stones (see calculus, urinary tract), nephrocalcinosis, and hypokalaemia (an abnormally low level of potassium in the blood).... renal tubular acidosis
The detachment is painless. The first symptom is either bright flashes of light at the edge of the field of vision, accompanied by floaters, or a black “drape” obscuring vision.
Urgent treatment is required and usually involves surgical repair of the underlying tear. If the macula (site of central vision) has not been detached, the results can be excellent.... retinal detachment
It usually results from thrombosis in the affected vein, and is more common in people who have glaucoma.
Retinal vein occlusion may cause visual disturbances, glaucoma, or blindness.... retinal vein occlusion
The 1st symptoms appear during or after adolescence and include night blindness.
Tests show a ring-shaped area of blindness which, over some years, extends to destroy an increasing area of the visual field, though central vision is retained, often for many years.
Opthalmoscopy reveals several masses of black pigment corresponding to the areas of visual loss.
Affected individuals and their parents should have genetic counselling.... retinitis pigmentosa
The disorder starts as the child recovers from the infection. Symptoms include uncontrollable vomiting, lethargy, memory loss, and disorientation. Swelling of the brain may cause seizures, disturbances in heart rhythm, coma, and cessation of breathing.
Brain swelling may be controlled by corticosteroid drugs and by intravenous infusions of mannitol. Dialysis or blood transfusions may be needed. If breathing stops, a ventilator is used.
The death rate is around 10 per cent, and higher for those who have seizures, lapse into deep coma, and stop breathing.
Permanent brain damage may occur.... reye’s syndrome
The next 2 or 3 pairs of “false ribs” connect indirectly to the sternum by means of cartilage attached to the cartilage of the ribs above.
Between and attached to the ribs are thin sheets of muscle (intercostal muscles) that act during breathing.
The spaces between the ribs also contain nerves and blood vessels.... rib
It is usually complete after about 12 hours; the stiffness then disappears over the next 48–60 hours.
Physical exertion before death makes rigor mortis begin sooner.
The sooner rigor mortis begins, the quicker it passes.
These facts are used to help assess the time of death.... rigor mortis
The phrase “sick role” describes the type of passive behaviour expected and allowed of a patient; people with social or emotional problems may unconsciously adopt this role to gain sympathy and understanding.... role-playing
The pulp is removed through a hole drilled in the crown. An antibiotic paste and a temporary filling are packed in. A few days later, the filling is removed and the canals are checked for infection. When no infection is detected the cavity is filled and the roots are sealed with cement. If the cavity is not filled completely, periodontitis may occur.
Treated teeth may turn grey but their appearance can be restored by bonding (see bonding, dental), fitting an artificial crown (see crown, dental), or by bleaching (see bleaching, dental).... root-canal treatment
The exact trigger is unknown, but it is thought that, whatever the stimulus, chemical mediators produced by cells of the immune system or elsewhere in the body spread and sustain an in?ammatory reaction. Cascade mechanisms with multiple interactions are provoked. CYTOTOXIC substances (which damage or kill cells) such as oxygen-free radicals and PROTEASE damage the alveolar capillary membranes (see ALVEOLUS). Once this happens, protein-rich ?uid leaks into the alveoli and interstitial spaces. SURFACTANT is also lost. This impairs the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the lungs and gives rise to the clinical and pathological picture of acute respiratory failure.
The typical patient with ARDS has rapidly worsening hypoxaemia (lack of oxygen in the blood), often requiring mechanical ventilation. There are all the signs of respiratory failure (see TACHYPNOEA; TACHYCARDIA; CYANOSIS), although the chest may be clear apart from a few crackles. Radiographs show bilateral, patchy, peripheral shadowing. Blood gases will show a low PaO2 (concentration of oxygen in arterial blood) and usually a high PaCO2 (concentration of carbon dioxide in arterial blood). The lungs are ‘sti?’ – they are less e?ective because of the loss of surfactant and the PULMONARY OEDEMA.
Causes The causes of ARDS may be broadly divided into the following:... acute respiratory distress syndrome (ards)
For long it had been realised that in certain cases of ASTHMA, adrenaline had not the usual bene?cial e?ect of dilating the bronchi during an attack; rather it made the asthma worse. This was due to its acting on both the alpha and beta adrenergic receptors. A derivative, isoprenaline, was therefore produced which acted only on the beta receptors. This had an excellent e?ect in dilating the bronchi, but unfortunately also affected the heart, speeding it up and increasing its output – an undesirable e?ect which meant that isoprenaline had to be used with great care. In due course drugs were produced, such as salbutamol, which act predominantly on the beta2 adrenergic receptors in the bronchi and have relatively little e?ect on the heart.
The converse of this story was the search for what became known as BETA-ADRENOCEPTORBLOCKING DRUGS, or beta-adrenergic-blocking drugs. The theoretical argument was that if such drugs could be synthesised, they could be of value in taking the strain o? the heart – for example: stress ? stimulation of the output of adrenaline ? stimulation of the heart ? increased work for the heart. A drug that could prevent this train of events would be of value, for example in the treatment of ANGINA PECTORIS. Now there is a series of beta-adrenoceptor-blocking drugs of use not only in angina pectoris, but also in various other heart conditions such as disorders of rhythm, as well as high blood pressure. They are also proving valuable in the treatment of anxiety states by preventing disturbing features such as palpitations. Some are useful in the treatment of migraine.... adrenergic receptors
Adverse effects can be divided into types. First, those which are closely related to the concentration of the drug and accord with what is known of its PHARMACOLOGY. These so-called type A (augmented pharmacological) effects are distinguished from type B (bizarre) effects which are unpredictable, usually rare, and often severe. ANAPHYLAXIS is the most obvious of these; other examples include bone-marrow suppression with CO-TRIMOXAZOLE; hepatic failure (see HEPATITIS) with SODIUM VALPROATE; and PULMONARY FIBROSIS with AMIODARONE. A more comprehensive classi?cation includes reactions type C (chronic effects), D (delayed effects – such as teratogenesis or carcinogenesis) and E (end-of-dose effects – withdrawal effects). Examples of adverse reactions include nausea, skin eruptions, jaundice, sleepiness and headaches.
While most reported adverse reactions are minor and require no treatment, patients should remind their doctors of any drug allergy or adverse e?ect they have suffered in the past. Medical warning bracelets are easily obtained. Doctors should report adverse effects to the authorities – in the case of Britain, to the Committee on Safety of Medicines (CSM), using the yellow-card reporting machinery.... adverse reactions to drugs
Habitat: Western Ghats, tropical forests in the hills of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala and Andaman and Nicobar islands.Ayurvedic: Priyangu (var.)Siddha/Tamil: Gnaazhal. (Dried flowers of Myristica malabarica Lam. are also used as Priyangu.)
Action: Fruit—cooling (in febrile complaints), antipyretic, astringent, antidiarrhoeal, antidysenteric, anti-inflammatory (seeds used for painful micturition). Fruits are also used for treating obstinate skin diseases and tumours.Bisamide alkaloids of the leaves exhibit anticancer activity (by inhibiting the growth of vinblastine-resistant KB cells).
... aglaia roxburghiana
Habitat: The western Himalayas and Kashmir at altitudes between 2,700 and 3,600 m.English: Couch grass, dog grass, wheat grass.
Action: Demulcent (used in cystitis, nephritis), aperient, diuretic and urinary antiseptic, anticholesterolaemic.Key application: In irrigation therapy for inflammatory diseases of the urinary tract and for the prevention of kidney gravel. (German Commission E, The British Herbal Pharmacopoeia.) It is contraindicated in oedema due to cardiac or renal insufficiency.The juice of rhizomes is used for cystitis, nephritis, scirrhous liver; decoction for tonsils and as an adjuvant for cancer; also used for gout and rheumatism, and chronic skin disorders.The rhizome contains triticin, a carbohydrate allied to starch, a fruc- tosan polysaccharide, inositol, manni- tol; volatile oil up to about 0.05%, consisting mainly of agropyrene; vanillin glucoside; mucilage, gum, large quantities of silica; iron, minerals, vitamins, K salt. Agropyrene is reported to have broad antibiotic properties. Extracts show uric acid solvent properties. Agropyrene is antifungal.... agropyron repens
Habitat: Native to the West Indies. Cultivated in Bengal, Assam, Khasi Hills and southern India.English: Bullock's Heart, Common Custard Apple.Ayurvedic: Raamphala.Siddha/Tamil: Aninuna.Folk: Luvuni.
Action: Leaves—insecticide, an- thelmintic, styptic, externally used as suppurant. Unripe and dried fruit—antidysenteric. Bark— powerful astringent, used as antidysenteric and vermifuge.Rootbark, leaves and stems gave iso- quinoline alkaloids. Two acetogenins, annoreticuin and isoannoreticuin, isolated from the leaves, were found to be selectively cytotoxic to certain human tumours.The leaves and stems also gave al- kaloids—dopamine, salsolinol and co- claurine.Annona reticulata, Annona muri- cata, Annona squamosa and Annona cherimola are known as Raampha- la, Lakshman-phala, Sitaa-phala and Hanumaan-phala, respectively.... annona reticulata
Habitat: Native to Europe and West Asia.English: Asparagus, Sparrow grass.Ayurvedic: Shataavari, Vari, Shatviryaa, Shatmuuli, Shatpadi, Bhiru, Naaraayani, Bahusutaa, Atirasaa.Unani: Haliyun.Family: Asparagaceae.
Habitat: Found wild in tropical and subtropical parts of India, including the Andamans and ascending in the Himalayas to 1,500 m.English: Indian asparagus.Ayurvedic: Shataavari, Shatmuuli, Atirasaa, Bahusutaa, Shatpadi, Shatviryaa, Bhiru, Indivari, Vari. (Substitute for Medaa, Mahaamedaa.)Unani: Sataavar.Siddha/Tamil: Thanneervittan kizhangu, Sataavari Kizhangu.
Action: Used as a galactagogue and for disorders of female genitourinary tract; as a styptic and ulcer-healing agent; as an intestinal disinfectant and astringent in diarrhoea; as a nervine tonic, and in sexual debility for spermatogenesis.Along with other therapeutic applications, The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India indicates the use of the tuberous root in gout, puerperal diseases, lactic disorders, haematuria, bleeding disorders and also recommends it for hyperacidity.The plant contains saponins—sha- tavarins I-IV. Shatavarin IV is a glycoside of sarsasapogenin. The saponin in doses of 20-500 mcg/ml produces a special blockade of syntocinon (oxy- tocin)-induced contraction of rat, guinea-pig and rabbit uteri in vitro and in situ. It also blocks the uterine spontaneous motility.The dried root yields sitosterol; 4,6- dihydroxy-2-O-(2' hydroxyisobutyl) benzaldehyde and undecanyl cetano- ate, and contains a large amount of saccharine matter, mucilage and miner- als—Ca (0.172), Cu (0.033), Na (14.60), K (8.32), Mg (0.169), Mn (0.0074), Ni (0.105) and Zn (0.072) mg/g(dry weight).The root was found to reduce gastric emptying time comparable to that of metoclopramide. (J Postgrad Med, 1990, 36(2), 91-94).The root extracts exhibited antiallergic activity in animal studies.The root, when fed orally, acted as immunomodulator against induced sepsis and peritonitis in rats and mice.... asparagus racemosus
Habitat: Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh up to 2,500 m.English: Indian Belladonna, Indian Atropa.Ayurvedic: Suuchi.Unani: Luffaah, Luffaah-Barri, Yabaruj, Shaabiraj.
Action: Highly poisonous; sedative, narcotic, anodyne, nervine, antispasmodic (used in paralysis); parkinsonism; encephalitis; carcinoma; spastic dysmenorrhoea; whooping cough, spasmodic asthma; colic of intestines, gall bladder or kidney, spasm of bladder and ureters; contraindicated in enlarged prostate.Key application: In spasm and colic-like pain in the areas of the gastrointestinal tract and bile ducts. (German Commission E, The British Herbal Pharmacopoeia.) It is contraindicated in tachycardiac arrhythmias, prostate adenoma, glaucoma, acute oedema of lungs.A. belladonna L. (European sp. Belladonna, Deadly Nightshade) is cultivated in Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh.The herb contains tropane (tropine) or solanaceous alkaloids (up to 0.6%), including hyoscamine and atropine; flavonoids; coumarins; volatile bases (nicotine).Tropane alkaloids inhibit the para- sympathetic nervous system, which controls involuntary bodily activities; reduces saliva, gastric, intestinal and bronchial secretions, and also the activity of urinary tubules. Tropane alkaloids also increase the heart rate and dilate the pupils. These alkaloids are used as an additive to compound formulations for bronchitis, asthma, whooping cough, gastrointestinal hy- permotility, dysmenorrhoea, nocturnal enuresis and fatigue syndrome.Atropine provides relief in parkin- sonism and neurovegetative dystonia.The root is the most poisonous, the leaves and flowers less, and the berries the least. (Francis Brinker.)Dosage: Leaf, root—30-60 mg powder. (CCRAS.)... atropa acuminata royle ex
Habitat: Sub-Himalayan tracts from Ravi eastwards, ascending to 1,000 m. in the Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal and Central and South India.Ayurvedic: Ashmantaka, Kanchini.Unani: Kachnaar.Folk: Aapataa (Maharashtra), Kachnaala.
Action: Bark—highly astringent, anti-inflammatory (used in glandular inflammations, skin diseases, ulcers), cholagogue. Leaves—anthelmintic; with onion for diarrhoea. Flowers—used in haemorrhages, piles; also in cough. Seed—antibacterial.Octacosane, beta-amyrin and beta- sitosterol have been isolated from the bark. EtOH (50%) extract of seeds exhibited anticancer activity.... bauhinia racemosa
Habitat: Northwestern Himalayas up to 1500 m, also in Orissa, Madhya Pradesh and Andhra Pradesh.Siddha: Nirpa (Telugu).Folk: Semalaa, Kathmahuli. Gum— Thaur
Action: Gum—emmenagogue, diuretic. (Gum resembles Gum arabic; used as an external application for sores). Protein isolated from seeds—hypoglycaemic, hypoc- holesterolaemic in young, normal as well as alloxan-induced diabetic albino rats.The bark contains quercetin-3-O- beta-D-glucoside and rutin.... bauhinia retusa
Habitat: The tropical Himalayas and Deccan peninsula.Ayurvedic: Bahuprajaa, Kaamboji (doubtful synonym).Folk: Kaali Kamboi (Gujarat).
Action: Used as a galactagogue (as a supporting drug in herbal compound formulations). Spasmogenic.... breynia retusa
Habitat: Throughout India up to an altitude of 1,000 m, except in very dry regions.Ayurvedic: Mahaaviraa, Asana (Asana is equated with Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb., the Indian Kino tree.)Siddha/Tamil: Mulluvengai.Folk: Gondani, Gondui, Khaajaa.
Action: Bark—astringent, used in the form of a liniment in rheumatism. Paste of the stem bark is applied to wounds.The bark contains 16-40% tannin. Presence of a triterpene ketone in the bark is reported. The bark exhibited hypotensive properties in pharmacological trials. The extract of the bark significantly increased the mean survival time of mice infected intracere- brally with vaccinia virus. Ripe fruit pulp contains beta-sitosterol and gallic and ellagic acids.... bridelia retusa
Habitat: Central and South India.English: Rotang, Rattan, Chair Bottom Cane.Ayurvedic: Vetra, Abhrapushpa.Siddha/Tamil: Pirambu.
Action: Astringent, antidiarrhoeal, anti-inflammatory (used in chronic fevers, piles, abdominal tumours, strangury), antibilious, spasmolytic. Wood—vermifuge.The plant is used in convulsions and cramps. The presence of a saponin in the stem, an alkaloid in the leaves and a flavonoid in the root is reported.... calamus rotang
Habitat: Commonly grown in Indian gardens.English: Madagascar Periwinkle (Vinca major L. Pich. and Vinca minor Linn. are known as Greater Periwinkle and Lesser Periwinkle respectively).Folk: Sadaabahaar, Nayantaaraa, Nityakalyaani.
Action: The cytotoxic dimeric alkaloids, present in Madagascar Periwinkle, Catharanthus roseus L. Don, Vincea rosea L., and used for the treatment of certain type of cancer, have not been found in V. major.Catharanthus roseus (Madagascar Periwinkle) : cytostatic, anti-neoplas- tic, slows down growth of cells by su- pressing immune response. Vinblas- tine and Vincristine are said to prolong remission of leukaemia to more than five years. These chemotherapeutic agents are toxic to the nervous system. Vinblastine is also used for breast cancer and Hodgkin's disease.Vinca major L. Pich. (Greater Periwinkle): astringent, anti-haemorrha- gic; used for menorrhagia and leu- corrhoea. Contains indole alkaloids including reserpinine and serpentine; tannins.Vinca minor Linn. (Lesser Periwinkle): astringent; circulatory stimulant. Leaves—stomachic and bitter. Root— hypotensive. Used for gastric catarrh, chronic dyspepsia, flatulence; also for headache, dizziness, behaviours disorders. A homoeopathic tincture is given for internal haemorrhages.... catharanthus roseus
Habitat: Temperate Himalayas from Kashmir to Bhutan up to at 3,000-4,000 m.English: Black Cohosh Root, Black Snake Root.Folk: Cohosh, Jiuenti (Punjab).
Action: Sedative, anti-inflammatory, antitussive, diuretic, emmenagogue. Used in homoeopathy for rheumatic diseases of nervous, hysterical women, suffering from uterine affections; also for locomotor ataxia.Key application: In climacteric (menopausal), neurovegetative ailments, premenstrual discomfort and dysmenorrhoea. (German Commission E, ESCOP.)The rhizome contains triterpene gly- cosides (including actein, cimigoside, cimifugine and racemoside; isofla- ones (including formononetin; isofer- ulic acid; volatile oil, tannin.Pharmacological studies have shown that the menthol extract binds to oestrogen receptors in vitro and in rat uteri; this activity is thought to be due to the presence of formononetin. Racemoside exhibited antiulcer activity in mice. Isoferulic acid lowered body temperature in rats.The rhizome is hypotensive in animals; a central nervous system depressant and antispasmodic in mice; causes peripheral vasodilation in human. Also exhibits anti-inflammatory (The British Herbal Pharmacopoeia) and hy- poglycaemic activity.Actein has been studied for use in treating peripheral arterial disease. (Expanded Commission E Monographs.)Clinically, the rhizome and root constituents of Black Cohosh does not seem to affect hormonal levels, such as estradiol, LH, FSH and pro- lactin. (Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, 2007.)Cimicifuga foetida L. root is used in bronchial and rheumatic diseases. Aqueous EtOH extract is used in cosmetic preparations for protecting skin; also used for preventing oral diseases and bad breath.White Cohosh, used for urinogen- ital disorders, is equated with Actea pachypoda, synonym A. alba, A. rubra. Blue Cohosh has been identified as Caulophyllum thalictroides. It is toxic and abortifacient.... cimicifuga racemosa
Habitat: Rajasthan, Gujarat, Deccan and Karnataka.English: Sebestan (smaller var.)Ayurvedic: Laghu-shleshmaataka, Lisodaa.Siddha/Tamil: Naruvili.Folk: Gondi.
Action: See C. myxa.Bark—astringent; decoction is used as a gargle.... cordia rothii
The new Council for Healthcare Regulatory Excellence will help to promote the interests of patients and to improve co-operation between the existing regulatory bodies – providing, in e?ect, a quality-control mechanism for their activities. The government and relevant professions will nominate individuals for this overarching council. The new council will not have the authority to intervene in the determination by the eight regulatory bodies of individual ?tness-to-practise cases unless these concern complaints about maladministration.... council for healthcare regulatory excellence
Habitat: A parasitic climber common throughout India up to 3,000 m.English: Doddar.Ayurvedic: Amarvalli.Unani: Kasoos.
Action: See C. epithymum.The seeds contain amarbelin and kaempferol; stem gave cuscutin, cuscu- tatin, beta-sitosterol, luteolin, bergenin and kaempferol. The parasitic plant accumulates alkaloids from the host plant. The climber growing on Mangi- era indica has been found to contain mangiferin.... cuscuta reflexa
Habitat: Throughout India, as a weed upto 2,000 m.English: Nut Grass.Ayurvedic: Musta, Mustaa, Mus- taka, Abda, Ambuda, Ambhoda, Ambodhara, Bhadra, Bhadraa, Bhadramusta, Bhadramustaa, Bhadramustaka, Ghana, Jalada, Jaldhara, Meghaahvaa, Nirada, Vaarida, Vaarivaaha, Payoda, Balaahaka. Ganda-Duurvaa (var.).Unani: Naagarmothaa, Saad-e-Kufi.Siddha/Tamil: Koraikkizhangu.Folk: Mothaa.
Action: Carminative, astringent, anti-inflammatory, antirheumat- ic, hepatoprotective, diuretic, antipyretic, analgesic, hypoten- sive, emmenagogue and nervine tonic.Used for intestinal problems, indigestion, sprue, diarrhoea, dysentery, vomiting and fever; also as a hypoc- holesterolaemic drug and in obesity.Along with other therapeutic applications, The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India indicated the use of the rhizome in rheumatism, inflammations, dysuria, puerperal diseases and obesity.The tuber is rich in Cu, Fe, Mg and Ni. Beta-sitosterol, isolated from the tubers, exhibits significant anti- inflammatory activity against carra- geenan- and cotton pellet-induced oedema in rats; the activity is comparable to hydrocortisone and phenylbutazone when administered intraperi- toneally.The alcoholic and aqueous extracts of the tubers possess lipolytic action and reduce obesity by releasing enhanced concentrations of biogenic amines from nerve terminals of the brain which suppress the appetite centre. Presence of eudalne group of ses- quiterpenic compounds of sesquiter- pene alcohol, isocyperol is said to play an important role in lipid metabolism.An alcoholic extract of the plant exhibits liver-protective activity against CCL4-induced liver damage in mice.Methanolic extract of the plant stimulates the production of melanin in cultured melanocytes. (Plant extract is used in preparations used for pigmentation of skin and hair, also in suntan gels.) Aqueous-alcoholic extract of the tuber exhibited hypotensive, diuretic, antipyretic and analgesic activities. These are attributed to a triterpenoid.The essential oil (0.5-0.9%) from the tubers contains mainly sesquiterpenes.C. platystilis Br. is equated with Kaivarta-mustaka.Dosage: Rhizome—3-6 g powder; 20-30 ml decoction. (API Vol. III.)... cyperus rotundus
Habitat: Native to Madagascar; grown in gardens and avenues for ornamental purposes and for shade.English: Flamboyant Flame tree, Gold Mohur.Ayurvedic: Gulmohar (var.) White Gold Mohur is equated with Delonix elata Gamble, synonym Poinciana elata Linn.Siddha: Vadanarayana, Pe- rungondrai, Mayarum. White Gulmohar. (Tamil)
Action: Bark—antiperiodic, febrifuge. Plant—antirheumatic, spasmogenic. Flowers (aqueous and alcoholic extract)—active against roundworm.White Gulmohar trunk-bark yielded asparagine and aspartic acid. Flowers gave iso-quercetin.Delonix regia bark gave leucocyani- din; bark and leaves contain tannin, lu- peol and beta-sitosterol, and free OH- proline as major amino acid. Flower anthers are a rich source of zeaxanthin.... delonix regia
Habitat: The Western Himalayas from Kashmir to Garhwal.Unani: Daarunaj Aqrabi Hindi.
Action: The root is reported to prevent giddiness caused during high attitude ascents.The root yields a gum-resin, used in gargle water as stimulant, astringent and in toothpaste. Root—used in rheumatism. Leaves—carminative.... doronicum roylei
Synonym: Putranjiva roxburghii Wall.Family: Euphorbiaceae.
Habitat: Wild and cultivated throughout tropical India.Ayurvedic: Putrajivaka, Sutajva, Putrakamanjari.Siddha/Tamil: Karupali, Irukolli.
Action: Leaves, fruits and stones of fruits are given in colds and fevers, also in rheumatic affections. Rosaries, made ofhard stones of the fruit, are placed around the necks of children to protect them from diseases.The seed kernel yield 0.5% of a sharp- smelling essential oil of the mustard oil type. The oil contains isopropyl and 2-butyl isothiocyanates as the main constituents and 2-methyl-butyl isoth- iocyanate as minor component. Anad- ditional glucoside, glucocleomin, has been found in the seed kernels. A glu- cosidic pattern similar to that in the seeds is reported in the shoots and roots. The fruit pulp contains a large proportion of mannitol and small quantities of a saponin glucoside and alkaloid.The alkaloid is also present in a small quantity in the stones of the fruit.Dosage: Seed, leaf, bark—3-6 g powder. (CCRAS.)... drypetes roxburghii
Habitat: Throughout India.English: Embelia.Ayurvedic: Vidanga, Krmighna, Krmihara, Krmiripu, Chitratandula, Jantughna, Jantunaashana, Vella, Amogha.Unani: Baobarang, Barang Kaabuli.Siddha/Tamil: Vaayuvidangam.
Action: Ascaricidal, anthelmintic, carminative, diuretic, astringent, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, febrifuge. Used in diseases of chest and skin. Active principles are found to be oestrogenic and weakly progestogenic. Root—bechic, antidiarrhoeal. Seed—spermicidal, oxytocic, diuretic. The plant is also used for its blood purifying properties. It is an ingredient in cough syrups, preparations for anaemia, genitourinary tract infections, diarrhoea and diseases of the liver.Embelin, isolated from the berries, shows significant anti-implantation and post-coital antifertility activity. (Successful trials have been carried out at the National Institute of Immunology, New Delhi on human beings.) It is found to be a potential male antifer- tility agent. Spermatogenesis has been impaired and sperm count reduced to the level of infertility. The antisper- matogenic changes are found to be reversible without any toxic effects.Aqueous and EtOH extract of the fruit—anthelmintic against earthworms. Fruit powder (200 mg/kg), taken with curd on empty stomach, expelled tapeworm within 6-24 h. The treatment was also found effective in giardiasis. EtOH (50%) of the plant was found slightly active against E.coli. Di-salts of embelin—an- thelmintic. Amino salts exhibited less side effects than embelin. The effect of di-isobutyl amino derivatives lasted up to 10 h, also showed anti-inflammatory, hypotensive and antipyretic activities.Berries gave quinones—embelin, ra- panone, homoembelin, homorapnone and vilangin.Dosage: Fruit—5-10 g powder. (API Vol. I.)... embelia ribes
Habitat: Throughout greater part of India.Ayurvedic: Vidanga (allied species) Substitute for Embelia ribes.Folk: Baayabirang.
Action: Fruit—antispasmodic, carminative, anthelmintic, antibacterial. Powdered fruit—used in dysentery. Plant—used in weak pulse rate.EtOH (50%) extract of aerial parts exhibit slightly hypotensive activity. Stem contains embelin. See Embelia ribes.... embelia robusta
Habitat: Sub-tropical and temperate regions.Ayurvedic: Kiraat-tikta (related species), Yavatiktaa (related species) (A substitute for Swertia chirayita.)Folk: Khet-chiraayataa.Key application: Erythraea centaurium—in loss of appetite and peptic discomfort. (German Commission E.)... erythraea roxburghii
Habitat: Native to Morocco.English: Euphorbium.Unani: Farfiyuun, Afarbiyuun.
Action: A drastic purgative, irritant, vesicant and toxic, proinflammatory. Internal use of the drug has been abandoned.Dried latex gave diterpene esters; derivatives of 12-deoxyphorbol, which are pro-inflammatory, tumour promoting and cause platelet aggregation; exhibit co-carcinogenic activity.... euphorbia resinifera
Habitat: Assam, Western Ghats and Andaman Islands.Folk: Karintakaali (Kerala).
Action: Properties are similar (though inferior) to those of Ipeac (Cephaelis ipecacuanha A. Rich.).... geophila repens
Habitat: Western Himalaya from Kumaon to Nepal.Ayurvedic: Snuhi, Snuk, Sehunda, Gudaa (Substitutes.) (Adhogudaa of Ayurvedic medicine and Bana- muuli of folk medicine have been equated with Euphorbia acaulis Rox.)Unani: ThuuharFolk: Thor, Surai.
Action: Latex—cathartic, anthelmintic.The latex yield euphol, cycloeu- calenol, an inseparable mixture of four tetra-and four tri-esters of macrocyclic diterpene ingenol, octacosanol, tetra- cosanol, beta-sitosterol, stigmasterol, alpha-amyrin and campesterol. The plant gave ingenol.The latex is a valuable source of in- genol esters. Ingol is a macrocyclic diterpene and is of therapeutic interest due to its antileukemic properties. Fractionation of the latex gave ingol- 12-acetate and 8-tigloyl-12-acetate. The acylation of ingol-12-acetate yielded derivatives which inhibit the growth of the basophilic leukaemia cells in rats.... euphorbia royleana
Habitat: Throughout India. Grows wild in forests and hills. Often found around subterranean water streams.English: Cluster Fig, Country Fig.Ayurvedic: Udumbara, Sadaaphala, Hema-daudhaka, Jantuphala, Yagyaanga.Unani: Anjir-e-Aadam, Anjir-e- Ahmak, Gular.Siddha/Tamil: Atthi.
Action: Astringent and antiseptic; used in threatened abortions, menorrhagia, leucorrhoea, urinary disorders, skin diseases, swellings, boils, haemorrhages. Unripe fruits—astringent, carminative, digestive, stomachic; used in diarrhoea, dyspepsia, dysentery, menorrhagia and haemorrhages. Ripe fruits—antiemetic, alsoused in haemoptysis. Root and fruit—hypoglycaemic. Bark— decoction is used in skin diseases, inflammations, boils and ulcers.The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India recommends the use of the bark in lipid disorders and obesity.Leaves and fruit contain gluacol. The fruit also contains beta-sitosterol, lupeol acetate, friedelin, higher hydrocarbons and other phytosterols.Petroleum ether extract of the stem bark significantly reduced blood sugar level of rats with streptozotocin- induced diabetes. It completely inhibited glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase from rat liver. Extracts of fruit and latex did not show any significant effect on blood sugar level of diabetic rats, they inhibited only glucose-6- phosphate but not arginase from rat liver.An alcoholic extract of the bark has been found to be very effective in reducing blood sugar in alloxan-induced diabetic albino rats. It helped in improving the damaged beta cells of islets of Langerhans, thus exerting permanent blood sugar lowering effect.The ethanolic extract of seeds also showed hypoglycaemic activity.Lignin, the main fiber constituent of the fruit, prevented the rise in serum cholesterol levels of some extent. Fresh whole fruits, used as a source of dietary fibre, exhibited more hypoc- holesterolemic activity than pure cellulose.Dosage: Bark—20-30 g for decoction. (API Vol. I.)... ficus racemosa
Habitat: Sub-Himalayan tracts, West Bengal, Central and South India; planted throughout India as an avenue tree.English: Peepal, Bot-tree.Ayurvedic: Ashvattha, Bodhidru, Bodhivrkisha, Sebya, Chalapa- tra, Gajabhaksha, Kshiradruma, Peeppal.Unani: Peepal.Siddha/Tamil: Arasu, Ashvatham.
Action: Bark—astringent, antiseptic, alterative, laxative, haemostatic, vaginal disinfectant (used in diabetes, diarrhoea, leucorrhoea, menorrhagia, nervous disorders; also in skin diseases.) Applied externally on unhealthy ulcers and wounds. Leaves and twigs— laxative.The bark contains beta-sitosteryl-D- glucoside. Vitamin K, n-octacosanol, methyl oleanolate, lanosterol, stigmas- terol, lupen-3-one are reported from the stem bark.A hypoglycaemic response is reported for beta-sitosterol-D-glucoside obtained from the bark.Aerial roots are given to women, also used in prescriptions, for inducing conception. The dried fruits are used as a uterine tonic.The fruits contain 4.9% protein having the essential amino acids, isoleu- cine and phenylalanine. The chloroform extract of fruits exhibited anti- tumour and antibacterial activities in bioassays.Various plant parts are included in formulations used for menorrha- gia, metrorrhagia, blood dysentery, bleeding piles, haematuria and haemorrhages.Dosage: Bark, fruit—50-100 ml decoction. (CCRAS.)... ficus religiosa
Habitat: Western temperate Himalaya from Kashmir to Kumaon at 2,700-4,35 m.Ayurvedic: Kshira-Kaakoli, Viraa, Kaayasthikaa, Vaaysoli.
Action: Used in the treatment of asthma, bronchitis and tuberculosis. (Withania somnifera is a substitute for Kaakoli and Kshira-Kaakoli.)The bulbs gave alkaloids—peimine, peimisine, peimiphine, perminine, permidine and permitidine. The bulbs also gave neutral compounds—prope- imin and a sterol. The plant gave kash- mirine.Dosage: Bulb—3-6 g powder. (CCRAS.)... fritillaria roylei
Habitat: Central India and Deccan Peninsula.Ayurvedic: Naadihingu (related species), Jantuka.Unani: Dikaamaali.Siddha/Tamil: Kambil, Kumbai, Dikkamalli.
Action: Gum—antimicrobial, anthelmintic; used in skin diseases. Gum gave flavonoids—gardenins, wagonin derivatives, de-Me- tangeretin, nevadensin, hexacosyl- p-coumarate. See G. gummifera.... gardenia resinifera
Gastro-oesophageal disease should be diagnosed in those patients who are at risk of physical complications from the re?ux. Diagnosis is usually based on the symptoms present or by monitoring the production of acid using a pH probe inserted into the oesophagus through the mouth, since lesions are not usually visible on ENDOSCOPY. Severe heartburn, caused by the lining of the oesophagus being damaged by acid and PEPSIN from the stomach, is commonly confused with DYSPEPSIA. Treatment should start with graded doses of one of the PROTON PUMP INHIBITORS; if this is not e?ective after several months, surgery to remedy the re?ux may be required, but the effects are not easily predictable.... gastro-oesophageal reflux
Habitat: Western Himalayas from Kashmir to Garhwal at 2,0002,700 m.English: Herb-Robert Geranium.
Action: Haemostatic, astringent, antidiarrhoeic, styptic, antidiabetic.The herb has a disagreeable odour and a bitter, saline and astringent taste. Applied externally as a resolvent to tumours.In Western herbal, the herb is used for diarrhoea, to improve functioning of liver and gallbladder and to prevent the formation of calculi.The herb contains several flavonoids including rutin. A ethanolic extract can inhibit the growth of E. coli, P. aeruginosa and S. aureus.... geranium robertianum
Habitat: Western Peninsula, from Konkan southwards to Kerala.Ayurvedic: Vana-mallikaa.Siddha/Tamil: Erumaimullai, Kattumalligei, Uyyakondan.
Action: Leaf—used in eczema.... jasminum rottlerianum
Habitat: Northeastern parts of India and in Deccan Peninsula.Siddha/Tamil: Kodaittani.Folk: Narakyaa-ood (Maharashtra, Indian bazar).
Action: Blood-purifier in itch and cutaneous eruptions; mixed with lemon juice, applied externally.The wood contains a skatole and silica (0.86-1.2%).Family: Aizoaceae.
Habitat: Drier parts of Northern and Western India and Deccan Peninsula.Ayurvedic: Elavaaluka (var.). (Prunus cerasus Linn., Rosaceae, is the accepted source of Elavaaluka.)Folk: Baalu-ka-saag, Morang, Sareli.
Action: Anthelmintic. Fresh herb is used for taenia.The plant contains triacontane, do- triacontane, myristone, sugars, and flavonoids.... gironniera reticulata
Action: Used in age-sustaining and invigorating tonics.... lipasis rostrata
Habitat: Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu.Ayurvedic: Waarasa.Siddha/Tamil: Barokalagoru.Folk: Pullunga, Paatang (Maharashtra).
Action: Tar extracted from wood— used in skin diseases. Leaf juice— applied externally on toe sores and in chilblain.The flowers gave hentriacontane and allantoin; the leaves contain ursolic acid and sitosterol. The seeds contain a saponin (rhamnoside), lupeol, beta- sitosterol, stigmasterol and cubulin. The essential oil from flowers exhibits antimicrobial activity.... heterophragma roxburghii
Habitat: Native of China; grown in gardens throughout India.English: Rose-of-China, Shoe- flower, Chinese Hibiscus.Ayurvedic: Japaa, Javaa, Odrapush- pa, Rudrapushpa, Arunaa.Unani: Gul-e-Gurhal.Siddha/Tamil: Semparuthi.
Action: Flower—used in impo- tency, bronchial catarrh. Flower and bark—emmenagogue. Leaf— stimulates expulsion of placenta after childbirth; laxative, anodyne. Flower and root—used in menorrhagia.The plant contains the cyclopro- panoids, methyl sterculate, methyl- 2-hydroxysterculate, 2-hydroxystercu- late, malvalate and beta-sitosterol.The major anthocyanin in the flower is cyanidin 3-sophoroside. The flower nectar is rich in amino acids, mainly aspartic acid and asparagin. During pollination, the amino acid concentration increases substantially.Flower powder exhibited anti-inflammatory activity in male albino rats with carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema. The aqueous extract of the plant showed antitumour activity against sarcoma 180 ascites.An aqueous extract of flowers reduced the duration of oestrus cycle in experimental albino rabbits. The alcoholic extract of flowers showed antiimplantation activity. The benzene extract of flowers, on oral administration, terminated pregnancy in experimental animals.Flower buds are used in the treatment of vaginal and uterine discharges.Oral administration of flower extract to rats affected spermatogenesis and endocrine function of testis.In diabetic patients, a flower bud is given daily up to 10 days or until the level of blood sugar is reduced to tolerable limits.The white-flowered var. of Japan (cultivated all over India in garden) is equated with Hibiscus syriacus Linn. (Rose of Sharon, Shrubby Althaea). The white flower is an oriental drug used as demulcent and antidiarrhoeal. The bud yields mucilage which consists mainly of partially acetylated acidic polysaccharides. The aqueous extract of the petals causes vasorelaxation of the isolated rat arota via both endo- thelium-dependent and -independent mechanisms. The petals contain anthocyanin pigments.The cortex and bark exhibit antifun- gal acitivity.The bark gave canthin-6-one and a fatty acid fraction consisting of lauric, myristic and palmitic acids.Dosage: Flower—10-20 g paste. (CCRAS.)... hibiscus rosa-sinensis
Habitat: Western and Eastern Himalayas, Simla and Kumaon, hills of Assam.Ayurvedic: Muurvaa (var.).Folk: Maruaa-bel. Khaarchu (Garhwal).M. hamiltonii Wight (sub-Himalayan tract and adjacent plains of Ut- tar Pradesh and Bihar) has also been equated with a Muurvaa var. It is known as Moran-adaa in folk medicine.... marsdenia roylei
Habitat: North-west Himalayas at 2,350-5,000 m.English: Seabuckthorn, Sand Thorn.Folk: Dhurchuk, Chumaa, Tarwaa (Uttar Pradesh), Sirmaa (Punjab, Ladakh).
Action: Fruit—astringent, anti- diarrhoeal, stomachic, antitussive, antihaemorrhagic.Sea Buckthorn preparations are used internally for stomach ulcer, duodenal ulcer and other illnesses of the alimentary organs; externally in cases of burns, bedsores and other skin complications induced by the treatment with X-rays and other radiations.The berries contain polyphenols, 3,4-dihydroxy benzoic acid and p- coumaric acid. They are an important source of vitamins for people living in cold, long winter regions; contain high concentration of vitamin A (carotene 30-40 mg), B1, B2, B6, C (50-600 mg) and E (160 mg/100 g).The plant is an effective antioxidant and shows protective effect on smooth muscles of rabbits in vitro. The methanolic extract of the berry showed scavenging activity on chemically generated superoxide radicals.The leaves contain flavonoids, iso- rhamnetin and astragalin; the bark gave serotonin.... hippophae rhamnoides
Habitat: Eastern, Central and Peninsular India, up to 700 m.Ayurvedic: Paashaana-bheda (substitute), Kshudra Paashaana- bheda.Siddha/Tamil: Kattu Alari.
Action: Root—diuretic, spasmolytic, antilithic. Used for urinary discharges. Leaf and stem— depurative. Leaf and fruit—used in skin diseases.The roots gave alpha-spinasteryl acetate. The fatty acid from the fat of roots gave myristic, palmitic, stearic and oleic acids.... homonoia riparia
The improvement in the infant mortality rate has occurred mainly in the period from the second month of life. There has been much less improvement in the neonatal mortality rate – that is, the number of infants dying during the ?rst four weeks of life, expressed as a proportion of every 1,000 live births. During the ?rst week of life the main causes of death are asphyxia, prematurity, birth injuries and congenital abnormalities. After the ?rst week the main cause of death is infection.
Social conditions also play an important role in infant mortality. In England and Wales the infant mortality rate in 1930–32 was: Social Class I (professional), 32·7; Social Class III (skilled workers), 57·6; Social Class V (unskilled workers), 77·1. Many factors come into play in producing these social variations, but overcrowding is undoubtedly one of the most important.
1838–9 146 1950–52 30 1851–60 154 1960–62 22 1900–02 142 1970–72 18 1910–12 110 1980–82 12 1920–22 82 1990–92 7 1930–32 67 1996 6·2 1940–42 59 1999 5.8 2000 5.6
It is thus evident that for a reduction of the infant mortality rate to the minimum ?gure, the following conditions must be met. Mothers and potential mothers must be housed adequately in healthy surroundings, particularly with regard to safe water supplies and sewage disposal. The pregnant and nursing mother must be ensured an adequate diet. E?ective antenatal supervision must be available to every mother, as well as skilled supervision during labour (see PREGNANCY AND LABOUR). The newborn infant must be adequately nursed and fed and mothers encouraged to breast feed. Environmental and public-health measures must be taken to ensure adequate housing, a clean milk supply and full availability of medical care including such protective measures as IMMUNISATION against diphtheria, measles, poliomyelitis and whooping-cough. (See also PERINATAL MORTALITY.)... infant mortality rate (imr)
Habitat: Temperate and Alpine Himalayas from Chitral to Nepal at 1,500-4,200 m.English: Elecampane.Ayurvedic: Pushkaramuula, Pushkara, Paushkara, Padmapatra, Kaashmira, Kushtha-bheda.
Action: Antispasmodic, stomachic, antihistaminic, expectorant, anticatarrhal. Used for asthma, chronic bronchitis and pulmonary disorders.Key application: Inula helenium— as expectorant. (The British Herbal Pharmacopoeia.)Roots are used in Kashmir as adulterant of Saussurea lappa.The root contains a volatile oil, about 1-4%; major constituents being in- ulin (10.0) and sesquiterpene lactones, mainly alantolactone, isoalantolactone and their dihydro derivatives. Alan- tolactone and others in the mixture known as helenalin (sesquiterpene lactones) are toxic constituents of the root.Alantolactone is anti-inflammatory in animals and has been shown to stimulate the immune system. It is also hypotensive and anthelmintic in animals; antibacterial and antifungal in vitro It irritates mucous membranes. It is used as an anthelmintic in Europe and UK.Plant extract showed potent antispasmodic effect against bronchial spasm induced by histamine and various plant pollens.The root, when combined with Commiphora mukul gum-resin, acts as a hypolipidaemic agent, exhibits beta- blocking activity and beneficial effect in myocardial ischaemia.The roots also exhibit sedative and blood pressure lowering activity.The European species is equated with Inula helenium Linn.Dosage: Root—1-3 g powder. (API Vol. IV.)... inula racemosa
Habitat: In damp places in upper Gangetic plains; Bihar, Bengal, Peninsular India.Ayurvedic: Aakhuparni, Aakhu- parnika, Muusaakarni, Aakhukarni. Undurukarnikaa. (Also equated with Dravanti.)Siddha/Tamil: Yelikkaadhukeerai, Perettaikkirai.
Action: Deobstruent, diuretic, alterative. Used for rheumatic affections, neuralgia, headache, skin diseases and urinary affections.Evolvulus nummularis Linn. (Con- volvulaceae) is also known as Muusa- akarni (Muusaakaani) and is used for cutaneous affections.... ipomoea reniformis
Habitat: Native to Iran; now cultivated in Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh., Khasi Hills and the hills of Uttar Pradesh.Ayurvedic: Akshoda, Akshoda- ka, Akshota, Shailbhava, Pilu, Karparaal, Vrantphala.Unani: Akhrot.Siddha/Tamil: Akrottu.
Action: Leaves and bark— alterative, laxative, antiseptic, mild hypoglycaemic, anti-inflammatory, antiscrofula, detergent. An infusion of leaves and bark is used for herpes, eczema and other cutaneous affections; externally to skin eruptions and ulcers. Volatile oil— antifungal, antimicrobial.Key application (leaf) ? In mild, superficial inflammation of the skin and excessive perspiration of hands and feet. (German Commission E.). When English Walnuts (Juglans regia) are added to low fat diet, total cholesterol may be decreased by 412% and LDL by 8-16%. (Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, 2007.)Walnut hull preparations are used for skin diseases and abscesses.Walnut is eaten as a dry fruit. Because of its resemblance to the brain, it was thought, according to the "doctrine of signatures", to be a good brain tonic. Walnuts are also eaten to lower the cholesterol levels.From the volatile oil of the leaves terpenoid substances (monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, diterpene and triter- pene derivatives) and eugenol have been isolated. Fatty acids, including geranic acid; alpha-and beta-pinene, 1,8,cincole, limonene, beta-eudesmol and juglone are also important constituents of the volatile oil.The leaves contain napthoquinones, mainly juglone. The root bark gave 3, 3',-bis-juglone and oligomeric ju- glones. Unripe fruit husk also gave napthoquinones.The kernels of Indian walnuts contain 15.6% protein, 11% carbohydrates, 1.8% mineral matter (sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, copper, phosphorus, sulphur and chorine). Iodine (2.8 mcg/100 g), arsenic, zinc, cobalt and manganese are also reported. Kernels are also rich in vitamins of the B group, vitamin A (30 IU/100 g), and ascorbic acid (3 mg/100 g).The juice of unripe fruits showed significant thyroid hormone enhancing activity (prolonged use of such extract may cause serious side effect).White Walnut, Lemon Walnut, Butternut, Oilnut of the USA is equated with Juglans cineraria L. The inner bark gave napthoquinones, including juglone, juglandin, juglandic acid, tannins and an essential oil.Butternut is used as a dermatologi- cal and antihaemorrhoidal agent. Ju- glone exhibits antimicrobial, antipara- sitic and antineoplastic activities.Dosage: Dried cotyledons—10-25 g (API, Vol. II.)... juglans regia
Habitat: Throughout India in wet or humid shaded areas.Ayurvedic: Bhuumi-champaka, Bhuu-champaka, Hallakam.Siddha/Tamil: Karunkuvalai.Folk: Bhui-champaa.
Action: Tuber—antitumour. Used for swellings (removes blood clot), mumps and wounds.Tubers gave crotepoxide and beta- sitosterol. The oil contained chavicol, cineole.... kaempferia rotunda
Habitat: Costal forests of eastern and western Peninsulas, the Sunderbans (West Bengal).Siddha/Tamil: Thuvar kandan.Folk: Rasunia (Orissa), Guria (Bengal).
Action: Bark—used with ginger or long pepper and rose water for diabetes (aqueous or alcoholic extracts of the bark did not exhibit any effect on the blood sugar of normal or alloxan-diabetic rabbits).The Bark contains 17.3% tannin and 13.5% non-tans. Novel proanthocyani- din dimers and trimers—all containing a phenylpropionoid substituent in the upper flavan unit, along with pro- pelargonidin dimers and procyanidin trimers of common types, have been isolated from the bark.... kandelia rheedii
Habitat: All over India; also grown as a hedge plant.Ayurvedic: Kaamboji.Folk: Panjuli.
Action: Plant—spasmolytic, hypotensive, antiviral. Fruit— astringent, used in inflammations. Leaves—astringent, antidiarrhoeal, diuretic. Root bark—astringent, attenuant, diuretic.The leaves contain beta-sitosterol, friedelin and its derivatives, glochi- donol and betulinic acid. Betulin, glochidonol, friedelin, octacosanol, taraxeryl acetate, taraxerone and beta- sitosterol are obtained from the root.... kirganelia reticulata
Habitat: Many parts of India, as a common weed.Folk: Undir-chaa-kaan (Maharashtra).
Action: Diuretic, slightly aperient. Used as a diuretic in calculous affections, also for chronic obstruction of liver and bowels.A smaller var., found in western Ut- tar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Saurashtra and the Deccan Penninsula, is equated with L. remotiflora DC.... lactuca runcinata
Habitat: Tropical Himalaya, and Assam, Western and Eastern Ghats, up to 1,000 m.English: Pride of India, Queen's Flowers, Queen Crape Myrtle.Siddha/Tamil: Kadalai, Pumaruttu.Folk: Jaarul. Kramuk and Arjun are confusing synonyms.
Action: Seed—narcotic. Root— astringent, stimulant, febrifuge. Fruit—used for aphthae of the mouth. Leaves—purgative, diuretic, deobstruent. Bark—an infusion is given in diarrhoea and abdominal pain.A decoction of the leaves, also of dried fruits, is used like tea for diabetes mellitus in Philippines. Mature leaves and fruits, in fresh condition, exhibit hypoglycaemic activity experimentally The potency decreases on storing the material.The leaf extract, when administered as powder and as tannin-free extract, showed hypoglycaemic activity in mice. Amino acids constitute the insulin-like principle. The plant contains triterpenoids, colocolic acid and maslinic acid. Colocolic acid is known to possess hypoglycaemic activity.Leaves contain lageracetal and sitos- terol. Ellagitannins have been isolated from fruits and leaves.... lagerstroemia flos-reginae
Habitat: Plain and hills of Kumaon and Punjab, extending westwards to Afghanistan. Imported into India from Persia.Unani: Baalango, Tukhm-e- Baalango.Folk: Tuut-malangaa.
Action: Seed—cooling, diuretic, sedative; given internally as a soothing agent during urinary troubles, also for cough. A poultice of seeds is applied to abscesses, boils and inflammations. (Seeds are not to be used as a substitute for Plantago sp.)Seeds contain linoleic, oleic, palmitic and stearic acids; beta-sitosterol. Gum contains L-arabinose, D-galac- tose, L-rhamnose, pentosans, protein, uronic anhydride. Amino acids are also found in the plant.... lallemantia royleana
Habitat: Sub-Himalayan tracts of Punjab and Uttar Pradesh and Deccan Peninsula up to an altitude of 900 m.Ayurvedic: Jivanti; Jivaniya, Jiva- pushpa, Hemavati, Jivana. Shaaka- shreshtha, Payaswini, Maangalya, Madhusravaa. (Guduuchi, Medaa, Kaakoli and Vrkshaadani are also known as Jivanti.) (Haimavati is equated with Orris Root and Hemapushpa with Sarca asoca flower.)Siddha/Tamil: Keerippaalai.Folk: Dodishaak (Gujarat).
Action: Plant—stimulant and restorative. Improves eyesight. Found useful in the treatment of habitual abortion. Leaves and roots used in skin diseases.The herb contains «-triacontane, cetyl alcohol, beta-sitosterol, beta- amyrin acetate, lupanol 3-O-digluco- side and lepitidin glycoside.Stigmasterol and lipoid fraction of the plant exhibited estrogen mimetic effects.Alcoholic extract of roots and leaves show antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.Intravenous administration of aqueous extract of stems has a pronounced and hypotensive action in anaesthetized dogs.Dosage: Root—3-6 g powder. (CCRAS.)... leptadenia reticulata
Habitat: Simla, Kumaon and plains of North India.English: Round-leaved Mallow, Drawf Mallow, Cheese Cake Flower.Ayurvedic: Suvarchalaa.Unani: Khubhaazi, Gul-Khair.
Action: Leaves—demulcent, emollient; used in glycosuria, stomach disorders and as emmenagogue; used as poultice for maturing abscesses. Seeds—demulcent; prescribed in bronchitis, cough, inflammation of the bladder and haemorrhoids.Marshmallow (Althaea officinalis) is a different herb.... malva rotundifolia
Habitat: Throughout the warmer parts of India.English: Indian Red Water-lily.Ayurvedic: Kumuda, utpala (red-flowered var.).Siddha/Tamil: Alli-tamarai, Vellam- bal.
Action: Flower—astringent, cardiac tonic; used in palpitation of heart. Rhizomes—used for dysentery and dyspepsia.... nymphaea rubra
In developed countries ORT is useful in treating gastroenteritis. There are a number of proprietary preparations, often dispensed as ?avoured sachets, including Dioralyte® and Rehydrate®.... oral rehydration therapy (ort)
Habitat: The Himalayas, Khasi hills and the Western Ghats at altitudes of 1,500-3,000 m.English: Royal Fern.
Action: Fern—antispasmodic, astringent, an aqueous extract is administered for intestinal gripe; used externally in rheumatism; also prescribed in muscular debility Fonds enter into diuretic drinks used for treating body swellings. Root—mucilaginous, styptic, stimulant.The rhizomes contain phenolic, gallic, caffeic, p-coumaric, vanillic, salicylic, p-hydroxybenzoic and ferulic acids and catechol tannins (2.8%) which are responsible for fern's astringent activity. Biological activity of these tannins corresponds to that of 10% tannic acid.... osmunda regalis
Habitat: Extensively cultivated all over India.English: Greengram, Golden Gram.Ayurvedic: Mudga, Mungalya.Unani: Moong.Siddha/Tamil: Pattishai-payaru.
Action: Used as a pulse. Soup is given as a diet to patients of enlarged liver and spleen, and after recovery from acute illness. A poultice of it is used for checking secretion of milk and reducing distention of the mammary glands.... phaseolus radiatus
Habitat: The Western and Eastern Himalayas.English: Long-leaved Pine, Three- leaved Pine, Chir Pine.Ayurvedic: Sarala, Pita-vriksha, Surabhidaaruka, Dhuupavriksha, Namasu. Oleo-resin—Shriveshtaka, Ghandh-Birojaa.Unani: Sanobar-ul-Hindi. Oleoresin—Gandh-Bihrojaa, Qinn, Berzad.Siddha/Tamil: Simaidevadaru.
Action: Needle, needle oil— decongestant, expectorant, antiseptic. Oil—used in cough and cold remedies, particularly inhalations and in rubefacients for rheumatism and muscle stiffness. Resin— expectorant, antiseptic, antipruritic.The essential oil from oleoresin contains chiefly alpha-and beta-pinene; carene and longifoline.Pinus pinaster Ait (Cluster Pine, Maritime Pine) has been successfully grown in Kulu, Manali and Rahini. German Commission E recognized the efficacy of the needle-oil in catarrhal diseases of the upper and lower respiratory tract (internally, as well as externally).Dosage: Heartwood, root—1-3 g powder. (API, Vol. III.)... pinus roxburghii
Habitat: Moist, loamy soil. Indigenous to U.S.AFeatures ? Stem two to three feet high, contains milky juice. Root, wrinkled longitudinally, light brown outer surface, whitish internally ; fracture tough, irregular. Rootstock knotty, faintly ringed. Acrid taste.Part used ? Root.
Action: Diaphoretic, expectorant, antispasmodic.Chest complaints; acts directly on the lungs, and stimulates sweat glands. Relaxes capillaries, relieving strain on heart and lungs. Reduces pain and assists breathing in pleurisy. Infusion of 1 ounce of the powdered root with 1 pint of boiling water is taken in wineglass doses, to which a teaspoonful of composition powder (Myrica compound) may be added with advantage.... pleurisy root
Habitat: Native to Mexico; grown throughout India.English: Red Jasmine.Ayurvedic: Kshira Champaka (red-flowered var.).
Action: Root bark—used in blennorrhagia. Flower—bechic (used in pectoral syrups). Bark— a decoction is used in venereal diseases and leprosy.The bark contains cytotoxic iridoids (including fulvoplumierin which also inhibits the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis) and the lignin, lirioden- drin.The plant contains the triterpene rubrinol which showed antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa (a causative agent responsible for infecting burns, wounds, urinary tract and infection in cystic fibrosis) and Pseudomonas pseu- domallei (which causes melioidosis or pseudoglandess).The herb contains cardiac glycosides which have a narrow-margin of safety. (Sharon M. Herr.)... plumeria rubra
Habitat: U.S.A. Cultivated on a sm.ill scale in England for medicinal purposes.Features ? The root is obtainable in longitudinally split pieces or in transverse slices. Ringed, brownish-grey externally, hard and whitish inside; fibrous fracture. Berries purplish-black, nearly globular, ten carpels, each containing one lens-shaped seed.Part used ? Root, berries.
Action: Alterative, cathartic.Chronic rheumatism and skin diseases. Of some use in dyspepsia. Action of root stronger than berries. For rheumatism the root is often compounded with Black Cohosh and Wintergreen.Preparation and dosage vary considerably with the condition of the root. Thurston, Hammer and other physio-medical practitioners recommend that only the green root should be used, owing to, rapid deterioration. These herbalists use the fresh root largely in hardening of the liver and reduced biliary flow.... poke root
Synonym: Drypetes roxburghii (Wall.) Hurusawa.Family: Euphoriaceae.
Habitat: Throughout tropical India, wild and cultivated as an avenue tree.English: Child-life tree, Indian Amulet Plant, Spurious Wild Olive.Ayurvedic: Putranjiva, Putrajivaka, Putrajiva, Yashtipushpa, Arth- saadhanaSiddha/Tamil: Karupali Garbhadaa and Garbhakaraa are misleading synonyms.Folk: Jiyaapotaa.
Action: Fruit—powered (deseeded) fruits are used against cough, cold and sprue. Rosaries of hard stones are used for protecting children from infections. (Due to misleading nomenclature, the "conception-promoting" property has been attributed to the drug in folk medicine. Its use is possible in vaginal infections and genitourinary diseases, or skin eruptions during pre-conception stage.)The seed kernel on steam distillation yield 0.5% of a sharp-smelling essential oil of the mustard oil type. The oil contains isopropyl and 2-butyl isothio- cyanates as the main constituents and 2-methyl-butyl isothiocyanate as a minor component. The iso-thiocyanates are produced on enzymic hydrolysis of glycosidic progenitors present in the kernels, viz. glucoputranjivin, gluco- cochlearin and glucojiaputin respectively. An additional glucoside, gluco- cleomin has been identified in the seed kernel, it affords a non-volatile mustard oil, cleomin. A glycosidic pattern similar to that in the seed is reported in the shoots and roots.The fruit pulp contains a large proportion of mannitol and small quantities of saponin glucosides and alkaloids.The seed coat gave putranjivoside, putranoside A, B, C and D, beta- sitosterol and tis beta-D-glucoside.The leaves gave amentoflavone and its derivatives, beta-amyrin and its palmite, polyphenols, putranjiva sa- ponin A,B,C, and D and stigmasterol.The bark contains friedelin, friede- lanol, friedelanone, friedelan-3,7-di- one (putranjivadione), 3-alpha-hydro- xy friedelan- 7-one (roxburgholone), carboxylic acid, putric acid, putran- jivic acid.The essential oil from leaves showed mild antifungal activity against Rhizoctonia solani.... putranjiva roxburghii
Habitat: North-Western and eastern Himalaya at altitudes of 2,700-3,000 m. and in Khasi and Jaintia hills up to 1,500 m.
Action: Plant—astringent and antilithic. Used for healing wounds. A decoction of the plant is prescribed against profuse menses, bloody stools, haemorrhages and ulcers in urinary passages. The whole herb is used in traditional chinese medicine for the treatment of arthritis.The plant contains ursolic acid, chi- maphilin, hyperin, quercetin, myri- cetin and gallic acid. Chimaphilin and ursolic acid inhibit carrageenan- induced oedema in rat paw. Other constituents act as protective antioxi- dants.... pyrola rotundifolia
Rachael, Racheal, Rachelanne, Rachelce, Rachele, Racheli, Rachell, Rachelle, Rachil, Raechel, Raechell, Raychel, Raychelle, Rashell, Rashelle, Raychel, Rechell, Rakel... rachel
Radeya, Radhiya, Radhiyah, Radhia, Radhiah, Radhea, Radheah... radeyah
Habitat: Gujarat, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu.English: Padri tree.Siddha/Tamil: Vedanguruni, Pathiri.Folk: Paadiri. Kharsing, Kadashing, Bairsinge (Maharashtra).
Action: Plant—antiseptic. Resin— used for the treatment of skin diseases. Rootbark—bitter, astringent; used as substitute for Stereospermumpersonatum (Hassk.) D. Chatterjee and S. suaveolens DC. (Trumpet-Flower, Yellow Snake tree, also known as Padri).The leaves gave flavonoids, dinatin and its glycoside. Roots yielded O- acetyl oleanolic acid, stigmasterol and a red pigment, radermachol.... radermachera xylocarpa
Radilla, Radinka, Radmila, Redmilla, Radilu... radmilla
Raedell, Raedine, Raelaine, Raelani, Raelee, Raeleen, Raelena, Raelene, Raelina, Raella, Raelyn, Raelynn, Raelynne, Raenisha, Ray, Raye, Rayette, Raylene, Raylina, Rayma, Raynelle, Rayona, Rayla, Raynesha, Raynisha, Raylyn, Raylynn, Raelin... rae
Raekah, Rayka, Raika, Raykah, Raikah... raeka
Rafigah, Rafeega, Rafeegah, Rafyga, Rafygah... rafiga
Ragnal, Ragnalle, Ragnalla, Ragnale, Ragnala, Ragnallia, Ragnallea... ragnall
Ragnarah, Ragnarra, Ragnaria, Ragnarea, Ragnari, Ragnarie, Ragnary, Ragnarey, Ragnaree... ragnara
Ragnfride, Ragnfrida, Ragna, Ragnfryd, Ragnfryde, Ragnfryda, Ragni, Ragnie, Ragny, Ragney, Ragnee, Ragnea... ragnfrid
Ragnild, Ragnhilda, Ragnhilde, Ragnilda, Ranillda, Renild, Renilda, Renilde, Reynilda, Reynilde, Ragnilde... ragnhild
Raenah, Raene, Rainah, Raine, Rainee, Rainey, Rainelle, Rainy, Reina, Reinella, Reinelle, Reinette, Reyna, Reynalda, Reynelle, Reyney, Reine, Ranee, Reia... raina
Raileigh, Railey, Raley, Rawleigh, Rawley, Raly, Rali, Ralie, Ralee, Rawli, Rawlie, Rawlee, Rawly... raleigh
Ramirah, Rameera, Rameerah, Rameira, Ramiera, Ramyrah, Ramyra, Rameirah, Ramierah, Rameara, Ramearah... ramira
Ramyah, Ramiya, Ramiyah, Ramia, Ramiah... ramya
Ranah, Ra’naa, Rand, Raniyah, Ranarauna, Ranaraunaa, Raunaa... rana
Ranalt, Rathnait, Ranaite, Rathnaite, Ranalta... ranait
Randa, Randee, Randelle, Randene, Randie, Randy, Randey, Randilyn, Randilynn, Randilynne... randi
Habitat: Assam, Naga and Khasi Hills, Travancore and the Andamans.English: Common Emetic Nut.Ayurvedic: Madana, Chhardana, Pindi, Shalayaka, Vishapushpaka.Unani: Mainphal, Jauz-ul-Qai.Siddha/Tamil: Marukkaaraikai, Madkarai.Folk: Mainphal.
Action: Fruit—nervine, calmative, antispasmodic, emetic, anthelmintic, abortifacient. Used as a substitute for ipecacuanha.The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia ofIn- dia recommends the dried fruit in chlorosis, common cold, rhinitis and obstinate skin diseases.The activity of the drug is attributed to the presence of saponins which occur to the extent of 2-3% in fresh fruits and about 10% in dried whole fruit. The saponins are concentrated mostly in the pulp. A mixture of two saponins, viz. randialic or neutral saponin and randialic acid or acid saponin has been isolated from the pulp. On complete hydrolysis both the saponins yield oleanolic acid as sapogenin. Ursosaponin, isolated from the ethanolic extract of the dried whole fruit, gave ursolic acid and glucose. Randianin, isolated from the fruit, gave a haemolytic triterpe- noid saponin.In experimental animals, the drug caused haemolysis both in vitro and in vivo. Crude saponin fraction showed haemolytic, molluscidal and immuno- stimulating activities.Oleanolic acid 3-glucoside, isolated from the seed, exhibited anti-arthritic activity in exudative and proliferative phases of inflammation in rats.Dosage: Fruit—0.5-1.0 g powder for decoction, 3-6 g for induction vomiting. (API, Vol. I.)... randia dumetorum
Habitat: Southern, Central and Eastern India, including Assam and Sikkim.Ayurvedic: Pindaalu, Pinditaka.Siddha/Tamil: Wagatta, Perunkarai.Folk: Mainphal, Pindaar, Pendraa, Pendhar.
Action: Unripe fruit—astringent. Root—diuretic; used for biliousness, diarrhoea and dysenteryUnripe fruits are roasted and used as a remedy for dysentery and diarrhoea. The root, boiled in purified butter, is also prescribed for dysentery and diarrhoea.The fruits, like those of Randia spinosa, contain a toxic saponin of oleanolic acid. They also contain leu- cocyanidin and mannitol. The flowers yield an essential oil similar to Gardenia oil.... randia uliginosa
Rania, Ranice, Ranique, Ranit, Ranica, Ranita, Ranite, Ranith, Ranitta, Raanee, Rane, Ranie... rani
Racquel, Racquell, Raquela, Raquelle, Roquel, Roquela, Rakel, Rakell... raquel
Habitat: The Western Himalayas from Kashmir to Kumaon.English: Corn Buttercup.Folk: Chambul (Punjab). Gager- kanda (Kashmir).
Action: Used in intermittent fevers, asthma and gout.The active principle of the herb is protoanemonin (0.54%) and its glyco- sidic precursor, ranunculin. The herb yields hydrocyanic acid in very small amounts.The leaves contain the antifungal lactone protoanemonin which inhibited growth of Epidermophyton floccosum and the yeast Rhodotorula glutinis.... ranunculus arvensis
Habitat: The plains of northern India, and the warm valleys of the Himalayas from Kashmir to Assam.English: Blister Buttercup, Celery- leaved Crowfoot.Ayurvedic: Kaandira, Kaandakatu- ka, Naasaa-samvedana, Toyavalli, Sukaandaka.Folk: Jal-dhaniyaa.
Action: Fresh Plant—highly acrid, rubefacient, vesicant and toxic; causes inflammation of the digestive tract. Used after drying or as a homoeopathic medicine for skin diseases.The plant contains anemonin, pro- toanemonin, ranunculine, serotonin and other tryptamine derivatives.Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) is a potent vaso-constrictor. Pro- toanemonin possesses strong antibacterial, antiviral, cytopathogenic and vermicidal properties, and is effective against both Gram-positive and Gramnegative bacteria, similar to penicillic acid. It inhibits the growth of E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida al- bicans. It inactivates in vitro diptheria toxin.Dosage: Whole plant—1-3 g powder. (CCRAS.)... ranunculus sceleratus
Habitat: Kashmir to Sikkim.English: Water Crowfoot, Water Fennel.Ayurvedic: Kaandira (var.).Folk: Tohlab (Kashmir).
Action: Herb—used in intermittent fevers, rheumatism and asthma.Ranunculus muricatus Linn. (Punjab and Kashmir) is used in intermittent fevers, gout and asthma in Europe. The herb is rubefacient, vesicant and narcotic.... ranunculus trichophyllus
Rasheda, Rasheeda, Rasheedah, Rasheida, Rashidah, Rashyda, Rachida, Raashida, Raashidah... rashida
Habitat: Cultivated in Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Maharashtra and Gujarat.English: Radish.Ayurvedic: Muulaka, Laghu- muulaka, Muulakapotikaa, Visra, Shaaleya, Marusambhava. Pods— Sungraa, Singri, Mungraa.Unani: Muuli, Turb Fajal.Siddha/Tamil: Mullangi.
Action: Radish—preparations are used in liver, gallbladder and urinary complaints. Green leaves— diuretic and carminative. Seeds— diuretic, purgative, expectorant.A decoction of dry radish is given orally in piles. Extract of the dry root is given for hiccough, influenza, dysentery, colic and urinary troubles.Key application: In peptic disorders, especially those related to dyskinesia of the bile ducts; and in catarrhs of the upper respiratory tract. (German Commission E.)The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India recommends the juice of the whole plant in sinusitis; juice of the root in diseases of the throat and sinusitis; and the seed in amenorrhoea, cough and dyspnoea.The fleshy root and seeds contain trans-4-methyl-thiobutenyl isothio- cyanate glucoside (the pungent principle), cyanidin-5-glucoside-3-sophoro- side, pelargonidin diglycoside, cyani- din diglycoside, 5-methyl-L-cysteine- sulphoxide (methiin), steroidal sa- pogenins and sulphorophene.The enzymes present in the radish are phosphatase, catalase, sucrase, amylase, alcohol dehydrogenase and pyruvic carboxylase.Radish contains caffeic acid and fer- ulic acid which exhibit hepatoprotec- tive and choleretic properties. It contains choline which prevents deposition of fat in liver. Amino acids, or- nithine, citrulline, arginine, glutamic acid and asparatic acid remove toxins from the body and urea acumulation.Radish is a good source of ascorbic acid (15-40 mg/100 g), trace elements include aluminium, barium, lithium, manganese, silicon, titanium, also iodine (upto 18 mcg/100 g) and ascor- bigen.Roots, leaves, flowers and pods are active against Gram-positive bacteria.The seeds are reported to contain a broad spectrum antibiotic, machro- lysin, specific against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Raphanin, extracted from the seeds, is active against Grampositive and Gram-negative bacteria.A purified basic protein, homologous to nonspecific lipid transfer proteins, from seeds showed antifungal activity.Raphanus caudatus Linn., synonym R. sativus var. caudatus, is known as Rat-Tail Radish.A native to Java, it is cultivated in northern and western India. The root is not used; pods, purple or violet in colour, are consumed for properties attributed to Raphanus sp. These are known as Mungraa or Sungraa.Dosage: Whole plant-20-40 ml juice; root—15-30 ml juice. (API, Vol. II.) Seed—1-3 g powder. (API, Vol. III.)... raphanus sativus
Physiological changes, such as a fall in temperature and blood pressure, take place just before sleep and continue during the early stages of NREM sleep. There is an intrinsic rhythm of sleep which in most subjects has a periodicity of around 25 hours. This can be modi?ed by external factors to bring it into line with the 24-hour day. Two peaks of a tendency to sleep have been identi?ed, and these usually occur between around 14.00–18.00 hours, and 02.00–06.00 hours. There are, however, di?erences according to age, in that, for instance, infants sleep for most of the 24 hours; during adolescence there is also an increase in the duration of sleep. Sleep requirements fall later in life, but there are wide genetic di?erences in the amount of sleep that people require and also the time at which they fall asleep most readily.
The internal clock can be disturbed by a variety of external factors which include irregular sleeping habits due, for instance, to shift work or jet lag. Sleep is also more likely to occur after physical exertion, reading and social activity. The duration and intensity of exposure to light can also modify sleep profoundly. Light promotes wakefulness and is the main factor that adjusts the 25-hour internal rhythm to the 24hour daily cycle. Neural connections from the retina of the EYE act on an area in the brain called the supra-chiasmatic nucleus which stimulates the pineal gland which produces MELATONIN. This is thought to trigger the range of neurological and metabolic processes that characterise sleep.... rapid-eye-movement (rem) sleep
Ratie, Ratea, Ratee, Raty, Ratey... rati
Habitat: The sub-Himalayas tract from Punjab to Nepal, Sikkim, Bhutan, Assam, Western Ghats and the Andamans.English: Rauvolfia root, Serpentina Root, Indian Snakeroot.Ayurvedic: Sarpagandhaa of Ayurvedic texts was not the Sarpagandhaa of modern medicine. (Sarpagandhaa was equated with Naakuli, Sarpach- hatrikaa and Varshaasu Chha- trikaaraa. Sarpagandhaa and Sarpasugandhaa were synonyms of Naakuli.)Folk: Chhotaa Chaand.
Action: Root—decoction is employed to increase uterine contractions and for expulsion of foetus in difficult cases. The total alkaloidal extract of the root induces bradycardia, hypotension, sedation. It finds application in hypochondria, neuropsychi- atric disorders, psychosis and schizophrenia.Key application: In mild, essential hypertension (borderline hypertension, especially with elevated tension of the sympathetic nervous system, for example, sinus tachycardia, anxiety, tension and psychomotor irritation, when dietetic measures alone are not sufficient. (German Commission E.)(Average daily dose: 600 mg drug corresponding to 6 mg total alkaloid.) Treatment is usually administered with a diuretic to prevent fluid retention which may develop if Rauvolfia root is given alone. (WHO.) Contraindicated in depression, bleeding disorders, gastric and duodenal ulcers. (Sharon M. Herr.) Also contraindicated in pregnancy, since it has both teratogenic and abortifacient potential. (Francis Brinker.)The root and root bark are rich in alkaloids, the most important being reserpine, others, around 30, which include ajmaline, ajmalicine (raubasine), ajmalicine, yohimbine, coryanthine, iso-ajmaline, neo-ajmaline, papaver- ine, raubasine, rauwolscine, rescin- namine, reserpine, sarpagine, serpentine, serpentinine, serpinine and de- serpidine.Reserpine is hypotensive and tranquilizer, used for certain forms of mental disorders. Ajmalicine (raubasine) and rescinnamine are also hypoten- sive and tranquilizer. Deserpidine is sedative, as well as hypotensive. Aj- maline exhibits antiarrhythmic activity.A number of Rauvolfia species are found in India: R. beddomei Hook. f.; R. densiflora Benth ex Hook. f. (Himalayas, Khasi and Aka Hills; Western and Eastern Ghats); R. micrantha Hook. f; known as Malabar Rauvolfia, (Kerala, up to an altitude of 300 m)The roots of R. beddomei contain ajmalicine, sarpagine and serpentine, but no reserpine. R. densiflora yielded 0.51% of total alkaloids (reserpine 0.01%). R. micrantha gave ajmalicine, raunamine, reserpiline, sarpagine, neosarpagine, in addition to reserpine.(In classical Ayurvedic texts, Nakuli and Gandha-naakuli were included in compound formulations for mental diseases.)... rauvolfia serpentina
Raeann, Raeanna, Raeanne, Rayana, Rayanna, Rayanne, Rayane, Raeane, Raeana, Raiann, Raiane, Raianne, Raianna, Raiana... rayann
Habitat: Abundant in moist and warm regions of West Bengal, particularly in 24 Parganas and Howrah, and Kerala (as a weed).Folk: Badaa Chaand.
Action: Root—sedative, hypotensive. Plant juice, mixed with castor oil, is applied to skin diseases and to destroy parasites.The plant contains a number of alkaloids, including rauvolscine, aj- malicine, canescine, reserpine, pseu- doyohimbine; yohimbine, corynan- thene, raunescine, iso-raunescine and recanescine.The major alkaloid is rauwolscine (alpha-yohimbine), present in the root bark (0.1%), stem bark (0.2%) and leaves (0.5%).The roots are often used as a substitute or adulterant of those of R. serpentina, though the reserpine content of the dried root was found to be comparatively low (0.03-0.05%).Family: Linaceae.
Habitat: The Himalayas from Kashmir to Sikkim; commonly grown in gardens.English: Winter-Flax, Yellow Flax.Ayurvedic: Baasanti.Folk: Abai (Maharashtra).
Action: Plant—used for the treatment of paralysis in Bihar. The crushed leaves and stems are applied to wounds infested with maggots.... rauvolfia tetraphylla
Symptoms The condition is most commonly con?ned to the occurrence of ‘dead ?ngers’ – the ?ngers (or the toes, ears, or nose) becoming white, numb, and waxy-looking. This condition may last for some minutes, or may not pass o? for several hours, or even for a day or two.
Treatment People who are subject to these attacks should be careful in winter to protect the feet and hands from cold, and should always use warm water when washing the hands. In addition, the whole body should be kept warm, as spasm of the arterioles in the feet and hands may be induced by chilling of the body. Su?erers should not smoke. VASODILATORS are helpful, especially the calcium antagonists. In all patients who do not respond to such medical treatment, surgery should be considered in the form of sympathectomy: i.e. cutting of the sympathetic nerves to the affected part. This results in dilatation of the arterioles and hence an improved blood supply. This operation is more successful in the case of the feet than in the case of the hands.... raynaud’s disease
Razia, Razi, Raziela, Raziella, Razili, Raziella, Raziel, Raziele, Razie, Razee... raziah
– runs up again into the neck, where it enters the larynx and supplies branches to the muscles which control the vocal cords.... recurrent laryngeal nerve
Imperforate anus, or absence of the anus, may occur in newly born children, and the condition is relieved by operation.
Itching at the anal opening is common and can be troublesome. It may be due to slight abrasions, to piles, to the presence of threadworms (see ENTEROBIASIS), and/or to anal sex. The anal area should be bathed once or twice a day; clothing should be loose and smooth. Local application of soothing preparations containing mild astringents (bismuth subgallate, zinc oxide and hamamelis) and CORTICOSTEROIDS may provide symptomatic relief. Proprietary preparations contain lubricants, VASOCONSTRICTORS and mild ANTISEPTICS.
Pain on defaecation is commonly caused by a small ulcer or ?ssure, or by an engorged haemorrhoid (pile). Haemorrhoids may also cause an aching pain in the rectum. (See also PROCTALGIA.)
Abscess in the cellular tissue at the side of the rectum – known from its position as an ischio-rectal abscess – is fairly common and may produce a ?stula. Treatment is by ANTIBIOTICS and, if necessary, surgery to drain the abscess.
Prolapse or protrusion of the rectum is sometimes found in children, usually between the ages of six months and two years. This is generally a temporary disorder. Straining at defaecation by adults can cause the lining of the rectum to protrude outside the anus, resulting in discomfort, discharge and bleeding. Treatment of the underlying constipation is essential as well as local symptomatic measures (see above). Haemorrhoids sometimes prolapse. If a return to normal bowel habits with the production of soft faeces fails to restore the rectum to normal, surgery to remove the haemorrhoids may be necessary. If prolapse of the rectum recurs, despite a return to normal bowel habits, surgery may be required to rectify it.
Tumours of small size situated on the skin near the opening of the bowel, and consisting of nodules, tags of skin, or cauli?ower-like excrescences, are common, and may give rise to pain, itching and watery discharges. These are easily removed if necessary. Polypi (see POLYPUS) occasionally develop within the rectum, and may give rise to no pain, although they may cause frequent discharges of blood. Like polypi elsewhere, they may often be removed by a minor operation. (See also POLYPOSIS.)
Cancer of the rectum and colon is the commonest malignancy in the gastrointestinal tract: around 17,000 people a year die from these conditions in the United Kingdom. Rectal cancer is more common in men than in women; colonic cancer is more common in women. Rectal cancer is a disease of later life, seldom affecting young people, and its appearance is generally insidious. The tumour begins commonly in the mucous membrane, its structure resembling that of the glands with which the membrane is furnished, and it quickly in?ltrates the other coats of the intestine and then invades neighbouring organs. Secondary growths in most cases occur soon in the lymphatic glands within the abdomen and in the liver. The symptoms appear gradually and consist of diarrhoea, alternating with attacks of constipation, and, later on, discharges of blood or blood-stained ?uid from the bowels, together with weight loss and weakness. A growth can be well advanced before it causes much disturbance. Treatment is surgical and usually this consists of removal of the whole of the rectum and the distal two-thirds of the sigmoid colon, and the establishment of a COLOSTOMY. Depending upon the extent of the tumour, approximately 50 per cent of the patients who have this operation are alive and well after ?ve years. In some cases in which the growth occurs in the upper part of the rectum, it is now possible to remove the growth and preserve the anus so that the patient is saved the discomfort of having a colostomy. RADIOTHERAPY and CHEMOTHERAPY may also be necessary.... rectum, diseases of
Habitat: Fields and roadsides.Features ? This is the common clover of the field, long cultivated by the farmer, and is found growing to a height of one foot or more. The leaves, composed of three leaflets, grow on alternate sides of the stem. The leaflets themselves are broad, oval, pointed, and frequently show a white spot. The stem is hairy and erect, and the red (or, perhaps, purplish-pink) flower-heads (the part of the plant employed in herbal practice) are formed by a large number of separate blossoms at the end of a flower stalk. Both taste and odour are agreeable.
Action: Alterative and sedative.The infusion (1 ounce to 1 pint of boiling water, which may be drunk freely) makes a reliable medicine for bronchial and spasmodic coughs. The alterative character is best brought out in combination with such agents as Burdock and Blue Flag.Fernic writes of Red Clover ? "The likelihood is that whatever virtue the RedClover can boast for counteracting a scrofulous disposition, and as antidotal to cancer, resides in its highly-elaborated lime, silica, and other earthy salts."... red clover
Habitat: Cultivated in gardens.Features ? Stem and leaves reddish, grows up to about twelve inches. Stem quadrangular, slightly hairy. Leaves stalked, oblong-lanceolate, rounded at ends, crenulate at margins, reticulated both sides. Flowers labiate, reddish-purple. Taste, powerfully aromatic.Part used ? Leaves.
Action: Aromatic, astringent, tonic, stomachic.In the treatment of laryngitis, inflammation of throat and tonsils, and ulceration of mouth and throat. The 1 ounce to 1 pint infusion in frequent wineglass doses is given as an internal medicine, the gargle and mouth wash being made as follows ? Pour 1 pint of hot malt vinegar on to 1 ounce of the Red Sage leaves, adding 1/2 pint of cold water.Both Red Sage and the green-leaved variety are extensively used in the kitchen as a flavouring and digestive,Red Sage will also tend to darken grey hair—see "Toilet Recipes."... red sage
Super?cial re?exes comprise the sudden movements which result when the skin is brushed or pricked, such as the movement of the toes that results from stroking the sole of the foot.
Deep re?exes depend upon the state of mild contraction in which muscles are constantly maintained when at rest, and are obtained, as in the case of the knee-jerk (see below), by sharply tapping the tendon of the muscle in question.
Visceral re?exes are those connected with various organs, such as the narrowing of the pupil when a bright light is directed upon the EYE, and the contraction of the URINARY BLADDER when distended by urine.
Faults in these re?exes give valuable evidence as to the presence and site of neurological disorders. Thus, absence of the knee-jerk, when the patellar tendon is tapped, means some interference with the sensory nerve, nerve-cells, or motor nerve upon which the act depends – as, for example, in POLIOMYELITIS, or peripheral NEURITIS; whilst an exaggerated jerk implies that the controlling in?uence exerted by the BRAIN upon this re?ex mechanism has been cut o? – as, for example, by a tumour high up in the SPINAL CORD, or in the disease known as MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS (MS).... reflex action
Rehobothe, Rehobotha, Rehobothia... rehoboth
Habitat: Konkan, and the South Andamans.Folk: Danshir, Daushir, Lokhandi, Yesti, Zerwati (Maharashtra).
Action: Root—used for the treatment of respiratory affections, common cold and influenza.The roots contain about twice the amount of pristimerin as in R. indica and show similar antibiotic properties. Pristimerin is found active against Streptococcus viridans, causative organism for sore throat and tonsilitis, and S. pyogenes.... reissantia grahamii
Habitat: North-eastern India.Siddha/Tamil: Odangod.Folk: Kazurati, Tirruli (Maharashtra), Atari-lataa, Kathapahaariaa, Lokhandi (Bengal).
Action: Root bark—used for the treatment of respiratory troubles. Stem—febrifuge. Leaves—scorched and given to women during confinement. Powdered leaves and roots are applied to sores and wounds.The roots contain dulcitol. The root bark contains an antibiotic principle, pristimerin (0.1%) which shows considered in vitro activity against several Gram-positive cocci, both haemolyt- ic and non-haemolytic. Pristimerin also inhibits in vitro growth of different strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Clinical trials have shown that pristimerin is effective in the treatment of inflammatory conditions of the naso-pharyngeal mucosa resulting from common cold and influenzal infections. It is found useful as an adjunct to the common antibiotic therapy of respiratory inflammations of both bacterial and viral origin, and is reported to possess antitumour properties, but its high toxicity precludes its use as a cancero-static agent.... reissantia indica
Remphana, Remphane, Remphaine, Remphayn, Remphena, Remphaen, Remphaina, Remphayna, Remphaena... remphan
Habitat: Maharashtra, Karnataka.Folk: Rukhaalu, Maanakand (Maharashtra). Lakshmanaa is a doubtful synonym
Action: Root—use for obstinate skin diseases and pruritus; also for disinfecting genitourinary tract and for promoting conception. Alocasia indica and Eulophia nuda are also known as Maanakanda in Indian medicine. Alocasia indica is used in Siddha medicine as an anti-inflammatory and diuretic herb.... remusatia vivipara
Remi, Remie, Remmy, Remmi, Remmie, Remy, Remmey, Remey, Rhemy, Rhemmy, Remee, Remmee... remy
Reena, Reene, Rina, Rinah, Rinna, Rinnah, Renna, Rennah... rena
Reneeta, Renyta, Reneata, Renieta, Reneita... renita
Renukah, Renooka, Renookah, Renouka, Renoukah... renuka
Rephidima, Rephydim, Rephydima, Rephidem, Rephydem, Rephedem... rephidim
In 1997 the Royal College of Psychiatrists in the UK produced a comprehensive report which was sceptical about the notion that the awareness of recurrent severe sexual abuse in children could be pushed entirely out of consciousness. The authors did not believe that events could remain inaccessible to conscious memory for decades, allegedly provoking vague non-speci?c symptoms to be recovered during psychotherapy with resolution of the symptoms. Supporting evidence pointed to the lack of any empirical proof that unconscious dissociation of unpleasant memories from conscious awareness occurred to protect the individual. Furthermore, experimental and natural events had shown that false memories, created through suggestion or in?uence, could be implanted. Many individuals who had claimed to have recovered memories of abuse subsequently withdrew and, often, non-speci?c symptoms allegedly linked to suppression worsened rather than improved as therapy to unlock memories proceeded. The conclusion is that recovered memory therapy should be viewed with great caution.... repressed memory therapy
Ethics of research Although Britain has had legislation governing aspects of research on animals since the 19th century, there is no over-arching statute regulating research on humans and human material. Such activity is covered in law by the vaguely de?ned common-law concept of consent, and by piecemeal legislation such as the DATA PROTECTION ACT 1998 and the HUMAN FERTILISATION & EMBRYOLOGY ACT 1990. Nevertheless, extensive and very detailed ethical guidance on aspects of research has been published by a wide range of national and international organisations (see ETHICS COMMITTEES). Several basic principles feature in all statements about research ethics: these include the importance of ensuring that research is independently and rigorously scrutinised by appropriately constituted ethics committees; verifying that any risk to the research subject is reasonable in relation to the anticipated bene?t; and ensuring that all e?orts are made to minimise possible harm. The research subject’s willingness to tolerate some risk does not relieve researchers of the responsibility of making sure that all risks are kept to a minimum. Above all, a key feature of ethical research has involved seeking informed consent from research participants. This rule, initially applied to actual involvement by human subjects in research, has gradually been extended to include seeking informed consent from patients or from their relatives to the use of data and to the use of human organs and tissue in research, including after POST-MORTEM EXAMINATION. (See also EVIDENCE-BASED MEDICINE.)... research
Resedah, Reselda, Resedia, Reseldia... reseda
0.1 and 1 per cent. A ?gure of 1 per cent means that, in the United Kingdom at any one time, maybe 30 studies are being conducted, or their results published, which could contain false information. Examples include forged ethics-committee approval, patient signatures and diary cards; fabricated ?gures and results; invention of non-existent patient subjects; or sharing one electrocardiogram or blood sample amongst many subjects.
Research fraud should be ?rst suspected by a clinical-trial monitor who recognises that data are not genuine, or by a quality-assurance auditor who cannot reconcile data in clinical-trial report forms with original patient records. Unfortunately, it often comes to light by chance. There may be suspicious similarities between data ostensibly coming from more than one source, or visits may have been recorded when it was known that the clinic was shut. Statistical analysis of a likely irregularity will frequently con?rm such suspicion. The motivation for fraud is usually greed, but a desire to publish at all costs, to be the original author of a medical breakthrough, to bolster applications for research grants, or to strengthen a bid for more departmental resources are other recognised reasons for committing fraud.
In the USA, those proved to have committed fraud are debarred from receiving federal funds for research purposes or from undertaking government-funded therapeutic research. The four Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden) have committees on research dishonesty that investigate all cases of suspected research misconduct. In the United Kingdom, an informal system operated by the pharmaceutical industry, using the disciplinary mechanism of the General Medical Council (GMC), has led to more than 16 doctors in the past ten years being disciplined for having committed research fraud. Editors of many of the world’s leading medical journals have united to form the Committee on Publishing Ethics, which advises doctors on proper practice and assists them in retracting or refusing to publish articles found or known to be false. (See ETHICS; ETHICS COMMITTEES.) Where an author does not o?er a satisfactory explanation, the matter is passed to his or her institution to investigate; where an editor or the committee is not satis?ed with the result they may pass the complaint to the appropriate regulatory body, such as the GMC in Britain.... research fraud and misconduct
Habitat: Indigenous to western Europe; grown in gardens in India.English: Dyer's Rocket, Weld.
Action: Plant—diuretic, diaphoretic, anthelmintic.A luteolin glucoside, luteoloside, has been isolated from the fresh blossoms and outer parts of the plant. It has a low toxicity and mild influence on capillary resistance and possesses diuretic properties.Reseda odorata Linn., known as Mignonette, is indigenous to North Africa and cultivated in gardens in India.The herb is reported to allay irritation and ease pains. The seeds are applied externally as a resolvent. The... reseda luteola
Reuelah, Reuella, Reuellah, Reuelia, Reuelea, Reueliah, Reueleah... reuela
The cause is not known, but there is evidence that ASPIRIN may also play a part in its causation. Doctors recommend that children should be given PARACETAMOL in place of aspirin. The initial feature is severe, persistent vomiting and fever. This is followed by outbursts of wild behaviour, DELIRIUM and CONVULSIONS terminating in COMA and death, often from liver failure. The MORTALITY rate is around 23 per cent, and 50 per cent of the survivors may have persistent mental or neurological disturbances. The younger the patient, the higher the death rate and the more common the permanent residual effects. Since aspirin has no longer been licensed for use in children and young people the incidence of the condition has fallen dramatcally. Some cases, previously thought to be Reye’s syndrome, have subsequently turned out to have been due to certain inherited metabolic diseases and to be unconnected with aspirin.... reye’s syndrome
Rezah, Rezia, Reziah, Rezi, Rezie, Rezy, Rezee, Resi, Resee, Resie, Resea, Resy, Resey, Rezea, Resea... reza
Habitat: Western Himalayas from Simla to Kumaon at an altitude of 2,300 to 2,600 m.English: Buckthorn (related species).
Action: Plant—anticonvulsant, anti-inflammatory, anti-ulcer.The plant contains kaempferol, kaempferol-7-O-methyl ether and kaempferol-4'-O-methyl ether.The ethyl acetate soluble portion of the alcoholic extract showed anti- nociceptive, anticonvulsant and anti- inflammatory activity. Kaempferol-4'- O-methyl ether was found to exhibit central nervous system depressant, cardiac stimulant, antispasmodic and anti-inflammatory activityThe plant also contain emodin, which exhibited cardiac and intestinal stimulant, central nervous system depressant and analgesic activity in experimental animals.... rhamnus procumbens
Habitat: Deccan Peninsula, Coromandel Coast, Malabar and southwards to Sri Lanka.Folk: Ganesh-kand (Maharashtra); Aaanaiittippili (Tamil Nadu).
Action: Antidote to poisonous inflictions; used against bites of poisonous raptiles.... rhaphidophora laciniata
Rhawne, Rhaun, Rhaune, Rhawna, Rhauna... rhawn
Rhaxmah, Rhaxima, Rhaxmia, Rhaxmana, Rhaxmae, Rhaxmai... rhaxma
Habitat: Native to Europe; introduced in Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Bhutan and the Nilgiris.English: Buckthorn (related species), Cascara Sagrada, Sacred Bark.
Action: Bark—stool-softener, non-habit forming stimulant laxative, pancreatic stimulant. Used for dyspepsia and habitual constipation.Key application: In occasional constipation. (German Commission E, ESCOP, WHO.) As a stimulant laxative. (The British Herbal Pharmacopoeia.)The bark contains up to 10% an- thraquinone glycosides, consisting of the cascarosides A, B, C and D, about 70% of the total; other glycosides in minor concentrations include barbaloin, frangulin, chrysanol, glycosides based on emodin, aloe-emodin, emodin- oxanthrone and chrysophanol; dianthrones, and free aglycones.The cascarosides act on large intestines and stimulate peristalsis. The emodin exhibits antispasmodic activity in isolated rat intestine. Its anti- inflammatory and antiseptic action was also demonstrated.Rhamnus catharticus Linn., is equated with common Buckthorn, R. purpurea Edgew. with Purple Buckthorn. R. purpurea is found in the Himalayas from Kashmir to Nepal.Dried bark of Rhamnus frangula L. (Alder Buckthorn) and dried ripe berries of Ramnus catharticus are also used against constipation. (German Commission E, WHO.)Long term use or excessive amounts may cause albuminuria, haematuria, slowing ofintestinal transit and cardiac irregularities. (Sharon M. Herr.)Rhamnus triquetra Brandis (known as Gudlei, Fagoraa, Gardhan in Punjab; Gaunt in Garhwal and Kumaon and Katheraa in Jaunsar) is found in the Himalayas from Kashmir to Nepal. The bark is used as a tonic, astringent and deobstruent. Kaempferol, its 7-O- methyl ether and 4'-O-methyl ether, physcion-8 beta-D-glucoside, emodin and its 8 beta-D-glucoside were isolated from the whole plant. Emodin exhibited CNS depressant activity. (Fi- toterapia, 65, 1994.) The plant exhibited significant anti-inflammatory and a nonspecific antispasmodic activity. It induced cardio-stimulation which might be due to the endogenous release of catecholamines.Rhamnus napalensis Wall. ex M. Laws. (known as Archal in Nepal; Biringa and Birringguli in Assam) is found in eastern Himalayas and the hills and plains ofAssam, Bihar, Orissa, Madhya Pradesh and northern Andhra Pradesh, ascending up to an altitude of 2,000 m. The fruit, pounded and macerated in vinegar, is prescribed for the treatment of herpes.... rhamnus purshiana
Habitat: Throughout Himalayas, Khasi and Jaintia Hills, hills of Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, and the Nilgiris.English: Indian Buckthorn.Folk: Chhaduaa, Tadru (Punjab), Chadolaa (Garhwal).
Action: Ripe fruit—purgative, emetic. Given in the affections of spleen. (Purgative action not found in the bark.)The bark showed only traces of hy- droxymethyl anthraquinones and did not exhibit purgative action on experimental animals.The plant contains the enzyme, rhamnodiastase, capable of hydrolyz- ing flavonoid glycosides.... rhamnus virgatus
Habitat: Hills of Peninsular India, up to an altitude of 2,000 m.Ayurvedic: Rakta-Rohidaa (a name applied to several other astringent herbs).
Action: Bark—bitter, astringent and deobstruent.The leaves gave chrysophanol, phys- cion, musizin, lupeol, rhamnazin, rhamnocitrin, emodin, frangulin A and beta-sitosterol. A naphthalene- glucoside lactone—beta-sorigenin-1- O-beta-D-glucoside has been isolated from the stem bark. Cynodontin, chrysophanol, physcion, musizin, lu- peol, emodin, beta-syriogenin, beta- sitosterol and its glucoside were also isolated.... rhamnus wightii
Habitat: The Himalayas from Nepal to Bhutan at 3,900-4,800 m.Folk: Tehuka (Sikkim).
Action: The roots resemble those of Rheum emodi, but are spongy and inert. Stems are acidic, used as salad. Dried leaves are sometimes used as a substitute for tobacco.... rheum nobile
Habitat: Western Himalayas. Folk: Archa.
Action: Antispasmodic, muscle relaxant, antiseptic.The rhizomes contain desoxyrha- pontigenin. The compound, like papaverine, exhibited smooth muscle relaxant activity in a wide variety of in vitro and in vivo tests. Aqueous alcoholic extract showed papaverine-like non-specific spasmolytic activity.The paste of fresh rhizomes is applied on burns, blisters and boils to prevent scar formation.... rheum webbianum
Habitat: Sub-alpine Himalayas, from Kashmir to Sikkim at altitudes of 3,300-5,200 m.; also cultivated in Assam.English: Indian Rhubarb, Himalayan Rhubarb.Ayurvedic: Amlaparni, Pitamuuli, Gandhini Revatikaa. Revandachini (roots).Unani: Revandchini.Siddha/Tamil: Revalchinikattai, Nattirevaichini.
Action: Purgative, astringent, aperient. Used for constipation and atonic dyspepsia. Not advised for patients suffering from gout, rheumatism, epilepsy. (When given internally, the root imparts a deep tinge to the urine.)The root gave emodin, emodin- 3-monomethyl ether, chrysophanol, aloe-emodin, rhein. These occur free and as quinone, anthrone or dianthrone glycosides. The astringent principle consists of gallic acid together with small amounts of tannin. The drug also contain cinnamic and rhe- inolic acids, volatile oil, starch and calcium oxalate. Two major glyco- sidic active principles, sennoside A and B, are present along with free an- thraquinones.At low doses, the tannin exerts astringent effect and relieves diarrhoea; at higher doses anthraquinones stimulate laxative effect and relieve constipation. (Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, 2007.)There are three main types of rhubarbs—Chinese, Indian or Himalayan, and Rhapontic.The Chinese rhubarb consists of the rhizomes and roots of Rheum palma- tum and R. officinale.The Indian rhubarb consists of dried rhizomes of R. emodi and R. web- bianum; rhizomes and roots of R. moorcroftianum and R. spiciforme are also reported to be mixed with the drug. R. rhaponticum is the Rhapontic rhubarb.Rheum moorcroftianum Royle (the Himalayas at altitudes of 3,0005,200 m., chiefly in Garhwal and Ku- maon) possesses properties similar to those of R. emodi and the roots are mixed with the latter.Rheum spiciforme Royle (drier ranges of Kumaon and Sikkim at altitudes of 2,700-4,800 m.) also possesses purgative properties. The rhizomes and roots are mixed up with Himalayan rhubarb.Rheum webbianum Royle (the western and central Himalayas at altitudes of 3,000-5,000 m.) is the source of Himalayan rhubarb.Rheum palmatum is esteemed as the best type of (Chinese) rhubarb. Two new stilbene glycosides, 4'-O- methylpiceid and rhapontin, isolated from the roots, exhibited moderate alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Anthraquinone glucoside, pul- matin, isolated from the roots, along with its congeners, chrysophanein and physcionin, showed cytotoxic activity against several types of carcinoma cells. Polysaccharides, isolated from the roots and rhizomes, contained lyx- ose, glucose, galactose, xylose, rham- nose, mannose and ribose.Dosage: Root—0.2-1.0 g powder. (CCRAS.)... rheum emodi
Habitat: Southeast Tibet, West and Northwest China.English: Rhubarb.Unani: Usaare Rewand.
Action: Astringent and cathartic (anthraquinones are laxative and tannins astringent), stomachic, aperient, cholinergic, gastric stimulant, antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic. Used for indigestion, diarrhoea, dysentery and disorders of liver and gallbladder.Key application: In constipation. Contraindicated in acute intestinal inflammation and obstruction. (German Commission E, ESCOP, The British Herbal Pharmacopoeia, WHO.)Rhubarb contains 1,8-dihydroxy- anthracene derivatives. The laxative effect of the herb is primarily due to its influence on the motility of the colon, inhibiting stationary and stimulating propulsive contractions. Stimulation of the chloride secretion increases the water and electrolyte content of stool. (German Commission E.)The plant extract of R. officinale is found to be strong and effective scavenger of oxygen radicals in xan- thine/xanthine oxidase and other systems in vitro.Rheum rhaponticum, known as Rha- pontic or English rhubarb, is extensively cultivated all over Europe and America; also cultivated to a small extent in India in the Khasi Hills, the Nilgiris and West Bengal.Rhubarbs contain anthraquinones but English rhubarb contains only chrysophanic acid and some of its glycosides. Stilbene glycosides, present in other types, are also found in English rhubarb. The roots contain rhapontin. (1.42%), reported to restore oestrus cycle in castrated female rats.... rheum officinale
Rhiamone, Rhiamona, Rhiamonia, Rhiamonea, Rhyamon, Rhyamone, Rhyamona, Rhyamonia, Rhyamonea... rhiamon
Rheanna, Rheanne, Rhiana, Rhiann, Rhianna, Rhiannan, Rhianon, Rhyan, Riannon, Rianon, Rheann, Rhian, Rhiain, Rhyanon, Rhyannon... rhiannon
Habitat: Throughout the greater part of India.English: Snake Jasmine.Ayurvedic: Yuuthiparni, Yuuthika- parni. Paalaka-Juuhi.Unani: Gul-baglaa.Siddha/Tamil: Nagamalli.
Action: Leaf, seed and root—used for skin diseases. A paste of the root, with lime juice, is applied externally to eczema, ringworm and Dhobi's itch.The roots are reported to contain an antiseptic and antiparasitic active principle, rhinacanthin (1.9%). The plant is rich in potassium salts; also contains oxymethyl anthraquinones. The flowers contain rutin.Dosage: Leaf, seed, root—5-10 ml juice; 3-5 g powder. (CCRAS.)... rhinacanthus nasutus
Rhodeia, Rhodia, Rhodie, Rhody, Roda, Rodi, Rodie, Rodina, Rodyna, Rodine, Rhodyna, Rhodine, Rhodina, Rhodee, Rhodea... rhoda
Rhyss, Rhysse, Reece, Reese, Reice, Reise, Reace, Rease, Riece, Riese... rhys
Habitat: The Sunderbans and along the Coromandel Coast and the Andamans.English: True Mangrove.Siddha/Tamil: Peykkandal, Kandal, Sorapinnai.Folk: Kamo (Bengal), Kandal (Maharashtra).
Action: Bark—astringent. Used in the treatment of haemorrhages, haematuria.The leaves contain 9.1, unripe fruits 12.0, ripe fruits 4.2, twig bark 9-12, and wood 7-14% tannins.The leaves gave campesterol, cholesterol, 28-isofucosterol, beta-sitosterol, stigmasterol and stigmast-7-en-3 betaol. The plant gave alpha-and beta- amyrins, betulin, lupeol, oleanolic and ursolic acids; gibberellins have also been reported.Honey collected from the flowers is reported to be poisonous.R. apiculata Blume, also known as Kandal, is found mixed up with R. mucronata in the tidal marshes of India and the Andamans.... rhizophora mucronata
Habitat: The alpine Himalayas from Himachal Pradesh to Bhutan, from 3,000 to 5,000 m.Folk: Taalisri (Punjab), Taalish (Tibet), Tazaktsum, Taalis-faz (Kashmir).
Action: Leaves—stimulant. The plant yields an incense. The leaves of R. anthopogon get mixed up with those of Abies webbiana (used for respiratory diseases).The leaves contain quercetin, myri- cetin, taxifolin, kaempferol derivatives, ursolic acid and its acetate, epi- friedinol, beta-sitosterol, betulinic acid and rutin.The leaves of R. lepidotum Wall. ex G. Don, known as Taalisfur in Punjab; and R. setosum D. Don, known as Tsalluo in Bhutan, possess properties similar to those of R. anthopogon.... rhododendron anthopogon
Habitat: The temperate Himalayas from Kashmir to Bhutan, the Nilgiris, Khasi Hills and Travancore.English: Tree-Rhododendron, Rose-Tree.Folk: Burans (Kumaon), Kurbak, Pullaas.
Action: Leaf—anticephalalgic (applied to the forehead). Leaf and stem-bark—spasmolytic. Flowers— used in diarrhoea and dysentery.The green leaves contain a gluco- side, ericolin. The extracts of leaves, stems and bark cause hypotension in cats and inhibit intestinal movements in rabbits. The acetone and chloroform extracts and a resinous fraction from the alcoholic extract of leaves depress respiration. The petroleum ether extract decreases the rate of heartbeat and contraction in isolated heart of frog.An alcoholic (50%) extract of the flowers lowered blood pressure in dogs and albino rats.Cyanidin-3-galactoside and cyani- din-3-arbinoside are present in the pigments of flowers. The leaves of var. nilgiricum and var. cinnamonum contain ursolic acid, friedelin, epifrie- delanol, quercetin. A triterpenoid, campanulin, has been isolated from the leaves of var. nilagaricum.... rhododendron arboreum
Habitat: The Himalayas from Kumaon to Bhutan, extending to Assam.English: Giantblood Rhododendron.Folk: Chimal (Nepal), Kurbak, Guraans.
Action: Respiratory depressant, emetic, toxic.The leaves and flowers gave an- dromedotoxin which resembles tertiary amine veratrum alkaloids, particularly protoveratrine, in pharmacological action. Intravenous administration of andromedotoxin to dogs resulted in 20-40% reduction in blood pressure. It also closely resembles protoveratrine in its stimulating effect on the barostatic-pressor-reflex- mechanism, respiratory effects and emetic action. It produces reflex va- sodepressor responses in intact animals; in debuffered dogs, it produced vasopressor responses. It also produced, both direct and indirect, positive ionotropic effects, the latter being more pronounced.The leaves contain ursolic acid, alpha-amyrin, epi-friedelinol, cam- panulin and hyperoside. Chloroform extract of the leaves and shoots showed a depressant action. The honey from flowers is poisonous; contains an- dromedotoxin.... rhododendron barbatum
Riana, Rianna, Rianne, Ryann, Ryanne, Ryana, Ryanna, Riann, Riayn, Ryane, Rye, Ryen, Ryenne, Ryette, Ryetta, Rynn... riane
Ribla, Ryblah, Rybla, Riblia, Rybliah, Ribliah, Ribliya, Ribliyah... riblah
Habitat: Throughout the Himalayas at altitudes of 2,400-5,200 m.Folk: Chimal (Kumaon, Nepal), Gagger vurmi, Nichnai (Kashmir). Cherailu, Taalis-far.
Action: Leaves—used in chronic rheumatism and sciatica. As a snuff, in colds and hemicrania.The leaves gave a toxic substance which resembles andromedotoxin; besides ericolin, ursolic acid, alpha-amy- rin, friedelin, epi-friedelinol, campan- ulin, quercitin. The pigments of flowers contain myricetin and quercetin.Petroleum ether and chloroform extracts of leaves, stems and flowers lower blood pressure in cats and inhibit intestinal movements in rabbits.... rhododendron campanulatum
Habitat: Eastern Himalayas, extending into the Balipura tract and Aka hills of Assam at altitudes of 2,100-4,000 m.Folk: Balu, Sanu, Chimal (Nepal).
Action: Plant—vasodepressor.The plant contains a toxic principle, andromedotoxin. The leaves are reported to contain friedelin, epi- friedelinol, alpha-amyrin, campanulin, ursolic acid, triterpenes and quercetin.The flowers are reported to be poisonous.R.falconeri Hook. f., known as Ko- rlinga in Nepal, Kegu and Kalma in Bhutan, is found in the Himalayas from Nepal to Bhutan, Aka Hills, Naga Hills and Manipur at altitudes of 2,1004,300 m.The leaves and stem contain an- dromedotoxin; leaves also contain ur- solic acid, alpha-amyrin, friedelin, campanulin and quercetin. The flowers contain 3-rhamnoside and 3-galacto- side of quercetin. The bark gave taraxe- rol, betulinic acid and quercetin.Petroleum ether extract of the leaves and stems lowers blood pressure in cats and inhibits intestinal movements in rabbits.... rhododendron cinnabarinum
Habitat: China.Rheum palmatum was once transported from China through Persia to Turkey and was consequently known as "Turkey Rhubarb" ; when conveyed via India it was called "East Indian Rhubarb." This Chinese root is the popular medicinal Turkey Rhubarb of to-day, the best kind being that from the Shansi province of China.Features ? The root is smooth and heavy, and arrives in this country peeled. It is identifiable by the dark brown spots and a reticulation of white lines. The Canton rhubarb is more fibrous, unspotted, and the white network is less prominent than that from Shansi. The quality of these roots is judged by the fracture, which should show bright, the inferior kinds being a dull brown.
Action: Aperient, stomachic, astringent, tonic.Small doses of the powdered root are used in diarrhea, larger quantities acting as a thorough yet gentle purgative. Dose of powdered root, 3 to 30 grains.... rhubarb, turkey
Habitat: The temperate Himalayas from Kashmir to Bhutan at 1,3002,400 m.Folk: Tatri, Arkhar (Punjab).
Action: Galls—astringent and expectorant. Used in ointments and suppositories employed in the treatment of haemorrhoids, swellings and wounds. Fruits— spasmolytic. Used for colic, diarrhoea and dysentery.Dry galls contain 50 to 80% tannin (in the form of Gallo tannic acid); small amounts of fat, resin and gum. The stem-bark contains 10.5% tannin. The fruit contains tannin, gallic acid and potassium acid salts, together with small amounts of aluminium, calcium, magnesium and iron acid salts of malic, tartaric and citric acids.The heartwood contained the flavo- noids, pongapin, tetramethoxyfisetin and demethoxykanugin, and a diben- zoylmethane, ovalitenone.Rhus hookeri Sahni & Bahadur, synonym R. insignis Hk. f. is found in Sik- kim Himalaya from Nepal to Bhutan at 1,600-2,000 m and in Khasi Hills at 1,500 m. Juice of the plant is a powerful vesicant. The fruit contain a fat similar to that found in the fruit of R. javanica.... rhus chinensis
Habitat: Mediterranean region.English: European or Sicilian Sumach (used in Unani medicine).Unani: Sumaaq, Taatraak
Action: Leaves and seeds— astringent, styptic.Limonene, nonanal and dec-2 (Z)- enal were obtained from pericarp oil, whereas the leaf oil contained beta- caryophyllene and patchoulane. Cem- brane and beta-caryophyllene were isolated from branch and bark oil.... rhus coriaria
Habitat: Dry hot slopes of the Himalayas from Punjab to Nepal and in the hills of Madhya Pradesh and South India.English: Sumach.Ayurvedic: Tintidi, Tintindeeka.Unani: Sumaaq.Folk: Raitung, Tung (Kumaon).
Action: Fruit juice—vermifuge.The leaves contain the flavonoids, myricetin, quercetin and kaempferol and their 3-O-rhamnosides; the stems and leaves also gave hentriacontane, hentriacontanol, beta-sitosterol, ligno- ceric acid and iso-rhamnetin-3-alpha- L-arvinoside.Smooth Sumach and Sweet Sumach (Canada and USA) are equated with Rhus glabra L. and R. aromatica Ait. Smooth Sumach is astringent and diuretic. Sweet Sumach is used for its antidiabetic activity; the root bark is used for irritable bladder, bed-wetting and urinary incontinence. (Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, 2007.)Dosage: Fruit—3-6 g powder. (CCRAS.)... rhus parviflora
Habitat: The temperate Himalayas, from Kashmir, Sikkim to Bhutan at altitudes of 600-2,500 m.English: Japanese Wax tree, Wild Varnish tree.Ayurvedic: Karkatashringee. (Used as a substitute for Pistacia integerrima galls.).Unani: Kaakraasingi.Siddha/Tamil: Karkatakasringi, Kadukapoo (galls).
Action: Thorn-like excrescences on the branches—astringent, expectorant; prescribed in diarrhoea, dysentery and vomiting. Fruits— expectorant (used as an adjuvant in tuberculosis).The sapwood and heartwood contain polyphenols. The sapwood contains gallo tannin; the heartwood gave fisetin, and its -7-glucoside, fustin, gar- banzol, 3,7,4'-trihydroxyflavone, gallic and ellagic acid. The bark is reported to contain 10% of tannin.The juice from the leaves causes blisters. Leaves contain 20% tannin (dry basis), a flavone glycoside rhoifolin, co- rilagin and shikimic acid. Ethanolic extract of the leaves is reported to exhibit anticancer and antiviral activities. Latex from the stem also causes blisters.Mesocarp of the fruit contains el- lagic acid. An acid isolated from the fruit is reported to be cardiotonic and sympathomimetic. It was found to be toxic to rabbits. However, the fruits are used in the treatment of tuberculosis. Hinokiflavone, isolated from the fruits, showed cytotoxic activity in vitro against KB culture cells.Drupes are rich in biflavones.The wax obtained from the pulpy mesocarp of the fruit contains palmitic 77, stearic 5, dibasic 6, oleic 12%, and linoleic acid (a trace). It is used as a substitute for beeswax.... rhus succedanea
Habitat: All over plains and in the Himalayas up to 1,200 m.Folk: Raan-ghevaraa (smaller var.) (Maharashtra); Jhinki, Kammervel (Gujarat); Chittavarai (Tamil Nadu).
Action: Leaves—abortifacient. Seeds—bitter, toxic.The leaves afforded isovitexin and apigenin derivatives.Aerial parts gave steroidal glyco- sides, along with ergosterol peroxide, stigmasterol and lupeol; bergapten, isopimpinellin, umbelliferone and beta-sitosterol have also been isolated.The seed coat and pericarp contained gallic and protocatechuic acid, prodelphinmidine and hydroquinone diacetate and C-glycosyl flavones.The extract of seeds shows agglutinating activity with certain type of human red blood cells.R. bracteata Benth. ex Baker (upper Gangetic plains) and R. jacobii Chandra & Shetty (Tirunelveli, Tamil Nadu) contain vitexin, isovitexin, orientin, iso-orientin and apigenin derivatives.... rhynchosia minima
Habitat: Cold temperate regions extending from Himalayas to northern Asia and Europe.English: European Black Currant.Folk: Nabar.
Action: Dried leaves and twigs— a home remedy for coughs. Leaves—diuretic, hypotensive, refrigerant. An infusion is used for inflammatory conditions, sore throat, hoarseness. Fruits— refrigerant, mildly spasmolytic, vasoprotective, anti-inflammatory.Black currents are very rich in vitamin C (average 150 mg/100g) and contain 0.9-1.7% pectin as calcium pec- tate, also minerals, potassium (372 mg/ 100 g). The acidity of the fruit is mainly due to citric acid; malic acid is present in small amounts. Glucose and fructose are principal sugars; sucrose is a minor component.The flavonoids in the fruits include kaempferol, quercetin and myricetin. About 0.3% anthocyanosides, concentrated mainly in the skin, consist of glycosides of cyanidol and delphinidol.The anthocyanosides are reportedly bacteriostatic and exhibit vasopro- tective and anti-inflammatory activity. They are antisecretory against cholera toxin-induced intestinal fluid secretion in vitro.The leaves contain an anti-inflammatory principle, pycnometol and minute quantities of an essential oil composed mostly of terpenes.Polyphenolic extract of buds inhibited lipid peroxidation by rat liver mi- crosomes.Polyphenols present in R. nigrum and R. rubrum (Red Current, Western Himalayas from Kumaon to Kashmir) exhibit free radical scavenging activity. The seed oil lowers VLDL and total cholesterol.Contraindicated in bleeding disorders. (Sharon M. Herr.)... ribes nigrum
Habitat: Cultivated chiefly in Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Karnataka, and Orissa.English: Castor seed.Ayurvedic: Eranda, Chitra- bija, Triputi; Tribija, Vaataari, Chanchu, Manda, Uruvaka, Gandharva-hastaa, Panchaan- gula, Vardhamaana, Uttaanpatraka, Vyaaghrapuchha, Chitraa.Unani: Bedanjeer, Arand.Siddha/Tamil: Ammanakku.
Action: Oil from seeds and young leaf—purgative. Oil is used in dermatosis and eczema. Leaves— used as poultice to extract the worm.Root—a decoction is administered for lumbago and allied complaints.Bark—purgative.The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia ofIn- dia recommends the decoction of the dried, mature root in rheumatism, pain in the urinary bladder, lumbago, diseases of the abdomen and inflammations; fresh leaf in helminthiasis, dysu- ria, arthritis, pain in the urinary bladder, dysuria, abscesses; dried seed powder in constipation, rheumatism, diseases of the liver and spleen, piles, lumbago, sciatica.The root extract exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity against carrageenan-, bradykinin-, 5-HT-and dextran-induced rat hind paw oedema. N-Demethylricinine showed dose-dependent anticholestatic and hepato- protective activities in rats.Castor oil, derived from the seeds, is a well-known purgative (dose 520 ml).Castor seed contains toxic components (2.8-3.0% on whole seed; about 10% in the flour) which are highly poisonous to human beings and animals. The principal toxic substance is the albumin, ricin. Allergens and a feebly toxic alkaloid ricinine is also present. An ulcerative factor in the seed is reported. Like other toxalbumins, ricin agglutinizes the mammalian red bleed corpuscles. (Ricin loses its toxicity and antigenic action on treatment with potassium permanganate.)Castor oil consists principally of ri- cinoleic acid. Stearic, oleic, linoleic and dihydroxystearic acids are present in small amounts. The strong laxative property of castor oil is reported due to the local irritant action caused in the intestines by ricinoleic acid formed by hydrolysis under the influence of lipolytic enzymes. (The oil should not be used with fat-soluble vermifuge, it may increase its absorption and toxic- ity.)Dosage: Root—20-30 g for decoction. (API, Vol. I.) Leaf—10- 20 ml juice; 2-5 g powder; seed— 0.5-3 g powder. (API, Vol. III.)... ricinus communis
Reilley, Reilly, Rilee, Rileigh, Ryley, Rylee, Ryleigh, Rylie, Rilie, Rili, Reileigh, Rilea, Rylea, Ryson, Rysen, Ryesen, Ryelana... riley
Rimonah, Rimonia, Rimonna, Rimonea, Rymona, Rymonia, Rymonea... rimona
Rithma, Rythmah, Rythma, Rithmia, Rithmiah... rithmah
Reeva, Reevabel, Reva, Rifka, Rivalee, Rivi, Rivka, Rivke, Rivkah, Rivy, Rivie, Rivah, Rivekka, Rive, Reava... riva
Habitat: South India.Ayurvedic: Phanji (var.).Siddha/Tamil: Machuttai.Folk: Baravat, Phaang.
Action: Juice of the plant—used topically in haemorrhagic diseases and piles.... rivea ornate
Roane, Roann, Roanne, Roanna, Roan, Rhoan, Rhoane, Rhoana... roana
Habitat: Native to tropical America; cultivated as an ornament in gardens in Mumbai, Pune and Belgaum.English: Ololiuqui, Snake Plant.
Action: Seeds—narcotic.The psychic effect produced by the ground seeds have been ascribed to the presence of ergot-type alkaloids (up to 0.07%) found in embryo. Among the principal alkaloids identified in the seeds are: ergine, isoergine, elymo- clavine, lysergol and chanoclavine. Er- gometrine, clymoclavine, penniclavine and ergometrinine have also been reported. Ergine has been reported to be the most and lysergol the least effective.A glucoside, turbicoryn, isolated from the seeds, was found to have a CNS stimulant action. (Doses exceeding 31.6 mg/kg proved fatal to test animals in 5-10 min.)Ergine and isoergine are present in the leaves (0.03%, dry basis) and stems (0.01%, dry basis) but not in the roots.... rivea corymbosa
Habitat: Throughout India.English: Midnapore Creeper.Ayurvedic: Phanji.Siddha/Tamil: Budthi-kiray.Folk: Kalmi-lataa, Phaang.
Action: Root—a tonic after childbirth. Leaves—astringent; used in haemorrhagic diseases, diarrhoea, dysentery.... rivea hypocrateriformis
Habitat: Native to warmer parts of America; introduced into Indian gardens.English: Baby Pepper, Dog Blood, Blood Berry, Rouge-Plant.
Action: Berries—febrifuge, intestinal antiseptic.A betaxanthin, humilixanthin, has been isolated from the berry.A decoction of the herb is used for cold, chest congestion and pain, diarrhoea and jaundice. Berries alleviate dysentery and amenorrhoea.Pounded leaves are used for wound- healing and for treating catarrh.... rivina humilis
Habitat: Western Himalayas and Jammu & Kashmir.English: Locust tree, False Acacia, Robinia, Black Locust.
Action: Leaves—laxative, antispas- modic (an infusion is prescribed in digestive disorders). Flowers— diuretic, antispasmodic.The bark, leaves and roots contain a toxalbumin, robin (1.6% in the bark), which resembles ricin present in the castor seed. The bark also contains a glucoside robinitin (3%), syringin, tannin (up to about 7.0%). Inner bark contains amygdalin and urease.The leaves are rich in calcium, phosphorus and potash. The presence of glycosides, acaciin, apigenin-7-bioside, apigenin-7-trioside and indican, have also been reported.The flowers are powerfully diuretic due to a glycoside, robinin. Flowers also contain l-asparagine.The roots are rich in asparagine, also contain robin. Root bark, if taken in excess, is emetic and purgative.The bark and young shoots are poisonous to livestock.... robinia pseudoacacia
Romhilde, Romhild, Romeld, Romelde, Romelda, Romilda, Romild, Romilde, Ruomhildi, Ruomhild, Ruomhilde, Ruomhilda... romhilda
Habitat: Throughout India, in damp places, ascending up to 2,100 m in the Himalayas.Unani: Khoobkalaan (also equated with Sisymbrium iro Linn., Hedge Mustard, London Rocket).Siddha/Tamil: Kattu-kadugu.
Action: Plant—antiscorbutic, stimulant, diuretic (given in diarrhoea, dysentery and fever). Seeds—laxative, prescribed in the treatment of asthma.Glucosinolates of 8-methylthio-oc- tyl, 8-methylsulphinyloctyl and 2-phe- nylethyl have been isolated from the seeds.R. islandica (Oeder) Borbas (Bihar, Bengal, Kerala) and R. montana Small (Punjab to Sikkim) are used for antiscorbutic, digestive and diuretic properties.... rorippa dufia
Habitat: Asian Minor region. Cultivated in Indian gardens.English: Common English Dog Rose, White Cottage Rose.Ayurvedic: Sevati, Shveta Taruni. (Flowers—white or bluish.)Unani: Sevati. Garden var.— Gul-safed Bustaani, Vard Abyaz. Wild var.—Gul-safed Sahraai, Vard Abyaz Barri.
Action: Flower—cardiac tonic, prescribed in palpitation of heart, febrifuge. Petal—laxative.Rose hip contains pectin, citric acid and malic acid which are responsible for its laxative activity.The pollen contains carotene (2.08 mg/100 g), free and bound amino acids and sugars.The major constituents of the essential oil are geraniol, beta-phenylethyl alcohol, beta-geranic acid, geraniol esters, nerol, citronellol, eugenol, methyl- eugenol and benzoate.R. Canina Linn. is equated with (Indian) Dog Rose. The anthocyanin, isolated from the petals, exhibits radio- protective effect. The scavenging and antilipoperoxidant activities of the fruit depend on the polyphenol content.... rosa alba
Habitat: Cultivated throughout India, particularly in Uttar Pradesh on commercial scale, for rose water.Ayurvedic: Taruni, Desi Gulaab, Baaraamaasi, Cheenia-Gulaab. (Flowers—usually purple.)Siddha: Rojapoo (Tamil).
Action: Fruit—applied to wounds, injuries, sprains, foul ulcers.... rosa bourboniana
Habitat: Cultivated chiefly in Uttar Pradesh and Bihar.English: Cabbage Rose, Provence Rose, Hundred-leaved Rose.Ayurvedic: Shatapatri, Shatapatrikaa (Shatapatra is equated with Nelum- bo nucifera.), Taruni, Devataruni, Karnikaa, Chaarukesharaa, Laak- shaa, Gandhaaddhyaa. (Flowers— usually pink and double.)Unani: Gul-e-Surkh.Siddha/Tamil: Iroja, Rajapoo.
Action: Flowers—a decoction is prescribed for inflammation of the mouth and pharynx, and ulcers of the intestine. Powder of rose buttons and seeds—astringent in haemorrhage and diarrhoea.The flowers and leaves contain 1.3 and 8.5% of saponin respectively. Pe- tels are reported to contain methionine sulphoxide.Cabbage rose yields a volatile oil (0.2%) consisting mainly of citronellol, geraniol, nerol, phenylethanol, linalool and citral. It contains 15% tannins (oligomeric proanthocyanidins).Dosage: Dried flower—3-6 g powder. (API, Vol. III.)... rosa centifolia
Habitat: Cultivated chiefly in Kannauj, Kanpur and Hathras.English: Bengal Rose, Monthly Rose.... rosa chinensis
Habitat: The temperate Himalayas from Chamba eastwards to Bhutan and Assam at altitudes of 2,500 to 4,200 m.Folk: Jangali Gulaab. (Flowers— white or yellow, fruit—red.)
Action: Fruits—rich in vitamin C.... rosa sericea
Habitat: Cultivated chiefly in Aligarh, Ghazipur and Kannauj, grown in gardens throughout India.English: Damask Rose.Ayurvedic: Taruni. (Flowers—red, pink or white.)Unani: Gul-e-Surkh, Vard, Vard- e-Ahmar. Stamens—Zard-e-Vard. Fruit—Dalik, Samar-ul-Vard, Smar-e-Gul.Siddha/Tamil: Irosa.Folk: Fasali Gulaab.
Action: Flower buds—astringent, expectorant, laxative; used as a cardiac tonic and aperient. Stamens and fruits—astringent. Petals—Gulkand (a confection in sugar)—laxative, anti-inflammatory (used in sore throat and tonsilitis. Rose water—cooling, refrigerant, antiseptic, anti-inflammatory (used as a remedy for skin irritation, also for sore eyes).All parts of the rose plant yielded quercetin, kaempferol and cyanidin. Lycopene, rubixanthin, zeaxanthin, xanthophyll and taraxanthin have been isolated from the hips. The flowers contain an essential oil with citronel- lol, nerol, geraniol, beta-phenylethanol and its glucoside, eugenol and methyl eugenol; other constituents include organic acids, chlorogenic acid, tannin, cyanin, cyanidin and its 3,5-di- glucoside, quercitrin, carotene and sugars. Pollen from flowers contain carotene (0.76 mg/100 g), sugars (1.0%) and chlorogenic acid (1.5%). Their proline content is found unusually high.The red colouring matter consists of cyanin (9-10% on dry weight basis); a yellow glucoside of quercetin and quercitrin is also present. Flowers, usually, yield 0.04% oil or otto of rose.Dog Rose, extensively cultivated in Europe, North Africa and parts of Asia, is equated with Rosa canina Lin. The rose hip contains vitamin C (0.22.0%), malic and citric acid, pectins (15%), invert sugar (12-15%), tannins (2%), carotenoids, flavonoids.Preparations of Rose hips are used for the prevention and treatment of colds and influenza-type infections, for the treatment vitamin C deficiencies; and for increasing resistance.... rosa damascena
Habitat: Central and Western Himalayas, ascending to 3,000 m.English: Himalayan Musk Rose. (Flowers—white, fruit—orange red or dark brown.)Ayurvedic: Kubjaka (non-classical).Folk: Kujai, Kuujaa.
Action: Plant—used in bilious affections, irritation of the skin and eye diseases. Rose water and otto is extracted from the flowers in Himachal Pradesh.... rosa moschata
Habitat: Cultivated in Kulu. Occasionally found in hedges and abandoned coffee plantations in Upper Ghats.Ayurvedic: Rakta-Taruni (non- classical).
Action: Fruit—antiseptic, applied to wounds, injuries, sprains and foul ulcers.The fruityieldedbeta-sitosterol, sco- parone, salicylic and gallic acid. Fruits contained multiflorin; flower petals gave astragalin. A purgative compound, multinoside A acetate, has been isolated from the fruit. Quercetin-3- O-xyloside, isoquercitrin and hyperin were also isolated.Floral absolute oil contains eugenol (22.8), phenylethanol (18.1) and hene- icosane (10.2%).The root gave a triterpenoid, tor- mentic acid.The plant extract, along with kojic acid or its derivatives, produced excellent skin-lightening and sun-burn preventing effects.... rosa multiflora
Habitat: Indian gardens.English: French Rose.Ayurvedic: Rakta-Taruni (non- classical), Gulaab.
Action: Dried petals—tonic and astringent. Used in debility, excessive mucous discharges and bowel complaints. The oil and rose water—used in bronchial asthma and as a remedy for skin irritation.The flowers yield 0.027-0.036% of an essential oil. It contains geraniol 40-76, l-citronellol 15-37, nerol 5-10, phenyl ethyl alcohol 3-9, eugenol 1, esters 3-5, phenyl acetic acid traces; and stearoptene 15-30%; citronellol, citral, farnesol, l-linalool and nonylaldehyde are also present. (The flowers, unlike those of Rosa damascena, develop their perfume when dried.)The petals also contain fatty oil, sugars (3-14% as invert), tannin (Rosa tan- nic acid 10-24%), cyanin (up to 10%), cyanidin and quercitrin.The pollen contains carotene (1.67 mg/100 g), free and bound amino acids and sugars.Fresh hips and their pulp contain 545 and 847 mg/100 g vitamin C respectively.
Action: Fruits—rich in vitamin C (751 mg/100 g,) concentration up to 8% in dry pulp.... rosa rubra
Habitat: Dry and inner Himalayas from Kashmir to Kumaon at altitudes of 900-4,000 m.Ayurvedic: Laddaakhi-Sevati. (Flowers— pink or deep red, fruit— red.)... rosa webbiana
Rosabell, Rosabele, Rosabelle, Rosabela, Rosabella, Rozabel, Rozabell, Rozabele, Rozabelle, Rozabela, Rozabella... rosabel
Habitat: The Himalayas at altitudes of 1,500-2,100 m, in grassy slopes.Ayurvedic: Kaakoli, Kshira-Kaakoli.
Action: Tuberous root—revitalizing tonic, age-sustainer; used in restorative tonics.One of the ingredients of the "Eight Tonic Herbs" (Ashta-varga) of Ayurvedic medicine.... roscoea procera
Ranna, Rosana, Rosanagh, Rosanna, Rosannah, Rosanne, Roseann, Roseanna, Rosehannah, Rossana, Rossanna, Rozanna, Rozanne, Rozeanna, Rosanie... roseanne
Roselanie, Roselany, Roselaney, Roselanee, Rosalanea... roselani
Habitat: Native to the Mediterranean region, cultivated in Nilgiri Hills.English: Rosemary.Folk: Rusmari.
Action: Essential oil from flowers and leaves—anti-inflammatory, astringent, antiseptic, stomachic, carminative; used externally in circulatory disorders. Flowering tops and leaves—carminative, diuretic, emmenagogue; vapor baths afford relief in incipient catarrh, rheumatism and muscular affections.Key application: Leaf—internally in dyspeptic complaints; externally in supportive therapy for rheumatic diseases and circulatory problems. (German Commission E.) Shows improvement of hepatic and biliary function.(ESCOP.) Carminative, spasmolytic of hepatic and biliary function. (ESCOP.) Carminative, spasmolytic. (The British Herbal Pharmacopoeia.)In research using rats, the essential oil and ethanolic extract of rosemary decreased drug-induced hepatotoxici- ty and the suppression of bone marrow cells. Phenolic compounds in the herb exhibit antioxidant activity. (Sharon M. Herr.)The herb contains volatile oil (1.02.5%), composed mainly of 1, 8-cineole (20-25%), alpha-pinene (15-25%), camphor (10-25%), others include bor- neol, isobutyl acetate, camphene, li- monene, linalool, 3-octanone, terpine- ol, verbenol; flavonoids including api- genin, diosmetin, diosmin; rosmarinic acid and other phenolic acids; diter- penes; rosmaricine; ursolic acid, olea- nolic acid and their derivatives.The anti-inflammatory effect of Rosemary has been attributed to ros- marinic acid, ursolic acid and apigenin. Among flavonoids, diosmin is reported to be more effective in decreasing capillary fragility than rutin. A ros- maricine derivative exhibits stimulant and mild analgesic activity.The phenolic fraction, isolated from the leaves, also from the oil, exhibits antioxidant activity.Pressed juice of leaves possesses a strong antibacterial action on Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli and Bacillis sub- tilis.An infusion of the plant with borax is used as a hair wash for preventing hair loss.Rosemary oil, in combination with the essential oil from thyme, lavender and cedarwood, showed improvement in hair growth by 44% after 7 months of treatment for alopecia areata. (Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, 2007.)... rosmarinus officinalis
Habitat: Kumaon to Assam and in Central, Western and Southern India, and the Andamans.Siddha/Tamil: Cheppu-nerinjal.Folk: Paashaanbheda (Karnataka).
Action: Root—diuretic; used for stone in the bladder; also in venereal diseases. The diuretic action of the root is attributed to the presence of allantoin; a sterol, rhabdiol, has also been isolated from the roots.... rotula aquatica
Rhowena, Roweena, Roweina, Rowenna, Rowina, Rowinna, Rhonwen, Rhonwyn, Rowyna... rowena
Roksanne, Roxana, Roxandra, Roxana, Roxane, Roxann, Roxanna, Roxeena, Roxene, Roxey, Roxi, Roxiane, Roxianne, Roxie, Roxine, Roxy, Roxyanna, Ruksana, Ruksane, Ruksanna... roxanne
Roiya, Royanna, Royleen, Roylene, Roia... roya
Habitat: Western parts of the Peninsula, from Konkan southward and in West Bengal and Assam.Folk: Kal-vidhaaraa, Vaakeri (Maharashtra), Vardaar.
Action: Roots and twigs—bitter tonic; prescribed in rheumatism, pulmonary complaints, scurvy, diabetes; externally for ulcers and skin diseases. Wood—a decoction is administered after parturition and as a febrifuge. Wood, roots and fruits—poisonous.The plant is credited with antiseptic and antitubercular properties.The roots contain beta-D-glucoside of beta-sitosterol, hentriacontane and meso-inositol.... rourea minor
Habitat: Himalaya from Kashmir to Nepal, at 1,200-3,700 m.Folk: Patkarru; Titpaati, Karanoi, Karui (Kumaon); Kaur, Kauri (Punjab).
Action: Leaves—a decoction is used as a bitter tonic and febrifuge; also as a tonic in contusions. The leaves contain betulin, beta-sitosterol, beta-amyrin, stigmasterol, cetyl alcohol, glucose, fructose, arabinose and palmitic, stearic, oleic, gallic, oxalic and tartaric acids. The leaves and stems contain the diterpenes, calyenone, precalyone and calyone, and a triterpene, moronic acid. Precalyone exhibited antitumour activity against P-388 lymphocytic leukaemia.Aerial parts exhibited spasmolytic and CNS-depressant activity.... roylea cinerea
Ruanah, Ruanna, Ruannah, Ruane, Ruann, Ruanne... ruana
Habitat: Throughout India, ascending to an altitude of 3,700 m.English: Indian Madder, Bengal Madder.Ayurvedic: Manjishthaa, Vikasaa, Samangaa, Yojanavalli, Kaalameshi- ka, Raktaangi, Raktayashtikaa, Arunaa, Gandira, Jingi.Unani: Manjeeth.Siddha/Tamil: Manjitti.
Action: Roots and dried stem— blood purifier, astringent, diuretic, emmenagogue, deobstruent, antidysenteric, antiseptic, alterative.The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia ofIn- dia recommends the use of the dried stem in blood, skin and urinogenital disorders; dysentery; piles, ulcers, inflammations; erysipelas, skin diseases and rheumatism. (Roots, leaves and seeds of R. cordifolia, R. tinctorum and allied species are used in amenorrhoea, liver diseases, gall and spleen complaints.) (Mutagenic and carcinogenic aspects of the drug are under investigation.)It is reported that after oral administration of the root decoction, the urine and bones of the patient show a red tinge.The roots are rich in anthraquinones and their glycosides (around 20), the important ones include purpurin (tri- hydroxy anthraquinone), munjistin (xanthopurpurin-2-carboxylic acid); besides xanthopurpurin, peudopur- purin (purpurin-3-carboxylic acid), free alizarin as well as its glucoside.Whole plant yielded pentacylic tri- terpenic acids—rubicoumaric and ru- bifolic acids.Antitumour cyclic hexapeptides have been isolated from the root (while lucidin is thought to be carcinogenic).The root extracts of R. sikkimensis Kurz, known as Naaga-Madder (Nepal eastwards to Assam, Nagaland and Ma- nipur); are very similar to those of R. cordifolia.Dosage: Stem—2-4 g. (API, Vol. III.)... rubia cordifolia
Habitat: Native to Southern Europe and parts of Asia; also found in Kashmir.English: Alizari, European Madder.
Action: Root—used for menstrual and urinary disorders and liver diseases.The root contains anthraquinone and their glycosides, including alizarin, purpurin, purpuroxanthin, pseudopurpurin, rubiadin, ruberythric acid and lucidin primeveroside. There are indications that lucidin is carcinogenic. All parts of the plant contained an iri- doid, asperuloside.... rubia tinctorum
Habitat: Punjab to Assam, extending southwards into the Western Ghats and Deccan.English: Gach Strawberry.Folk: Hinsaalu, Anchhu. Gouri-phal (Kashmir), Tolu, Aselu (Nepal).
Action: Root and young stem— administered in colic pain.Extract of the leaves showed anti- convulsant activity against electrical- induced convulsions, potentiated hypnotic effect of pentobarbitone sodium and had positive inotropic and chronotropic effects. (Compendium of Indian Medicinal Plants, Vol. 5.)... rubus ellipticus
Rubee, Rubetta, Rubey, Rubi, Rubia, Rubianne, Rubie, Rubina, Rubinia, Rubyna, Rubyne, Roobee, Rubea... ruby
Rudranie, Rudranee, Rudrany, Rudraney, Rudranea... rudrani
Habitat: Native to Central America; introduced into Indian garden as ornament.Folk: Kiranti-takkaaram (Tamil Nadu).
Action: Herb—diuretic; used for urinary disorders in Siddha medicine.... ruellia strepens
Habitat: Native to central America; introduced into Indian gardens as ornament.Folk: Chaarapaatu, Chaaraparaad (Bihar).
Action: Plant—used in renal affections, gonorrhoea, syphilis and other venereal diseases.... ruellia suffruticosa
Habitat: Native to central America; grown in Indian gardens.English: Meadow-weed.Siddha/Tamil: Tapas-kaaya.
Action: Herb—emetic; used as a substitute for ipecacuanha. A decoction is given in chronic bronchitis; also used as a diuretic for the treatment of stones in the bladder.... ruellia tuberosa
Ruhama, Ruhamma, Ruhammah, Ruhamia, Ruhamea, Ruhamiah, Ruhameah... ruhamah
Rukann, Rukane, Rukanne, Rukanna, Rukana, Rukanah... rukan
Habitat: Western Himalayas from Kashmir to Kumaon.English: Garden Sorrel, Sorrel Dock.Ayurvedic: Chukram, Chuukaa.Unani: Hammaaz-Barri.
Action: Laxative, diuretic, antiscorbutic, refrigerant. Used for scurvy, as a cooling drink in febrile disorders, as a corrective of scrofulous deposits. Seeds—astringent (in haemorrhages).Flowers—hepatoprotective and an- tihaemorrhagic. Root—used for jaundice, also for gravel and stone in the kidneys.Aerial parts gave rutin, hyperin and vitexin and traces of oxymethy- lanthraquinone. The roots contain anthraquinones—chrysophanol, phys- cion and emodin anthrones.The leaves contain 124.0 mg/100 g ascorbic acid, about 0.3% oxalic acid. Free oxalic acid caused fatal hypogly- caemia in rabbits.... rumex acetosa
Habitat: Native to South-west Asia and North Africa; cultivated all over India, especially in Tripura, West Bengal and Bihar.English: Bladder-Dock, Country Sorrel.Ayurvedic: Chukra, Chuko, Chakravarti.Unani: Hammaaz.... rumex vesicarius
Rumer, Rumora, Rumera, Rumoria, Rumeria... rumor
Rucinah, Ruceena, Ruceina, Ruciena, Rucyna, Ruceana... runcina
Habitat: Eastern Himalayas, Sikkim and the Nilgiris.English: Sheep Sorrel.Ayurvedic: Chukrikaa, Chuko.Unani: Hammaaz, Shaaka-turshak, Tursh, Jangali Paalak.
Action: Diuretic, diaphoretic, antiscorbutic, refrigerant. Fresh plant is used in urinary and kidney diseases.The herb contains anthraquinones, chrysophanol, emodin and physcion.Free ascorbic acid content (50-150 mg/100 g) remains constant throughout the year.... rumex acetosella
Habitat: Native to Europe; found in Mt. Abu.English: Yellow Dock, Curled Dock.Ayurvedic: Chukra, Chukrikaa, Patraamla, Rochani, Shatvedhani.
Action: Root—used as a laxative in rheumatism, bilious disorders, and as an astringent in piles and haemorrhagic affections; also used for skin eruptions, chronic skin diseases, scrofula, scurvy, congested liver and jaundice. Acts like Sarsaparilla when used for scrofulous skin affections and glandular swellings. Seeds— astringent. Used for dysentery.The root contains anthraquinones (about 2.17-4%) including nepodin, and other glycosides based on chryso- phanol, physcion and emodin; also tannins, rumicin and oxalates. Large doses should be avoided. Disturbances caused by the plant are attributed to rumicin. The root and rhizome are reported to stimulate bile production. (Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, 2007.)The leaves contain 30 mg/100 g ascorbic acid.R. crispus is pharmacologically more active than rhubarb, because the extracts of the roots of the former contain more quantity of anthraquinones (2.17%) than the extracts of the latter (1.42%).It has been suggested that Amlavetas should be equated with R. crispus.... rumex crispus
Habitat: The Himalayas up to 300 m, and in the plains from Assam to Western and Southern India.Folk: Jangali Paalak.
Action: Plant—astringent; used in cutaneous disorders.The leaves contain vitamin C 115 mg and vitamin A value 11,700 IU/100 g and are a rich source of calcium and beta-carotene. The dried leaves contained 7.8% of flavonoids and 0.04% of anthraquinone derivatives. Flavonoids include rutin, avicularin, quercitrin, quercetin. Roots contain chrysophan- ic acid and emodin, the total an- thraquinone content being 0.13%.Rumex hastatus D. Don.Folk: Amlora, Chumlora (Kumaon); Khattimal, Katambal (Punjab).
Action: Astringent.The root and bark yield 21-23% tannin.... rumex dentatus
Habitat: The temperate Himalayas, Assam, Bengal, Western Ghats and the Nilgiris.English: Golden Dock.Ayurvedic: Kunanjara.Unani: Seeds—Beejband, (siyah or safed), Jangali Paalak.
Action: Leaves—catharitic; externally applied to burns. Seeds— incorporated in sex-tonics as aphrodisiac. (Seeds of Sida cordifolia and Abutilon indicum are also used as Beejband.) Roots are used as a substitute for rhubarb.The leaves contain anthraquinones both in free and bound forms. The fruits contain rumarin (0.12%) rutin and hyperin. The seeds contain 5.1% tannin.The roots are purgative; contain chrysophanic acid, saccharose and tannin (6%).The seeds and leaves contain ru- marin, rutin, hyperin, chrysophanic acid, charose, tannin, emodin and its monoethyl ether, beta-sitosterol and its glucoside.
Habitat: The temperate Himalayas, Western Ghats and the Nilgiris.Folk: Kulli (Kumaon).
Action: Root—purgative. A substitute for Rheum palmatum. Leaves— an infusion is given in colic, externally applied to syphilitic ulcers.The roots contain nepodin, chryso- phanic acid, also 12.8% tannin.... rumex maritimus
Rusti, Rustie, Rustee, Rustey, Rustea... rusty
Habitat: Orissa, Andhra Pradesh, Kerala.Folk: Ekanyakam, Koranti (Kerala, South India), Anukudu-chettu (Andhra Pradesh)
Action: Plant—mild antiseptic. Root bark—used against gonorrhoea, skin diseases and inflammations. The root bark exhibits hypoglycaemic activity.... salacia reticulata
Habitat: Western Himalayas up to an altitude of 2,400 m.English: French Sorrel.
Action: Plant—refrigerant, astringent; given in dysentery. Juice of leaves—antiscorbutic.The roots contain oxymethyl an-
Action: Plant—astringent antiscorbutic, stomachic, diuretic, used for disorders of lymphatic and glandular system; for bronchitis, asthma; constipation, dyspepsia, diseases of liver and spleen; urinary and renal disorders; alcoholism. Seeds—antidysenteric.Anthraquinone glucosides, emodin and chrysophanol, have been reported from leaves, root and seeds. The leaves contain large amounts of oxalate (21.8% on dry basis); vitamin C content is 12 mg and vitamin A 6,100 IU/100 g.The leaves of Rumex species are eaten in salad or cooked like spinach. They contain protein, carbohydrates, potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, calcium, manganese, copper, zinc, (iodine, in some samples), ascorbic acid, beta-carotene and thiamine; also oxalic acid, potassium binoxalate and some tartaric acid.... rumex scutatus
Habitat: Throughout India, in waste places and hedges.Ayurvedic: Parpata (as adulterant).Siddha/Tamil: Punakapundu.
Action: Leaves—juice is aperient, febrifuge, refrigerant; bruised leaves are applied externally to disperse swellings. Root—febrifuge. The juice of leaves is given to children suffering from smallpox.... rungia pectinata
Habitat: Throughout India as a weed in moist places.Ayurvedic: Parpata (substitute).Siddha/Tamil: Kodaga-saleh.Folk: Kharmor.
Action: Herb—vermifuge, diuretic; dried and pulverized herb is used for cough and fever. Fresh, bruised leaves, mixed with castor oil, are applied to scalp to cure tinea capitis (a scaly fungoid infection).The flavonoid pigments in ivory- white and pale yellow flowers (the plant also bears blue and pink flowers) showed the presence of luteolin and chrysoerial (3'-O-methyl luteolin) and their glucosides. Deep yellow flowers contain isosalipurposide; the bluish pink flowers showed presence of delphinidin-3,5-diglucoside.... rungia repens
Habitat: Native to western Europe, Mediterranean region and Iran; widely grown as ornament in India.English: Butcher’s Broom, Jew’s Myrtle.
Action: Rhizomes—deobstruent, anti-inflammatory, haemostatic.Key application: As supportive therapy for discomforts of chronic venous insufficiency and for complaints of hemorrhoids.(German Commission E, ESCOP.)Aqueous-alcoholic extract of the rhizomes contains steroid saponins (up to 6% of the extract). The spirostanol glycosides, degluconeoruscin and de- glucoruscin from the extract are absorbed in human plasma after oral administration. Besides, the rhizomes contain two furastanol glycosides, de- gluconeoruscoide and deglucorusco- side. The extract is used for the treatment of venous insufficiency and enters into dermatological and cosmetic compositions for the treatment of dark skin under the eye and into anti-ageing and anti-sun-tanning preparations.... ruscus aculeatus
Synonym: Spergula rubra D. Dietr.Family: Caryophylaceae.
Habitat: Native to Southern France and Malta; found in Punjab and Western Uttar Pradesh.English: Sand-Spurry, Sandwort, Arenaria Rubra.
Action: Diuretic. Used in cystitis and urethral colic, dysuria and urinary calculi.... spergularia rubra
Habitat: Native to Southern Europe and North Africa; cultivated in Indian gardens. (Most of the reports of the Garden Rue, cultivated in India, refer to this species and not to Ruta graveolens.)Unani: Jangali Sudaab.Siddha/Tamil: Arvada.
Action: Plant—antispasmodic, sudorific. Stimulates the nervous system; commonly used in decoction in convulsions and fever. Also used as a fumigant in infant catarrh.The plant gave an essential oil which contains chiefly methyl heptyl ketone (while Ruta graveolens contains 8090% methyl nonyl ketone and methyl heptyl ketone in small amounts). Rutin is the most important active principle of the plant, responsible for its anti- inflammatory and tumour-inhibiting effect.... ruta chalepensis
Habitat: Native to Mediterranean region; cultivated all over India.English: Garden Rue.Unani: Sudaab, Suddaab.Siddha/Tamil: Aruvada.
Action: Herb—stimulating, antispasmodic, stomachic; irritant, abortifacient. Used as an emme- nagogue, in hysterical conditions, cough and croupy affections, colic and flatulence. Leaf—used in atonic amenorrhoea, menorrhoea and colic. Externally, used for sciatica, headache, muscular chest pain, bronchitis and arthritic conditions. (Fresh juice of leaves, internally, can lead to painful irritations of the stomach and intestines). Oil— antispasmodic, antiepileptic, em- menagogue, rubefacient. (Toxic in large doses.)Ruta graveolens has been included among unapproved herbs by German Commission E.The herb contains a volatile oil, with 2-undecanone (30.73) 2-nona- none (18.06), 2-nonyl acetate (11.03), psoralen (1.28) and bergapten and xan- thotoxin (7.24%); rutin (about 2%). The flavonoids include quercetin; cou- marins include berg