Car | Health Encyclopedia

The keywords of this medical terms: Car

Acarbose

A drug that is used to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Acarbose acts on enzymes in the intestines, inhibiting the digestion of starch and therefore slowing the rise in blood glucose levels after a carbohydrate meal.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Acarbose

n. see alpha-glucosidase inhibitor.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Acardia

n. congenital absence of the heart. The condition may occur in conjoined twins; the twin with the heart controls the circulation for both.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Acariasis

n. an infestation of mites and ticks and the symptoms, for example allergy and dermatitis, that their presence may provoke.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Acaricide

n. any chemical agent used for destroying mites and ticks.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Acarid

n. a *mite or *tick.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Acarina

n. the group of arthropods that includes the *mites and *ticks.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Acarnania

(Latin) Woman from western Greece... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Acarus

(Tyroglyphus) n. a genus of mites. The flour mite, A. siro (T. farinae), is nonparasitic, but its presence in flour can cause a severe allergic dermatitis in flour-mill workers.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Acarus

The group of animal parasites which includes Sarcoptes scabiei, the cause of the skin disease known as itch, or SCABIES. This parasite used to be known as Acarus scabiei.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Achalasia Of The Cardia

A condition in which there is a failure to relax of the muscle ?bres around the opening of the gullet, or oesophagus, into the stomach. (See OESOPHAGUS, DISEASES OF.)... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Acute Care / Acute Health Care

Care that is generally provided for a short period of time to treat a new illness or a flare-up of an existing condition. This type of care may include treatment at home, short-term hospital stays, professional care, surgery, X-rays and scans, as well as emergency medical services.... Community Health

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Community Health

Adenocarcinoma

The technical name for a cancer of a gland or glandular tissue, or for a cancer in which the cells

form gland-like structures. An adenocarcinoma arises from epithelium (the layer of cells that lines the inside of organs). Cancers of the colon, breast, pancreas, and kidney are usually adenocarcinomas, as are some cancers of the cervix, oesophagus, salivary glands, and other organs. (See also intestine, cancer of; kidney cancer; pancreas, cancer of.)... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Adenocarcinoma

n. a malignant epithelial tumour arising from glandular structures, which are constituent parts of most organs of the body. The term is also applied to tumours showing a glandular growth pattern. These tumours may be subclassified according to the substances that they produce, for example mucinous and serous adenocarcinomas, or to the microscopic arrangement of their cells into patterns, for example papillary and follicular adenocarcinomas (see also clear-cell carcinoma). They may be solid or cystic (cystadenocarcinomas).... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Adenocarcinoma

Malignant tumour of glandular epithelium.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Adenocarcinoma

A malignant growth of glandular tissue. This tissue is widespread throughout the body’s organs and the tumours may occur, for example, in the STOMACH, OVARIES and UTERUS. Adenocarcinomas may be subdivided into those that arise from mucous or serous secreting glandular tissue.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

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Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

Adult Care Home / Residential Facility

A residence which offers housing and personal care services to a number of residents. Services (such as meals, supervision and transportation) are usually provided by the owner or manager. Usually 24-hour professional health care is not provided on site. See also “assisted living facility”.... Community Health

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Community Health

Adult Day Care

See “day care centre”.... Community Health

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Community Health

Advance Care Planning

Planning in advance for decisions that may have to be made prior to incapability or at the end of life. People may choose to do this planning formally, by means of advance directives, or informally, through discussions with family members, friends and health care and social service providers, or a combination of both methods.... Community Health

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Community Health

Affordable Care Act 2010

(ACA)... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

After-care

Care provided to individuals after their release from institutional care.... Community Health

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Community Health

Aftercare

n. long-term surveillance or rehabilitation as an adjunct or supplement to formal medical treatment of those who are chronically sick or disabled, including those with mental illness or learning disability. Aftercare includes the provision of equipment and the adaptation of homes to aid *activities of daily living.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Aged Care

Services provided to people deemed to be aged or elderly.... Community Health

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Community Health

Aged Care Assessment Team

Multidisciplinary team of health professionals that is responsible for comprehensive assessments of the needs of older persons, including their suitability for hospital, home or institutional care.... Community Health

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Community Health

Aicardi Syndrome

a syndrome caused by abnormal development of the brain in which the two halves of the brain do not connect. The *corpus callosum is absent. Affected individuals suffer from learning disability and seizures. They may also have associated abnormalities of the eyes and spine. [J. D. Aicardi (20th century), French neurologist]... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Alternative And Complementary Health Care / Medicine / Therapies

Health care practices that are not currently an integral part of conventional medicine. The list of these practices changes over time as the practices and therapies are proven safe and effective and become accepted as mainstream health care practices. These unorthodox approaches to health care are not based on biomedical explanations for their effectiveness. Examples include homeopathy, herbal formulas, and use of other natural products as preventive and treatment agents.... Community Health

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Community Health

Amanita Muscaria

Linn.

Family: Agaricaceae; Amanitaceae.

English: Fly Agaric (mushroom), Aga, Soma.

Ayurvedic: Identified as Soma of Rigveda (controversial). (Sushruta described 24 varieties of Soma and 18 other drugs as its substitutes.) Intensely poisonous; used for intoxication.

The fungus has been used in Russia for preparing an intoxicating drink.

Toxic principles arecholine, mus- carine and mycetoatropine (muscari- dine). Muscarine stimulates postgan- glionic, cholinergic and neuroeffector junctions. The isoxazole constituents are psychoactive.

2-4 Fly Agaric (more than 10 g fresh) are toxic; 20 (more than 100 g fresh) are lethal. (Francis Brinker.)

A. pantherina is used in Japan for intoxication.

Aga is not a true hallucinogen. The illusions are a misinterpretation of sensory stimuli due to isoxazole, ibotenic acid, muscimol, muscazone and traces of muscarine. (Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, 2007.)... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Amazing Health Benefits Of Carrots

1. Beta carotene: Carrots are a rich source of this powerful antioxidant, which, among other vital uses, can be converted into vitamin A in the body to help maintain healthy skin. 2. Digestion: Carrots increase saliva and supply essential minerals, vitamins and enzymes that aid in digestion. Eating carrots regularly may help prevent gastric ulcers and other digestive disorders. 3. Alkaline elements: Carrots are rich in alkaline elements, which purify and revitalize the blood while balancing the acid/alkaline ratio of the body. 4. Potassium: Carrots are a good source of potassium, which can help maintain healthy sodium levels in the body, thereby helping to reduce elevated blood pressure levels. 5. Dental Health: Carrots kill harmful germs in the mouth and help prevent tooth decay. 6. Wounds: Raw or grated carrots can be used to help heal wounds, cuts and inflammation. 7. Phytonutrients: Among the many beneficial phytochemicals that carrots contain is a phytonutrient called falcarinol, which may reduce the risk of colon cancer and help promote overall colon health. 8. Carotenoids: Carrots are rich in carotenoids, which our bodies can use to help regulate blood sugar. 9. Fiber: Carrots are high in soluble fiber, which may reduce cholesterol by binding the LDL form (the kind we don’t want) and increasing the HDL form (the kind our body needs) to help reduce blood clots and prevent heart disease. 10. Eyes, hair, nails and more! The nutrients in carrots can improve the health of your eyes, skin, hair, nails and more through helping to detoxify your system and build new cells! 11. Improves vision There’s some truth in the old wisdom that carrots are good for your eyes. Carrots are rich in beta-carotene, which is converted into vitamin A in the liver. Vitamin A is transformed in the retina, to rhodopsin, a purple pigment necessary for night vision. Beta-carotene has also been shown to protect against macular degeneration and senile cataracts. A study found that people who eat large amounts of beta-carotene had a 40 percent lower risk of macular degeneration than those who consumed little. 12. Helps prevent cancer Studies have shown carrots reduce the risk of lung cancer, breast cancer and colon cancer. Falcarinol is a natural pesticide produced by the carrot that protects its roots from fungal diseases. Carrots are one of the only common sources of this compound. A study showed 1/3 lower cancer risk by carrot-eating rats. 13. Slows down aging The high level of beta-carotene in carrots acts as an antioxidant to cell damage done to the body through regular metabolism. It help slows down the aging of cells. 14. Promotes healthier skin Vitamin A and antioxidants protect the skin from sun damage. Deficiencies of vitamin A cause dryness to the skin, hair and nails. Vitamin A prevents premature wrinkling, acne, dry skin, pigmentation, blemishes and uneven skin tone. 15. Helps prevent infection Carrots are known by herbalists to prevent infection. They can be used on cuts—shredded raw or boiled and mashed. 16. Promotes healthier skin (from the outside) Carrots are used as an inexpensive and very convenient facial mask. Just mix grated carrot with a bit of honey. See the full recipe here: carrot face mask. 17. Prevents heart disease Studies show that diets high in carotenoids are associated with a lower risk of heart disease. Carrots have not only beta-carotene but also alpha-carotene and lutein. The regular consumption of carrots also reduces cholesterol levels because the soluble fibers in carrots bind with bile acids. 18. Cleanses the body Vitamin A assists the liver in flushing out the toxins from the body. It reduces the bile and fat in the liver. The fiber present in carrots helps clean out the colon and hasten waste movement. 19. Protects teeth and gums It’s all in the crunch! Carrots clean your teeth and mouth. They scrape off plaque and food particles just like toothbrushes or toothpaste. Carrots stimulate gums and trigger a lot of saliva, which, being alkaline, balances out the acid-forming, cavity-forming bacteria. The minerals in carrots prevent tooth damage. 20. Prevents stroke From all the above benefits it’s no surprise that in a Harvard University study, people who ate five or more carrots a week were less likely to suffer a stroke than those who ate only one carrot a month or less.... Benefits of Vegetables, Benefits of Vegetables and Fruits

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Benefits of Vegetables, Benefits of Vegetables and Fruits

Ambulatory Care

Health services provided on an outpatient basis in contrast to services provided in the home or to persons who are inpatients. While many inpatients may be ambulatory, the term ambulatory care usually implies the patient travels to a location to receive services and no overnight stay in hospital is required. Many surgeries and treatments are now provided on an outpatient basis, while previously they were considered reason for inpatient hospitalization.... Community Health

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Community Health

Anacardium Occidentale

Linn.

Family: Anacardiaceae.

Habitat: Native to tropical America, from Mexico to Peru and Brazil. Cultivated largely in Malabar, Kerala, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh, and to some extent in Maharashtra, Goa, Orissa and West Bengal.

English: Cashew Nut.

Unani: Kaaju.

Siddha/Tamil: Mindiri.

Action: Leaves and bark—fungi- cidal, vermicidal, protozoicidal, antimicrobial (used for toothache, sore gums). Karnel—eaten for its high protein content. Cashew apple—antiscorbutic. Resinous juice contained in the seeds—used in cases of mental derangement, memory disturbances, palpitation of heart, rheumatic pericarditis, sexual debility.

The nut contains 45% fat and 20% protein. Leaves contain flavonoids, mainly glycosides of quercetin and kaempferol, and hydroxybenzoic acid. The bark contains a balsam-containing anacardic acid, anacardol, cardol and ginkgol. The caustic liquid in the shell contains about 39% anacardic acid, a mixture of alkyl salicylic acid derivatives. The leaves are febrifuge. Anacardic acid is bactericidal, fungici- dal, vermicidal and protozoicidal. The leaves and bark exhibited hypotensive activity in rats.

The phenolics of the cashew-nut shell oil have inhibited the enzymic activity of alpha-glucosidase, invertase and aldose reductase (anacardic acids being the most potent). Cardols have also shown antifilarial activity in vitro. Anacardic acids, cardols and methyl cardols have been found to exhibit moderate cytotoxic activity.... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Angiocardiography

Radiography of the heart after injection into it of a radio-opaque substance.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Anisochilus Carnosus

Wall.

Family: Labiatae; Lamiaceae.

Habitat: The western Himalayas, Central and southern India.

Folk: Karpuravalli (southern region).

Action: Stimulant, expectorant and diaphoretic. Juice of fresh leaves is used in urticaria and other allergic conditions; a domestic remedy for coughs and cold. Alcoholic extract of the whole plant—antibacterial. Essential oil—antitubercular.

The oil exhibits antihistaminic property in vitro on smooth muscles of the uterus and the intestines. It also possesses muscle-relaxant action; bactericidal and fungicidal properties. The leaves contain glucosides of luteolin and apigenin.... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Antenatal Care

The care of a pregnant woman and her unborn baby throughout a pregnancy. Such care involves regular visits to a doctor or midwife, who performs abdominal examinations, blood and urine tests, and monitoring of blood pressure and fetal growth to detect disease or potential problems.

Ultrasound scanning is carried out to identify abnormalities in the fetus. Chorionic villus sampling or amniocentesis may be performed if the baby is thought to be at increased risk of a chromosomal abnormality or a genetic disorder. The woman is also advised on general aspects of pregnancy, such as diet, exercise, techniques to help her with childbirth.

(See also childbirth, natural.)... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Antenatal Care

The protocol which doctors and midwives follow to ensure that the pregnant mother and her FETUS are kept in good health, and that the pregnancy and birth have a satisfactory outcome. The pregnant mother is seen regularly at a clinic where, for example, her blood pressure is checked, the growth and development of her child-to-be are carefully assessed, and any problem or potential problems dealt with. Most antenatal care deals with normal pregnancies and is supervised by general practitioners and midwives in primary-care clinics. If any serious problems are identi?ed, the mother can be referred to specialists’ clinics in hospitals. (See PREGNANCY AND LABOUR.)... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Antiaris Toxicaria

Lesch.

Anthocephalus cadamba Miq.

Synonym: A. indicus A. Rich. A. chinensis (Lam.) A. Rich. ex Walp.

Family: Rubiaceae.

Habitat: Assam, Bengal, southwards to Andhra Pradesh and western Ghats.

English: Kadam.

Ayurvedic: Kadamba, Priyaka, Vrtta-pushpa, Nipa, Halipriya. Kadambaka is equated with Adina cordifolia.

Siddha/Tamil: Venkadambu, Vellai Kadambam.

Action: Stembark—febrifugal, antidiuretic, anthelmintic, hypo- glycaemic. Fruit—cooling; anti- catarrhal, blood purifier, analgesic.

Family: Moraceae.

Habitat: Western Ghats from Konkan southwards to Trivandrum, up to 600 m.

English: Sacking tree, Upas tree.

Ayurvedic: Valkala vrksha.

Siddha/Tamil: Aranthelli, Mara-uri, Nettavil.

Folk: Jangali Lakuch, Jasund, Chaandakudaa.

Action: Seed—febrifuge, antidysen- teric (in minute doses). Latex— circulatory stimulant (in minute doses.)

The latex contains a series of poisonous cardenolides, of which alpha- and/or beta-antiarin are the main components. The total amount of crystalline cardiac glycosides in the latex ranges from 0.1 to 2.5%; alpha-antiarin from 0.0 to 1.38% and beta-antiarin from 0.075 to 1.44%. Antiarins are said to act on the heart more powerfully than digitalin. Beta-antiarin is more potent than alpha-antiarin.

Latex, in small quantities, is a mild cardiac and circulatory stimulant, whereas in large quantities it acts as a myocardial poison. It stimulates intestinal and uterine contractions.

As many as 34 Kedde-positive substances were reported in the seed sample from Indonesia. The latex sample showed the presence of 29 Kedde- positive substances.... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Anticardiolipin Antibodies

autoantibodies that are directed against phospholipid-binding plasma proteins found in *antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, which is characterized by venous and arterial thrombosis and recurrent miscarriages.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Antimuscarine

A pharmacological e?ect where the action of ACETYLCHOLINE, a chemical neurotransmitter released at the junctions (synapses) of parasympathetic and ganglionic nerves, is inhibited. The junctions between nerves and skeletal muscles have nicotinic receptors. A wide range of drugs with antimuscarinic effects are in use for various disorders including PSYCHOSIS, BRONCHOSPASM, disorders of the eye (see EYE, DISORDERS OF), PARKINSONISM, and problems of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT and URINARY TRACT. (See also ANTISPASMODICS.)... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Antimuscarinic

(anticholinergic) adj. inhibiting the action of *acetylcholine, the neurotransmitter that conveys information in the parasympathetic nervous system. Antimuscarinic drugs block the effects of certain (muscarinic) receptors (hence their name). The actions of these drugs include relaxation of smooth muscle, decreased secretion of saliva, sweat, and digestive juices, and dilation of the pupil of the eye. *Atropine and similar drugs have these effects; they are used in the treatment of gut spasms (e.g. *propantheline) and of parkinsonism (e.g. *trihexyphenidyl) as bronchodilators (e.g. *ipratropium), and as *mydriatics. Characteristic side-effects include dry mouth, thirst, blurred vision, dry skin, increased heart rate, and difficulty in urination.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Antitachycardia Pacing

termination of a *tachycardia by temporarily pacing the heart at a faster rate.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Apothecary

An old term for a pharmacist.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Arrhythmia, Cardiac

An abnormality of the rhythm or rate of the heartbeat. Arrhythmias, which are caused by a disturbance in the electrical impulses in the heart, can be divided into 2 main groups: tachycardias, in which the rate is faster than normal, and bradycardias, in which the rate is slower.

In sinus tachycardia, the rate is raised, the rhythm is regular, and the beat originates in the sinoatrial node (see pacemaker). Supraventricular tachycardia is faster and the rhythm is regular. It may be caused by an abnormal electrical pathway that allows an impulse to

circulate continuously in the heart and take over from the sinoatrial node. Rapid, irregular beats that originate in the ventricles are called ventricular tachycardia. In atrial flutter, the atria (see atrium) beat regularly and very rapidly, but not every impulse reaches the ventricles, which beat at a slower rate. Uncoordinated, fast beating of the atria is called atrial fibrillation and produces totally irregular ventricular beats. Ventricular fibrillation is a form of cardiac arrest in which the ventricles twitch very rapidly in a disorganized manner.

Sinus bradycardia is a slow, regular beat. In heart block, the conduction of electrical impulses through the heart muscle is partially or completely blocked, leading to a slow, irregular heartbeat. Periods of bradycardia may alternate with periods of tachycardia due to a fault in impulse generation (see sick sinus syndrome).

A common cause of arrhythmia is coronary artery disease, particularly after myocardial infarction. Some tachycardias are due to a congenital defect in the heart’s conducting system. Caffeine can cause tachycardia in some people. Amitriptyline and some other antidepressant drugs can cause serious arrhythmias if they are taken in high doses.

An arrhythmia may be felt as palpitations, but in some cases arrhythmias can cause fainting, dizziness, chest pain, and breathlessness, which may be the 1st symptoms.

Arrhythmias are diagnosed by an ECG. If they are intermittent, a continuous recording may need to be made using an ambulatory ECG.

Treatments for arrhythmias include antiarrhythmic drugs, which prevent or slow tachycardias.

With an arrhythmia that has developed suddenly, it may be possible to restore normal heart rhythm by using electric shock to the heart (see defibrillation).

Abnormal conduction pathways in the heart can be treated using radio frequency ablation during cardiac catheterization (see catheterization, cardiac).

In some cases, a pacemaker can be fitted to restore normal heartbeat by overriding the heart’s abnormal rhythm.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Artocarpus Integrifolia

Linn. f.

Synonym: A. heterophyllus Lam.

Family: Moraceae.

Habitat: Cultivated throughout the hotter parts of India.

English: Jackfruit, Jack tree.

Ayurvedic: Panasa, Kantakiphala, Ativrihatphala, Aamaashayaphala.

Siddha/Tamil: Murasabalam.

Folk: Katahal, Phanasa.

Action: Latex—bacteriolytic, promotes healing of abscesses. Juice of the plant—applied to glandular swellings and abscesses for promoting suppuration. Root— used for diarrhoea, asthma, skin diseases. Unripe fruit—acrid, astringent. Ripe fruit—cooling, laxative, difficult to digest. Seeds— diuretic. Lactin extraction showed potent and selective stimulation of distinct human T and B cells.

The seed extract stimulates the heart and causes a fall in arterial blood pressure of experimental animals pretreat- edwithphysostigmine. The seeds show equal inhibitory activity against trypsin and chymotrypsin. (The activity is destroyed when the seeds are boiled or baked.)

The leaves and stems show presence of sapogenins, and exhibit estrogenic activity.

An aqueous extract of mature leaves exhibited hypoglycaemic activity in experimental animals. Leaves contain cycloartenone, cycloartenol and beta-sitosterol. Heartwood contains flavonoids, artocarpesin and norarto- carpetin and their structures.

Dosage: Fruit—50-100 ml decoction. (CCRAS.)... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Artocarpus Lacucha

Buch.-Ham.

Synonym: A. lakoocha Roxb.

Family: Moraceae.

Habitat: Cultivated in Uttar Pradesh, Bengal, Khasi Hills and western Ghats.

English: Monkey Jack.

Ayurvedic: Lakuch, Kshudra Panas, Granthiphala, Pitanaasha.

Siddha/Tamil: Ilangu, Irapala, Ottipilu (Tamil).

Folk: Badhar.

Action: Bark—when applied externally, draws out purulent matter; heals boils, cracked skin and pimples. Seeds—purgative, haemagglutinating. Stems— vermifuge.

The stembark contains oxyresvera- trol, used for tapeworm.

A lectin, artocarpin, isolated from seeds, precipitates several galactoman- nans. It agglutinates rat lymphocytes and mouse ascites cells.

Dosage: Fruit—5-10 ml juice. (CCRAS.)... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Arytenoid Cartilage

either of the two pyramid-shaped cartilages that lie at the back of the *larynx next to the upper edges of the cricoid cartilage.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Ascariasis

n. a disease caused by an infestation with the parasitic worm *Ascaris lumbricoides. Adult worms in the intestine can cause abdominal pain, vomiting, constipation, diarrhoea, appendicitis, and peritonitis; in large numbers they may cause obstruction of the intestine. The presence of the migrating larvae in the lungs can provoke pneumonia. Ascariasis occurs principally in areas of poor sanitation; it is treated with *levamisole.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Ascariasis

Ascariasis is the disease produced by infestation with the roundworm Ascaris lumbricoides, also known as the maw-worm. Super?cially it resembles a large earthworm: the male measures about 17 cm (7 inches) and the female 23 cm (9 inches) in length. Ascariasis is a dirt disease, most prevalent where sanitation and cleanliness are lacking, particularly in the tropics and subtropics. Consumption of food contaminated by the ova (eggs), especially salad vegetables, is the commonest cause of infection. In children, infection is commonly acquired by crawling or playing on contaminated earth, and then sucking their ?ngers. After a complicated life-cycle in the body the adult worms end up in the intestines, whence they may be passed in the stools. A light infection may cause no symptoms. A heavy infection may lead to colic, or even obstruction of the gut. Occasionally a worm may wander into the stomach and be vomited up.

Treatment Mebendazole is the drug of choice in the UK, being given as a single dose. It should be combined with hygienic measures to break the cycle of autoinfection. All members of the family require treatment. Other ANTHELMINTICS include piperazine and pyrantel.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Ascariasis

Infestation with the roundworm ASCARIS LUMBRICOIDES, which lives in the small intestine of its human host. Ascariasis is common worldwide, especially in the tropics. The disease is spread by ingestion of worm eggs, usually from food grown in soil that has been contaminated by human faeces. Light infestation may cause no symptoms, but mild nausea, abdominal pain, and irregular bowel movements may occur. A worm may be passed via the rectum or vomited. A large number of worms may compete with the host for food, leading to malnutrition and anaemia, which in children can retard growth. Treatment is with anthelmintic drugs, such as levamisole, which usually produce complete recovery.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Ascaricides

Drugs used to treat ASCARIASIS, a disease caused by an infestation with the parasitic worm Ascaris lumbricoides. LEVAMISOLE, MEBENDAZOLE and PIPERAZINE are all e?ective against this parasite.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Ascaris

n. a genus of parasitic nematode worms. A. lumbricoides, widely distributed throughout the world, is the largest of the human intestinal nematodes – an adult female measures up to 35 cm in length. Eggs, passed out in the stools, may be transmitted to a new host in contaminated food or drink. Larvae hatch out in the intestine and then undergo a complicated migration, via the hepatic portal vein, liver, heart, lungs, windpipe, and pharynx, before returning to the intestine where they later develop into adult worms (see also ascariasis).... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Ascaris

A genus of nematodes which includes the intestinal roundworm of humans, Ascaris lumbricoides).... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

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Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

Ascaris

A worldwide genus of parasitic nematode worms (see ASCARIASIS).... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Assisted Living Facility / Assisted Care Living Facility

Establishment which provides accommodation and care for older or disabled persons who cannot live independently but do not need nursing care. Residents are also provided with domestic assistance (meals, laundry, personal care).... Community Health

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Community Health

Asthma, Cardiac

Breathing difficulty in which bronchospasm and wheezing are caused by accumulation of fluid in the lungs (pulmonary oedema). This is usually due to reduced pumping efficiency of the left side of the heart (see heart failure) and is not true asthma. Treatment is with diuretic drugs.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Atrioventricular Nodal Re-entry Tachycardia

(AVNRT) *re-entry tachycardia arising from the presence of an abnormal electrical connection between atria and ventricles situated within the *atrioventricular node.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Atrioventricular Reciprocating Tachycardia

(AVRT) *re-entry tachycardia arising from the presence of an abnormal electrical connection between atria and ventricles situated outside the *atrioventricular node. See accessory pathway.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Attendant Care

Personal care for people with disabilities in non-institutionalized settings generally by paid, non-family carers.... Community Health

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Community Health

Atylosia Scarabaeoides

(L.) Benth.

Family: Papilionaceae; Fabaceae.

Habitat: Throughout India; up to 1,800 m in the western Himalayas.

Ayurvedic: Vana-kulattha.

Folk: Jangli Tur, Kulthi.

Action: Antidysenteric, anticholerin, febrifuge; also used in anaemia, anasarca and hemiplegia. Seeds— taeniafuge.

A flavone glucoside, atyloside, has been isolated from the leaves.... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Averrhoa Carambola

Linn.

Family: Oxalidaceae; Averrhoaceae.

Habitat: Native to Malaysia; cultivated throughout the warmer parts of India, especially in Kerala.

English: Carambola, Star Fruit, Chinese Gooseberry.

Ayurvedic: Karmaranga.

Unani: Khamraq, Karmal.

Siddha/Tamil: Tamarattai.

Folk: Kamarakh.

Action: Root—antidote in poisoning. Leaf and shoot—applied externally in ringworm, scabies, chickenpox. Flower—vermicidal. Fruit—laxative, antidysenteric, antiphlogistic, febrifuge, anti- inflammatory, antispasmodic (used in hepatic colic, bleeding piles). Seeds—galactogenic; in large doses act as an emmenagogue and cause abortion.

The fruits are a fairly good source of iron but deficient in calcium. They also contain oxalic acid and potassium oxalate. The presence of fluorine is also reported. A wide variation of vitamin-C content (0.3-23.0 mg/100 g) is recorded from different places in India. Sugar (3.19%) consists mainly of glucose (1.63%).... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Basal Cell Carcinoma

A type of skin cancer, also known as a rodent ulcer or , that occurs most commonly on the face or neck. It starts as a small, flat nodule and grows slowly, eventually forming a shallow ulcer with raised pearly edges. Basal cell carcinoma is caused by skin damage from the ultraviolet radiation in sunlight. Fair-skinned people over 50 are the most commonly affected; dark and black-skinned people are protected by the larger amount of... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Basal Cell Carcinoma

A generally slow growing malignant epithelial tumour, which has potential to invade and metastasise, especially if untreated.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

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Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

Basal Cell Carcinoma

The most common form of skin cancer. Its main cause is cumulative exposure to ultraviolet light; most tumours develop on exposed sites, chie?y the face and neck. It grows very slowly, often enlarging with a raised, pearly edge, and the centre may ulcerate (rodent ulcer). It does not metastasise (see METASTASIS) and can be cured by surgical excision or RADIOTHERAPY. Small lesions can also be successfuly treated by curettage and cauterisation (see ELECTROCAUTERY), LASER treatment or CRYOSURGERY. If the diagnosis is uncertain, a biopsy and histological examination should be done.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Basal Cell Carcinoma

(BCC) the commonest form of skin cancer. Although classified as a malignant tumour, it grows very slowly and hardly ever metastasizes. BCC usually occurs on the central area of the face, especially in fair-skinned people; the prevalence increases greatly with episodes of sunburn. The initial sign is a spot or lump that fails to heal, which slowly enlarges. Treatment depends on subtype and is usually straightforward, e.g. topical chemotherapy agents (such as 5-fluorouracil), *curettage and cautery, surgical excision, *cryotherapy, or *radiotherapy. High-risk BCCs around the eyes or nose may be treated with *Mohs’ micrographic surgery to ensure low rates of recurrence and maximal tissue conservation. Only if neglected for decades does a BCC eventually become a so-called rodent ulcer and destroy the surrounding tissue. However, the term ‘rodent ulcer’ is still sometimes used to mean any basal cell carcinoma.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Beta-carotene

Precursor of Vitamin A. Increases resistance against infection. Antioxidant. Together with Vitamins C and E form a vital line of defence in protection of strands of DNA, the genetic code, from cancerous mutation. Immune booster. Increases lymphocytes and T cells, part of the defence system.

Deficiency. Sun sensitivity; exposure inducing itching, burning and swelling of the skin. Kidney, bladder, and gut infections. Severe earache in young children. Strokes, heart attacks.

It is claimed that those who eat a diet rich in beta-carotene are less likely to develop certain types of cancer.

Smokers usually have low levels of beta-carotene in the blood. Statistics suggest that people who eat a lot of beta-carotene foods are less likely to develop lung, mouth or stomach cancer. In existing cases a slow-down of the disease is possible.

Daily dose. Up to 300mg. Excess may manifest as yellow discoloration of the skin, giving appearance of sun-tan.

Sources. Mature ripe carrots of good colour. A Finland study suggests that four small carrots contain sufficient beta-carotene to satisfy the recommended daily amount of Vitamin A. Orange and dark green fruits and vegetables. Broccoli, Brussels sprouts, spinach, pumpkin, apricots, peaches, oranges, tomatoes. Harvard Medical School study. Among 333 subjects with a history of heart disease, those who received beta-carotene supplements of 50 milligrams every other day suffered half as many heart attacks as those taking placebos. (Dr Charles Hennekens, Harvard Medical School) ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

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Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

Bicarbonate Of Soda

Also known as baking soda. Bicarbonate of soda is an alkali, sometimes used as a home remedy for indigestion or for soothing insect bites.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Bicarbonate Of Soda

See sodium bicarbonate.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Bicarbonato De Sodio

Baking soda; used as a gargle for sore throat and tonsillitis, sometimes combined with vinagre blanco (white vinegar) or with limón (lemon) and miel de abeja (honey); can be combined with other herbal remedies such as poultices that are applied externally.... Medicinal Plants

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Medicinal Plants

Board And Care Home

See “adult care home”.... Community Health

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Community Health

Brachycardiac

Making the heart beat slower... Medicinal Plants Glossary

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Medicinal Plants Glossary

Bradycardia

A distinctly slow heartbeat, which may be a normal idiosyncrasy or with causes ranging from regular strenuous exercise to abnormally slow heart stimulus to the side-effects of medication. Bradycardia is usually defined as a pulse below sixty beats a minute, or seventy in children.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Bradycardia

Slowness of the beating of the heart with corresponding slowness of the pulse (below 60 per minute). (See HEART, DISEASES OF.)... Herbal Medical

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Herbal Medical

Bradycardia

Slow heart rate; less than 55 beats per minute. Cause may be disease of the heart muscle or may lie in the CNS (central nervous system). May also be caused by disorder of the thyroid gland (hypothyroidism) with dropsy-like swelling of face and hands. Of recent years bradycardia has been associated with beta-blocker drugs, reserpine and digitalis alkaloids given in excess. Wrist pulse is slow. In the aged it is present as weakness and worsened by hypothermia.

In total heart block a rate of 36 or less is due to failure of conduction from atria to ventricles: requires artificial pace maker.

Modern herbalism (phytotherapy) employs: Hawthorn berries, Prickly Ash bark (berries preferred for circulatory disorders), Lily of the Valley leaves, Bugleweed (Lycopus virginicus), Broom, Heart’s Ease, Holy Thistle, Cactus (Night blooming cereus), Nutmeg, Saffron, Lemon Balm, Thuja, Figwort, Ginseng.

Lily of the Valley has a specific action in the heart muscle.

One of the purest and positive stimulants known for increasing the pulse rate is Cayenne Pepper. A few grains sprinkled on a meal or added to a beverage coaxes the heart to increase its output. To give the heart just that little extra support it may need, gentle cardiac stimulants can be found in the kitchen: Cloves, Ginger, Horseradish, Peppermint, Red Sage, Garden Sage.

Where a slow beat arises from a serious heart condition the underlying disorder should receive priority. In the event of an emergency the restorative, Camphor, may be given until the doctor comes:– 1-5 drops oil of Camphor in a teaspoon of honey. Even inhalation of the oil is known to increase pulse rate.

A slow pulse can be increased in pace by vagal relaxation. The pulse may be slow because of an excess of bile salts in the blood when a liver remedy (say Dandelion) would be indicated. Slow pulse of convalescence (Gentian), diabetes (Goat’s Rue), glandular fever (Poke root), jaundice (Dandelion), low thyroid (Kelp), congestion in the brain (Cypripedium), nervous exhaustion (Ginseng).

Practitioner. Broom (Spartiol Drops), 20 drops thrice daily. (Klein) Diet and supplements. See: DIET – HEART AND CIRCULATION. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

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Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

Bradycardia

n. slowing of the heart rate to less than 50 beats per minute. Sinus bradycardia is often found in healthy individuals, especially athletes, but it is also seen in some patients with reduced thyroid activity, jaundice, hypothermia, or *vasovagal attacks. Bradycardia may also result from *arrhythmias, especially complete *heart block, when the slowing is often extreme and often causes loss of consciousness.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Bradycardia

An abnormally slow heartrate. Most people have a heart-rate of between 60 and 100 beats per minute. Many athletes and healthy people who exercise regularly and vigorously have slower rates. In others, bradycardia may indicate an underlying disorder such as hypothyroidism or heart block. Bradycardia may also occur as a result of taking beta-blocker drugs. Profound or sudden

bradycardia may cause a drop in blood pressure that results in fainting (see vasovagal attack).... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Bronchial Carcinoma

cancer of the bronchus, one of the commonest causes of death in smokers. See also lung cancer; small-cell lung cancer.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Calcar

n. a spurlike projection. The calcar avis is the projection in the medial wall of the lateral ventricle of the brain.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Cancer - Bronchial Carcinoma

The most common form of cancer throughout the world. Five year survival: 10 per cent. Its association with cigarette smoking is now established beyond doubt. Other causes include such occupational poisons as asbestos, arsenic, chromium, diesel fumes, etc. The squamous cell carcinoma is the most common of the four types.

Diagnosis is confirmed by sputum test, chest X-ray, bronchoscopy or biopsy. Earliest symptoms are persistent cough, pain in the chest, hoarseness of voice and difficulty of breathing. Physical examination is likely to reveal sensitivity and swelling of lymph nodes under arms.

Symptoms. Tiredness, lack of energy, possible pains in bones and over liver area. Clubbing of finger-tips indicate congestion of the lungs. Swelling of arms, neck and face may be obvious. A haematologist may find calcium salts in the blood. The supportive action of alteratives, eliminatives and lymphatic agents often alleviate symptoms where the act of swallowing has not been impaired.

Broncho-dilators (Lobelia, Ephedra, etc) assist breathing. Mullein has some reputation for pain relief. To arrest bleeding from the lesion (Blood root).

According to Dr Madaus, Germany, Rupturewort is specific on lung tissue. To disperse sputum (Elecampane, Red Clover). In advanced cases there may be swollen ankles and kidney breakdown for which Parsley root, Parsley Piert or Buchu may be indicated. Cough (Sundew, Irish Moss). Soft cough with much sputum (Iceland Moss). To increase resistance (Echinacea).

Alternatives. Secondary to primary treatment. Of possible value.

Teas. Violet leaves, Mullein leaves, Yarrow leaves, Gotu Kola leaves, White Horehound leaves. Flavour with a little Liquorice if unpalatable.

Tablets/capsules. Lobelia, Iceland Moss, Echinacea, Poke root.

Formula. Equal parts: Violet, Red Clover, Garden Thyme, Yarrow, Liquorice. Dose: Powders: 750mg (three 00 capsules or half a teaspoon. Liquid Extracts: 1-2 teaspoons. Tinctures: 1-3 teaspoons. Thrice daily, and during the night if relief is sought.

Practitioner. Tinctures BHP (1983). Ephedra 4; Red Clover 4, Yellow Dock 2; Bugleweed 2; Blood root quarter; Liquorice quarter (liquid extract). Mix. Start low: 30-60 drops in water before meals and at bedtime increasing to maximum tolerance level.

Aromatherapy. Oils: Eucalyptus or Thyme on tissue to assist breathing. Inhale.

Diet. See: DIET – CANCER.

Treatment by a general medical practitioner or hospital specialist. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

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Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

Cancer – Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Given three months to live, Jason Winters, terminal cancer patient, was suffering from infiltrating squamous cell carcinoma wrapped round his carotid artery. Refusing major surgery, he travelled the world in search of native remedies. He was able to contact people who put him on the track of Wild Violet leaves, Red Clover flowers (Trifolium pratense) and leaves of the Chaparral bush (Larrea divaricata). The story of how he infused them, together with a well- known spice, is dramatically recorded in his book “Killing Cancer”. After a spectacular recovery, remission has lasted for over 15 years and others have benefited from his experience.

Treatment by oncologist. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

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Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

Car Sickness

See motion sickness.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Cara

(Italian / Gaelic) One who is dearly loved / a good friend

Carah, Caralee, Caralie, Caralyn, Caralynn, Carrah, Carra, Chara, Cahra, Caradoc, Caraf, Caraid, Carajean, Caralea, Caralisa, Carita, Carella, Carilla, Caraleigh, Caraleah... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Carallia Brachiata

(Lour.) Merr.

Synonym: C. integerrima DC. C. lucida Roxb. ex Kurz.

Habitat: Throughout India, up to an altitude of 1,300 m, and in the Andamans.

Folk: Karalli, Kierpa. Varanga (Malyalam).

Action: Leaves—used in the treatment of sapraemia. Bark—used for treating oral ulcers, stomatitis, inflammation of the throat.

The leaves contain alkaloids (0.2% dry basis), the major being (+)-hygro- line.... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Caraway

Carum carvi

FAMILY: Apiaceae (Umbelliferae)

SYNONYMS: Apium carvi, carum, caraway fruits.

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: A biennial herb up to 0.75 metres high with a much-branched stem, finely cut leaves and umbels of white flowers, with a thick and tapering root. The small seeds are curved with five distinct pale ridges.

DISTRIBUTION: Native to Europe and western Asia, naturalized in North America. Now widely cultivated especially in Germany, Holland, Scandinavia and Russia.

OTHER SPECIES: There are several varieties depending on origin – the English, Dutch and German types derive from Prussia, which are distinct from the Scandinavian variety. Those plants grown in northerly latitudes produce more oil.

HERBAL/FOLK TRADITION: Used extensively as a domestic spice, especially in bread, cakes and cheeses. Traditional remedy for dyspepsia, intestinal colic, menstrual cramps, poor appetite, laryngitis and bronchitis. It promotes milk secretion and is considered specific for flatulent colic in children, according to the British Herbal Pharmacopoeia.

ACTIONS: Antihistaminic, antimicrobial, antiseptic, aperitif, astringent, carminative, diuretic, emmenagogue, expectorant, galactagogue, larvicidal, stimulant, spasmolytic, stomachic, tonic, vermifuge.

EXTRACTION: Essential oil by steam distillation from the dried ripe seed or fruit (approx. 2–8 per cent yield).

CHARACTERISTICS: Crude caraway oil is a pale yellowish-brown liquid with a harsh, spicy odour. The redistilled oil is colourless to pale yellow, with a strong, warm, sweet-spicy odour, like rye bread. It blends well with jasmine, cinnamon, cassia and other spices; however, it is very overpowering.

PRINCIPAL CONSTITUENTS: Mainly carvone (50–60 per cent) and limonene (40 per cent), with carveol, dihydrocarveol, dihydrocarvone, pinene, phellandrene, among others.

SAFETY DATA: Non-toxic, non-sensitizing, may cause dermal irritation in concentration.

AROMATHERAPY/HOME: USE

Respiratory System: Bronchitis, coughs, laryngitis.

Digestive System: Dyspepsia, colic, flatulence, gastric spasm, nervous indigestion, poor appetite. See also sweet fennel and dill.

Immune system: Colds.

OTHER USES: Used in carminative, stomachic and laxative preparations and as a flavour ingredient in pharmaceuticals; also to mask unpleasant tastes and odours. Fragrance component in toothpaste, mouthwash products, cosmetics and perfumes. Extensively used as a flavour ingredient in most major food categories, especially condiments. The German brandy ‘Kummel’ is made from the seeds.... The Encyclopedia of Essential Oils

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The Encyclopedia of Essential Oils

Caraway Seeds

Carum carvi L. Dried seeds.

Action: Antimicrobial, antispasmodic, carminative, expectorant, galactagogue, emmenagogue.

Keynote: colic.

Uses: Wind and colic in children; loss of appetite; flatulent indigestion, ‘summer’ diarrhoea in children, colds, painful menses; to stimulate flow of breast milk. Gastric symptoms of cardiac origin.

Sometimes combined with Chamomile for digestive disorders.

Preparations: Thrice daily.

Tea: 1-2 teaspoons to each cup boiling water; infuse 10 minutes. Dose: half-1 cup. Tincture BHP (1983) 1 part to 5 parts 45 per cent alcohol: 0.5-4ml (8-60 drops). Powdered seeds: half-2 grams.

Oil of Caraway: 1-3 drops. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

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Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

Caraway Tea For Flatulence

Caraway tea is well known for its carminative, antispasmodic and diuretic action, being consumed worldwide due to its pharmaceutical benefits. Caraway Tea description Caraway is a biennial plant which distinguishes itself through an erect branching stem. It grows wild in Europe, North Africa and Asia. Caraway is best known for its long, brownish and rib-shaped seeds, which are used as a condiment to add flavor to several types of food like soups, pasta, breads, cheeses, cakes, biscuits, rice and seafood. Caraway is also part of the Indian, Dutch, German, Russian, and Scandinavian dishes. Caraway is available in capsule form and through brewing it turns into Caraway tea. Caraway Tea brewing To prepare Caraway tea:
  • Infuse 1 teaspoon of crushed caraway seeds into a cup of boiling water.
  • Allow this mix to steep for 10 to 15 minutes.
Caraway tea can be drunk three times a day. Caraway Tea benefits Caraway tea is successfully used to:
  • soothe the digestive tract and relieve colic, cramps and flatulence
  • promote gastric secretion and improve the appetite
  • fight diarrhea
  • ease menstrual cramps, as well as gallbladder spasms
  • fight bronchitis and cough
  • increase the production of breast milk
  • freshen the breath
Caraway Tea side effects Pregnant and nursing women should ask their doctor before consuming Caraway tea. Caraway tea is a healthy beverage, efficient in dealing with cramps, colic and flatulence, but not only.... Beneficial Teas

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Beneficial Teas

Carawy

Protection, Lust, Health, Anti-Theft, Mental Powers...

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Carbachol

A drug which stimulates the parasympathetic nervous system, for example, for relieving GLAUCOMA and retention of urine due to ATONY.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Carbamazepine

An anticonvulsant drug, chemically related to the tricyclic antidepressants.

Carbamazepine is mainly used in the long-term treatment of epilepsy.

It is also used to treat neuralgia and psychological disorders, such as mania.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Carbamazepine

n. an *anticonvulsant drug used in the treatment of epileptic tonic–clonic seizures, the prophylaxis of bipolar affective disorder, and to relieve the pain of trigeminal neuralgia. Common side-effects include drowsiness, dizziness, and muscular incoordination; abnormalities of liver and bone marrow may occur with long-term treatment.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Carbamazepine

An anticonvulsant drug used to treat most types of EPILEPSY, including simple and complex partial seizures and tonic-clonic seizures secondary to a focal discharge. Monitoring of concentrations in the blood may be of help in ?nding the most e?ective dose. Carbamazepine has generally fewer side-effects than other antiepileptic drugs; even so, it should be started at a low dose and increased incrementally. The drug is also used to treat TRIGEMINAL NEURALGIA and other types of nerve pain, as well as pain from a PHANTOM LIMB. DEPRESSION resistant to LITHIUM CARBONATE may also bene?t from carbamazepine.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Carbamide Peroxide

a urea peroxide compound that is commonly used in tooth-whitening agents, anti-infective agents, and earwax remover.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Carbaryl

An insecticide used to treat head lice and crab lice.

Carbaryl is applied topically as a liquid, avoiding contact with the eyes or broken skin.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Carbaryl

A pesticide used to kill head and crab lice (see PEDICULOSIS). Available as a lotion, some of which contains alcohol (not recommended for use on crab lice), the substance may irritate skin and should not be used near damaged skin, eyes or ears.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Carbenoxolone

An ulcer-healing drug used to treat oesophageal inflammation and ulceration.

A gel containing carbenoxolone is used to relieve mouth ulcers.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Carbidopa

n. see levodopa.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Carbimazole

A drug that is used to treat hyperthyroidism (overactivity of the thyroid gland). Carbimazole is slow to take effect, so beta-blockers may be given to relieve symptoms in the interim. Longterm treatment with carbimazole may reduce production of blood cells, so regular blood counts are required. Adverse effects may include headaches, dizziness, joint pain, and nausea.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Carbimazole

n. a *thionamide used to reduce the production of thyroid hormone in cases of overactivity of the gland (thyrotoxicosis). A prodrug, it is converted to its biologically active metabolite, methimazole, within the body. Gastrointestinal upsets, rashes, and itching may occur; more rarely, carbimazole may cause *myelosuppression.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Carbimazole

One of the most widely used drugs in the treatment of HYPERTHYROIDISM. It acts by interferring with the synthesis of thyroid hormone in the thyroid gland.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Carbocisteine

n. see mucolytic.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Carbohydrate

n. any one of a large group of compounds, including the *sugars and *starch, that contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen and have the general formula Cx(H2O)y. Carbohydrates are important as a source of energy: they are manufactured by plants and obtained by animals from the diet, being one of the three main constituents of food (see also fat; protein). All carbohydrates are eventually broken down in the body to the simple sugar *glucose, which can then take part in energy-producing metabolic processes. Excess carbohydrate, not immediately required by the body, is stored in the liver and muscles in the form of *glycogen. In plants carbohydrates are important structural materials (e.g. cellulose) and storage products (commonly in the form of starch). See also disaccharide; monosaccharide; polysaccharide.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Carbohydrate

The term applied to an organic substance in which the hydrogen and oxygen are usually in the proportion to form water. Carbohydrates are all, chemically considered, derivatives of simple forms of sugar and are classi?ed as monosaccharides (e.g. glucose), disaccharides

(e.g. cane sugar), polysaccharides (e.g. starch). Many of the cheaper and most important foods are included in this group, which comprises sugars, starches, celluloses and gums. When one of these foods is digested, it is converted into a simple kind of sugar and absorbed in this form. Excess carbohydrates, not immediately needed by the body, are stored as glycogen in the liver and muscles. In DIABETES MELLITUS, the most marked feature consists of an inability on the part of the tissues to assimilate and utilise the carbohydrate material. Each gram of carbohydrate is capable of furnishing slightly over 4 Calories of energy. (See CALORIE; DIET.)... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Carbohydrates

A group of compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, which supply the body with its main source of energy. Carbohydrates are found in fruits, cereals, and root crops and fall into 2 groups. These are available carbohydrates, which are metabolized into glucose for the body’s use, and unavailable carbohydrates, such as cellulose, which cannot be broken down by digestive enzymes and make up the bulk of dietary fibre (see fibre, dietary).

Available carbohydrates are predominantly starches (complex carbohydrates) and sugars (simple carbohydrates). In carbohydrate metabolism, the monosaccharides (simple sugars) glucose (grape sugar), galactose (a milk sugar), and fructose (fruit sugar) are absorbed into the bloodstream unchanged. The disaccharides (double sugars) sucrose, maltose and lactose (a milk sugar) are broken down into simple sugars before they are absorbed. Starches also have to be broken down into simple sugars.

Some glucose is burned up immediately (see metabolism) in order to generate energy for cells, such as brain cells, that need a constant supply. Galactose and fructose have to be converted to glucose in the liver before they can be used by body cells. Surplus glucose is conveyed to the liver, muscles, and fat cells where it is converted into glycogen and fat for storage. When blood glucose levels are high, glucose storage is stimulated by insulin, a hormone that is secreted by the pancreas. When the blood glucose level becomes low, insulin secretion diminishes and glucagon, which is another hormone produced by the pancreas, stimulates the conversion of stored glycogen to glucose for release into the bloodstream. Although fat cannot be converted to glucose, it can be burned as a fuel in order to conserve glucose. In the disorder diabetes mellitus, carbohydrate metabolism is disturbed by a deficiency of insulin.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Carbol Fuchsin

a red stain for bacteria and fungi, consisting of carbolic acid and *fuchsin dissolved in alcohol and water.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Carbolic Acid

see phenol.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Carbolic Acid

Carbolic acid, or phenol, was the precursor of all ANTISEPTICS. It paralyses and then destroys most forms of life, particularly organisms such as bacteria. It has been superseded by less penetrative and harmful antiseptics.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Carbon

A nonmetallic element present in all the fundamental molecules of living organisms, such as proteins, fats, and carbohydrates, and in some inorganic molecules such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and sodium bicarbonate.

Pure carbon is the major constituent of diamond, coal, charcoal, and graphite.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Carbon

A non-metallic element, the compounds of which are found in all living tissues and which is a constituent (as carbon dioxide) of air exhaled from the LUNGS. Two isotopes of carbon, 11C and 14C, are used in medicine. Carbon-11 is used in positron-emission tomography (see PET SCANNING); carbon-14 is used as a tracer element in studying various aspects of METABOLISM.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Carbon Dioxide

(CO) A colourless, odourless gas. Carbon dioxide is present in small amounts in the air and is an important by-product of metabolism in cells. It is produced by the breakdown of substances such as carbohydrates and fats to produce energy, and is carried in the blood to the lungs and exhaled. Carbon dioxide helps to control the rate of respiration: when a person exercises, CO2 levels in the blood rise, causing the person to breathe more rapidly in order to expel carbon dioxide and to take in more oxygen.

When it is compressed and cooled to -75ºC, carbon dioxide becomes solid dry ice, which is used in cryosurgery.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Carbon Dioxide

a colourless gas formed in the tissues during metabolism and carried in the blood to the lungs, where it is exhaled (an increase in the concentration of this gas in the blood stimulates respiration). Carbon dioxide occurs in small amounts in the atmosphere; it is used by plants in the process of *photosynthesis. It forms a solid (dry ice) at –75°C (at atmospheric pressure) and in this form is used as a refrigerant. Formula: CO2.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Carbon Dioxide (co2)

Formed by the body during metabolism and exhaled by the lungs. Seen in sparkling waters and wines, it is also used in baths as a stimulant to the skin. Combined with oxygen in cylinders, it is used to control breathing in ANAESTHESIA and in the treatment of victims of CARBON MONOXIDE (CO) poisoning.

Measuring the partial pressure of the gas by taking blood for blood gas estimation provides information on the adequacy of breathing. A high partial pressure may indicate impending or actual respiratory failure.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Carbon Monoxide

(CO) A colourless, odourless, poisonous gas present in motor exhaust fumes and produced by inefficient burning of coal, gas, or oil.

Carbon monoxide binds with haemoglobin and prevents the transportation of oxygen to body tissues.

The initial symptoms of acute high-level carbon monoxide poisoning are dizziness, headache, nausea, and faintness.

Continued inhalation of the gas may lead to loss of consciousness, permanent brain damage, and even death.

Low-level exposure to carbon monoxide over a period of time may cause fatigue, nausea, diarrhoea, abdominal pain, and general malaise.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Carbon Monoxide

a colourless almost odourless gas that is very poisonous. When breathed in it combines with haemoglobin in the red blood cells to form *carboxyhaemoglobin, which is bright red in colour. This compound is chemically stable and thus the haemoglobin can no longer combine with oxygen. Carbon monoxide is present in coal gas and motor exhaust fumes. Formula: CO.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Carbon Monoxide (co)

This is a colourless, odourless, tasteless, nonirritating gas formed on incomplete combustion of organic fuels. Exposure to CO is frequently due to defective gas, oil or solid-fuel heating appliances. CO is a component of car exhaust fumes and deliberate exposure to these is a common method of suicide. Victims of ?res often suffer from CO poisoning. CO combines reversibly with oxygen-carrying sites of HAEMOGLOBIN (Hb) molecules with an a?nity 200 to 300 times greater than oxygen itself. The carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb) formed becomes unavailable for oxygen transportation. In addition the partial saturation of the Hb molecule results in tighter oxygen binding, impairing delivery to the tissues. CO also binds to MYOGLOBIN and respiratory cytochrome enzymes. Exposure to CO at levels of 500 parts per million (ppm) would be expected to cause mild symptoms only and exposure to levels of 4,000 ppm would be rapidly fatal.

Each year around 50 people in the United Kingdom are reported as dying from carbon monoxide poisoning, and experts have suggested that as many as 25,000 people a year are exposed to its effects within the home, but most cases are unrecognised, unreported and untreated, even though victims may suffer from long-term effects. This is regrettable, given that Napoleon’s surgeon, Larrey, recognised in the 18th century that soldiers were being poisoned by carbon monoxide when billeted in huts heated by woodburning stoves. In the USA it is estimated that 40,000 people a year attend emergency departments suffering from carbon monoxide poisoning. So prevention is clearly an important element in dealing with what is sometimes termed the ‘silent killer’. Safer designs of houses and heating systems, as well as wider public education on the dangers of carbon monoxide and its sources, are important.

Clinical effects of acute exposure resemble those of atmospheric HYPOXIA. Tissues and organs with high oxygen consumption are affected to a great extent. Common effects include headaches, weakness, fatigue, ?ushing, nausea, vomiting, irritability, dizziness, drowsiness, disorientation, incoordination, visual disturbances, TACHYCARDIA and HYPERVENTILATION. In severe cases drowsiness may progress rapidly to COMA. There may also be metabolic ACIDOSIS, HYPOKALAEMIA, CONVULSIONS, HYPOTENSION, respiratory depression, ECG changes and cardiovascular collapse. Cerebral OEDEMA is common and will lead to severe brain damage and focal neurological signs. Signi?cant abnormalities on physical examination include impaired short-term memory, abnormal Rhomberg’s test (standing unsupported with eyes closed) and unsteadiness of gait including heel-toe walking. Any one of these signs would classify the episode as severe. Victims’ skin may be coloured pink, though this is very rarely seen even in severe incidents. The venous blood may look ‘arterial’. Patients recovering from acute CO poisoning may suffer neurological sequelae including TREMOR, personality changes, memory impairment, visual loss, inability to concentrate and PARKINSONISM. Chronic low-level exposures may result in nausea, fatigue, headache, confusion, VOMITING, DIARRHOEA, abdominal pain and general malaise. They are often misdiagnosed as in?uenza or food poisoning.

First-aid treatment is to remove the victim from the source of exposure, ensure an e?ective airway and give 100-per-cent oxygen by tight-?tting mask. In hospital, management is largely suppportive, with oxygen administration. A blood sample for COHb level determination should be taken as soon as practicable and, if possible, before oxygen is given. Ideally, oxygen therapy should continue until the COHb level falls below 5 per cent. Patients with any history of unconsciousness, a COHb level greater than 20 per cent on arrival, any neurological signs, any cardiac arrhythmias or anyone who is pregnant should be referred for an expert opinion about possible treatment with hyperbaric oxygen, though this remains a controversial therapy. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy shortens the half-life of COHb, increases plasma oxygen transport and reverses the clinical effects resulting from acute exposures. Carbon monoxide is also an environmental poison and a component of cigarette smoke. Normal body COHb levels due to ENDOGENOUS CO production are 0.4 to

0.7 per cent. Non-smokers in urban areas may have level of 1–2 per cent as a result of environmental exposure. Smokers may have a COHb level of 5 to 6 per cent.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Carbon Tetrachloride

(CCl) A colourless, poisonous, volatile chemical with a characteristic odour that is present in some home dry-cleaning fluids and industrial solvents. It can cause dizziness, confusion, and liver and kidney damage if it is inhaled or swallowed.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Carbon Tetrachloride

a pungent volatile fluid used as a dry-cleaner. When inhaled or swallowed it may severely damage the heart, liver, and kidneys, causing cirrhosis and nephrosis, and it can also affect the optic nerve and other nerves. Treatment is by administration of oxygen. Formula: CCl4.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitor

any one of a class of drugs that act by blocking the action of the enzyme carbonic anhydrase. This enzyme greatly speeds up the reaction between carbon dioxide and water to form carbonic acid, a compound needed for the production of many of the body’s secretions. Carbonic anhydrase is present in high concentrations in the eye, kidneys, stomach lining, and pancreas. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors reduce the production of aqueous humour in the eye and are used mainly in treating *glaucoma. They include *acetazolamide, *brinzolamide, and *dorzolamide.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitor

A drug that curbs the action of an ENZYME in the blood controlling the production of carbonic acid or bicarbonate from CARBON DIOXIDE (CO2). Called carbonic anhydrase, the enzyme is present in ERYTHROCYTES and it has a key part in maintaining the acid-base balance in the blood. Inhibiting drugs include ACETAZOLAMIDE and DORZOLAMIDE, and these are used as weak DIURETICS to reduce the increased intraocular pressure in ocular hypertension or open-angle GLAUCOMA (see EYE, DISORDERS OF).... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Carboplatin

n. a derivative of platinum that is used in the treatment of advanced ovarian and lung cancers. It is similar to *cisplatin but has fewer side-effects; in particular, it causes less nausea and nephrotoxicity but more myelosuppression.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Carboprost

n. a synthetic *prostaglandin used to control severe postpartum haemorrhage that has not responded to ergometrine and oxytocin. Side-effects include nausea and vomiting, diarrhoea, and flushing.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Carbos

Carbohydrates, like starch or sugar.... Herbal Medical

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Herbal Medical

Carboxyhaemoglobin

n. a substance formed when carbon monoxide combines with the pigment *haemoglobin in the blood. Carboxyhaemoglobin is incapable of transporting oxygen to the tissues and this is the cause of death in carbon monoxide poisoning. Large quantities of carboxyhaemoglobin are formed in carbon monoxide poisoning, and low levels are always present in the blood of smokers and city dwellers.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Carboxyhaemoglobinaemia

The term applied to the state of the blood in carbon monoxide poisoning, in which this gas combines with the haemoglobin, displacing oxygen from it. (See CARBON MONOXIDE (CO).)... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Carboxylase

n. an enzyme that catalyses the addition of carbon dioxide to a substance.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Carbuncle

A cluster of interconnected boils, usually caused by the bacterium

STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS. The back of the neck and the buttocks are common sites. Carbuncles mainly affect people with reduced immunity, particularly those with diabetes mellitus. Treatment is usually with an antibiotic and hot compresses. Incision and drainage may be necessary if a carbuncle is persistent.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Carbuncle

n. a collection of *boils with multiple drainage channels. The infection is usually caused by Staphylococcus aureus and may result in an extensive slough of skin. Treatment is with antibiotics and sometimes also by surgery.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Carbuncle

Staphylococcal infection of the skin and underlying tissue with local necrosis. Pus is discharged from more than one opening, giving the appearance of a collection of boils. See: BOILS. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

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Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

Carbuncle

An infection of the skin and subcutaneous tissue by Staphylococcus aureus... Medicinal Plants Glossary

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Medicinal Plants Glossary

Carbuncle

See BOILS (FURUNCULOSIS).... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Carcin

(carcino-) combining form denoting cancer or carcinoma. Example: carcinogenesis (development of).... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Carcino-embryonic Antigen

(CEA) a protein produced in the fetus but not in normal adult life. It may be produced by carcinomas, particularly of the colon, and is a rather insensitive marker of malignancy. It is an example of an *oncofetal antigen that is used as a *tumour marker, particularly in the follow-up of colorectal cancer.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Carcinogen

Any agent capable of causing cancer. Chemicals are the largest group of carcinogens. Major types include polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which occur in tobacco smoke, pitch, tar fumes, and soot. Exposure to PAHs may lead to cancer of the respiratory system or skin. Certain aromatic amines used in the chemical and rubber industries may cause bladder cancer after prolonged exposure.

The best-known physical carcinogen is high-energy radiation, such as nuclear radiation and X-rays. Exposure may cause cancerous changes in cells, especially in cells that divide quickly: for example, changes in the precursors of white blood cells in the bone marrow causes leukaemia. The risk depends on the dosage and duration of exposure. Over many years, exposure to ultraviolet radiation in sunlight can cause skin cancer. Another known physical carcinogen is asbestos (see asbestos-related diseases).

Only a few biological agents are known to cause cancer in humans.

SCHISTOSOMA HAEMATOBIUM, one of the blood flukes responsible for schistosomiasis, can cause cancer of the bladder; and ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS, a fungus that produces the poison aflatoxin in stored peanuts and grain, is believed to cause liver cancer.

Viruses associated with cancer include strains of the human papilloma virus, which are linked to cancer of the cervix; the hepatitis B virus, which is linked to liver cancer; and a type of herpes virus which is associated with Kaposi’s sarcoma.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Carcinogen

n. any substance that, when exposed to living tissue, may cause the production of cancer. Known carcinogens include ionizing radiation and many chemicals, e.g. those found in cigarette smoke and those produced in certain industries. They cause damage to the DNA of cells that may persist if the cell divides before the damage is repaired. Damaged cells may subsequently develop into a *cancer (see also carcinogenesis). An inherent susceptibility to cancer may be necessary for a carcinogen to promote the development of cancer. See also oncogenic. —carcinogenic adj.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Carcinogen

A chemical or other agent that has been implicated in causing cancer.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

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Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

Carcinogenesis

The development of a cancer caused by the action of carcinogens (cancer-causing factors) on normal cells.

Carcinogens are believed to alter the DNA in cells, particularly in oncogenes (genes that control the growth and division of cells).

An altered cell divides abnormally fast, passing on the genetic changes to all offspring cells.

A group of cells is established that is not affected by the body’s normal restraints on growth.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Carcinogenesis

n. the evolution of an invasive cancer cell from a normal cell. This is a multistep process characterized by successive genetic mutations caused by carcinogens. Intermediate stages, sometimes called premalignant, preinvasive, or noninvasive, may be recognizable, but the interchangeable use of these terms can be confusing, and they have been replaced by *carcinoma in situ.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Carcinogenesis

Carcinogenesis is the means or method whereby the changes responsible for the induction of CANCER are brought about.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Carcinogenic

Causing cancer... Medicinal Plants Glossary

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Medicinal Plants Glossary

Carcinogens

Substances that bring about a malignant change in body cells. Sources include: pollutants, asbestos, petroleum products, tobacco, Azo food dyes, nickel, X-rays, nitrites in preserved meats, the Pill and hormone replacement therapy. Direct-acting carcinogens may arise in stored food due to contamination by micro-organisms such as aflatoxin in mould-contaminated peanuts. They stimulate chemical change resulting in free-radicals. See: FREE-RADICALS. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

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Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

Carcinogens

Agents, such as tobacco smoke, certain chemicals, asbestos ?bres and high-dose radiation, that have the property of causing CANCER.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Carcinoid

n. a tumour of the *argentaffin cells in the glands of the intestine (see apudoma). Carcinoids typically occur in the tip of the appendix and are among the commonest tumours of the small intestine. They may also occur in the rectum and other parts of the digestive tract and in the bronchial tree (bronchial carcinoid adenoma). Carcinoids sometimes produce 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin), prostaglandins, and other physiologically active substances, which are inactivated in the liver. If a gastrointestinal tumour has spread to the liver, excess amounts of these substances are released into the systemic circulation and the carcinoid syndrome results – flushing, headache, diarrhoea, bronchial constriction causing asthma-like attacks, and in some cases damage to the right side of the heart associated with fibrosis of the tricuspid valve. Bronchial carcinoids can give rise to the syndrome without metastasizing.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Carcinoid Syndrome

A rare condition caused by an intestinal or lung tumour, called a carcinoid, which secretes excess amounts of the hormone serotonin.

Carcinoid syndrome is characterized by bouts of facial flushing, diarrhoea, and wheezing, but symptoms usually occur only if the tumour has spread to the liver or has arisen in a lung.

Sometimes tumours in the intestine, lung, and, more rarely, the liver are removed surgically, but, in most cases, surgery is unlikely to be of benefit.

In these circustances, symptoms may be relieved by drugs that block the action of serotonin.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Carcinoid Syndrome

Flushing of the face and neck caused by an active malignant tumour in the stomach or intestines with secondary growths in the liver. Often accompanied by an explosive diarrhoea. The lesion is usually found in the ileum yet it may also appear in the bile duct, ovaries or bronchi. Other symptoms include low blood pressure, drastic reduction in weight due to loss of body fluids.

Symptoms: flushing of face and neck, diarrhoea, low blood pressure, weight loss.

Treatment: relief of symptoms only. Diarrhoea – Fenugreek seed tea. Flushing: Chamomile tea.

Vitamin and Mineral Supplementation: Because of severe drain on these food elements Multivitamins should be taken daily together with additional 1000ius Vitamin E for the disturbed circulatory system. The heart should be sustained with a preparation of the Hawthorn berry.

To be treated by or in liaison with a qualified medical practitioner. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

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Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

Carcinoma

Any cancerous tumour (see cancer) arising from cells in the covering surface layer or lining membrane of an organ.

The most common cancers of the lungs, breast, stomach, skin, cervix, colon and rectum are carcinomas.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Carcinoma

n. *cancer that arises in epithelium, the tissue that lines the skin and internal organs of the body. It may occur in any tissue containing epithelial cells. In many cases the site of origin of the tumour may be identified by the nature of the cells it contains. Organs may exhibit more than one type of carcinoma; for example, an adenocarcinoma and a squamous carcinoma may be found in the cervix (but not usually concurrently). Treatment depends on the nature of the primary tumour, different types responding to different drug combinations. —carcinomatous adj.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Carcinoma

A malignant epithelial tumour eventually becoming fatal... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

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Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

Carcinoma

Cancer of the tissues which cover or line the body surfaces and internal organs.... Medicinal Plants Glossary

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Medicinal Plants Glossary

Carcinoma

A type of CANCER developing from cells found in the surface layer of an organ in the body.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Carcinoma In Situ

The earliest, usually curable, stage of a cancer in which it has not yet spread from the surface layer of cells of an organ.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Carcinoma In Situ

(CIS) the earliest stage of cancer spread, in which the neoplasm is confined by the basement membrane of the epithelium. Surgical removal of the growth should lead to cure. See also cervical cancer; cervical intraepithelial neoplasia; ductal carcinoma in situ.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Carcinoma In Situ

The ?rst stage of CARCINOMA in which the malignant tumour is present only in the EPITHELIUM, and when surgical excision of the local growth, with its pathological status con?rmed in the laboratory, should ensure a cure.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Carcinoma Simplex

Poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

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Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

Carcinoma-in-situ

Malignant epithelial tumour showing no invasion.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

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Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

Carcinomatosis

The presence of cancerous tissue in different sites of the body due to the spread of cancer cells from a primary (original) cancerous tumour.

Symptoms depend on the site of the metastases (secondary tumours).

Carcinomatosis may be confirmed by X-rays or by radionuclide scanning of the bones and lungs, by biochemical tests, or during an operation.

The condition is not improved by removing the primary tumour unless the tumour is producing a hormone that stimulates the growth of metastases.

Anticancer drugs or radiotherapy may be given to treat metastases.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Carcinomatosis

n. carcinoma that has spread widely throughout the body. Spread of the cancer cells occurs via the lymphatic channels and bloodstream and across body cavities, for example the peritoneal cavity.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Carcinomatosis

The spread of cancer cells from their original site of growth to other tissues in the body. Such a spread of cancer, which takes place mainly via blood and lymph vessels, is usually fatal. CHEMOTHERAPY and RADIOTHERAPY may, however, check the spread or sometimes destroy the cancerous growth.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Carcinosarcoma

n. a malignant tumour of the cervix, uterus, or vagina containing a mixture of *adenocarcinoma and cells with a sarcoma appearance, previously called malignant mixed Müllerian tumours (MMMT). These tumours are actually epithelial in origin and should be treated as high-grade adenocarcinomas. Sarcomatoid differentiation of epithelial cancers often indicates a poor prognosis.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Cardamom Seeds

Elettaria cardamomum Maton. Dried ripe seeds. Volatile oil.

Action. Carminative, warm and soothing to digestive system. Stomachic, Orexigenic. Anti-gripe. Oil is antiseptic.

Uses: Flatulence, colic, loss of appetite.

Preparations: Tea. Crush seeds in a pestle and mortar. 1 teaspoon to cup of water; bring to boil; remove vessel when boiling point is reached. Infuse 10-15 minutes. Dose: half-1 cup.

Powder. Dose, 1-2 grams.

Liquid Extract. 0.3 to 2ml.

Tincture Cardamoms Co BP (1973): dose 2-4ml. Oil – 3 drops in honey after meals promotes digestion, removes odour of garlic, onions, etc. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

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Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

Cardamom Tea

Cardamom is an evergreen plant that’s grown mainly in India and Guatemala. Both dried white cardamom flowers and the sweetly aromatic seeds are used to make tea. Cardamom tea has a pungent, sweet and aromatic flavor. Cardamom tea helps treat indigestion, prevents stomach pain, and relieves flatulence. It’s also helpful to drink a glass of cardamom tea if you are feeling nauseous. Cardamom tea fights pulmonary disease where lots of phlegm is present. It also works as a good expectorant and relieves coughs. If you have drunk too many cups of coffee, drink a couple of cups of cardamom tea to help detoxify the caffeine from your system. Drinking a cup of cardamom tea is helpful for women who experience mood swings during their menstrual period.... Beneficial Teas

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Beneficial Teas

Cardamoms

Elettaria cardamomum. N.O. Zingiberaceae.

Synonym: Mysore Cardamoms, Malabar Cardamoms.

Habitat: Cultivated chiefly in Ceylon.

Features ? Fruits ovoid or oblong, longitudinally furrowed, about half-inch long. Fruits yield approximately 75 per cent seeds.

Part used ? Seeds.

Action: Carminative, stomachic.

As a warm, grateful aromatic in flatulence. The seeds should be crushed, and an infusion of 2 ounces to 1 pint of water taken in wineglassful doses.... Herbal Manual

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Herbal Manual

Cardamon

Elettaria Cardamomum

FAMILY: Zingiberaceae

SYNONYMS: Elettaria cardomomum var. cardomomum, cardamom, cardamomi, cardamum, mysore cardamom.

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: A perennial, reed-like herb up to 4 metres high, with long, silky blade-shaped leaves. Its long sheathing stems bear small yellowish flowers with purple tips, followed by oblong red-brown seeds.

DISTRIBUTION: Native to tropical Asia, especially southern India; cultivated extensively in India, Sri Lanka, Laos, Guatemala and El Salvador. The oil is produced principally in India, Europe, Sri Lanka and Guatemala.

OTHER SPECIES: There are numerous related species found in the east, used as local spices and for medicinal purposes, such as round or Siam cardamon (Amomum cardamomum) found in India and China. An oil is also produced from wild cardamon (E. cardamomum var. major).

HERBAL/FOLK TRADITION: Used extensively as a domestic spice, especially in India, Europe, Latin America and Middle Eastern countries. It has been used in traditional Chinese and Indian medicine for over 3000 years, especially for pulmonary disease, fever, digestive and urinary complaints. Hippocrates recommended it for sciatica, coughs, abdominal pains, spasms, nervous disorders, retention of urine and also for bites of venomous creatures. Current in the British Herbal Pharmacopoeia as a specific for flatulent dyspepsia.

ACTIONS: Antiseptic, antispasmodic, aphrodisiac, carminative, cephalic, digestive, diuretic, sialogogue, stimulant, stomachic, tonic (nerve).

EXTRACTION: Essential oil by steam, distillation from the dried ripe fruit (seeds). An oleoresin is also produced in small quantities.

CHARACTERISTICS: A colourless to pale yellow liquid with a sweet-spicy, warming fragrance and a woody-balsamic undertone. It blends well with rose, olibanum, orange, bergamot, cinnamon, cloves, caraway, ylang ylang, labdanum, cedarwood, neroli and oriental bases in general.

PRINCIPAL CONSTITUENTS: Terpinyl acetate and cineol (each may be present at up to 50 per cent), limonene, sabinene, linalol, linalyl acetate, pinene, zingiberene, among others.

SAFETY DATA: Non-toxic, non-irritant, non-sensitizing.

AROMATHERAPY/HOME: USE

Digestive System: Anorexia, colic, cramp, dyspepsia, flatulence, griping pains, halitosis heartburn, indigestion, vomiting.

Nervous System: Mental fatigue, nervous strain.

OTHER USES: Employed in some carminative, stomachic and laxative preparations; also in the form of compound cardamon spirit to flavour pharmaceuticals. Extensively used as a fragrance component in soaps, cosmetics and perfumes, especially oriental types. Important flavour ingredient, particularly in curry and spice products.... The Encyclopedia of Essential Oils

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The Encyclopedia of Essential Oils

Cardamon

Lust, Love...

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Cardea

(Latin) In mythology, the goddess of thresholds

Cardeah, Cardia, Cardiah... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Cardi

(cardio-) combining form denoting the heart. Examples: cardiomegaly (enlargement of); cardiopathy (disease of).... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Cardia

n. 1. the opening at the upper end of the *stomach that connects with the oesophagus (gullet). 2. the heart.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Cardia

Cardia is a term applied to the upper opening of the stomach into which the oesophagus empties. The cardia lies immediately behind the heart.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Cardiac

pertaining to the heart.... The Encyclopedia of Essential Oils

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The Encyclopedia of Essential Oils

Cardiac

adj. 1. of, relating to, or affecting the heart. 2. of or relating to the upper part of the stomach (see cardia).... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Cardiac

From the Greek pertaining to the heart. Cardio-vascular pertains to the heart and blood vessels.

Cardio-actives. Herbs exercising a direct action on the heart due to the cardiac glycosides they contain. They increase output by sustaining the heart muscle without a demand for more oxygen. This group includes: Motherwort, Hawthorn, Broom, Lily of the Valley, Figwort, Bugleweed, Squills.

Cardiac glycosides, especially those of the Foxglove (digitalis) which is administered by a physician only, tend to accumulate in the body and may prove toxic when their elimination is retarded. The most important cardio-active used by the Consulting Herbalist is Lily of the Valley which has an action similar to Foxglove but without toxic effect. It is a reliable alternative to Foxglove for failure of the heart with retention of water in the body.

Cardio-tonics. Herbalists use other plants that do not contain cardiac glycosides but which have an indirect effect upon the heart. These dilate arteries and peripheral vessels, speeding the circulation, reducing high blood pressure, relieving any back-pressure on the heart caused by accumulation of blood in the lungs. There are peripheral dilators to resolve any hold-up in the circulation and others that assist a failing heart by eliminating obstruction in the bowel (laxatives), liver and kidneys (hepatics and diuretics), skin (diaphoretics and alteratives, chief of which is Figwort). The heart also may feel the benefit of a timely relaxing nervine such as Skullcap or Lime flowers. Even treatment of varicose veins indirectly assists. All of these reduce the work-load of the muscle and tend to ‘normalise’ function of the heart. Cardio-tonics include Ephedra, Motherwort, Rosemary, Mistletoe, Hawthorn, Lime flowers, Cayenne, Yarrow, Garlic, Balm.

Bugleweed is often overlooked as a cardiac sedative to relax capillaries and soothe arterial excitement. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

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Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

Cardiac

Relating to the heart... Medicinal Plants Glossary

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Medicinal Plants Glossary

Cardiac Arrest

A halt in the pumping action of the heart that occurs when its rhythmic muscular activity ceases. The most common cause of cardiac arrest is a myocardial infarction (heart attack). Other causes include respiratory arrest, electrical injury, loss of blood, hypothermia, drug overdose, and anaphylactic shock. Cardiac arrest causes sudden collapse, loss of consciousness, and absence of pulse and breathing.

The diagnosis is confirmed by monitoring the electrical activity of the heart by ECG.

This distinguishes between ventricular fibrillation and asystole, the 2 abnormalities of heart rhythm that cause cardiac arrest.

Ventricular fibrillation may be corrected by defibrillation.

Asystole, the complete absence of heart muscle activity, is more difficult to reverse but may respond to injection of adrenaline.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Cardiac Arrest

the cessation of effective pumping action of the heart. This may be because the heart stops beating altogether (*asystole), because there is normal electrical activity without mechanical pumping activity (*pulseless electrical activity), or because there is rapid, chaotic, ineffective electrical and mechanical activity of the heart (ventricular *fibrillation or *ventricular tachycardia). There is abrupt loss of consciousness, absence of the pulse, and breathing stops. Unless treated promptly, irreversible brain damage and death follow within minutes. Some patients may be resuscitated by airway clearance and support, artificial ventilation, massage of the heart, and (if ventricular fibrillation or tachycardia is present) *defibrillation.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Cardiac Arrest

Dramatic failure of the heart to act as a pump to propel blood into the main vessels. The usual cause is blockage of the coronary artery by a clot, debris in the bloodstream or valvular disease – resulting in either – asystole (total absence of contraction) or ventricular fibrillation (ineffective uncoordinated contraction).

Symptoms: disappearance of the pulse, imperceptible activity of the heart and loss of consciousness. Treatment. Vigorous rubbing of chest wall over the heart. In many cases a sharp thump on the chest will restore function. Where ineffective, mouth to mouth resuscitation. Emergency defibrillation by electric shock to chest wall. C.Y.D. Pinch red pepper (Cayenne) in brandy: if patient incapable of swallowing, moisten gums and mouth.

Spirits of Camphor: 1-5 drops in water or honey. Use also as an inhalant. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

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Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

Cardiac Arrest

Absence of a palpable pulse, and thus of circula tion of blood around the body by the heart contraction. The cause may be asystole or ventricular fibrillation.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Cardiac Arrest

Cardiac arrest occurs when the pumping action of the heart stops. This may be because the heart stops beating (see ASYSTOLE) or because the heart muscle starts contracting too fast to pump e?ectively (ventricular systole, the period when the heart contracts). Coronary thrombosis is the most frequent cause of arrest. Irreversible brain damage and death result without prompt treatment. Heart massage, de?brillation and arti?cial respiration are customary treatment. Other causes of cardiac arrest are respiratory arrest, anaphylactic shock and electrocution. Up to one-third of patients treated in hospital whose heart rhythm is restored recover to an extent that enables them to return home. (See APPENDIX 1: BASIC FIRST AID – Cardiac/respiratory arrest.)... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

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Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

Cardiac Arrest Simulation

a form of education in resuscitation skills using a *resuscitation mannikin wired up to a heart rhythm simulator that can mimic all common cardiac arrest situations. Candidates may be expected to perform basic life support as well as advanced life support and display skills in airway maintenance and team leadership. This form of teaching and assessment is widely used in advanced life support courses.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Cardiac Arrhythmia

Abnormal rhythm of the heartbeat. Most commonly seen after someone has had a myocardial infarction, but also present in some normal individuals – especially if they have taken a lot of co?ee or other stimulant – and in those with a congenital abnormality of the heart-muscle conducting system. The cause is interference in the generation or transmission of electrical impulses through the heart’s conducting system. Occasional isolated irregular beats (ectopic beats) do not necessarily mean that conduction is faulty. Arrhythmias can be classi?ed as tachycardias (more than 100 beats a minute) or bradycardias (slower than 60 beats a minute). Heartbeats may be regular or irregular. (See HEART, DISEASES OF.)... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Cardiac Catheterisation

A diagnostic procedure in which a tube is inserted into a blood vessel under local anaesthetic and threaded through to the chambers of the heart to monitor blood ?ow, blood pressure, blood chemistry and the output of the heart, and to take a sample of heart tissue. The technique is used to diagnose congenital heart disease and coronary artery disease. Another application is in the diagnosis and treatment of valvular disease in the heart.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Cardiac Cycle

The sequence of events, lasting for less than a second, that make up each beat of the heart. A heartbeat has 3 phases. In diasystole, the heart relaxes. During atrial systole, the atria contract, and in ventricular systole, the ventricles contract. The sinoatrial node (the heart’s pacemaker) regulates the timing of the phases by sending electrical impulses to the atria and ventricles.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Cardiac Cycle

the sequence of events between one heartbeat and the next, normally occupying less than a second. The atria contract simultaneously and force blood into the relaxed ventricles. The ventricles then contract very strongly and pump blood out through the aorta and pulmonary artery. During ventricular contraction, the atria relax and fill up again with blood. See diastole; systole.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Cardiac Cycle

The various sequential movements of the heart that comprise the rhythmic relaxation and expansion of the heart muscles as ?rst the atria contract and force the blood into the ventricles (diastole), which then contract (systole) to pump the blood round the body. (See ELECTROCARDIOGRAM (ECG).)

Cardiac Disease

See HEART, DISEASES OF.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Cardiac Depressant

Slowing the action of the heart... Medicinal Plants Glossary

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Medicinal Plants Glossary

Cardiac Dropsy

Dropsy of heart origin is distinguished from renal dropsy by an increase in oedema as the day proceeds. In the morning there may be no swelling but by the evening legs become swollen from the ankles upwards. Fluids stagnate in the tissues from inability of the heart to perform efficiently as a pump. The condition is a symptom of heart failure with increasing breathlessness which may lead to general dropsy.

Symptoms: worse after exercise, breathlessness, headache, general weakness, feeble pulse, pale face, skin cold, swollen tissues pit on pressure.

Treatment. Alternatives:– Teas. Black Cohosh, Broom tops, Buchu, Dandelion, Hawthorn, Parsley root. Tea. Formula. Equal parts: Broom tops, Motherwort, Yarrow. 2 teaspoons to each cup water brought to boil and simmered 5 minutes in covered vessel. 1 cup 3-4 times daily.

Tablets/capsules. Buchu, Dandelion, Hawthorn, Juniper, Motherwort.

Formula. Dandelion 2; Hawthorn 2; Stone root 1. Mix. Dose: Powders: 750mg (three 00 capsules or half a teaspoon). Liquid extracts: 1 teaspoon. Tinctures: 2 teaspoons. Thrice daily.

Practitioner. Lily of the Valley, BPC 1934: 5-20 drops, 2-3 times daily.

Squills, tincture: resembles Digitalis in action. Dose: 1-3 drops, as prescribed.

Tinctures. Dandelion 2; Lily of the Valley 2; Stone root 1; Cayenne (tincture) quarter. Mix. Dose: 1 to 2 teaspoons thrice daily.

Popular formula. Tincture Scilla 5.0; Tincture Crataegus 10.0; Tincture Valerian to make 30.0. 15 drops thrice daily. (German Extemporaneous Formulae)

Diet. High protein. See: DIET – HEART AND CIRCULATION. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

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Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

Cardiac Glycosides

see glycoside; digoxin.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Cardiac Glycosides

Drugs whose main actions are to increase the force of myocardial contraction and reduce the conductivity of the nerve ?bres in the atrioventricular node of the heart. They are useful in treating supraventricular tachycardias (rapid heart rhythm) and some forms of heart failure. Glycosides are a traditional group of cardiac drugs, originally derived from the leaves of foxglove plants and used as digitalis. The active principle has long been synthesised and used as DIGOXIN. They are potentaially toxic and their use, especially during initial treatment, should be monitored. Side-effects include ANOREXIA, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea and abdominal pain; drowsiness, confusion and DEPRESSION may occur. An abnormally slow heart rate may develop. The glycosides should be used with special care in the elderly who are sometimes particularly susceptible to their toxic effects.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Cardiac Index

the volume of blood pumped from the heart’s left ventricle divided by body surface area, expressed as litres per minute per square metre (l/min/m2). It is determined by heart rate and stroke volume index (the volume of blood pumped by the heart with each beat), and provides a normal range (2.5–4.0 l/min/m2) regardless of the size of the patient.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Cardiac Massage

See cardiopulmonary resuscitation.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Cardiac Massage

The procedure used to restart the action of the heart if it is suddenly arrested. In many cases the arrested heart can be made to start beating again by rhythmic compression of the chest wall. This is done by placing the patient on a hard surface – a table or the ?oor – and then placing the heel of the hand over the lower part of the sternum and compressing the chest wall ?rmly, but not too forcibly, at the rate of 60–80 times a minute. At the same time arti?cial respiration must be started by the mouth-tomouth method. (See APPENDIX 1: BASIC FIRST AID.) Open heart massage is sometimes undertaken if an arrest occurs during a chest operation – the heart being directly handled by the resuscitator.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Cardiac Muscle

The muscle, unique to the heart, which comprises the walls of the atria and ventricles. It consists of long broadening cells (?bres) with special physiological characteristics which enable them to keep contracting and expanding inde?nitely.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Cardiac Muscle

the specialized muscle of which the walls of the *heart are composed. It is composed of a network of branching elongated cells (fibres) whose junctions with neighbouring cells are marked by irregular transverse bands known as intercalated discs.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Cardiac Neurosis

Obsessional fear about the state of the heart. It tends to occur after a heart attack and may result in the patient’s experiencing the symptoms of another attack.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Cardiac Neurosis

Excessive anxiety about the condition of the heart, usually following a myocardial infarction (heartattack) or heart surgery but sometimes occurring when there is no previous heart trouble. The person experiences symptoms, such as breathlessness and chest pain, that are typical of heart disease, and may be reluctant to exercise or work for fear of an attack. Medical investigation reveals no physical cause. Psychotherapy may be of benefit.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Cardiac Output

The volume of blood pumped out per minute by the ventricles of the heart. It is one measure of the heart’s e?ciency. At rest, the heart of a healthy adult will pump between 2.5 and 4.5 litres of blood every minute. Exercise will raise this to as much as 30 litres a minute but, if this ?gure is low, it suggests that the heart muscle may be diseased or that the person has suffered severe blood loss.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Cardiac Output

The measured volume of blood pumped by the heart each minute, used to assess how efficiently the heart is working.

At rest, a healthy adult’s heart pumps 2.5–4.5 litres of blood per minute; during exercise this figure may be as much as 30 litres per minute.

A low output during exercise indicates damage to the heart muscle or major blood loss.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Cardiac Output

the amount of blood ejected by the heart in a minute, as measured with a pulmonary artery catheter. The range is 4.0–8.0 l/min.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Cardiac Pacemaker

The natural pacemaker is the sinuatrial node, found at the base of the heart. The heart normally controls its rate and rhythm; heart block occurs when impulses cannot reach all parts of the heart. This may lead to ARRHYTHMIA, or even cause the heart to stop (see HEART, DISEASES OF). Arti?cial pacemakers may then be used; in the United Kingdom these are required for around one person in every 2,000 of the population. Usually powered by mercury or lithium batteries, and lasting up to 15 years, they are either ?xed to the outside of the chest or implanted in the armpit, and connected by a wire passing through a vein in the neck to the heart. Normally adjusted to deliver 65–75 impulses a minute, they also ensure a regular cardiac rhythm. Patients with pacemakers may be given a driving licence provided that their vehicle is not likely to be a source of danger to the public, and that they are receiving adequate and regular medical supervision from a cardiologist.

Although there are numerous possible sources of electrical interference with pacemakers, the overall risks are slight. Potential sources include anti-theft devices, airport weapon detectors, surgical diathermy, ultrasound, and short-wave heat treatment. Nevertheless, many pacemaker patients lead active and ful?lling lives.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Cardiac Pump

See HEART, ARTIFICIAL.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Cardiac Reflex

reflex control of the heart rate. Sensory fibres in the walls of the heart are stimulated when the heart rate increases above normal. Impulses are sent to the cardiac centre in the brain, stimulating the vagus nerve and leading to slowing of the heart rate.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Cardiac Rehabilitation

a programme of staged exercises and lifestyle classes designed for people recovering from a heart attack and run through the local hospital by dedicated health care professionals, who may include specialist nurses, occupational therapists, and physiotherapists.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy

(CRT) a treatment for heart failure that involves ventricular pacing with multiple *leads. The aim is to restore coordinated ventricular contraction and hence improve cardiac function.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Cardiac Stress Test

One of a group of tests used to assess the function of the heart in people who experience chest pain, breathlessness, or palpitations during exercise. The test establishes whether the patient has coronary artery disease. An ECG machine records the patterns of the heart’s electrical activity while the heart is stressed. This is usually achieved by the patient exercising on a treadmill or cycling. Specific changes in the electrical pattern as exercise levels increase indicate angina. Cardiac stress testing may be used in conjunction with radionuclide scanning to identify damaged areas of heart muscle.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Cardiac Tamponade

Compression of the heart due to abnormal accumulation of ?uid within the ?brous covering of the heart (PERICARDIUM). The result is irregular rhythm and death if the ?uid is not removed.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Cardiac Tamponade

a dangerous situation in which there is a build-up of fluid around the heart within the pericardial sac. This causes compression of the heart, which is therefore unable to fill with blood adequately in order to pump effectively. Cardiac tamponade can result in heart failure, a drop in blood pressure, or cardiac arrest. It requires treatment by drainage of the fluid. The classical diagnostic features, known as Beck’s triad, consist of dilated neck veins, a fall in blood pressure, and muffled heart sounds.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Cardiac-arrest Team

a designated team of doctors in a hospital who attend *cardiac arrests as they occur and administer protocol-driven treatment according to the latest guidelines. See also medical emergency team.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Cardinal Veins

two pairs of veins in the embryo that carry blood from the head (anterior cardinal veins) and trunk (posterior cardinal veins); they unite to form the common cardinal vein, which drains into the sinus venosus of the heart.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Cardio-pulmonary Resuscitation

A combination of mouth to mouth resuscitation (E.A.R.) to oxygenate the blood, and external chest compression (E.C.C.) to compress the heart to help pump this artificially oxygenated blood around the body to maintain tissue oxygen concentration and prevent death.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

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Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

Cardioangiography

Rendering the outline of the heart visible on an X-ray ?lm by injecting a radio-opaque substance into it.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Cardiodoron

Drops containing alcoholic (20 per cent) tinctures of Primula officinalis flowers (2- 1) 5 per cent. Onopordon Acanthus flowers (2-1) 5 per cent, and Hyoscyamus niger herb (21-) 0.02 per cent. v/v equivalent to hyoscyamine 0.001 per cent w/v. (Weleda) ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

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Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

Cardiodynia

Pain in the region of the heart... Medicinal Plants Glossary

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Medicinal Plants Glossary

Cardiogenic Shock

see heart failure; shock.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Cardiogenic Shock

The result of myocardial infarction. Reduction in contractility and output of the heart.

Symptoms: low blood pressure, reduced urinary output, water in the lungs, etc. See: MYOCARDITIS. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

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Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

Cardioglycosides

Sugar-containing plant substances that, in proper doses. act as heart stimulants. Examples; digitoxin, strophanthin.... Herbal Medical

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Herbal Medical

Cardiokinetic

Regulating or strengthening the heartbeat ... Medicinal Plants Glossary

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Medicinal Plants Glossary

Cardiology

That branch of medical science devoted to the study of the diseases of the heart.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Cardiology

The study of the function of the heart and the investigation, diagnosis, and medical treatment of disorders of the heart and blood vessels.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Cardiology

n. the science concerned with the study of the structure, function, and diseases of the heart. See also nuclear cardiology. —cardiologist n.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Cardiomegaly

Enlargement of the heart (see HEART, DISEASES OF).... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Cardiomegaly

Enlargement of the heart. Cardiomegaly may take the form of hypertrophy (thickening) of the heart muscle or of dilatation (increase in volume) of 1 or more of the heart chambers. Hypertrophy occurs in conditions in which the heart has to work harder than normal to pump blood around the body. These include hypertension, pulmonary hypertension, and one type of cardiomyopathy. Dilatation of a heart chamber may be due to heart valve incompetence (failure of a valve to close properly after a contraction) such as occurs in aortic insufficiency.

Symptoms may not occur until the heart has enlarged to the point where it cannot cope with additional stress. Its reduced pumping efficiency leads to heart failure, with symptoms of breathlessness and ankle swelling. Cardiomegaly is diagnosed by physical examination, chest X-ray, and ECG. Treatment is directed at the underlying cause.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Cardiomyopathy

A general term covering primary disease of the heart muscle. (See HEART, DISEASES OF.)... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Cardiomyopathy

Any disease of the heart muscle that weakens the force of cardiac contractions, thereby reducing the efficiency of blood circulation. Cardiomyopathies may have an infectious, metabolic, nutritional, toxic, autoimmune, or degenerative cause. However, in many cases the cause is unknown.

There are 3 main types. In hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, which is usually inherited, the heart muscle is abnormally thickened. In dilated cardiomyopathy, metabolism of the heart muscle cells is abnormal and the walls of the heart tend to balloon out under pressure. Restrictive cardiomyopathy is caused by scarring of the endocardium (the inner lining of the heart) or by amyloidosis.

Symptoms of cardiomyopathy include fatigue, chest pain, and palpitations. The condition may lead to heart failure, symptoms of which include breathing difficulty and oedema. A chest X-ray may show enlargement of the heart, and echocardiography may show thickened heart muscle. A biopsy of heart muscle may reveal muscle cell abnormalities.

Symptoms may be treated with diuretic drugs to control heart failure and antiarrhythmic drugs to correct abnormal heart rhythm. In many cases, heart muscle function deteriorates, and the only remaining option is a heart transplant.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Cardiomyopathy

n. any chronic disorder affecting the muscle of the heart. It may be inherited but can be caused by various conditions, including virus infections, alcohol abuse, beriberi (vitamin B1 deficiency), and amyloidosis. The cause is often unknown. It may result in enlargement of the heart, *heart failure, *arrhythmias, and *thromboembolism. Modern drug treatment improves symptoms and prognosis. See also hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Cardiomyoplasty

n. a surgical technique to replace or reinforce damaged cardiac muscle with skeletal muscle. It is now rarely performed.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Cardiomyotomy

n. see achalasia; myotomy.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Cardiopalmus

Palpitation of the heart... Medicinal Plants Glossary

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Medicinal Plants Glossary

Cardiopathies

Heart diseases, usually needing medical intervention.... Herbal Medical

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Herbal Medical

Cardiopathy

A morbid condition of the heart... Medicinal Plants Glossary

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Medicinal Plants Glossary

Cardioplegia

A procedure whereby the heart is stopped by reducing its temperature (hypothermia), by injecting the muscle with a solution of salts or by electrostimulation. This enables surgeons to operate safely on the heart.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Cardioplegia

n. a technique in which the heart is stopped by injecting it with a solution of salts, by hypothermia, or by an electrical stimulus. This has enabled complex cardiac surgery and transplants to be performed safely.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Cardiopulmonary Bypass

A procedure in which the body’s circulation of blood is kept going when the heart is intentionally stopped to enable heart surgery to be carried out. A HEART-LUNG MACHINE substitutes for the heart’s pumping action and the blood is oxygenated at the same time.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Cardiopulmonary Bypass

The method by which the circulation of blood around the body is maintained while the heart is stopped during heart surgery.

A heart– lung machine is used to maintain the supply of oxygenated blood to the body.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Cardiopulmonary Bypass

a method by which the circulation to the body is maintained while the heart is deliberately stopped during heart surgery. The function of the heart and lungs is carried out by a pump-oxygenator (see heart-lung machine) until the natural circulation is restored.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation

The administration of life-saving measures to a person who has suffered a cardiac arrest. A person in cardiac arrest is not breathing and has no detectable pulse or heartbeat. First, mouth-to-mouth resuscitation (see artificial respiration) is given; if this fails to restart breathing, repeated chest compressions, using the heel of

the hand, are applied to the lower breastbone until trained help arrives.

Both these measures are used to restore blood circulation to the brain.

Brain damage is likely if the brain is starved of oxygen for more than 3–4 minutes.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation

(CPR) an emergency procedure for life support, consisting of artificial respiration and manual external cardiac massage. It is used in cases of cardiac arrest or apparent sudden death resulting from electric shock, drowning, respiratory arrest, or other causes, to establish effective circulation and ventilation in order to prevent irreversible brain damage. External cardiac massage compresses the heart, forcing blood into the systemic and pulmonary circulation; venous blood refills the heart when the compression is released. *Mouth-to-mouth resuscitation or a mechanical form of ventilation oxygenates the blood being pumped through the circulatory system.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (cpr)

The use of life-saving measures of mouth-tomouth resuscitation and external cardiac compression massage in a person who has collapsed with CARDIAC ARREST. Speedy restoration of the circulation of oxygenated blood to the brain is essential to prevent damage to brain tissues from oxygen starvation. The brain is irreversibly damaged if it is starved of oxygen for more than 4–5 minutes. Someone whose heart has stopped will be very pale or blue-grey (in particular, round the lips) and unresponsive; he or she will not be breathing and will have no pulse. It is important to determine that the collapsed person has not simply fainted before starting CPR. The procedure is described under car-diac/respiratory arrest in APPENDIX 1: BASIC FIRST AID. In hospital, or when paramedical sta? are attending an emergency, CPR may include the use of a DEFIBRILLATOR to apply a controlled electric shock to the heart via the chest wall.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Cardiospasm

The spasmodic contraction of the muscle surrounding the opening of the oesophagus into the stomach: also termed achalasia of the cardia. (See OESOPHAGUS, DISEASES OF.)... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Cardiospermum Halicacabum

Linn.

Family: Sapindaceae.

Habitat: Throughout the plains of India, as a wild climber.

English: Ballon Vine, Winter Cherry, Heartseed.

Ayurvedic: Kaakatiktaa, Kaakaadani, Karnsphotaa, Shatakratulataa.

Unani: Habb-e-Qilqil.

Siddha/Tamil: Mudukottan, Kottavan.

Folk: Kanphotaa, Kanphuti, Lataaphatakari. Used as Jyotishmati in Bengal.

Action: Used in rheumatism, lumbago, skeletal fractures, nervous diseases, amenorrhoea, haemorrhoids, erysipelas. The herb is used in hairoils for treating dandruff, alopecia and for darkening hair.

The plant extract showed significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity and sedative effect on CNS. The drug also showed (transient) vasode- pressant activity.

The leaves contain beta-sitosterol and its D-glucoside, an alkaloid, oxalic acid and amino acids. The presence of a saponin and quebrachitol is reported in the plant.

The leaves and stem are used in preparations used against common cold. Alcoholic extract of the plant exhibits antisickling and antiarthritic activity. Seeds have positive anabolic activity and increase body weight by inducing a positive nitrogen balance.

The alkaloid fraction from the seeds showed hypotensive activities and cardiac inhibition in anaesthetized dogs; blocked spasmogenic effects of acetyl- choline, histamine and 5-HT on guinea pig ileum, biphasic effort on frog rec- tus abdominis muscle. The seeds also showed antibacterial activity.

Dosage: Whole plant—50-100 ml decoction. (CCRAS.)... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Cardiotocograph

n. the instrument used in *cardiotocography to produce a cardiotocogram, the graphic printout of the measurements obtained.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Cardiotocography

See fetal heart monitoring.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Cardiotocography

n. the electronic monitoring of the fetal heart rate and the frequency of uterine contractions. The former is detected by an external transducer or a fetal scalp electrode, and the latter by a second external transducer.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Cardiotomy Syndrome

(postcardiotomy syndrome) a condition that may develop weeks or months after heart surgery and is characterized by fever and *pericarditis. Pneumonia and pleurisy may form part of the syndrome. It is thought to be an *autoimmune disease and may be recurrent. A similar syndrome (Dressler’s syndrome) may follow myocardial infarction. It may respond to anti-inflammatory drugs.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Cardiotonic

having a stimulating effect on the heart.... The Encyclopedia of Essential Oils

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The Encyclopedia of Essential Oils

Cardiotonic

Keeping the heart functioning normally... Herbal Medical

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Herbal Medical

Cardiotonic

A substance that strengthens or regulates heart metabolism without overt stimulation or depression. It may increase coronary blood supply, normalize enervation, relax peripheral arteries (decreasing back-pressure on the valves), or decrease adrenergic stimulation. Examples: Crataegus, Selenicereus.... Medicinal Plants Glossary

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Medicinal Plants Glossary

Cardiovascular

Pertaining to the heart and blood vessels.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Cardiovascular Disorders

Disorders of the heart, blood vessels, and blood circulation (see heart disorders; arteries, disorders of; veins, disorders of).... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Cardiovascular Surgery

The branch of surgery concerned with the heart and blood vessels.

Cardiovascular surgery includes operations to prevent or repair damage caused, for example, by congenital heart disease (see heart disease, congenital), atherosclerosis, or a myocardial infarction (heart attack).

Procedures include heart valve surgery, coronary artery bypass, and heart transplant.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Cardiovascular System

This refers to the whole circulatory system: the heart, the systemic circulation (the arteries and veins of the body) and the pulmonary circulation (the arteries and veins of the lungs). Blood circulates throughout the cardiovascular system bringing oxygen and nutrients to the tissues and removing carbon dioxide and other waste products.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Cardiovascular System

(circulatory system) the heart together with two networks of blood vessels – the *systemic circulation and the *pulmonary circulation (see illustration). The cardiovascular system effects the circulation of blood around the body, which brings about transport of nutrients and oxygen to the tissues and the removal of waste products.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Cardioversion

Cardioversion, or DEFIBRILLATION, is indicated in patients with ventricular ?brillation or tachycardia, fast or irregular heartbeat, if other treatments have failed. A general anaesthetic is given if the patient is conscious, following which a carefully timed direct-current shock is applied to the patient’s chest wall using a DEFIBRILLATOR. The patient’s ECG rhythm should then be monitored and anticoagulants considered, as the risk of EMBOLISM is increased.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Cardioversion

An alternative name for defibrillation.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Cardioversion

(countershock) n. restoration of normal heart rhythm in patients with tachyarrhythmia (see arrhythmia). Electrical (synchronized) cardioversion involves the application of a controlled shock, synchronized with the R wave of the *electrocardiogram, through electrodes placed on the chest wall of the anaesthetized patient. The apparatus is called a cardiovertor and is a modified *defibrillator. It is synchronized (usually by pressing a specific button on the control panel) because inadvertent delivery of the shock at the peak of the T wave can trigger ventricular fibrillation. Pharmacological cardioversion is achieved through oral, or more commonly intravenous, drug administration.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Carditis

A general term for inflammation of any part of the heart or its linings.

There are 3 types of carditis: myocarditis (inflammation of the heart muscle), which is usually caused by a viral infection; endocarditis (inflammation of the internal lining of the heart), which is usually due to a bacterial infection; and pericarditis (inflammation of the outer covering of the heart), which is usually due to a viral or bacterial infection but may be associated with a myocardial infarction or an autoimmune disorder, such as systemic lupus erythematosus.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Cardivallin Tablets

Ingredients of each tablet: Capsicum 15mg. The aqueous extractive from 200mg Hawthorn berries, 125mg Mistletoe, 125mg Motherwort. The alcoholic extractive (45 per cent) from 125mg Lily of the Valley, 125mg Passion flower, 125mg Skullcap, and alcoholic extractive (60 per cent) from 425mg Cereus. To sustain the heart. (Potter’s, UK)

This formula has been withdrawn after rendering excellent service for many years for heart weakness. No longer available to the general public as an OTC medicine. Of historic interest to the modern phytotherapist. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

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Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

Cardo Santo

Mexican prickly poppy (Argemone mexicana).

Plant Part Used: Leaf, flower, root and stem.Dominican Medicinal Uses: Leaf/whole herb: prepared as a tea for blood-cleansing, cancer, stomach ulcers, delayed menstruation, vaginal infection, menopause symptoms; prepared as a douche for vaginal infection and inflammation; as a multi-herb mixture for ovarian cysts, uterine fibroids and tumors; root: boiled tea for stomach pain.Safety: Entire plant shown to be hepatotoxic due to sanguinarine and alkaloid content, especially concentrated in the seeds; internal use strongly cautioned against.Contraindications: Pregnancy, lactation, children.Laboratory & Preclinical Data: In vitro: antifungal, anti-HIV, anti-tumor, morphine-withdrawal alleviation, uterine stimulant (organic plant extracts).* See entry for Cardo santo in “Part 3: Dominican Medicinal Plant Profiles” of this book for more information, including references.

... Medicinal Plants

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Medicinal Plants

Care

The application of knowledge to the benefit of a community or individual. There are various levels of care:... Community Health

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Community Health

Care Assistant

a person who helps with the general care of a patient, usually assisting a nurse or social worker with care of the vulnerable elderly in the community. Care assistants include home helps.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Care Chain / Chain Of Care

1 A well planned entity of inter- and intra-organizational care processes to solve the complexity of problems of an individual, and accompanied by systematic follow-up actions. Care chains are integrated to the extent that there are no gaps, barriers or breaks in the process leaving the older person without proper care. 2 A description of the different parts of care.... Community Health

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Community Health

Care Home

A residential facility that provides accommodation and offers a range of care and support services. Care homes may provide a limited number of services to support low dependency or may provide a wide range of services to cater for the continuum from low to high dependency care. See “assisted living facility”; “high dependency care facility”.... Community Health

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Community Health

Care In Community

See COMMUNITY CARE.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Care Management

See “case management”.... Community Health

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Community Health

Care Need

Some state of deficiency decreasing quality of life and affecting a demand for certain goods and services. For the older population, lowered functional and mental abilities are decisive factors that lead to the need for external help.... Community Health

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Community Health

Care Package

A combination of services designed to meet a person’s assessed needs.... Community Health

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Community Health

Care Pathway

An agreed and explicit route an individual takes through health and social care services. Agreements between the various providers involved will typically cover the type of care and treatment, which professional will be involved and their level of skills, and where treatment or care will take place. See also “care plan”; “care programme”.... Community Health

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Community Health

Care Plan

A dynamic document based on an assessment which outlines the types and frequency of care services that a client receives. It may include strategies, interventions, continued evaluation and actions intended to help an older person to achieve or maintain goals.... Community Health

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Community Health

Care Programme

A documented arrangement of integrated care, based on the analysed needs of a specific group of people, from intake to supply of care and services, as well as the intended outcomes, and including a description of the way the arrangement should be applied in order to match the needs of individual persons.... Community Health

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Community Health

Care Quality Commission

(CQC) a publicly funded independent organization established in 2009 and responsible for regulation of health and social care in England; it replaced the Healthcare Commission, the Commission for Social Care Inspection, and the Mental Health Act Commission. The responsibilities of the commission include publication of national health-care standards; annual assessment of the performance of NHS and social-care organizations; reviewing other (i.e. private and voluntary) health- and social-care organizations; reviewing complaints about the services when it has not been possible to resolve them locally; and investigating serious service failures.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Care Standards Act

Legislation (approved by the UK parliament in 2001) that sets up a new, independent regulatory body for social care and private and voluntary health-care services. The new body is called the National Care Standards Commission and covers England and Wales, but in the latter the National Assembly is the regulatory body. Independent councils register social-care workers, set social-care work standards and regulate the education and training of social workers in England and Wales. The Act also gives the Secretary of State for Health the authority to keep a list of individuals considered unsuitable to work with vulnerable adults. In addition, the legislation reforms the regulation of childminders and day-care provision for young children, responsibility for overseeing these services having been transferred from local authorities to the Chief Inspector of Schools. Services covered by the Act range from residential care homes and nursing homes, children’s homes, domiciliary-care agencies, fostering agencies and voluntary adoption agencies through to private and voluntary health-care services. This includes private hospitals and clinics and private primary-care premises. For the ?rst time, local authorities will have to meet the same standards as independent-sector providers.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Care Supply

The types and volumes of services available.... Community Health

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Community Health

Care-dependent

Persons with chronic illnesses and/or impairments which lead to long-lasting disabilities in functioning and reliance on care (personal care, domestic life, mobility, self direction).... Community Health

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Community Health

Caregiver

A person who provides support and assistance, formal or informal, with various activities to persons with disabilities or long-term conditions, or persons who are elderly. This person may provide emotional or financial support, as well as hands-on help with different tasks. Caregiving may also be done from long distance. See also “formal assistance”; “informal assistance”.... Community Health

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Community Health

Caregiver Burden

The emotional, physical and financial demands and responsibilities of an individual’s illness that are placed on family members, friends or other individuals involved with the individual outside the health care system.... Community Health

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Community Health

Caregiver Burnout

A severe reaction to the caregiving burden, requiring intervention to enable care to continue.... Community Health

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Community Health

Carer

See “caregiver”; “formal assistance”; “informal assistance”.... Community Health

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Community Health

Caresse

(French) A woman with a tender touch

Caress, Caressa, Carressa... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Carew

(Latin) One who rides a chariot Carewe, Crewe, Crew... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Careya Arborea

Roxb.

Family: Barringtoniaceae.

Habitat: Sub-Himalayan tract, from Jammu eastwards to West Bengal, Madhya Pradesh and Tamil Nadu.

English: Kumbi, Slow-Match tree.

Ayurvedic: Katabhi, Kumbhi- ka, Kumbhi, Kumbi, Kaitrya, Kumudikaa.

Siddha/Tamil: Kumbi, Ayma.

Action: Bark—demulcent (in coughs and colds), antipyretic and antipruritic (in eruptive fevers), anthelmintic, antidiarrhoeal. An infusion of flowers is given after child birth.

Seeds contain triterpenoid sapo- genols, sterols; leaves contain a tri- terpene ester, beta-amyrin, hexaco- sanol, taraxerol, beta-sitosterol, quer- cetin and taraxeryl acetate.

Careya herbacea Roxb., a related species, is known as Kumbhaadu-lataa in Bengal.

Dosage: Bark—50-100 ml decoction. (CCRAS.)... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Carica Papaya

Linn.

Family: Caricaceae.

Habitat: Native to West Indies and Central America; now cultivated in Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Maharashtra and South India.

English: Papaya, Papaw.

Ayurvedic: Erand-karkati, Papitaa.

Unani: Papitaa Desi.

Siddha/Tamil: Pappaali, Pappayi.

Action: Ripe fruit—stomachic, digestive, carminative, diuretic, galactagogue. Useful in bleeding piles, haemoptysis, dysentery and chronic diarrhoea. Seeds— emmengagogue, abortifacient, vermifuge. Juice of seeds is administered in enlarged liver and spleen, and in bleeding piles.

Key application: Papain, the enzyme mixture extracted from raw papain (latex of Carica papaya), has been included among unapproved herbs by German Commission E. Experiment-based as well as clinical research indicate that papain may be effective (in the treatment of inflammations) in high doses (daily dose 1500 mg corresponding to 2520 FIP units).

Unripe fruit—emmengagogue and abortifacient. Latex—applied topically on eczema, ringworm, psoriasis, corns, warts, sloughing wounds, carbuncles and eschar of burns.

Green parts of the plant and seed contain an alkaloid carpaine. Seeds also contain carpasemine.

Latex contain enzymes—papain and chymopapain and alkaloids carpaine and pseudocarpaine. A proteinaceous material from latex showed anticoagulant activity; in higher doses it is heart depressant and as a spasmogen on smooth muscle of guinea pig ileum. An alkaloid solution showed depressant action on heart, blood pressure and intestine.

The anthelmintic action of seeds against Ascaris lumbricoides is due to carpasemine.

Papain, an enzyme mixture prepared from the fruit, seeds and leaf, hydrolyses polypeptides, amides and esters, particularly when used in an alkaline environment, and is used in digestive disorders.

Papain inhibits platelet aggregation, which may further increase the risk of bleeding in patients also taking anticoagulants. Concurrent administration of cyclophosphamide with papain caused sever damage to lung tissues in rats. (Sharon M. Herr.)

Chymopapin C is an immunosup- pressive enzyme from plant extract. Carpaine, extracted from the plant, exhibited anti-tubercular activity, also antitumour in vitro, and hypotensive.

Dosage: Leaf—40-80 ml infusion; latex—3-6 g (CCRAS.)... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Caries

See TEETH, DISORDERS OF.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Caries

n. decay and crumbling of the substance of a tooth (see dental caries) or a bone. —carious adj.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Caries, Dental

Tooth decay; the gradual erosion of enamel (the covering of the tooth) and dentine (the substance beneath the enamel). Initial decay usually occurs on the grinding surfaces of the back teeth and areas around the gum line. The main cause is plaque, a sticky substance consisting of food deposits, saliva by-products, and bacteria that collects on the teeth. The breakdown of food deposits by bacteria creates an acid that eats into the enamel to form cavities. Unchecked decay spreads to the dentine, and as the cavity enlarges, bacteria may invade and destroy the pulp

at the tooth’s core. Advanced decay causes toothache and bad breath.

Treatment consists of drilling away the area of decay and filling the cavity (see filling, dental). In advanced decay, it may be necessary to remove the infected pulp (see extraction, dental).

Water fluoridation and the use of fluoride toothpaste helps prevent caries.

The risk of caries is also reduced by cutting sugar consumption, practising good oral hygiene, and visiting the dentist regularly.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Carina

(Latin) Little darling Carena, Carinna, Carrina, Cariana, Carin, Carine, Caren, Carinen, Caron, Carren, Carron, Carrin, Caryn, Caryna, Carynn, Careena, Cariena, Careina, Careana... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Carina

n. a keel-like structure, such as the keel-shaped cartilage at the bifurcation of the trachea into the two main bronchi.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Carinthia

(English) From the city in Austria Carinthiah, Carinthea, Carintheah, Carynthia, Carynthiah, Carynthea, Caryntheah... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Cariogenic

adj. causing caries, particularly dental caries: the term refers especially to sugar-containing foods and drinks.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Cariology

n. the branch of dentistry concerned with the study of tooth decay (see dental caries).... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Carissa

(Greek) A woman of grace Carisa, Carrisa, Carrissa, Carissima... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Carissa Carandas

Linn. var. congesta (Wt.) Bedd.

Family: Apocynaceae.

Habitat: Throughout India.

English: Christ's Thorn, Bengal Currant.

Ayurvedic: Karinkaara, Karamarda, Krishnapaakphal, Kshirphena, Sushena, (Karamardakaa is equated with C. spinarum Linn.)

Unani: Karondaa.

Siddha/Tamil: Kalakke.

Action: Used for acidity, flatulence, poor digestion, as a slimming diet. Juice of the fresh plant is used for infected wounds that refuse to heal. Root—paste used for diabetic ulcer.

The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India indicated the stem bark in obstinate skin diseases, and the root in urinary disorders.

Alcoholic extract of roots exhibit hypotensive activity. Roots yield car- dioactive compounds; cardiotonic activity is due to glucoside of odoroside H. Fresh fruits are rich in ascorbic acid (105 g/100 g fruit juice). The seeds are rich in potassium (360 mg/100 g fresh matter).

Dosage: Stem bark—48 g for decoction. (API Vol. II); root— 1-3 g (API Vol. III).... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Carissa Opaca

Stapf. Ex Haines.

Synonym: C. spinarum auct. non L.

Family: Apocynaceae.

Habitat: Throughout the country in dry regions, especially in Punjab and Kashmir.

Ayurvedic: Karamardikaa.

Siddha/Tamil: Chirukila Chiru.

Folk: Jangali Karondaa. Garnaa (Punjab).

Action: Plant—cardiotonic. Root— purgative.

The root contains caffeic acid, cardiac glycosides—odorosides B, C, G and H, and evomonoside.

Carissa paucinervia A. DC. is also equated with the wild var. ofKarondaa.... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Carla

(Latin) Feminine form of Carl; a free woman

Carlah, Carlana, Carlee, Carleen, Carleigh, Carlena, Carlene, Carletta, Carlette, Carley, Carli, Carlia, Carlie, Carlina, Carlisa, Carlita, Carlla, Carly, Carlyn, Carlen, Carlin, Carling, Carlea, Carleah... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Carlanda

(American) Our darling daughter Carland, Carlande, Carlandia, Carlandiah, Carlandea, Carlandeah... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Carlessa

(American) One who is restless Carlessah, Carlesa, Carlesah... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Carlisa

(Italian) A friendly woman Carlisah, Carlissa, Carlissah, Carlysa, Carlysah, Carlyssa, Carlyssah... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Carlisle

(English) From the fort at Luguvalium Carlysle, Carlyle, Carlile... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Carmel

(Hebrew) Of the fruitful orchard Carmela, Carmella, Carmila, Carmilla, Carmel, Carmelle, Carmelita, Carmelina, Carmeline, Carmelia... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Carmelite Tea

Popular in France as an “elixir of life”, digestive and tonic for anaemia, poor appetite and low spirits. Formula: 3 litres spirits of wine, 500g fresh Lemon Balm leaves and flowers, 16g Angelica root, 125g Lemon Peel, 200g Coriander, 40g Nutmeg, 4g Cinnamon and 2g Cloves. Steep finely rubbed herbs and roots and powdered seeds in spirits of wine eight days in a dark place, stirring daily; decant, filter and bottle. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

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Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

Carmen

(Latin) A beautiful song Carma, Carmelita, Carmencita, Carmia, Carmie, Carmina, Carmine, Carmita, Carmyna, Carmyta, Carmea, Carman, Carmin, Carminda, Carmya... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Carmensita

(Spanish) One who is dear Carmensyta, Carmensitah, Carmensytah, Carmens, Carmense... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Carmenta

(Latin) In mythology, the goddess of childbirth Carminta, Carmynta... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Carminative

settles the digestive system, relieves flatulence... The Encyclopedia of Essential Oils

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The Encyclopedia of Essential Oils

Carminative

Drug causing the release of stomach or intestinal gas... Medicinal Plants Glossary

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Medicinal Plants Glossary

Carminative

n. a drug that relieves flatulence, used to treat gastric discomfort and colic.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Carminatives

Preparations to relieve FLATULENCE, and any resulting griping, by the bringing up of wind, or ERUCTATION. Their essential constituent is an aromatic volatile oil, usually of vegetable extraction.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Carminatives

Anti-flatulents. Aromatic herbs used to expel gas (wind) from the stomach and intestines. Containing volatile oils, their effect upon the digestive system is to tone mucous surfaces and increase peristaltic action. Also used with other agents to render them more palatable.

Allspice, Angelica, Aniseed, Balm, Calumba root, Caraway seed, Cardamom seed, Catmint, Cayenne, Centaury, Chamomile, Cinnamon, Cloves, Condurango, Coriander, Dill, Fennel, Galangal, Garlic, Gentian, Ginger (powder, crystallised, or tincture), Holy Thistle, Horseradish, Juniper, Kava Kava, Hyssop, Marjoram, Mugwort, Mustard, Nutmeg, Parsley, Peppermint, Sage, Southernwood, Thyme, Valerian, Wormwood.

Mixture: equal parts Aniseed, Caraway and Fennel. 1 teaspoon to each cup boiling water; infuse 15-20 minutes. 1 cup hot after meals. Crush seeds before use. (Dr Rudolf F. Weiss) ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

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Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

Carmustine

n. a drug (an *alkylating agent) used in the treatment of myeloma, non-Hodgkin lymphomas, and certain brain tumours (gliomas and glioblastoma). It may cause kidney damage.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Carna

(Latin) In mythology, a goddess who ruled the heart... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Carnation

(Latin) Resembling the flower; becoming flesh... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Carnation

Protection, Strength, Healing...

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Carnelian

(Latin) Resembling the deep-red gem

Carnelyan, Carneliann, Carnelianne, Carnela, Carnelia... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Carneous Mole

An ovum which has died in the early months of pregnancy. It usually requires no treatment and evacuates itself.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Carneous Mole

a fleshy mass in the uterus consisting of pieces of placenta and products of conception that have not been expelled after miscarriage.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Carni

(Latin) One who is vocal Carnie, Carny, Carney, Carnee, Carnea, Carneah, Carnia, Carniah, Carnea, Carneah, Carniya, Carniyah, Carnielle, Carniele, Carniell, Carniella, Carniela... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Carob

Nutritional Profile Energy value (calories per serving): Moderate Protein: Moderate Fat: Low Saturated fat: Low Cholesterol: None Carbohydrates: High Fiber: High Sodium: Low Major vitamin contribution: Niacin Major mineral contribution: Calcium

About the Nutrients in This Food Carob flour, which is milled from the dried pod of a Mediterranean ever- green tree, Ceratonia siliqua, looks like cocoa but has a starchy, beanlike flavor. It can be mixed with sweeteners to make a cocoalike powder or combined with fats and sweeteners to produce a candy that looks like and has the same rich mouthfeel as milk chocolate but tastes more like honey. Ounce for ounce, carob, which is also known as locust bean gum, has more fiber and calcium but fewer calories than cocoa. Its carbohydrates include the sugars sucrose, D-mannose, and D-galactose. (D-galactose is a simple sugar that links up with other sugars to form the complex indigest- ible sugars raffinose and stachyose.) Carob also contains gums and pectins, the indigestible food fibers commonly found in seeds.

The Most Nutritious Way to Serve This Food As a substitute for cocoa or chocolate for people who are sensitive to chocolate.

Diets That May Restrict or Exclude This Food Low-carbohydrate diet

Buying This Food Look for: Tightly sealed containers that will protect the flour from moisture and insects.

Storing This Food Store carob flour in a cool, dark place in a container that protects it from air, moisture, and insects. Keep carob candy cool and dry.

Preparing This Food Measure out carob flour by filling a cup or tablespoon and leveling it off with a knife. To substitute carob for regular flour, use ¼ cup carob flour plus ¾ cup regular flour for each cup ordinary flour. To substitute for chocolate, use three tablespoons of carob flour plus two tablespoons of water for each ounce of unsweetened chocolate. Carob flour is sweeter than unsweetened chocolate.

What Happens When You Cook This Food Unlike cocoa powder, carob flour contains virtually no fat. It will burn, not melt, if you heat it in a saucepan. When the flour is heated with water, its starch granules absorb moisture and rupture, releasing a gum that can be used as a stabilizer, thickener, or binder in processed foods and cosmetics. In cake batters, it performs just like other flours (see flour).

Medical uses and/or Benefits Adsorbent and demulcent. Medically, carob flour has been used as a soothing skin powder. As a chocolate substitute. People who are sensitive to chocolate can usually use carob instead. Like cocoa beans, carob is free of cholesterol. Unlike cocoa, which contains the cen- tral-nervous-system stimulant caffeine and the muscle stimulant theobromine, carob does not contain any stimulating methylxanthines. Lower cholesterol levels. In 2001, a team of German nutrition researchers from the Institute for Nutritional Science at the University of Potsdam, the German Institute of Human Nutri- tion, Center for Conventional Medicine and Alternative Therapies (Berlin) Nutrinova Nutri- tion Specialties and Food Ingredients GmbH, and PhytoPharm Consulting, Institute for Phytopharmaceuticals GmbH conducted a study to evaluate carob’s effectiveness in lower- ing cholesterol. For a period of eight weeks, 47 volunteers with moderately high cholesterol levels (232– 302 mg/dL) were fed 15 g of carob per day in breakfast cereal, fruit grain bars, and a drink made from powdered carob pulp as supplements to their normal diet. After four weeks, the volunteers’ total cholesterol levels fell an average of 7 percent and their LDL (low density lipoprotein—“bad” cholesterol) levels fell an average 10.6 percent. At six weeks, the numbers were 7.8 percent and 10.6 percent. There was no effect on HDLs (high density lipoproteins, a.k.a. “good” cholesterol).... A Nutritional, Medical and Culinary Guide

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A Nutritional, Medical and Culinary Guide

Carob

Protection, Health...

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Carob Bean

St John’s Bread. Ceratonia siliqua L. Food and medicine. Fruit is a hard woody pod containing a sweet yellow pulp that is made into a flour. Came into prominence as effective treatment for acute (summer) diarrhoea during the Spanish Civil War when it was observed that poorer children who ate the bean, also known as locust, did not contract the disease. Stools of gastro-enteritis, colitis and ‘gippy tummy’ are known to solidify within 48 hours. May be boiled in skimmed milk or rice water. An excellent substitute for chocolate and sugar, being taken in cocoa-like drinks. Low fat content. Does not contain tyramine, a known cause of migraine, as is found in cocoa. A favourite base for fruit or snack bars; flavoured with molasses, cherry, yoghurt, ginger. Rich source of pectin and calcium which have binding properties. Carob flour is given for diarrhoea in babies. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

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Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

Carob Tree

Ceratonia siliqua

Description: This large tree has a spreading crown. Its leaves are compound and alternate. Its seedpods, also known as Saint John’s bread, are up to 45 centimeters long and are filled with round, hard seeds and a thick pulp.

Habitat and Distribution: This tree is found throughout the Mediterranean, the Middle East, and parts of North Africa.

Edible Parts: The young tender pods are edible raw or boiled. You can pulverize the seeds in mature pods and cook as porridge.... Medicinal Plants

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Medicinal Plants

Carody

(American) A humorous woman Carodi, Carodey, Carodie, Carodee, Carodea, Carodeah... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Carol

(English) Form of Caroline, meaning “a joyous song; a small, strong woman” Carola, Carole, Carolle, Carolla, Caroly, Caroli, Carolie, Carolee, Caroleigh, Carel, Caral, Caril, Carroll, Caryl... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Caroline

(Latin) Feminine form of Charles; a joyous song; a small, strong woman Carolina, Carolan, Carolann, Carolanne, Carolena, Carolene, Carolena, Caroliana, Carolyn, Carolyne, Carolynn, Carrie, Carri, Carry, Caro, Carrey, Carree, Caree, Carrieann, Carilyn, Carilynne, Cary... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Caroli’s Disease

an inherited condition in which the bile ducts, which drain the liver, are widened, causing an increased risk of infection or cancer in the gall bladder. Compare Caroli’s syndrome. [J. Caroli (20th century), French physician]... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Caroli’s Syndrome

an inherited condition in which the bile ducts, which drain the liver, are widened and there are fibrous changes in the liver and cysts within the kidneys. Compare Caroli’s disease. [J. Caroli]... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Carotenaemia

A harmless condition in which the blood level of the orange pigment carotene, found in carrots and other vegetables, is excessively high. The condition may cause temporary yellowing of the skin.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Carotenaemia

n. see xanthaemia.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Carotene

A colouring matter of carrots, other plants, butter and yolk of egg, carotene is the precursor of vitamin A, which is formed from carotene in the liver. (See VITAMIN and APPENDIX 5: VITAMINS.)... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Carotene

An orange pigment found in carrots, tomatoes, and leafy green vegetables.

The most important form, called beta-carotene, is an antioxidant that is converted in the intestines into vitamin A, which is essential for vision and the health of the skin and other organs.

Excessive intake of foods containing carotene may result in carotenaemia.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Carotene

n. a yellow or orange plant pigment – one of the carotenoids – that occurs in four forms: alpha (?), beta (?), gamma (?), and delta (?). The most important form is ?-carotene, which is an *antioxidant and can be converted in the body to retinol (vitamin A). Good sources include yellow and green vegetables, such as carrots, sweet potato, and kale.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Carotenoid

n. any one of a group of about 100 naturally occurring yellow to red pigments found mostly in plants. The group includes the *carotenes.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Carotid Artery

Any of the main arteries of the neck and head. There are 2 common carotid arteries (left and right), each of which divides into 2 main branches (internal and external).

The left carotid arises from the aorta and runs up the neck on the left side of the trachea (windpipe). The right carotid arises from the subclavian artery (which branches off the aorta) and follows a similar route on the right side of the

neck. Just above the level of the larynx (voice-box), each carotid artery divides to form an external carotid artery and an internal carotid artery. The external arteries have multiple branches that supply most tissues in the face, scalp, mouth, and jaws; the internal arteries enter the skull to supply the brain and eyes. At the base of the brain, branches of the 2 internal carotids and the basilar artery join to form a ring of vessels called the circle of Willis. Narrowing of these vessels may be associated with transient ischaemic attack (TIA); obstruction of them causes a stroke. carpal tunnel syndrome Numbness, tingling, and pain in the thumb, index finger, and middle fingers caused by compression of the median nerve at the wrist. Symptoms may be worse at night. The condition results from pressure on the nerve where it passes into the hand via a gap (the “carpal tunnel’’) under a ligament at the front of the wrist. It is common among keyboard users. It also occurs without obvious cause in middleaged women, and is associated with pregnancy, initial use of oral contraceptives, premenstrual syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, myxoedema, and acromegaly.

The condition often disappears without treatment.

Persistent symptoms may be treated with a corticosteroid drug injected under the ligament, or the ligament may be cut to relieve pressure on the nerve.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Carotid Artery

either of the two main arteries in the neck whose branches supply the head and neck. The common carotid artery arises on the left side directly from the aortic arch and on the right from the innominate artery. They ascend the neck on either side as far as the thyroid cartilage (Adam’s apple), where they each divide into two branches, the internal carotid, supplying the cerebrum, forehead, nose, eye, and middle ear, and the external carotid, sending branches to the face, scalp, and neck.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Carotid Artery Stenosis

(carotid stenosis) narrowing of the carotid artery, which reduces the supply of blood to the brain and is a cause of strokes. It is treated by surgical excision or bypass of the narrowed segment (see also endarterectomy) or by inserting a *stent into the carotid artery.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Carotid Body

A small reddish-brown structure measuring 5–7 × 2·5–4 millimetres, situated one on each side of the neck, where the carotid artery divides into the internal and external carotid arteries. Its main function is in controlling breathing so that an adequate supply of oxygen is maintained to the tissues of the body. Oxygen levels are controlled by a re?ex operating between the carotid body and the respiratory centre in the brain.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Carotid Body

a small mass of tissue in the carotid sinus containing *chemoreceptors that monitor levels of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen ions in the blood. If the oxygen level falls, the chemoreceptors send impulses to the cardiac and respiratory centres in the brain, which promote increases in heart and respiration rates. It can give rise to carotid body tumours, which are a form of *paraganglioma.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Carotid Sinus

a pocket in the wall of the carotid artery, at its division in the neck, containing receptors that monitor blood pressure (see baroreceptor). When blood pressure is raised, impulses travel from the receptors to the vasomotor centre in the brain, which initiates a reflex *vasodilatation and slowing of heart rate to lower the blood pressure to normal.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Carp

(carpo-) combining form denoting the wrist (carpus).... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Carpal

1. adj. relating to the wrist. 2. n. any of the bones forming the carpus.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Carpal Tunnel

the space between the carpal bones of the wrist and the connective tissue (retinaculum) over the flexor tendons. It contains the flexor tendons and the median nerve.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

A condition characterised by attacks of pain and tingling in the ?rst three or four ?ngers of one or both hands. The attacks usually occur at night. Carpal tunnel syndrome is caused by pressure on the median nerve as it passes under the strong ligament that lies across the front of the wrist. The condition may respond to use of a night splint on the hand; otherwise a corticosteroid injection under the ligament may help. If not, pressure is relieved by surgical division of the compressing ligament.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

a combination of *paraesthesia (pins and needles), numbness, and pain in the hand, usually affecting the thumb, index, and middle fingers and sometimes extending to the medial aspect of the fourth finger. The symptoms are usually worse at night, and in longstanding cases there may be weakness of grip due to wasting of the *thenar eminence of the thumb. It is caused by pressure on the median nerve as it passes through the wrist (see carpal tunnel), which may result from any continuous repetitive movements of the hand, such as keyboarding, or any condition causing local swelling. It is common in rheumatoid arthritis, myxoedema, pregnancy, and at the menopause, when it is more likely to be bilateral. Treatment is by splinting of the wrist, *NSAIDs, injection of a steroid, or – in severe cases – by surgical release of the nerve under local anaesthesia.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (cts)

Compression of the median nerve between the transverse carpal ligament and the carpal bone. May cause damage to the sensory and motor nerves and manifest as teno-synovitis or ganglion. Affects chiefly middle-aged women.

Symptoms. Numbness or tingling in first three fingers which feel ‘clumsy’. Worse at night. Muscle wasting of palm of the hand.

Diagnostic sign: the ‘flick’ sign – shaking or ‘flicking’ of the wrist when pain is worse and which is believed to mechanically untether the nerve and promote return of venous blood. (J. Neural Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 1984, 47, 873)

Differential diagnosis: compression of seventh cervical spinal nerve root (osteopathic lesion) has tingling of the hands when standing or from exaggerated neck movements.

Treatment. Reduction of spasm with peripheral relaxants (antispasmodics). Also: local injection of corticosteroid or surgical division of the transverse carpal ligament.

Alternatives:– Tea. Equal parts. Chamomile, Hops, Valerian. 1 heaped teaspoon to each cup boiling water; infuse 15 minutes. 1 cup 2-3 times daily.

Tablets/capsules. Cramp bark. St John’s Wort. Wild Yam. Lobelia. Prickly Ash. Passion flower. Black Cohosh. Hawthorn.

Powders. Formula. Cramp bark 1; Guaiacum half; Black Cohosh half; Pinch Cayenne. Dose: 500mg (two 00 capsules or one-third teaspoon) 2-3 times daily.

Bromelain, quarter to half a teaspoon between meals.

Turmeric. Quarter to half a teaspoon between meals.

Tinctures. Formula: Cramp bark 1; Lobelia half; Black Cohosh half. Few drops Tincture Capsicum. Mix. 1 teaspoon in water when necessary. To reduce blood pressure, add half part Mistletoe.

Practitioner. For pain. Tincture Gelsemium BPC 1963 5-15 drops when necessary.

Topical. Rhus tox ointment. Camphorated oil.

Lotion: Tincture Lobelia 20; Tincture Capsicum 1.

Supplements. Condition responsive to Vitamin B6 and B-complex. Some authorities conclude that CTS is a primary deficiency of Vitamin B6, dose: 50-200mg daily.

General. Yoga, to control pain. Attention to kidneys. Diuretics may be required. Cold packs or packet of peas from the refrigerator to site of pain for 15 minutes daily. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

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Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

Carpel

A simple pistil or modified leaflets forming a compound pistil.... Herbal Medical

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Herbal Medical

Carphology

n. see floccillation.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Carpopedal Spasm

see spasm.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Carpus

The Latin term for the WRIST, composed of eight small bones ?rmly joined together with ligaments, but capable of a certain amount of sliding movement over one another.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Carpus

The 8 bones of the wrist.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Carpus

n. the eight bones of the wrist (see illustration). The carpus articulates with the metacarpals distally and with the ulna and radius proximally.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Carragheen Moss

See: IRISH MOSS. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

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Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

Carrelle

(American) A lively woman Carrell, Carrel, Carrele, Carrella, Carrela... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Carrier

An insurer; an underwriter of risk, who finances health care. Also refers to any organization which underwrites or administers life, health or other insurance programmes.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

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Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

Carrier

A carrier is an infected person (or animal) that harbours a specific infectious agent in the absence of discernible clinical disease and thus serve as a potential source of infection for human.... Community Health

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Community Health

Carrier

A person who is able to pass on an infectious or inherited disease without actually suffering from it.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Carrier

n. 1. a person who harbours the microorganisms causing a particular disease without experiencing signs or symptoms of infection and who can transmit the disease to others. 2. (in genetics) a person who bears a gene for an abnormal trait without showing any signs of the disorder; the carrier is usually *heterozygous for the gene concerned, which is *recessive. 3. an animal, usually an insect, that passively transmits infectious organisms from one animal to another or from an infected animal to a human being. See also vector.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Carriers Of Disease

See INFECTION.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Carrington

(English) A beautiful woman; a woman of Carrington Carington, Carryngton, Caryngton... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Carrot

See Zanahoria.... Medicinal Plants

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Medicinal Plants

Carrot

Fertility, Lust...

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Carrot Seed

Daucus carota

FAMILY: Apiaceae (Umbelliferae)

SYNONYMS: Wild carrot, Queen Anne’s lace, bird’s nest.

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: Annual or biennial herb, with a small, inedible, tough whitish root. It has a much-branched stem up to 1.5 metres high with hairy leaves and umbels of white lacy flowers.

DISTRIBUTION: Native to Europe, Asia and North Africa; naturalized in North America. The essential oil is mainly produced in France.

OTHER SPECIES: An oil is also produced by solvent extraction from the red fleshy root of the common edible carrot (D. carota subspecies sativus) mainly for use as a food colouring.

HERBAL/FOLK TRADITION: A highly nutritious plant, containing substantial amounts of Vitamins A, C, B1 and B2. The roots have a strong tonic action on the liver and gall bladder, good for the treatment of jaundice and other complaints. The seeds are used for the retention of urine, colic, kidney and digestive disorders, and to promote menstruation. In the Chinese tradition it is used to treat dysentery and to expel worms.

The dried leaves are current in the British Herbal Pharmacopoeia for calculus, gout, cystitis and lithuria.

ACTIONS: Anthelmintic, antiseptic, carminative, depurative, diuretic, emmenagogue, hepatic, stimulant, tonic, vasodilatory and smooth muscle relaxant.

EXTRACTION: Essential oil by steam distillation from the dried fruit (seeds).

CHARACTERISTICS: A yellow or amber-coloured liquid with a warm, dry, woody-earthy odour. It blends well with costus, cassie, mimosa, cedarwood, geranium, citrus and spice oils.

PRINCIPAL CONSTITUENTS: Pinene, carotol, daucol, limonene, bisabolene, elemene, geraniol, geranyl acetate, caryophyllene, among others.

SAFETY DATA: Non-toxic, non-irritant, non-sensitizing.

AROMATHERAPY/HOME: USE

Skin Care: Dermatitis, eczema, psoriasis, rashes, revitalizing and toning, mature complexions, wrinkles.

Circulation Muscles And Joints: Accumulation of toxins, arthritis, gout, oedema, rheumatism.

Digestive System: Anaemia, anorexia, colic, indigestion, liver congestion.

Genito-Urinary And Endocrine Systems: Amenorrhoea, dysmenorrhoea, glandular problems, PMT.

OTHER USES: Fragrance component in soaps, detergents, cosmetics and perfumes. Flavour ingredient in most major food categories, especially seasonings.... The Encyclopedia of Essential Oils

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The Encyclopedia of Essential Oils

Carrots

Nutritional Profile Energy value (calories per serving): Low Protein: Moderate Fat: Low Saturated fat: Low Cholesterol: None Carbohydrates: High Fiber: High Sodium: Moderate Major vitamin contribution: Vitamin A Major mineral contribution: Potassium

About the Nutrients in This Food Carrots are high-fiber food, roots whose crispness comes from cell walls stiffened with the insoluble dietary fibers cellulose and lignin. Carrots also contain soluble pectins, plus appreciable amounts of sugar (mostly sucrose) and a little starch. They are an extraordinary source of vitamin A derived from deep yellow carotenoids (including beta-carotene). One raw carrot, about seven inches long, has two grams of dietary fiber and 20,250 IU vitamin A (nine times the R DA for a woman, seven times the R DA for a man).

The Most Nutritious Way to Serve This Food Cooked, so that the cellulose- and hemicellulose-stiffened cell walls of the carrot have partially dissolved and the nutrients inside are more readily available.

Diets That May Restrict or Exclude This Food Disaccharide-intolerance diet (for people who are sucrase- and /or invertase-deficient) Low-fiber diet Low-sodium diet (fresh and canned carrots)

Buying This Food Look for: Firm, bright orange yellow carrots with fresh, crisp green tops. Avoid: Wilted or shriveled carrots, pale carrots, or carrots with brown spots on the skin.

Storing This Food Trim off the green tops before you store carrots. The leaf y tops will wilt and rot long before the sturdy root. Keep carrots cool. They will actually gain vitamin A during their first five months in storage. Protected from heat and light, they can hold to their vitamins at least another two and a half months. Store carrots in perforated plastic bags or containers. Circulating air prevents the for- mation of the terpenoids that make the carrots taste bitter. Do not store carrots near apples or other fruits that manufacture ethylene gas as they continue to ripen; this gas encourages the development of terpenoids. Store peeled carrots in ice water in the refrigerator to keep them crisp for as long as 48 hours.

Preparing This Food Scrape the carrots. Ver y young, tender carrots can be cleaned by scrubbing with a veg- etable brush. Soak carrots that are slightly limp in ice water to firm them up. Don’t discard slightly wilted intact carrots; use them in soups or stews where texture doesn’t matter.

What Happens When You Cook This Food Since carotenes do not dissolve in water and are not affected by the normal heat of cooking, carrots stay yellow and retain their vitamin A when you heat them. But cooking will dissolve some of the hemicellulose in the carrot’s stiff cell walls, changing the vegetable’s texture and making it easier for digestive juices to penetrate the cells and reach the nutrients inside.

How Other Kinds of Processing Affect This Food Freezing. The characteristic crunchy texture of fresh carrots depends on the integrity of its cellulose- and hemicellulose-stiffened cell walls. Freezing cooked carrots creates ice crystals that rupture these membranes so that the carrots usually seem mushy when defrosted. If possible, remove the carrots before freezing a soup or stew and add fresh or canned carrots when you defrost the dish.

Medical Uses and/or Benefits A reduced risk of some kinds of cancer. According to the American Cancer Society, carrots and other foods rich in beta-carotene, a deep yellow pigment that your body converts to a form of vitamin A, may lower the risk of cancers of the larynx, esophagus and lungs. There is no such benefit from beta-carotene supplements; indeed, one controversial study actually showed a higher rate of lung cancer among smokers taking the supplement. Protection against vitamin A-deficiency blindness. In the body, the vitamin A from carrots becomes 11-cis retinol, the essential element in rhodopsin, a protein found in the rods (the cells inside your eyes that let you see in dim light). R hodopsin absorbs light, triggering the chain of chemical reactions known as vision. One raw carrot a day provides more than enough vitamin A to maintain vision in a normal healthy adult.

Adverse Effects Associated with This Food Oddly pigmented skin. The carotenoids in carrots are fat-soluble. If you eat large amounts of carrots day after day, these carotenoids will be stored in your fatty tissues, including the fat just under your skin, and eventually your skin will look yellow. If you eat large amounts of carrots and large amounts of tomatoes (which contain the red pigment lycopene), your skin may be tinted orange. This effect has been seen in people who ate two cups of carrots and two tomatoes a day for several months; when the excessive amounts of these vegetables were eliminated from the diet, skin color returned to normal. False-positive test for occult blood in the stool. The active ingredient in the guaiac slide test for hidden blood in feces is alphaguaiaconic acid, a chemical that turns blue in the presence of blood. Carrots contain peroxidase, a natural chemical that also turns alphaguaiaconic acid blue and may produce a positive test in people who do not actually have blood in the stool.... A Nutritional, Medical and Culinary Guide

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A Nutritional, Medical and Culinary Guide

Carson

(Scottish) From the swamp Carsan, Carsen, Carsin... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Carteolol

n. a *beta blocker used as eye drops in the treatment of *glaucoma; side-effects may include local stinging and burning.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Carter

(English) A transporter of merchandise

Cartar, Cartrell, Cartier... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Carthamus Tinctorius

Linn.

Family: Asteraceae.

Habitat: Cultivated mainly as an oil-seed crop in Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra.

English: Safflower.

Ayurvedic: Kusumbha, Vahin- shikhaa, Vastraranjaka, Kusum.

Unani: Qurtum.

Siddha/Tamil: Chendurakam.

Action: Oil—aids prevention of arteriosclerosis, coronary heart disease and kidney disorders as a polyunsaturated fat. Flowers— stimulant, sedative, diuretic, emmenagogue; used in fevers and eruptive skin conditions, measles.

Charred safflower oil is used in rheumatism and for healing sores.

Key application: Dried flowers— in cardiovascular diseases, amen- orrhoea, dysmenorrhoea and retention of lochia; also in wounds and sores with pain and swelling. (Pharmocopoeia of the People's Republic of China, 1997.)

Safflower contains carthamone, lig- nans and a polysaccharide. The polysaccharide, composed of xylose, fructose, galactose, glucose, arabinose, rhamnose and uronic acid residues, stimulates immune function in mice. It induced antibody formation in mice following peritoneal injection. Extracts of flowers have also been tested in China on blood coagulation, where a prolongation of clothing time was observed and platelet aggregation inhibited. Chinese research indicates that Safflower flowers can reduce coronary artery disease, and lower cholesterol levels. Flowers and seeds exhibit lipase activity. The flower extract also exhibited anti-inflammatory, sedative and analgesic effect and inhibitory effect on spontaneous motor activity.

The plant contains a propanetriol derivative, which can be used for the treatment of circulatory disorders.

Recent research suggests that improving the lipid profile might not be as important to reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease as suggested. (Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, 2007.)

Safflower is contraindicated in pregnancy, gastric disorders, excessive menstruation, haemorrhagic diseases.

Wild and thorny Safflower, growing in the arid tract of Haryana and Punjab (locally known as Kantiaari, Poli, Poiyan) is equated with C. oxy- cantha Bieb. The plant is diuretic. Seed oil is applied topically to ulcers. The plant contains a sesquiterpene gly- coside. Aerial parts contain hinesol- beta-D-fucopyranoside. The plant also contains luteolin-7-glucoside.

Dosage: Leaf—3-6 g powder. (CCRAS.)... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Cartilage

A hard but pliant substance forming parts of the skeleton – for example, the cartilages of the ribs, of the larynx and of the ears. Microscopically, cartilage is found to consist of cells arranged in twos or in rows, and embedded in a ground-glass-like material devoid of blood vessels and nerves. The end of every long bone has a smooth layer of hyaline cartilage on it where it forms a joint with other bones (articular cartilage), and in young persons up to about the age of 16 there is a plate of cartilage (epiphyseal cartilage) running right across the bone about 12 mm (half an inch) from each end. The latter, by constantly thickening and changing into bone, causes the increase in length of the bone. (See also BONE.) In some situations there is found a combination of cartilage and ?brous tissue, as in the discs between the vertebrae of the spine. This ?bro-cartilage, as it is known, combines the pliability of ?brous tissue with the elasticity of cartilage. (For cartilages of the knee, see KNEE.)... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Cartilage

A type of connective tissue made up of varying membrane amounts of the gellike substance collagen. Cartilage forms

Bone an important structural component of various parts of the skeletal system, inSynovial cluding the joints. fluid There are 3 main Hyaline types. Hyaline carcartilage tilage is a tough, smooth tissue that lines the surfaces of joints. Fibrocartilage is solid and strong and makes up the intervertebral discs that are situated between the bones of the spine and the shock-absorbing pads in joints. Elastic cartilage is soft and rubbery and found in structures such as the outer ear and the epiglottis.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Cartilage

n. a dense connective tissue composed of a matrix produced by cells called chondroblasts, which become embedded in the matrix as chondrocytes. It is a semiopaque grey or white substance, consisting chiefly of *chondroitin sulphate, that is capable of withstanding considerable pressure. There are three types: *hyaline cartilage, *elastic cartilage, and *fibrocartilage (see illustration). In the fetus and infant cartilage occurs in many parts of the body, but most of this cartilage disappears during development. In the adult, hyaline cartilage is found in the costal cartilages, larynx, trachea, bronchi, nose, and covering the surface of bones at joints, where wear and damage results in *osteoarthritis. Elastic cartilage occurs in the external ear, and fibrocartilage in the intervertebral discs and tendons. Cartilage is the precursor of bone following a fracture (see callus).... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Cartílago De Tiburón

Shark cartilage; reported for use in preventing or treating cancer, tumors and uterine fibroids, sometimes combined with medicinal plants in home remedies; it is also taken for nourishing brain function.... Medicinal Plants

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Medicinal Plants

Cartimandua

(Anglo-Saxon) A powerful queen... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Carto

Trademark. a system that uses magnetic localization technology to triangulate the position of a small sensor incorporated into the tip of a cardiac catheter. The signals from several catheters inserted simultaneously are used to create an electrical map of the heart from within, identifying abnormal areas where *ablation may be required.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Carukia Barnesi

Also known as the Irukandji, Carukia is a small, virtually invisible, box-jellyfish with a single tentacle in each corner (carybdeid). The sting may be quite mild, and is sometimes not visible on the skin. However, some 30 minutes after the sting a number of severe systemic symptoms called the Irukandji syndrome occur. The symptoms include severe low back pain, muscle cramps in all 4 limbs and the chest wall, restlessness, anxiety, and a “feeling of potential doom” (often shared by the first aider!). Severe hypertension and pulmonary oedema may occur, which may become life-threatening, although no deaths have been reported to date. The effects are believed to be due to the excess release of catecholamines.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

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Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

Carum Bulbocastanum

W. Koch.

Synonym: Buniumpersicum (Boiss.) Fedts.

Family: Umbelliferae; Apiaceae

Habitat: Cultivated in the hills and plains of North India and in the hills of South India.

English: Black Caraway.

Ayurvedic: Krishna jiraka, Kaash- mira jirak.

Unani: Jiraa Siyaah, Kamoon- armani.

Siddha/Tamil: Shemai-shiragam, Pilappu-shiragam.

Action: See C. carvi.... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Carum Carvi

Linn.

Family: Umbelliferae; Apiaceae.

Habitat: Native to Europe and West Asia. Now cultivated in Bihar, Orissa, Punjab, Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, and in the hills of Kumaon, Garhwal, Kashmir and Chamba.

Also found wild in the North Himalayan regions.

English: Caraway.

Ayurvedic: Krishna jiraka, Jiraa, Kaaravi, Asita Jiraka, Kaashmira- jiraka, Prithvikaa, Upakunchikaa, Sugandha Udgaar, Shodhana.

Unani: Zeeraa Siyaah, Kamoon, Kamoon-roomi.

Siddha/Tamil: Shimai-shembu, Semai Seearagam, Karamjiragam.

Action: Carminative, antispas- modic, antimicrobial, expectorant, galactagogue, emmenagogue.

Key application: Seed oil—in dyspeptic problems, such as mild, sapstic conditions of the gastrointestinal tract, bloating and fullness. (German Commission E, ESCOP, The British Herbal Pharmacopoeia.) The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India recommended the seed in chronic fevers.

The fruit contains a volatile oil consisting of carvone (40-60%) and limoline with other constituents; flavonoids, mainly quercetin derivatives, polysac- charides and a fixed oil; also calcium oxalate.

The antispasmodic and carminative effects have been confirmed experimentally. The caraway has shown to reduce gastrointestinal foam.

Both the seeds and the essential oil are classed as carminative in I.P.

The essential oil shows moderate antibacterial and antifungal activity against several bacteria and fungi. Mixed with alcohol and castor oil, it is used for scabies.

Dosage: Seed—1-3 g powder. (CCRAS.)... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Caruncle

Any small ?eshy eminence, whether normal or abnormal.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Caruncle

n. a small red fleshy swelling. The lacrimal caruncle is the red prominence at the inner angle of the eye. Hymenal caruncles occur around the mucous membrane lining the vaginal opening.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Caruncle, Urethral

 A tender easily-bleeding bright red swelling at the urinary outlet of the vagina. About the size of a large pill. Not cancerous but painful on intercourse and on passing urine. Treatment. Tincture Thuja, 5 drops in water morning and evening, internal. Topical application of much diluted oil of Eucalyptus over a long period has been successful. Surgical intervention usually successful. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

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Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

Caryatis

(Greek) In mythology, goddess of the walnut tree

Carya, Cariatis, Caryatiss, Cariatiss, Caryatys, Cariatys, Caryatyss, Cariatyss... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Carybdea Rastoni

A small box-jellyfish with a single tentacle in each corner. Common in non-tropical areas such as Western Australia and South Australia, the sting is usually mild, but occasionally may cause severe skin pain. Commonly known as the Jimble.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

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Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

Carybdeids

Jellyfish members of the Class Cubozoa with a single tentacle in each of the four corners (except in certain rare species).... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

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Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

Carys

(Welsh) One who loves and is loved Caryss, Carysse, Caris, Cariss, Carisse, Cerys, Ceryss, Cerysse, Ceris, Ceriss, Cerisse... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Cáscara De

Typically means “bark or fruit rind of (plant name)”; look up the plant name which follows this description of the plant part used.... Medicinal Plants

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Medicinal Plants

Cascara Sagrada

Rhamnus purshiana. N.O. Rhamnaceae.

Synonym: Sacred Bark, Chittem Bark.

Habitat: California and British Columbia. Features ? Bark in quills about three-quarter inch wide by one-sixteenth inch thick,

furrowed-longitudinally, purplish-brown in colour. Inner surface longitudinally

striated, transversely wrinkled. Fracture pale brown, or dark brown when older.

Persistently bitter taste, leather-like odour.

Older bark is preferred, younger sometimes griping. Part used ? Bark.

Action: Tonic laxative.

In habitual constipation due to sluggishness and atony of the lower bowel, and for digestive disorders generally. Doses for chronic constipation, firstly 1/2 to 1 teaspoonful at bedtime, afterwards 5-10 drops before each meal, of the fluid extract.... Herbal Manual

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Herbal Manual

Cascara Sagrada

Legal Matters, Money, Protection, ...

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Cascara Sagrada

Sacred Bark. Chittem Bark. Rhamnus purshiana D.C.

Constituent: to 10 per cent anthraquinone glycosides. Bark – after maturing for one year.

Action: Non-habit forming stimulant laxative, pancreatic stimulant, bitter tonic.

Keynote: stool softener.

Uses: habitual constipation, torpor of low bowel, congestion of liver and gall duct. To assist liver function in cirrhosis. Foul breath.

Sometimes combined with Cardamom, Coriander or Cumin as a precaution against griping. A common ingredient with Figwort, Witch Hazel or Stone root for piles.

Preparations: Once daily.

Tablets: 150mg. 1-2 when necessary.

Liquid Extract: half-1 teaspoon in water, at bedtime; honey to sweeten. Powdered bark: 1 to 2 and a half grams.

Excessive dosage may result in dehydration with low potassium levels. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

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Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

Cascara Sagrada Tea - A Powerful Laxative

Cascara Sagrada Tea has been known since ancient times as a great stimulant and laxative agent. In fact, the ones to discover its medical benefits were the American. The first proofs of this fact date from the 17th century, when American practitioners used Cascara Sagrada bark to treat many bacterial ailments of the digestive system. Cascara is a small shrub that grows mainly in the North America, in states like Idaho, California or Montana. Cascara never grows taller than 50 centimeters and has pale yellow greenish leaves and deep green leaves. Also known as rhamnus purshiana, Cascara has purple fruits or black berries that hide usually three hard seeds. Cascara Sagrada is harvested in the fall and can only be used dried (one year apart from the harvesting time) in order to release its curative benefits. Many people in Northern America specialize in Cascara Sagrada harvesting and herb processing (the plant needs to be properly dried and according to a list of specifications). Cascara Sagrada Tea Properties Cascara Sagrada Tea is known for its strong, stimulant and laxative properties. The main substances of this tea are very efficient in cases of nervous system failures and intestinal tract ailments. Cascara Sagrada Tea has a very bitter and therefore unpleasant taste. That’s why most people prefer to take it as capsules or extracts. Cascara Sagrada Tea Benefits Aside from its use as a constipation treatment, Cascara Sagrada Tea can also cure a variety of diseases involving the digestive tract, such as intestinal parasites or bacterial infections. However, make sure that you take this tea responsibly and don’t forget that this is a medical treatment wich only should be taking while you’re sick. Don’t try to replace your morning coffee with Cascara Sagrada Tea or you’ll face a series of complications! How to make Cascara Sagrada Tea Infusion When preparing Cascara Sagrada Tea, you have to make sure that you only use ingredients from a trusted provider. Nowadays, there are many illegal substances on the market sold as tea. Also, the herb you bought may be exactly what the label says it is, but not properly dried, in which case you’ll suffer from unwanted complications as well. Once you have the right ingredients, use a teaspoon of dried herbs for every cup of tea you want to make, add boiling water and wait 20 minutes for the wonderful benefits to be released. Strain the decoction and drink it hot or cold. You may also add honey or even sugar if the taste feels a bit unpleasant. Cascara Sagrada Tea Side Effects When taken in small amounts, Cascara Sagrada Tea is a safe treatment. However, high dosages may lead to various problems, such as urine discoloration, blood in stools, pain and vomiting. Make sure the dosage you’re using is the appropriate one or ask your doctor before making any moves: it’s better to be safe than sorry! Cascara Sagrada Contraindications Cascara Sagrada Tea is not recommended for pregnant or breastfeeding women, patients suffering from appendicitis or ulcerative colitis. Also, if you are on blood thinners or anticoagulants, avoid taking a treatment based on Cascara Sagrada Tea. To gather more information, talk to an herbalist or to your doctor! If he gives you the green light and you happen to be in a teashop, add Cascara Sagrada Tea to your shopping cart and enjoy its wonderful benefits responsibly!... Beneficial Teas

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Beneficial Teas

Cascarilla Bark

Croton eluteria

FAMILY: Euphorbiaceae

SYNONYMS: Cascarilla, sweetwood bark, sweet bark, Bahama cascarilla, aromatic quinquina, false quinquina.

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: A large shrub or small tree up to 12 metres high, with ovate silver-bronze leaves, pale yellowish-brown bark and small white fragrant flowers. It bears fruits and flowers all year round.

DISTRIBUTION: Native to the West Indies, probably the Bahama Islands; found growing wild in Mexico, Colombia and Ecuador. The oil is mainly produced in the Bahamas and Cuba; some distillation takes place in America, France and England from the imported bark.

OTHER SPECIES: An essential oil is also distilled locally from other Croton species. White, red and black cascarillas are also found in commerce.

HERBAL/FOLK TRADITION: The bark is used as an aromatic bitter and tonic for dyspepsia, diarrhoea, dysentery, fever, debility, nausea, flatulence, vomiting and chronic bronchitis. The leaves are used as a digestive tea, and for flavouring tobacco. The bark also yields a good black dye.

ACTIONS: Astringent, antimicrobial, antiseptic, carminative, digestive, expectorant, stomachic, tonic.

EXTRACTION: Essential oil by steam distillation from the dried bark. (1.5–3 per cent yield).

CHARACTERISTICS: A pale yellow, greenish or dark amber liquid with a spicy, aromatic, warm-woody odour. It blends well with nutmeg, pepper, pimento, sage, oakmoss, oriental and spicy bases.

PRINCIPAL CONSTITUENTS: Cymene, diterpene, limonene, caryophyllene, terpineol and eugenol, among others.

SAFETY DATA: Non-irritant, non-sensitizing, relatively non-toxic (possibly narcotic in large doses).

AROMATHERAPY/HOME: USE

Respiratory System: Bronchitis, coughs

Digestive System: Dyspepsia, flatulence, nausea.

Immune System: ’Flu.

OTHER USES: Fragrance component in soaps, detergents, cosmetics and perfumes, especially men’s fragrances. Flavour ingredient in most major food categories, soft drinks and alcoholic beverages, especially vermouths and bitters.... The Encyclopedia of Essential Oils

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The Encyclopedia of Essential Oils

Catheterization, Cardiac

A diagnostic test in which a fine, sterile catheter is introduced into the heart via a blood vessel. It is used to diagnose and assess the extent of congenital heart disease (see heart disease, congenital) and coronary artery disease, and to diagnose and treat some disorders of the heart valves (see valvuloplasty). During the procedure, the pressure within the heart’s chambers can be measured, samples of blood and tissue can be taken, and a radiopaque substance can be injected to allow the heart’s cavities to be X-rayed.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Cayratia Carnosa

(Wall.) Gagnep.

Synonym: C. trifolia (L.) Domin. Vitis carnosa Wall. V.trifolia Linn.

Family: Vitaceae.

Habitat: Throughout the warmer parts of India, from Jammu and Rajasthan to Assam and up to 300 m.

Ayurvedic: Gandira.

Siddha/Tamil: Tumans.

Action: Leaves, seeds, roots— astringent, applied to ulcers and boils. Leaves—diaphoretic (recommended in high fever). Root- given in anaemic conditions. Aerial parts—CNS active, hypothermic. The stems, leaves and roots contain hydrocyanic acid. Presence of delphinidin and cyanidin is reported in the leaves.... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Cercaria

n. (pl. cercariae) the final larval stage of any parasitic trematode (see fluke). The cercariae, which have tails but otherwise resemble the adults, are released into water from the snail host in which the parasite undergoes part of its development. Several thousand cercariae may emerge from a single snail in a day.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Cercariae

The infective stages of the Schistosomes and other trema todes, which are free living in water. In some trematodes (e.g. Fasciola), the cercariae develope into metacercariae for infection.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

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Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

Cholangiocarcinoma

A cancer in the bile ducts of the liver associated with opisthorchiasis. See Opisthorchiasis.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

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Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

Cholangiocarcinoma

n. a rare malignant tumour of the *bile ducts. Clinical features include abdominal pain, weight loss, pruritus, obstructive jaundice, and abnormal liver function tests. A tumour located at the junction of the right and left hepatic ducts within the liver is known as a Klatskin tumour. Primary sclerosing *cholangitis, *ulcerative colitis, chronic infection with specific liver flukes (such as Clonorchis sinensis), and exposure to the imaging contrast agent Thorotrast are potential risk factors for the development of cholangiocarcinoma. Differentiation from other causes of bile duct *stricture(s), e.g. sclerosing cholangitis, can be very difficult.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Cholangiocarcinoma

A cancerous growth in one of the bile ducts, which causes jaundice and weight loss.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Cholinergic Urticaria

see urticaria.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Choriocarcinoma

A rare cancerous tumour that develops from placental tissue in the uterus, usually as a complication of a hydatidiform mole (a noncancerous tumour) but sometimes after a normal pregnancy or a miscarriage. Untreated, it destroys the walls of the uterus and may spread to the vagina and vulva and, eventually, to the liver, lungs, brain, and bones. Successful treatment relies on early diagnosis.

If a woman has a hydatidiform mole, she is screened regularly after treatment using ultrasound scanning and tests to measure blood and urine levels of the hormone human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG).

High levels HCG of are associated with choreocarcinoma.

Treatment is with anticancer drugs.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Choriocarcinoma

(chorionepithelioma) n. a rare malignant tumour of the placenta originating in the outer membrane (chorion) surrounding the fetus. Usually it is a complication of a *hydatidiform mole, although it may follow a miscarriage or even a normal pregnancy. The tumour rapidly spreads to the lungs, but is usually very sensitive to chemotherapy. It produces high levels of beta *human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG), which can be monitored as a tumour marker. See also gestational trophoblastic neoplasia.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Choriocarcinoma

A form of cancer affecting the CHORION, in the treatment of which particularly impressive results are being obtained from the use of methotrexate.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Chronic Care

The ongoing provision of medical, functional, psychological, social, environmental and spiritual care services that enable people with serious and persistent health and/or mental conditions to optimize their functional independence and well-being, from the time of condition onset until problem resolution or death. Chronic care conditions are multidimensional, interdependent, complex and ongoing.... Community Health

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Community Health

Clear-cell Carcinoma

(clear-cell adenocarcinoma) a variant of *adenocarcinoma that tends to arise from the kidneys or the female genital tract. In the latter case it is linked to intrauterine exposure to *diethylstilbestrol during the 1950s and 1960s and takes the form of a vaginal cancer, which can be treated by radical surgery followed by radiotherapy.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Cleome Brachycarpa

Vahl ex DC.

Synonym: C. vahliana Farsen.

Family: Capparidaceae.

Habitat: Northwestern Rajasthan, Punjab plains and Delhi.

Unani: Panwaar.

Folk: Madhio (Rajasthan).

Action: Anti-inflammatory, antirheumatic, antidermatosis (used in scabies, also in leucoderma).

The plant contains trinortriterpe- noids and cabralealactone, besides ur- solic acid.... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Clinical Care

Professional specialized or therapeutic care that requires ongoing assessment, planning, intervention and evaluation by health care professionals.... Community Health

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Community Health

Communal Care

Assistance provided free of charge or at reduced rates to members of a group or society. Other members of the group or society generally provide care on a voluntary basis.... Community Health

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Community Health

Community Care

Services and support to help people with care needs to live as independently as possible in their communities.... Community Health

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Community Health

Community Care

Community care is intended to enable people to lead independent lives at home or in local residential units for as long as they are able to do so. For many years there has been a trend in Britain for care of elderly people and those with mental or physical problems to be shifted from hospitals and into community settings. In 1988 Sir Roy Gri?ths’s report to the Secretaries of State for Social Services, Community Care: Agenda for Action, advised on the best use of public funds to provide e?ective community care. The White Paper Caring for People, published in 1989, outlined the government’s ideas for developing these proposals further. The plans were then enshrined in law with the National Health Service and Community Care Act of 1990.

Since April 1993, local social-services departments have been responsible for assessing what help people need from community-care services: these can include home helps, meals on wheels, sheltered housing, etc. Recipients of such services are means-tested and make variable contributions towards the costs. Policies on charging vary from one area to another and there are wide geographical variations in the range of services provided free and the charges levied for others.

People with complex needs may be assigned a case manager to coordinate the care package and ensure that appropriate responses are made to changing circumstances. The success of community care hinges on e?ective coordination of the services of an often large number of providers from the health and social-services sectors. Poor communication between sectors and inadequate coordination of services have been among the most common complaints about the community-care reforms.

Health care for people being cared for in the community remains largely free under the NHS arrangements, although there are regular debates about where the boundaries should be drawn between free health services and means-tested social care. A distinction has been made between necessary nursing care (funded by the state) and normal personal care (the responsibility of the patient), but the dividing line often proves hard to de?ne.

As care has shifted increasingly into the community, previous hospital facilities have become redundant. Vast numbers of beds in long-stay geriatric hospitals and in-patient psychiatric wards have been closed. There is now concern that too few beds remain to provide essential emergency and respite services. In some areas, patients ?t for discharge are kept in hospital because of delay in setting up community services for the elderly, or because of the inability of the local authority to fund appropriate care in a nursing home or at home with community-care support for other patients; the resulting BED-BLOCKING has an adverse e?ect on acutely ill patients needing hospital admission.

Community care, if correctly funded and coordinated, is an excellent way of caring for people with long-term needs, but considerable work is still needed in Britain to ensure that all patients have access to high-quality community care when they need it. Problems in providing such are are not con?ned to the UK.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Community Health Care

Includes health services and integrates social care. It promotes self care, independence and family support networks.... Community Health

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Community Health

Community-based Care / Community-based Services / Programmes

The blend of health and social services provided to an individual or family in his/her place of residence for the purpose of promoting, maintaining or restoring health or minimizing the effects of illness and disability. These services are usually designed to help older people remain independent and in their own homes. They can include senior centres, transportation, delivered meals or congregate meals sites, visiting nurses or home health aides, adult day care and homemaker services.... Community Health

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Community Health

Comprehensive Health Care

Provision of a complete range of health services, from diagnosis to rehabilitation.... Community Health

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Community Health

Congestive Cardiac Failure

(CCF, congestive heart failure) see heart failure.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Continuing Care

The provision of one or more elements of care (nursing, medical, health-related services, protection or supervision, or assistance with personal daily living activities) to an older person for the rest of his or her life.... Community Health

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Community Health

Continuing Care Facility

A facility which provides continuing care.... Community Health

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Community Health

Continuing Care Retirement Community

A community which provides several levels of housing and services for older people, ranging from independent living units to nursing homes, on one site but generally in separate buildings.... Community Health

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Community Health

Continuity Of Care

The provision of barrier-free access to the necessary range of health care services over any given period of time, with the level of care varying according to individual needs.... Community Health

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Community Health

Continuity Of Care

A term describing a system of medical care in which individuals requiring advice on their health consult a named primary care physician (GENERAL PRACTITIONER (GP)) or partnership of practitioners. The availability of an individual’s medical records, and the doctor’s knowledge of his or her medical, family and social history, should facilitate prompt, appropriate decisions about investigations, treatment or referral to specialists. What the doctor(s) know(s) about the patient can, for example, save time, alert hospitals to allergies, avoid the duplication of investigations and provide hospitals with practical domestic information when a patient is ready for discharge. The traditional 24-hours-aday, 365-days-a-year care by a personal physician is now a rarity: continuity of care has evolved and is now commonly based on a multi-disciplinary health team working from common premises. Changing social structures, population mobility and the complexity and cost of health care have driven this evolution. Some experts have argued that the changes are so great as to make continuity of care an unrealistic concept in the 21st century. Nevertheless, support inside and outside conventional medical practice for HOLISTIC medicine – a related concept for treating the whole person, body and mind – and the fact that many people still appreciate the facility to see their own doctors suggest that continuity of care is still a valid objective of value to the community.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Continuity Of Care

a continuous relationship between a patient and an identified health-care professional who is the sole source of care and information for the patient. However, as a patient’s health-care needs over time can rarely be met by a single professional, multiprofessional pathways of continuity exist to achieve both quality of care and patient satisfaction.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Continuum Of Care

The entire spectrum of specialized health, rehabilitative and residential services available to the frail and chronically ill. The services focus on the social, residential, rehabilitative and supportive needs of individuals, as well as needs that are essentially medical in nature.... Community Health

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Community Health

Coordinated Care

A collaborative process that promotes quality care, continuity of care and cost-effective outcomes which enhance the physical, psychosocial and vocational health of individuals. It includes assessing, planning, implementing, coordinating, monitoring and evaluating health-related service options. It may also include advocating for the older person.... Community Health

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Community Health

Corallocarpus Epigaeus

Benth. ex Hook. f.

Family: Cucurbitaceae.

Habitat: Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh and Peninsular India.

Ayurvedic: Shukanaasaa, Nahikaa, Katunaahi, Paataala-garudaa.

(Cocculus hirsutus is used as Paataala-garudi).

Siddha/Tamil: Kollankovai, Aaakaasagarudam.

Action: Laxative. Root used during later stages of dysentery and chronic mucous enteritis; also in syphilitic rheumatism. The herb shows no apparent effect on acute dysentery.

The root contains a bitter principle allied to bryonin.... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Coronary Care Unit

A specialist ward for the care of acutely ill patients who may be suffering, or who have suffered, a myocardial infarction (heart attack) or another serious cardiovascular disorder.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Coronary Care Unit

(CCU) a designated ward of a hospital to which the most serious cardiac cases are transferred for specialist monitoring and treatment.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Coronary Care Unit (ccu)

A specialised hospital unit equipped and sta?ed to provide intensive care (see INTENSIVE THERAPY UNIT (ITU)) for patients who have had severe heart attacks or undergone surgery on the heart.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Costal Cartilage

a cartilage that connects a *rib to the breastbone (*sternum). The first seven ribs (true ribs) are directly connected to the sternum by individual costal cartilages. The next three ribs are indirectly connected to the sternum by three costal cartilages, each of which is connected to the one immediately above it.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Council For Healthcare Regulatory Excellence

In 2002 the UK government set up this new statutory council with the aim of improving consistency of action across the eight existing regulatory bodies for professional sta? involved in the provision of various aspects of health care. These bodies are: General Medical Council; General Dental Council; General Optical Council; Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain; General Chiropractic Council; General Osteopathic Council; Health Professions Council; and Nursing and Midwifery Council.

The new Council for Healthcare Regulatory Excellence will help to promote the interests of patients and to improve co-operation between the existing regulatory bodies – providing, in e?ect, a quality-control mechanism for their activities. The government and relevant professions will nominate individuals for this overarching council. The new council will not have the authority to intervene in the determination by the eight regulatory bodies of individual ?tness-to-practise cases unless these concern complaints about maladministration.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Cricoid Cartilage

the cartilage, shaped like a signet ring, that forms part of the anterior and lateral walls and most of the posterior wall of the *larynx.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Curative Care

Medical treatment and care that cures a disease or relieves pain and promotes recovery.... Community Health

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Community Health

Custodial Care

Board, room and other personal assistance services generally provided on a long-term basis. It excludes regular medical care.... Community Health

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Community Health

Cyperus Scariosus

R.Br.

Family: Cyperaceae.

Habitat: Damp situations in Uttar Pradesh and eastern and southern parts of India.

English: Nut grass.

Ayurvedic: Bhadramustaa, Musta, Amoda, Naagaramustaka. (Naagara is a different drug, equated with Zingiber officinale Rosc.)

Siddha: Korai-kilangu (Tamil).

Folk: Naagara-mothaa.

Action: Essential oil—hypotensive, anti-inflammatory, CNS stimulant, antimicrobial. Rhizome—stomachic, cordial, antidiarrhoeal and diuretic.

See C. rotundus.... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Dacarbazine

n. a drug used in the treatment of melanoma and (in combination with other *cytotoxic drugs) soft tissue sarcomas and Hodgkin’s disease. Side-effects include severe nausea and vomiting and *myelosuppression.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Daucus Carota

Linn. var. sativa DC.

Family: Umbelliferae; Apiaceae.

Habitat: Native to Europe and the Mediterranean region; extensively cultivated in Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh for its fleshy tap roots which are eaten raw or cooked. Wild Carrot: Native to Europe, Africa and Asia. Grows at 3,000-3,600 m in the Himalayas.

English: Carrot, Cultivated Carrot. Wild carrot (D. carota Linn.wild var.: the root, small and white), Queen Anne's Lace, Bird's Nest. Bees' Nest Plant.

Ayurvedic: Gaajara, Garjara, Granjana.

Unani: Gaajar.

Action: Roasted roots—prescribed in palpitation, burning micturation, cough and bronchitis. Carrot increases the quantity of urine and helps the elimination of uric acid; also lowers blood sugar. Juice—a rich source of carotene. Seeds—diuretic, emmenagogue, spasmolytic (prescribed in anuria and sexual debility). Wild carrot— diuretic and antilithic (used for kidney stones, cystitis and in gout). Seeds—emmenagogue. Also used for hot flushes of the menopause.

In cooked (orange) carrots beta- carotene content (1890 mcg) was found much higher than in raw carrots- (1045 mcg/100 g). Heat processing of carrots affected alpha- and beta-carotene contents; their value decreased (3.7; 5.3) in water blanching, whereas increased (5.8; 8.2) in steam blanching compared to that in fresh carrots (5.2; 8.1 mg/100 g) respectively.

An interferon inducer has been isolated from carrot. It stimulates cells to produce the protein that increases human resistance to virus infections.

Aqueous extract of carrots showed hepatoprotective activity against CCl4- induced hepatic damage in mice liver.

The ethanolic extract exhibits direct relaxant action on cardiac and smooth muscle preparation and this action may be responsible for its hypotensive action. (Gently heated peeled roots, mixed with sugar candy, are given as a hypotensive drug.)

The ethanolic extract of seeds exhibited diuretic effect in dogs.

The British Herbal Pharmacopoeia recommends Daucus carota Linn. (wild carrot) for its diuretic activity. Wild carrot contains flavones including apigenin, chypsin, luteolin; flavonols including kaempferol, quer- cetin and various glycosides. The fura- nocoumarins, 8-methoxypsoralen and 5-methoxypsoralen are found in the plant. The seed oil contains terpinen- 4-ol, a renal irritant. It is believed to cause diuretic activity.... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Day Care Centre

A facility, operated by a local authority, voluntary organization, geriatric centre or acute hospital, providing activities for older people. These activities, usually during the day for a determined period, are intended to promote independence and enhance living skills, and can include the provision of personal care and preparation of meals.... Community Health

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Community Health

Dental Care Professional

any of several professionals supporting a dentist, formerly referred to as dental auxiliaries and professionals complementary to dentistry. A dental hygienist performs scaling and instruction in oral hygiene. A dental nurse helps the dentist at the chairside by preparing materials, passing instruments, and aspirating fluids from the patient’s mouth. A dental technician constructs dentures, crowns, and orthodontic appliances in the laboratory for the dentist. A clinical dental technician provides dentures directly to patients. A dental therapist performs non-complex treatment under the prescription of a dentist. In the UK dental care professionals are required to be statutorily registered with the General Dental Council (GDC).... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Dental Caries

Decay of teeth... Medicinal Plants Glossary

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Medicinal Plants Glossary

Dental Caries

the decay and crumbling of the substance of a tooth. Dental caries is caused by the metabolism of the bacteria in *plaque attached to the surface of the tooth. Acid formed by bacterial breakdown of sugar in the diet causes demineralization of the enamel of the tooth. If no preventive measure or treatment is carried out it spreads into the dentine and progressively destroys the tooth. It is the most common cause of toothache, and once infection has spread to the pulp it may extend through the root canal into the periapical tissues to cause an *apical abscess.

Frequent intake of sugar as well as poor oral hygiene is a major cause. The disease is more common in young people and has a predilection for specific sites. Dental caries can be most effectively prevented by restricting the frequency of sugar intake and avoiding sweet food and drinks at bedtime. The resistance of enamel to dental caries can be increased by the application of *fluoride salts to the tooth surface from toothpastes or mouth rinses. *Fluoridation of water also makes teeth resistant to caries during the period of tooth development. Once caries has spread into the dentine, treatment usually consists of removing the decayed part of the tooth using a *drill and replacing it with a *filling.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Department Of Health And Social Care

(DHSC) (in Britain) a department of central government that supports the Secretary of State for Health and Social Care in meeting his or her obligations, which include the *National Health Service, the promotion and protection of the health of the nation, and social care, including some oversight of personal social services provided by local authorities. The department is staffed by civil servants, including some health professionals. Following the reforms of the Health and Social Care Act 2012, the Department no longer has direct control of the NHS, which has passed to *NHS England. The name of the department was expanded from ‘Department of Health’ in 2018. Equivalent departments support the ministers responsible for health services in Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland.

DHSC section of the website: provides information on a wide range of public health issues... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Dextrocardia

A rare condition, present from birth, in which the heart points to the right-hand side of the chest instead of the left. The heart may also be malformed. Sometimes, the position of the abdominal organs is also reversed. The cause of dextrocardia is unknown. Surgical treatment is only necessary if the heart is malformed.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Dextrocardia

A condition in which a person’s heart is situated on the right of the chest in a mirror image of its usual position. This may be associated with similar inversion of the abdominal organs – situs inversus.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Dextrocardia

n. a congenital defect in which the position of the heart is a mirror image of its normal position, with the apex of the ventricles pointing to the right. It may be associated with other congenital defects and is often combined with situs invertus, in which the appendix and liver lie on the left side of the abdomen and the stomach lies on the right side. Isolated dextrocardia produces no adverse effects.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Dianthus Carophyllus

Linn.

Family: Caryophyllaceae.

Habitat: Kashmir; commonly grown in gardens, especially on the hills.

English: Carnation, Clove Pink.

Action: Flowers—diaphoretic, alexiteric, cardiac tonic. whole plant—vermifuge. Juice of plant antiviral.

Leaves contain glucoproteins.

A related species, Dicentra anatoli- cus Boiss, found in the Western Himalayas, is used as an antiperiodic in intermittent fevers.... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Didymocarpus Pedicellata

R.Br.

Synonym: D. macrophylla auct. non-Wall. ex D. Don.

Family: Gesneriaceae.

Habitat: Sub-tropical Himalaya from Himachal Pradesh to Aruna- chal Pradesh at 500-2,500 m.

Ayurvedic: Kshudra-Paashaana- bheda, Shilaa-valkaa, Shilaa- pushpa.

Action: Leaf—antilithic. Used for stones in kidney and bladder.

The leaves contain a number of chal- cones, quinochalcones and flavanones. Pediflavone has also been isolated from young leaves.... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Diethylcarbamazine

n. an anthelmintic drug that destroys filariae and is therefore used in the treatment of filariasis and loiasis. Side-effects may include headache, malaise, joint pains, nausea, and vomiting.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Diethylcarbamazine Citrate

A FILARICIDE derived from PIPERAZINE used to treat FILARIASIS – a group of diseases caused by parasitic worms called nematode ?lariae.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Dipterocarpus Alatus

Roxb.

Synonym: D. incanus Roxb.

Family: Dipterocarpaceae.

Habitat: The Andamans.

English: Gurjun.

Ayurvedic: Ashwakarna, Garjan, Shveta-Garjan, Jarandruma.

Action: Decoction of the bark is prescribed in rheumatism. Oil— applied to ulcerated wounds. Balsam—applied externally in gonorrhoea.

Dipterocarpus resin gave sesquiter- penoids. The essential oil contains 2 sesquiterpenoids of eudesmane series.... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Dipterocarpus Turbinatus

Gaertn. f.

Synonym: D. indicus Bedd.

Family: Dipterocarpaceae.

Habitat: The Andamans and Assam.

English: Common Gurjun tree, Wood Oil tree.

Ayurvedic: Ajakarna, Chhaagakar- na, Ashwakarna.

Siddha/Tamil: Enney, Saara.

Folk: Gurjan.

Action: Oleo-resin (known as Gurjan Oil or Gurjan Balsam)— stimulant to genitourinary system, diuretic, spasmolytic; used externally on ulcers, ringworm and other cutaneous affections. Bark—a decoction is prescribed rheumatism.

Essential oil from oleo-resin contained humulene, beta-caryophyllene, a bicyclic sesquiterpene hydrocarbon and a sesquiterpene alcohol.

The twig bark contains 9% tannin and 7.3% soluble non-tans.

Dosage: Oil—3-5 ml. (CCRAS.)... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Direct Patient Care

Any activities by a health professional involving direct interaction, treatment, administration of medications or other therapy or involvement with a patient.... Community Health

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Community Health

Domiciliary Care

Care provided in an individual’s own home.... Community Health

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Community Health

Dopa-decarboxylase Inhibitors

Drugs used in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease.

The 2 main dopa-decarboxylase inhibitors, co-beneldopa and co-careldopa, are a combination of levodopa and benserazide and levodopa and carbidopa respectively.

These drugs prevent levodopa from being activated except within the brain, which reduces the incidence of side effects such as nausea and vomiting.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Dropsy: Cardiac

 Oedema (excess fluid in the tissues) may be due to poor circulation from impaired heart action. The condition is worse at the end of the day.

Treatment. Agents in frequent use: Broom, Lily of the Valley, Hawthorn (blossoms or berries), Motherwort.

Tea. Combine equal parts: Dandelion root, Motherwort, Yarrow. 2 teaspoons to each cup boiling water; infuse 5-15 minutes; 1 cup thrice daily.

Powders. Equal parts: Dandelion root, Juniper berries, Hawthorn berries. Mix. Dose: 500mg (two 00 capsules or one-third teaspoon).

Practitioner. Lily of the Valley. Dose as BHP (1983): Liquid Extract: 1:1 in 25 per cent alcohol, 0.6-2ml. Tincture: 1:5 in 40 per cent alcohol, 0.5-1ml. Thrice daily.

Dropsy in children: cucumber juice extracted from vegetable with aid of a juicer. As many cupfuls as well-tolerated. If vomiting is induced, it should be regarded as favourable.

Diet. Lacto-vegetarian, salt-free, bottled or spring water, honey. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

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Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

Ductal Carcinoma In Situ

(DCIS) the earliest stage of breast cancer, detectable by mammography, which is confined to the lactiferous (milk) ducts of the breast. See carcinoma in situ.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Duty Of Care

A legal requirement that a person act towards others and the public with the watchfulness, attention, caution and prudence that a reasonable person would use in the circumstance. If a person’s actions do not meet this standard of care, then the acts are considered negligent, and any damages resulting may be claimed in a lawsuit for negligence.... Community Health

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Community Health

Dying, Care Of The

Physical and psychological care with the aim of making the final period of a dying person’s life as free from pain, discomfort, and emotional distress as possible. Carers may include doctors, nurses, other medical professionals, counsellors, social workers, clergy, family, and friends.

Pain can be relieved by regular low doses of analgesic drugs. Opioid analgesics, such as morphine, may be given if pain is severe. Other methods of pain relief include nerve blocks, cordotomy, and TENS. Nausea and vomiting may be controlled by drugs. Constipation can be treated with laxatives. Breathlessness is another common problem in the dying and may be relieved by morphine.

Towards the end, the dying person may be restless and may suffer from breathing difficulty due to heart failure or pneumonia. These symptoms can be relieved by drugs and by placing the patient in a more comfortable position.

Emotional care is as important as the relief of physical symptoms.

Many dying people feel angry or depressed and feelings of guilt or regret are common responses.

Loving, caring support from family, friends, and others is important.

Many terminally ill people prefer to die at home.

Few terminally ill patients require complicated nursing for a prolonged period.

Care in a hospice may be offered.

Hospices are small units that have been established specifically to care for the dying and their families.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Dysrhythmia, Cardiac

A medical term meaning disturbance of heart rhythm, sometimes used as an alternative to arrhythmia (see arrhythmia, cardiac).... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Echocardiography

A method of obtaining an image of the structure and movement of the heart with ultrasound. Echocardiography is a major diagnostic technique used to detect structural, and some functional, abnormalities of the heart wall, heart chambers, heart valves, and large coronary arteries. It is also used to diagnose congenital heart disease (see heart disease, congenital), cardiomyopathy, aneurysms, pericarditis, and blood clots in the heart.

A transducer (an instrument that sends out and receives sound signals) is placed on the chest, or an ultrasound probe is passed into the oesophagus using a flexible endoscope. Ultrasound waves are reflected differently by each part of the heart, resulting in a complex series of echoes, which are viewed on a screen and can be recorded or the results printed out. Developments such as multiple moving transducers and computer analysis give clear anatomical pictures of the heart.

Doppler echocardiography measures the velocity of blood flow through the heart, allowing assessment of structural abnormalities, such as septal defects.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Echocardiography

n. the use of *ultrasound waves to investigate and display the action of the heart as it beats. Used in the diagnosis and assessment of congenital and acquired heart diseases, it is safe, painless, and reliable and reduces the need for cardiac *catheterization. M-mode echocardiography uses a single beam of ultrasound. The image produced is not anatomical but permits precise measurement of cardiac dimensions and the diagnosis of valvular, myocardial, and pericardial disease. 2-D echocardiography uses a pulsed array of ultrasound beams to build up a moving image on a TV monitor of the chambers and valves of the heart. In Doppler echocardiography ultrasound reflected from moving red blood cells is subject to the Doppler effect (change of frequency with velocity relative to the observer), which can be used to calculate blood flow and pressure within the heart and great vessels. It is useful in the diagnosis and assessment of valve disease and intracardiac shunts. In transoesophageal echocardiography (TOE) the ultrasound probe is mounted on an oesophageal endoscope. The examination from within the oesophagus allows the probe to be placed directly against the back of the heart, which enables improved visualization of the posterior structures.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Echocardiography

The use of ultrasonics (see ULTRASOUND) for the purpose of examining the HEART. By thus recording the echo (hence the name) from the heart of ultrasound waves, it is possible to study, for example, the movements of the heart valves as well as the state of the interior of the heart. Safe, reliable and painless, the procedure cuts the need for the physically interventionist procedure of CARDIAC CATHETERISATION.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Economy Of Care

Costs are the measure of the economic function of care. Total costs and unit costs are the basic indicators.... Community Health

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Community Health

Elaeocarpus Ganitrus

Roxb. ex G. Don.

Synonym: E. sphaericus K. Schum. Ganitrus sphaericus Gaertn.

Family: Elaeocarpaceae.

Habitat: West Bengal, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh, Western Ghats.

English: Utrasum Bead tree.

Ayurvedic: Rudraaksha, Panch- mukhi.

Siddha/Tamil: Rudraaksham.

Action: Fruit—used for epileptic fits and headache. Powdered fruits (0.5 g) mixed with warm water are given two/three times daily in asthma. Stem bark— hypoglycaemic.

The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India indicated the use of the seed in hypertension, insomnia, psychoneurosis and mental diseases.

The fruits contain palmitic, iso- palmitic, linoleic and myristic acids. Leaves gave alkaloids—rudrakine, (+)- elacocarpine and (+)-iso-elacocarpine; phenolics—quercetin, gallic acid and ellagic acid. EtOH (50%) extract of stem bark—hypoglycaemic. Aqueous extract of fruits—sedative, hy- potensive, spasmolytic, anticonvul- sant, choleretic, bronchodilatory and cardiostimulant.

The fruit of E. oblongus Mast. non- Gaertn., synonym E. glandulosus Wall. ex Merrill (Western Ghats) is used in mental disorders and tetanus.

Dosage: Seed—1-2 g. (API Vol. IV.)

Siddha/Tamil: Ruthracham, Pagumbar.

Folk: Rudirak, Bhutali.

Action: Bark—stomachic, antibil- ious. Used in haematemesis. Nut— antiepileptic, antirheumatic.

The leaves gave quercetin, kaempfer- ol, gallic acid and ethylgallate.... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Elaeocarpus Serratus

Linn.

Synonym: E. cuneatus Wt.

Family: Elaeocarpaceae.

Habitat: Eastern Himalayas and Western Ghats up to 1,000 m. English: Wild Olive tree, Ceylon Olive.

Ayurvedic: Rudraaksha (var.). Siddha/Tamil: Uttraccham, Ulankarei.

Action: Leaf—antirheumatic. Fruit—antidysenteric. Aerial parts—CVS and CNS active.

The leaves gave ellagic acid, myric- itrin, myricetin and mearnsetin. Fruit pulp gave citric acid and D-galactose. It contains pectin (2.57% fresh weight basis).... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Elaeocarpus Tuberculatus

Roxb.

Family: Celastraceae.

Habitat: Throughout India, also planted as an ornamental.

Ayurvedic: Krishnamokshaka.

Siddha/Tamil: Selluppaimaram.

Folk: Kaalaa-mokhaa, Ratangaruur. Jamrasi (gum).

Action: Astringent, anti- inflammatory, emetic.

The bark and the leaves contain 813.5 and 8-15% tannin respectively.

Powdered leaves have a sternutatory action and are used as snuff to relieve headache and as a fumigatory in hysteria (in folk medicine it is believed that the smoke wards off ghosts.)

Fresh root bark is rubbed into a paste with water and applied to swellings. A cold water extract of the crushed roots is used as an emetic (fatal in overdoses).

Family: Elaeocarpaceae.

Habitat: Western Ghats from Kanara southwards. Ayurvedic: Rudraaksha (var.).... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Elastic Cartilage

a type of *cartilage in which elastic fibres are distributed in the matrix. It is yellowish in colour and is found in the external ear.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Elder Care

See “aged care”.... Community Health

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Community Health

Electrocardiogram

(ECG) n. a tracing of the electrical activity of the heart recorded by *electrocardiography (see illustration). It aids in the diagnosis of heart disease, which may produce characteristic changes in the ECG. See QRS complex; Q–T interval; S–T segment.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Electrocardiogram (ecg)

A record of the variations in electric potential which occur in the HEART as it contracts and relaxes. Any muscle in use produces an electric current, but when an individual is at rest, the main muscular current in the body is that produced by the heart. This can be recorded by connecting the outside of the body by electrodes with an instrument known as an electrocardiograph. The patient is connected to the electrocardiograph by leads from either the arms and legs or di?erent points on the chest. The normal electrocardiogram of each heartbeat shows one wave corresponding to the activity of the atria and four waves corresponding to the phases of each ventricular beat. Various readily recognisable changes are seen in cases in which the heart is acting in an abnormal manner, or in which one or other side of the heart is enlarged. This record therefore forms a useful aid in many cases of heart disease (see HEART, DISEASES OF). The main applications of the electrocardiogram are in the diagnosis of myocardial infarction and of cardiac ARRHYTHMIA.

Electrocardiography

A method of recording the electrical activity of the heart muscles. Electrodes from a recording machine (electrocardiograph) are placed on the skin of the chest wall, arms and legs. The record of the electrical changes is called an ECG (electrocardiogram). The number of electrodes used depends on the complexity of the heart disorder being monitored. The procedure can be done in hospital, doctors’ surgeries and the patient’s home, and should not cause any discomfort.

In certain circumstances – for example, where a person has had bouts of chest pain – an exercise ECG may be performed under medical supervision. The patient walks on a treadmill while the ECG is recorded continuously.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Electrocardiography

n. a technique for recording the electrical activity of the heart. Electrodes connected to the recording apparatus (electrocardiograph) are placed on the skin of the four limbs and chest wall; the record itself is called an *electrocardiogram (ECG). In conventional scalar electrocardiography 12 leads (see lead2) are recorded, but more may be employed in special circumstances. Intracardiac electrocardiography involves the passage of a recording catheter into the heart for accurate mapping and analysis of arrhythmias (see electrophysiological study).... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Electrocardiophonography

n. a technique for recording heart sounds and murmurs simultaneously with the ECG, which is used as a reference tracing. The sound is picked up by a microphone placed over the heart. The tracing is a phonocardiogram. It provides a permanent record of heart sounds and murmurs and is useful in their analysis.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Elettaria Cardamomum

Maton.

Family: Compositae; Asteraceae.

Habitat: Throughout warmer parts of India.

Ayurvedic: Mayura-shikhaa, Gojihvaa. (Actinopteris dichotoma Bedd. and Celosia cristata Linn. are also used as Mayura-shikhaa. Anchusa strigosa Lebill., and other Boraginaecae sp. are used as Gojihvaa.)

Siddha/Tamil: Yaanaichhuvadi.

Folk: Mayurjuti, Maaraajuti.

Action: Plant—astringent, cardiac tonic, diuretic, mucilaginous, emmolient (used in dysuria, diarrhoea, dysentery. Leaves—

Family: Zingiberaceae.

Habitat: Cultivated either as pure plantation crop, or as subsidiary to coffee and arecanut in hilly forests regions of Western Ghats in Karnataka and Kerala, and in parts of Madurai, the Nilgiris and Tirunelveli in Tamil Nadu.

English: Lesser Cardamom.

Ayurvedic: Elaa, Sukshmailaa, Kshudrailaa, Bhrngaparnikaa, Tutthaa, Draavidi, Prithvikaa, Triputaa, Truti, Upkunchikaa.

Unani: Heel Khurd.

Siddha/Tamil: Yelakkai, Ilam.

Action: Carminative antiemetic, stomachic, orexigenic, anti-gripe, antiasthmatic, bechic, Oil— antispasmodic, antiseptic. Used for flatulence, loss of appetite, colic, bronchitis, asthma. Paste used as balm for headache, husk for rheumatism.

Key application: In dyspepsia; also as cholagogue. (German Commission E.)

The seeds yield an essential oil (611% dry basis). The major constituents are, 1,8-cineole and alpha-terpinylace- tate, with limonene, alpha-terpineol, sabinene and linalool. The seeds contain palmitic and oleic as dominant fatty acids, besides linoleic and linolenic acids, along with alpha-tocopherol, desmosterol and campesterol.

The extracts of cardamom cause a significant decrease in gastric secretion after 3 h of treatment. The effect of methanol extract is primarily observed as decreased pepsin output.

Terpineol and acetylterpineol, the active principles of cardamom seeds, showed greater penetration enhancing capacities than Azone which was used as a comparative penetration enhancer for the diffusion of Pred- nisolone through mouse skin in vitro.

Volatile components exhibit antimicrobial activity. The oil inhibits afla- toxin synthesis.

The cardamom seed can trigger gallstone colic (spasmodic pain) and is not recommended for self-medication in patients with gallstone. (German Commission E, PDR, Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, 2007.)

Dosage: Seed of dried fruit—1-2 g powder. (API Vol I.)... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Encarnacion

(Spanish) Refers to the Incarnation festival... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

End-of-life Care

medication and other treatment to make a dying patient comfortable. See hospice; palliative.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

End-of-life Care

Care of older persons who are dying.... Community Health

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Community Health

Endocarditis

Two types – simple and ulcerative. Inflammation of the membrane lining of the heart with the appearance of small fibrin accumulations on the valves. These may form during a specific fever – rheumatic, scarlet, etc, due to bacterial infection. In Bacterial Endocarditis, fragments of tissue may be shed from the main seat of infection and borne to other parts of the body, promoting inflammation or ischaemia elsewhere.

Affects more women than men, ages 20 to 40 years. Most cases have a history of rheumatic fever as a child. Thickening of the valves renders them less efficient in regulating the flow of blood through the heart thus allowing leakage by improper closure. Increased effort is required from the heart muscle to pump blood through the narrowed valves giving rise to fatigue and possible heart failure.

Prolapsus of the mitral valve is now recognised as predisposing to bacterial endocarditis. It is concluded that herbal antibiotic prophylaxis is justified in heart patients undergoing dental extraction, or other surgery where there is exposure to infection.

Symptoms: Breathlessness on exertion. Swelling of legs and ankles, palpitations, fainting, blue tinge to the skin and a permanent pink flush over the cheek bones. Clubbing of fingers. Enlarged spleen. Stethoscope reveals valvular regurgitation. The most common organism remains streptococcus viridans, by mouth. It may reach the heart by teeth extraction, scaling and intensive cleaning which may draw blood, posing a risk by bacteria.

Treatment. Acute conditions should be under the authority of a heart specialist in an Intensive Care Unit.

Absolute bedrest to relieve stress on the heart’s valves. For acute infection: Penicillin (or other essential antibiotics). Alternatives, of limited efficacy: Echinacea, Myrrh, Wild Indigo, Nasturtium, Holy Thistle. Avoid: excitement, chills, colds, fatigue and anything requiring extra cardiac effort. Convalescence will be long (weeks to months) during which resumption to normal activity should be gradual.

Aconite. With full bounding pulse and restless fever. Five drops Tincture Aconite to half a glass (100ml) water. 2 teaspoons hourly until temperature falls.

To sustain heart. Tincture Convallaria (Lily of the Valley), 5-15 drops, thrice daily.

To stimulate secretion of urine. Tincture Bearberry, 1-2 teaspoons, thrice daily.

Rheumatic conditions. Tincture Colchicum, 10-15 drops, thrice daily.

Various conventional treatments of the past can still be used with good effect: Tincture Strophanthus, 5 to 15 drops. Liquid Extract Black Cohosh, 15 to 30 drops. Spirits of Camphor, 5 to 10 drops. Bugleweed (American), 10 to 30 drops. To increase body strength: Echinacea. To sustain heart muscle: Hawthorn. Endocarditis with severe headache: Black Cohosh.

Teas: single or in combination (equal parts) – Nettles, Motherwort, Red Clover flowers, Lime flowers. 2 teaspoons to each cup boiling water; infuse 15 minutes. 1 cup 2-3 times daily.

Decoction: equal parts: Hawthorn berries, Echinacea root, Lily of the Valley leaves. Mix. 2 teaspoons to each 2 cups water in a non-aluminium vessel, gently simmer 10 minutes. Dose: 1 cup 2-3 times daily. Formula. Echinacea 20; Cactus 10; Hawthorn 10; Goldenseal 2. Mix. Dose: Powders: 750mg (three 00 capsules or half a teaspoon). Liquid extracts: 1-2 teaspoons. Tinctures: 1-3 teaspoons. Thrice daily.

Diet. See entry: DIET – HEART AND CIRCULATION. Pineapple juice. Treatment by or in liaison with general medical practitioner or cardiologist. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

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Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

Endocarditis

n. inflammation of the lining of the heart cavity (endocardium) and valves. It is most often due to rheumatic fever or results from bacterial infection (bacterial endocarditis). Temporary or permanent damage to the heart valves may result. The main features are fever, changing heart murmurs, heart failure, and *embolism. Treatment consists of rest and antibiotics; surgery may be required to repair damaged heart valves.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Endocarditis

Inflammation of the endocardium (the membrane that lines the inside of the heart), particularly of the heart valves. Endocarditis is most often due to infection with bacteria, fungi, or other microorganisms, which may be introduced into the bloodstream during surgery or by intravenous injection with dirty needles. People whose endocardium has previously been damaged by disease are particularly vulnerable to endocarditis, as are intravenous drug users and people whose immune system is suppressed. Endocarditis is also a rare feature of some types of cancer.

Endocarditis may be either subacute or acute. In the subacute form, symptoms are general and nonspecific, although serious damage may be caused to a heart valve; the sufferer may complain of fatigue, feverishness, and vague aches and pains. On physical examination, the only evident abnormality may be a heart murmur. Acute endocarditis, which occurs less frequently, comes on suddenly, and causes severe chills, high fever, shortness of breath, and rapid or irregular heartbeat. The infection progresses quickly and may destroy the heart valves, leading to heart failure.

Endocarditis is diagnosed by physical examination and analysis of blood samples.

Tests on the heart may include ECG, echocardiography, and angiography.

Treatment is with high doses of antibiotic drugs, which are usually given intravenously.

Heart-valve surgery may be needed to replace a damaged valve.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Endocarditis

In?ammation of the lining, valves and muscle of the HEART. The main causes are bacterial and virus infections and rheumatic fever, and the condition occurs most often in patients whose ENDOCARDIUM is already damaged by congenital deformities or whose immune system has been suppressed by drugs. Infection may be introduced into the bloodstream during dental treatment or surgical procedures, especially on the heart or on the gastrointestinal system. The condition is potentially very serious and treatment is with large doses of antibiotic drugs. (See HEART, DISEASES OF.)... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Endocardium

n. a delicate membrane, formed of flat endothelial cells, that lines the heart and is continuous with the lining of arteries and veins. At the openings of the heart cavities it is folded back on itself to form the cusps of the valves. It presents a smooth slippery surface, which does not impede blood flow. —endocardial adj.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Endocardium

A thin membrane consisting of ?at endothelial cells; it lines the four chambers of the HEART and is continuous with the lining of arteries and veins. The endocardium has a smooth surface which helps the blood to ?ow easily. The valves at the openings of the heart’s chambers are made from folded-up membranes. In?ammation of the endocardium is called ENDOCARDITIS.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Endomyocarditis

n. an acute or chronic inflammatory disorder of the muscle and lining membrane of the heart. When the membrane surrounding the heart (pericardium) is also involved the condition is termed pancarditis. The principal causes are rheumatic fever and virus infections. There is enlargement of the heart, murmurs, embolism, and frequently arrhythmias. The treatment is that of the cause and complications. See also endocarditis.

A chronic condition, endomyocardial fibrosis, is seen in Black Africans: the cause is unknown.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Ensiform Cartilage

see xiphoid process.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Epicardia

n. the part of the *oesophagus, about 2 cm long, that extends from the level of the diaphragm to the stomach.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Epicardium

n. the outermost layer of the heart wall, enveloping the myocardium. It is a serous membrane that forms the inner layer of the serous *pericardium. —epicardial adj.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Epidermoid Carcinoma

Squamous cell carcin oma; cancer of squamous epithelium.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

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Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

Episode Of Care

The description and measurement of the various health care services and encounters rendered in connection with an identified injury or period of illness.... Community Health

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Community Health

Equity Of Care

Fair treatment of needs, regarding both the distribution of services and allocation of resources.... Community Health

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Community Health

Ethics (of Care)

The basic evaluative principles which (should) guide “good” care. Principles typically refer to respect for, and the dignity of, human beings. Basic dimensions are “autonomy” (respect for self determination), “well-being” (respect for happiness, health and mental integrity) and “social justice” (justifiable distribution of scarce goods and services). More specifically, ethics of care refer to ethical standards developed for the care professions which are designed to implement ethical principles in the practice of care provision.... Community Health

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Community Health

Evidence-based Care

The conscientious, explicit and judicious use of current best evidence in making decisions about the care of individuals. This approach must balance the best external evidence with the desires of the individual and the clinical expertise of health care providers.... Community Health

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Community Health

Excoecaria Agallocha

Linn.

Family: Euphorbiaceae.

Habitat: The coastal and tidal forests of India.

English: Blinding tree.

Siddha/Tamil: Kampetti, Tillai, Agil, Ambala-vrksham.

Folk: Gevaa, Huraa (Maharashtra). Gangawaa.

Action: Latex—antileprotic. The latex blisters the skin and is reported to cause blindness if it enters the eye. The juice, boiled in oil, is applied in rheumatism, paralysis and leprosy.

The leaves are toxic and contain gallo tannins (0.616 mg/g dry weight). Fresh twigs and bark contain a piscici- dal component. The latex is biocidal.... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Extended Care Facility (ecf)

A facility that offers sub-acute care, providing treatment services for people requiring inpatient care who do not currently require continuous acute care services, and admitting people who require convalescent or restorative services or rehabilitative services or people with terminal disease requiring maximal nursing care.... Community Health

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Community Health

External Cardiac Compression

Compression of the outside of the sternum and ribs, effectively emptying and filling the heart to push blood through arteries to supply oxygen to the body - particularly to the brain.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

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Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

Extra Care Sheltered Housing

Housing where there is additional support (such as the provision of meals and extra communal facilities) to that usually found in sheltered housing. Sometimes called ‘very sheltered housing’.... Community Health

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Community Health

Factitious Urticaria

See DERMOGRAPHISM.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Fibrocartilage

n. a tough kind of *cartilage in which there are dense bundles of fibres in the matrix. It is found in the intervertebral discs and pubic symphysis.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Ficus Carica

Linn.

Family: Moraceae.

Habitat: Native to the Mediterranean region; now cultivated in Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Punjab, Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra.

English: Common Fig.

Ayurvedic: Phalgu, Manjul, Raajodumbara, Bhadrodumbara.

Unani: Anjeer, Teen.

Siddha/Tamil: Semaiatti.

Action: Fruit—gentle laxative and expectorant. Syrup of figs— a remedy for mild constipation. Fruit pulp-analgesic and anti- inflammatory, used for treating tumours, swellings and gum abscesses. Latex—analgesic and toxic. Used for treating warts, insect bites and stings. Leaf—used in lucoderma. Bark—used for eczema and other skin diseases.

Key application: As a laxative. (Included among unapproved herbs by German Commission E.)

The leaves gave bergapten, psoralen, taraxasterol, beta-sitosterol, rutin and a sapogenin. Calotropenyl acetate, lep- eol acetate and oleanolic acid have been identified in the leaves.

Three peptides which exhibit action against angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) have been isolated from the fresh latex. Their inhibitory activity is similar to that of ACE inhibitors derived from casein. (ACE catalyzes both the production of vasoconstrictor angiotensin II and the inactivation of the vasodilator bradykinin.)

Dosage: Fruit—10-20 ml juice; 510 g paste. (CCRAS.)... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Ficus Microcarpa

Linn. f.

Synonym: F. retusa auct. non Linn.

Family: Moraceae.

Habitat: West Bengal, Bihar, Central and Peninsular India and Andaman Islands. Grown in gardens, and as an avenue tree. Quite common in New Delhi.

Ayurvedic: Plaksha (related sp.).

Siddha/Tamil: Kal Ichi.

Folk: Itti.

Action: Bark—antibilious. Leaf— antispasmodic. Root bark and leaf— used in preparations of oils and ointments for ulcers, skin diseases, oedema and inflammations.... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Formal Care

See “formal assistance”.... Community Health

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Community Health

Foscarnet

n. an antiviral drug used in the treatment of herpes simplex and *cytomegalovirus retinitis that are resistant to *aciclovir, especially in patients with AIDS. Possible side-effects include thirst and increased urine output, nausea and vomiting, fatigue, headache, and kidney damage.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Foster Care

A form of assisted housing, usually provided in private homes owned and occupied by individuals or families, offering a place of residence, meals, housekeeping services, minimum supervision, and personal care for a fee to non-family members who do not require supervision by skilled medical personnel.... Community Health

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Community Health

Geriatric Care

Care of older persons that encompasses a wide range of treatments from intensive care to palliative care.... Community Health

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Community Health

Glossocardia Bosvallia

DC.

Synonym: G. linearifolia Cass.

Family: Compositae; Asteraceae.

Habitat: Plains of Northern and Western India and Deccan Peninsula.

Ayurvedic: Parpata (substitute). (Fumaria parvifolora Linn., Hedyotis corymbosa (L.) Lam synonym Oldenlandia corymbosa Linn., Mollugo cerviana (L.) Ser., Justicia procumbens Linn., Polycarpea corymbosa Lam are also used as Parpata for fevers.)

Siddha: Parapalanamu.

Action: Used as emmenagogue.

The essential oil from the plant is antimicrobial, that from flowers an- thelmintic.... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase

(GAD) a common enzyme that, because of similarities to certain bacterial proteins, can provoke an autoimmune reaction against the beta cells of the pancreas (see islet cell antibodies) progressing to type 1 *diabetes mellitus.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Gynocardia Odorata

R.Br.

Synonym: Hydnocarpus odorata Landl.

Family: Flacourtiaceae.

Habitat: Eastern Himalayas, Khasi Hills and Sikkim.

Ayurvedic: Chaalmograa (substitute). Tuvaraka (var.) (Controversial synonyms.)

Unani: Tukhm-e-Biranj Mograa.

Folk: Chaaval-mungari.

Action: Oil from seed used in psoriasis, eczema, scrofula, gout, rheumatic affections.

A triterpenoid ketolactone, odolac- tone, has been isolated from the plant. The fruit pulp is used as piscic. The seeds of G. odorata were formerly, erroneously, thought to be the source Chaalmograa oil of commerce obtained from the seeds of Hydnocar- pus kurzii, used in leprosy. Gynocardia oil does not contain chaulmoogric or hydnocarpic acid.... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Haemopericardium

The presence of blood in the PERICARDIUM, the membranous sac which surrounds the heart. The condition may result from a myocardial infarction (see HEART, DISEASES OF), leaking ANEURYSM, injury, or tumour. Because the pericardial blood compresses the heart, the latter’s pumping action is impeded, reducing the blood pressure and causing cardiac failure. Urgent surgical drainage of the blood may be required.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Haemopericardium

n. the presence of blood within the membranous sac (pericardium) surrounding the heart, which may result from injury, tumours, rupture of the heart (e.g. following myocardial infarction), or a leaking aneurysm. The heart is compressed (see cardiac tamponade) and the circulation impaired; a large fall in blood pressure and cardiac arrest may result. Surgical drainage of the blood may be life saving.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Hair Care

Hair, like nails and skin, is a protein material built up on amino acids. It is rich in minerals, especially sulphur. A sebaceous gland at the base of the hair follicle secretes sebum, an oily substance, which acts as a lubricant. When vital minerals and vitamins are lacking in the blood the quality of fibre and sebum deteriorates resulting in lustreless hair and change of texture. Healthy hair depends upon good personal hygiene, brushing, and washing with gentle-acting materials instead of harsh detergent shampoos which remove natural oils from the scalp and spoils its condition.

An adequate daily intake of essential fatty acids is assured by the golden oils (Sunflower, Corn, etc) which can be well supported by Evening Primrose oil capsules.

Internal: Bamboo gum. Nettle tea, Alfalfa, Horsetail, Soya.

Topical. Shampoo. Soapwort or Yucca. Chop 2 tablespoons (dry) or 1 tablespoon (fresh) leaves or root. Place in cup of warm water. Stir until a froth is produced. Decant and massage liquor into scalp.

Aloe Vera gel is noted for its moisturising effect and to provide nutrients. It may be used as a shampoo, hair set and conditioner. Jojoba oil has been used for centuries by the Mexican Indians for a healthy scalp; today, it is combined with Evening Primrose and Vitamin E with good effect. Olive oil stimulates strong growth.

One of several herbs may be used as a rinse, including Nettles, Rosemary, Southernwood, Fennel, Chamomile, Yellow Dock and Quassia. Hair should be washed not more than once weekly with warm water and simple vegetable soap; rinse four times with warm rinse, finishing off with cold. Brunettes should add a little vinegar; blondes, lemon juice. Selenium once had a reputation as a hair conditioner; recent research confirms. Selenium shampoos are available.

Supplements: Vitamins B (complex), B6, Choline, C and E. Copper, Zinc, Selenium, Vitamin B12 (50mg thrice daily).

Aromatherapy. 2 drops each: Sage, Nettles, Thyme; to 2 teaspoons Gin or Vodka, and massage into the scalp daily. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

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Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

Health And Social Care Information Centre

(HSCIC) formerly, an executive nondepartmental public body set up in April 2013 to collect, analyse, and publish UK national health data and supply IT systems and services to health-care providers nationwide. It was rebranded as *NHS Digital in August 2016.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Health Care

Services provided to individuals or communities by health service providers for the purpose of promoting, maintaining, monitoring or restoring health.... Community Health

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Community Health

Health Care

see primary care; secondary care; tertiary care.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Health Care Delivery System

See “health system”.... Community Health

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Community Health

Health Care Institution / Facility

Any establishment that is engaged in direct patient care on site.... Community Health

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Community Health

Health Care Team

A group comprising a variety of professionals (medical practitioners, nurses, physical and occupational therapists, social workers, pharmacists, spiritual counsellors), as well as family members, who are involved in providing coordinated and comprehensive care. There are three types of health care team, defined by the degree of interaction among members and the sharing of responsibility for care:... Community Health

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Community Health

Health Care Technology Assessment (hcta)

The systematic evaluation of properties, effects and/or impacts of health care technology. It may address the direct, intended consequences of technologies as well as their indirect, unintended consequences.... Community Health

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Community Health

Health-care Commissioning

identifying services required to meet population health-care needs and obtaining such services from an appropriate service provider via allocation of resources and contracting arrangements. Commissioners monitor the quality of commissioned services, including adherence to any appropriate national standards. Most NHS commissioning is undertaken by *clinical commissioning groups or *NHS England.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Health-care Priorities

As the needs and demands of patients, and the costs of health care of populations, have risen sharply in recent years, governments and health-care providers – whether tax-funded, insurance-based, employer-provided or a mix of these – have had increasingly to face the dilemma of what services a country or a community can a?ord to provide. As a result, various techniques for deciding priorities of care and treatment are evolving. In the United Kingdom, priorities were for many years based on the decisions of individual clinicians who had wide freedom to prescribe the most appropriate care. Increasingly, this clinical freedom is being circumscribed by managerial, community and political decisions driven in part by the availability of resources and by what people want. Rationing services, however, is not popular and as yet no broadly agreed consensus has emerged, either in western Europe or in North America, as to how priorities can be decided that have broad community support and which can be a?orded. (See CLINICAL GOVERNANCE; EVIDENCE-BASED MEDICINE.)... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Healthcare Commission (commission For Health Improvement)

Launched in 1999 in England and Wales as CHI, this is an inspectorate charged with protecting patients from ‘unacceptable failings in the National Health Service’. A statutory body under the 1999 Health Act, it evaluates and re?nes local systems designed to safeguard standards of clinical quality. Working separately from the NHS and the health departments, it o?ers an independent safeguard that provides systems to monitor and improve clinical quality in primary care, community services and hospitals. As of 2004 it became responsible for dealing with patients’ complaints if they could not be settled by the trust concerned. The board members include health professionals, academics and eight lay members. Scotland has set up a similar statutory body. (See APPENDIX 7: STATUTORY ORGANISATIONS.)... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Hibernating Myocardium

an area of heart muscle subject to critical coronary ischaemia sufficient to cause reversible impairment of function but insufficient to result in death of the muscle. Also known as viable myocardium, it is detected by MRI scanning of the heart. The clinical importance is that restoration of normal coronary blood flow may improve heart muscle contraction.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

High Dependency Care Facility

An establishment primarily engaged in providing inpatient nursing and rehabilitative services to individuals requiring nursing care.... Community Health

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Community Health

Home Health Agency (hha) / Home Health Care Agency

A public or private organization that provides home health services supervised by a licensed health professional in a person’s home, either directly or through arrangements with other organizations.... Community Health

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Community Health

Home Health Care / Home Care

See “domiciliary care”.... Community Health

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Community Health

Home-from-hospital / Hospital After-care Schemes

Schemes providing nursing care, personal care or practical help for older people who have returned home after a stay in hospital.... Community Health

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Community Health

Hospice Care

A cluster of comprehensive services that address the needs of dying persons and their families, including medical, spiritual, legal, financial and family support services.... Community Health

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Community Health

Housing With Care

A range of housing schemes providing high levels of care.... Community Health

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Community Health

Hyaline Cartilage

the most common type of *cartilage: a bluish-white elastic material with a matrix of chondroitin sulphate in which fine collagen fibrils are embedded.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Hydnocarpus Kurzii

(King) Warb.

Synonym: H. heterophylla auct. non-Bl. Taractogenos Kurzii King.

Family: Flacourtiaceae.

Habitat: Assam and Tripura.

English: Chalmogra.

Ayurvedic: Tuvaraka (related species, substitute for H. laurifolia.)

Unani: Chaalmograa, Tukhm-e- Biranj Mograa.

Siddha/Tamil: Niradi-muttu.

Action: Antileprotic, dermatic, febrifuge, sedative. Used parenter- ally for leprosy; also for psoriasis, eczema and dermatitis.

The plant is a source of chaulmoogra oil (Oleum Chaulmoograe which contains hydnocarpic, chaulmoogric, gor- lic, oleic, palmitic acids and lower homologues of hydnocarpic acid. The oil mixed with neem oil or oil of Psoralea corylifolia is used in leprosy.

In mice, intraperitoneal and subcutaneous administration of chaul- moogra fatty acids demonstrated antimicrobial activity against Mycobac- terium leprae. (PDR.)... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Hydnocarpus Laurifolia

(Dennst.) Sleumer.

Synonym: H. wightiana Blume.

Family: Flacourtiaceae.

Habitat: Western Ghats.

English: Soorty Oil tree.

Ayurvedic: Tuvaraka, Katu- Kapittha, Kushtavairi, Garudaphala, Chaalmograa.

Unani: Chaalmograa, Tukhm-e- Biranj Mograa.

Siddha/Tamil: Maravattai, Niradi- muttu.

Action: Seed oil—antileprotic, anti-inflammatory, antirheumatic.

The seed oil gave chemical constituents similar to Hydnocarpus kuzii, and contain the flavonolignan, hyd- nowightin, hydnocarpin and neohyd- nocarpin.

Hydnocarpin showed good anti- inflammatory and anti-neoplastic activity in mice, in vivo. Cytotoxicity against the growth of murine and human tissue cultured cells was also observed.

The stem bark and leaves contain triterpenes, acelylbetulinic, betulinic, ursolic and acetylursolic acids.

Dosage: Seed—3-5 g powder; oil— 5-10 drops. (CCRAS.)... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Hydrocarbamide

A drug used to treat chronic myeloid leukaemia (see MYELOID; LEUKAEMIA).... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Hydropericarditis

n. see hydropericardium.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Hydropericardium

n. accumulation of a clear serous fluid within the membranous sac surrounding the heart. It occurs in many cases of *pericarditis (hydropericarditis). If the heart is compressed the fluid is withdrawn (aspirated) via a needle inserted into the pericardial sac through the chest wall (pericardiocentesis). See also hydropneumopericardium.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Hydropneumopericardium

n. the presence of air and clear fluid within the pericardial sac around the heart, which is most commonly due to entry of air during pericardiocentesis (see hydropericardium). The presence of air does not affect the management of the patient.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Hydroxycarbamide

(hydroxyurea) n. a drug that prevents cell growth and is used mainly to treat chronic myeloid leukaemia but also to reduce the frequency of sickle-cell crises (see sickle-cell disease). Hydroxycarbamide may lower the white cell content of the blood due to its effects on the bone marrow.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Hypecoum Leptocarpum

Hook. f. & Thoms.

Family: Papaveraceae.

Habitat: Mediterranean region and temperate Asia. (Allied species: H. pendulum Linn. and H. procumbens Linn., found in Peshavar, Multan, Waziristan and Baluchistan). Occurs in Sikkim.

Folk: Zirgulaki, Waziri.

Action: Used in stomachache. Juice of the plant has the same effect as opium. Leaves diaphoretic. Plant— narcotic.

The whole plant contains protopine (0.19) as the major alkaloid.... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

a familial condition affecting the heart, characterized by unexplained thickening (hypertrophy) of the wall of the left ventricle. In many cases this is an incidental finding and patients have a good outcome. However, more severely affected patients may suffer chest pain, tachyarrhythmia (see arrhythmia), heart failure, and sudden death. In some cases there is focal thickening of muscle around the left ventricular outflow tract (asymmetric septal hypertrophy, ASH), and this can result in restriction of blood flow to the body (hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy, HOCM). The diagnosis is made by electrocardiography, echocardiography, and cardiac *magnetic resonance imaging. Usually drug treatment is sufficient to control symptoms, but some patients require cardiac *catheterization or surgical treatment. Those deemed at highest risk of sudden death may require an *implantable cardiovertor defibrillator.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Ichnocarpus Frutescens

R. Br.

Family: Apocynaceae.

Habitat: Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Assam and the Sunderbans.

English: Black Creeper.

Ayurvedic: Gopavalli, Krishna Saarivaa (var.), Krishna-muuli, Shyaamalataa.

Siddha/Tamil: Karunannari, Makalikilanzhu.

Folk: Kaalisar, Karantaa.

Action: Root—demulcent, diuretic, alterative, diaphoretic; used in fevers, dyspepsia and cutaneous affections. The roots of the plant are used as a substitute for Indian sarsaparilla and are often mixed with the roots of Hemidesmus indicus (their therapeutic properties for use as sarsaparilla have bot been established).

The root gave 2-hydroxy-4-meth- oxybenzaldehyde.

Alkaloids and flavonoids were present in the roots but not in the leaves and fruits. Saponins were absent in these parts. The whole plant gave n-butyl sorboside, kaempferol and its gluco- side.... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Implantable Cardiovertor Defibrillator

(ICD) a self-contained device, similar to a *pacemaker, that monitors heart rhythm and delivers an electric shock to correct life-threatening arrhythmia. See also defibrillator.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Incarcerated

adj. confined or constricted so as to be immovable: applied particularly to a type of *hernia.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Informal Care

See “informal assistance”.... Community Health

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Community Health

Institutional (care) Health Services

Health services delivered on an inpatient basis in hospitals, nursing homes or other inpatient institutions. The term may also refer to services delivered on an outpatient basis by departments or other organizational units of such institutions, or sponsored by them.... Community Health

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Community Health

Integrated Care

The methods and strategies for linking and coordinating the various aspects of care delivered by different care systems, such as the work of general practitioners, primary and specialty care, preventive and curative services, and acute and long-term care, as well as physical and mental health services and social care, to meet the multiple needs/problems of an individual client or category of persons with similar needs/problems.... Community Health

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Community Health

Integrated Care Pathway

a multidisciplinary plan for delivering health and social care to patients with a specific condition or set of symptoms. Such plans are often used for the management of common conditions and are intended to improve patient care by reducing unnecessary deviation from best practice. See clinical governance.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Intensive Care

Constant close monitoring and treatment of seriously ill patients that enables treatment to be tailored to the patient’s condition on an hour-by-hour basis. Intensive care units (ICUs), sometimes known as intensive treatment units (ITUs), contain electronic equipment to monitor vital functions such as blood pressure and heart-rate and rhythm. Frequently, patients in these units require mechanical ventilation, in which a machine takes over or assists with breathing. Urine output, fluid balance, and blood chemistry are recorded regularly. Fluids are given intravenously. If nutrients are required, they are supplied to the stomach through a tube. There is a high ratio of specially trained nursing and medical staff to patients.

(See also coronary care unit.)... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Intensive Care

Advanced and highly specialized care provided to medical or surgical patients whose conditions are life-threatening and require comprehensive care and constant monitoring. It is usually administered in a specially equipped unit of a health care facility. It can also be administered at home under certain circumstances (dialysis, respirators, etc.).... Community Health

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Community Health

Intensive Care Medicine

The origin of this important branch of medicine lies in the e?ective use of positive-pressure VENTILATION of the lungs to treat respiratory breathing failure in patients affected by POLIOMYELITIS in an outbreak of this potentially fatal disease in Denmark in 1952. Doctors reduced to 40 per cent, the 90 per cent mortality in patients receiving respiratory support with the traditional cuirass ventilator by using the new technique. They achieved this with a combination of manual positive-pressure ventilation provided through a TRACHEOSTOMY by medical students, and by looking after the patients in a speci?c area of the hospital, allowing the necessary sta?ng and equipment resources to be concentrated in one place.

The principle of one-to-one, 24-hours-a-day care for seriously ill patients has been widely adopted and developed for the initial treatment of many patients with life-threatening conditions. Thus, severely injured patients – those with serious medical conditions such as coronary thrombosis or who have undergone major surgery, and individuals suffering from potentially lethal toxic affects of poisons – are treated in an INTENSIVE THERAPY UNIT (ITU). Patients whose respiratory or circulatory systems have failed bene?t especially by being intensively treated. Most patients, especially post-operative ones, leave intensive care when their condition has been stabilised, usually after 24 or 48 hours. Some, however, need support for several weeks or even months. Since 1952, intensive medicine has become a valued specialty and a demanding one because of the range of skills needed by the doctors and nurses manning the ITUs.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Interim Nursing Home Care

Care provided in geriatric centres and acute hospitals to older persons who are in need of limited medical care and who are awaiting nursing home placement.... Community Health

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Community Health

Intermediate Care

a health and social care service that aims to facilitate earlier discharge from hospital or prevent admission to hospital by providing support at a level between *primary care and *secondary care. Intermediate care is provided on a short-term basis, usually no longer than six weeks.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Intermediate Care

A short period of intensive rehabilitation and treatment to enable people to return home following hospitalization or to prevent admission to hospital or residential care.... Community Health

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Community Health

Intermediate Care

See “care”.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Intermediate Care

Described by the UK government as ‘a bridge between hospital and home’ to speed discharge from acute care and provide recovery and rehabilitation services, this concept was a key element in the NHS Plan: plan for investment; a plan for reform, published in 2000. The government sees cottage hospitals, private nursing homes, and domiciliary and community settings as providing the heart of the proposed intermediate-care sector. Also in the plan, however, is the warning that the NHS would meet the costs only of nursing care for nursing-home residents: personal care would in future be charged for. (In Scotland the NHS funds personal-care costs.) The change in England would alter the principles on which the NHS was founded in 1948 – that all citizens would receive a universal, comprehensive service funded by the government. New care trusts will commission and deliver both primary and community health care as well as social care. The trusts will hold uni?ed, capped budgets and they will de?ne what is NHS care and what is social care. The social-care elements will be subject to the charging policies of local authorities. Of the 160,000 or so nursing-home residents in England, under 10 per cent have their care fully funded by the NHS. The funding future of this 10 per cent is uncertain, as will be the personal-care funding of 270,000 NHS patients expected to transfer from hospital into intermediate care each year. It is too early to say what e?ect these changes will have on a vulnerable section of the population. While the principle of using intermediate care to free expensive hospital beds is sensible, the uncertainties over funding and the grey area between the need for nursing and/or residential care will be a worry for elderly people, especially those of limited means. (Legislation to implement the government’s planned changes to the NHS was going through Parliament as this text was going to press, so modi?cations to them are possible.)... Community Health

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Community Health

Intermediate Care Facility (icf)

An institution which is licensed to provide, on a regular basis, health-related care and services to individuals who do not require the degree of care or treatment which a hospital or skilled nursing facility is designed to provide.... Community Health

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Community Health

International Classification Of Health Problems In Primary Care (ichppc)

A classification of diseases, conditions and other reasons for attendance for primary care. This classification is an adaptation of the ICD but makes allowance for the diagnostic uncertainty that prevails in primary care.... Community Health

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Community Health

International Classification Of Primary Care (icpc)

The official classification of the World Organisation of Family Doctors. It includes three elements of the doctor-patient encounter: the reason for the encounter; the diagnosis; and the treatment or other action or intervention.... Community Health

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Community Health

Interventional Cardiology

a subspecialty of cardiology concerned with the treatment of heart conditions using cardiac *catheterization techniques under local anaesthetic and X-ray control, including *percutaneous coronary intervention and percutaneous balloon mitral *valvuloplasty.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Inverse Care Law

an ironic ‘law’ stating that where good health care is most needed, it is usually least available. It was first stated by the Welsh GP Tudor Hart to underline the great difficulty in bringing areas of health-care poverty up to acceptable levels. See health inequalities; justice; need; rationing.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Ipomoea Eriocarpa

R. Br.

Synonym: I. hispida Roem. & Schult.

I. sessiliflora Roth.

Family: Convolvulaceae.

Habitat: Throughout India.

Ayurvedic: Aakhukarni (related species), Sheetavalli (provisional synonym).

Folk: Nikhari, Bhanwar (Punjab).

Action: Antirheumatic, anticepha- lalgic, antiepileptic and antileprotic.

The plant is boiled in oil and used as an application for rheumatism, headache, epilepsy, fevers, ulcers, leprosy. The seeds are reported to contain a resin similar to that present in the seeds of Ipomoea nil.... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Jacaranda

(Latin) Resembling the tree with purple flowers

Jacarannda, Jacarranda, Jacarandah, Jacarandia, Jacarandea, Jakaranda, Jackaranda... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Laevocardia

n. the normal position of the heart, in which its apex is directed towards the left. Compare dextrocardia.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Leonurus Cardiaca

Linn.

Leonotis nepetaefolia (L.) R. Br.

Family: Labiatae; Lamiaceae.

Habitat: Throughout the warmer parts of India.

Ayurvedic: Granthiparni, Kaaka- puchha.

Folk: Gathivan, Deepamaal (Maharashtra).

Action: Leaves—spasmolytic. Ash of flower head—applied to burns and scalds, in ringworm and other skin diseases.

The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia ofIn- dia recommends the root in cough, bronchitis and dyspnoea.

The root contains n-octacosanol, n-octacosanoic acid, quercetin, 4,6,7- trimethoxy-5-methylchromene-2-one, campesterol and beta-sitosterol-beta- D-glucopyranoside.

The plant contains 4,6,7-trimethoxy- 5-methyl-chromene-2-one.

The leaves contain neptaefolin, nep- taefuran, neptaefuranol, neptaefolinol, leonitin, neptaefolinin and (-)-55, 6- octadecadienoic acid.

The seed oil contains oleic, linoleic, palmitic and stearic acids. The fatty

Family: Labiatae; Lamiaceae.

Habitat: Native to Europe; also distributed in Himalayas from Kashmir to Kumaon.

English: Common Motherwort, Lion's Tail.

Unani: Baranjaasif. (Also equated with Artemesia vulgaris Linn; and Achillea millifolium Linn.)

Action: Stomachic, laxative, antispasmodic, diaphoretic, em- menagogue (used in absent or painful menstruation, premenstrual tension, menopausal flushes). Hypnotic, sedative. Used as a cardiac tonic. (Studies in China have shown that Motherwort extracts show antiplatelet aggregation actions and decrease the levels of blood lipids.)

Key application: In nervous cardiac disorders and as adjuvant for thyroid hyperfunction. (German Commission E.) As antispasmodic. (The British Herbal Pharmacopoeia.) The British Herbal Compendium indicated its use for patients who have neuropathic cardiac disorders and cardiac complaints of nervous origin.

The plant contains diterpene bitter principles, iridoid monoterpenes, flavonoids including rutin and querci- trin, leonurin, betaine, caffeic acid derivatives, tannins and traces of a volatile oil.

The herb is a slow acting adjuvant in functional and neurogenic heart diseases. Its sedative and spasmolytic properties combine well with Valeriana officinalis or other cardioactive substances.

The herb contains several components with sedative effects—alpha- pinene, benzaldehyde, caryophyllene, limonene and oleanolic acid. (Sharon M. Herr.)

Habitat: Western Europe. Seeds are imported into India from Persia.

English: Pepper-Grass.

Unani: Bazr-ul-khumkhum, Todari (white var.).

Action: Seeds—blood purifier; prescribed in bronchitis.

The fatty acid of the oil are: oleic 12.9, linoleic 47.87, linolenic 5.43, erucic 31.97, stearic 0.54 and palmitic 1.22%.

The seed mucilage on hydrolysis gave galactose, arabinose, rhamnose and galacturonic acid.

Flowering tops and seeds contain a bitter principle, lepidin.

The plant yield a sulphur-containing volatile oil.... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Lithium Carbonate

A drug widely used in the PROPHYLAXIS treatment of certain forms of MENTAL ILLNESS. The drug should be given only on specialist advice. The major indication for its use is acute MANIA; it induces improvement or remission in over 70 per cent of such patients. In addition, it is e?ective in the treatment of manic-depressive patients (see MANIC DEPRESSION), preventing both the manic and the depressive episodes. There is also evidence that it lessens aggression in prisoners who behave antisocially and in patients with learning diffculties who mutilate themselves and have temper tantrums.

Because of its possible toxic effects – including kidney damage – lithium must only be administered under medical supervision and with monitoring of the blood levels, as the gap between therapeutic and toxic concentrations is narrow. Due to the risk of its damaging the unborn child, it should not be prescribed, unless absolutely necessary, during pregnancy – particularly not in the ?rst three months. Mothers should not take it while breast feeding, as it is excreted in the milk in high concentrations. The drug should not be taken with DIURETICS.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Lobular Carcinoma

cancer that arises in the lobules (rather than the ducts) of the breast. Like ductal carcinoma, it may be confined to its site of origin but can invade other tissues; however, it has a greater tendency than ductal carcinoma to affect both breasts.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Long-term Care (ltc) / Long-term Aged Care

A range of health care, personal care and social services provided to individuals who, due to frailty or level of physical or intellectual disability, are no longer able to live independently. Services may be for varying periods of time and may be provided in a person’s home, in the community or in residential facilities (e.g. nursing homes or assisted living facilities). These people have relatively stable medical conditions and are unlikely to greatly improve their level of functioning through medical intervention.... Community Health

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Community Health

Long-term Care Facility

See “high dependency care facility”.... Community Health

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Community Health

Long-term Care Insurance

Insurance policies which pay for long-term care services (such as nursing home and home care) that are generally not covered by other health insurance.... Community Health

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Community Health

Lytocarpus Philippinus

Commonly known as fireweed, Lytocarpus is a stinging hydroid (hydrozoan) that grows on pilings, rocks and overhangs in tropical and sub-tropical areas of the world. Skin contact causes an itchy vesicular rash.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

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Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

Macaria

(Spanish) One who is blessed Macarisa, Macarria, Maccaria, Makaria, Makarria, Macarea, Macareah... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Magnesium Carbonate

a weak *antacid used to relieve indigestion. It is taken alone or combined with other compounds in mixtures, powders, and tablets.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Managed Care

A health care delivery system which entails interventions to control the price, volume, delivery site and intensity of health services provided, the goal of which is to maximize the value of health benefits and the coordination of health care management for a covered population.... Community Health

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Community Health

Managed Care

a US system that integrates the financing and delivery of medical care by means of contracts with physicians and with hospitals. The goal is to cut costs through economic incentives, cost sharing, controlling the length of inpatient admissions, and careful management of high-cost cases. Providers of managed care take several different forms, including health maintenance organizations and preferred provider organizations.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Managed Care Plan

A health plan that uses managed care arrangements and has a defined system of selected providers who contract with the plan. Those enrolled have a financial incentive to use participating providers who agree to furnish a broad range of services to them. Providers may be paid on a pre-negotiated basis.... Community Health

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Community Health

Managed Health Care

This process aims to reduce the costs of health care while maintaining its quality. The concept originated in the United States but has attracted interest in the United Kingdom and Europe, where the spiralling costs of health care have been causing widespread concern. Managed care works through changing clinical practice, but it is not a discrete entity: the American I. J. Iglehart has de?ned it as ‘a variety of methods of ?nancing and organising the delivery of comprehensive health care in which an attempt is made to control costs by controlling the provision of services’. Managed care has three facets: health policy; how that policy is managed; and how individuals needing health care are dealt with. The process and its applications are still evolving and it is likely that di?erent health-care systems will adapt it to suit their own particular circumstances.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Matricaria Chamomilla

Linn.

Family: Compositae; Asteraceae.

Habitat: Native of Europe; grown in Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh.

English: German Chamomile, Chamomile. German chamomile flower is equated with Matricaria recutita L. (synonym Chamomilla recutita L.) and Roman Chamomile flower with Anthemis nobilis L. (synonym Chamamaelum nobilis L.)

Unani: Baabunaa.

Action: Sedative, anticonvulsant, carminative, antispasmodic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic. See also Anthemis nobilis.

Key application (German Chamomile) ? In inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and gastrointestinal spasm. Externally, in skin, mucous membrane and ano-genital inflammation and bacterial skin diseases. (German Commission E, The British Herbal Compendium.) As anti-inflammatory and anti- spasmodic. (The British Herbal Pharmacopoeia.)

The flowers of German chamomile gave volatile oil up to about 2%, containing alpha-bisabolol up to 50%, azu- lenes including chamazulene, guiazu- line and matricine; flavonoids including apigenin and luteolin and their glycosides, patuletin and quercetin; spiroethers; coumarins; polysaccha- rides.

The flowers are used as herbal tea for cough and cold and for promoting the flow of gastric secretion and bile. In chamomlile extracts, chamazulene has been found responsible for anti- inflammatory activity. Matricine and (-)-alpha-bisabolol also show anti- inflammatory and analgesic activity. Bisabolol exhibits ulceroprotective effect. Natural (-)-alpha-bisabolol has been shown to be significantly effective in healing burns; (-)-alpha-bisabolol, spiroethers and apigenin exhibit spasmolytic effect comparable with that of papaverine.

The polysaccharides are immunos- timulating and activate macrophages and B lymphocytes; play an important role in wound healing.

Crude aqueous extract of the plant has been reported to significantly delay the onset of convulsions and reduce mortality rate produced by picrotoxin experimentally.... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Mcardle’s Disease

A rare genetic disorder characterized by muscle stiffness and painful cramps that increase during exertion and afterwards. The cause is a deficiency of an enzyme in muscle cells that stimulates breakdown of the carbohydrate glycogen into the simple sugar glucose. The result is a build-up of glycogen and low levels of glucose in the muscles. Damage to the muscles occurs, causing myoglobinuria (muscle-cell pigment in the urine), which may lead to kidney failure. There is no treatment, but symptoms may be relieved by eating glucose or fructose before exercise.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Mcardle’s Disease

an *inborn error of metabolism in which a deficiency of the enzyme myophosphorylase prevents the breakdown of glycogen to lactate in exercising muscle. This results in fatigue, pain, and cramps in exercising muscles. The only treatment is avoidance of sustained or excessive exercise. [B. McArdle (20th century), British biochemist]... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Meckel’s Cartilage

a cartilaginous bar in the fetus around which the *mandible develops. Part of Meckel’s cartilage develops into the malleus (an ear ossicle) in the adult. [J. F. Meckel, the Younger (1781–1833), German anatomist]... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Medicare

in the USA, a national programme of health insurance for persons who are 65 and older or disabled or who have permanent kidney failure. The programme consists of three parts: hospital insurance provides coverage for inpatient hospital services, skilled nursing facilities, home health services, and hospice care; medical insurance helps pay for physician services, outpatient hospital services, medical equipment and supplies, and preventive services such as cancer screening tests; and prescription drug plans cover a range of medications depending on which plan is chosen. Medicare does not cover all expenses, and various supplemental insurance policies, *managed care plans, and private fee-for-service plans are available that provide additional benefits.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Medicare

A health insurance scheme in the United States, managed by the federal government, that provides cover for Americans over the age of 65 who have certain disabilities.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Medicines And Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency

(MHRA) a UK government agency that regulates the use of medicinal drugs and medical devices. The agency regulates and issues *licences for the clinical trial, manufacture, and marketing of new products. It also applies the regulations governing the collection, storage, and use of human blood and blood products.

MHRA section of the website... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Medullary Carcinoma

a tumour whose consistency was thought to resemble that of bone marrow. Medullary carcinoma of the thyroid has associations with tumours of other organs (multiple endocrine neoplasia; see MENS) and is often familial: it arises from the *C cells of the thyroid and produces calcitonin, which can often be used as a *tumour marker.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Metacarpal

1. adj. relating to the bones of the hand (*metacarpus). 2. n. any of the bones forming the metacarpus.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Metacarpal Bone

One of 5 long, cylindrical bones within the hand. The bones run from the wrist to the base of each digit, with the heads of the bones forming the knuckles.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Metacarpal Bones

The ?ve long bones which occupy the HAND between the carpal bones at the wrist and the phalanges of the ?ngers. The large rounded ‘knuckles’ at the root of the ?ngers are formed by the heads of these bones.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Metacarpus

n. the five bones of the hand that connect the *carpus (wrist) to the *phalanges (digits).... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Metacercaria

n. (pl. metacercariae) a mature form of the *cercaria larva of a fluke. Liver fluke metacercariae are enveloped by thin cysts and develop on various kinds of vegetation.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Miscarriage

See ABORTION.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Miscarriage

Termination of a pregnancy before the embryo or foetus can live apart from its mother. An abortion refers to an induced termination. Spontaneous termination is usually referred to as a miscarriage. See: ABORTION.

Lupus erythematosis – accounts for a significant number of unexplained miscarriages. Some lupus sufferers may have ten or more miscarriages (Swedish study). In lupus there is a sluggish blood supply – microscopic blood vessels between baby and the mother may silt up, the nutrient supply cut off and the baby dies. Agents with blood-thinning properties (anti-coagulants) can keep blood flowing smoothly to the baby. Some women with severe lupus symptoms may require the stronger anti-coagulants of general medicine (heparin).

Pregnancy. Should be carefully monitored with one-month scans to make sure the baby is alive. All women who miscarry should be tested to see if they are carrying lupus antibodies, and have a lupus test after their first miscarriage.

Influenza. Epidemiologists found that women whose pregnancies were more likely to have had flu-like illness during pregnancy can miscarry. Evidence of a link between influenzal infection during pregnancy and miscarriage or stillbirth has been uncovered. Such infection during pregnancy may also cause schizophrenia in offspring.

Information. Miscarriage Association, C/O Clayton Hospital, Northgate, Wakefield, West Yorks WF1 3JS, UK. Send SAE. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

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Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

Miscarriage

Loss of the fetus before the 24th week of pregnancy or viability (the ability to survive outside the uterus without artificial support). The medical term is spontaneous abortion.

The majority of miscarriages occur in the first 12 weeks of pregnancy, and may be mistaken for a late menstrual period. Miscarriages may occur because of chromosomal abnormalities or developmental defects in the fetus, or because of severe illness, exposure to toxins, or an autoimmune disorder in the mother. Miscarriages later in pregnancy may be caused by genetic disorders, cervical incompetence, a defect in the uterus, or large uterine fibroids.

The symptoms are heavy bleeding with cramping. Slight blood loss with severe pain can be a symptom of either a threatened miscarriage or ectopic pregnancy.

Miscarriages are classified medically as different types of abortion. In a threatened abortion, the fetus remains alive in the uterus. In an inevitable abortion, the fetus dies and is expelled from the uterus. In a missed abortion, the fetus dies but remains in the uterus.

A pelvic examination and ultrasound scanning may be performed to assess the pregnancy. If all of the contents of the uterus are expelled, no further treatment may be necessary. Otherwise, a D and C may be performed. Missed abortion requires a D and C or induction of labour depending on the duration of the pregnancy. Rh-negative women are given anti-D (Rho) immunoglobulin to prevent complications related to Rhesus incompatibility in future pregnancies.

(See also abortion.)... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Miscarriage

n. spontaneous loss of pregnancy before 24 weeks, formerly known as spontaneous abortion. In threatened miscarriage there is vaginal bleeding (often minimal) associated with mild period-type pains; the cervix is closed and ultrasound confirms a viable pregnancy. In inevitable miscarriage, vaginal bleeding is associated with crampy pelvic pains and an open cervix; the pregnancy has not yet been expelled, but eventually will be. The miscarriage is incomplete if the cervix remains open and the uterus still contains some fetal tissue (which may need to be removed to prevent further haemorrhage). The miscarriage is complete if the cervix has closed and ultrasound scanning shows an empty uterus. Failure of a nonviable fetus to be expelled from the uterus is called a silent (or missed) miscarriage. A late miscarriage is one occurring after 20–24 weeks when the fetus has shown no signs of life after delivery. Recurrent miscarriage is the loss of three or more pregnancies consecutively; there are many possible causes, including *antiphospholipid antibody syndrome.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Moreton Bay Carybdeid

A morbakka that is often caught in the Moreton Bay area, just north of Brisbane, Queensland. See also Fire jelly.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

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Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

Mucopolysaccaridhosis

A collection of familial metabolic disorders, the best known of which is Hurler’s syndrome (see GARGOYLISM). Others include Hunter’s, Maroteaux-Lamy and Scheie’s syndromes. The disorders, which result from a faulty gene-producing abnormality in a speci?c ENZYME, affect one child in 10,000. Those affected usually die before reaching adulthood.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Muscarine

The poisonous principle found in some toadstools (see FUNGUS POISONING). It is a cholinergic substance with pharmacological properties resembling those of ACETYLCHOLINE, a chemical neurotransmitter released at the junctions (synapses) of parasympathetic nerves and at the junctions where nerves enter muscles.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Myocardial Infarction

Sudden death of part of the heart muscle due to a blockage in the blood supply to the heart. The disorder is popularly known as a heart attack. It is usually characterized by severe, unremitting chest pain. Myocardial infarction is the most common cause of death in developed countries.

Men are more likely to have a heart attack than women, and smokers are at greater risk. Other risk factors include increased age, unhealthy diet, obesity, and disorders such as hypertension and

diabetes mellitus. Atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries is usually a factor.

Symptoms include sudden pain in the centre of the chest, breathlessness, feeling restless, clammy skin, nausea and/or vomiting, or loss of consciousness. Myocardial infarction may cause immediate heart failure or arrhythmias.

Diagnosis is made from the patient’s history and tests including ECG and measurement of enzymes released into the blood from damaged heart muscle.

A myocardial infarction is a medical emergency. Initial treatment may include aspirin, thrombolytic drugs, analgesic drugs, and oxygen therapy. Diuretic drugs, intravenous infusion of fluids, antiarrhythmic drugs, and beta-blocker drugs may also be given. Electrical defibrillation may be used to control severe arrhythmias.

After recovery, preventive measures such as taking more exercise, losing weight, stopping smoking, and dietary changes are recommended.

Statin drugs are usually given to lower blood cholesterol; aspirin or beta-blocker drugs are given to reduce the risk of further attacks.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Myocardial Infarction

See HEART, DISEASES OF – Coronary thrombosis.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Myocardial Infarction

death of a segment of heart muscle, which follows interruption of its blood supply (see coronary thrombosis). Myocardial infarction is usually confined to the left ventricle. The patient experiences a ‘heart attack’: sudden severe chest pain, which may spread to the arms and throat. Although severe chest pain is the most widely recognized symptom of myocardial infarction, many patients – especially women – do not have chest pain. Other presenting symptoms include abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, sweating, shortness of breath, and dizziness. The main danger is that of ventricular *fibrillation, which accounts for most of the fatalities. Other *arrhythmias are also frequent. Other complications include heart failure, rupture of the heart, phlebothrombosis, pulmonary embolism, pericarditis, shock, mitral regurgitation, and perforation of the septum between the ventricles.

Patients with myocardial infarction are best cared for in a specialized coronary care unit with facilities for the early detection, prevention, and treatment of arrhythmias and *cardiac arrest. Blockage of a major coronary artery is detected by elevation of the *S–T segment on the *electrocardiogram (STEMI or S–T elevation myocardial infarction). It is relieved by emergency *coronary angioplasty (commonly called primary *percutaneous coronary intervention) or the intravenous infusion of a drug to dissolve thrombus (*thrombolysis). Most survivors of myocardial infarction are able to return to a full and active life, including those who have been successfully resuscitated from cardiac arrest. Lesser degrees of coronary obstruction may not be seen on the electrocardiogram but are revealed by the detection of raised *troponin levels in the blood (NSTEMI or non-S–T elevation myocardial infarction). Treatment is with *antiplatelet drugs and early percutaneous coronary intervention.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Myocardial Infarction (mi)

Disease of the heart in which a segment of left ventricular muscle dies as a result of blockage of a coronary artery. Obstructed blood supply may lead to thrombosis and heart failure. Chief symptom is severe pain in the chest, arms and possibly throat (angina).

Alternative Treatment:– Tea. Combine equal parts Hawthorn flowers and leaves, Lime flowers, Motherwort. 1-2 teaspoons in each cup of boiling water; infuse 10-15 minutes. 1 cup thrice daily.

Alfalfa tea: anti-cholesterol.

Liquid Extracts. Motherwort 1; Hawthorn 2;

Valerian 3. Dose: 30-60 drops thrice daily.

Tinctures: dose, 60-120 drops.

Tincture Lily of the Vally BHP (1983). 1:5 in 40 per cent alcohol; dose: 0.5-1ml, thrice daily.

Diet. See: DIET – HEART AND CIRCULATION.

Supplements. Daily. Vitamin A 7500iu; Vitamin B6 50mg; Vitamin C 200mg; Vitamin E 400iu; Magnesium 300mg; Selenium 200mcg; Zinc 15mg. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

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Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

Myocardial Perfusion Scan

(thallium scan) a method to detect and quantify myocardial *ischaemia. An intravenously injected *radionuclide that is taken up by normal heart muscle can be imaged using a *gamma camera. Areas of scar due to *myocardial infarction emit little or no radioactivity and are seen as ‘cold spots’. Exercise is mimicked by infusing drugs to increase the heart rate in order to provoke cold spots in the diagnosis of ischaemic heart disease.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Myocardial Stunning

the temporary loss of function of an area of heart muscle due to transient blockage of a coronary artery. It is typically seen following myocardial infarction that is treated promptly by successful emergency *percutaneous coronary intervention. The stunning may last up to two weeks.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Myocarditis

Inflammation of the heart muscle, usually due to infection by the coxsackievirus. Myocarditis is a characteristic feature of rheumatic fever.

There are often no symptoms. Rarely, there may be a serious disturbance of the heartbeat, breathlessness, chest pain, and heart failure. In severe cases, death may result from cardiac arrest.Myocarditis may be suspected from the patient’s history and from a physical examination. An ECG will show characteristic abnormalities of the heartbeat. Diagnosis also involves echocardiography and blood tests.

There is no specific treatment.

Bed rest is usually recommended and corticosteroid drugs may be prescribed.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Myocarditis

Inflammation of the heart muscle due to (a) infective bacteria – virus influenza, streptococcus, etc, or (b) toxins they produce. May follow scarlet or enteric fever.

Alternative Treatment:– Rest. Stress-free lifestyle. Stop smoking. Few hot drinks but fruit juices and herb teas.

To strengthen the heart: Hawthorn.

To counter infection: Echinacea.

Rheumatic myocarditis: Meadowsweet.

BHP (1983) combination: Hawthorn, Cactus, Lime flowers, Mistletoe, Skullcap.

Tea. Combine equal parts: Mistletoe, Lime flowers, Broom. 1-2 teaspoons to each cup water. Bring to boil and simmer 1 minute. 1 cup thrice daily.

Tablets/capsules. Hawthorn. Mistletoe. Broom.

Tinctures. 20ml Hawthorn, 5ml Marigold (Calendula), 20ml Cactus grand., 10ml Echinacea. Mix. Dose: one teaspoon thrice daily.

Liquid Extracts. (Arthur Barker) Combine: Hawthorn 15ml; Cactus 15ml; Hops 4ml. Dose: 15-30 drops thrice daily.

Spartiol Extract. (Klein)

Anti-coagulants: indicated after an attack. (Practitioner)

Spirits of Camphor. To reduce blood pressure and strengthen heart muscle. To regulate the pulse in chronic myocarditis with wild palpitation. One to five drops in honey, as necessary. (Dr Finlay Ellingwood)

Oil of Camphor. Alternative. 1-2 drops in honey when necessary.

Diet. See: DIET – HEART AND CIRCULATION. Supplements. Daily. Vitamins A 7500iu; B-complex; C 1g; E 1000iu. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

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Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

Myocarditis

In?ammation of the muscular wall of the HEART.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Myocarditis

n. acute or chronic inflammation of the heart muscle. It may be seen alone or as part of pancarditis (see endomyocarditis).... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Myocardium

The middle, muscular layer of the heart.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Myocardium

Myocardium is the muscular substance of the HEART. (See also MUSCLE.)... Herbal Medical

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Herbal Medical

Myocardium

n. the middle of the three layers forming the wall of the heart (see also endocardium; epicardium). It is composed of *cardiac muscle and forms the greater part of the heart wall, being thicker in the ventricles than in the atria. —myocardial adj.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

National Care Standards Commission

This was set up under the CARE STANDARDS ACT 2000 as an independent regulator in respect of homes for the elderly, the disabled and children in the state and private sectors in the UK.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Neonatal Intensive Care

The provision of a dedicated unit with special facilities, including one-to-one nursing and appropriate technology, for caring for premature and seriously ill newborn babies. Paediatricians and neonatologists are involved in the running of such units. Not every maternity unit can provide intensive care: for example, the provision of arti?cial ventilation, other than as a holding procedure until a baby can be transferred to a better-equipped and better-serviced unit. Such hospitals tend to have special-care baby units, which are capable of looking after the needs of most, but not all, premature or ill babies.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Neonatal Urticaria

see erythema.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Neurocardiogenic Syncope

(malignant vasovagal syndrome) recurrent loss of consciousness due to a drop in blood pressure mediated by *vasodilatation, *bradycardia, or a combination of the two. Attacks resemble a simple faint, but can be very disabling because they are much more frequent and severe. Treatment comprises increased fluid and salt intake together with training in postural manoeuvres that may prevent attacks. A variety of drug treatments is available, but these are commonly ineffective. Implantation of a permanent *pacemaker may be required if profound bradycardia is a feature.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Nicardipine

n. a *calcium-channel blocker used to prevent angina and treat hypertension. Possible side-effects include nausea, dizziness, headache, flushing, and palpitations.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Nocardia

n. a genus of rodlike or filamentous Gram-positive nonmotile bacteria found in the soil. As cultures age, filaments form branches, but these soon break up into rodlike or spherical cells. Three or more spores may form in each cell; these germinate to form filaments. Some species are pathogenic: N. asteroides causes *nocardiosis and N. madurae is associated with the disease *Madura foot.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Nocardiosis

n. a disease caused by bacteria of the genus Nocardia, primarily affecting the lungs, skin, and brain, resulting in the formation of abscesses. Treatment involves antibiotics and sulphonamides.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Nocardiosis

An infection caused by a fungus-like bacterium present in soil. The infection, acquired through inhalation, usually starts in the lung and spreads via the bloodstream to the brain and tissues under the skin. Nocardiosis is rare except in people with immunodeficiency disorders or those already suffering from another serious disease.

The infection causes a pneumonia-like illness, with fever and cough.

It fails to respond to short-term, antibiotic treatment, and progressive lung damage occurs.

Brain abscesses may follow.

Treatment is with sulphonamide drugs, often in conjunction with other antibacterial drugs, for example trimethoprim.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Nuclear Cardiology

the study and diagnosis of heart disease by the intravenous injection of different types of *radionuclide. The radionuclide emits gamma rays, enabling a gamma camera and computer to form an image of the heart. See MUGA scan; myocardial perfusion scan; SPECT scanning.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Obamacare

see Affordable Care Act 2010.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Ochrocarpus Longifolius

Bentb. & Hook. f.

Synonym: Mammea longifolia Planch. & Triana.

Family: Guttiferae; Clusiaceae.

Habitat: Evergreen forests of Western India from Khandala southwards to Malabar and Coim- batore.

Ayurvedic: Surapunnaaga (Naa- gakeshara is equated with Mesua ferrea.)

Siddha/Tamil: Nagappu, Nagesarpu.

Folk: Laal-Naagakeshar. Surangi (Maharashtra).

Action: Flowerbuds—cooling, stomachic, analgesic, antibacterial; used for gastritis, haemorrhoids, blood diseases, leprosy, leucoder- ma.

Flower buds are popularly known as Naagakeshar.

Flowers exhibited potent hypoten- sive, anti-inflammatory and antispas- modic activity attributed to vitexin.

Leaves gave amentoflavone, querce- tin and vitexin as major constituents.... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Palliative Care

The active total care offered to a person and that person’s family when it is recognized that the illness is no longer curable, in order to concentrate on the person’s quality of life and the alleviation of distressing symptoms. The focus of palliative care is neither to hasten nor postpone death. It provides relief from pain and other distressing symptoms and integrates the psychological and spiritual aspects of care. It offers a support system to help relatives and friends cope during an individual’s illness and with their bereavement.... Community Health

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Community Health

Palliative Care

This is de?ned as comprehensive care of patients and families facing terminal illness. The care focuses primarily on comfort and support. Such care includes:

careful control of symptoms, especially PAIN.

psychosocial and spiritual care.

a personalised management plan centred on the patient’s needs and wishes.

care that takes into account the family’s needs and that is carried into the bereavement period.

provision of coordinated services in the home, hospital, day-care centre and other facilities used by the patient. Palliative care should include: managing

chronic cancer pain with planned use of common ANALGESICS including opioids (see SYRINGE DRIVERS); planning ahead to preserve as far as possible the patient’s autonomy and choice as death approaches and the ability to make decisions may decline; and an understanding and use of arti?cial feeding and hydration. Palliative care seeks to improve the satisfaction of both patient and family, to identify their needs and, if possible, to reduce the overall cost because the patient can often be looked after at home or in a HOSPICE instead of in hospital.

A well-publicised question that may arise in the context of palliative care is physician-assisted suicide. This subject is referred to in the entry on ETHICS. A request by a patient for accelerated death may suggest that he or she is depressed – a treatable condition – or that the palliative care is inadequate and needs reviewing and, if possible, improving.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Pancarditis

In?ammation of the pericardium, myocardium, and endocardium at the same time (see HEART – Structure).... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Pancarditis

n. see endomyocarditis.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Passiflora Incarnata

Linn.

Family: Passifloraceae.

Habitat: Native of South-east America; grown in Indian gardens.

English: Wild Passion Flower, Maypop.

Action: Flowering and fruiting dried herb—mild sedative, hypnotic, tranquilizer, hypotensive, vasodilator, antispasmodic, anodyne, anti-inflammatory,

Key application: In nervous restlessness, irritability and difficulty in falling asleep. (German Commission E, ESCOP, The British Herbal Compendium, The British Herbal Pharmacopoeia, WHO.) The British Herbal Compendium also indicated it in neuralgia, dysmenorrhoea, and nervous tachycardia.

The herb contains flavonoids (up to 2.5%), in particular C-glycosylflavones; cyanogenic glycoside, gynocardine.

The alkaloid harman has been isolated, but the presence of harmine, har- maline, harmol and harmalol has been disputed. The alkaloid and flavonoids are reported to have sedative activity in animals. Apigenin exhibits antispasmodic and anti-inflammatory activity.

Passion Flower was formerly approved as an OTC sedative in the USA, but it was taken off the market in 1978 because safety and effectiveness had not been proven. An animal study in 1977 suggested that apigenin binds to central benzodi-zepine receptors (possibly causing anxiolytic effects). (Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, 2007.)

The drug is used in homoeopathic medicine for epilepsy.

The herb exhibits a motility-inhi- biting effect in animal experiments.

Passion Flower, used as an adjunct to clonidine, was superior to clonidine for mental symptoms of opiate withdrawal. (Sharon M. Herr.)... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Patient Care Planning

See “care plan”.... Community Health

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Community Health

Patient Protection And Affordable Care Act

(PPACA) see Affordable Care Act 2010.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Patient-centred Care

An approach to care that consciously adopts a patient’s perspective. This perspective can be characterized around dimensions such as respect for patients’ values, preferences and expressed needs; coordination and integration of care; information, communication and education; physical comfort, emotional support and alleviation of fear and anxiety; involvement of family and friends; or transition and continuity.... Community Health

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Community Health

Pectus Carinatum

see pigeon chest.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Peltophorum Pterocarpum

Backer ex K. Heyne.

Family: Caesalpiniaceae.

Habitat: Coastal forests of the Andaman Islands.

English: Copper Pod, Rusty Shield-Bearer.

Siddha/Tamil: Ivalvagai, Perun- gondrai.

Action: Bark—used for dysentery; also used as a constituent of gargles, tooth-powders and lotions for sores and muscular pains.

The bark contains 20.8% of a catechol type of tannin and 9.5% non-tans. The wood and leaves also contain tannin.

The pods contain bergenin which exhibits anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema and is found to be equipotent to phenylbutazone.

Aqueous extract of leaves and etha- nolic extract of flower exhibit antifun- gal activity.

Family: Asclepiadaceae.

Habitat: West Bengal, Gujarat and Peninsular India.

Ayurvedic: Kaakanaasaa, Kaakanaasikaa, Kaakaangi, Kaak- tundphalaa, Shringiritti.

Siddha/Tamil: Uppilankodi.

Folk: Singarauti (Gujarat). Amarvel.

Action: Plant—antifungal, antiseptic, keratolytic; used in various skin conditions.

The plant gave n-octacosanol, alpha- amyrin, friedelin, beta-sitosterol. An appreciable amount of salicyclic acid has been isolated from the plant. The plant also yields a cardiac glycoside.

Dosage: Plant—50-100 ml. decoction. (CCRAS.)... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Pericard

(pericardio-) combining form denoting the pericardium.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Pericardiectomy

(pericardectomy) n. surgical removal of the membranous sac surrounding the heart (pericardium). It is used in the treatment of chronic constrictive pericarditis and chronic pericardial effusion (see pericarditis).... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Pericardiocentesis

n. removal of excess fluid from within the sac (pericardium) surrounding the heart by means of needle *aspiration. See pericarditis; hydropericardium.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Pericardiolysis

n. the surgical separation of *adhesions between the heart and surrounding structures within the ribcage (adherent pericardium). The operation has now fallen into disuse.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Pericardiorrhaphy

n. the repair of wounds in the membrane surrounding the heart (pericardium), such as those due to injury or surgery.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Pericardiostomy

n. an operation in which the membranous sac around the heart is opened and the fluid within drained via a tube. It is sometimes used in the treatment of septic pericarditis.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Pericardiotomy

(pericardotomy) n. surgical opening or puncture of the membranous sac (pericardium) around the heart. It is required to gain access to the heart in heart surgery and to remove excess fluid from within the pericardium.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Pericarditis

Acute or chronic in?ammation of the PERICARDIUM, the membranous sac that surrounds the HEART. It may occur on its own or as part of PANCARDITIS, when in?ammation also affects the MYOCARDIUM and ENDOCARDIUM (membranous lining of the inside of the heart). Various causes include virus infection, cancer and URAEMIA. (See also HEART, DISEASES OF.)... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Pericarditis

n. acute or chronic inflammation of the membranous sac (pericardium) surrounding the heart. Pericarditis may be seen alone or as part of pancarditis (see endomyocarditis). It has numerous causes, including virus infections, uraemia, and cancer. Acute pericarditis is characterized by fever, chest pain, and a pericardial friction rub (a harsh scratching noise audible over the anterior chest wall with the aid of a stethoscope). Fluid may accumulate within the pericardial sac (pericardial effusion). Rarely, chronic thickening of the pericardium (chronic constrictive pericarditis) develops. This interferes with activity of the heart and has many features in common with *heart failure, including oedema, pleural effusions, ascites, and engorgement of the veins. Constrictive pericarditis most often results from tubercular infection.

The treatment of pericarditis is directed to the cause. Pericardial effusions may be aspirated by a needle inserted through the chest wall. Chronic constrictive pericarditis is treated by surgical removal of the pericardium (pericardiectomy).... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Pericarditis

Inflammation of the pericardium, which often leads to chest painand fever. There may also be an increased amount of fluid (effusion) in the pericardial space, which may restrict the heart. Long-term inflammation can cause constrictive pericarditis, a condition in which the pericardium becomes scarred, thickens, and contracts, interfering with the heart’s action.

Causes of pericarditis include infection; myocardial infarction; cancer spreading from another site; and injury to the pericardium. The disorder may accompany rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and kidney failure.

Pericarditis causes pain behind the breastbone, and sometimes in the neck and shoulders. There may also be fever. Constrictive pericarditis causes oedema of the legs and abdomen.

Diagnosis is made from a physical examination and an ECG and chest X-rays or echocardiography. If possible, treatment is aimed at the cause. Analgesic drugs or anti-inflammatory drugs may be given. If an effusion is present, fluid may be drawn off through a needle. In constrictive pericarditis, part of the pericardium may be removed.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Pericardium

The smooth membrane that surrounds the HEART.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Pericardium

n. the membrane surrounding the heart, consisting of two portions. The outer fibrous pericardium completely encloses the heart and is attached to the large blood vessels emerging from the heart. The internal serous pericardium is a closed sac of *serous membrane: the inner visceral portion (epicardium) is closely attached to the muscular heart wall and the outer parietal portion lines the fibrous pericardium. Within the sac is a very small amount of fluid, which prevents friction as the two surfaces slide over one another as the heart beats. —pericardial adj.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Pericardium

The membranous bag that surrounds the heart and the roots of the major blood vessels that emerge from it. The pericardium has 2 layers separated by a space called the pericardial space, which contains a small amount of fluid that lubricates the heart.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Pericardotomy

n. see pericardiotomy.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Person-centred Care

an approach to health care that focuses on the needs of the individual care user, rather than providing a standardized response to their condition. The patient is encouraged to take an active role in discussing a health-care plan that reflects their own needs, circumstances, and values.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Personal Care

Assistance with those functions and activities normally associated with body hygiene, nutrition, elimination, rest and ambulation, which enables an individual to live at home or in the community.... Community Health

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Community Health

Personal Care Plan

See “care plan”.... Community Health

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Community Health

Phenylthiocarbamide

(PTC) n. a substance that tastes bitter to some individuals but is tasteless to others. Response to PTC appears to be controlled by a single pair of genes (*alleles): ability to taste PTC is *dominant to the inability to taste it.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Phonocardiogram

n. see electrocardiophonography. —phonocardiography n.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Phonocardiograph

An instrument for the graphic recording of heart sounds and murmurs.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Pilocarpine

A drug used to treat glaucoma. It may initially cause blurred vision, headache, and eye irritation.pilonidal sinus A pit in the skin, often containing hairs, in the upper part of the buttock cleft. The cause is probably hair fragments growing inwards. Although usually harmless, infection may occur, causing recurrent, painful abscesses. If a sinus is infected, a wide area around it is surgically removed. Recurrence of infection is common, and plastic surgery is sometimes required. pimozide An antipsychotic drug also used to treat Gilles de la Tourette’s syndrome. Pimozide may cause sedation, dry mouth, constipation, and blurred vision. pimple A small pustule or papule. pindolol A beta-blocker drug used to treat angina pectoris and hypertension. Possible side effects are typical of other beta-blocker drugs, except that pindolol is less likely to cause bradycardia. pineal gland A tiny, cone-shaped structure deep within the brain, whose sole function appears to be the secretion of melatonin in response to changes in light.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Pilocarpine

A plant alkaloid and the primary bioactive substance reducible from Pilocarpus spp. (Jaborandi leaves). It is an almost pure parasympathomimetic (cholinergic), inducing lowered blood pressure and stimulating glandular secretions...EVERYWHERE. It stimulates sweating as well, a sympathetic cholinergic response. Anyway, it is used in eye drops these days to contract the pupil, lower ocular fluid pressure and take some of the stress off glaucoma. The refined alkaloid is better in the eyes, but the dried leaves are the usual complex agents of herb use and have some therapeutic values in low doses. Good Lobelia or Asclepias will work similarly and are both safer, fresher and more predictable as botanicals.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Pilocarpine

An alkaloid (see ALKALOIDS) derived from the leaves of Pilocarpus microphyllus (jaborandi). It produces the same effects as stimulation of the PARASYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM: i.e. it has exactly the opposite e?ect to ATROPINE, but cannot be used in the treatment of atropine poisoning as it does not antagonise the action of poisonous doses of atropine on the brain. Its main use today is in the form of eye drops to decrease the pressure inside the eyeball in GLAUCOMA.... Herbal Medical

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Herbal Medical

Pilocarpine

n. a *parasympathomimetic drug administered to reduce the pressure inside the eye in angle-closure *glaucoma (see miotic). It is also used to treat *dry mouth and dry eyes; side-effects may include headache, frequent urination, and sweating.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Pilocarpus Microphyllus

Stapf.

Family: Rutaceae.

Habitat: Native to tropical America; cultivated in Indian gardens.

Family: Umbelliferae; Apiaceae.

Habitat: Native to the Mediterranean region; cultivated in Uttar Pradesh., Punjab, Assam and Orissa.

English: Anise, Aniseed.

Unani: Anisoon, Baadiyaan-roomi.

Action: Carminative, diuretic, anticholerin, antispasmodic, expectorant. Used for flatulence, dry coughs, whooping cough, bronchitis.

Key application: Internally in dyspeptic complaints; internally and externally in catarrhs of the respiratory tract. (German Commission E, ESCOP, WHO, The British Herbal Pharmacopoeia.)

The fruit gave volatile oil consisting mainly of trans-anethole (70-90%), with estragole, anise ketone, anisic acid, beta-caryophyllene, anisaldehyde, linalool. The fruit contained traces of furocoumarins; seeds gave benzoic acid, caffeic acid, containing protein and myristicin. Roots afforded sterols, coumarins and flavone glyco- sides. Aniseed has been demonstrated to increase the mucociliary transport in vitro and to significantly increase liver-regeneration in rats.

Aniseed is also used as a galacta- gogue. This property is thought due to the presence of polymers of anethole, dianethole and photoanethole.

Aqueous extract of roasted aniseed is reported to show cholinomimetic effect on rat blood pressure, rat jejunum and frog rectus abdominis preparations.

Alcoholic extract of aniseeds possesses antimicrobial and fungicidal activity.

Anethole has a structure similar to catecholamines including adrenaline, noradrenaline and dopamine and to the hallucinogenic compound myris- ticin as well. (Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, 2007.)... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Pimpernel, Scarlet

Anagallis arvensis. N.O. Primulaceae.

Synonym: Poor Man's Weatherglass, Shepherd's Barometer (these names because the flowers close some hours before rain). Red Pimpernel.

Habitat: Cornfields, waste places and in gardens.

Features ? Stem square, weak, much branched, trailing with tendency to ascend, between six inches and one foot long. Leaves small, opposite, ovoid, sessile, entire at edges, black dots underneath. Flowers scarlet, corolla rotate, on long, slender, axillary stalk.

Part used ? Leaves.

Action: Diuretic, hepatic, diaphoretic.

The properties of this herb, although very active, are not yet fully known, and care should be exercised in using it. It has been successful in the treatment of liver irregularities, forms of rheumatism and dropsy. The pulverised leaves are administered in doses of from 15 to 60 grains.... Herbal Manual

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Herbal Manual

Plan Of Care

See “care plan”.... Community Health

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Community Health

Pneumocystis Carinii

A fungus, formally believed to be a protozoan, which may cause an atypical pneumonia in severely malnourished or immunologically compromised patients, e.g. AIDS patients.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

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Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

Pneumopericardium

n. the presence of air within the membranous sac surrounding the heart. See hydropneumopericardium.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Polycarpaea Corymbosa

Lam.

Family: Caryophyllaceae.

Habitat: Throughout the greater part of India, ascending up to 2,100 m in the Himalaya.

Ayurvedic: Parpata (substitute).

Siddha/Tamil: Nilaisedachi.

Folk: Pittapaaparaa (Uttar Pradesh), Rupaaphuli (Gujarat).

Action: Leaves—anti-inflammatory, applied as poultice. Also prescribed in jaundice in the form of pills with molasses. Flowering head, along with stem and leaves—astringent, demulcent. Plant—spermicidal.

The plant gave camelliagenins (bar- rigenol) and stigmasterol.... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Polycarpon Prostratum

(Forsk.) Alschers & Schweinf.

Synonym: P. loeflingii Benth. & Hook. f.

Habitat: Throughout the warmer parts of India in fields and waste places.

Folk: Ghima, Suretaa.

Action: Leaves—an infusion of roasted leaves is given for cough following fever, particularly in measles.

Alcoholic extract of the plant exhibits spasmolytic activity. The aerial parts contain tetrahydroxy triterpenes. Presence ofa triterpenoid saponin, and hentriacontane, hentriacontanol, beta- amyrin and its acetate, beta-sitosterol and stigmasterol is also reported.... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Post-acute Care

See “transitional care”.... Community Health

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Community Health

Postmyocardial Infarction Syndrome

Another name for Dressler’s syndrome.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Postnatal Care

Care of the mother after childbirth until about 6 weeks later.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Postresuscitation Care

medical care given to an individual who has survived a *cardiac arrest. This will usually consist of a 12-lead electrocardiogram (see lead2), a chest X-ray, a number of venous and arterial blood tests, and transfer to a high-dependency or coronary care unit for further intensive monitoring and drug administration.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Preventive Care

Care that has the aim of preventing disease or its consequences. It includes health care programmes aimed at warding off illnesses, early detection of disease, and inhibiting further deterioration of the body.... Community Health

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Community Health

Primary Care

Basic or general health care focused on the point at which a patient ideally first seeks assistance from the medical care system. It is the basis for referrals to secondary and tertiary level care.... Community Health

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Community Health

Primary Care

See “care”.... Community Health

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Community Health

Primary Care

health care provided by *general practitioners or other health professionals to whom patients seeking medical treatment have direct access and to whom they can usually self-refer. Primary care services provided by the NHS include general practices, general dental and ophthalmic services, together with *NHS walk-in centres and other community services outside the hospital service. Some primary care services are also available in the private sector. See also community health; domiciliary services; general dental services; health centre; NHS 111. Compare secondary care; tertiary care.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Primary Care

Health care provided by a general practitioner or other healthcare professional who is the 1st contact for a patient seeking medical treatment.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Primary Care Trust

See GENERAL PRACTITIONER (GP)... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Primary Care Trust

(PCT) formerly, one of a group of free-standing statutory bodies within the National Health Service that had responsibility for the health-care needs of their local community; their aim was to improve the health of and address *health inequalities in their communities. In 2013, PCTs and SHAs were abolished. Their commissioning responsibilities passed to *clinical commissioning groups and *NHS England; their public health responsibilities passed to local authorities and *Public Health England.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Primary Health Care

Sometimes called primary medical care, this is the care provided by a GENERAL PRACTITIONER (GP) – traditionally entitled the family doctor – or other health professionals who have ?rst contact with a patient needing or wanting medical attention. In the NHS, the primary health-care services include those provided by the general, dental, ophthalmic and pharmaceutical services as well as the family doctor service. Community health services provided outside the hospitals also o?er some primary health care.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Private Health Care

The provision of medical and dental care to patients who pay for the care either directly, through private medical insurance, or through employer-funded private insurance. In the UK, most patients are treated and cared for by the community- or hospital-based NHS. Although not forbidden to do so, few NHS general practitioners see private patients. NHS consultants are – within certain prescribed circumstances – allowed to treat private patients and many, especially surgeons, do so; but consultations and treatment are usually done on private-health premises. Some NHS hospitals have private facilities attached, but most private care is carried out in separate, privately run clinics and hospitals.

Certain specialties – for example, orthopaedic and reconstructive/cosmetic surgery and mental health – attract more private patients than others, such as paediatrics or medicine for the elderly. The standards of clinical care are generally the same in the two systems, but private patients can see the specialist of their choice at a time convenient to them. Waiting times for consultations and treatment are short and, when in hospital, private patients usually have their own room, telephone, TV, open visiting hours, etc.

A substantial proportion of private medical-care services are those provided for elderly people requiring regular nursing care and some medical supervision. The distinction between residential care and nursing care for the elderly is often blurred, but the government policy of providing means-tested state funding only for people genuinely needing regular nursing care – a system operated by local-authority social-service departments in England and Wales – has necessitated clearer de?nitions of the facilities provided for the elderly by private organisations. The strict criteria for state support (especially in England), the budget-conscious approach of local authorities when negotiating fees with private nursing homes, and the fact that NHS hospital trusts also have to pay for some patients discharged to such homes (to free-up hospital beds for new admissions) have led to intense ?nancial pressures on private facilities for the elderly. This has caused the closure of many homes, which, in turn, is worsening the level of BED-BLOCKING by elderly patients who do not require hospital-intensity nursing but who lack family support in the community and cannot a?ord private care.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Procarbazine

An antineoplastic drug used mainly to treat Hodgkin’s disease (see under LYMPHOMA). It acts by interfering with the process of MITOSIS, the method by which the cells of the body, including tumours, reproduce themselves.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Procarbazine

n. a drug that inhibits growth of cancer cells by preventing cell division and is used to treat such cancers as Hodgkin’s disease. Side-effects may include loss of appetite, nausea, *myelosuppression, and rash.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Procarbazine

An anticancer drug used most often in Hodgkin’s disease.

Side effects are typical of anticancer drugs.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Procarcinogen

n. a chemical substance that does not itself cause cancer but which can be converted by enzymatic action to another substance that can cause cancer (the ultimate *carcinogen).... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Proscar

n. see finasteride.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Pterocarpus Dalbergioides

Roxb.

Family: Fabaceae.

Habitat: The Andamans, sparingly cultivated in West Bengal.

English: Andaman Padauk, Andaman Redwood.

Ayurvedic: Rakta-chandana (var.).

Siddha: Vengai (Tamil), Yerravegisa (Telugu).

Folk: Chalangada (Andamans).

Action: See Pterocarpus santalinus.

The wood contains a red pigment santalin and a yellow flavonoid santal, both of which also occur in Pterocarpus santalinus. The bark and the heartwood contain pterostilbene. The heartwood yields pterocarpin, liquirit- igenin and isoliquiritigenin. The sapwood gave homopterocarpin additionally.

Pterocarpus indicus Willd. non-Baker, Malay Padauk, is also known as Vengai in Tamil and Yerravegisa in Telugu. A decoction of the wood is given in dropsy and for stone in the bladder. The bark-kino is used as an application for sores and a decoction of the bark or kino is used for diarrhoea.... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Pterocarpus Marsupium

Roxb.

Family: Papilionaceae; Fabaceae.

Habitat: Throughout the tropical zones of India in the hilly regions.

English: Indian Kino tree, Malabar Kino tree.

Ayurvedic: Asana, Bijaka, Priyaka, Pitashaala.

Unani: Bijaysaar.

Siddha/Tamil: Vengai.

Action: Bark-kino—astringent, antihaemorrhagic, antidiarrhoeal. Flowers—febrifuge. Leaves—used externally for skin diseases.

Key application: Heartwood— in anaemia, worm infestation, skin diseases, urinary disorders, lipid disorders and obesity. Stem bark—in diabetes. (The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India.)

The heartwood and roots contain isoflavonoids, terpenoids and tannins. Tannins include the hypoglycaemic principle (-)-epicatechin. Stilbenes, such as pterostilbene; flavonoids, including liquiritigenin, isoliquiritige- nin, 7-hydroxyflavanone, 7,4-dihy- droxyflavanone, 5-deoxykaempferol and pterosupin; a benzofuranone mar- supsin and propterol, p-hydroxy-ben- zaldehyde are active principles of therapeutic importance.

The gum-kino from the bark provides a non-glucosidal tannin, Kino tannic acid (25-80%).

The (-)-epi-catechin increases the cAMP content of the islets which is associated with the increased insulin release, conversion of proinsulin to insulin and cathepsin B activity.

Oral administration of ethylacetate extract of the heartwood and its fla- vonoid constituents, marsupin, ptero- supin and liquiritigenin, for 14 consecutive days to rats exhibited a significant reduction of serum triglycerides, total cholesterol and LDL- and VLDL-cholesterol levels, but it did not exert any significant effect on HDL- cholesterol.

The ethanolic and methanolic extracts of the heartwood exhibited significant in vitro antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gramnegative bacteria and some strains of fungi.

Kino is powerfully astringent. The therapeutic value of kino is due to Kino tannic acid.

Dosage: Heartwood—50-100 g for decoction. (API, Vol. I); stem bark—32-50 g for decoction (API, Vol. III).... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Pterocarpus Santalinus

Linn. f.

Family: Papilionaceae; Fabaceae.

Habitat: Found in Cuddaph district of Andhra Pradesh, neighbouring areas of Tamil Nadu and Karnataka.

English: Red Sandalwood, Red Sanders.

Ayurvedic: Raktachandana, Raktasaara.

Unani: Sandal Surkh.

Siddha/Tamil: Shivappu chandanam.

Folk: Laal-chandan.

Action: Heartwood—antibilious, anti-inflammatory, hypoglycaemic, astringent, diaphoretic, febrifuge.

A paste of wood is used externally for inflammations and headache. Fruit—antidysenteric

The heartwood contains terpeno- ids—eudesmol, iso-pterocarpolone, pterocarpol, cryptomeridiol, ptero- carptriol and pterocarpdiolone; pigments santalins A and B. The bark contains triterp enoids—b eta- ampyrone, lupenone and lupeol derivatives. The sapwood gave acetyl oleanolic aldehyde, acetyl oleanolic acid and ery- throdiol.

An ethanolic extract (95%) of the wood powder was found effective in lowering blood sugar levels in fasting, fed, glucose-loaded and streptozotocin diabetic models in rats.

A cream prepared from the metha- nolic extract of the heartwood of Red Sandalwood and rhizomes of Curcuma longa showed 95.46% inhibition of oedema in combination (Curcuma lon- ga and red sandalwood showed 65.62 and 64.14% inhibition respectively, when used individually).

A decoction of the heartwood produced potentiation of pentobarbitone- induced hypnosis in albino mice; blocked conditioned avoidance response in rats and showed anticonvul- sant and anti-inflammatory activities.

Dosage: Heartwood—3-6 g powder. (API, Vol. III.)... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Puerperal Cardiomyopathy

a rare complication of pregnancy, occurring from the sixth month of pregnancy until six months postnatally (usually within six weeks of delivery). It can follow pre-eclampsia. It is characterized by palpitations, dyspnoea, oedema (peripheral and central), and impaired exercise tolerance. The diagnosis is confirmed on echocardiography. It has a high mortality and morbidity. Treatment of heart failure, anticoagulation, and in some cases immunosuppressant therapy is required; in some cases heart transplantation may be considered.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Pulicaria Dysenterica

Bernh.

Family: Asteraceae.

Habitat: Kashmir at 1,500-1,800 m.

Action: Plant—astringent, diuretic. Root—antidiarrhoeal. Leaf— antiasthmatic.... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Quality Of Care

The degree to which delivered health services meet established professional standards and are judged to be of value to the consumer. Quality may also be seen as the degree to which actions taken or not taken maximize the probability of beneficial health outcomes and minimize risk and other outcomes, given the existing state of medical science and art.... Community Health

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Community Health

Radermachera Xylocarpa

(Roxb.) K. Schum.

Synonym: Bignonia xylocarpa Roxb. Stereospermum xylocarpum (Roxb.) Wt.

Family: Bignoniaceae.

Habitat: Gujarat, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu.

English: Padri tree.

Siddha/Tamil: Vedanguruni, Pathiri.

Folk: Paadiri. Kharsing, Kadashing, Bairsinge (Maharashtra).

Action: Plant—antiseptic. Resin— used for the treatment of skin diseases. Rootbark—bitter, astringent; used as substitute for Stereospermumpersonatum (Hassk.) D. Chatterjee and S. suaveolens DC. (Trumpet-Flower, Yellow Snake tree, also known as Padri).

The leaves gave flavonoids, dinatin and its glycoside. Roots yielded O- acetyl oleanolic acid, stigmasterol and a red pigment, radermachol.... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Re-entry Tachycardia

a rapid heart rate due to a self-sustaining circulation of electrical impulses from the atria to the ventricles and back again. This re-entry circuit requires the presence of an abnormal second electrical conduction pathway in addition to the usual atrioventricular nodal connection route. The abnormal pathway may be located within the *atrioventricular node (causing *atrioventricular nodal re-entry tachycardia) or it may be an *accessory pathway situated outside the atrioventricular node (causing *atrioventricular reciprocating tachycardia). Medication is often effective and *radiofrequency ablation is usually curative.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Recurrent Miscarriage

see miscarriage.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Renal Cell Carcinoma

The most common type of kidney cancer.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Renal Cell Carcinoma

(Grawitz tumour, hypernephroma) a malignant tumour of kidney cells (the alternative name refers to its supposed resemblance to part of the adrenal gland and at one time it was thought to originate from this site). It may be present for some years before giving rise to symptoms, which include fever, loin pain and swelling, and blood in the urine. Treatment is by surgery, but tumours are apt to recur locally or spread via the bloodstream and can often be seen growing along the renal vein. Secondary growths from a renal cell carcinoma in the lung have a characteristic ‘cannon-ball’ appearance. These tumours are relatively insensitive to radiotherapy and cytotoxic drugs but some respond to such hormones as progestogens. Targeted therapy with *sorafenib and *sunitinib has significantly changed the treatment of advanced tumours.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Renal Cell Carcinoma

See HYPERNEPHROMA.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Residential Aged Care Facility

See “residential care”; “assisted living facility”.... Community Health

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Community Health

Residential Care

Provides accommodation and other care, such as domestic services (laundry, cleaning), help with performing daily tasks (moving around, dressing, personal hygiene, eating) and medical care (various levels of nursing care and therapy services). Residential care is for older people with physical, medical, psychological or social care needs which cannot be met in the community.... Community Health

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Community Health

Residential Care Services

Accommodation and support for people who can no longer live at home.... Community Health

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Community Health

Respite Care

Services provided in the home, at a day care centre or by temporary placement in a nursing home or residential home to functionally disabled or frail individuals to provide occasional or systematic relief to informal caregivers.... Community Health

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Community Health

Restorative Care

Services provided to older people on a short-term basis to restore their physical condition to a level which would allow them to return home with appropriate support. See “rehabilitation”.... Community Health

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Community Health

Ricarda

(German) Feminine form of Richard; a brave and strong ruler Richanda, Richarda, Richardella, Richardene, Richardette, Richardina, Richardyne, Richenda, Richenza, Richette, Richia, Richilene, Richina, Richmal, Richmalle, Ricadonna, Ricadona... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Rumex Vesicarius

Linn.

Family: Polygonaceae.

Habitat: Native to South-west Asia and North Africa; cultivated all over India, especially in Tripura, West Bengal and Bihar.

English: Bladder-Dock, Country Sorrel.

Ayurvedic: Chukra, Chuko, Chakravarti.

Unani: Hammaaz.... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Saponaria Vaccaria

Linn.

Family: Caryophyllaceae.

Habitat: Throughout India as a weed of cultivated fields of wheat and barley. Also cultivated in gardens for ornament.

Folk: Musna, Saabuni.

Action: See S. officinalis. The mucilaginous sap of the plant is febrifugal and used in chronic fevers. It is a mild depurative and used in the treatment of furuncles and scabies.... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Scar

A mark left where damaged tissue has healed. The body repairs a lesion by increasing collagen production at the site of damage. If the edges of a lesion are brought together during healing, a narrow, pale scar forms; if the edges are left apart, more extensive scarring occurs.

A hypertrophic scar is a large, unsightly scar that sometimes develops at the site of an infected wound; some people have a family tendency to develop such scars.

(See also adhesion; keloid.)... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Scar

n. a permanent mark left after wound healing. A hypertrophic scar is an abnormal raised scar that tends to settle after a year or so, as distinct from a *keloid, which is not only permanent but tends to extend beyond the original wound.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Scar

The name applied to a healed wound, ulcer or breach of tissue. A scar consists essentially of ?brous tissue, covered by an imperfect formation of epidermis in the case of scars on the surface of the skin. The ?brous tissue is produced by the connective tissue that migrates to the wound in the course of its repair (see WOUNDS). Gradually this ?brous tissue contracts, becomes more dense, and loses its blood vessels, leaving a hard white scar. (See also KELOID.)... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Scarification

n. the process of making a series of shallow cuts or scratches in the skin to allow a substance to penetrate the body. This was commonly performed during vaccination against smallpox; the vaccine was administered as a droplet left in contact with the scarified area.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Scarlatina

Another name for scarlet fever.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Scarlatina

n. see scarlet fever.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Scarlet

(English) Vibrant red color; a vivacious woman

Scarlett, Scarlette, Skarlet, Skarlette, Skarlett... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Scarlet Fever

An uncommon infectious disease, more often seen in childhood, that is caused by a strain of streptococcal bacteria. Symptoms include a severe sore throat, high fever, vomiting, and a rash of tiny red spots on the neck and upper trunk that spreads rapidly. The face is flushed, except around the mouth, and a white coating with red spots may develop on the tongue. This coating comes off after a few days to reveal a bright red colour. The fever then soon subsides, the rash fades, and the skin may peel.As with other types of streptococcal infections, rheumatic fever or glomerulonephritis may rarely develop 6 weeks later.

Treatment with antibiotics prevents this and promotes a rapid recovery.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Scarlet Fever

a highly infectious disease caused by a strain of *Streptococcus bacteria that produces toxins. Symptoms begin 2–4 days after exposure and include fever, tonsillitis, and a characteristic widespread scarlet rash. The tongue is also affected; initially covered by a thick white material, it then becomes bright red (the ‘strawberry tongue’). Treatment with antibiotics shortens the course of the disease and reduces the risk of secondary complications, which include kidney and ear inflammation. Medical name: scarlatina. Compare German measles.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Scarlet Fever

This disorder is caused by the erythrogenic toxin of the STREPTOCOCCUS. The symptoms of PYREXIA, headache, vomiting and a punctate erythematous rash (see ERYTHEMA) follow a streptococcal infection of the throat or even a wound. The rash is symmetrical and does not itch. The skin subsequently peels.

Symptoms The period of incubation (i.e. the time elapsing between the reception of infection and the development of symptoms) varies somewhat. In most cases it lasts only two to three days, but in occasional cases the patient may take a week to develop his or her ?rst symptoms. The occurrence of fever is usually short and sharp, with rapid rise of temperature to 40 °C (104 °F), shivering, vomiting, headache, sore throat and marked increase in the rate of the pulse. In young children, CONVULSIONS or DELIRIUM may precede the fever. The rash usually appears within 24 hours of the onset of fever and lasts about a week.

Complications The most common and serious of these is glomerulonephritis (see under KIDNEYS, DISEASES OF), which may arise during any period in the course of the fever, but particularly when DESQUAMATION occurs. Occasionally the patient develops chronic glomerulonephritis. Another complication is infection of the middle ear (otitis media – see under EAR, DISEASES OF). Other disorders affecting the heart and lungs occasionally arise in connection with scarlet fever, the chief of these being ENDOCARDITIS, which may lay the foundation of valvular disease of the heart later in life. ARTHRITIS may produce swelling and pain in the smaller rather than in the larger joints; this complication usually occurs in the second week of illness. Scarlet fever, which is now a mild disease in most patients, should be treated with PENICILLIN.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Scarpa’s Triangle

see femoral triangle. [A. Scarpa (1747–1832), Italian anatomist and surgeon]... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Schweinfurthia Sphaerocarpa

A. Br.

Synonym: S. papilionacea (Burm. f.) Boiss.

Family: Scrophulariaceae.

Habitat: The arid regions of Gujarat and in Rajasthan.

Ayurvedic: Nepaal-Nimba.

Folk: Saannipaat (Maharashtra).

Action: Broken pieces of dried fruits, stems and leaves—used in enteric fever. Leaf—antidiabetic. Fruit, leaf, stem—diuretic.

An alkaloid, schweinfurthin, a hydrocarbon and an unsaturated ketone were reported from the leaves. Recently, two macrocylic alkaloids, 11- epi-ephedradine and schweinine, have been isolated from the whole plant, along with (-)-ephedradine A. Experimentally, 11-epi-ephedradine A was mutagenic to Salmonella typhimurium.... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Secondary Care

Specialist care provided on an ambulatory or inpatient basis, usually following a referral from primary care.... Community Health

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Community Health

Secondary Care

See “care”.... Community Health

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Community Health

Secondary Care

health care provided by hospital clinicians for patients whose *primary care was provided by the *general practitioner or other health professional who first assessed, diagnosed, or treated the patient. Secondary care cannot be accessed directly by patients. For example, a general practitioner who assesses a patient with an unusual skin condition may refer the patient to a dermatologist, who then becomes the source of secondary care. Compare tertiary care.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Self Care

Health activities, including promotion, maintenance, treatment, care and health related decision-making, carried out by individuals and families.... Community Health

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Community Health

Semecarpus Anacardium

Linn. f.

Family: Anacardiaceae.

Habitat: Punjab, Assam, Khasi Hills, Madhya Pradesh and Peninsular India.

English: Marking-Nut.

Ayurvedic: Bhallaataka, Bhallata, Arushkara, Agnik, Agnimukha, Sophkrit, Viravrksha.

Unani: Balaadur, Bhilaayan, Bhilaavaan.

Siddha/Tamil: Shenkottei, Erimugi. (Kattu shen-kottai is equated with S. travancorica Bedd., found in evergreen forests of Tinnevelly and Travancore.)

Folk: Bhilaavaa.

Action: Toxic drug, used only after curing. Fruit—caustic, astringent, anti-inflammatory, antitumour. Used in rheumatoid arthritis and for the treatment of tumours and malignant growths.

A decoction, mixed with milk or butter fat, is prescribed in asthma, neuralgia, sciatica, gout, hemiplegia, epilepsy. Kernel oil—antiseptic; used externally in gout, leucoderma, psoriasis and leprosy. Bark gum—used for nervous debility; in leprous, scrofulous and venereal affections.

Bigger var. is equated with S. kurzii Engler.

The nut shells contain biflavonoids, including tetrahydrobustaflavone, tet- rahydroamentoflavone and anacardu- flavanone; nallaflavone; anacardic acid; aromatic amines and bhilawanol. Bhi- lawanol is a mixture of phenolic compounds, including cis and trans isomers of urushenol (3-pentadecenyl-8' catechol), monohydroxy phenol and semicarpol. These are the major constituents of the shell liquid, isolated from the nuts (about 46% of the weight of extract).

A mixture of closely related pentade- cyl catechols exhibits anticancer activity. Extracts of the fruit was found effective against human epidermoid carcinoma of the naso-pharynx in tissue culture.

Milk extract of the nut showed anti-inflammatory activity against car- rageenin, 5-HT and formaldehyde- induced rat paw oedema in acute anti- inflammatory studies. (About 20% animals developed gangrene of limbs, tail and ears.)

Dosage: Detoxified fruit—1-2 g in milk confection. (API, Vol. II.)... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Semilunar Cartilage

one of a pair of crescent-shaped cartilages in the knee joint situated between the femur and tibia.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Semilunar Cartilages

Two crescentic layers of ?bro-cartilage on the outer and inner edges of the knee-joint, which form hollows on the upper surface of the tibia in which the condyles at the lower end of the femur rest. The inner cartilage is especially liable to be displaced by a sudden and violent movement at the KNEE.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Short-term Aged Care

Involves care designed to improve the physical wellbeing and restore the health of older people to an optimum level following a serious illness.... Community Health

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Community Health

Sinus Bradycardia

A slow, but regular heart-rate (less than 60 beats per minute) caused by reduced electrical activity in the sinoatrial node. Sinus bradycardia is normal in athletes, but in others it may be caused by hypothyroidism, a myocardial infarction, or by drugs such as beta-blockers or digoxin.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Sinus Tachycardia

A regular heart rate of 100 or more beats a minute, caused by increased electrical activity in the SINOATRIAL NODE (see also HEART). This level of tachycardia is normal during and just after exercise, and may also be caused by stress or anxiety. If tachycardia persists when the person is resting, it may be due to underlying disease such as thyrotoxicosis (see under THYROID GLAND, DISEASES OF) and investigation is advisable.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Sinus Tachycardia

A fast, but regular, heart-rate (more than 100 beats per minute) caused by increased electrical activity in the sinoatrial node.

Such a heartbeat is normal during sudden stressful moments or exercise.

Persistent sinus tachycardia at rest may be caused by fever or hyperthyroidism.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Skilled Care

“Higher level” of care (such as injections, catheterization and dressing changes) provided by trained health professionals, including nurses, doctors and therapists.... Community Health

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Community Health

Skilled Nursing Care

Daily nursing and rehabilitative care that can only be performed by, or under the supervision of, skilled nursing personnel.... Community Health

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Community Health

Skin Care

Acne (M,S,F,B,I,N):

Bergamot, camphor (white), cananga, cedarwood (Atlas, Texas & Virginian), chamomile (German & Roman), clove bud, galbanum, geranium, grapefruit, immortelle, juniper, lavandin, lavender (spike & true), lemon, lemongrass, lime, linaloe, litsea cubeba, mandarin, mint (peppermint & spearmint), myrtle, niaouli, palmarosa, patchouli, petitgrain, rosemary, rosewood, sage (clary & Spanish), sandalwood, tea tree, thyme, vetiver, violet, yarrow, ylang ylang.

Allergies (M,S,F,B,I):

Melissa, chamomile (German & Roman), immortelle, true lavender, spikenard.

Athlete’s foot (S):

Clove bud, eucalyptus, lavender (true &spike), lemon, lemongrass, myrrh, patchouli, tea tree.

Baldness & hair care (S,H):

West Indian bay, white birch, cedarwood (Atlas, Texas & Virginian), chamomile (German & Roman), grapefruit, juniper, patchouli, rosemary, sage (clary & Spanish), yarrow, ylang ylang.

Boils, abscesses & blisters (S,C,B):

Bergamot, chamomile (German & Roman), eucalyptus blue gum, galbanum, immortelle, lavandin, lavender (spike & true), lemon, mastic, niaouli, clary sage, tea tree, thyme, turpentine.

Bruises (S,C):

Arnica (cream), borneol, clove bud, fennel, geranium, hyssop, sweet marjoram, lavender, thyme.

Burns (C,N):

Canadian balsam, chamomile (German & Roman), clove bud, eucalyptus blue gum, geranium, immortelle, lavandin, lavender (spike & true), marigold, niaouli, tea tree, yarrow.

Chapped & cracked skin (S,F,B):

Peru balsam, Tofu balsam, benzoin, myrrh, patchouli, sandalwood.

Chilblains (S,N):

Chamomile (German & Roman), lemon, lime, sweet marjoram, black pepper.

Cold sores/herpes (S):

Bergamot, eucalyptus blue gum, lemon, tea tree.

Congested & dull skin (M,S,F,B,I):

Angelica, white birch, sweet fennel, geranium, grapefruit, lavandin, lavender (spike & true), lemon, lime, mandarin, mint (peppermint & spearmint), myrtle, niaouli, orange (bitter & sweet), palmarosa, rose (cabbage & damask), rosemary, rosewood, ylang ylang.

Cuts/sores (S,C):

Canadian balsam, benzoin, borneol, cabreuva, cade, chamomile (German & Roman), clove bud, elemi, eucalyptus (blue gum, lemon & peppermint), galbanum, geranium, hyssop, immortelle, lavender (spike & true), lavandin, lemon, lime, linaloe, marigold, mastic, myrrh, niaouli, Scotch pine, Spanish sage, Levant styrax, tea tree, thyme, turpentine, vetiver, yarrow.

Dandruff (S,H):

West Indian bay, cade, cedarwood (Atlas, Texas & Virginian), eucalyptus, spike lavender, lemon, patchouli, rosemary, sage (clary & Spanish), tea tree.

Dermatitis (M,S,C,F,B):

White birch, cade, cananga, carrot seed, cedarwood (Atlas, Texas & Virginian), chamomile (German & Roman), geranium, immortelle, hops, hyssop, juniper, true lavender, linaloe, litsea cubeba, mint (peppermint & spearmint), palmarosa, patchouli, rosemary, sage (clary & Spanish), thyme.

Dry & sensitive skin (M,S,F,B):

Peru balsam, Tolu balsam, cassie, chamomile (German & Roman), frankincense, jasmine, lavandin, lavender (spike & true), rosewood, sandalwood, violet.

Eczema (M,S,F,B):

Melissa, Peru balsam, Tolu balsam, bergamot, white birch, cade, carrot seed, cedarwood (Atlas, Texas & Virginian), chamomile (German & Roman), geranium, immortelle, hyssop, juniper, lavandin, lavender (spike & true), marigold, myrrh, patchouli, rose (cabbage & damask), rosemary, Spanish sage, thyme, violet, yarrow.

Excessive perspiration (S,B):

Citronella, cypress, lemongrass, litsea cubeba, petitgrain, Scotch pine, Spanish sage.

Greasy or oily skin/scalp (M,S,H,F,B):

West Indian bay, bergamot, cajeput, camphor (white), cananga, carrot seed, citronella, cypress, sweet fennel, geranium, jasmine, juniper, lavender, lemon, lemongrass, !itsea cubeba, mandarin, marigold, mimosa, myrtle, niaouli, palmarosa, patchouli, petitgrain, rosemary, rosewood, sandalwood, clary sage, tea tree, thyme, vetiver, ylang ylang.

Haemorrhoids/piles (S,C,B):

Canadian balsam, Copaiba balsam, coriander, cubebs, cypress, geranium, juniper, myrrh, myrtle, parsley, yarrow.

Insect bites (S,N):

French basil, bergamot, cajeput, cananga, chamomile (German & Roman), cinnamon leaf, eucalyptus blue gum, lavandin, lavender (spike & true), lemon, marigold, melissa, niaouli, tea tree, thyme, ylang ylang.

Insect repellent (S,V):

French basil, bergamot, borneol, camphor (white), Virginian cedarwood, citronella, clove bud, cypress, eucalyptus (blue gum & lemon), geranium, lavender, lemongrass, litsea cubeba, mastic, melissa, patchouli, rosemary, turpentine.

Irritated & inflamed skin (S,C,F,B):

Angelica, benzoin, camphor (white), Atlas cedarwood, chamomile (German & Roman), elemi, immortelle, hyssop, jasmine, lavandin, true lavender, marigold, myrrh, patchouli, rose (cabbage & damask), clary sage, spikenard, tea tree, yarrow.

Lice (S,H):

Cinnamon leaf, eucalyptus blue gum, galbanum, geranium, lavandin, spike lavender, parsley, Scotch pine, rosemary, thyme, turpentine.

Mouth & gum infections/ulcers (S,C):

Bergamot, cinnamon leaf, cypress, sweet fennel, lemon, mastic, myrrh, orange (bitter & sweet), sage (clary & Spanish), thyme.

Psoriasis (M,S,F,B):

Angelica, bergamot, white birch, carrot seed, chamomile (German & Roman), true lavender.

Rashes (M,S,C,F,B):

Peru balsam, Tofu balsam, carrot seed, chamomile (German & Roman), hops, true lavender, marigold, sandalwood, spikenard, tea tree, yarrow.

Ringworm (S,H):

Geranium, spike lavender, mastic, mint (peppermint & spearmint), myrrh, Levant styrax, tea tree, turpentine.

Scabies (S):

Tolu balsam, bergamot, cinnamon leaf, lavandin, lavender (spike & true), lemongrass, mastic, mint (peppermint & spearmint), Scotch pine, rosemary, Levant styrax, thyme, turpentine.

Scars & stretch marks (M,S):

Cabreuva, elemi, frankincense, galbanum, true lavender, mandarin, neroli, palmarosa, patchouli, rosewood, sandalwood, spikenard, violet, arrow.

Slack tissue (M,S,B):

Geranium, grapefruit, juniper, lemongrass, lime, mandarin, sweet marjoram, orange blossom, black pepper, petitgrain, rosemary, yarrow.

Spots (S,N):

Bergamot, cade, cajeput, camphor (white), eucalyptus (lemon), immortelle, lavandin, lavender (spike & true), lemon, lime, litsea cubeba, mandarin, niaouli, tea tree.

Ticks (S,N):

Sweet marjoram.

Toothache & teething pain (S,C,N):

Chamomile (German & Roman), clove bud, mastic, mint (peppermint & spearmint), myrrh.

Varicose veins (S,C):

Cypress, lemon, lime, neroli, yarrow.

Verrucae (S,N):

Tagetes, tea tree.

Warts & corns (S,N):

Cinnamon leaf, lemon, lime, tagetes, tea tree.

Wounds (S,C,B):

Canadian balsam, Peru balsam, Tolu balsam, bergamot, cabreuva, chamomile (German & Roman), clove bud, cypress, elemi, eucalyptus (blue gum & lemon), frankincense, galbanum, geranium, immortelle, hyssop, juniper, lavandin, lavender (spike & true), linaloe, marigold, mastic, myrrh, niaouli, patchouli, rosewood, Levant styrax, tea tree, turpentine, vetiver, yarrow.

Wrinkles & mature skin (M,S,F,B):

Carrot seed, elemi, sweet fennel, frankincense, galbanum, geranium, jasmine, labdanum, true lavender, mandarin, mimosa, myrrh, neroli, palmarosa, patchouli, rose (cabbage & damask), rosewood, clary sage, sandalwood, spikenard, ylang ylang.... The Encyclopedia of Essential Oils

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The Encyclopedia of Essential Oils

Small Cell Carcinoma

One form of lung cancer.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Small-cell Carcinoma

See OAT CELL.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Social Care Service

Assistance with the activities of daily life (personal care, domestic maintenance, self-direction) delivered by a personal care helper, home helper or social worker and aimed at supporting older people who experience disabilities in functioning.... Community Health

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Community Health

Social Network Care

See “informal care”.... Community Health

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Community Health

Sodium Bicarbonate

An over-thecounter antacid drug used to relieve indigestion, heartburn, and pain caused by a peptic ulcer.

It often causes belching and abdominal discomfort.

Long-term use may cause swollen ankles, muscle cramps, tiredness, and nausea.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Sodium Bicarbonate

a salt of sodium that neutralizes acid and is used to treat metabolic acidosis (particularly *renal tubular acidosis) and to reduce the acidity of the urine in mild urinary-tract infections. Sodium bicarbonate is also an ingredient of many *antacid preparations and is used in the form of drops to soften earwax.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Solanum Xanthocarpum

S. & W.

Synonym: S. surattense Burm.f. S. virginianum Linn. S. maccanni Sant.

Family: Solanaceae.

Habitat: Throughout India.

English: Wild Eggplant, Yellow- Berried Nightshade.

Ayurvedic: Kantakaari, Kan- takaarikaa, Vyaaghri, Nidigdhikaa, Nidigdhaa, Duhsparshaa, Dhaa- vani, Kshudraa, Keteri (Smallar var.), Bhatakataiyaa. Used as Lakshmanaa.

Unani: Kataai Khurd, Hadaq.

Action: Stimulant, expectorant, diuretic, laxative, febrifuge. Used in the treatment of cough, bronchitis, asthma, for dislodging tenacious phlegm; also used against rheumatism, enlargement of liver and spleen, vomiting, difficult urination, bladder stones, skin diseases. Fruit—used as an adjuvant for promoting conception.

Fruits gave solasonine, solamargine, beta-solamargine and solasodine; petals yielded apigenin; stamens gave quercetin diglycoside and sitosterol. The glycoalkaloid content of fruits collected from Jammu and Kashmir is reported to be 3.5% (total alkaloids, 1.1%). The presence of diosgenin in the plant has been reported.

Both glycoalkaloid and fatty acid fractions of the plants extracts cause liberation of histamine from chopped lung tissue. The beneficial effect of the drug on bronchial asthma may be attributed to the depletion of histamine from bronchial and lung tissue.

Dosage: Whole plant—20-30 g for decoction. (API, Vol. I.)... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Special Care Unit

A long-term care facility unit with services specifically for persons with particular diseases, disorders or injuries.... Community Health

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Community Health

Specialized Nursing Care Needs

Nursing care needs that require the advanced and specialized clinical skills and knowledge of a registered nurse.... Community Health

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Community Health

Sphygmocardiograph

n. an apparatus for producing a continuous record of both the heartbeat and the subsequent pulse in one of the blood vessels. The recording can be shown on a moving tape or on an electronic screen.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Malignant tumour of squamous epithelium of skin, which generally spreads and metastasises.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

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Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

Squamous Cell Carcinoma

One of the most common types of skin cancer. Squamous cell carcinoma is linked to long-term exposure to sunlight. It is most common in fair-skinned people over 60.

The tumour starts as a small, painless lump or patch (usually on the lip, ear, or back of the hand), which enlarges fairly rapidly, often resembling a wart or ulcer. Left untreated, the cancer may spread to other parts of the body and prove fatal.

Diagnosis is based on a skin biopsy. The tumour is removed surgically or destroyed by radiotherapy.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Squamous Cell Carcinoma

(SCC) any cancer of squamous epithelium, arising from such tissues as the skin and the lining of the upper airways and digestive tract (especially in the head and neck). SCC is the second commonest form of skin cancer (after *basal cell carcinoma), occurring usually in late-middle and old age. Cumulative sun exposure is the commonest cause but other environmental carcinogens may be responsible. Renal transplant patients are at particularly high risk of this tumour. SCC is mainly found on areas exposed to light and is three times more common in men than in women. SCC grows faster than basal cell carcinoma; it spreads locally at first but later may spread to sites distant from its origin (see metastasis). Treatment is usually by surgical excision or radiotherapy.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Stakeholders (in Aged Care)

People or groups who have an involvement or interest in the aged care system, including beneficiaries, providers and funders.... Community Health

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Community Health

State Medicine (health Care Systems)

Major government schemes to ensure adequate health services to substantial sectors of the community through direct provision of services.... Community Health

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Community Health

Steroid Card

a card that must be carried by patients taking long-term corticosteroid medication, particularly if high doses are used. The card states that in an emergency treatment with steroids must not be suddenly stopped since this may precipitate an *Addisonian crisis.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Stycar Tests

Standard Tests for Young Children and Retardates: tests to detect visual problems in children between the ages of six months and five years. They consist of a series of standardized balls, toys, or letters. The tests were developed by the paediatrician Mary Sheridan.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Sub-acute Care

Sub-acute care is a bridge between acute care and home care. It is medical and skilled nursing services provided to persons who are not in the acute phase of an illness but who require a level of care higher than that provided in a long-term care setting.... Community Health

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Community Health

Supraventricular Tachycardia

An unusually fast but regular beating of the HEART occurring for periods that may last several hours or days. In most people with this abnormality the heart rate is between 140 and 180 beats a minute; rarely, the rate may rise as high as 250–300 beats. The condition occurs when abnormal electrical impulses that arise in the upper chambers (atria) of the heart override the normal control centre – the sinoatrial node – for the heartbeat. Symptoms usually include breathlessness, palpitations, pain in the chest and fainting. An ELECTROCARDIOGRAM (ECG) is taken to help make the diagnosis. An acute episode can sometimes be stopped by VALSAVA’S MANOEUVRE or by drinking cold water. Anti-arrhythmic drugs (see ARRHYTHMIA) such as adenosine and digoxin are used to treat recurrent attacks. Occasionally, a severe attack may need to be treated with an electric shock to the heart: this is known as DEFIBRILLATION.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Supraventricular Tachycardia

(SVT) a rapid regular heartbeat that is usually due to a re-entry circuit between the atria and ventricles (see re-entry tachycardia). It is less commonly due to an ectopic focus in an atrium that is spontaneously discharging at a fast rate (atrial tachycardia).... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Supraventricular Tachycardia

An abnormally fast but regular heart-rate that occurs in episodes lasting for several hours or days. Supraventricular tachycardia occurs when abnormal electrical impulses that arise in the atria of the heart take control of the heartbeat from the sinoatrial node. Symptoms include palpitations, breathlessness, chest pain, or fainting (see Stokes–Adams syndrome).

Diagnosis is by an ECG.

An attack can sometimes be terminated by Valsalva’s manoeuvre or by drinking cold water.

Recurrent attacks are treated with antiarrhythmic drugs.

Rarely, the condition may require application of an electric shock to the heart (see defibrillation).... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Synchronized Cardioversion

see cardioversion.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Tachycardia

abnormally increased heartbeat and pulse rate.... The Encyclopedia of Essential Oils

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The Encyclopedia of Essential Oils

Tachycardia

Abnormally fast heartbeat.... Herbal Medical

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Herbal Medical

Tachycardia

Excessively above normal rate of heat beat.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Tachycardia

A rise in the heart rate above the normal range at rest – 60–100 beats a minute – sometimes accompanied by irregularities in rhythm (ARRHYTHMIA). Sinus tachycardia may occur with exercise or emotional excitement, but it may be the result of a feverish illness. (See also HEART, DISEASES OF.)... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

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Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

Tachycardia

n. an increase in the heart rate above normal. Sinus tachycardia may occur normally with exercise or excitement or it may be due to illness, such as fever. *Arrhythmias may also produce tachycardia (ectopic tachycardia). See ventricular tachycardia; supraventricular tachycardia.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Teeth, Care Of

See oral hygiene.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Terminal Care

Medical and nursing care of persons in the terminal stage of an illness. See also “palliative care”.... Community Health

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Community Health

Terminal Care

See dying, care of the.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Terminalia Myriocarpa

Heurck & Muell.-Arg.

Family: Combretaceae.

Habitat: Eastern Himalayas, from North Bengal eastwards to Assam, Khasi Hills and Arunachal Pradesh.

English: Hollock.

Ayurvedic: Kakubha (also a synonym of Arjuna tree).

Action: Bark—cardiac stimulant, mild diuretic.

The bark gave beta-sitosterol, and about 18% tannins. Ellagic, gallic, che- bulinic and chebulagic acids—main constituents of ellagitannins, and leu- co-cyanidin, an important precursor to flavonoid tannins, have been isolated.... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Tertiary Care

The provision of highly specialized services in ambulatory and hospital settings.... Community Health

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Community Health

Tertiary Care

See “care”.... Community Health

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Community Health

Tertiary Care

the specialized services provided by centres equipped with diagnostic and treatment facilities not available at general hospitals. Compare primary care; secondary care.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Thyroid Cartilage

the main cartilage of the *larynx, consisting of two broad plates that join at the front to form a V-shaped structure. The thyroid cartilage forms the Adam’s apple in front of the larynx.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Thyroid Cartilage

The largest cartilage in the LARYNX and forms the prominence of the Adam’s apple in front of the neck.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Ticarcillin

n. a *penicillin-type antibiotic that is used in combination with *clavulanic acid to treat serious infections caused by Pseudomonas and Proteus bacteria.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Toxocara

n. a genus of large nematode worms that are intestinal parasites of vertebrates. T. canis and T. cati, the common roundworms of dogs and cats respectively, have life cycles similar to that of the human roundworm, *Ascaris lumbricoides. See toxocariasis.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Toxocariasis

A disease acquired by swallowing the ova (eggs) of a roundworm which lives in the intestine of cats (Toxocara cati) or dogs (Toxocara canis). In humans, the small larval worms produced by these ova migrate to various parts of the body, including the retina of the EYE, where they then die, producing a small GRANULOMA which in turn may produce allergic reactions. In the eye it may cause choroidretinitis. It is said that 2 per cent of apparently healthy people in Britain have been infected in this way. A course of treatment with thiabendazole is recommended, though the drug has side-effects and should be used with caution in the elderly.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Toxocariasis

(visceral larva migrans) n. an infestation with the larvae of the dog and cat roundworms, Toxocara canis and T. cati. Humans, who are not the normal hosts, become infected on swallowing eggs of Toxocara present on hands or in food and drink contaminated with the faeces of infected domestic pets. The larvae, which migrate around the body, cause destruction of various tissues; the liver becomes enlarged and the lungs inflamed (see pneumonitis). Symptoms may include fever, joint and muscle pains, vomiting, an irritating rash, and convulsions. Larvae can also lodge in the retina of the eye where they cause inflammation and *granuloma. The disease, widely distributed throughout the world, primarily affects children. Treatment is with mebendazole.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Toxocariasis

An infestation of humans, usually children, with the larvae of TOXOCARA CANIS: a small, threadlike worm that lives in the intestines of dogs. Children who play with an infested dog or soil contaminated with dog faeces, and who then put their fingers in their mouths, may swallow some of the worm eggs. The eggs hatch in the intestines, and the released larvae migrate to organs such as the liver, lungs, brain, and eyes. Usually, infestation causes mild fever and malaise, which soon clears up; but heavy infestation may lead to pneumonia and seizures. Loss of vision may occur if larvae enter the eye and die there.

A diagnosis is made from sputum analysis, and by a liver biopsy. Severe cases require treatment in hospital with tiabendazole and an anticonvulsant drug.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Transitional Care

A type of short-term care provided by some long-term care facilities and hospitals, which may include rehabilitation services, specialized care for certain conditions (such as stroke and diabetes) and/or post-surgical care and other services associated with the transition between hospital and home.... Community Health

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Community Health

Transitional Cell Carcinoma

a form of cancer that affects the urothelium, which lines the urinary collecting system of the kidney, ureters, bladder, and the proximal part of the urethra. It is the most common type of bladder cancer.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Transmural Myocardial Infarction

a *myocardial infarction that involves the full thickness of the left ventricular wall.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Transoesophageal Echocardiography

(TOE) see echocardiography.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Trocar

An instrument provided with a sharp three-sided point ?tted inside a tube or cannula, and used for puncturing cavities of the body in which ?uid has collected.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Trocar

n. an instrument used combined with a *cannula to draw off fluids from a body cavity (such as the peritoneal cavity). It comprises a metal tube containing a removable shaft with a sharp three-cornered point; the shaft is withdrawn after the trocar has been inserted into the cavity.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Uncaria Gambier

Roxb.

Family: Rubiaceae.

English: Pale Catechu, Gambier.

Ayurvedic: Khadira (related species).

Folk: Chinai Katthaa.

Action: Intestinal astringent. Uses similar to Black Catechu (Acacia catechu). The extract of the leaves and shoots contains tannins, mainly catechins up to 35% and catechu tannic acid up to 50%; indole alkaloids including gambirine, gambiridine; flavonoids such as quercetin; pigments and gambirfluorescin.

Gambirine is reported to be hypotensive; d-catechu constricts blood vessels. Catechins protect the liver from infection.

A related species, U. rhynchophylla, native to China, known as Gou Teng in Chinese medicine, is used for eclampsia, headache, dizziness, convulsions, high fever and hypertension. (WHO.)... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Urticaria

(nettle rash, hives) n. an itchy rash resulting partly from the release of *histamine by *mast cells. This causes either short-lived itchy *weals, deeper swellings (angio-oedema), or both. Individual weals typically appear rapidly and resolve spontaneously within hours. Acute urticaria is common and represents an immediate response to such allergens as seafood or nuts; it has been linked with upper respiratory tract infections, although many cases remain unexplained. Chronic urticaria is not an allergic condition and may persist for years. Angio-oedema occurs when the weals involve the deeper levels of the skin, resulting in swelling of the lips, eyes, or tongue, which may constitute a medical emergency. Urticaria can be treated by taking antihistamines regularly, but sometimes immunosuppressant treatment is needed, especially in autoimmune subtypes. Cholinergic urticaria is a condition in which very small weals are brought on by heat, exercise, or emotion; treatment is with antihistamines, but other drugs, including danazol, may be used for severe cases.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Urticaria

Itching, inflamed skin caused by an allergic reaction to a drug, food, or substance in the environment; also called hives... Medicinal Plants Glossary

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Medicinal Plants Glossary

Urticaria

Local itching of the skin – often results from an allergic reaction.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

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Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

Urticaria

The rash produced by the sudden release of HISTAMINE in the skin. It is characterised by acute itching, redness and wealing which subsides within a few minutes or may persist for a day or more. Depending upon the cause, it may be localised or widespread and transient or constantly recurrent over years. It has many causes.

External injuries to the skin such as the sting of a nettle (‘nettle-rash’) or an insect bite cause histamine release from MAST CELLS in the skin directly. Certain drugs, especially MORPHINE, CODEINE and ASPIRIN, can have the same e?ect. In other cases, histamine release is caused by an allergic mechanism, mediated by ANTIBODIES of the immunoglobulin E (IgE) class – see IMMUNOGLOBULINS. Thus many foods, food additives and drugs (such as PENICILLIN) can cause urticaria. Massive release of histamine may affect mucous membranes – namely the tongue or throat – and can cause HYPOTENSION and anaphylactic shock (see ANAPHYLAXIS) which can occasionally be fatal.

Physical factors can cause urticaria. Heat, exercise and emotional stress may induce a singular pattern with small pinhead weals, but widespread ?ares of ERYTHEMA, activated via the AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM (CHOLINERGIC urticaria) may also occur.

Rarely, exposure to cold may have a smiilar e?ect (‘cold urticaria’) and anaphylactic shock following a dive into cold water in winter is occasionally fatal. The diagnosis of cold urticaria can be con?rmed by applying a block of ice to the arm which quickly induces a local weal.

Transient urticaria due to rubbing or even stroking the skin is common in young adults (DERMOGRAPHISM or factitious urticaria). More prolonged deep pressure induces delayed urticaria in other subjects. IgE-mediated urticaria is part of the atopic spectrum (see ATOPY, and SKIN, DISEASES OF – Dermatitis and eczema). Allergy to peanuts is particularly dangerous in young atopic subjects. Notwithstanding the many known causes, chronic urticaria of unknown cause is common and may have an autoimmune basis (see AUTOIMMUNE DISORDERS).

Treatment Causative factors must be removed. Topical therapy is ine?ective except for the use of calamine lotion, which reduces itching by cooling the skin. Oral ANTIHISTAMINES are the mainstay of treatment and are remarkably safe. Rarely, injection of ADRENALINE is needed as emergency treatment of massive urticaria, especially if the tongue and throat are involved, following by a short course of the oral steroid, prednisolone.

Angio-oedema is a variant of urticaria where massive OEDEMA involves subcutaneous tissues rather than the skin. It may have many causes but bee and wasp stings in sensitised subjects are particularly dangerous. There is also a rare hereditary form of angio-oedema. Acute airway obstruction due to submucosal oedema of the tongue or larynx is best treated with immediate intramuscular adrenaline and antihistamine. Rarely, TRACHEOSTOMY may be life-saving. Patients who have had two or more episodes can be taught self-injection with a preloaded adrenaline syringe.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Urticaria

A skin condition, also known as nettle rash or hives, that is characterized by the development of itchy weals, usually on the limbs and trunk. Large weals may merge to form irregular, raised patches.

Urticaria is generally harmless and usually lasts only a few hours. Sometimes a persistent or recurrent form develops. Dermographism is a less common form

of urticaria in which weals form after the skin is stroked. Urticaria sometimes occurs with angioedema.

The cause of urticaria is often unknown. The most common known cause is an allergic reaction (see allergy), often to a particular food, food additive, or drug. Urticaria may also be caused by exposure to heat, cold, or sunlight. Less commonly, it may be associated with another disorder, such as vasculitis, systemic lupus erythematosus, or cancer.

Itching can be relieved by applying calamine lotion or by taking antihistamine drugs. More severe cases may require corticosteroid drugs. Identifying and avoiding known trigger factors can help prevent future reactions. A tendency to urticaria often disappears in time without treatment.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Urticaria

hives, nettle rash, acute or chronic affection of the skin characterized by the formation of weals, attended by itching, stinging or burning.... The Encyclopedia of Essential Oils

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The Encyclopedia of Essential Oils

Urticaria, Neonatal

A very common, harmless skin condition, also known as erythema neonatorum or toxic erythema, that affects newborn infants. A blotchy rash, in which raised white or yellow lumps are surrounded by illdefined red areas of inflammation, forms, mainly affecting the face, chest, arms, and thighs. The cause of neonatal urticaria is unknown. The rash usually clears up without treatment.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Vaccaria Pyramidata

(L.) Medik.

Synonym: Saponaria vaccaria L.

Family: Caryophyllaceae.

Habitat: Throughout India, as a weed.

English: Soapwort, Cow Herb.

Folk: Musna, Saabuni.

Action: Roots—used for cough, asthma and other respiratory disorders; for jaundice, liver and spleen diseases (increases bile flow). Mucilaginous sap—used in scabies.

Saponins of the root showed haemo- lytic activity. Lanostenol, stigmas- terol, beta-sitosterol and diosgenin have been isolated from the plant. Xanthones, vaccaxanthone and sapx- anthone, and a oligosaccharide, vac- carose, have also been isolated.... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Ventricular Tachycardia

A serious cardiac arrhythmia in which each heartbeat is initiated from electrical activity in the ventricles rather than from the sinoatrial node in the right atrium.

It is caused by an abnormally fast heart-rate due to serious heart disease, such as myocardial infarction or cardiomyopathy.

It may last for a few seconds or for several days.

Diagnosis is confirmed by ECG.

Emergency treatment is with defibrillation and an antiarrhythmic drug.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Ventricular Tachycardia

(VT) a dangerously fast beating of the heart stemming from an abnormal focus of electrical activity in the *ventricles. The electricity does not pass through the heart along the usual channels and as a result the contraction of the heart muscle is often not as efficient as normal, which can result in a sudden drop in blood pressure or even *cardiac arrest. Left untreated it will prove ultimately fatal. See also arrhythmia; torsades de pointes.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Verrucous Carcinoma

an *indolent preinvasive wartlike carcinoma typically of the oral cavity, associated with chewing tobacco, and vulva.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Viable Myocardium

see hibernating myocardium.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Vicarious

adj. describing an action or function performed by an organ not normally involved in the function. For example, vicarious menstruation is a rare disorder in which monthly bleeding occurs from places other than the vagina, such as the sweat glands, breasts, nose, or eyes.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Wigandia Caracasana

Kunth.

Family: Hydrophyllaceae.

Habitat: Native to tropical America; introduced into Indian gardens.

Action: Leaves and branch tips— a decoction is used in rheumatism; also for whooping cough and respiratory problems.

Solvent extracts of the leaves (etha- nol, acetone and M-hexane) were found active against Gram-positive bacteria.

Synonym: W. viridiflora Meissn. W. indica var. virdiflora Hook. f.

Family: Thymelaeaceae.

Habitat: Eastern Assam; as a weed in Tamil Nadu.

English: Small-Leaf Salago.

Folk: Salago.

Action: Root bark—diuretic, vesicant, purgative and piscicidal.

The root bark is reported to contain a flavone glycoside, wikstroemin, which exhibited diuretic activity.

In Chinese folk medicine, the bark is used for schistosomiasis.

The stem contains wikstromol, a lig- nin prototype which exhibited anti- neoplastic activity. Daphnoretin, isolated from the plant, caused platelet aggregation in the blood of rabbits. A polysaccharide, comprising glucose, arabinose, galacturonic acid, galactose and xylose, protected mice against radiation and enhanced the formation of macrophages.... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Wild Carrot

Daucus carota. N.O. Umbelliferae.

Synonym: Bird's Nest.

Habitat: Wastes, pastures and field borders.

Features ? The branched stems of one to three feet high are tough and bristly. The whole plant is hairy, and the leaves are oblong and bipinnate, with acute segments. Blossoming in June and July, the umbel of white flowers usually contains one crimson flower in the centre. The root tapers, is yellowish-white, sweetish, and faintly aromatic. Wren tells us that "in taste and odour it resembles the garden carrot, but the root is small and white, not large." Ferrier, however, says of this root, "no resemblance in taste or colour to the cultivated carrot." Our own opinion is that Wild Carrot tastes like a rather distant relative of the household carrot—which it probably is.

Part used ? The whole plant.

Action: Pronouncedly diuretic in action, as well as de-obstruent and stimulant.

Wild Carrot naturally, therefore, takes a prominent place in many formulae for the treatment of dropsy, gravel, retention of urine, and bladder trouble generally. Either an infusion or decoction may be prepared in the usual proportions, and doses of 2 fl. ounces taken three or four times daily.

Culpeper comments ? "Wild Carrots belong to Mercury, and therefore breaketh wind, and removeth stitches in the sides, provoketh urine and women's courses, and helpeth to break and expel the stone."... Herbal Manual

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Herbal Manual

Xiphoid Cartilage

See XIPHOID PROCESS.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Xylia Xylocarpa

(Roxb.) Taub.

Synonym: X. dolabriformis Benth.

Family: Mimosaceae.

Habitat: Peninsular India.

Siddha/Tamil: Irul.

Folk: Jambu, Suriaa.

Action: Bark—anthelmintic, antidiarrhoeal. Seed oil—an- tirheumatic. Bark and seed oil— antileprotic, used for ulcers and piles. A decoction of the bark powder is given with honey as a vermifuge.

The leaves contain beta-sitosterol and t-5-hydroxypipecolic acid which was shown to be an inhibitor of blood platelet aggregation.

The bark from South India gave tannin 17.1 and non-tans 11.1%; also contains triterpenes. The leaves contain 2.8% of tannins.

The seed yielded oil with oleic 21.5, linoleic 34.8, behenic 21.3 and ligno- ceric 10.2% fatty acids.... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Xylocarpus Granatum

Koen.

Synonym: Carapagranatum (Koen.) Alston.

Habitat: Coastal regions of India, especially in Tamil Nadu.

Siddha/Tamil: Somanthiri, Kan- lolanyey.

English: The Puzzle Fruit tree.

Folk: Pussur, Dhundul.

Action: Bark—astringent, an- tidysenteric, febrifuge.

The bark and leaves contain friede- lin, beta-sitosterol, stigmasterol; te- tranorterpenoids—oxomeliac derivatives. Bark, in addition, contains tri- acontanol. The heartwood contains beta-sitosterol and gedunin. Different parts of the plant contain tannins— fruit pulp 8.57, leaves 7.92, twig bark 14.82, branch bark 20.58, bole bark 23.73, branch wood 4.67 and bole wood 4.94%.

A closely related species X.gange- ticus Prain occurs in West Bengal and the Andamans.... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants