Acarbose acts on enzymes in the intestines, inhibiting the digestion of starch and therefore slowing the rise in blood glucose levels after a carbohydrate meal.... BMA Medical Dictionary
form gland-like structures. An adenocarcinoma arises from epithelium (the layer of cells that lines the inside of organs). Cancers of the colon, breast, pancreas, and kidney are usually adenocarcinomas, as are some cancers of the cervix, oesophagus, salivary glands, and other organs. (See also intestine, cancer of; kidney cancer; pancreas, cancer of.)... BMA Medical Dictionary
Habitat: Native to tropical America, from Mexico to Peru and Brazil. Cultivated largely in Malabar, Kerala, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh, and to some extent in Maharashtra, Goa, Orissa and West Bengal.English: Cashew Nut.Unani: Kaaju.Siddha/Tamil: Mindiri.
Action: Leaves and bark—fungi- cidal, vermicidal, protozoicidal, antimicrobial (used for toothache, sore gums). Karnel—eaten for its high protein content. Cashew apple—antiscorbutic. Resinous juice contained in the seeds—used in cases of mental derangement, memory disturbances, palpitation of heart, rheumatic pericarditis, sexual debility.The nut contains 45% fat and 20% protein. Leaves contain flavonoids, mainly glycosides of quercetin and kaempferol, and hydroxybenzoic acid. The bark contains a balsam-containing anacardic acid, anacardol, cardol and ginkgol. The caustic liquid in the shell contains about 39% anacardic acid, a mixture of alkyl salicylic acid derivatives. The leaves are febrifuge. Anacardic acid is bactericidal, fungici- dal, vermicidal and protozoicidal. The leaves and bark exhibited hypotensive activity in rats.The phenolics of the cashew-nut shell oil have inhibited the enzymic activity of alpha-glucosidase, invertase and aldose reductase (anacardic acids being the most potent). Cardols have also shown antifilarial activity in vitro. Anacardic acids, cardols and methyl cardols have been found to exhibit moderate cytotoxic activity.... Indian Medicinal Plants
Habitat: The western Himalayas, Central and southern India.Folk: Karpuravalli (southern region).
Action: Stimulant, expectorant and diaphoretic. Juice of fresh leaves is used in urticaria and other allergic conditions; a domestic remedy for coughs and cold. Alcoholic extract of the whole plant—antibacterial. Essential oil—antitubercular.The oil exhibits antihistaminic property in vitro on smooth muscles of the uterus and the intestines. It also possesses muscle-relaxant action; bactericidal and fungicidal properties. The leaves contain glucosides of luteolin and apigenin.... Indian Medicinal Plants
Ultrasound scanning is carried out to identify abnormalities in the fetus. Chorionic villus sampling or amniocentesis may be performed if the baby is thought to be at increased risk of a chromosomal abnormality or a genetic disorder. The woman is also advised on general aspects of pregnancy, such as diet, exercise, techniques to help her with childbirth.
(See also childbirth, natural.)... BMA Medical Dictionary
Habitat: Assam, Bengal, southwards to Andhra Pradesh and western Ghats.English: Kadam.Ayurvedic: Kadamba, Priyaka, Vrtta-pushpa, Nipa, Halipriya. Kadambaka is equated with Adina cordifolia.Siddha/Tamil: Venkadambu, Vellai Kadambam.
Action: Stembark—febrifugal, antidiuretic, anthelmintic, hypo- glycaemic. Fruit—cooling; anti- catarrhal, blood purifier, analgesic.Family: Moraceae.
Habitat: Western Ghats from Konkan southwards to Trivandrum, up to 600 m.English: Sacking tree, Upas tree.Ayurvedic: Valkala vrksha.Siddha/Tamil: Aranthelli, Mara-uri, Nettavil.Folk: Jangali Lakuch, Jasund, Chaandakudaa.
Action: Seed—febrifuge, antidysen- teric (in minute doses). Latex— circulatory stimulant (in minute doses.)The latex contains a series of poisonous cardenolides, of which alpha- and/or beta-antiarin are the main components. The total amount of crystalline cardiac glycosides in the latex ranges from 0.1 to 2.5%; alpha-antiarin from 0.0 to 1.38% and beta-antiarin from 0.075 to 1.44%. Antiarins are said to act on the heart more powerfully than digitalin. Beta-antiarin is more potent than alpha-antiarin.Latex, in small quantities, is a mild cardiac and circulatory stimulant, whereas in large quantities it acts as a myocardial poison. It stimulates intestinal and uterine contractions.As many as 34 Kedde-positive substances were reported in the seed sample from Indonesia. The latex sample showed the presence of 29 Kedde- positive substances.... Indian Medicinal Plants
In sinus tachycardia, the rate is raised, the rhythm is regular, and the beat originates in the sinoatrial node (see pacemaker). Supraventricular tachycardia is faster and the rhythm is regular. It may be caused by an abnormal electrical pathway that allows an impulse to
circulate continuously in the heart and take over from the sinoatrial node. Rapid, irregular beats that originate in the ventricles are called ventricular tachycardia. In atrial flutter, the atria (see atrium) beat regularly and very rapidly, but not every impulse reaches the ventricles, which beat at a slower rate. Uncoordinated, fast beating of the atria is called atrial fibrillation and produces totally irregular ventricular beats. Ventricular fibrillation is a form of cardiac arrest in which the ventricles twitch very rapidly in a disorganized manner.
Sinus bradycardia is a slow, regular beat. In heart block, the conduction of electrical impulses through the heart muscle is partially or completely blocked, leading to a slow, irregular heartbeat. Periods of bradycardia may alternate with periods of tachycardia due to a fault in impulse generation (see sick sinus syndrome).
A common cause of arrhythmia is coronary artery disease, particularly after myocardial infarction. Some tachycardias are due to a congenital defect in the heart’s conducting system. Caffeine can cause tachycardia in some people. Amitriptyline and some other antidepressant drugs can cause serious arrhythmias if they are taken in high doses.
An arrhythmia may be felt as palpitations, but in some cases arrhythmias can cause fainting, dizziness, chest pain, and breathlessness, which may be the 1st symptoms.
Arrhythmias are diagnosed by an ECG. If they are intermittent, a continuous recording may need to be made using an ambulatory ECG.
Treatments for arrhythmias include antiarrhythmic drugs, which prevent or slow tachycardias.
With an arrhythmia that has developed suddenly, it may be possible to restore normal heart rhythm by using electric shock to the heart (see defibrillation).
Abnormal conduction pathways in the heart can be treated using radio frequency ablation during cardiac catheterization (see catheterization, cardiac).
In some cases, a pacemaker can be fitted to restore normal heartbeat by overriding the heart’s abnormal rhythm.... BMA Medical Dictionary
Habitat: Cultivated throughout the hotter parts of India.English: Jackfruit, Jack tree.Ayurvedic: Panasa, Kantakiphala, Ativrihatphala, Aamaashayaphala.Siddha/Tamil: Murasabalam.Folk: Katahal, Phanasa.
Action: Latex—bacteriolytic, promotes healing of abscesses. Juice of the plant—applied to glandular swellings and abscesses for promoting suppuration. Root— used for diarrhoea, asthma, skin diseases. Unripe fruit—acrid, astringent. Ripe fruit—cooling, laxative, difficult to digest. Seeds— diuretic. Lactin extraction showed potent and selective stimulation of distinct human T and B cells.The seed extract stimulates the heart and causes a fall in arterial blood pressure of experimental animals pretreat- edwithphysostigmine. The seeds show equal inhibitory activity against trypsin and chymotrypsin. (The activity is destroyed when the seeds are boiled or baked.)The leaves and stems show presence of sapogenins, and exhibit estrogenic activity.An aqueous extract of mature leaves exhibited hypoglycaemic activity in experimental animals. Leaves contain cycloartenone, cycloartenol and beta-sitosterol. Heartwood contains flavonoids, artocarpesin and norarto- carpetin and their structures.Dosage: Fruit—50-100 ml decoction. (CCRAS.)... Indian Medicinal Plants
Habitat: Cultivated in Uttar Pradesh, Bengal, Khasi Hills and western Ghats.English: Monkey Jack.Ayurvedic: Lakuch, Kshudra Panas, Granthiphala, Pitanaasha.Siddha/Tamil: Ilangu, Irapala, Ottipilu (Tamil).Folk: Badhar.
Action: Bark—when applied externally, draws out purulent matter; heals boils, cracked skin and pimples. Seeds—purgative, haemagglutinating. Stems— vermifuge.The stembark contains oxyresvera- trol, used for tapeworm.A lectin, artocarpin, isolated from seeds, precipitates several galactoman- nans. It agglutinates rat lymphocytes and mouse ascites cells.Dosage: Fruit—5-10 ml juice. (CCRAS.)... Indian Medicinal Plants
Treatment Mebendazole is the drug of choice in the UK, being given as a single dose. It should be combined with hygienic measures to break the cycle of autoinfection. All members of the family require treatment. Other ANTHELMINTICS include piperazine and pyrantel.... Medical Dictionary
Habitat: Throughout India; up to 1,800 m in the western Himalayas.Ayurvedic: Vana-kulattha.Folk: Jangli Tur, Kulthi.
Action: Antidysenteric, anticholerin, febrifuge; also used in anaemia, anasarca and hemiplegia. Seeds— taeniafuge.A flavone glucoside, atyloside, has been isolated from the leaves.... Indian Medicinal Plants
Habitat: Native to Malaysia; cultivated throughout the warmer parts of India, especially in Kerala.English: Carambola, Star Fruit, Chinese Gooseberry.Ayurvedic: Karmaranga.Unani: Khamraq, Karmal.Siddha/Tamil: Tamarattai.Folk: Kamarakh.
Action: Root—antidote in poisoning. Leaf and shoot—applied externally in ringworm, scabies, chickenpox. Flower—vermicidal. Fruit—laxative, antidysenteric, antiphlogistic, febrifuge, anti- inflammatory, antispasmodic (used in hepatic colic, bleeding piles). Seeds—galactogenic; in large doses act as an emmenagogue and cause abortion.The fruits are a fairly good source of iron but deficient in calcium. They also contain oxalic acid and potassium oxalate. The presence of fluorine is also reported. A wide variation of vitamin-C content (0.3-23.0 mg/100 g) is recorded from different places in India. Sugar (3.19%) consists mainly of glucose (1.63%).... Indian Medicinal Plants
Deficiency. Sun sensitivity; exposure inducing itching, burning and swelling of the skin. Kidney, bladder, and gut infections. Severe earache in young children. Strokes, heart attacks.
It is claimed that those who eat a diet rich in beta-carotene are less likely to develop certain types of cancer.
Smokers usually have low levels of beta-carotene in the blood. Statistics suggest that people who eat a lot of beta-carotene foods are less likely to develop lung, mouth or stomach cancer. In existing cases a slow-down of the disease is possible.
Daily dose. Up to 300mg. Excess may manifest as yellow discoloration of the skin, giving appearance of sun-tan.
Sources. Mature ripe carrots of good colour. A Finland study suggests that four small carrots contain sufficient beta-carotene to satisfy the recommended daily amount of Vitamin A. Orange and dark green fruits and vegetables. Broccoli, Brussels sprouts, spinach, pumpkin, apricots, peaches, oranges, tomatoes. Harvard Medical School study. Among 333 subjects with a history of heart disease, those who received beta-carotene supplements of 50 milligrams every other day suffered half as many heart attacks as those taking placebos. (Dr Charles Hennekens, Harvard Medical School) ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine
In total heart block a rate of 36 or less is due to failure of conduction from atria to ventricles: requires artificial pace maker.
Modern herbalism (phytotherapy) employs: Hawthorn berries, Prickly Ash bark (berries preferred for circulatory disorders), Lily of the Valley leaves, Bugleweed (Lycopus virginicus), Broom, Heart’s Ease, Holy Thistle, Cactus (Night blooming cereus), Nutmeg, Saffron, Lemon Balm, Thuja, Figwort, Ginseng.
Lily of the Valley has a specific action in the heart muscle.
One of the purest and positive stimulants known for increasing the pulse rate is Cayenne Pepper. A few grains sprinkled on a meal or added to a beverage coaxes the heart to increase its output. To give the heart just that little extra support it may need, gentle cardiac stimulants can be found in the kitchen: Cloves, Ginger, Horseradish, Peppermint, Red Sage, Garden Sage.
Where a slow beat arises from a serious heart condition the underlying disorder should receive priority. In the event of an emergency the restorative, Camphor, may be given until the doctor comes:– 1-5 drops oil of Camphor in a teaspoon of honey. Even inhalation of the oil is known to increase pulse rate.
A slow pulse can be increased in pace by vagal relaxation. The pulse may be slow because of an excess of bile salts in the blood when a liver remedy (say Dandelion) would be indicated. Slow pulse of convalescence (Gentian), diabetes (Goat’s Rue), glandular fever (Poke root), jaundice (Dandelion), low thyroid (Kelp), congestion in the brain (Cypripedium), nervous exhaustion (Ginseng).
Practitioner. Broom (Spartiol Drops), 20 drops thrice daily. (Klein) Diet and supplements. See: DIET – HEART AND CIRCULATION. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine
bradycardia may cause a drop in blood pressure that results in fainting (see vasovagal attack).... BMA Medical Dictionary
Diagnosis is confirmed by sputum test, chest X-ray, bronchoscopy or biopsy. Earliest symptoms are persistent cough, pain in the chest, hoarseness of voice and difficulty of breathing. Physical examination is likely to reveal sensitivity and swelling of lymph nodes under arms.
Symptoms. Tiredness, lack of energy, possible pains in bones and over liver area. Clubbing of finger-tips indicate congestion of the lungs. Swelling of arms, neck and face may be obvious. A haematologist may find calcium salts in the blood. The supportive action of alteratives, eliminatives and lymphatic agents often alleviate symptoms where the act of swallowing has not been impaired.
Broncho-dilators (Lobelia, Ephedra, etc) assist breathing. Mullein has some reputation for pain relief. To arrest bleeding from the lesion (Blood root).
According to Dr Madaus, Germany, Rupturewort is specific on lung tissue. To disperse sputum (Elecampane, Red Clover). In advanced cases there may be swollen ankles and kidney breakdown for which Parsley root, Parsley Piert or Buchu may be indicated. Cough (Sundew, Irish Moss). Soft cough with much sputum (Iceland Moss). To increase resistance (Echinacea).
Alternatives. Secondary to primary treatment. Of possible value.
Teas. Violet leaves, Mullein leaves, Yarrow leaves, Gotu Kola leaves, White Horehound leaves. Flavour with a little Liquorice if unpalatable.
Tablets/capsules. Lobelia, Iceland Moss, Echinacea, Poke root.
Formula. Equal parts: Violet, Red Clover, Garden Thyme, Yarrow, Liquorice. Dose: Powders: 750mg (three 00 capsules or half a teaspoon. Liquid Extracts: 1-2 teaspoons. Tinctures: 1-3 teaspoons. Thrice daily, and during the night if relief is sought.
Practitioner. Tinctures BHP (1983). Ephedra 4; Red Clover 4, Yellow Dock 2; Bugleweed 2; Blood root quarter; Liquorice quarter (liquid extract). Mix. Start low: 30-60 drops in water before meals and at bedtime increasing to maximum tolerance level.
Aromatherapy. Oils: Eucalyptus or Thyme on tissue to assist breathing. Inhale.
Diet. See: DIET – CANCER.
Treatment by a general medical practitioner or hospital specialist. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine
Treatment by oncologist. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine
Carah, Caralee, Caralie, Caralyn, Caralynn, Carrah, Carra, Chara, Cahra, Caradoc, Caraf, Caraid, Carajean, Caralea, Caralisa, Carita, Carella, Carilla, Caraleigh, Caraleah... Medical Dictionary
Habitat: Throughout India, up to an altitude of 1,300 m, and in the Andamans.Folk: Karalli, Kierpa. Varanga (Malyalam).
Action: Leaves—used in the treatment of sapraemia. Bark—used for treating oral ulcers, stomatitis, inflammation of the throat.The leaves contain alkaloids (0.2% dry basis), the major being (+)-hygro- line.... Indian Medicinal Plants
FAMILY: Apiaceae (Umbelliferae)
SYNONYMS: Apium carvi, carum, caraway fruits.
GENERAL DESCRIPTION: A biennial herb up to 0.75 metres high with a much-branched stem, finely cut leaves and umbels of white flowers, with a thick and tapering root. The small seeds are curved with five distinct pale ridges.
DISTRIBUTION: Native to Europe and western Asia, naturalized in North America. Now widely cultivated especially in Germany, Holland, Scandinavia and Russia.
OTHER SPECIES: There are several varieties depending on origin – the English, Dutch and German types derive from Prussia, which are distinct from the Scandinavian variety. Those plants grown in northerly latitudes produce more oil.
HERBAL/FOLK TRADITION: Used extensively as a domestic spice, especially in bread, cakes and cheeses. Traditional remedy for dyspepsia, intestinal colic, menstrual cramps, poor appetite, laryngitis and bronchitis. It promotes milk secretion and is considered specific for flatulent colic in children, according to the British Herbal Pharmacopoeia.
ACTIONS: Antihistaminic, antimicrobial, antiseptic, aperitif, astringent, carminative, diuretic, emmenagogue, expectorant, galactagogue, larvicidal, stimulant, spasmolytic, stomachic, tonic, vermifuge.
EXTRACTION: Essential oil by steam distillation from the dried ripe seed or fruit (approx. 2–8 per cent yield).
CHARACTERISTICS: Crude caraway oil is a pale yellowish-brown liquid with a harsh, spicy odour. The redistilled oil is colourless to pale yellow, with a strong, warm, sweet-spicy odour, like rye bread. It blends well with jasmine, cinnamon, cassia and other spices; however, it is very overpowering.
PRINCIPAL CONSTITUENTS: Mainly carvone (50–60 per cent) and limonene (40 per cent), with carveol, dihydrocarveol, dihydrocarvone, pinene, phellandrene, among others.
SAFETY DATA: Non-toxic, non-sensitizing, may cause dermal irritation in concentration.
Respiratory System: Bronchitis, coughs, laryngitis.
Digestive System: Dyspepsia, colic, flatulence, gastric spasm, nervous indigestion, poor appetite. See also sweet fennel and dill.
Immune system: Colds.
OTHER USES: Used in carminative, stomachic and laxative preparations and as a flavour ingredient in pharmaceuticals; also to mask unpleasant tastes and odours. Fragrance component in toothpaste, mouthwash products, cosmetics and perfumes. Extensively used as a flavour ingredient in most major food categories, especially condiments. The German brandy ‘Kummel’ is made from the seeds.... The Encyclopedia of Essential Oils
Action: Antimicrobial, antispasmodic, carminative, expectorant, galactagogue, emmenagogue.
Uses: Wind and colic in children; loss of appetite; flatulent indigestion, ‘summer’ diarrhoea in children, colds, painful menses; to stimulate flow of breast milk. Gastric symptoms of cardiac origin.
Sometimes combined with Chamomile for digestive disorders.
Preparations: Thrice daily.
Tea: 1-2 teaspoons to each cup boiling water; infuse 10 minutes. Dose: half-1 cup. Tincture BHP (1983) 1 part to 5 parts 45 per cent alcohol: 0.5-4ml (8-60 drops). Powdered seeds: half-2 grams.
Oil of Caraway: 1-3 drops. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine
Carbamazepine is mainly used in the long-term treatment of epilepsy.
It is also used to treat neuralgia and psychological disorders, such as mania.... BMA Medical Dictionary
Carbaryl is applied topically as a liquid, avoiding contact with the eyes or broken skin.... BMA Medical Dictionary
A gel containing carbenoxolone is used to relieve mouth ulcers.... BMA Medical Dictionary
(e.g. cane sugar), polysaccharides (e.g. starch). Many of the cheaper and most important foods are included in this group, which comprises sugars, starches, celluloses and gums. When one of these foods is digested, it is converted into a simple kind of sugar and absorbed in this form. Excess carbohydrates, not immediately needed by the body, are stored as glycogen in the liver and muscles. In DIABETES MELLITUS, the most marked feature consists of an inability on the part of the tissues to assimilate and utilise the carbohydrate material. Each gram of carbohydrate is capable of furnishing slightly over 4 Calories of energy. (See CALORIE; DIET.)... Medical Dictionary
Available carbohydrates are predominantly starches (complex carbohydrates) and sugars (simple carbohydrates). In carbohydrate metabolism, the monosaccharides (simple sugars) glucose (grape sugar), galactose (a milk sugar), and fructose (fruit sugar) are absorbed into the bloodstream unchanged. The disaccharides (double sugars) sucrose, maltose and lactose (a milk sugar) are broken down into simple sugars before they are absorbed. Starches also have to be broken down into simple sugars.
Some glucose is burned up immediately (see metabolism) in order to generate energy for cells, such as brain cells, that need a constant supply. Galactose and fructose have to be converted to glucose in the liver before they can be used by body cells. Surplus glucose is conveyed to the liver, muscles, and fat cells where it is converted into glycogen and fat for storage. When blood glucose levels are high, glucose storage is stimulated by insulin, a hormone that is secreted by the pancreas. When the blood glucose level becomes low, insulin secretion diminishes and glucagon, which is another hormone produced by the pancreas, stimulates the conversion of stored glycogen to glucose for release into the bloodstream. Although fat cannot be converted to glucose, it can be burned as a fuel in order to conserve glucose. In the disorder diabetes mellitus, carbohydrate metabolism is disturbed by a deficiency of insulin.... BMA Medical Dictionary
Pure carbon is the major constituent of diamond, coal, charcoal, and graphite.... BMA Medical Dictionary
When it is compressed and cooled to -75ºC, carbon dioxide becomes solid dry ice, which is used in cryosurgery.... BMA Medical Dictionary
Measuring the partial pressure of the gas by taking blood for blood gas estimation provides information on the adequacy of breathing. A high partial pressure may indicate impending or actual respiratory failure.... Medical Dictionary
Carbon monoxide binds with haemoglobin and prevents the transportation of oxygen to body tissues.
The initial symptoms of acute high-level carbon monoxide poisoning are dizziness, headache, nausea, and faintness.
Continued inhalation of the gas may lead to loss of consciousness, permanent brain damage, and even death.
Low-level exposure to carbon monoxide over a period of time may cause fatigue, nausea, diarrhoea, abdominal pain, and general malaise.... BMA Medical Dictionary
Each year around 50 people in the United Kingdom are reported as dying from carbon monoxide poisoning, and experts have suggested that as many as 25,000 people a year are exposed to its effects within the home, but most cases are unrecognised, unreported and untreated, even though victims may suffer from long-term effects. This is regrettable, given that Napoleon’s surgeon, Larrey, recognised in the 18th century that soldiers were being poisoned by carbon monoxide when billeted in huts heated by woodburning stoves. In the USA it is estimated that 40,000 people a year attend emergency departments suffering from carbon monoxide poisoning. So prevention is clearly an important element in dealing with what is sometimes termed the ‘silent killer’. Safer designs of houses and heating systems, as well as wider public education on the dangers of carbon monoxide and its sources, are important.
Clinical effects of acute exposure resemble those of atmospheric HYPOXIA. Tissues and organs with high oxygen consumption are affected to a great extent. Common effects include headaches, weakness, fatigue, ?ushing, nausea, vomiting, irritability, dizziness, drowsiness, disorientation, incoordination, visual disturbances, TACHYCARDIA and HYPERVENTILATION. In severe cases drowsiness may progress rapidly to COMA. There may also be metabolic ACIDOSIS, HYPOKALAEMIA, CONVULSIONS, HYPOTENSION, respiratory depression, ECG changes and cardiovascular collapse. Cerebral OEDEMA is common and will lead to severe brain damage and focal neurological signs. Signi?cant abnormalities on physical examination include impaired short-term memory, abnormal Rhomberg’s test (standing unsupported with eyes closed) and unsteadiness of gait including heel-toe walking. Any one of these signs would classify the episode as severe. Victims’ skin may be coloured pink, though this is very rarely seen even in severe incidents. The venous blood may look ‘arterial’. Patients recovering from acute CO poisoning may suffer neurological sequelae including TREMOR, personality changes, memory impairment, visual loss, inability to concentrate and PARKINSONISM. Chronic low-level exposures may result in nausea, fatigue, headache, confusion, VOMITING, DIARRHOEA, abdominal pain and general malaise. They are often misdiagnosed as in?uenza or food poisoning.
First-aid treatment is to remove the victim from the source of exposure, ensure an e?ective airway and give 100-per-cent oxygen by tight-?tting mask. In hospital, management is largely suppportive, with oxygen administration. A blood sample for COHb level determination should be taken as soon as practicable and, if possible, before oxygen is given. Ideally, oxygen therapy should continue until the COHb level falls below 5 per cent. Patients with any history of unconsciousness, a COHb level greater than 20 per cent on arrival, any neurological signs, any cardiac arrhythmias or anyone who is pregnant should be referred for an expert opinion about possible treatment with hyperbaric oxygen, though this remains a controversial therapy. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy shortens the half-life of COHb, increases plasma oxygen transport and reverses the clinical effects resulting from acute exposures. Carbon monoxide is also an environmental poison and a component of cigarette smoke. Normal body COHb levels due to ENDOGENOUS CO production are 0.4 to
0.7 per cent. Non-smokers in urban areas may have level of 1–2 per cent as a result of environmental exposure. Smokers may have a COHb level of 5 to 6 per cent.... Medical Dictionary
STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS. The back of the neck and the buttocks are common sites. Carbuncles mainly affect people with reduced immunity, particularly those with diabetes mellitus. Treatment is usually with an antibiotic and hot compresses. Incision and drainage may be necessary if a carbuncle is persistent.... BMA Medical Dictionary
The best-known physical carcinogen is high-energy radiation, such as nuclear radiation and X-rays. Exposure may cause cancerous changes in cells, especially in cells that divide quickly: for example, changes in the precursors of white blood cells in the bone marrow causes leukaemia. The risk depends on the dosage and duration of exposure. Over many years, exposure to ultraviolet radiation in sunlight can cause skin cancer. Another known physical carcinogen is asbestos (see asbestos-related diseases).
Only a few biological agents are known to cause cancer in humans.
SCHISTOSOMA HAEMATOBIUM, one of the blood flukes responsible for schistosomiasis, can cause cancer of the bladder; and ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS, a fungus that produces the poison aflatoxin in stored peanuts and grain, is believed to cause liver cancer.
Viruses associated with cancer include strains of the human papilloma virus, which are linked to cancer of the cervix; the hepatitis B virus, which is linked to liver cancer; and a type of herpes virus which is associated with Kaposi’s sarcoma.... BMA Medical Dictionary
Carcinogens are believed to alter the DNA in cells, particularly in oncogenes (genes that control the growth and division of cells).
An altered cell divides abnormally fast, passing on the genetic changes to all offspring cells.
A group of cells is established that is not affected by the body’s normal restraints on growth.... BMA Medical Dictionary
Carcinoid syndrome is characterized by bouts of facial flushing, diarrhoea, and wheezing, but symptoms usually occur only if the tumour has spread to the liver or has arisen in a lung.
Sometimes tumours in the intestine, lung, and, more rarely, the liver are removed surgically, but, in most cases, surgery is unlikely to be of benefit.
In these circustances, symptoms may be relieved by drugs that block the action of serotonin.... BMA Medical Dictionary
Symptoms: flushing of face and neck, diarrhoea, low blood pressure, weight loss.
Treatment: relief of symptoms only. Diarrhoea – Fenugreek seed tea. Flushing: Chamomile tea.
Vitamin and Mineral Supplementation: Because of severe drain on these food elements Multivitamins should be taken daily together with additional 1000ius Vitamin E for the disturbed circulatory system. The heart should be sustained with a preparation of the Hawthorn berry.
To be treated by or in liaison with a qualified medical practitioner. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine
The most common cancers of the lungs, breast, stomach, skin, cervix, colon and rectum are carcinomas.... BMA Medical Dictionary
Symptoms depend on the site of the metastases (secondary tumours).
Carcinomatosis may be confirmed by X-rays or by radionuclide scanning of the bones and lungs, by biochemical tests, or during an operation.
The condition is not improved by removing the primary tumour unless the tumour is producing a hormone that stimulates the growth of metastases.
Anticancer drugs or radiotherapy may be given to treat metastases.... BMA Medical Dictionary
Action. Carminative, warm and soothing to digestive system. Stomachic, Orexigenic. Anti-gripe. Oil is antiseptic.
Uses: Flatulence, colic, loss of appetite.
Preparations: Tea. Crush seeds in a pestle and mortar. 1 teaspoon to cup of water; bring to boil; remove vessel when boiling point is reached. Infuse 10-15 minutes. Dose: half-1 cup.
Powder. Dose, 1-2 grams.
Liquid Extract. 0.3 to 2ml.
Tincture Cardamoms Co BP (1973): dose 2-4ml. Oil – 3 drops in honey after meals promotes digestion, removes odour of garlic, onions, etc. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine
Habitat: Cultivated chiefly in Ceylon.Features ? Fruits ovoid or oblong, longitudinally furrowed, about half-inch long. Fruits yield approximately 75 per cent seeds.Part used ? Seeds.
Action: Carminative, stomachic.As a warm, grateful aromatic in flatulence. The seeds should be crushed, and an infusion of 2 ounces to 1 pint of water taken in wineglassful doses.... Herbal Manual
SYNONYMS: Elettaria cardomomum var. cardomomum, cardamom, cardamomi, cardamum, mysore cardamom.
GENERAL DESCRIPTION: A perennial, reed-like herb up to 4 metres high, with long, silky blade-shaped leaves. Its long sheathing stems bear small yellowish flowers with purple tips, followed by oblong red-brown seeds.
DISTRIBUTION: Native to tropical Asia, especially southern India; cultivated extensively in India, Sri Lanka, Laos, Guatemala and El Salvador. The oil is produced principally in India, Europe, Sri Lanka and Guatemala.
OTHER SPECIES: There are numerous related species found in the east, used as local spices and for medicinal purposes, such as round or Siam cardamon (Amomum cardamomum) found in India and China. An oil is also produced from wild cardamon (E. cardamomum var. major).
HERBAL/FOLK TRADITION: Used extensively as a domestic spice, especially in India, Europe, Latin America and Middle Eastern countries. It has been used in traditional Chinese and Indian medicine for over 3000 years, especially for pulmonary disease, fever, digestive and urinary complaints. Hippocrates recommended it for sciatica, coughs, abdominal pains, spasms, nervous disorders, retention of urine and also for bites of venomous creatures. Current in the British Herbal Pharmacopoeia as a specific for flatulent dyspepsia.
ACTIONS: Antiseptic, antispasmodic, aphrodisiac, carminative, cephalic, digestive, diuretic, sialogogue, stimulant, stomachic, tonic (nerve).
EXTRACTION: Essential oil by steam, distillation from the dried ripe fruit (seeds). An oleoresin is also produced in small quantities.
CHARACTERISTICS: A colourless to pale yellow liquid with a sweet-spicy, warming fragrance and a woody-balsamic undertone. It blends well with rose, olibanum, orange, bergamot, cinnamon, cloves, caraway, ylang ylang, labdanum, cedarwood, neroli and oriental bases in general.
PRINCIPAL CONSTITUENTS: Terpinyl acetate and cineol (each may be present at up to 50 per cent), limonene, sabinene, linalol, linalyl acetate, pinene, zingiberene, among others.
SAFETY DATA: Non-toxic, non-irritant, non-sensitizing.
Digestive System: Anorexia, colic, cramp, dyspepsia, flatulence, griping pains, halitosis heartburn, indigestion, vomiting.
Nervous System: Mental fatigue, nervous strain.
OTHER USES: Employed in some carminative, stomachic and laxative preparations; also in the form of compound cardamon spirit to flavour pharmaceuticals. Extensively used as a fragrance component in soaps, cosmetics and perfumes, especially oriental types. Important flavour ingredient, particularly in curry and spice products.... The Encyclopedia of Essential Oils
Cardeah, Cardia, Cardiah... Medical Dictionary
Cardio-actives. Herbs exercising a direct action on the heart due to the cardiac glycosides they contain. They increase output by sustaining the heart muscle without a demand for more oxygen. This group includes: Motherwort, Hawthorn, Broom, Lily of the Valley, Figwort, Bugleweed, Squills.
Cardiac glycosides, especially those of the Foxglove (digitalis) which is administered by a physician only, tend to accumulate in the body and may prove toxic when their elimination is retarded. The most important cardio-active used by the Consulting Herbalist is Lily of the Valley which has an action similar to Foxglove but without toxic effect. It is a reliable alternative to Foxglove for failure of the heart with retention of water in the body.
Cardio-tonics. Herbalists use other plants that do not contain cardiac glycosides but which have an indirect effect upon the heart. These dilate arteries and peripheral vessels, speeding the circulation, reducing high blood pressure, relieving any back-pressure on the heart caused by accumulation of blood in the lungs. There are peripheral dilators to resolve any hold-up in the circulation and others that assist a failing heart by eliminating obstruction in the bowel (laxatives), liver and kidneys (hepatics and diuretics), skin (diaphoretics and alteratives, chief of which is Figwort). The heart also may feel the benefit of a timely relaxing nervine such as Skullcap or Lime flowers. Even treatment of varicose veins indirectly assists. All of these reduce the work-load of the muscle and tend to ‘normalise’ function of the heart. Cardio-tonics include Ephedra, Motherwort, Rosemary, Mistletoe, Hawthorn, Lime flowers, Cayenne, Yarrow, Garlic, Balm.
Bugleweed is often overlooked as a cardiac sedative to relax capillaries and soothe arterial excitement. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine
The diagnosis is confirmed by monitoring the electrical activity of the heart by ECG.
This distinguishes between ventricular fibrillation and asystole, the 2 abnormalities of heart rhythm that cause cardiac arrest.
Ventricular fibrillation may be corrected by defibrillation.
Asystole, the complete absence of heart muscle activity, is more difficult to reverse but may respond to injection of adrenaline.... BMA Medical Dictionary
Symptoms: disappearance of the pulse, imperceptible activity of the heart and loss of consciousness. Treatment. Vigorous rubbing of chest wall over the heart. In many cases a sharp thump on the chest will restore function. Where ineffective, mouth to mouth resuscitation. Emergency defibrillation by electric shock to chest wall. C.Y.D. Pinch red pepper (Cayenne) in brandy: if patient incapable of swallowing, moisten gums and mouth.
Spirits of Camphor: 1-5 drops in water or honey. Use also as an inhalant. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine
See HEART, DISEASES OF.... Medical Dictionary
Symptoms: worse after exercise, breathlessness, headache, general weakness, feeble pulse, pale face, skin cold, swollen tissues pit on pressure.
Treatment. Alternatives:– Teas. Black Cohosh, Broom tops, Buchu, Dandelion, Hawthorn, Parsley root. Tea. Formula. Equal parts: Broom tops, Motherwort, Yarrow. 2 teaspoons to each cup water brought to boil and simmered 5 minutes in covered vessel. 1 cup 3-4 times daily.
Tablets/capsules. Buchu, Dandelion, Hawthorn, Juniper, Motherwort.
Formula. Dandelion 2; Hawthorn 2; Stone root 1. Mix. Dose: Powders: 750mg (three 00 capsules or half a teaspoon). Liquid extracts: 1 teaspoon. Tinctures: 2 teaspoons. Thrice daily.
Practitioner. Lily of the Valley, BPC 1934: 5-20 drops, 2-3 times daily.
Squills, tincture: resembles Digitalis in action. Dose: 1-3 drops, as prescribed.
Tinctures. Dandelion 2; Lily of the Valley 2; Stone root 1; Cayenne (tincture) quarter. Mix. Dose: 1 to 2 teaspoons thrice daily.
Popular formula. Tincture Scilla 5.0; Tincture Crataegus 10.0; Tincture Valerian to make 30.0. 15 drops thrice daily. (German Extemporaneous Formulae)
Diet. High protein. See: DIET – HEART AND CIRCULATION. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine
At rest, a healthy adult’s heart pumps 2.5–4.5 litres of blood per minute; during exercise this figure may be as much as 30 litres per minute.
A low output during exercise indicates damage to the heart muscle or major blood loss.... BMA Medical Dictionary
Although there are numerous possible sources of electrical interference with pacemakers, the overall risks are slight. Potential sources include anti-theft devices, airport weapon detectors, surgical diathermy, ultrasound, and short-wave heat treatment. Nevertheless, many pacemaker patients lead active and ful?lling lives.... Medical Dictionary
Symptoms: low blood pressure, reduced urinary output, water in the lungs, etc. See: MYOCARDITIS. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine
Symptoms may not occur until the heart has enlarged to the point where it cannot cope with additional stress. Its reduced pumping efficiency leads to heart failure, with symptoms of breathlessness and ankle swelling. Cardiomegaly is diagnosed by physical examination, chest X-ray, and ECG. Treatment is directed at the underlying cause.... BMA Medical Dictionary
There are 3 main types. In hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, which is usually inherited, the heart muscle is abnormally thickened. In dilated cardiomyopathy, metabolism of the heart muscle cells is abnormal and the walls of the heart tend to balloon out under pressure. Restrictive cardiomyopathy is caused by scarring of the endocardium (the inner lining of the heart) or by amyloidosis.
Symptoms of cardiomyopathy include fatigue, chest pain, and palpitations. The condition may lead to heart failure, symptoms of which include breathing difficulty and oedema. A chest X-ray may show enlargement of the heart, and echocardiography may show thickened heart muscle. A biopsy of heart muscle may reveal muscle cell abnormalities.
Symptoms may be treated with diuretic drugs to control heart failure and antiarrhythmic drugs to correct abnormal heart rhythm. In many cases, heart muscle function deteriorates, and the only remaining option is a heart transplant.... BMA Medical Dictionary
A heart– lung machine is used to maintain the supply of oxygenated blood to the body.... BMA Medical Dictionary
the hand, are applied to the lower breastbone until trained help arrives.
Both these measures are used to restore blood circulation to the brain.
Brain damage is likely if the brain is starved of oxygen for more than 3–4 minutes.... BMA Medical Dictionary
Habitat: Throughout the plains of India, as a wild climber.English: Ballon Vine, Winter Cherry, Heartseed.Ayurvedic: Kaakatiktaa, Kaakaadani, Karnsphotaa, Shatakratulataa.Unani: Habb-e-Qilqil.Siddha/Tamil: Mudukottan, Kottavan.Folk: Kanphotaa, Kanphuti, Lataaphatakari. Used as Jyotishmati in Bengal.
Action: Used in rheumatism, lumbago, skeletal fractures, nervous diseases, amenorrhoea, haemorrhoids, erysipelas. The herb is used in hairoils for treating dandruff, alopecia and for darkening hair.The plant extract showed significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity and sedative effect on CNS. The drug also showed (transient) vasode- pressant activity.The leaves contain beta-sitosterol and its D-glucoside, an alkaloid, oxalic acid and amino acids. The presence of a saponin and quebrachitol is reported in the plant.The leaves and stem are used in preparations used against common cold. Alcoholic extract of the plant exhibits antisickling and antiarthritic activity. Seeds have positive anabolic activity and increase body weight by inducing a positive nitrogen balance.The alkaloid fraction from the seeds showed hypotensive activities and cardiac inhibition in anaesthetized dogs; blocked spasmogenic effects of acetyl- choline, histamine and 5-HT on guinea pig ileum, biphasic effort on frog rec- tus abdominis muscle. The seeds also showed antibacterial activity.Dosage: Whole plant—50-100 ml decoction. (CCRAS.)... Indian Medicinal Plants
Cardiovascular surgery includes operations to prevent or repair damage caused, for example, by congenital heart disease (see heart disease, congenital), atherosclerosis, or a myocardial infarction (heart attack).
Procedures include heart valve surgery, coronary artery bypass, and heart transplant.... BMA Medical Dictionary
There are 3 types of carditis: myocarditis (inflammation of the heart muscle), which is usually caused by a viral infection; endocarditis (inflammation of the internal lining of the heart), which is usually due to a bacterial infection; and pericarditis (inflammation of the outer covering of the heart), which is usually due to a viral or bacterial infection but may be associated with a myocardial infarction or an autoimmune disorder, such as systemic lupus erythematosus.... BMA Medical Dictionary
This formula has been withdrawn after rendering excellent service for many years for heart weakness. No longer available to the general public as an OTC medicine. Of historic interest to the modern phytotherapist. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine
Mexican prickly poppy (Argemone mexicana).
Plant Part Used: Leaf, flower, root and stem.Dominican Medicinal Uses: Leaf/whole herb: prepared as a tea for blood-cleansing, cancer, stomach ulcers, delayed menstruation, vaginal infection, menopause symptoms; prepared as a douche for vaginal infection and inflammation; as a multi-herb mixture for ovarian cysts, uterine fibroids and tumors; root: boiled tea for stomach pain.Safety: Entire plant shown to be hepatotoxic due to sanguinarine and alkaloid content, especially concentrated in the seeds; internal use strongly cautioned against.Contraindications: Pregnancy, lactation, children.Laboratory & Preclinical Data: In vitro: antifungal, anti-HIV, anti-tumor, morphine-withdrawal alleviation, uterine stimulant (organic plant extracts).* See entry for Cardo santo in “Part 3: Dominican Medicinal Plant Profiles” of this book for more information, including references.... Medicinal Plants
Caress, Caressa, Carressa... Medical Dictionary
Habitat: Sub-Himalayan tract, from Jammu eastwards to West Bengal, Madhya Pradesh and Tamil Nadu.English: Kumbi, Slow-Match tree.Ayurvedic: Katabhi, Kumbhi- ka, Kumbhi, Kumbi, Kaitrya, Kumudikaa.Siddha/Tamil: Kumbi, Ayma.
Action: Bark—demulcent (in coughs and colds), antipyretic and antipruritic (in eruptive fevers), anthelmintic, antidiarrhoeal. An infusion of flowers is given after child birth.Seeds contain triterpenoid sapo- genols, sterols; leaves contain a tri- terpene ester, beta-amyrin, hexaco- sanol, taraxerol, beta-sitosterol, quer- cetin and taraxeryl acetate.Careya herbacea Roxb., a related species, is known as Kumbhaadu-lataa in Bengal.Dosage: Bark—50-100 ml decoction. (CCRAS.)... Indian Medicinal Plants
Habitat: Native to West Indies and Central America; now cultivated in Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Maharashtra and South India.English: Papaya, Papaw.Ayurvedic: Erand-karkati, Papitaa.Unani: Papitaa Desi.Siddha/Tamil: Pappaali, Pappayi.
Action: Ripe fruit—stomachic, digestive, carminative, diuretic, galactagogue. Useful in bleeding piles, haemoptysis, dysentery and chronic diarrhoea. Seeds— emmengagogue, abortifacient, vermifuge. Juice of seeds is administered in enlarged liver and spleen, and in bleeding piles.Key application: Papain, the enzyme mixture extracted from raw papain (latex of Carica papaya), has been included among unapproved herbs by German Commission E. Experiment-based as well as clinical research indicate that papain may be effective (in the treatment of inflammations) in high doses (daily dose 1500 mg corresponding to 2520 FIP units).Unripe fruit—emmengagogue and abortifacient. Latex—applied topically on eczema, ringworm, psoriasis, corns, warts, sloughing wounds, carbuncles and eschar of burns.Green parts of the plant and seed contain an alkaloid carpaine. Seeds also contain carpasemine.Latex contain enzymes—papain and chymopapain and alkaloids carpaine and pseudocarpaine. A proteinaceous material from latex showed anticoagulant activity; in higher doses it is heart depressant and as a spasmogen on smooth muscle of guinea pig ileum. An alkaloid solution showed depressant action on heart, blood pressure and intestine.The anthelmintic action of seeds against Ascaris lumbricoides is due to carpasemine.Papain, an enzyme mixture prepared from the fruit, seeds and leaf, hydrolyses polypeptides, amides and esters, particularly when used in an alkaline environment, and is used in digestive disorders.Papain inhibits platelet aggregation, which may further increase the risk of bleeding in patients also taking anticoagulants. Concurrent administration of cyclophosphamide with papain caused sever damage to lung tissues in rats. (Sharon M. Herr.)Chymopapin C is an immunosup- pressive enzyme from plant extract. Carpaine, extracted from the plant, exhibited anti-tubercular activity, also antitumour in vitro, and hypotensive.Dosage: Leaf—40-80 ml infusion; latex—3-6 g (CCRAS.)... Indian Medicinal Plants
at the tooth’s core. Advanced decay causes toothache and bad breath.
Treatment consists of drilling away the area of decay and filling the cavity (see filling, dental). In advanced decay, it may be necessary to remove the infected pulp (see extraction, dental).
Water fluoridation and the use of fluoride toothpaste helps prevent caries.
The risk of caries is also reduced by cutting sugar consumption, practising good oral hygiene, and visiting the dentist regularly.... BMA Medical Dictionary
Habitat: Throughout India.English: Christ's Thorn, Bengal Currant.Ayurvedic: Karinkaara, Karamarda, Krishnapaakphal, Kshirphena, Sushena, (Karamardakaa is equated with C. spinarum Linn.)Unani: Karondaa.Siddha/Tamil: Kalakke.
Action: Used for acidity, flatulence, poor digestion, as a slimming diet. Juice of the fresh plant is used for infected wounds that refuse to heal. Root—paste used for diabetic ulcer.The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India indicated the stem bark in obstinate skin diseases, and the root in urinary disorders.Alcoholic extract of roots exhibit hypotensive activity. Roots yield car- dioactive compounds; cardiotonic activity is due to glucoside of odoroside H. Fresh fruits are rich in ascorbic acid (105 g/100 g fruit juice). The seeds are rich in potassium (360 mg/100 g fresh matter).Dosage: Stem bark—48 g for decoction. (API Vol. II); root— 1-3 g (API Vol. III).... Indian Medicinal Plants
Habitat: Throughout the country in dry regions, especially in Punjab and Kashmir.Ayurvedic: Karamardikaa.Siddha/Tamil: Chirukila Chiru.Folk: Jangali Karondaa. Garnaa (Punjab).
Action: Plant—cardiotonic. Root— purgative.The root contains caffeic acid, cardiac glycosides—odorosides B, C, G and H, and evomonoside.Carissa paucinervia A. DC. is also equated with the wild var. ofKarondaa.... Indian Medicinal Plants
Carlah, Carlana, Carlee, Carleen, Carleigh, Carlena, Carlene, Carletta, Carlette, Carley, Carli, Carlia, Carlie, Carlina, Carlisa, Carlita, Carlla, Carly, Carlyn, Carlen, Carlin, Carling, Carlea, Carleah... Medical Dictionary
Allspice, Angelica, Aniseed, Balm, Calumba root, Caraway seed, Cardamom seed, Catmint, Cayenne, Centaury, Chamomile, Cinnamon, Cloves, Condurango, Coriander, Dill, Fennel, Galangal, Garlic, Gentian, Ginger (powder, crystallised, or tincture), Holy Thistle, Horseradish, Juniper, Kava Kava, Hyssop, Marjoram, Mugwort, Mustard, Nutmeg, Parsley, Peppermint, Sage, Southernwood, Thyme, Valerian, Wormwood.
Mixture: equal parts Aniseed, Caraway and Fennel. 1 teaspoon to each cup boiling water; infuse 15-20 minutes. 1 cup hot after meals. Crush seeds before use. (Dr Rudolf F. Weiss) ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine
Carnelyan, Carneliann, Carnelianne, Carnela, Carnelia... Medical Dictionary
Nutritional Profile Energy value (calories per serving): Moderate Protein: Moderate Fat: Low Saturated fat: Low Cholesterol: None Carbohydrates: High Fiber: High Sodium: Low Major vitamin contribution: Niacin Major mineral contribution: Calcium
About the Nutrients in This Food Carob flour, which is milled from the dried pod of a Mediterranean ever- green tree, Ceratonia siliqua, looks like cocoa but has a starchy, beanlike flavor. It can be mixed with sweeteners to make a cocoalike powder or combined with fats and sweeteners to produce a candy that looks like and has the same rich mouthfeel as milk chocolate but tastes more like honey. Ounce for ounce, carob, which is also known as locust bean gum, has more fiber and calcium but fewer calories than cocoa. Its carbohydrates include the sugars sucrose, D-mannose, and D-galactose. (D-galactose is a simple sugar that links up with other sugars to form the complex indigest- ible sugars raffinose and stachyose.) Carob also contains gums and pectins, the indigestible food fibers commonly found in seeds.
The Most Nutritious Way to Serve This Food As a substitute for cocoa or chocolate for people who are sensitive to chocolate.
Diets That May Restrict or Exclude This Food Low-carbohydrate diet
Buying This Food Look for: Tightly sealed containers that will protect the flour from moisture and insects.
Storing This Food Store carob flour in a cool, dark place in a container that protects it from air, moisture, and insects. Keep carob candy cool and dry.
Preparing This Food Measure out carob flour by filling a cup or tablespoon and leveling it off with a knife. To substitute carob for regular flour, use ¼ cup carob flour plus ¾ cup regular flour for each cup ordinary flour. To substitute for chocolate, use three tablespoons of carob flour plus two tablespoons of water for each ounce of unsweetened chocolate. Carob flour is sweeter than unsweetened chocolate.
What Happens When You Cook This Food Unlike cocoa powder, carob flour contains virtually no fat. It will burn, not melt, if you heat it in a saucepan. When the flour is heated with water, its starch granules absorb moisture and rupture, releasing a gum that can be used as a stabilizer, thickener, or binder in processed foods and cosmetics. In cake batters, it performs just like other flours (see flour).
Medical uses and/or Benefits Adsorbent and demulcent. Medically, carob flour has been used as a soothing skin powder. As a chocolate substitute. People who are sensitive to chocolate can usually use carob instead. Like cocoa beans, carob is free of cholesterol. Unlike cocoa, which contains the cen- tral-nervous-system stimulant caffeine and the muscle stimulant theobromine, carob does not contain any stimulating methylxanthines. Lower cholesterol levels. In 2001, a team of German nutrition researchers from the Institute for Nutritional Science at the University of Potsdam, the German Institute of Human Nutri- tion, Center for Conventional Medicine and Alternative Therapies (Berlin) Nutrinova Nutri- tion Specialties and Food Ingredients GmbH, and PhytoPharm Consulting, Institute for Phytopharmaceuticals GmbH conducted a study to evaluate carob’s effectiveness in lower- ing cholesterol. For a period of eight weeks, 47 volunteers with moderately high cholesterol levels (232– 302 mg/dL) were fed 15 g of carob per day in breakfast cereal, fruit grain bars, and a drink made from powdered carob pulp as supplements to their normal diet. After four weeks, the volunteers’ total cholesterol levels fell an average of 7 percent and their LDL (low density lipoprotein—“bad” cholesterol) levels fell an average 10.6 percent. At six weeks, the numbers were 7.8 percent and 10.6 percent. There was no effect on HDLs (high density lipoproteins, a.k.a. “good” cholesterol).... A Nutritional, Medical and Culinary Guide
The most important form, called beta-carotene, is an antioxidant that is converted in the intestines into vitamin A, which is essential for vision and the health of the skin and other organs.
Excessive intake of foods containing carotene may result in carotenaemia.... BMA Medical Dictionary
The left carotid arises from the aorta and runs up the neck on the left side of the trachea (windpipe). The right carotid arises from the subclavian artery (which branches off the aorta) and follows a similar route on the right side of the
neck. Just above the level of the larynx (voice-box), each carotid artery divides to form an external carotid artery and an internal carotid artery. The external arteries have multiple branches that supply most tissues in the face, scalp, mouth, and jaws; the internal arteries enter the skull to supply the brain and eyes. At the base of the brain, branches of the 2 internal carotids and the basilar artery join to form a ring of vessels called the circle of Willis. Narrowing of these vessels may be associated with transient ischaemic attack (TIA); obstruction of them causes a stroke. carpal tunnel syndrome Numbness, tingling, and pain in the thumb, index finger, and middle fingers caused by compression of the median nerve at the wrist. Symptoms may be worse at night. The condition results from pressure on the nerve where it passes into the hand via a gap (the “carpal tunnel’’) under a ligament at the front of the wrist. It is common among keyboard users. It also occurs without obvious cause in middleaged women, and is associated with pregnancy, initial use of oral contraceptives, premenstrual syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, myxoedema, and acromegaly.
The condition often disappears without treatment.
Persistent symptoms may be treated with a corticosteroid drug injected under the ligament, or the ligament may be cut to relieve pressure on the nerve.... BMA Medical Dictionary
Symptoms. Numbness or tingling in first three fingers which feel ‘clumsy’. Worse at night. Muscle wasting of palm of the hand.
Diagnostic sign: the ‘flick’ sign – shaking or ‘flicking’ of the wrist when pain is worse and which is believed to mechanically untether the nerve and promote return of venous blood. (J. Neural Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 1984, 47, 873)
Differential diagnosis: compression of seventh cervical spinal nerve root (osteopathic lesion) has tingling of the hands when standing or from exaggerated neck movements.
Treatment. Reduction of spasm with peripheral relaxants (antispasmodics). Also: local injection of corticosteroid or surgical division of the transverse carpal ligament.
Alternatives:– Tea. Equal parts. Chamomile, Hops, Valerian. 1 heaped teaspoon to each cup boiling water; infuse 15 minutes. 1 cup 2-3 times daily.
Tablets/capsules. Cramp bark. St John’s Wort. Wild Yam. Lobelia. Prickly Ash. Passion flower. Black Cohosh. Hawthorn.
Powders. Formula. Cramp bark 1; Guaiacum half; Black Cohosh half; Pinch Cayenne. Dose: 500mg (two 00 capsules or one-third teaspoon) 2-3 times daily.
Bromelain, quarter to half a teaspoon between meals.
Turmeric. Quarter to half a teaspoon between meals.
Tinctures. Formula: Cramp bark 1; Lobelia half; Black Cohosh half. Few drops Tincture Capsicum. Mix. 1 teaspoon in water when necessary. To reduce blood pressure, add half part Mistletoe.
Practitioner. For pain. Tincture Gelsemium BPC 1963 5-15 drops when necessary.
Topical. Rhus tox ointment. Camphorated oil.
Lotion: Tincture Lobelia 20; Tincture Capsicum 1.
Supplements. Condition responsive to Vitamin B6 and B-complex. Some authorities conclude that CTS is a primary deficiency of Vitamin B6, dose: 50-200mg daily.
General. Yoga, to control pain. Attention to kidneys. Diuretics may be required. Cold packs or packet of peas from the refrigerator to site of pain for 15 minutes daily. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine
FAMILY: Apiaceae (Umbelliferae)
SYNONYMS: Wild carrot, Queen Anne’s lace, bird’s nest.
GENERAL DESCRIPTION: Annual or biennial herb, with a small, inedible, tough whitish root. It has a much-branched stem up to 1.5 metres high with hairy leaves and umbels of white lacy flowers.
DISTRIBUTION: Native to Europe, Asia and North Africa; naturalized in North America. The essential oil is mainly produced in France.
OTHER SPECIES: An oil is also produced by solvent extraction from the red fleshy root of the common edible carrot (D. carota subspecies sativus) mainly for use as a food colouring.
HERBAL/FOLK TRADITION: A highly nutritious plant, containing substantial amounts of Vitamins A, C, B1 and B2. The roots have a strong tonic action on the liver and gall bladder, good for the treatment of jaundice and other complaints. The seeds are used for the retention of urine, colic, kidney and digestive disorders, and to promote menstruation. In the Chinese tradition it is used to treat dysentery and to expel worms.
The dried leaves are current in the British Herbal Pharmacopoeia for calculus, gout, cystitis and lithuria.
ACTIONS: Anthelmintic, antiseptic, carminative, depurative, diuretic, emmenagogue, hepatic, stimulant, tonic, vasodilatory and smooth muscle relaxant.
EXTRACTION: Essential oil by steam distillation from the dried fruit (seeds).
CHARACTERISTICS: A yellow or amber-coloured liquid with a warm, dry, woody-earthy odour. It blends well with costus, cassie, mimosa, cedarwood, geranium, citrus and spice oils.
PRINCIPAL CONSTITUENTS: Pinene, carotol, daucol, limonene, bisabolene, elemene, geraniol, geranyl acetate, caryophyllene, among others.
SAFETY DATA: Non-toxic, non-irritant, non-sensitizing.
Skin Care: Dermatitis, eczema, psoriasis, rashes, revitalizing and toning, mature complexions, wrinkles.
Circulation Muscles And Joints: Accumulation of toxins, arthritis, gout, oedema, rheumatism.
Digestive System: Anaemia, anorexia, colic, indigestion, liver congestion.
Genito-Urinary And Endocrine Systems: Amenorrhoea, dysmenorrhoea, glandular problems, PMT.
OTHER USES: Fragrance component in soaps, detergents, cosmetics and perfumes. Flavour ingredient in most major food categories, especially seasonings.... The Encyclopedia of Essential Oils
Nutritional Profile Energy value (calories per serving): Low Protein: Moderate Fat: Low Saturated fat: Low Cholesterol: None Carbohydrates: High Fiber: High Sodium: Moderate Major vitamin contribution: Vitamin A Major mineral contribution: Potassium
About the Nutrients in This Food Carrots are high-fiber food, roots whose crispness comes from cell walls stiffened with the insoluble dietary fibers cellulose and lignin. Carrots also contain soluble pectins, plus appreciable amounts of sugar (mostly sucrose) and a little starch. They are an extraordinary source of vitamin A derived from deep yellow carotenoids (including beta-carotene). One raw carrot, about seven inches long, has two grams of dietary fiber and 20,250 IU vitamin A (nine times the R DA for a woman, seven times the R DA for a man).
The Most Nutritious Way to Serve This Food Cooked, so that the cellulose- and hemicellulose-stiffened cell walls of the carrot have partially dissolved and the nutrients inside are more readily available.
Diets That May Restrict or Exclude This Food Disaccharide-intolerance diet (for people who are sucrase- and /or invertase-deficient) Low-fiber diet Low-sodium diet (fresh and canned carrots)
Buying This Food Look for: Firm, bright orange yellow carrots with fresh, crisp green tops. Avoid: Wilted or shriveled carrots, pale carrots, or carrots with brown spots on the skin.
Storing This Food Trim off the green tops before you store carrots. The leaf y tops will wilt and rot long before the sturdy root. Keep carrots cool. They will actually gain vitamin A during their first five months in storage. Protected from heat and light, they can hold to their vitamins at least another two and a half months. Store carrots in perforated plastic bags or containers. Circulating air prevents the for- mation of the terpenoids that make the carrots taste bitter. Do not store carrots near apples or other fruits that manufacture ethylene gas as they continue to ripen; this gas encourages the development of terpenoids. Store peeled carrots in ice water in the refrigerator to keep them crisp for as long as 48 hours.
Preparing This Food Scrape the carrots. Ver y young, tender carrots can be cleaned by scrubbing with a veg- etable brush. Soak carrots that are slightly limp in ice water to firm them up. Don’t discard slightly wilted intact carrots; use them in soups or stews where texture doesn’t matter.
What Happens When You Cook This Food Since carotenes do not dissolve in water and are not affected by the normal heat of cooking, carrots stay yellow and retain their vitamin A when you heat them. But cooking will dissolve some of the hemicellulose in the carrot’s stiff cell walls, changing the vegetable’s texture and making it easier for digestive juices to penetrate the cells and reach the nutrients inside.
How Other Kinds of Processing Affect This Food Freezing. The characteristic crunchy texture of fresh carrots depends on the integrity of its cellulose- and hemicellulose-stiffened cell walls. Freezing cooked carrots creates ice crystals that rupture these membranes so that the carrots usually seem mushy when defrosted. If possible, remove the carrots before freezing a soup or stew and add fresh or canned carrots when you defrost the dish.
Medical Uses and/or Benefits A reduced risk of some kinds of cancer. According to the American Cancer Society, carrots and other foods rich in beta-carotene, a deep yellow pigment that your body converts to a form of vitamin A, may lower the risk of cancers of the larynx, esophagus and lungs. There is no such benefit from beta-carotene supplements; indeed, one controversial study actually showed a higher rate of lung cancer among smokers taking the supplement. Protection against vitamin A-deficiency blindness. In the body, the vitamin A from carrots becomes 11-cis retinol, the essential element in rhodopsin, a protein found in the rods (the cells inside your eyes that let you see in dim light). R hodopsin absorbs light, triggering the chain of chemical reactions known as vision. One raw carrot a day provides more than enough vitamin A to maintain vision in a normal healthy adult.
Adverse Effects Associated with This Food Oddly pigmented skin. The carotenoids in carrots are fat-soluble. If you eat large amounts of carrots day after day, these carotenoids will be stored in your fatty tissues, including the fat just under your skin, and eventually your skin will look yellow. If you eat large amounts of carrots and large amounts of tomatoes (which contain the red pigment lycopene), your skin may be tinted orange. This effect has been seen in people who ate two cups of carrots and two tomatoes a day for several months; when the excessive amounts of these vegetables were eliminated from the diet, skin color returned to normal. False-positive test for occult blood in the stool. The active ingredient in the guaiac slide test for hidden blood in feces is alphaguaiaconic acid, a chemical that turns blue in the presence of blood. Carrots contain peroxidase, a natural chemical that also turns alphaguaiaconic acid blue and may produce a positive test in people who do not actually have blood in the stool.... A Nutritional, Medical and Culinary Guide
Cartar, Cartrell, Cartier... Medical Dictionary
Habitat: Cultivated mainly as an oil-seed crop in Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra.English: Safflower.Ayurvedic: Kusumbha, Vahin- shikhaa, Vastraranjaka, Kusum.Unani: Qurtum.Siddha/Tamil: Chendurakam.
Action: Oil—aids prevention of arteriosclerosis, coronary heart disease and kidney disorders as a polyunsaturated fat. Flowers— stimulant, sedative, diuretic, emmenagogue; used in fevers and eruptive skin conditions, measles.Charred safflower oil is used in rheumatism and for healing sores.Key application: Dried flowers— in cardiovascular diseases, amen- orrhoea, dysmenorrhoea and retention of lochia; also in wounds and sores with pain and swelling. (Pharmocopoeia of the People's Republic of China, 1997.)Safflower contains carthamone, lig- nans and a polysaccharide. The polysaccharide, composed of xylose, fructose, galactose, glucose, arabinose, rhamnose and uronic acid residues, stimulates immune function in mice. It induced antibody formation in mice following peritoneal injection. Extracts of flowers have also been tested in China on blood coagulation, where a prolongation of clothing time was observed and platelet aggregation inhibited. Chinese research indicates that Safflower flowers can reduce coronary artery disease, and lower cholesterol levels. Flowers and seeds exhibit lipase activity. The flower extract also exhibited anti-inflammatory, sedative and analgesic effect and inhibitory effect on spontaneous motor activity.The plant contains a propanetriol derivative, which can be used for the treatment of circulatory disorders.Recent research suggests that improving the lipid profile might not be as important to reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease as suggested. (Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, 2007.)Safflower is contraindicated in pregnancy, gastric disorders, excessive menstruation, haemorrhagic diseases.Wild and thorny Safflower, growing in the arid tract of Haryana and Punjab (locally known as Kantiaari, Poli, Poiyan) is equated with C. oxy- cantha Bieb. The plant is diuretic. Seed oil is applied topically to ulcers. The plant contains a sesquiterpene gly- coside. Aerial parts contain hinesol- beta-D-fucopyranoside. The plant also contains luteolin-7-glucoside.Dosage: Leaf—3-6 g powder. (CCRAS.)... Indian Medicinal Plants
Bone an important structural component of various parts of the skeletal system, inSynovial cluding the joints. fluid There are 3 main Hyaline types. Hyaline carcartilage tilage is a tough, smooth tissue that lines the surfaces of joints. Fibrocartilage is solid and strong and makes up the intervertebral discs that are situated between the bones of the spine and the shock-absorbing pads in joints. Elastic cartilage is soft and rubbery and found in structures such as the outer ear and the epiglottis.... BMA Medical Dictionary
Habitat: Cultivated in the hills and plains of North India and in the hills of South India.English: Black Caraway.Ayurvedic: Krishna jiraka, Kaash- mira jirak.Unani: Jiraa Siyaah, Kamoon- armani.Siddha/Tamil: Shemai-shiragam, Pilappu-shiragam.
Action: See C. carvi.... Indian Medicinal Plants
Habitat: Native to Europe and West Asia. Now cultivated in Bihar, Orissa, Punjab, Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, and in the hills of Kumaon, Garhwal, Kashmir and Chamba.Also found wild in the North Himalayan regions.English: Caraway.Ayurvedic: Krishna jiraka, Jiraa, Kaaravi, Asita Jiraka, Kaashmira- jiraka, Prithvikaa, Upakunchikaa, Sugandha Udgaar, Shodhana.Unani: Zeeraa Siyaah, Kamoon, Kamoon-roomi.Siddha/Tamil: Shimai-shembu, Semai Seearagam, Karamjiragam.
Action: Carminative, antispas- modic, antimicrobial, expectorant, galactagogue, emmenagogue.Key application: Seed oil—in dyspeptic problems, such as mild, sapstic conditions of the gastrointestinal tract, bloating and fullness. (German Commission E, ESCOP, The British Herbal Pharmacopoeia.) The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India recommended the seed in chronic fevers.The fruit contains a volatile oil consisting of carvone (40-60%) and limoline with other constituents; flavonoids, mainly quercetin derivatives, polysac- charides and a fixed oil; also calcium oxalate.The antispasmodic and carminative effects have been confirmed experimentally. The caraway has shown to reduce gastrointestinal foam.Both the seeds and the essential oil are classed as carminative in I.P.The essential oil shows moderate antibacterial and antifungal activity against several bacteria and fungi. Mixed with alcohol and castor oil, it is used for scabies.Dosage: Seed—1-3 g powder. (CCRAS.)... Indian Medicinal Plants
Carya, Cariatis, Caryatiss, Cariatiss, Caryatys, Cariatys, Caryatyss, Cariatyss... Medical Dictionary
Habitat: California and British Columbia. Features ? Bark in quills about three-quarter inch wide by one-sixteenth inch thick,furrowed-longitudinally, purplish-brown in colour. Inner surface longitudinallystriated, transversely wrinkled. Fracture pale brown, or dark brown when older.Persistently bitter taste, leather-like odour.Older bark is preferred, younger sometimes griping. Part used ? Bark.
Action: Tonic laxative.In habitual constipation due to sluggishness and atony of the lower bowel, and for digestive disorders generally. Doses for chronic constipation, firstly 1/2 to 1 teaspoonful at bedtime, afterwards 5-10 drops before each meal, of the fluid extract.... Herbal Manual
Constituent: to 10 per cent anthraquinone glycosides. Bark – after maturing for one year.
Action: Non-habit forming stimulant laxative, pancreatic stimulant, bitter tonic.
Keynote: stool softener.
Uses: habitual constipation, torpor of low bowel, congestion of liver and gall duct. To assist liver function in cirrhosis. Foul breath.
Sometimes combined with Cardamom, Coriander or Cumin as a precaution against griping. A common ingredient with Figwort, Witch Hazel or Stone root for piles.
Preparations: Once daily.
Tablets: 150mg. 1-2 when necessary.
Liquid Extract: half-1 teaspoon in water, at bedtime; honey to sweeten. Powdered bark: 1 to 2 and a half grams.
Excessive dosage may result in dehydration with low potassium levels. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine
SYNONYMS: Cascarilla, sweetwood bark, sweet bark, Bahama cascarilla, aromatic quinquina, false quinquina.
GENERAL DESCRIPTION: A large shrub or small tree up to 12 metres high, with ovate silver-bronze leaves, pale yellowish-brown bark and small white fragrant flowers. It bears fruits and flowers all year round.
DISTRIBUTION: Native to the West Indies, probably the Bahama Islands; found growing wild in Mexico, Colombia and Ecuador. The oil is mainly produced in the Bahamas and Cuba; some distillation takes place in America, France and England from the imported bark.
OTHER SPECIES: An essential oil is also distilled locally from other Croton species. White, red and black cascarillas are also found in commerce.
HERBAL/FOLK TRADITION: The bark is used as an aromatic bitter and tonic for dyspepsia, diarrhoea, dysentery, fever, debility, nausea, flatulence, vomiting and chronic bronchitis. The leaves are used as a digestive tea, and for flavouring tobacco. The bark also yields a good black dye.
ACTIONS: Astringent, antimicrobial, antiseptic, carminative, digestive, expectorant, stomachic, tonic.
EXTRACTION: Essential oil by steam distillation from the dried bark. (1.5–3 per cent yield).
CHARACTERISTICS: A pale yellow, greenish or dark amber liquid with a spicy, aromatic, warm-woody odour. It blends well with nutmeg, pepper, pimento, sage, oakmoss, oriental and spicy bases.
PRINCIPAL CONSTITUENTS: Cymene, diterpene, limonene, caryophyllene, terpineol and eugenol, among others.
SAFETY DATA: Non-irritant, non-sensitizing, relatively non-toxic (possibly narcotic in large doses).
Respiratory System: Bronchitis, coughs
Digestive System: Dyspepsia, flatulence, nausea.
Immune System: ’Flu.
OTHER USES: Fragrance component in soaps, detergents, cosmetics and perfumes, especially men’s fragrances. Flavour ingredient in most major food categories, soft drinks and alcoholic beverages, especially vermouths and bitters.... The Encyclopedia of Essential Oils
Habitat: Throughout the warmer parts of India, from Jammu and Rajasthan to Assam and up to 300 m.Ayurvedic: Gandira.Siddha/Tamil: Tumans.
Action: Leaves, seeds, roots— astringent, applied to ulcers and boils. Leaves—diaphoretic (recommended in high fever). Root- given in anaemic conditions. Aerial parts—CNS active, hypothermic. The stems, leaves and roots contain hydrocyanic acid. Presence of delphinidin and cyanidin is reported in the leaves.... Indian Medicinal Plants
If a woman has a hydatidiform mole, she is screened regularly after treatment using ultrasound scanning and tests to measure blood and urine levels of the hormone human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG).
High levels HCG of are associated with choreocarcinoma.
Treatment is with anticancer drugs.... BMA Medical Dictionary
Habitat: Northwestern Rajasthan, Punjab plains and Delhi.Unani: Panwaar.Folk: Madhio (Rajasthan).
Action: Anti-inflammatory, antirheumatic, antidermatosis (used in scabies, also in leucoderma).The plant contains trinortriterpe- noids and cabralealactone, besides ur- solic acid.... Indian Medicinal Plants
Since April 1993, local social-services departments have been responsible for assessing what help people need from community-care services: these can include home helps, meals on wheels, sheltered housing, etc. Recipients of such services are means-tested and make variable contributions towards the costs. Policies on charging vary from one area to another and there are wide geographical variations in the range of services provided free and the charges levied for others.
People with complex needs may be assigned a case manager to coordinate the care package and ensure that appropriate responses are made to changing circumstances. The success of community care hinges on e?ective coordination of the services of an often large number of providers from the health and social-services sectors. Poor communication between sectors and inadequate coordination of services have been among the most common complaints about the community-care reforms.
Health care for people being cared for in the community remains largely free under the NHS arrangements, although there are regular debates about where the boundaries should be drawn between free health services and means-tested social care. A distinction has been made between necessary nursing care (funded by the state) and normal personal care (the responsibility of the patient), but the dividing line often proves hard to de?ne.
As care has shifted increasingly into the community, previous hospital facilities have become redundant. Vast numbers of beds in long-stay geriatric hospitals and in-patient psychiatric wards have been closed. There is now concern that too few beds remain to provide essential emergency and respite services. In some areas, patients ?t for discharge are kept in hospital because of delay in setting up community services for the elderly, or because of the inability of the local authority to fund appropriate care in a nursing home or at home with community-care support for other patients; the resulting BED-BLOCKING has an adverse e?ect on acutely ill patients needing hospital admission.
Community care, if correctly funded and coordinated, is an excellent way of caring for people with long-term needs, but considerable work is still needed in Britain to ensure that all patients have access to high-quality community care when they need it. Problems in providing such are are not con?ned to the UK.... Medical Dictionary
Habitat: Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh and Peninsular India.Ayurvedic: Shukanaasaa, Nahikaa, Katunaahi, Paataala-garudaa.(Cocculus hirsutus is used as Paataala-garudi).Siddha/Tamil: Kollankovai, Aaakaasagarudam.
Action: Laxative. Root used during later stages of dysentery and chronic mucous enteritis; also in syphilitic rheumatism. The herb shows no apparent effect on acute dysentery.The root contains a bitter principle allied to bryonin.... Indian Medicinal Plants
The new Council for Healthcare Regulatory Excellence will help to promote the interests of patients and to improve co-operation between the existing regulatory bodies – providing, in e?ect, a quality-control mechanism for their activities. The government and relevant professions will nominate individuals for this overarching council. The new council will not have the authority to intervene in the determination by the eight regulatory bodies of individual ?tness-to-practise cases unless these concern complaints about maladministration.... Medical Dictionary
Habitat: Damp situations in Uttar Pradesh and eastern and southern parts of India.English: Nut grass.Ayurvedic: Bhadramustaa, Musta, Amoda, Naagaramustaka. (Naagara is a different drug, equated with Zingiber officinale Rosc.)Siddha: Korai-kilangu (Tamil).Folk: Naagara-mothaa.
Action: Essential oil—hypotensive, anti-inflammatory, CNS stimulant, antimicrobial. Rhizome—stomachic, cordial, antidiarrhoeal and diuretic.See C. rotundus.... Indian Medicinal Plants
Habitat: Native to Europe and the Mediterranean region; extensively cultivated in Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh for its fleshy tap roots which are eaten raw or cooked. Wild Carrot: Native to Europe, Africa and Asia. Grows at 3,000-3,600 m in the Himalayas.English: Carrot, Cultivated Carrot. Wild carrot (D. carota Linn.wild var.: the root, small and white), Queen Anne's Lace, Bird's Nest. Bees' Nest Plant.Ayurvedic: Gaajara, Garjara, Granjana.Unani: Gaajar.
Action: Roasted roots—prescribed in palpitation, burning micturation, cough and bronchitis. Carrot increases the quantity of urine and helps the elimination of uric acid; also lowers blood sugar. Juice—a rich source of carotene. Seeds—diuretic, emmenagogue, spasmolytic (prescribed in anuria and sexual debility). Wild carrot— diuretic and antilithic (used for kidney stones, cystitis and in gout). Seeds—emmenagogue. Also used for hot flushes of the menopause.In cooked (orange) carrots beta- carotene content (1890 mcg) was found much higher than in raw carrots- (1045 mcg/100 g). Heat processing of carrots affected alpha- and beta-carotene contents; their value decreased (3.7; 5.3) in water blanching, whereas increased (5.8; 8.2) in steam blanching compared to that in fresh carrots (5.2; 8.1 mg/100 g) respectively.An interferon inducer has been isolated from carrot. It stimulates cells to produce the protein that increases human resistance to virus infections.Aqueous extract of carrots showed hepatoprotective activity against CCl4- induced hepatic damage in mice liver.The ethanolic extract exhibits direct relaxant action on cardiac and smooth muscle preparation and this action may be responsible for its hypotensive action. (Gently heated peeled roots, mixed with sugar candy, are given as a hypotensive drug.)The ethanolic extract of seeds exhibited diuretic effect in dogs.The British Herbal Pharmacopoeia recommends Daucus carota Linn. (wild carrot) for its diuretic activity. Wild carrot contains flavones including apigenin, chypsin, luteolin; flavonols including kaempferol, quer- cetin and various glycosides. The fura- nocoumarins, 8-methoxypsoralen and 5-methoxypsoralen are found in the plant. The seed oil contains terpinen- 4-ol, a renal irritant. It is believed to cause diuretic activity.... Indian Medicinal Plants
Frequent intake of sugar as well as poor oral hygiene is a major cause. The disease is more common in young people and has a predilection for specific sites. Dental caries can be most effectively prevented by restricting the frequency of sugar intake and avoiding sweet food and drinks at bedtime. The resistance of enamel to dental caries can be increased by the application of *fluoride salts to the tooth surface from toothpastes or mouth rinses. *Fluoridation of water also makes teeth resistant to caries during the period of tooth development. Once caries has spread into the dentine, treatment usually consists of removing the decayed part of the tooth using a *drill and replacing it with a *filling.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary
DHSC section of the website: provides information on a wide range of public health issues... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary
Habitat: Kashmir; commonly grown in gardens, especially on the hills.English: Carnation, Clove Pink.
Action: Flowers—diaphoretic, alexiteric, cardiac tonic. whole plant—vermifuge. Juice of plant antiviral.Leaves contain glucoproteins.A related species, Dicentra anatoli- cus Boiss, found in the Western Himalayas, is used as an antiperiodic in intermittent fevers.... Indian Medicinal Plants
Habitat: Sub-tropical Himalaya from Himachal Pradesh to Aruna- chal Pradesh at 500-2,500 m.Ayurvedic: Kshudra-Paashaana- bheda, Shilaa-valkaa, Shilaa- pushpa.
Action: Leaf—antilithic. Used for stones in kidney and bladder.The leaves contain a number of chal- cones, quinochalcones and flavanones. Pediflavone has also been isolated from young leaves.... Indian Medicinal Plants
Habitat: The Andamans.English: Gurjun.Ayurvedic: Ashwakarna, Garjan, Shveta-Garjan, Jarandruma.
Action: Decoction of the bark is prescribed in rheumatism. Oil— applied to ulcerated wounds. Balsam—applied externally in gonorrhoea.Dipterocarpus resin gave sesquiter- penoids. The essential oil contains 2 sesquiterpenoids of eudesmane series.... Indian Medicinal Plants
Habitat: The Andamans and Assam.English: Common Gurjun tree, Wood Oil tree.Ayurvedic: Ajakarna, Chhaagakar- na, Ashwakarna.Siddha/Tamil: Enney, Saara.Folk: Gurjan.
Action: Oleo-resin (known as Gurjan Oil or Gurjan Balsam)— stimulant to genitourinary system, diuretic, spasmolytic; used externally on ulcers, ringworm and other cutaneous affections. Bark—a decoction is prescribed rheumatism.Essential oil from oleo-resin contained humulene, beta-caryophyllene, a bicyclic sesquiterpene hydrocarbon and a sesquiterpene alcohol.The twig bark contains 9% tannin and 7.3% soluble non-tans.Dosage: Oil—3-5 ml. (CCRAS.)... Indian Medicinal Plants
The 2 main dopa-decarboxylase inhibitors, co-beneldopa and co-careldopa, are a combination of levodopa and benserazide and levodopa and carbidopa respectively.
These drugs prevent levodopa from being activated except within the brain, which reduces the incidence of side effects such as nausea and vomiting.... BMA Medical Dictionary
Treatment. Agents in frequent use: Broom, Lily of the Valley, Hawthorn (blossoms or berries), Motherwort.
Tea. Combine equal parts: Dandelion root, Motherwort, Yarrow. 2 teaspoons to each cup boiling water; infuse 5-15 minutes; 1 cup thrice daily.
Powders. Equal parts: Dandelion root, Juniper berries, Hawthorn berries. Mix. Dose: 500mg (two 00 capsules or one-third teaspoon).
Practitioner. Lily of the Valley. Dose as BHP (1983): Liquid Extract: 1:1 in 25 per cent alcohol, 0.6-2ml. Tincture: 1:5 in 40 per cent alcohol, 0.5-1ml. Thrice daily.
Dropsy in children: cucumber juice extracted from vegetable with aid of a juicer. As many cupfuls as well-tolerated. If vomiting is induced, it should be regarded as favourable.
Diet. Lacto-vegetarian, salt-free, bottled or spring water, honey. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine
Pain can be relieved by regular low doses of analgesic drugs. Opioid analgesics, such as morphine, may be given if pain is severe. Other methods of pain relief include nerve blocks, cordotomy, and TENS. Nausea and vomiting may be controlled by drugs. Constipation can be treated with laxatives. Breathlessness is another common problem in the dying and may be relieved by morphine.
Towards the end, the dying person may be restless and may suffer from breathing difficulty due to heart failure or pneumonia. These symptoms can be relieved by drugs and by placing the patient in a more comfortable position.
Emotional care is as important as the relief of physical symptoms.
Many dying people feel angry or depressed and feelings of guilt or regret are common responses.
Loving, caring support from family, friends, and others is important.
Many terminally ill people prefer to die at home.
Few terminally ill patients require complicated nursing for a prolonged period.
Care in a hospice may be offered.
Hospices are small units that have been established specifically to care for the dying and their families.... BMA Medical Dictionary
A transducer (an instrument that sends out and receives sound signals) is placed on the chest, or an ultrasound probe is passed into the oesophagus using a flexible endoscope. Ultrasound waves are reflected differently by each part of the heart, resulting in a complex series of echoes, which are viewed on a screen and can be recorded or the results printed out. Developments such as multiple moving transducers and computer analysis give clear anatomical pictures of the heart.
Doppler echocardiography measures the velocity of blood flow through the heart, allowing assessment of structural abnormalities, such as septal defects.... BMA Medical Dictionary
Habitat: West Bengal, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh, Western Ghats.English: Utrasum Bead tree.Ayurvedic: Rudraaksha, Panch- mukhi.Siddha/Tamil: Rudraaksham.
Action: Fruit—used for epileptic fits and headache. Powdered fruits (0.5 g) mixed with warm water are given two/three times daily in asthma. Stem bark— hypoglycaemic.The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India indicated the use of the seed in hypertension, insomnia, psychoneurosis and mental diseases.The fruits contain palmitic, iso- palmitic, linoleic and myristic acids. Leaves gave alkaloids—rudrakine, (+)- elacocarpine and (+)-iso-elacocarpine; phenolics—quercetin, gallic acid and ellagic acid. EtOH (50%) extract of stem bark—hypoglycaemic. Aqueous extract of fruits—sedative, hy- potensive, spasmolytic, anticonvul- sant, choleretic, bronchodilatory and cardiostimulant.The fruit of E. oblongus Mast. non- Gaertn., synonym E. glandulosus Wall. ex Merrill (Western Ghats) is used in mental disorders and tetanus.Dosage: Seed—1-2 g. (API Vol. IV.)Siddha/Tamil: Ruthracham, Pagumbar.Folk: Rudirak, Bhutali.
Action: Bark—stomachic, antibil- ious. Used in haematemesis. Nut— antiepileptic, antirheumatic.The leaves gave quercetin, kaempfer- ol, gallic acid and ethylgallate.... Indian Medicinal Plants
Habitat: Eastern Himalayas and Western Ghats up to 1,000 m. English: Wild Olive tree, Ceylon Olive.Ayurvedic: Rudraaksha (var.). Siddha/Tamil: Uttraccham, Ulankarei.
Action: Leaf—antirheumatic. Fruit—antidysenteric. Aerial parts—CVS and CNS active.The leaves gave ellagic acid, myric- itrin, myricetin and mearnsetin. Fruit pulp gave citric acid and D-galactose. It contains pectin (2.57% fresh weight basis).... Indian Medicinal Plants
Habitat: Throughout India, also planted as an ornamental.Ayurvedic: Krishnamokshaka.Siddha/Tamil: Selluppaimaram.Folk: Kaalaa-mokhaa, Ratangaruur. Jamrasi (gum).
Action: Astringent, anti- inflammatory, emetic.The bark and the leaves contain 813.5 and 8-15% tannin respectively.Powdered leaves have a sternutatory action and are used as snuff to relieve headache and as a fumigatory in hysteria (in folk medicine it is believed that the smoke wards off ghosts.)Fresh root bark is rubbed into a paste with water and applied to swellings. A cold water extract of the crushed roots is used as an emetic (fatal in overdoses).Family: Elaeocarpaceae.
Habitat: Western Ghats from Kanara southwards. Ayurvedic: Rudraaksha (var.).... Indian Medicinal Plants
A method of recording the electrical activity of the heart muscles. Electrodes from a recording machine (electrocardiograph) are placed on the skin of the chest wall, arms and legs. The record of the electrical changes is called an ECG (electrocardiogram). The number of electrodes used depends on the complexity of the heart disorder being monitored. The procedure can be done in hospital, doctors’ surgeries and the patient’s home, and should not cause any discomfort.
In certain circumstances – for example, where a person has had bouts of chest pain – an exercise ECG may be performed under medical supervision. The patient walks on a treadmill while the ECG is recorded continuously.... Medical Dictionary
Habitat: Throughout warmer parts of India.Ayurvedic: Mayura-shikhaa, Gojihvaa. (Actinopteris dichotoma Bedd. and Celosia cristata Linn. are also used as Mayura-shikhaa. Anchusa strigosa Lebill., and other Boraginaecae sp. are used as Gojihvaa.)Siddha/Tamil: Yaanaichhuvadi.Folk: Mayurjuti, Maaraajuti.
Action: Plant—astringent, cardiac tonic, diuretic, mucilaginous, emmolient (used in dysuria, diarrhoea, dysentery. Leaves—Family: Zingiberaceae.
Habitat: Cultivated either as pure plantation crop, or as subsidiary to coffee and arecanut in hilly forests regions of Western Ghats in Karnataka and Kerala, and in parts of Madurai, the Nilgiris and Tirunelveli in Tamil Nadu.English: Lesser Cardamom.Ayurvedic: Elaa, Sukshmailaa, Kshudrailaa, Bhrngaparnikaa, Tutthaa, Draavidi, Prithvikaa, Triputaa, Truti, Upkunchikaa.Unani: Heel Khurd.Siddha/Tamil: Yelakkai, Ilam.
Action: Carminative antiemetic, stomachic, orexigenic, anti-gripe, antiasthmatic, bechic, Oil— antispasmodic, antiseptic. Used for flatulence, loss of appetite, colic, bronchitis, asthma. Paste used as balm for headache, husk for rheumatism.Key application: In dyspepsia; also as cholagogue. (German Commission E.)The seeds yield an essential oil (611% dry basis). The major constituents are, 1,8-cineole and alpha-terpinylace- tate, with limonene, alpha-terpineol, sabinene and linalool. The seeds contain palmitic and oleic as dominant fatty acids, besides linoleic and linolenic acids, along with alpha-tocopherol, desmosterol and campesterol.The extracts of cardamom cause a significant decrease in gastric secretion after 3 h of treatment. The effect of methanol extract is primarily observed as decreased pepsin output.Terpineol and acetylterpineol, the active principles of cardamom seeds, showed greater penetration enhancing capacities than Azone which was used as a comparative penetration enhancer for the diffusion of Pred- nisolone through mouse skin in vitro.Volatile components exhibit antimicrobial activity. The oil inhibits afla- toxin synthesis.The cardamom seed can trigger gallstone colic (spasmodic pain) and is not recommended for self-medication in patients with gallstone. (German Commission E, PDR, Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, 2007.)Dosage: Seed of dried fruit—1-2 g powder. (API Vol I.)... Indian Medicinal Plants
Affects more women than men, ages 20 to 40 years. Most cases have a history of rheumatic fever as a child. Thickening of the valves renders them less efficient in regulating the flow of blood through the heart thus allowing leakage by improper closure. Increased effort is required from the heart muscle to pump blood through the narrowed valves giving rise to fatigue and possible heart failure.
Prolapsus of the mitral valve is now recognised as predisposing to bacterial endocarditis. It is concluded that herbal antibiotic prophylaxis is justified in heart patients undergoing dental extraction, or other surgery where there is exposure to infection.
Symptoms: Breathlessness on exertion. Swelling of legs and ankles, palpitations, fainting, blue tinge to the skin and a permanent pink flush over the cheek bones. Clubbing of fingers. Enlarged spleen. Stethoscope reveals valvular regurgitation. The most common organism remains streptococcus viridans, by mouth. It may reach the heart by teeth extraction, scaling and intensive cleaning which may draw blood, posing a risk by bacteria.
Treatment. Acute conditions should be under the authority of a heart specialist in an Intensive Care Unit.
Absolute bedrest to relieve stress on the heart’s valves. For acute infection: Penicillin (or other essential antibiotics). Alternatives, of limited efficacy: Echinacea, Myrrh, Wild Indigo, Nasturtium, Holy Thistle. Avoid: excitement, chills, colds, fatigue and anything requiring extra cardiac effort. Convalescence will be long (weeks to months) during which resumption to normal activity should be gradual.
Aconite. With full bounding pulse and restless fever. Five drops Tincture Aconite to half a glass (100ml) water. 2 teaspoons hourly until temperature falls.
To sustain heart. Tincture Convallaria (Lily of the Valley), 5-15 drops, thrice daily.
To stimulate secretion of urine. Tincture Bearberry, 1-2 teaspoons, thrice daily.
Rheumatic conditions. Tincture Colchicum, 10-15 drops, thrice daily.
Various conventional treatments of the past can still be used with good effect: Tincture Strophanthus, 5 to 15 drops. Liquid Extract Black Cohosh, 15 to 30 drops. Spirits of Camphor, 5 to 10 drops. Bugleweed (American), 10 to 30 drops. To increase body strength: Echinacea. To sustain heart muscle: Hawthorn. Endocarditis with severe headache: Black Cohosh.
Teas: single or in combination (equal parts) – Nettles, Motherwort, Red Clover flowers, Lime flowers. 2 teaspoons to each cup boiling water; infuse 15 minutes. 1 cup 2-3 times daily.
Decoction: equal parts: Hawthorn berries, Echinacea root, Lily of the Valley leaves. Mix. 2 teaspoons to each 2 cups water in a non-aluminium vessel, gently simmer 10 minutes. Dose: 1 cup 2-3 times daily. Formula. Echinacea 20; Cactus 10; Hawthorn 10; Goldenseal 2. Mix. Dose: Powders: 750mg (three 00 capsules or half a teaspoon). Liquid extracts: 1-2 teaspoons. Tinctures: 1-3 teaspoons. Thrice daily.
Diet. See entry: DIET – HEART AND CIRCULATION. Pineapple juice. Treatment by or in liaison with general medical practitioner or cardiologist. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine
Endocarditis may be either subacute or acute. In the subacute form, symptoms are general and nonspecific, although serious damage may be caused to a heart valve; the sufferer may complain of fatigue, feverishness, and vague aches and pains. On physical examination, the only evident abnormality may be a heart murmur. Acute endocarditis, which occurs less frequently, comes on suddenly, and causes severe chills, high fever, shortness of breath, and rapid or irregular heartbeat. The infection progresses quickly and may destroy the heart valves, leading to heart failure.
Endocarditis is diagnosed by physical examination and analysis of blood samples.
Tests on the heart may include ECG, echocardiography, and angiography.
Treatment is with high doses of antibiotic drugs, which are usually given intravenously.
Heart-valve surgery may be needed to replace a damaged valve.... BMA Medical Dictionary
A chronic condition, endomyocardial fibrosis, is seen in Black Africans: the cause is unknown.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary
Habitat: The coastal and tidal forests of India.English: Blinding tree.Siddha/Tamil: Kampetti, Tillai, Agil, Ambala-vrksham.Folk: Gevaa, Huraa (Maharashtra). Gangawaa.
Action: Latex—antileprotic. The latex blisters the skin and is reported to cause blindness if it enters the eye. The juice, boiled in oil, is applied in rheumatism, paralysis and leprosy.The leaves are toxic and contain gallo tannins (0.616 mg/g dry weight). Fresh twigs and bark contain a piscici- dal component. The latex is biocidal.... Indian Medicinal Plants
Habitat: Native to the Mediterranean region; now cultivated in Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Punjab, Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra.English: Common Fig.Ayurvedic: Phalgu, Manjul, Raajodumbara, Bhadrodumbara.Unani: Anjeer, Teen.Siddha/Tamil: Semaiatti.
Action: Fruit—gentle laxative and expectorant. Syrup of figs— a remedy for mild constipation. Fruit pulp-analgesic and anti- inflammatory, used for treating tumours, swellings and gum abscesses. Latex—analgesic and toxic. Used for treating warts, insect bites and stings. Leaf—used in lucoderma. Bark—used for eczema and other skin diseases.Key application: As a laxative. (Included among unapproved herbs by German Commission E.)The leaves gave bergapten, psoralen, taraxasterol, beta-sitosterol, rutin and a sapogenin. Calotropenyl acetate, lep- eol acetate and oleanolic acid have been identified in the leaves.Three peptides which exhibit action against angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) have been isolated from the fresh latex. Their inhibitory activity is similar to that of ACE inhibitors derived from casein. (ACE catalyzes both the production of vasoconstrictor angiotensin II and the inactivation of the vasodilator bradykinin.)Dosage: Fruit—10-20 ml juice; 510 g paste. (CCRAS.)... Indian Medicinal Plants
Habitat: West Bengal, Bihar, Central and Peninsular India and Andaman Islands. Grown in gardens, and as an avenue tree. Quite common in New Delhi.Ayurvedic: Plaksha (related sp.).Siddha/Tamil: Kal Ichi.Folk: Itti.
Action: Bark—antibilious. Leaf— antispasmodic. Root bark and leaf— used in preparations of oils and ointments for ulcers, skin diseases, oedema and inflammations.... Indian Medicinal Plants
Habitat: Plains of Northern and Western India and Deccan Peninsula.Ayurvedic: Parpata (substitute). (Fumaria parvifolora Linn., Hedyotis corymbosa (L.) Lam synonym Oldenlandia corymbosa Linn., Mollugo cerviana (L.) Ser., Justicia procumbens Linn., Polycarpea corymbosa Lam are also used as Parpata for fevers.)Siddha: Parapalanamu.
Action: Used as emmenagogue.The essential oil from the plant is antimicrobial, that from flowers an- thelmintic.... Indian Medicinal Plants
Habitat: Eastern Himalayas, Khasi Hills and Sikkim.Ayurvedic: Chaalmograa (substitute). Tuvaraka (var.) (Controversial synonyms.)Unani: Tukhm-e-Biranj Mograa.Folk: Chaaval-mungari.
Action: Oil from seed used in psoriasis, eczema, scrofula, gout, rheumatic affections.A triterpenoid ketolactone, odolac- tone, has been isolated from the plant. The fruit pulp is used as piscic. The seeds of G. odorata were formerly, erroneously, thought to be the source Chaalmograa oil of commerce obtained from the seeds of Hydnocar- pus kurzii, used in leprosy. Gynocardia oil does not contain chaulmoogric or hydnocarpic acid.... Indian Medicinal Plants
An adequate daily intake of essential fatty acids is assured by the golden oils (Sunflower, Corn, etc) which can be well supported by Evening Primrose oil capsules.
Internal: Bamboo gum. Nettle tea, Alfalfa, Horsetail, Soya.
Topical. Shampoo. Soapwort or Yucca. Chop 2 tablespoons (dry) or 1 tablespoon (fresh) leaves or root. Place in cup of warm water. Stir until a froth is produced. Decant and massage liquor into scalp.
Aloe Vera gel is noted for its moisturising effect and to provide nutrients. It may be used as a shampoo, hair set and conditioner. Jojoba oil has been used for centuries by the Mexican Indians for a healthy scalp; today, it is combined with Evening Primrose and Vitamin E with good effect. Olive oil stimulates strong growth.
One of several herbs may be used as a rinse, including Nettles, Rosemary, Southernwood, Fennel, Chamomile, Yellow Dock and Quassia. Hair should be washed not more than once weekly with warm water and simple vegetable soap; rinse four times with warm rinse, finishing off with cold. Brunettes should add a little vinegar; blondes, lemon juice. Selenium once had a reputation as a hair conditioner; recent research confirms. Selenium shampoos are available.
Supplements: Vitamins B (complex), B6, Choline, C and E. Copper, Zinc, Selenium, Vitamin B12 (50mg thrice daily).
Aromatherapy. 2 drops each: Sage, Nettles, Thyme; to 2 teaspoons Gin or Vodka, and massage into the scalp daily. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine
Habitat: Assam and Tripura.English: Chalmogra.Ayurvedic: Tuvaraka (related species, substitute for H. laurifolia.)Unani: Chaalmograa, Tukhm-e- Biranj Mograa.Siddha/Tamil: Niradi-muttu.
Action: Antileprotic, dermatic, febrifuge, sedative. Used parenter- ally for leprosy; also for psoriasis, eczema and dermatitis.The plant is a source of chaulmoogra oil (Oleum Chaulmoograe which contains hydnocarpic, chaulmoogric, gor- lic, oleic, palmitic acids and lower homologues of hydnocarpic acid. The oil mixed with neem oil or oil of Psoralea corylifolia is used in leprosy.In mice, intraperitoneal and subcutaneous administration of chaul- moogra fatty acids demonstrated antimicrobial activity against Mycobac- terium leprae. (PDR.)... Indian Medicinal Plants
Habitat: Western Ghats.English: Soorty Oil tree.Ayurvedic: Tuvaraka, Katu- Kapittha, Kushtavairi, Garudaphala, Chaalmograa.Unani: Chaalmograa, Tukhm-e- Biranj Mograa.Siddha/Tamil: Maravattai, Niradi- muttu.
Action: Seed oil—antileprotic, anti-inflammatory, antirheumatic.The seed oil gave chemical constituents similar to Hydnocarpus kuzii, and contain the flavonolignan, hyd- nowightin, hydnocarpin and neohyd- nocarpin.Hydnocarpin showed good anti- inflammatory and anti-neoplastic activity in mice, in vivo. Cytotoxicity against the growth of murine and human tissue cultured cells was also observed.The stem bark and leaves contain triterpenes, acelylbetulinic, betulinic, ursolic and acetylursolic acids.Dosage: Seed—3-5 g powder; oil— 5-10 drops. (CCRAS.)... Indian Medicinal Plants
Habitat: Mediterranean region and temperate Asia. (Allied species: H. pendulum Linn. and H. procumbens Linn., found in Peshavar, Multan, Waziristan and Baluchistan). Occurs in Sikkim.Folk: Zirgulaki, Waziri.
Action: Used in stomachache. Juice of the plant has the same effect as opium. Leaves diaphoretic. Plant— narcotic.The whole plant contains protopine (0.19) as the major alkaloid.... Indian Medicinal Plants
Habitat: Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Assam and the Sunderbans.English: Black Creeper.Ayurvedic: Gopavalli, Krishna Saarivaa (var.), Krishna-muuli, Shyaamalataa.Siddha/Tamil: Karunannari, Makalikilanzhu.Folk: Kaalisar, Karantaa.
Action: Root—demulcent, diuretic, alterative, diaphoretic; used in fevers, dyspepsia and cutaneous affections. The roots of the plant are used as a substitute for Indian sarsaparilla and are often mixed with the roots of Hemidesmus indicus (their therapeutic properties for use as sarsaparilla have bot been established).The root gave 2-hydroxy-4-meth- oxybenzaldehyde.Alkaloids and flavonoids were present in the roots but not in the leaves and fruits. Saponins were absent in these parts. The whole plant gave n-butyl sorboside, kaempferol and its gluco- side.... Indian Medicinal Plants
(See also coronary care unit.)... BMA Medical Dictionary
The principle of one-to-one, 24-hours-a-day care for seriously ill patients has been widely adopted and developed for the initial treatment of many patients with life-threatening conditions. Thus, severely injured patients – those with serious medical conditions such as coronary thrombosis or who have undergone major surgery, and individuals suffering from potentially lethal toxic affects of poisons – are treated in an INTENSIVE THERAPY UNIT (ITU). Patients whose respiratory or circulatory systems have failed bene?t especially by being intensively treated. Most patients, especially post-operative ones, leave intensive care when their condition has been stabilised, usually after 24 or 48 hours. Some, however, need support for several weeks or even months. Since 1952, intensive medicine has become a valued specialty and a demanding one because of the range of skills needed by the doctors and nurses manning the ITUs.... Medical Dictionary
Habitat: Throughout India.Ayurvedic: Aakhukarni (related species), Sheetavalli (provisional synonym).Folk: Nikhari, Bhanwar (Punjab).
Action: Antirheumatic, anticepha- lalgic, antiepileptic and antileprotic.The plant is boiled in oil and used as an application for rheumatism, headache, epilepsy, fevers, ulcers, leprosy. The seeds are reported to contain a resin similar to that present in the seeds of Ipomoea nil.... Indian Medicinal Plants
Jacarannda, Jacarranda, Jacarandah, Jacarandia, Jacarandea, Jakaranda, Jackaranda... Medical Dictionary
Habitat: Throughout the warmer parts of India.Ayurvedic: Granthiparni, Kaaka- puchha.Folk: Gathivan, Deepamaal (Maharashtra).
Action: Leaves—spasmolytic. Ash of flower head—applied to burns and scalds, in ringworm and other skin diseases.The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia ofIn- dia recommends the root in cough, bronchitis and dyspnoea.The root contains n-octacosanol, n-octacosanoic acid, quercetin, 4,6,7- trimethoxy-5-methylchromene-2-one, campesterol and beta-sitosterol-beta- D-glucopyranoside.The plant contains 4,6,7-trimethoxy- 5-methyl-chromene-2-one.The leaves contain neptaefolin, nep- taefuran, neptaefuranol, neptaefolinol, leonitin, neptaefolinin and (-)-55, 6- octadecadienoic acid.The seed oil contains oleic, linoleic, palmitic and stearic acids. The fattyFamily: Labiatae; Lamiaceae.
Habitat: Native to Europe; also distributed in Himalayas from Kashmir to Kumaon.English: Common Motherwort, Lion's Tail.Unani: Baranjaasif. (Also equated with Artemesia vulgaris Linn; and Achillea millifolium Linn.)
Action: Stomachic, laxative, antispasmodic, diaphoretic, em- menagogue (used in absent or painful menstruation, premenstrual tension, menopausal flushes). Hypnotic, sedative. Used as a cardiac tonic. (Studies in China have shown that Motherwort extracts show antiplatelet aggregation actions and decrease the levels of blood lipids.)Key application: In nervous cardiac disorders and as adjuvant for thyroid hyperfunction. (German Commission E.) As antispasmodic. (The British Herbal Pharmacopoeia.) The British Herbal Compendium indicated its use for patients who have neuropathic cardiac disorders and cardiac complaints of nervous origin.The plant contains diterpene bitter principles, iridoid monoterpenes, flavonoids including rutin and querci- trin, leonurin, betaine, caffeic acid derivatives, tannins and traces of a volatile oil.The herb is a slow acting adjuvant in functional and neurogenic heart diseases. Its sedative and spasmolytic properties combine well with Valeriana officinalis or other cardioactive substances.The herb contains several components with sedative effects—alpha- pinene, benzaldehyde, caryophyllene, limonene and oleanolic acid. (Sharon M. Herr.)
Habitat: Western Europe. Seeds are imported into India from Persia.English: Pepper-Grass.Unani: Bazr-ul-khumkhum, Todari (white var.).
Action: Seeds—blood purifier; prescribed in bronchitis.The fatty acid of the oil are: oleic 12.9, linoleic 47.87, linolenic 5.43, erucic 31.97, stearic 0.54 and palmitic 1.22%.The seed mucilage on hydrolysis gave galactose, arabinose, rhamnose and galacturonic acid.Flowering tops and seeds contain a bitter principle, lepidin.The plant yield a sulphur-containing volatile oil.... Indian Medicinal Plants
Because of its possible toxic effects – including kidney damage – lithium must only be administered under medical supervision and with monitoring of the blood levels, as the gap between therapeutic and toxic concentrations is narrow. Due to the risk of its damaging the unborn child, it should not be prescribed, unless absolutely necessary, during pregnancy – particularly not in the ?rst three months. Mothers should not take it while breast feeding, as it is excreted in the milk in high concentrations. The drug should not be taken with DIURETICS.... Medical Dictionary
Habitat: Native of Europe; grown in Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh.English: German Chamomile, Chamomile. German chamomile flower is equated with Matricaria recutita L. (synonym Chamomilla recutita L.) and Roman Chamomile flower with Anthemis nobilis L. (synonym Chamamaelum nobilis L.)Unani: Baabunaa.
Action: Sedative, anticonvulsant, carminative, antispasmodic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic. See also Anthemis nobilis.Key application (German Chamomile) ? In inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and gastrointestinal spasm. Externally, in skin, mucous membrane and ano-genital inflammation and bacterial skin diseases. (German Commission E, The British Herbal Compendium.) As anti-inflammatory and anti- spasmodic. (The British Herbal Pharmacopoeia.)The flowers of German chamomile gave volatile oil up to about 2%, containing alpha-bisabolol up to 50%, azu- lenes including chamazulene, guiazu- line and matricine; flavonoids including apigenin and luteolin and their glycosides, patuletin and quercetin; spiroethers; coumarins; polysaccha- rides.The flowers are used as herbal tea for cough and cold and for promoting the flow of gastric secretion and bile. In chamomlile extracts, chamazulene has been found responsible for anti- inflammatory activity. Matricine and (-)-alpha-bisabolol also show anti- inflammatory and analgesic activity. Bisabolol exhibits ulceroprotective effect. Natural (-)-alpha-bisabolol has been shown to be significantly effective in healing burns; (-)-alpha-bisabolol, spiroethers and apigenin exhibit spasmolytic effect comparable with that of papaverine.The polysaccharides are immunos- timulating and activate macrophages and B lymphocytes; play an important role in wound healing.Crude aqueous extract of the plant has been reported to significantly delay the onset of convulsions and reduce mortality rate produced by picrotoxin experimentally.... Indian Medicinal Plants
MHRA section of the website... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary
Lupus erythematosis – accounts for a significant number of unexplained miscarriages. Some lupus sufferers may have ten or more miscarriages (Swedish study). In lupus there is a sluggish blood supply – microscopic blood vessels between baby and the mother may silt up, the nutrient supply cut off and the baby dies. Agents with blood-thinning properties (anti-coagulants) can keep blood flowing smoothly to the baby. Some women with severe lupus symptoms may require the stronger anti-coagulants of general medicine (heparin).
Pregnancy. Should be carefully monitored with one-month scans to make sure the baby is alive. All women who miscarry should be tested to see if they are carrying lupus antibodies, and have a lupus test after their first miscarriage.
Influenza. Epidemiologists found that women whose pregnancies were more likely to have had flu-like illness during pregnancy can miscarry. Evidence of a link between influenzal infection during pregnancy and miscarriage or stillbirth has been uncovered. Such infection during pregnancy may also cause schizophrenia in offspring.
Information. Miscarriage Association, C/O Clayton Hospital, Northgate, Wakefield, West Yorks WF1 3JS, UK. Send SAE. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine
The majority of miscarriages occur in the first 12 weeks of pregnancy, and may be mistaken for a late menstrual period. Miscarriages may occur because of chromosomal abnormalities or developmental defects in the fetus, or because of severe illness, exposure to toxins, or an autoimmune disorder in the mother. Miscarriages later in pregnancy may be caused by genetic disorders, cervical incompetence, a defect in the uterus, or large uterine fibroids.
The symptoms are heavy bleeding with cramping. Slight blood loss with severe pain can be a symptom of either a threatened miscarriage or ectopic pregnancy.
Miscarriages are classified medically as different types of abortion. In a threatened abortion, the fetus remains alive in the uterus. In an inevitable abortion, the fetus dies and is expelled from the uterus. In a missed abortion, the fetus dies but remains in the uterus.
A pelvic examination and ultrasound scanning may be performed to assess the pregnancy. If all of the contents of the uterus are expelled, no further treatment may be necessary. Otherwise, a D and C may be performed. Missed abortion requires a D and C or induction of labour depending on the duration of the pregnancy. Rh-negative women are given anti-D (Rho) immunoglobulin to prevent complications related to Rhesus incompatibility in future pregnancies.
(See also abortion.)... BMA Medical Dictionary
Men are more likely to have a heart attack than women, and smokers are at greater risk. Other risk factors include increased age, unhealthy diet, obesity, and disorders such as hypertension and
diabetes mellitus. Atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries is usually a factor.
Symptoms include sudden pain in the centre of the chest, breathlessness, feeling restless, clammy skin, nausea and/or vomiting, or loss of consciousness. Myocardial infarction may cause immediate heart failure or arrhythmias.
Diagnosis is made from the patient’s history and tests including ECG and measurement of enzymes released into the blood from damaged heart muscle.
A myocardial infarction is a medical emergency. Initial treatment may include aspirin, thrombolytic drugs, analgesic drugs, and oxygen therapy. Diuretic drugs, intravenous infusion of fluids, antiarrhythmic drugs, and beta-blocker drugs may also be given. Electrical defibrillation may be used to control severe arrhythmias.
After recovery, preventive measures such as taking more exercise, losing weight, stopping smoking, and dietary changes are recommended.
Statin drugs are usually given to lower blood cholesterol; aspirin or beta-blocker drugs are given to reduce the risk of further attacks.... BMA Medical Dictionary
Patients with myocardial infarction are best cared for in a specialized coronary care unit with facilities for the early detection, prevention, and treatment of arrhythmias and *cardiac arrest. Blockage of a major coronary artery is detected by elevation of the *S–T segment on the *electrocardiogram (STEMI or S–T elevation myocardial infarction). It is relieved by emergency *coronary angioplasty (commonly called primary *percutaneous coronary intervention) or the intravenous infusion of a drug to dissolve thrombus (*thrombolysis). Most survivors of myocardial infarction are able to return to a full and active life, including those who have been successfully resuscitated from cardiac arrest. Lesser degrees of coronary obstruction may not be seen on the electrocardiogram but are revealed by the detection of raised *troponin levels in the blood (NSTEMI or non-S–T elevation myocardial infarction). Treatment is with *antiplatelet drugs and early percutaneous coronary intervention.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary
Alternative Treatment:– Tea. Combine equal parts Hawthorn flowers and leaves, Lime flowers, Motherwort. 1-2 teaspoons in each cup of boiling water; infuse 10-15 minutes. 1 cup thrice daily.
Alfalfa tea: anti-cholesterol.
Liquid Extracts. Motherwort 1; Hawthorn 2;
Valerian 3. Dose: 30-60 drops thrice daily.
Tinctures: dose, 60-120 drops.
Tincture Lily of the Vally BHP (1983). 1:5 in 40 per cent alcohol; dose: 0.5-1ml, thrice daily.
Diet. See: DIET – HEART AND CIRCULATION.
Supplements. Daily. Vitamin A 7500iu; Vitamin B6 50mg; Vitamin C 200mg; Vitamin E 400iu; Magnesium 300mg; Selenium 200mcg; Zinc 15mg. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine
There are often no symptoms. Rarely, there may be a serious disturbance of the heartbeat, breathlessness, chest pain, and heart failure. In severe cases, death may result from cardiac arrest.Myocarditis may be suspected from the patient’s history and from a physical examination. An ECG will show characteristic abnormalities of the heartbeat. Diagnosis also involves echocardiography and blood tests.
There is no specific treatment.
Bed rest is usually recommended and corticosteroid drugs may be prescribed.... BMA Medical Dictionary
Alternative Treatment:– Rest. Stress-free lifestyle. Stop smoking. Few hot drinks but fruit juices and herb teas.
To strengthen the heart: Hawthorn.
To counter infection: Echinacea.
Rheumatic myocarditis: Meadowsweet.
BHP (1983) combination: Hawthorn, Cactus, Lime flowers, Mistletoe, Skullcap.
Tea. Combine equal parts: Mistletoe, Lime flowers, Broom. 1-2 teaspoons to each cup water. Bring to boil and simmer 1 minute. 1 cup thrice daily.
Tablets/capsules. Hawthorn. Mistletoe. Broom.
Tinctures. 20ml Hawthorn, 5ml Marigold (Calendula), 20ml Cactus grand., 10ml Echinacea. Mix. Dose: one teaspoon thrice daily.
Liquid Extracts. (Arthur Barker) Combine: Hawthorn 15ml; Cactus 15ml; Hops 4ml. Dose: 15-30 drops thrice daily.
Spartiol Extract. (Klein)
Anti-coagulants: indicated after an attack. (Practitioner)
Spirits of Camphor. To reduce blood pressure and strengthen heart muscle. To regulate the pulse in chronic myocarditis with wild palpitation. One to five drops in honey, as necessary. (Dr Finlay Ellingwood)
Oil of Camphor. Alternative. 1-2 drops in honey when necessary.
Diet. See: DIET – HEART AND CIRCULATION. Supplements. Daily. Vitamins A 7500iu; B-complex; C 1g; E 1000iu. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine
The infection causes a pneumonia-like illness, with fever and cough.
It fails to respond to short-term, antibiotic treatment, and progressive lung damage occurs.
Brain abscesses may follow.
Treatment is with sulphonamide drugs, often in conjunction with other antibacterial drugs, for example trimethoprim.... BMA Medical Dictionary
Habitat: Evergreen forests of Western India from Khandala southwards to Malabar and Coim- batore.Ayurvedic: Surapunnaaga (Naa- gakeshara is equated with Mesua ferrea.)Siddha/Tamil: Nagappu, Nagesarpu.Folk: Laal-Naagakeshar. Surangi (Maharashtra).
Action: Flowerbuds—cooling, stomachic, analgesic, antibacterial; used for gastritis, haemorrhoids, blood diseases, leprosy, leucoder- ma.Flower buds are popularly known as Naagakeshar.Flowers exhibited potent hypoten- sive, anti-inflammatory and antispas- modic activity attributed to vitexin.Leaves gave amentoflavone, querce- tin and vitexin as major constituents.... Indian Medicinal Plants
careful control of symptoms, especially PAIN.
psychosocial and spiritual care.
a personalised management plan centred on the patient’s needs and wishes.
care that takes into account the family’s needs and that is carried into the bereavement period.
provision of coordinated services in the home, hospital, day-care centre and other facilities used by the patient. Palliative care should include: managing
chronic cancer pain with planned use of common ANALGESICS including opioids (see SYRINGE DRIVERS); planning ahead to preserve as far as possible the patient’s autonomy and choice as death approaches and the ability to make decisions may decline; and an understanding and use of arti?cial feeding and hydration. Palliative care seeks to improve the satisfaction of both patient and family, to identify their needs and, if possible, to reduce the overall cost because the patient can often be looked after at home or in a HOSPICE instead of in hospital.
A well-publicised question that may arise in the context of palliative care is physician-assisted suicide. This subject is referred to in the entry on ETHICS. A request by a patient for accelerated death may suggest that he or she is depressed – a treatable condition – or that the palliative care is inadequate and needs reviewing and, if possible, improving.... Medical Dictionary
Habitat: Native of South-east America; grown in Indian gardens.English: Wild Passion Flower, Maypop.
Action: Flowering and fruiting dried herb—mild sedative, hypnotic, tranquilizer, hypotensive, vasodilator, antispasmodic, anodyne, anti-inflammatory,Key application: In nervous restlessness, irritability and difficulty in falling asleep. (German Commission E, ESCOP, The British Herbal Compendium, The British Herbal Pharmacopoeia, WHO.) The British Herbal Compendium also indicated it in neuralgia, dysmenorrhoea, and nervous tachycardia.The herb contains flavonoids (up to 2.5%), in particular C-glycosylflavones; cyanogenic glycoside, gynocardine.The alkaloid harman has been isolated, but the presence of harmine, har- maline, harmol and harmalol has been disputed. The alkaloid and flavonoids are reported to have sedative activity in animals. Apigenin exhibits antispasmodic and anti-inflammatory activity.Passion Flower was formerly approved as an OTC sedative in the USA, but it was taken off the market in 1978 because safety and effectiveness had not been proven. An animal study in 1977 suggested that apigenin binds to central benzodi-zepine receptors (possibly causing anxiolytic effects). (Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, 2007.)The drug is used in homoeopathic medicine for epilepsy.The herb exhibits a motility-inhi- biting effect in animal experiments.Passion Flower, used as an adjunct to clonidine, was superior to clonidine for mental symptoms of opiate withdrawal. (Sharon M. Herr.)... Indian Medicinal Plants
Habitat: Coastal forests of the Andaman Islands.English: Copper Pod, Rusty Shield-Bearer.Siddha/Tamil: Ivalvagai, Perun- gondrai.
Action: Bark—used for dysentery; also used as a constituent of gargles, tooth-powders and lotions for sores and muscular pains.The bark contains 20.8% of a catechol type of tannin and 9.5% non-tans. The wood and leaves also contain tannin.The pods contain bergenin which exhibits anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema and is found to be equipotent to phenylbutazone.Aqueous extract of leaves and etha- nolic extract of flower exhibit antifun- gal activity.Family: Asclepiadaceae.
Habitat: West Bengal, Gujarat and Peninsular India.Ayurvedic: Kaakanaasaa, Kaakanaasikaa, Kaakaangi, Kaak- tundphalaa, Shringiritti.Siddha/Tamil: Uppilankodi.Folk: Singarauti (Gujarat). Amarvel.
Action: Plant—antifungal, antiseptic, keratolytic; used in various skin conditions.The plant gave n-octacosanol, alpha- amyrin, friedelin, beta-sitosterol. An appreciable amount of salicyclic acid has been isolated from the plant. The plant also yields a cardiac glycoside.Dosage: Plant—50-100 ml. decoction. (CCRAS.)... Indian Medicinal Plants
The treatment of pericarditis is directed to the cause. Pericardial effusions may be aspirated by a needle inserted through the chest wall. Chronic constrictive pericarditis is treated by surgical removal of the pericardium (pericardiectomy).... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary
Causes of pericarditis include infection; myocardial infarction; cancer spreading from another site; and injury to the pericardium. The disorder may accompany rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and kidney failure.
Pericarditis causes pain behind the breastbone, and sometimes in the neck and shoulders. There may also be fever. Constrictive pericarditis causes oedema of the legs and abdomen.
Diagnosis is made from a physical examination and an ECG and chest X-rays or echocardiography. If possible, treatment is aimed at the cause. Analgesic drugs or anti-inflammatory drugs may be given. If an effusion is present, fluid may be drawn off through a needle. In constrictive pericarditis, part of the pericardium may be removed.... BMA Medical Dictionary
Habitat: Native to tropical America; cultivated in Indian gardens.Family: Umbelliferae; Apiaceae.
Habitat: Native to the Mediterranean region; cultivated in Uttar Pradesh., Punjab, Assam and Orissa.English: Anise, Aniseed.Unani: Anisoon, Baadiyaan-roomi.
Action: Carminative, diuretic, anticholerin, antispasmodic, expectorant. Used for flatulence, dry coughs, whooping cough, bronchitis.Key application: Internally in dyspeptic complaints; internally and externally in catarrhs of the respiratory tract. (German Commission E, ESCOP, WHO, The British Herbal Pharmacopoeia.)The fruit gave volatile oil consisting mainly of trans-anethole (70-90%), with estragole, anise ketone, anisic acid, beta-caryophyllene, anisaldehyde, linalool. The fruit contained traces of furocoumarins; seeds gave benzoic acid, caffeic acid, containing protein and myristicin. Roots afforded sterols, coumarins and flavone glyco- sides. Aniseed has been demonstrated to increase the mucociliary transport in vitro and to significantly increase liver-regeneration in rats.Aniseed is also used as a galacta- gogue. This property is thought due to the presence of polymers of anethole, dianethole and photoanethole.Aqueous extract of roasted aniseed is reported to show cholinomimetic effect on rat blood pressure, rat jejunum and frog rectus abdominis preparations.Alcoholic extract of aniseeds possesses antimicrobial and fungicidal activity.Anethole has a structure similar to catecholamines including adrenaline, noradrenaline and dopamine and to the hallucinogenic compound myris- ticin as well. (Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, 2007.)... Indian Medicinal Plants
Habitat: Cornfields, waste places and in gardens.Features ? Stem square, weak, much branched, trailing with tendency to ascend, between six inches and one foot long. Leaves small, opposite, ovoid, sessile, entire at edges, black dots underneath. Flowers scarlet, corolla rotate, on long, slender, axillary stalk.Part used ? Leaves.
Action: Diuretic, hepatic, diaphoretic.The properties of this herb, although very active, are not yet fully known, and care should be exercised in using it. It has been successful in the treatment of liver irregularities, forms of rheumatism and dropsy. The pulverised leaves are administered in doses of from 15 to 60 grains.... Herbal Manual
Habitat: Throughout the greater part of India, ascending up to 2,100 m in the Himalaya.Ayurvedic: Parpata (substitute).Siddha/Tamil: Nilaisedachi.Folk: Pittapaaparaa (Uttar Pradesh), Rupaaphuli (Gujarat).
Action: Leaves—anti-inflammatory, applied as poultice. Also prescribed in jaundice in the form of pills with molasses. Flowering head, along with stem and leaves—astringent, demulcent. Plant—spermicidal.The plant gave camelliagenins (bar- rigenol) and stigmasterol.... Indian Medicinal Plants
Habitat: Throughout the warmer parts of India in fields and waste places.Folk: Ghima, Suretaa.
Action: Leaves—an infusion of roasted leaves is given for cough following fever, particularly in measles.Alcoholic extract of the plant exhibits spasmolytic activity. The aerial parts contain tetrahydroxy triterpenes. Presence ofa triterpenoid saponin, and hentriacontane, hentriacontanol, beta- amyrin and its acetate, beta-sitosterol and stigmasterol is also reported.... Indian Medicinal Plants
Certain specialties – for example, orthopaedic and reconstructive/cosmetic surgery and mental health – attract more private patients than others, such as paediatrics or medicine for the elderly. The standards of clinical care are generally the same in the two systems, but private patients can see the specialist of their choice at a time convenient to them. Waiting times for consultations and treatment are short and, when in hospital, private patients usually have their own room, telephone, TV, open visiting hours, etc.
A substantial proportion of private medical-care services are those provided for elderly people requiring regular nursing care and some medical supervision. The distinction between residential care and nursing care for the elderly is often blurred, but the government policy of providing means-tested state funding only for people genuinely needing regular nursing care – a system operated by local-authority social-service departments in England and Wales – has necessitated clearer de?nitions of the facilities provided for the elderly by private organisations. The strict criteria for state support (especially in England), the budget-conscious approach of local authorities when negotiating fees with private nursing homes, and the fact that NHS hospital trusts also have to pay for some patients discharged to such homes (to free-up hospital beds for new admissions) have led to intense ?nancial pressures on private facilities for the elderly. This has caused the closure of many homes, which, in turn, is worsening the level of BED-BLOCKING by elderly patients who do not require hospital-intensity nursing but who lack family support in the community and cannot a?ord private care.... Medical Dictionary
Side effects are typical of anticancer drugs.... BMA Medical Dictionary
Habitat: The Andamans, sparingly cultivated in West Bengal.English: Andaman Padauk, Andaman Redwood.Ayurvedic: Rakta-chandana (var.).Siddha: Vengai (Tamil), Yerravegisa (Telugu).Folk: Chalangada (Andamans).
Action: See Pterocarpus santalinus.The wood contains a red pigment santalin and a yellow flavonoid santal, both of which also occur in Pterocarpus santalinus. The bark and the heartwood contain pterostilbene. The heartwood yields pterocarpin, liquirit- igenin and isoliquiritigenin. The sapwood gave homopterocarpin additionally.Pterocarpus indicus Willd. non-Baker, Malay Padauk, is also known as Vengai in Tamil and Yerravegisa in Telugu. A decoction of the wood is given in dropsy and for stone in the bladder. The bark-kino is used as an application for sores and a decoction of the bark or kino is used for diarrhoea.... Indian Medicinal Plants
Habitat: Throughout the tropical zones of India in the hilly regions.English: Indian Kino tree, Malabar Kino tree.Ayurvedic: Asana, Bijaka, Priyaka, Pitashaala.Unani: Bijaysaar.Siddha/Tamil: Vengai.
Action: Bark-kino—astringent, antihaemorrhagic, antidiarrhoeal. Flowers—febrifuge. Leaves—used externally for skin diseases.Key application: Heartwood— in anaemia, worm infestation, skin diseases, urinary disorders, lipid disorders and obesity. Stem bark—in diabetes. (The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India.)The heartwood and roots contain isoflavonoids, terpenoids and tannins. Tannins include the hypoglycaemic principle (-)-epicatechin. Stilbenes, such as pterostilbene; flavonoids, including liquiritigenin, isoliquiritige- nin, 7-hydroxyflavanone, 7,4-dihy- droxyflavanone, 5-deoxykaempferol and pterosupin; a benzofuranone mar- supsin and propterol, p-hydroxy-ben- zaldehyde are active principles of therapeutic importance.The gum-kino from the bark provides a non-glucosidal tannin, Kino tannic acid (25-80%).The (-)-epi-catechin increases the cAMP content of the islets which is associated with the increased insulin release, conversion of proinsulin to insulin and cathepsin B activity.Oral administration of ethylacetate extract of the heartwood and its fla- vonoid constituents, marsupin, ptero- supin and liquiritigenin, for 14 consecutive days to rats exhibited a significant reduction of serum triglycerides, total cholesterol and LDL- and VLDL-cholesterol levels, but it did not exert any significant effect on HDL- cholesterol.The ethanolic and methanolic extracts of the heartwood exhibited significant in vitro antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gramnegative bacteria and some strains of fungi.Kino is powerfully astringent. The therapeutic value of kino is due to Kino tannic acid.Dosage: Heartwood—50-100 g for decoction. (API, Vol. I); stem bark—32-50 g for decoction (API, Vol. III).... Indian Medicinal Plants
Habitat: Found in Cuddaph district of Andhra Pradesh, neighbouring areas of Tamil Nadu and Karnataka.English: Red Sandalwood, Red Sanders.Ayurvedic: Raktachandana, Raktasaara.Unani: Sandal Surkh.Siddha/Tamil: Shivappu chandanam.Folk: Laal-chandan.
Action: Heartwood—antibilious, anti-inflammatory, hypoglycaemic, astringent, diaphoretic, febrifuge.A paste of wood is used externally for inflammations and headache. Fruit—antidysentericThe heartwood contains terpeno- ids—eudesmol, iso-pterocarpolone, pterocarpol, cryptomeridiol, ptero- carptriol and pterocarpdiolone; pigments santalins A and B. The bark contains triterp enoids—b eta- ampyrone, lupenone and lupeol derivatives. The sapwood gave acetyl oleanolic aldehyde, acetyl oleanolic acid and ery- throdiol.An ethanolic extract (95%) of the wood powder was found effective in lowering blood sugar levels in fasting, fed, glucose-loaded and streptozotocin diabetic models in rats.A cream prepared from the metha- nolic extract of the heartwood of Red Sandalwood and rhizomes of Curcuma longa showed 95.46% inhibition of oedema in combination (Curcuma lon- ga and red sandalwood showed 65.62 and 64.14% inhibition respectively, when used individually).A decoction of the heartwood produced potentiation of pentobarbitone- induced hypnosis in albino mice; blocked conditioned avoidance response in rats and showed anticonvul- sant and anti-inflammatory activities.Dosage: Heartwood—3-6 g powder. (API, Vol. III.)... Indian Medicinal Plants
Habitat: Kashmir at 1,500-1,800 m.
Action: Plant—astringent, diuretic. Root—antidiarrhoeal. Leaf— antiasthmatic.... Indian Medicinal Plants
Habitat: Gujarat, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu.English: Padri tree.Siddha/Tamil: Vedanguruni, Pathiri.Folk: Paadiri. Kharsing, Kadashing, Bairsinge (Maharashtra).
Action: Plant—antiseptic. Resin— used for the treatment of skin diseases. Rootbark—bitter, astringent; used as substitute for Stereospermumpersonatum (Hassk.) D. Chatterjee and S. suaveolens DC. (Trumpet-Flower, Yellow Snake tree, also known as Padri).The leaves gave flavonoids, dinatin and its glycoside. Roots yielded O- acetyl oleanolic acid, stigmasterol and a red pigment, radermachol.... Indian Medicinal Plants
Habitat: Native to South-west Asia and North Africa; cultivated all over India, especially in Tripura, West Bengal and Bihar.English: Bladder-Dock, Country Sorrel.Ayurvedic: Chukra, Chuko, Chakravarti.Unani: Hammaaz.... Indian Medicinal Plants
Habitat: Throughout India as a weed of cultivated fields of wheat and barley. Also cultivated in gardens for ornament.Folk: Musna, Saabuni.
Action: See S. officinalis. The mucilaginous sap of the plant is febrifugal and used in chronic fevers. It is a mild depurative and used in the treatment of furuncles and scabies.... Indian Medicinal Plants
A hypertrophic scar is a large, unsightly scar that sometimes develops at the site of an infected wound; some people have a family tendency to develop such scars.
(See also adhesion; keloid.)... BMA Medical Dictionary
Scarlett, Scarlette, Skarlet, Skarlette, Skarlett... Medical Dictionary
Treatment with antibiotics prevents this and promotes a rapid recovery.... BMA Medical Dictionary
Symptoms The period of incubation (i.e. the time elapsing between the reception of infection and the development of symptoms) varies somewhat. In most cases it lasts only two to three days, but in occasional cases the patient may take a week to develop his or her ?rst symptoms. The occurrence of fever is usually short and sharp, with rapid rise of temperature to 40 °C (104 °F), shivering, vomiting, headache, sore throat and marked increase in the rate of the pulse. In young children, CONVULSIONS or DELIRIUM may precede the fever. The rash usually appears within 24 hours of the onset of fever and lasts about a week.
Complications The most common and serious of these is glomerulonephritis (see under KIDNEYS, DISEASES OF), which may arise during any period in the course of the fever, but particularly when DESQUAMATION occurs. Occasionally the patient develops chronic glomerulonephritis. Another complication is infection of the middle ear (otitis media – see under EAR, DISEASES OF). Other disorders affecting the heart and lungs occasionally arise in connection with scarlet fever, the chief of these being ENDOCARDITIS, which may lay the foundation of valvular disease of the heart later in life. ARTHRITIS may produce swelling and pain in the smaller rather than in the larger joints; this complication usually occurs in the second week of illness. Scarlet fever, which is now a mild disease in most patients, should be treated with PENICILLIN.... Medical Dictionary
Habitat: The arid regions of Gujarat and in Rajasthan.Ayurvedic: Nepaal-Nimba.Folk: Saannipaat (Maharashtra).
Action: Broken pieces of dried fruits, stems and leaves—used in enteric fever. Leaf—antidiabetic. Fruit, leaf, stem—diuretic.An alkaloid, schweinfurthin, a hydrocarbon and an unsaturated ketone were reported from the leaves. Recently, two macrocylic alkaloids, 11- epi-ephedradine and schweinine, have been isolated from the whole plant, along with (-)-ephedradine A. Experimentally, 11-epi-ephedradine A was mutagenic to Salmonella typhimurium.... Indian Medicinal Plants
Habitat: Punjab, Assam, Khasi Hills, Madhya Pradesh and Peninsular India.English: Marking-Nut.Ayurvedic: Bhallaataka, Bhallata, Arushkara, Agnik, Agnimukha, Sophkrit, Viravrksha.Unani: Balaadur, Bhilaayan, Bhilaavaan.Siddha/Tamil: Shenkottei, Erimugi. (Kattu shen-kottai is equated with S. travancorica Bedd., found in evergreen forests of Tinnevelly and Travancore.)Folk: Bhilaavaa.
Action: Toxic drug, used only after curing. Fruit—caustic, astringent, anti-inflammatory, antitumour. Used in rheumatoid arthritis and for the treatment of tumours and malignant growths.A decoction, mixed with milk or butter fat, is prescribed in asthma, neuralgia, sciatica, gout, hemiplegia, epilepsy. Kernel oil—antiseptic; used externally in gout, leucoderma, psoriasis and leprosy. Bark gum—used for nervous debility; in leprous, scrofulous and venereal affections.Bigger var. is equated with S. kurzii Engler.The nut shells contain biflavonoids, including tetrahydrobustaflavone, tet- rahydroamentoflavone and anacardu- flavanone; nallaflavone; anacardic acid; aromatic amines and bhilawanol. Bhi- lawanol is a mixture of phenolic compounds, including cis and trans isomers of urushenol (3-pentadecenyl-8' catechol), monohydroxy phenol and semicarpol. These are the major constituents of the shell liquid, isolated from the nuts (about 46% of the weight of extract).A mixture of closely related pentade- cyl catechols exhibits anticancer activity. Extracts of the fruit was found effective against human epidermoid carcinoma of the naso-pharynx in tissue culture.Milk extract of the nut showed anti-inflammatory activity against car- rageenin, 5-HT and formaldehyde- induced rat paw oedema in acute anti- inflammatory studies. (About 20% animals developed gangrene of limbs, tail and ears.)Dosage: Detoxified fruit—1-2 g in milk confection. (API, Vol. II.)... Indian Medicinal Plants
Such a heartbeat is normal during sudden stressful moments or exercise.
Persistent sinus tachycardia at rest may be caused by fever or hyperthyroidism.... BMA Medical Dictionary
Bergamot, camphor (white), cananga, cedarwood (Atlas, Texas & Virginian), chamomile (German & Roman), clove bud, galbanum, geranium, grapefruit, immortelle, juniper, lavandin, lavender (spike & true), lemon, lemongrass, lime, linaloe, litsea cubeba, mandarin, mint (peppermint & spearmint), myrtle, niaouli, palmarosa, patchouli, petitgrain, rosemary, rosewood, sage (clary & Spanish), sandalwood, tea tree, thyme, vetiver, violet, yarrow, ylang ylang.
Melissa, chamomile (German & Roman), immortelle, true lavender, spikenard.
Athlete’s foot (S):
Clove bud, eucalyptus, lavender (true &spike), lemon, lemongrass, myrrh, patchouli, tea tree.
Baldness & hair care (S,H):
West Indian bay, white birch, cedarwood (Atlas, Texas & Virginian), chamomile (German & Roman), grapefruit, juniper, patchouli, rosemary, sage (clary & Spanish), yarrow, ylang ylang.
Boils, abscesses & blisters (S,C,B):
Bergamot, chamomile (German & Roman), eucalyptus blue gum, galbanum, immortelle, lavandin, lavender (spike & true), lemon, mastic, niaouli, clary sage, tea tree, thyme, turpentine.
Arnica (cream), borneol, clove bud, fennel, geranium, hyssop, sweet marjoram, lavender, thyme.
Canadian balsam, chamomile (German & Roman), clove bud, eucalyptus blue gum, geranium, immortelle, lavandin, lavender (spike & true), marigold, niaouli, tea tree, yarrow.
Chapped & cracked skin (S,F,B):
Peru balsam, Tofu balsam, benzoin, myrrh, patchouli, sandalwood.
Chamomile (German & Roman), lemon, lime, sweet marjoram, black pepper.
Cold sores/herpes (S):
Bergamot, eucalyptus blue gum, lemon, tea tree.
Congested & dull skin (M,S,F,B,I):
Angelica, white birch, sweet fennel, geranium, grapefruit, lavandin, lavender (spike & true), lemon, lime, mandarin, mint (peppermint & spearmint), myrtle, niaouli, orange (bitter & sweet), palmarosa, rose (cabbage & damask), rosemary, rosewood, ylang ylang.
Canadian balsam, benzoin, borneol, cabreuva, cade, chamomile (German & Roman), clove bud, elemi, eucalyptus (blue gum, lemon & peppermint), galbanum, geranium, hyssop, immortelle, lavender (spike & true), lavandin, lemon, lime, linaloe, marigold, mastic, myrrh, niaouli, Scotch pine, Spanish sage, Levant styrax, tea tree, thyme, turpentine, vetiver, yarrow.
West Indian bay, cade, cedarwood (Atlas, Texas & Virginian), eucalyptus, spike lavender, lemon, patchouli, rosemary, sage (clary & Spanish), tea tree.
White birch, cade, cananga, carrot seed, cedarwood (Atlas, Texas & Virginian), chamomile (German & Roman), geranium, immortelle, hops, hyssop, juniper, true lavender, linaloe, litsea cubeba, mint (peppermint & spearmint), palmarosa, patchouli, rosemary, sage (clary & Spanish), thyme.
Dry & sensitive skin (M,S,F,B):
Peru balsam, Tolu balsam, cassie, chamomile (German & Roman), frankincense, jasmine, lavandin, lavender (spike & true), rosewood, sandalwood, violet.
Melissa, Peru balsam, Tolu balsam, bergamot, white birch, cade, carrot seed, cedarwood (Atlas, Texas & Virginian), chamomile (German & Roman), geranium, immortelle, hyssop, juniper, lavandin, lavender (spike & true), marigold, myrrh, patchouli, rose (cabbage & damask), rosemary, Spanish sage, thyme, violet, yarrow.
Excessive perspiration (S,B):
Citronella, cypress, lemongrass, litsea cubeba, petitgrain, Scotch pine, Spanish sage.
Greasy or oily skin/scalp (M,S,H,F,B):
West Indian bay, bergamot, cajeput, camphor (white), cananga, carrot seed, citronella, cypress, sweet fennel, geranium, jasmine, juniper, lavender, lemon, lemongrass, !itsea cubeba, mandarin, marigold, mimosa, myrtle, niaouli, palmarosa, patchouli, petitgrain, rosemary, rosewood, sandalwood, clary sage, tea tree, thyme, vetiver, ylang ylang.
Canadian balsam, Copaiba balsam, coriander, cubebs, cypress, geranium, juniper, myrrh, myrtle, parsley, yarrow.
Insect bites (S,N):
French basil, bergamot, cajeput, cananga, chamomile (German & Roman), cinnamon leaf, eucalyptus blue gum, lavandin, lavender (spike & true), lemon, marigold, melissa, niaouli, tea tree, thyme, ylang ylang.
Insect repellent (S,V):
French basil, bergamot, borneol, camphor (white), Virginian cedarwood, citronella, clove bud, cypress, eucalyptus (blue gum & lemon), geranium, lavender, lemongrass, litsea cubeba, mastic, melissa, patchouli, rosemary, turpentine.
Irritated & inflamed skin (S,C,F,B):
Angelica, benzoin, camphor (white), Atlas cedarwood, chamomile (German & Roman), elemi, immortelle, hyssop, jasmine, lavandin, true lavender, marigold, myrrh, patchouli, rose (cabbage & damask), clary sage, spikenard, tea tree, yarrow.
Cinnamon leaf, eucalyptus blue gum, galbanum, geranium, lavandin, spike lavender, parsley, Scotch pine, rosemary, thyme, turpentine.
Mouth & gum infections/ulcers (S,C):
Bergamot, cinnamon leaf, cypress, sweet fennel, lemon, mastic, myrrh, orange (bitter & sweet), sage (clary & Spanish), thyme.
Angelica, bergamot, white birch, carrot seed, chamomile (German & Roman), true lavender.
Peru balsam, Tofu balsam, carrot seed, chamomile (German & Roman), hops, true lavender, marigold, sandalwood, spikenard, tea tree, yarrow.
Geranium, spike lavender, mastic, mint (peppermint & spearmint), myrrh, Levant styrax, tea tree, turpentine.
Tolu balsam, bergamot, cinnamon leaf, lavandin, lavender (spike & true), lemongrass, mastic, mint (peppermint & spearmint), Scotch pine, rosemary, Levant styrax, thyme, turpentine.
Scars & stretch marks (M,S):
Cabreuva, elemi, frankincense, galbanum, true lavender, mandarin, neroli, palmarosa, patchouli, rosewood, sandalwood, spikenard, violet, arrow.
Slack tissue (M,S,B):
Geranium, grapefruit, juniper, lemongrass, lime, mandarin, sweet marjoram, orange blossom, black pepper, petitgrain, rosemary, yarrow.
Bergamot, cade, cajeput, camphor (white), eucalyptus (lemon), immortelle, lavandin, lavender (spike & true), lemon, lime, litsea cubeba, mandarin, niaouli, tea tree.
Toothache & teething pain (S,C,N):
Chamomile (German & Roman), clove bud, mastic, mint (peppermint & spearmint), myrrh.
Varicose veins (S,C):
Cypress, lemon, lime, neroli, yarrow.
Tagetes, tea tree.
Warts & corns (S,N):
Cinnamon leaf, lemon, lime, tagetes, tea tree.
Canadian balsam, Peru balsam, Tolu balsam, bergamot, cabreuva, chamomile (German & Roman), clove bud, cypress, elemi, eucalyptus (blue gum & lemon), frankincense, galbanum, geranium, immortelle, hyssop, juniper, lavandin, lavender (spike & true), linaloe, marigold, mastic, myrrh, niaouli, patchouli, rosewood, Levant styrax, tea tree, turpentine, vetiver, yarrow.
Wrinkles & mature skin (M,S,F,B):
Carrot seed, elemi, sweet fennel, frankincense, galbanum, geranium, jasmine, labdanum, true lavender, mandarin, mimosa, myrrh, neroli, palmarosa, patchouli, rose (cabbage & damask), rosewood, clary sage, sandalwood, spikenard, ylang ylang.... The Encyclopedia of Essential Oils
It often causes belching and abdominal discomfort.
Long-term use may cause swollen ankles, muscle cramps, tiredness, and nausea.... BMA Medical Dictionary
Habitat: Throughout India.English: Wild Eggplant, Yellow- Berried Nightshade.Ayurvedic: Kantakaari, Kan- takaarikaa, Vyaaghri, Nidigdhikaa, Nidigdhaa, Duhsparshaa, Dhaa- vani, Kshudraa, Keteri (Smallar var.), Bhatakataiyaa. Used as Lakshmanaa.Unani: Kataai Khurd, Hadaq.
Action: Stimulant, expectorant, diuretic, laxative, febrifuge. Used in the treatment of cough, bronchitis, asthma, for dislodging tenacious phlegm; also used against rheumatism, enlargement of liver and spleen, vomiting, difficult urination, bladder stones, skin diseases. Fruit—used as an adjuvant for promoting conception.Fruits gave solasonine, solamargine, beta-solamargine and solasodine; petals yielded apigenin; stamens gave quercetin diglycoside and sitosterol. The glycoalkaloid content of fruits collected from Jammu and Kashmir is reported to be 3.5% (total alkaloids, 1.1%). The presence of diosgenin in the plant has been reported.Both glycoalkaloid and fatty acid fractions of the plants extracts cause liberation of histamine from chopped lung tissue. The beneficial effect of the drug on bronchial asthma may be attributed to the depletion of histamine from bronchial and lung tissue.Dosage: Whole plant—20-30 g for decoction. (API, Vol. I.)... Indian Medicinal Plants
The tumour starts as a small, painless lump or patch (usually on the lip, ear, or back of the hand), which enlarges fairly rapidly, often resembling a wart or ulcer. Left untreated, the cancer may spread to other parts of the body and prove fatal.
Diagnosis is based on a skin biopsy. The tumour is removed surgically or destroyed by radiotherapy.... BMA Medical Dictionary
Diagnosis is by an ECG.
An attack can sometimes be terminated by Valsalva’s manoeuvre or by drinking cold water.
Recurrent attacks are treated with antiarrhythmic drugs.
Rarely, the condition may require application of an electric shock to the heart (see defibrillation).... BMA Medical Dictionary
Habitat: Eastern Himalayas, from North Bengal eastwards to Assam, Khasi Hills and Arunachal Pradesh.English: Hollock.Ayurvedic: Kakubha (also a synonym of Arjuna tree).
Action: Bark—cardiac stimulant, mild diuretic.The bark gave beta-sitosterol, and about 18% tannins. Ellagic, gallic, che- bulinic and chebulagic acids—main constituents of ellagitannins, and leu- co-cyanidin, an important precursor to flavonoid tannins, have been isolated.... Indian Medicinal Plants
A diagnosis is made from sputum analysis, and by a liver biopsy. Severe cases require treatment in hospital with tiabendazole and an anticonvulsant drug.... BMA Medical Dictionary
Action: Intestinal astringent. Uses similar to Black Catechu (Acacia catechu). The extract of the leaves and shoots contains tannins, mainly catechins up to 35% and catechu tannic acid up to 50%; indole alkaloids including gambirine, gambiridine; flavonoids such as quercetin; pigments and gambirfluorescin.Gambirine is reported to be hypotensive; d-catechu constricts blood vessels. Catechins protect the liver from infection.A related species, U. rhynchophylla, native to China, known as Gou Teng in Chinese medicine, is used for eclampsia, headache, dizziness, convulsions, high fever and hypertension. (WHO.)... Indian Medicinal Plants
External injuries to the skin such as the sting of a nettle (‘nettle-rash’) or an insect bite cause histamine release from MAST CELLS in the skin directly. Certain drugs, especially MORPHINE, CODEINE and ASPIRIN, can have the same e?ect. In other cases, histamine release is caused by an allergic mechanism, mediated by ANTIBODIES of the immunoglobulin E (IgE) class – see IMMUNOGLOBULINS. Thus many foods, food additives and drugs (such as PENICILLIN) can cause urticaria. Massive release of histamine may affect mucous membranes – namely the tongue or throat – and can cause HYPOTENSION and anaphylactic shock (see ANAPHYLAXIS) which can occasionally be fatal.
Physical factors can cause urticaria. Heat, exercise and emotional stress may induce a singular pattern with small pinhead weals, but widespread ?ares of ERYTHEMA, activated via the AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM (CHOLINERGIC urticaria) may also occur.
Rarely, exposure to cold may have a smiilar e?ect (‘cold urticaria’) and anaphylactic shock following a dive into cold water in winter is occasionally fatal. The diagnosis of cold urticaria can be con?rmed by applying a block of ice to the arm which quickly induces a local weal.
Transient urticaria due to rubbing or even stroking the skin is common in young adults (DERMOGRAPHISM or factitious urticaria). More prolonged deep pressure induces delayed urticaria in other subjects. IgE-mediated urticaria is part of the atopic spectrum (see ATOPY, and SKIN, DISEASES OF – Dermatitis and eczema). Allergy to peanuts is particularly dangerous in young atopic subjects. Notwithstanding the many known causes, chronic urticaria of unknown cause is common and may have an autoimmune basis (see AUTOIMMUNE DISORDERS).
Treatment Causative factors must be removed. Topical therapy is ine?ective except for the use of calamine lotion, which reduces itching by cooling the skin. Oral ANTIHISTAMINES are the mainstay of treatment and are remarkably safe. Rarely, injection of ADRENALINE is needed as emergency treatment of massive urticaria, especially if the tongue and throat are involved, following by a short course of the oral steroid, prednisolone.
Angio-oedema is a variant of urticaria where massive OEDEMA involves subcutaneous tissues rather than the skin. It may have many causes but bee and wasp stings in sensitised subjects are particularly dangerous. There is also a rare hereditary form of angio-oedema. Acute airway obstruction due to submucosal oedema of the tongue or larynx is best treated with immediate intramuscular adrenaline and antihistamine. Rarely, TRACHEOSTOMY may be life-saving. Patients who have had two or more episodes can be taught self-injection with a preloaded adrenaline syringe.... Medical Dictionary
Urticaria is generally harmless and usually lasts only a few hours. Sometimes a persistent or recurrent form develops. Dermographism is a less common form
of urticaria in which weals form after the skin is stroked. Urticaria sometimes occurs with angioedema.
The cause of urticaria is often unknown. The most common known cause is an allergic reaction (see allergy), often to a particular food, food additive, or drug. Urticaria may also be caused by exposure to heat, cold, or sunlight. Less commonly, it may be associated with another disorder, such as vasculitis, systemic lupus erythematosus, or cancer.
Itching can be relieved by applying calamine lotion or by taking antihistamine drugs. More severe cases may require corticosteroid drugs. Identifying and avoiding known trigger factors can help prevent future reactions. A tendency to urticaria often disappears in time without treatment.... BMA Medical Dictionary
Habitat: Throughout India, as a weed.English: Soapwort, Cow Herb.Folk: Musna, Saabuni.
Action: Roots—used for cough, asthma and other respiratory disorders; for jaundice, liver and spleen diseases (increases bile flow). Mucilaginous sap—used in scabies.Saponins of the root showed haemo- lytic activity. Lanostenol, stigmas- terol, beta-sitosterol and diosgenin have been isolated from the plant. Xanthones, vaccaxanthone and sapx- anthone, and a oligosaccharide, vac- carose, have also been isolated.... Indian Medicinal Plants
It is caused by an abnormally fast heart-rate due to serious heart disease, such as myocardial infarction or cardiomyopathy.
It may last for a few seconds or for several days.
Diagnosis is confirmed by ECG.
Emergency treatment is with defibrillation and an antiarrhythmic drug.... BMA Medical Dictionary
Habitat: Native to tropical America; introduced into Indian gardens.
Action: Leaves and branch tips— a decoction is used in rheumatism; also for whooping cough and respiratory problems.Solvent extracts of the leaves (etha- nol, acetone and M-hexane) were found active against Gram-positive bacteria.Synonym: W. viridiflora Meissn. W. indica var. virdiflora Hook. f.Family: Thymelaeaceae.
Habitat: Eastern Assam; as a weed in Tamil Nadu.English: Small-Leaf Salago.Folk: Salago.
Action: Root bark—diuretic, vesicant, purgative and piscicidal.The root bark is reported to contain a flavone glycoside, wikstroemin, which exhibited diuretic activity.In Chinese folk medicine, the bark is used for schistosomiasis.The stem contains wikstromol, a lig- nin prototype which exhibited anti- neoplastic activity. Daphnoretin, isolated from the plant, caused platelet aggregation in the blood of rabbits. A polysaccharide, comprising glucose, arabinose, galacturonic acid, galactose and xylose, protected mice against radiation and enhanced the formation of macrophages.... Indian Medicinal Plants
Habitat: Wastes, pastures and field borders.Features ? The branched stems of one to three feet high are tough and bristly. The whole plant is hairy, and the leaves are oblong and bipinnate, with acute segments. Blossoming in June and July, the umbel of white flowers usually contains one crimson flower in the centre. The root tapers, is yellowish-white, sweetish, and faintly aromatic. Wren tells us that "in taste and odour it resembles the garden carrot, but the root is small and white, not large." Ferrier, however, says of this root, "no resemblance in taste or colour to the cultivated carrot." Our own opinion is that Wild Carrot tastes like a rather distant relative of the household carrot—which it probably is.Part used ? The whole plant.
Action: Pronouncedly diuretic in action, as well as de-obstruent and stimulant.Wild Carrot naturally, therefore, takes a prominent place in many formulae for the treatment of dropsy, gravel, retention of urine, and bladder trouble generally. Either an infusion or decoction may be prepared in the usual proportions, and doses of 2 fl. ounces taken three or four times daily.Culpeper comments ? "Wild Carrots belong to Mercury, and therefore breaketh wind, and removeth stitches in the sides, provoketh urine and women's courses, and helpeth to break and expel the stone."... Herbal Manual
Habitat: Peninsular India.Siddha/Tamil: Irul.Folk: Jambu, Suriaa.
Action: Bark—anthelmintic, antidiarrhoeal. Seed oil—an- tirheumatic. Bark and seed oil— antileprotic, used for ulcers and piles. A decoction of the bark powder is given with honey as a vermifuge.The leaves contain beta-sitosterol and t-5-hydroxypipecolic acid which was shown to be an inhibitor of blood platelet aggregation.The bark from South India gave tannin 17.1 and non-tans 11.1%; also contains triterpenes. The leaves contain 2.8% of tannins.The seed yielded oil with oleic 21.5, linoleic 34.8, behenic 21.3 and ligno- ceric 10.2% fatty acids.... Indian Medicinal Plants
Habitat: Coastal regions of India, especially in Tamil Nadu.Siddha/Tamil: Somanthiri, Kan- lolanyey.English: The Puzzle Fruit tree.Folk: Pussur, Dhundul.
Action: Bark—astringent, an- tidysenteric, febrifuge.The bark and leaves contain friede- lin, beta-sitosterol, stigmasterol; te- tranorterpenoids—oxomeliac derivatives. Bark, in addition, contains tri- acontanol. The heartwood contains beta-sitosterol and gedunin. Different parts of the plant contain tannins— fruit pulp 8.57, leaves 7.92, twig bark 14.82, branch bark 20.58, bole bark 23.73, branch wood 4.67 and bole wood 4.94%.A closely related species X.gange- ticus Prain occurs in West Bengal and the Andamans.... Indian Medicinal Plants