393 dream symbols found for this dream.
Habitat: The western Himalayas, Central and southern India.Folk: Karpuravalli (southern region).
Action: Stimulant, expectorant and diaphoretic. Juice of fresh leaves is used in urticaria and other allergic conditions; a domestic remedy for coughs and cold. Alcoholic extract of the whole plant—antibacterial. Essential oil—antitubercular.The oil exhibits antihistaminic property in vitro on smooth muscles of the uterus and the intestines. It also possesses muscle-relaxant action; bactericidal and fungicidal properties. The leaves contain glucosides of luteolin and apigenin.... Indian Medicinal Plants
In sinus tachycardia, the rate is raised, the rhythm is regular, and the beat originates in the sinoatrial node (see pacemaker). Supraventricular tachycardia is faster and the rhythm is regular. It may be caused by an abnormal electrical pathway that allows an impulse to
circulate continuously in the heart and take over from the sinoatrial node. Rapid, irregular beats that originate in the ventricles are called ventricular tachycardia. In atrial flutter, the atria (see atrium) beat regularly and very rapidly, but not every impulse reaches the ventricles, which beat at a slower rate. Uncoordinated, fast beating of the atria is called atrial fibrillation and produces totally irregular ventricular beats. Ventricular fibrillation is a form of cardiac arrest in which the ventricles twitch very rapidly in a disorganized manner.
Sinus bradycardia is a slow, regular beat. In heart block, the conduction of electrical impulses through the heart muscle is partially or completely blocked, leading to a slow, irregular heartbeat. Periods of bradycardia may alternate with periods of tachycardia due to a fault in impulse generation (see sick sinus syndrome).
A common cause of arrhythmia is coronary artery disease, particularly after myocardial infarction. Some tachycardias are due to a congenital defect in the heart’s conducting system. Caffeine can cause tachycardia in some people. Amitriptyline and some other antidepressant drugs can cause serious arrhythmias if they are taken in high doses.
An arrhythmia may be felt as palpitations, but in some cases arrhythmias can cause fainting, dizziness, chest pain, and breathlessness, which may be the 1st symptoms.
Arrhythmias are diagnosed by an ECG. If they are intermittent, a continuous recording may need to be made using an ambulatory ECG.
Treatments for arrhythmias include antiarrhythmic drugs, which prevent or slow tachycardias.
With an arrhythmia that has developed suddenly, it may be possible to restore normal heart rhythm by using electric shock to the heart (see defibrillation).
Abnormal conduction pathways in the heart can be treated using radio frequency ablation during cardiac catheterization (see catheterization, cardiac).
In some cases, a pacemaker can be fitted to restore normal heartbeat by overriding the heart’s abnormal rhythm.... BMA Medical Dictionary
Habitat: Native to Malaysia; cultivated throughout the warmer parts of India, especially in Kerala.English: Carambola, Star Fruit, Chinese Gooseberry.Ayurvedic: Karmaranga.Unani: Khamraq, Karmal.Siddha/Tamil: Tamarattai.Folk: Kamarakh.
Action: Root—antidote in poisoning. Leaf and shoot—applied externally in ringworm, scabies, chickenpox. Flower—vermicidal. Fruit—laxative, antidysenteric, antiphlogistic, febrifuge, anti- inflammatory, antispasmodic (used in hepatic colic, bleeding piles). Seeds—galactogenic; in large doses act as an emmenagogue and cause abortion.The fruits are a fairly good source of iron but deficient in calcium. They also contain oxalic acid and potassium oxalate. The presence of fluorine is also reported. A wide variation of vitamin-C content (0.3-23.0 mg/100 g) is recorded from different places in India. Sugar (3.19%) consists mainly of glucose (1.63%).... Indian Medicinal Plants
Deficiency. Sun sensitivity; exposure inducing itching, burning and swelling of the skin. Kidney, bladder, and gut infections. Severe earache in young children. Strokes, heart attacks.
It is claimed that those who eat a diet rich in beta-carotene are less likely to develop certain types of cancer.
Smokers usually have low levels of beta-carotene in the blood. Statistics suggest that people who eat a lot of beta-carotene foods are less likely to develop lung, mouth or stomach cancer. In existing cases a slow-down of the disease is possible.
Daily dose. Up to 300mg. Excess may manifest as yellow discoloration of the skin, giving appearance of sun-tan.
Sources. Mature ripe carrots of good colour. A Finland study suggests that four small carrots contain sufficient beta-carotene to satisfy the recommended daily amount of Vitamin A. Orange and dark green fruits and vegetables. Broccoli, Brussels sprouts, spinach, pumpkin, apricots, peaches, oranges, tomatoes. Harvard Medical School study. Among 333 subjects with a history of heart disease, those who received beta-carotene supplements of 50 milligrams every other day suffered half as many heart attacks as those taking placebos. (Dr Charles Hennekens, Harvard Medical School) ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine
Diagnosis is confirmed by sputum test, chest X-ray, bronchoscopy or biopsy. Earliest symptoms are persistent cough, pain in the chest, hoarseness of voice and difficulty of breathing. Physical examination is likely to reveal sensitivity and swelling of lymph nodes under arms.
Symptoms. Tiredness, lack of energy, possible pains in bones and over liver area. Clubbing of finger-tips indicate congestion of the lungs. Swelling of arms, neck and face may be obvious. A haematologist may find calcium salts in the blood. The supportive action of alteratives, eliminatives and lymphatic agents often alleviate symptoms where the act of swallowing has not been impaired.
Broncho-dilators (Lobelia, Ephedra, etc) assist breathing. Mullein has some reputation for pain relief. To arrest bleeding from the lesion (Blood root).
According to Dr Madaus, Germany, Rupturewort is specific on lung tissue. To disperse sputum (Elecampane, Red Clover). In advanced cases there may be swollen ankles and kidney breakdown for which Parsley root, Parsley Piert or Buchu may be indicated. Cough (Sundew, Irish Moss). Soft cough with much sputum (Iceland Moss). To increase resistance (Echinacea).
Alternatives. Secondary to primary treatment. Of possible value.
Teas. Violet leaves, Mullein leaves, Yarrow leaves, Gotu Kola leaves, White Horehound leaves. Flavour with a little Liquorice if unpalatable.
Tablets/capsules. Lobelia, Iceland Moss, Echinacea, Poke root.
Formula. Equal parts: Violet, Red Clover, Garden Thyme, Yarrow, Liquorice. Dose: Powders: 750mg (three 00 capsules or half a teaspoon. Liquid Extracts: 1-2 teaspoons. Tinctures: 1-3 teaspoons. Thrice daily, and during the night if relief is sought.
Practitioner. Tinctures BHP (1983). Ephedra 4; Red Clover 4, Yellow Dock 2; Bugleweed 2; Blood root quarter; Liquorice quarter (liquid extract). Mix. Start low: 30-60 drops in water before meals and at bedtime increasing to maximum tolerance level.
Aromatherapy. Oils: Eucalyptus or Thyme on tissue to assist breathing. Inhale.
Diet. See: DIET – CANCER.
Treatment by a general medical practitioner or hospital specialist. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine
Treatment by oncologist. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine
Carah, Caralee, Caralie, Caralyn, Caralynn, Carrah, Carra, Chara, Cahra, Caradoc, Caraf, Caraid, Carajean, Caralea, Caralisa, Carita, Carella, Carilla, Caraleigh, Caraleah... Medical Dictionary
Habitat: Throughout India, up to an altitude of 1,300 m, and in the Andamans.Folk: Karalli, Kierpa. Varanga (Malyalam).
Action: Leaves—used in the treatment of sapraemia. Bark—used for treating oral ulcers, stomatitis, inflammation of the throat.The leaves contain alkaloids (0.2% dry basis), the major being (+)-hygro- line.... Indian Medicinal Plants
FAMILY: Apiaceae (Umbelliferae)
SYNONYMS: Apium carvi, carum, caraway fruits.
GENERAL DESCRIPTION: A biennial herb up to 0.75 metres high with a much-branched stem, finely cut leaves and umbels of white flowers, with a thick and tapering root. The small seeds are curved with five distinct pale ridges.
DISTRIBUTION: Native to Europe and western Asia, naturalized in North America. Now widely cultivated especially in Germany, Holland, Scandinavia and Russia.
OTHER SPECIES: There are several varieties depending on origin – the English, Dutch and German types derive from Prussia, which are distinct from the Scandinavian variety. Those plants grown in northerly latitudes produce more oil.
HERBAL/FOLK TRADITION: Used extensively as a domestic spice, especially in bread, cakes and cheeses. Traditional remedy for dyspepsia, intestinal colic, menstrual cramps, poor appetite, laryngitis and bronchitis. It promotes milk secretion and is considered specific for flatulent colic in children, according to the British Herbal Pharmacopoeia.
ACTIONS: Antihistaminic, antimicrobial, antiseptic, aperitif, astringent, carminative, diuretic, emmenagogue, expectorant, galactagogue, larvicidal, stimulant, spasmolytic, stomachic, tonic, vermifuge.
EXTRACTION: Essential oil by steam distillation from the dried ripe seed or fruit (approx. 2–8 per cent yield).
CHARACTERISTICS: Crude caraway oil is a pale yellowish-brown liquid with a harsh, spicy odour. The redistilled oil is colourless to pale yellow, with a strong, warm, sweet-spicy odour, like rye bread. It blends well with jasmine, cinnamon, cassia and other spices; however, it is very overpowering.
PRINCIPAL CONSTITUENTS: Mainly carvone (50–60 per cent) and limonene (40 per cent), with carveol, dihydrocarveol, dihydrocarvone, pinene, phellandrene, among others.
SAFETY DATA: Non-toxic, non-sensitizing, may cause dermal irritation in concentration.
Respiratory System: Bronchitis, coughs, laryngitis.
Digestive System: Dyspepsia, colic, flatulence, gastric spasm, nervous indigestion, poor appetite. See also sweet fennel and dill.
Immune system: Colds.
OTHER USES: Used in carminative, stomachic and laxative preparations and as a flavour ingredient in pharmaceuticals; also to mask unpleasant tastes and odours. Fragrance component in toothpaste, mouthwash products, cosmetics and perfumes. Extensively used as a flavour ingredient in most major food categories, especially condiments. The German brandy ‘Kummel’ is made from the seeds.... The Encyclopedia of Essential Oils
Action: Antimicrobial, antispasmodic, carminative, expectorant, galactagogue, emmenagogue.
Uses: Wind and colic in children; loss of appetite; flatulent indigestion, ‘summer’ diarrhoea in children, colds, painful menses; to stimulate flow of breast milk. Gastric symptoms of cardiac origin.
Sometimes combined with Chamomile for digestive disorders.
Preparations: Thrice daily.
Tea: 1-2 teaspoons to each cup boiling water; infuse 10 minutes. Dose: half-1 cup. Tincture BHP (1983) 1 part to 5 parts 45 per cent alcohol: 0.5-4ml (8-60 drops). Powdered seeds: half-2 grams.
Oil of Caraway: 1-3 drops. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine
A gel containing carbenoxolone is used to relieve mouth ulcers.... BMA Medical Dictionary
(e.g. cane sugar), polysaccharides (e.g. starch). Many of the cheaper and most important foods are included in this group, which comprises sugars, starches, celluloses and gums. When one of these foods is digested, it is converted into a simple kind of sugar and absorbed in this form. Excess carbohydrates, not immediately needed by the body, are stored as glycogen in the liver and muscles. In DIABETES MELLITUS, the most marked feature consists of an inability on the part of the tissues to assimilate and utilise the carbohydrate material. Each gram of carbohydrate is capable of furnishing slightly over 4 Calories of energy. (See CALORIE; DIET.)... Medical Dictionary
Available carbohydrates are predominantly starches (complex carbohydrates) and sugars (simple carbohydrates). In carbohydrate metabolism, the monosaccharides (simple sugars) glucose (grape sugar), galactose (a milk sugar), and fructose (fruit sugar) are absorbed into the bloodstream unchanged. The disaccharides (double sugars) sucrose, maltose and lactose (a milk sugar) are broken down into simple sugars before they are absorbed. Starches also have to be broken down into simple sugars.
Some glucose is burned up immediately (see metabolism) in order to generate energy for cells, such as brain cells, that need a constant supply. Galactose and fructose have to be converted to glucose in the liver before they can be used by body cells. Surplus glucose is conveyed to the liver, muscles, and fat cells where it is converted into glycogen and fat for storage. When blood glucose levels are high, glucose storage is stimulated by insulin, a hormone that is secreted by the pancreas. When the blood glucose level becomes low, insulin secretion diminishes and glucagon, which is another hormone produced by the pancreas, stimulates the conversion of stored glycogen to glucose for release into the bloodstream. Although fat cannot be converted to glucose, it can be burned as a fuel in order to conserve glucose. In the disorder diabetes mellitus, carbohydrate metabolism is disturbed by a deficiency of insulin.... BMA Medical Dictionary
When it is compressed and cooled to -75ºC, carbon dioxide becomes solid dry ice, which is used in cryosurgery.... BMA Medical Dictionary
Measuring the partial pressure of the gas by taking blood for blood gas estimation provides information on the adequacy of breathing. A high partial pressure may indicate impending or actual respiratory failure.... Medical Dictionary
Carbon monoxide binds with haemoglobin and prevents the transportation of oxygen to body tissues.
The initial symptoms of acute high-level carbon monoxide poisoning are dizziness, headache, nausea, and faintness.
Continued inhalation of the gas may lead to loss of consciousness, permanent brain damage, and even death.
Low-level exposure to carbon monoxide over a period of time may cause fatigue, nausea, diarrhoea, abdominal pain, and general malaise.... BMA Medical Dictionary
Each year around 50 people in the United Kingdom are reported as dying from carbon monoxide poisoning, and experts have suggested that as many as 25,000 people a year are exposed to its effects within the home, but most cases are unrecognised, unreported and untreated, even though victims may suffer from long-term effects. This is regrettable, given that Napoleon’s surgeon, Larrey, recognised in the 18th century that soldiers were being poisoned by carbon monoxide when billeted in huts heated by woodburning stoves. In the USA it is estimated that 40,000 people a year attend emergency departments suffering from carbon monoxide poisoning. So prevention is clearly an important element in dealing with what is sometimes termed the ‘silent killer’. Safer designs of houses and heating systems, as well as wider public education on the dangers of carbon monoxide and its sources, are important.
Clinical effects of acute exposure resemble those of atmospheric HYPOXIA. Tissues and organs with high oxygen consumption are affected to a great extent. Common effects include headaches, weakness, fatigue, ?ushing, nausea, vomiting, irritability, dizziness, drowsiness, disorientation, incoordination, visual disturbances, TACHYCARDIA and HYPERVENTILATION. In severe cases drowsiness may progress rapidly to COMA. There may also be metabolic ACIDOSIS, HYPOKALAEMIA, CONVULSIONS, HYPOTENSION, respiratory depression, ECG changes and cardiovascular collapse. Cerebral OEDEMA is common and will lead to severe brain damage and focal neurological signs. Signi?cant abnormalities on physical examination include impaired short-term memory, abnormal Rhomberg’s test (standing unsupported with eyes closed) and unsteadiness of gait including heel-toe walking. Any one of these signs would classify the episode as severe. Victims’ skin may be coloured pink, though this is very rarely seen even in severe incidents. The venous blood may look ‘arterial’. Patients recovering from acute CO poisoning may suffer neurological sequelae including TREMOR, personality changes, memory impairment, visual loss, inability to concentrate and PARKINSONISM. Chronic low-level exposures may result in nausea, fatigue, headache, confusion, VOMITING, DIARRHOEA, abdominal pain and general malaise. They are often misdiagnosed as in?uenza or food poisoning.
First-aid treatment is to remove the victim from the source of exposure, ensure an e?ective airway and give 100-per-cent oxygen by tight-?tting mask. In hospital, management is largely suppportive, with oxygen administration. A blood sample for COHb level determination should be taken as soon as practicable and, if possible, before oxygen is given. Ideally, oxygen therapy should continue until the COHb level falls below 5 per cent. Patients with any history of unconsciousness, a COHb level greater than 20 per cent on arrival, any neurological signs, any cardiac arrhythmias or anyone who is pregnant should be referred for an expert opinion about possible treatment with hyperbaric oxygen, though this remains a controversial therapy. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy shortens the half-life of COHb, increases plasma oxygen transport and reverses the clinical effects resulting from acute exposures. Carbon monoxide is also an environmental poison and a component of cigarette smoke. Normal body COHb levels due to ENDOGENOUS CO production are 0.4 to
0.7 per cent. Non-smokers in urban areas may have level of 1–2 per cent as a result of environmental exposure. Smokers may have a COHb level of 5 to 6 per cent.... Medical Dictionary
Symptoms: flushing of face and neck, diarrhoea, low blood pressure, weight loss.
Treatment: relief of symptoms only. Diarrhoea – Fenugreek seed tea. Flushing: Chamomile tea.
Vitamin and Mineral Supplementation: Because of severe drain on these food elements Multivitamins should be taken daily together with additional 1000ius Vitamin E for the disturbed circulatory system. The heart should be sustained with a preparation of the Hawthorn berry.
To be treated by or in liaison with a qualified medical practitioner. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine
Action. Carminative, warm and soothing to digestive system. Stomachic, Orexigenic. Anti-gripe. Oil is antiseptic.
Uses: Flatulence, colic, loss of appetite.
Preparations: Tea. Crush seeds in a pestle and mortar. 1 teaspoon to cup of water; bring to boil; remove vessel when boiling point is reached. Infuse 10-15 minutes. Dose: half-1 cup.
Powder. Dose, 1-2 grams.
Liquid Extract. 0.3 to 2ml.
Tincture Cardamoms Co BP (1973): dose 2-4ml. Oil – 3 drops in honey after meals promotes digestion, removes odour of garlic, onions, etc. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine
Habitat: Cultivated chiefly in Ceylon.Features ? Fruits ovoid or oblong, longitudinally furrowed, about half-inch long. Fruits yield approximately 75 per cent seeds.Part used ? Seeds.
Action: Carminative, stomachic.As a warm, grateful aromatic in flatulence. The seeds should be crushed, and an infusion of 2 ounces to 1 pint of water taken in wineglassful doses.... Herbal Manual
Cardeah, Cardia, Cardiah... Medical Dictionary
See HEART, DISEASES OF.... Medical Dictionary
Symptoms: worse after exercise, breathlessness, headache, general weakness, feeble pulse, pale face, skin cold, swollen tissues pit on pressure.
Treatment. Alternatives:– Teas. Black Cohosh, Broom tops, Buchu, Dandelion, Hawthorn, Parsley root. Tea. Formula. Equal parts: Broom tops, Motherwort, Yarrow. 2 teaspoons to each cup water brought to boil and simmered 5 minutes in covered vessel. 1 cup 3-4 times daily.
Tablets/capsules. Buchu, Dandelion, Hawthorn, Juniper, Motherwort.
Formula. Dandelion 2; Hawthorn 2; Stone root 1. Mix. Dose: Powders: 750mg (three 00 capsules or half a teaspoon). Liquid extracts: 1 teaspoon. Tinctures: 2 teaspoons. Thrice daily.
Practitioner. Lily of the Valley, BPC 1934: 5-20 drops, 2-3 times daily.
Squills, tincture: resembles Digitalis in action. Dose: 1-3 drops, as prescribed.
Tinctures. Dandelion 2; Lily of the Valley 2; Stone root 1; Cayenne (tincture) quarter. Mix. Dose: 1 to 2 teaspoons thrice daily.
Popular formula. Tincture Scilla 5.0; Tincture Crataegus 10.0; Tincture Valerian to make 30.0. 15 drops thrice daily. (German Extemporaneous Formulae)
Diet. High protein. See: DIET – HEART AND CIRCULATION. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine
Although there are numerous possible sources of electrical interference with pacemakers, the overall risks are slight. Potential sources include anti-theft devices, airport weapon detectors, surgical diathermy, ultrasound, and short-wave heat treatment. Nevertheless, many pacemaker patients lead active and ful?lling lives.... Medical Dictionary
Symptoms: low blood pressure, reduced urinary output, water in the lungs, etc. See: MYOCARDITIS. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine
the hand, are applied to the lower breastbone until trained help arrives.
Both these measures are used to restore blood circulation to the brain.
Brain damage is likely if the brain is starved of oxygen for more than 3–4 minutes.... BMA Medical Dictionary
Habitat: Throughout the plains of India, as a wild climber.English: Ballon Vine, Winter Cherry, Heartseed.Ayurvedic: Kaakatiktaa, Kaakaadani, Karnsphotaa, Shatakratulataa.Unani: Habb-e-Qilqil.Siddha/Tamil: Mudukottan, Kottavan.Folk: Kanphotaa, Kanphuti, Lataaphatakari. Used as Jyotishmati in Bengal.
Action: Used in rheumatism, lumbago, skeletal fractures, nervous diseases, amenorrhoea, haemorrhoids, erysipelas. The herb is used in hairoils for treating dandruff, alopecia and for darkening hair.The plant extract showed significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity and sedative effect on CNS. The drug also showed (transient) vasode- pressant activity.The leaves contain beta-sitosterol and its D-glucoside, an alkaloid, oxalic acid and amino acids. The presence of a saponin and quebrachitol is reported in the plant.The leaves and stem are used in preparations used against common cold. Alcoholic extract of the plant exhibits antisickling and antiarthritic activity. Seeds have positive anabolic activity and increase body weight by inducing a positive nitrogen balance.The alkaloid fraction from the seeds showed hypotensive activities and cardiac inhibition in anaesthetized dogs; blocked spasmogenic effects of acetyl- choline, histamine and 5-HT on guinea pig ileum, biphasic effort on frog rec- tus abdominis muscle. The seeds also showed antibacterial activity.Dosage: Whole plant—50-100 ml decoction. (CCRAS.)... Indian Medicinal Plants
Cardiovascular surgery includes operations to prevent or repair damage caused, for example, by congenital heart disease (see heart disease, congenital), atherosclerosis, or a myocardial infarction (heart attack).
Procedures include heart valve surgery, coronary artery bypass, and heart transplant.... BMA Medical Dictionary
There are 3 types of carditis: myocarditis (inflammation of the heart muscle), which is usually caused by a viral infection; endocarditis (inflammation of the internal lining of the heart), which is usually due to a bacterial infection; and pericarditis (inflammation of the outer covering of the heart), which is usually due to a viral or bacterial infection but may be associated with a myocardial infarction or an autoimmune disorder, such as systemic lupus erythematosus.... BMA Medical Dictionary
This formula has been withdrawn after rendering excellent service for many years for heart weakness. No longer available to the general public as an OTC medicine. Of historic interest to the modern phytotherapist. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine
Mexican prickly poppy (Argemone mexicana).
Plant Part Used: Leaf, flower, root and stem.Dominican Medicinal Uses: Leaf/whole herb: prepared as a tea for blood-cleansing, cancer, stomach ulcers, delayed menstruation, vaginal infection, menopause symptoms; prepared as a douche for vaginal infection and inflammation; as a multi-herb mixture for ovarian cysts, uterine fibroids and tumors; root: boiled tea for stomach pain.Safety: Entire plant shown to be hepatotoxic due to sanguinarine and alkaloid content, especially concentrated in the seeds; internal use strongly cautioned against.Contraindications: Pregnancy, lactation, children.Laboratory & Preclinical Data: In vitro: antifungal, anti-HIV, anti-tumor, morphine-withdrawal alleviation, uterine stimulant (organic plant extracts).* See entry for Cardo santo in “Part 3: Dominican Medicinal Plant Profiles” of this book for more information, including references.... Medicinal Plants
Caress, Caressa, Carressa... Medical Dictionary
Habitat: Sub-Himalayan tract, from Jammu eastwards to West Bengal, Madhya Pradesh and Tamil Nadu.English: Kumbi, Slow-Match tree.Ayurvedic: Katabhi, Kumbhi- ka, Kumbhi, Kumbi, Kaitrya, Kumudikaa.Siddha/Tamil: Kumbi, Ayma.
Action: Bark—demulcent (in coughs and colds), antipyretic and antipruritic (in eruptive fevers), anthelmintic, antidiarrhoeal. An infusion of flowers is given after child birth.Seeds contain triterpenoid sapo- genols, sterols; leaves contain a tri- terpene ester, beta-amyrin, hexaco- sanol, taraxerol, beta-sitosterol, quer- cetin and taraxeryl acetate.Careya herbacea Roxb., a related species, is known as Kumbhaadu-lataa in Bengal.Dosage: Bark—50-100 ml decoction. (CCRAS.)... Indian Medicinal Plants
Habitat: Native to West Indies and Central America; now cultivated in Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Maharashtra and South India.English: Papaya, Papaw.Ayurvedic: Erand-karkati, Papitaa.Unani: Papitaa Desi.Siddha/Tamil: Pappaali, Pappayi.
Action: Ripe fruit—stomachic, digestive, carminative, diuretic, galactagogue. Useful in bleeding piles, haemoptysis, dysentery and chronic diarrhoea. Seeds— emmengagogue, abortifacient, vermifuge. Juice of seeds is administered in enlarged liver and spleen, and in bleeding piles.Key application: Papain, the enzyme mixture extracted from raw papain (latex of Carica papaya), has been included among unapproved herbs by German Commission E. Experiment-based as well as clinical research indicate that papain may be effective (in the treatment of inflammations) in high doses (daily dose 1500 mg corresponding to 2520 FIP units).Unripe fruit—emmengagogue and abortifacient. Latex—applied topically on eczema, ringworm, psoriasis, corns, warts, sloughing wounds, carbuncles and eschar of burns.Green parts of the plant and seed contain an alkaloid carpaine. Seeds also contain carpasemine.Latex contain enzymes—papain and chymopapain and alkaloids carpaine and pseudocarpaine. A proteinaceous material from latex showed anticoagulant activity; in higher doses it is heart depressant and as a spasmogen on smooth muscle of guinea pig ileum. An alkaloid solution showed depressant action on heart, blood pressure and intestine.The anthelmintic action of seeds against Ascaris lumbricoides is due to carpasemine.Papain, an enzyme mixture prepared from the fruit, seeds and leaf, hydrolyses polypeptides, amides and esters, particularly when used in an alkaline environment, and is used in digestive disorders.Papain inhibits platelet aggregation, which may further increase the risk of bleeding in patients also taking anticoagulants. Concurrent administration of cyclophosphamide with papain caused sever damage to lung tissues in rats. (Sharon M. Herr.)Chymopapin C is an immunosup- pressive enzyme from plant extract. Carpaine, extracted from the plant, exhibited anti-tubercular activity, also antitumour in vitro, and hypotensive.Dosage: Leaf—40-80 ml infusion; latex—3-6 g (CCRAS.)... Indian Medicinal Plants
at the tooth’s core. Advanced decay causes toothache and bad breath.
Treatment consists of drilling away the area of decay and filling the cavity (see filling, dental). In advanced decay, it may be necessary to remove the infected pulp (see extraction, dental).
Water fluoridation and the use of fluoride toothpaste helps prevent caries.
The risk of caries is also reduced by cutting sugar consumption, practising good oral hygiene, and visiting the dentist regularly.... BMA Medical Dictionary
Habitat: Throughout India.English: Christ's Thorn, Bengal Currant.Ayurvedic: Karinkaara, Karamarda, Krishnapaakphal, Kshirphena, Sushena, (Karamardakaa is equated with C. spinarum Linn.)Unani: Karondaa.Siddha/Tamil: Kalakke.
Action: Used for acidity, flatulence, poor digestion, as a slimming diet. Juice of the fresh plant is used for infected wounds that refuse to heal. Root—paste used for diabetic ulcer.The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India indicated the stem bark in obstinate skin diseases, and the root in urinary disorders.Alcoholic extract of roots exhibit hypotensive activity. Roots yield car- dioactive compounds; cardiotonic activity is due to glucoside of odoroside H. Fresh fruits are rich in ascorbic acid (105 g/100 g fruit juice). The seeds are rich in potassium (360 mg/100 g fresh matter).Dosage: Stem bark—48 g for decoction. (API Vol. II); root— 1-3 g (API Vol. III).... Indian Medicinal Plants
Habitat: Throughout the country in dry regions, especially in Punjab and Kashmir.Ayurvedic: Karamardikaa.Siddha/Tamil: Chirukila Chiru.Folk: Jangali Karondaa. Garnaa (Punjab).
Action: Plant—cardiotonic. Root— purgative.The root contains caffeic acid, cardiac glycosides—odorosides B, C, G and H, and evomonoside.Carissa paucinervia A. DC. is also equated with the wild var. ofKarondaa.... Indian Medicinal Plants
Carlah, Carlana, Carlee, Carleen, Carleigh, Carlena, Carlene, Carletta, Carlette, Carley, Carli, Carlia, Carlie, Carlina, Carlisa, Carlita, Carlla, Carly, Carlyn, Carlen, Carlin, Carling, Carlea, Carleah... Medical Dictionary
Carnelyan, Carneliann, Carnelianne, Carnela, Carnelia... Medical Dictionary
Nutritional Profile Energy value (calories per serving): Moderate Protein: Moderate Fat: Low Saturated fat: Low Cholesterol: None Carbohydrates: High Fiber: High Sodium: Low Major vitamin contribution: Niacin Major mineral contribution: Calcium
About the Nutrients in This Food Carob flour, which is milled from the dried pod of a Mediterranean ever- green tree, Ceratonia siliqua, looks like cocoa but has a starchy, beanlike flavor. It can be mixed with sweeteners to make a cocoalike powder or combined with fats and sweeteners to produce a candy that looks like and has the same rich mouthfeel as milk chocolate but tastes more like honey. Ounce for ounce, carob, which is also known as locust bean gum, has more fiber and calcium but fewer calories than cocoa. Its carbohydrates include the sugars sucrose, D-mannose, and D-galactose. (D-galactose is a simple sugar that links up with other sugars to form the complex indigest- ible sugars raffinose and stachyose.) Carob also contains gums and pectins, the indigestible food fibers commonly found in seeds.
The Most Nutritious Way to Serve This Food As a substitute for cocoa or chocolate for people who are sensitive to chocolate.
Diets That May Restrict or Exclude This Food Low-carbohydrate diet
Buying This Food Look for: Tightly sealed containers that will protect the flour from moisture and insects.
Storing This Food Store carob flour in a cool, dark place in a container that protects it from air, moisture, and insects. Keep carob candy cool and dry.
Preparing This Food Measure out carob flour by filling a cup or tablespoon and leveling it off with a knife. To substitute carob for regular flour, use ¼ cup carob flour plus ¾ cup regular flour for each cup ordinary flour. To substitute for chocolate, use three tablespoons of carob flour plus two tablespoons of water for each ounce of unsweetened chocolate. Carob flour is sweeter than unsweetened chocolate.
What Happens When You Cook This Food Unlike cocoa powder, carob flour contains virtually no fat. It will burn, not melt, if you heat it in a saucepan. When the flour is heated with water, its starch granules absorb moisture and rupture, releasing a gum that can be used as a stabilizer, thickener, or binder in processed foods and cosmetics. In cake batters, it performs just like other flours (see flour).
Medical uses and/or Benefits Adsorbent and demulcent. Medically, carob flour has been used as a soothing skin powder. As a chocolate substitute. People who are sensitive to chocolate can usually use carob instead. Like cocoa beans, carob is free of cholesterol. Unlike cocoa, which contains the cen- tral-nervous-system stimulant caffeine and the muscle stimulant theobromine, carob does not contain any stimulating methylxanthines. Lower cholesterol levels. In 2001, a team of German nutrition researchers from the Institute for Nutritional Science at the University of Potsdam, the German Institute of Human Nutri- tion, Center for Conventional Medicine and Alternative Therapies (Berlin) Nutrinova Nutri- tion Specialties and Food Ingredients GmbH, and PhytoPharm Consulting, Institute for Phytopharmaceuticals GmbH conducted a study to evaluate carob’s effectiveness in lower- ing cholesterol. For a period of eight weeks, 47 volunteers with moderately high cholesterol levels (232– 302 mg/dL) were fed 15 g of carob per day in breakfast cereal, fruit grain bars, and a drink made from powdered carob pulp as supplements to their normal diet. After four weeks, the volunteers’ total cholesterol levels fell an average of 7 percent and their LDL (low density lipoprotein—“bad” cholesterol) levels fell an average 10.6 percent. At six weeks, the numbers were 7.8 percent and 10.6 percent. There was no effect on HDLs (high density lipoproteins, a.k.a. “good” cholesterol).... A Nutritional, Medical and Culinary Guide
The left carotid arises from the aorta and runs up the neck on the left side of the trachea (windpipe). The right carotid arises from the subclavian artery (which branches off the aorta) and follows a similar route on the right side of the
neck. Just above the level of the larynx (voice-box), each carotid artery divides to form an external carotid artery and an internal carotid artery. The external arteries have multiple branches that supply most tissues in the face, scalp, mouth, and jaws; the internal arteries enter the skull to supply the brain and eyes. At the base of the brain, branches of the 2 internal carotids and the basilar artery join to form a ring of vessels called the circle of Willis. Narrowing of these vessels may be associated with transient ischaemic attack (TIA); obstruction of them causes a stroke. carpal tunnel syndrome Numbness, tingling, and pain in the thumb, index finger, and middle fingers caused by compression of the median nerve at the wrist. Symptoms may be worse at night. The condition results from pressure on the nerve where it passes into the hand via a gap (the “carpal tunnel’’) under a ligament at the front of the wrist. It is common among keyboard users. It also occurs without obvious cause in middleaged women, and is associated with pregnancy, initial use of oral contraceptives, premenstrual syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, myxoedema, and acromegaly.
The condition often disappears without treatment.
Persistent symptoms may be treated with a corticosteroid drug injected under the ligament, or the ligament may be cut to relieve pressure on the nerve.... BMA Medical Dictionary
Symptoms. Numbness or tingling in first three fingers which feel ‘clumsy’. Worse at night. Muscle wasting of palm of the hand.
Diagnostic sign: the ‘flick’ sign – shaking or ‘flicking’ of the wrist when pain is worse and which is believed to mechanically untether the nerve and promote return of venous blood. (J. Neural Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 1984, 47, 873)
Differential diagnosis: compression of seventh cervical spinal nerve root (osteopathic lesion) has tingling of the hands when standing or from exaggerated neck movements.
Treatment. Reduction of spasm with peripheral relaxants (antispasmodics). Also: local injection of corticosteroid or surgical division of the transverse carpal ligament.
Alternatives:– Tea. Equal parts. Chamomile, Hops, Valerian. 1 heaped teaspoon to each cup boiling water; infuse 15 minutes. 1 cup 2-3 times daily.
Tablets/capsules. Cramp bark. St John’s Wort. Wild Yam. Lobelia. Prickly Ash. Passion flower. Black Cohosh. Hawthorn.
Powders. Formula. Cramp bark 1; Guaiacum half; Black Cohosh half; Pinch Cayenne. Dose: 500mg (two 00 capsules or one-third teaspoon) 2-3 times daily.
Bromelain, quarter to half a teaspoon between meals.
Turmeric. Quarter to half a teaspoon between meals.
Tinctures. Formula: Cramp bark 1; Lobelia half; Black Cohosh half. Few drops Tincture Capsicum. Mix. 1 teaspoon in water when necessary. To reduce blood pressure, add half part Mistletoe.
Practitioner. For pain. Tincture Gelsemium BPC 1963 5-15 drops when necessary.
Topical. Rhus tox ointment. Camphorated oil.
Lotion: Tincture Lobelia 20; Tincture Capsicum 1.
Supplements. Condition responsive to Vitamin B6 and B-complex. Some authorities conclude that CTS is a primary deficiency of Vitamin B6, dose: 50-200mg daily.
General. Yoga, to control pain. Attention to kidneys. Diuretics may be required. Cold packs or packet of peas from the refrigerator to site of pain for 15 minutes daily. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine
FAMILY: Apiaceae (Umbelliferae)
SYNONYMS: Wild carrot, Queen Anne’s lace, bird’s nest.
GENERAL DESCRIPTION: Annual or biennial herb, with a small, inedible, tough whitish root. It has a much-branched stem up to 1.5 metres high with hairy leaves and umbels of white lacy flowers.
DISTRIBUTION: Native to Europe, Asia and North Africa; naturalized in North America. The essential oil is mainly produced in France.
OTHER SPECIES: An oil is also produced by solvent extraction from the red fleshy root of the common edible carrot (D. carota subspecies sativus) mainly for use as a food colouring.
HERBAL/FOLK TRADITION: A highly nutritious plant, containing substantial amounts of Vitamins A, C, B1 and B2. The roots have a strong tonic action on the liver and gall bladder, good for the treatment of jaundice and other complaints. The seeds are used for the retention of urine, colic, kidney and digestive disorders, and to promote menstruation. In the Chinese tradition it is used to treat dysentery and to expel worms.
The dried leaves are current in the British Herbal Pharmacopoeia for calculus, gout, cystitis and lithuria.
ACTIONS: Anthelmintic, antiseptic, carminative, depurative, diuretic, emmenagogue, hepatic, stimulant, tonic, vasodilatory and smooth muscle relaxant.
EXTRACTION: Essential oil by steam distillation from the dried fruit (seeds).
CHARACTERISTICS: A yellow or amber-coloured liquid with a warm, dry, woody-earthy odour. It blends well with costus, cassie, mimosa, cedarwood, geranium, citrus and spice oils.
PRINCIPAL CONSTITUENTS: Pinene, carotol, daucol, limonene, bisabolene, elemene, geraniol, geranyl acetate, caryophyllene, among others.
SAFETY DATA: Non-toxic, non-irritant, non-sensitizing.
Skin Care: Dermatitis, eczema, psoriasis, rashes, revitalizing and toning, mature complexions, wrinkles.
Circulation Muscles And Joints: Accumulation of toxins, arthritis, gout, oedema, rheumatism.
Digestive System: Anaemia, anorexia, colic, indigestion, liver congestion.
Genito-Urinary And Endocrine Systems: Amenorrhoea, dysmenorrhoea, glandular problems, PMT.
OTHER USES: Fragrance component in soaps, detergents, cosmetics and perfumes. Flavour ingredient in most major food categories, especially seasonings.... The Encyclopedia of Essential Oils
Nutritional Profile Energy value (calories per serving): Low Protein: Moderate Fat: Low Saturated fat: Low Cholesterol: None Carbohydrates: High Fiber: High Sodium: Moderate Major vitamin contribution: Vitamin A Major mineral contribution: Potassium
About the Nutrients in This Food Carrots are high-fiber food, roots whose crispness comes from cell walls stiffened with the insoluble dietary fibers cellulose and lignin. Carrots also contain soluble pectins, plus appreciable amounts of sugar (mostly sucrose) and a little starch. They are an extraordinary source of vitamin A derived from deep yellow carotenoids (including beta-carotene). One raw carrot, about seven inches long, has two grams of dietary fiber and 20,250 IU vitamin A (nine times the R DA for a woman, seven times the R DA for a man).
The Most Nutritious Way to Serve This Food Cooked, so that the cellulose- and hemicellulose-stiffened cell walls of the carrot have partially dissolved and the nutrients inside are more readily available.
Diets That May Restrict or Exclude This Food Disaccharide-intolerance diet (for people who are sucrase- and /or invertase-deficient) Low-fiber diet Low-sodium diet (fresh and canned carrots)
Buying This Food Look for: Firm, bright orange yellow carrots with fresh, crisp green tops. Avoid: Wilted or shriveled carrots, pale carrots, or carrots with brown spots on the skin.
Storing This Food Trim off the green tops before you store carrots. The leaf y tops will wilt and rot long before the sturdy root. Keep carrots cool. They will actually gain vitamin A during their first five months in storage. Protected from heat and light, they can hold to their vitamins at least another two and a half months. Store carrots in perforated plastic bags or containers. Circulating air prevents the for- mation of the terpenoids that make the carrots taste bitter. Do not store carrots near apples or other fruits that manufacture ethylene gas as they continue to ripen; this gas encourages the development of terpenoids. Store peeled carrots in ice water in the refrigerator to keep them crisp for as long as 48 hours.
Preparing This Food Scrape the carrots. Ver y young, tender carrots can be cleaned by scrubbing with a veg- etable brush. Soak carrots that are slightly limp in ice water to firm them up. Don’t discard slightly wilted intact carrots; use them in soups or stews where texture doesn’t matter.
What Happens When You Cook This Food Since carotenes do not dissolve in water and are not affected by the normal heat of cooking, carrots stay yellow and retain their vitamin A when you heat them. But cooking will dissolve some of the hemicellulose in the carrot’s stiff cell walls, changing the vegetable’s texture and making it easier for digestive juices to penetrate the cells and reach the nutrients inside.
How Other Kinds of Processing Affect This Food Freezing. The characteristic crunchy texture of fresh carrots depends on the integrity of its cellulose- and hemicellulose-stiffened cell walls. Freezing cooked carrots creates ice crystals that rupture these membranes so that the carrots usually seem mushy when defrosted. If possible, remove the carrots before freezing a soup or stew and add fresh or canned carrots when you defrost the dish.
Medical Uses and/or Benefits A reduced risk of some kinds of cancer. According to the American Cancer Society, carrots and other foods rich in beta-carotene, a deep yellow pigment that your body converts to a form of vitamin A, may lower the risk of cancers of the larynx, esophagus and lungs. There is no such benefit from beta-carotene supplements; indeed, one controversial study actually showed a higher rate of lung cancer among smokers taking the supplement. Protection against vitamin A-deficiency blindness. In the body, the vitamin A from carrots becomes 11-cis retinol, the essential element in rhodopsin, a protein found in the rods (the cells inside your eyes that let you see in dim light). R hodopsin absorbs light, triggering the chain of chemical reactions known as vision. One raw carrot a day provides more than enough vitamin A to maintain vision in a normal healthy adult.
Adverse Effects Associated with This Food Oddly pigmented skin. The carotenoids in carrots are fat-soluble. If you eat large amounts of carrots day after day, these carotenoids will be stored in your fatty tissues, including the fat just under your skin, and eventually your skin will look yellow. If you eat large amounts of carrots and large amounts of tomatoes (which contain the red pigment lycopene), your skin may be tinted orange. This effect has been seen in people who ate two cups of carrots and two tomatoes a day for several months; when the excessive amounts of these vegetables were eliminated from the diet, skin color returned to normal. False-positive test for occult blood in the stool. The active ingredient in the guaiac slide test for hidden blood in feces is alphaguaiaconic acid, a chemical that turns blue in the presence of blood. Carrots contain peroxidase, a natural chemical that also turns alphaguaiaconic acid blue and may produce a positive test in people who do not actually have blood in the stool.... A Nutritional, Medical and Culinary Guide
Cartar, Cartrell, Cartier... Medical Dictionary
Habitat: Cultivated mainly as an oil-seed crop in Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra.English: Safflower.Ayurvedic: Kusumbha, Vahin- shikhaa, Vastraranjaka, Kusum.Unani: Qurtum.Siddha/Tamil: Chendurakam.
Action: Oil—aids prevention of arteriosclerosis, coronary heart disease and kidney disorders as a polyunsaturated fat. Flowers— stimulant, sedative, diuretic, emmenagogue; used in fevers and eruptive skin conditions, measles.Charred safflower oil is used in rheumatism and for healing sores.Key application: Dried flowers— in cardiovascular diseases, amen- orrhoea, dysmenorrhoea and retention of lochia; also in wounds and sores with pain and swelling. (Pharmocopoeia of the People's Republic of China, 1997.)Safflower contains carthamone, lig- nans and a polysaccharide. The polysaccharide, composed of xylose, fructose, galactose, glucose, arabinose, rhamnose and uronic acid residues, stimulates immune function in mice. It induced antibody formation in mice following peritoneal injection. Extracts of flowers have also been tested in China on blood coagulation, where a prolongation of clothing time was observed and platelet aggregation inhibited. Chinese research indicates that Safflower flowers can reduce coronary artery disease, and lower cholesterol levels. Flowers and seeds exhibit lipase activity. The flower extract also exhibited anti-inflammatory, sedative and analgesic effect and inhibitory effect on spontaneous motor activity.The plant contains a propanetriol derivative, which can be used for the treatment of circulatory disorders.Recent research suggests that improving the lipid profile might not be as important to reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease as suggested. (Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, 2007.)Safflower is contraindicated in pregnancy, gastric disorders, excessive menstruation, haemorrhagic diseases.Wild and thorny Safflower, growing in the arid tract of Haryana and Punjab (locally known as Kantiaari, Poli, Poiyan) is equated with C. oxy- cantha Bieb. The plant is diuretic. Seed oil is applied topically to ulcers. The plant contains a sesquiterpene gly- coside. Aerial parts contain hinesol- beta-D-fucopyranoside. The plant also contains luteolin-7-glucoside.Dosage: Leaf—3-6 g powder. (CCRAS.)... Indian Medicinal Plants
Habitat: Cultivated in the hills and plains of North India and in the hills of South India.English: Black Caraway.Ayurvedic: Krishna jiraka, Kaash- mira jirak.Unani: Jiraa Siyaah, Kamoon- armani.Siddha/Tamil: Shemai-shiragam, Pilappu-shiragam.
Action: See C. carvi.... Indian Medicinal Plants
Habitat: Native to Europe and West Asia. Now cultivated in Bihar, Orissa, Punjab, Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, and in the hills of Kumaon, Garhwal, Kashmir and Chamba.Also found wild in the North Himalayan regions.English: Caraway.Ayurvedic: Krishna jiraka, Jiraa, Kaaravi, Asita Jiraka, Kaashmira- jiraka, Prithvikaa, Upakunchikaa, Sugandha Udgaar, Shodhana.Unani: Zeeraa Siyaah, Kamoon, Kamoon-roomi.Siddha/Tamil: Shimai-shembu, Semai Seearagam, Karamjiragam.
Action: Carminative, antispas- modic, antimicrobial, expectorant, galactagogue, emmenagogue.Key application: Seed oil—in dyspeptic problems, such as mild, sapstic conditions of the gastrointestinal tract, bloating and fullness. (German Commission E, ESCOP, The British Herbal Pharmacopoeia.) The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India recommended the seed in chronic fevers.The fruit contains a volatile oil consisting of carvone (40-60%) and limoline with other constituents; flavonoids, mainly quercetin derivatives, polysac- charides and a fixed oil; also calcium oxalate.The antispasmodic and carminative effects have been confirmed experimentally. The caraway has shown to reduce gastrointestinal foam.Both the seeds and the essential oil are classed as carminative in I.P.The essential oil shows moderate antibacterial and antifungal activity against several bacteria and fungi. Mixed with alcohol and castor oil, it is used for scabies.Dosage: Seed—1-3 g powder. (CCRAS.)... Indian Medicinal Plants
Carya, Cariatis, Caryatiss, Cariatiss, Caryatys, Cariatys, Caryatyss, Cariatyss... Medical Dictionary
Habitat: Throughout the warmer parts of India, from Jammu and Rajasthan to Assam and up to 300 m.Ayurvedic: Gandira.Siddha/Tamil: Tumans.
Action: Leaves, seeds, roots— astringent, applied to ulcers and boils. Leaves—diaphoretic (recommended in high fever). Root- given in anaemic conditions. Aerial parts—CNS active, hypothermic. The stems, leaves and roots contain hydrocyanic acid. Presence of delphinidin and cyanidin is reported in the leaves.... Indian Medicinal Plants
Habitat: Native to Europe and the Mediterranean region; extensively cultivated in Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh for its fleshy tap roots which are eaten raw or cooked. Wild Carrot: Native to Europe, Africa and Asia. Grows at 3,000-3,600 m in the Himalayas.English: Carrot, Cultivated Carrot. Wild carrot (D. carota Linn.wild var.: the root, small and white), Queen Anne's Lace, Bird's Nest. Bees' Nest Plant.Ayurvedic: Gaajara, Garjara, Granjana.Unani: Gaajar.
Action: Roasted roots—prescribed in palpitation, burning micturation, cough and bronchitis. Carrot increases the quantity of urine and helps the elimination of uric acid; also lowers blood sugar. Juice—a rich source of carotene. Seeds—diuretic, emmenagogue, spasmolytic (prescribed in anuria and sexual debility). Wild carrot— diuretic and antilithic (used for kidney stones, cystitis and in gout). Seeds—emmenagogue. Also used for hot flushes of the menopause.In cooked (orange) carrots beta- carotene content (1890 mcg) was found much higher than in raw carrots- (1045 mcg/100 g). Heat processing of carrots affected alpha- and beta-carotene contents; their value decreased (3.7; 5.3) in water blanching, whereas increased (5.8; 8.2) in steam blanching compared to that in fresh carrots (5.2; 8.1 mg/100 g) respectively.An interferon inducer has been isolated from carrot. It stimulates cells to produce the protein that increases human resistance to virus infections.Aqueous extract of carrots showed hepatoprotective activity against CCl4- induced hepatic damage in mice liver.The ethanolic extract exhibits direct relaxant action on cardiac and smooth muscle preparation and this action may be responsible for its hypotensive action. (Gently heated peeled roots, mixed with sugar candy, are given as a hypotensive drug.)The ethanolic extract of seeds exhibited diuretic effect in dogs.The British Herbal Pharmacopoeia recommends Daucus carota Linn. (wild carrot) for its diuretic activity. Wild carrot contains flavones including apigenin, chypsin, luteolin; flavonols including kaempferol, quer- cetin and various glycosides. The fura- nocoumarins, 8-methoxypsoralen and 5-methoxypsoralen are found in the plant. The seed oil contains terpinen- 4-ol, a renal irritant. It is believed to cause diuretic activity.... Indian Medicinal Plants
DHSC section of the website: provides information on a wide range of public health issues... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary
Habitat: Kashmir; commonly grown in gardens, especially on the hills.English: Carnation, Clove Pink.
Action: Flowers—diaphoretic, alexiteric, cardiac tonic. whole plant—vermifuge. Juice of plant antiviral.Leaves contain glucoproteins.A related species, Dicentra anatoli- cus Boiss, found in the Western Himalayas, is used as an antiperiodic in intermittent fevers.... Indian Medicinal Plants
Treatment. Agents in frequent use: Broom, Lily of the Valley, Hawthorn (blossoms or berries), Motherwort.
Tea. Combine equal parts: Dandelion root, Motherwort, Yarrow. 2 teaspoons to each cup boiling water; infuse 5-15 minutes; 1 cup thrice daily.
Powders. Equal parts: Dandelion root, Juniper berries, Hawthorn berries. Mix. Dose: 500mg (two 00 capsules or one-third teaspoon).
Practitioner. Lily of the Valley. Dose as BHP (1983): Liquid Extract: 1:1 in 25 per cent alcohol, 0.6-2ml. Tincture: 1:5 in 40 per cent alcohol, 0.5-1ml. Thrice daily.
Dropsy in children: cucumber juice extracted from vegetable with aid of a juicer. As many cupfuls as well-tolerated. If vomiting is induced, it should be regarded as favourable.
Diet. Lacto-vegetarian, salt-free, bottled or spring water, honey. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine
Pain can be relieved by regular low doses of analgesic drugs. Opioid analgesics, such as morphine, may be given if pain is severe. Other methods of pain relief include nerve blocks, cordotomy, and TENS. Nausea and vomiting may be controlled by drugs. Constipation can be treated with laxatives. Breathlessness is another common problem in the dying and may be relieved by morphine.
Towards the end, the dying person may be restless and may suffer from breathing difficulty due to heart failure or pneumonia. These symptoms can be relieved by drugs and by placing the patient in a more comfortable position.
Emotional care is as important as the relief of physical symptoms.
Many dying people feel angry or depressed and feelings of guilt or regret are common responses.
Loving, caring support from family, friends, and others is important.
Many terminally ill people prefer to die at home.
Few terminally ill patients require complicated nursing for a prolonged period.
Care in a hospice may be offered.
Hospices are small units that have been established specifically to care for the dying and their families.... BMA Medical Dictionary
Habitat: Throughout warmer parts of India.Ayurvedic: Mayura-shikhaa, Gojihvaa. (Actinopteris dichotoma Bedd. and Celosia cristata Linn. are also used as Mayura-shikhaa. Anchusa strigosa Lebill., and other Boraginaecae sp. are used as Gojihvaa.)Siddha/Tamil: Yaanaichhuvadi.Folk: Mayurjuti, Maaraajuti.
Action: Plant—astringent, cardiac tonic, diuretic, mucilaginous, emmolient (used in dysuria, diarrhoea, dysentery. Leaves—Family: Zingiberaceae.
Habitat: Cultivated either as pure plantation crop, or as subsidiary to coffee and arecanut in hilly forests regions of Western Ghats in Karnataka and Kerala, and in parts of Madurai, the Nilgiris and Tirunelveli in Tamil Nadu.English: Lesser Cardamom.Ayurvedic: Elaa, Sukshmailaa, Kshudrailaa, Bhrngaparnikaa, Tutthaa, Draavidi, Prithvikaa, Triputaa, Truti, Upkunchikaa.Unani: Heel Khurd.Siddha/Tamil: Yelakkai, Ilam.
Action: Carminative antiemetic, stomachic, orexigenic, anti-gripe, antiasthmatic, bechic, Oil— antispasmodic, antiseptic. Used for flatulence, loss of appetite, colic, bronchitis, asthma. Paste used as balm for headache, husk for rheumatism.Key application: In dyspepsia; also as cholagogue. (German Commission E.)The seeds yield an essential oil (611% dry basis). The major constituents are, 1,8-cineole and alpha-terpinylace- tate, with limonene, alpha-terpineol, sabinene and linalool. The seeds contain palmitic and oleic as dominant fatty acids, besides linoleic and linolenic acids, along with alpha-tocopherol, desmosterol and campesterol.The extracts of cardamom cause a significant decrease in gastric secretion after 3 h of treatment. The effect of methanol extract is primarily observed as decreased pepsin output.Terpineol and acetylterpineol, the active principles of cardamom seeds, showed greater penetration enhancing capacities than Azone which was used as a comparative penetration enhancer for the diffusion of Pred- nisolone through mouse skin in vitro.Volatile components exhibit antimicrobial activity. The oil inhibits afla- toxin synthesis.The cardamom seed can trigger gallstone colic (spasmodic pain) and is not recommended for self-medication in patients with gallstone. (German Commission E, PDR, Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, 2007.)Dosage: Seed of dried fruit—1-2 g powder. (API Vol I.)... Indian Medicinal Plants
Habitat: Native to the Mediterranean region; now cultivated in Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Punjab, Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra.English: Common Fig.Ayurvedic: Phalgu, Manjul, Raajodumbara, Bhadrodumbara.Unani: Anjeer, Teen.Siddha/Tamil: Semaiatti.
Action: Fruit—gentle laxative and expectorant. Syrup of figs— a remedy for mild constipation. Fruit pulp-analgesic and anti- inflammatory, used for treating tumours, swellings and gum abscesses. Latex—analgesic and toxic. Used for treating warts, insect bites and stings. Leaf—used in lucoderma. Bark—used for eczema and other skin diseases.Key application: As a laxative. (Included among unapproved herbs by German Commission E.)The leaves gave bergapten, psoralen, taraxasterol, beta-sitosterol, rutin and a sapogenin. Calotropenyl acetate, lep- eol acetate and oleanolic acid have been identified in the leaves.Three peptides which exhibit action against angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) have been isolated from the fresh latex. Their inhibitory activity is similar to that of ACE inhibitors derived from casein. (ACE catalyzes both the production of vasoconstrictor angiotensin II and the inactivation of the vasodilator bradykinin.)Dosage: Fruit—10-20 ml juice; 510 g paste. (CCRAS.)... Indian Medicinal Plants
An adequate daily intake of essential fatty acids is assured by the golden oils (Sunflower, Corn, etc) which can be well supported by Evening Primrose oil capsules.
Internal: Bamboo gum. Nettle tea, Alfalfa, Horsetail, Soya.
Topical. Shampoo. Soapwort or Yucca. Chop 2 tablespoons (dry) or 1 tablespoon (fresh) leaves or root. Place in cup of warm water. Stir until a froth is produced. Decant and massage liquor into scalp.
Aloe Vera gel is noted for its moisturising effect and to provide nutrients. It may be used as a shampoo, hair set and conditioner. Jojoba oil has been used for centuries by the Mexican Indians for a healthy scalp; today, it is combined with Evening Primrose and Vitamin E with good effect. Olive oil stimulates strong growth.
One of several herbs may be used as a rinse, including Nettles, Rosemary, Southernwood, Fennel, Chamomile, Yellow Dock and Quassia. Hair should be washed not more than once weekly with warm water and simple vegetable soap; rinse four times with warm rinse, finishing off with cold. Brunettes should add a little vinegar; blondes, lemon juice. Selenium once had a reputation as a hair conditioner; recent research confirms. Selenium shampoos are available.
Supplements: Vitamins B (complex), B6, Choline, C and E. Copper, Zinc, Selenium, Vitamin B12 (50mg thrice daily).
Aromatherapy. 2 drops each: Sage, Nettles, Thyme; to 2 teaspoons Gin or Vodka, and massage into the scalp daily. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine
The principle of one-to-one, 24-hours-a-day care for seriously ill patients has been widely adopted and developed for the initial treatment of many patients with life-threatening conditions. Thus, severely injured patients – those with serious medical conditions such as coronary thrombosis or who have undergone major surgery, and individuals suffering from potentially lethal toxic affects of poisons – are treated in an INTENSIVE THERAPY UNIT (ITU). Patients whose respiratory or circulatory systems have failed bene?t especially by being intensively treated. Most patients, especially post-operative ones, leave intensive care when their condition has been stabilised, usually after 24 or 48 hours. Some, however, need support for several weeks or even months. Since 1952, intensive medicine has become a valued specialty and a demanding one because of the range of skills needed by the doctors and nurses manning the ITUs.... Medical Dictionary
Habitat: Throughout the warmer parts of India.Ayurvedic: Granthiparni, Kaaka- puchha.Folk: Gathivan, Deepamaal (Maharashtra).
Action: Leaves—spasmolytic. Ash of flower head—applied to burns and scalds, in ringworm and other skin diseases.The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia ofIn- dia recommends the root in cough, bronchitis and dyspnoea.The root contains n-octacosanol, n-octacosanoic acid, quercetin, 4,6,7- trimethoxy-5-methylchromene-2-one, campesterol and beta-sitosterol-beta- D-glucopyranoside.The plant contains 4,6,7-trimethoxy- 5-methyl-chromene-2-one.The leaves contain neptaefolin, nep- taefuran, neptaefuranol, neptaefolinol, leonitin, neptaefolinin and (-)-55, 6- octadecadienoic acid.The seed oil contains oleic, linoleic, palmitic and stearic acids. The fattyFamily: Labiatae; Lamiaceae.
Habitat: Native to Europe; also distributed in Himalayas from Kashmir to Kumaon.English: Common Motherwort, Lion's Tail.Unani: Baranjaasif. (Also equated with Artemesia vulgaris Linn; and Achillea millifolium Linn.)
Action: Stomachic, laxative, antispasmodic, diaphoretic, em- menagogue (used in absent or painful menstruation, premenstrual tension, menopausal flushes). Hypnotic, sedative. Used as a cardiac tonic. (Studies in China have shown that Motherwort extracts show antiplatelet aggregation actions and decrease the levels of blood lipids.)Key application: In nervous cardiac disorders and as adjuvant for thyroid hyperfunction. (German Commission E.) As antispasmodic. (The British Herbal Pharmacopoeia.) The British Herbal Compendium indicated its use for patients who have neuropathic cardiac disorders and cardiac complaints of nervous origin.The plant contains diterpene bitter principles, iridoid monoterpenes, flavonoids including rutin and querci- trin, leonurin, betaine, caffeic acid derivatives, tannins and traces of a volatile oil.The herb is a slow acting adjuvant in functional and neurogenic heart diseases. Its sedative and spasmolytic properties combine well with Valeriana officinalis or other cardioactive substances.The herb contains several components with sedative effects—alpha- pinene, benzaldehyde, caryophyllene, limonene and oleanolic acid. (Sharon M. Herr.)
Habitat: Western Europe. Seeds are imported into India from Persia.English: Pepper-Grass.Unani: Bazr-ul-khumkhum, Todari (white var.).
Action: Seeds—blood purifier; prescribed in bronchitis.The fatty acid of the oil are: oleic 12.9, linoleic 47.87, linolenic 5.43, erucic 31.97, stearic 0.54 and palmitic 1.22%.The seed mucilage on hydrolysis gave galactose, arabinose, rhamnose and galacturonic acid.Flowering tops and seeds contain a bitter principle, lepidin.The plant yield a sulphur-containing volatile oil.... Indian Medicinal Plants
Because of its possible toxic effects – including kidney damage – lithium must only be administered under medical supervision and with monitoring of the blood levels, as the gap between therapeutic and toxic concentrations is narrow. Due to the risk of its damaging the unborn child, it should not be prescribed, unless absolutely necessary, during pregnancy – particularly not in the ?rst three months. Mothers should not take it while breast feeding, as it is excreted in the milk in high concentrations. The drug should not be taken with DIURETICS.... Medical Dictionary
Certain specialties – for example, orthopaedic and reconstructive/cosmetic surgery and mental health – attract more private patients than others, such as paediatrics or medicine for the elderly. The standards of clinical care are generally the same in the two systems, but private patients can see the specialist of their choice at a time convenient to them. Waiting times for consultations and treatment are short and, when in hospital, private patients usually have their own room, telephone, TV, open visiting hours, etc.
A substantial proportion of private medical-care services are those provided for elderly people requiring regular nursing care and some medical supervision. The distinction between residential care and nursing care for the elderly is often blurred, but the government policy of providing means-tested state funding only for people genuinely needing regular nursing care – a system operated by local-authority social-service departments in England and Wales – has necessitated clearer de?nitions of the facilities provided for the elderly by private organisations. The strict criteria for state support (especially in England), the budget-conscious approach of local authorities when negotiating fees with private nursing homes, and the fact that NHS hospital trusts also have to pay for some patients discharged to such homes (to free-up hospital beds for new admissions) have led to intense ?nancial pressures on private facilities for the elderly. This has caused the closure of many homes, which, in turn, is worsening the level of BED-BLOCKING by elderly patients who do not require hospital-intensity nursing but who lack family support in the community and cannot a?ord private care.... Medical Dictionary
Bergamot, camphor (white), cananga, cedarwood (Atlas, Texas & Virginian), chamomile (German & Roman), clove bud, galbanum, geranium, grapefruit, immortelle, juniper, lavandin, lavender (spike & true), lemon, lemongrass, lime, linaloe, litsea cubeba, mandarin, mint (peppermint & spearmint), myrtle, niaouli, palmarosa, patchouli, petitgrain, rosemary, rosewood, sage (clary & Spanish), sandalwood, tea tree, thyme, vetiver, violet, yarrow, ylang ylang.
Melissa, chamomile (German & Roman), immortelle, true lavender, spikenard.
Athlete’s foot (S):
Clove bud, eucalyptus, lavender (true &spike), lemon, lemongrass, myrrh, patchouli, tea tree.
Baldness & hair care (S,H):
West Indian bay, white birch, cedarwood (Atlas, Texas & Virginian), chamomile (German & Roman), grapefruit, juniper, patchouli, rosemary, sage (clary & Spanish), yarrow, ylang ylang.
Boils, abscesses & blisters (S,C,B):
Bergamot, chamomile (German & Roman), eucalyptus blue gum, galbanum, immortelle, lavandin, lavender (spike & true), lemon, mastic, niaouli, clary sage, tea tree, thyme, turpentine.
Arnica (cream), borneol, clove bud, fennel, geranium, hyssop, sweet marjoram, lavender, thyme.
Canadian balsam, chamomile (German & Roman), clove bud, eucalyptus blue gum, geranium, immortelle, lavandin, lavender (spike & true), marigold, niaouli, tea tree, yarrow.
Chapped & cracked skin (S,F,B):
Peru balsam, Tofu balsam, benzoin, myrrh, patchouli, sandalwood.
Chamomile (German & Roman), lemon, lime, sweet marjoram, black pepper.
Cold sores/herpes (S):
Bergamot, eucalyptus blue gum, lemon, tea tree.
Congested & dull skin (M,S,F,B,I):
Angelica, white birch, sweet fennel, geranium, grapefruit, lavandin, lavender (spike & true), lemon, lime, mandarin, mint (peppermint & spearmint), myrtle, niaouli, orange (bitter & sweet), palmarosa, rose (cabbage & damask), rosemary, rosewood, ylang ylang.
Canadian balsam, benzoin, borneol, cabreuva, cade, chamomile (German & Roman), clove bud, elemi, eucalyptus (blue gum, lemon & peppermint), galbanum, geranium, hyssop, immortelle, lavender (spike & true), lavandin, lemon, lime, linaloe, marigold, mastic, myrrh, niaouli, Scotch pine, Spanish sage, Levant styrax, tea tree, thyme, turpentine, vetiver, yarrow.
West Indian bay, cade, cedarwood (Atlas, Texas & Virginian), eucalyptus, spike lavender, lemon, patchouli, rosemary, sage (clary & Spanish), tea tree.
White birch, cade, cananga, carrot seed, cedarwood (Atlas, Texas & Virginian), chamomile (German & Roman), geranium, immortelle, hops, hyssop, juniper, true lavender, linaloe, litsea cubeba, mint (peppermint & spearmint), palmarosa, patchouli, rosemary, sage (clary & Spanish), thyme.
Dry & sensitive skin (M,S,F,B):
Peru balsam, Tolu balsam, cassie, chamomile (German & Roman), frankincense, jasmine, lavandin, lavender (spike & true), rosewood, sandalwood, violet.
Melissa, Peru balsam, Tolu balsam, bergamot, white birch, cade, carrot seed, cedarwood (Atlas, Texas & Virginian), chamomile (German & Roman), geranium, immortelle, hyssop, juniper, lavandin, lavender (spike & true), marigold, myrrh, patchouli, rose (cabbage & damask), rosemary, Spanish sage, thyme, violet, yarrow.
Excessive perspiration (S,B):
Citronella, cypress, lemongrass, litsea cubeba, petitgrain, Scotch pine, Spanish sage.
Greasy or oily skin/scalp (M,S,H,F,B):
West Indian bay, bergamot, cajeput, camphor (white), cananga, carrot seed, citronella, cypress, sweet fennel, geranium, jasmine, juniper, lavender, lemon, lemongrass, !itsea cubeba, mandarin, marigold, mimosa, myrtle, niaouli, palmarosa, patchouli, petitgrain, rosemary, rosewood, sandalwood, clary sage, tea tree, thyme, vetiver, ylang ylang.
Canadian balsam, Copaiba balsam, coriander, cubebs, cypress, geranium, juniper, myrrh, myrtle, parsley, yarrow.
Insect bites (S,N):
French basil, bergamot, cajeput, cananga, chamomile (German & Roman), cinnamon leaf, eucalyptus blue gum, lavandin, lavender (spike & true), lemon, marigold, melissa, niaouli, tea tree, thyme, ylang ylang.
Insect repellent (S,V):
French basil, bergamot, borneol, camphor (white), Virginian cedarwood, citronella, clove bud, cypress, eucalyptus (blue gum & lemon), geranium, lavender, lemongrass, litsea cubeba, mastic, melissa, patchouli, rosemary, turpentine.
Irritated & inflamed skin (S,C,F,B):
Angelica, benzoin, camphor (white), Atlas cedarwood, chamomile (German & Roman), elemi, immortelle, hyssop, jasmine, lavandin, true lavender, marigold, myrrh, patchouli, rose (cabbage & damask), clary sage, spikenard, tea tree, yarrow.
Cinnamon leaf, eucalyptus blue gum, galbanum, geranium, lavandin, spike lavender, parsley, Scotch pine, rosemary, thyme, turpentine.
Mouth & gum infections/ulcers (S,C):
Bergamot, cinnamon leaf, cypress, sweet fennel, lemon, mastic, myrrh, orange (bitter & sweet), sage (clary & Spanish), thyme.
Angelica, bergamot, white birch, carrot seed, chamomile (German & Roman), true lavender.
Peru balsam, Tofu balsam, carrot seed, chamomile (German & Roman), hops, true lavender, marigold, sandalwood, spikenard, tea tree, yarrow.
Geranium, spike lavender, mastic, mint (peppermint & spearmint), myrrh, Levant styrax, tea tree, turpentine.
Tolu balsam, bergamot, cinnamon leaf, lavandin, lavender (spike & true), lemongrass, mastic, mint (peppermint & spearmint), Scotch pine, rosemary, Levant styrax, thyme, turpentine.
Scars & stretch marks (M,S):
Cabreuva, elemi, frankincense, galbanum, true lavender, mandarin, neroli, palmarosa, patchouli, rosewood, sandalwood, spikenard, violet, arrow.
Slack tissue (M,S,B):
Geranium, grapefruit, juniper, lemongrass, lime, mandarin, sweet marjoram, orange blossom, black pepper, petitgrain, rosemary, yarrow.
Bergamot, cade, cajeput, camphor (white), eucalyptus (lemon), immortelle, lavandin, lavender (spike & true), lemon, lime, litsea cubeba, mandarin, niaouli, tea tree.
Toothache & teething pain (S,C,N):
Chamomile (German & Roman), clove bud, mastic, mint (peppermint & spearmint), myrrh.
Varicose veins (S,C):
Cypress, lemon, lime, neroli, yarrow.
Tagetes, tea tree.
Warts & corns (S,N):
Cinnamon leaf, lemon, lime, tagetes, tea tree.
Canadian balsam, Peru balsam, Tolu balsam, bergamot, cabreuva, chamomile (German & Roman), clove bud, cypress, elemi, eucalyptus (blue gum & lemon), frankincense, galbanum, geranium, immortelle, hyssop, juniper, lavandin, lavender (spike & true), linaloe, marigold, mastic, myrrh, niaouli, patchouli, rosewood, Levant styrax, tea tree, turpentine, vetiver, yarrow.
Wrinkles & mature skin (M,S,F,B):
Carrot seed, elemi, sweet fennel, frankincense, galbanum, geranium, jasmine, labdanum, true lavender, mandarin, mimosa, myrrh, neroli, palmarosa, patchouli, rose (cabbage & damask), rosewood, clary sage, sandalwood, spikenard, ylang ylang.... The Encyclopedia of Essential Oils
Habitat: Native to tropical America; introduced into Indian gardens.
Action: Leaves and branch tips— a decoction is used in rheumatism; also for whooping cough and respiratory problems.Solvent extracts of the leaves (etha- nol, acetone and M-hexane) were found active against Gram-positive bacteria.Synonym: W. viridiflora Meissn. W. indica var. virdiflora Hook. f.Family: Thymelaeaceae.
Habitat: Eastern Assam; as a weed in Tamil Nadu.English: Small-Leaf Salago.Folk: Salago.
Action: Root bark—diuretic, vesicant, purgative and piscicidal.The root bark is reported to contain a flavone glycoside, wikstroemin, which exhibited diuretic activity.In Chinese folk medicine, the bark is used for schistosomiasis.The stem contains wikstromol, a lig- nin prototype which exhibited anti- neoplastic activity. Daphnoretin, isolated from the plant, caused platelet aggregation in the blood of rabbits. A polysaccharide, comprising glucose, arabinose, galacturonic acid, galactose and xylose, protected mice against radiation and enhanced the formation of macrophages.... Indian Medicinal Plants
Habitat: Wastes, pastures and field borders.Features ? The branched stems of one to three feet high are tough and bristly. The whole plant is hairy, and the leaves are oblong and bipinnate, with acute segments. Blossoming in June and July, the umbel of white flowers usually contains one crimson flower in the centre. The root tapers, is yellowish-white, sweetish, and faintly aromatic. Wren tells us that "in taste and odour it resembles the garden carrot, but the root is small and white, not large." Ferrier, however, says of this root, "no resemblance in taste or colour to the cultivated carrot." Our own opinion is that Wild Carrot tastes like a rather distant relative of the household carrot—which it probably is.Part used ? The whole plant.
Action: Pronouncedly diuretic in action, as well as de-obstruent and stimulant.Wild Carrot naturally, therefore, takes a prominent place in many formulae for the treatment of dropsy, gravel, retention of urine, and bladder trouble generally. Either an infusion or decoction may be prepared in the usual proportions, and doses of 2 fl. ounces taken three or four times daily.Culpeper comments ? "Wild Carrots belong to Mercury, and therefore breaketh wind, and removeth stitches in the sides, provoketh urine and women's courses, and helpeth to break and expel the stone."... Herbal Manual