This medical term were found from 1 different sources | Health Encyclopedia


Given three months to live, Jason Winters, terminal cancer patient, was suffering from infiltrating squamous cell carcinoma wrapped round his carotid artery. Refusing major surgery, he travelled the world in search of native remedies. He was able to contact people who put him on the track of Wild Violet leaves, Red Clover flowers (Trifolium pratense) and leaves of the Chaparral bush (Larrea divaricata). The story of how he infused them, together with a well- known spice, is dramatically recorded in his book “Killing Cancer”. After a spectacular recovery, remission has lasted for over 15 years and others have benefited from his experience.

Treatment by oncologist. 

Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine | Health Encyclopedia


Cancer Squamous Cell Carcinoma | Health Encyclopedia

The keywords of this medical terms: Cancer Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Adenocarcinoma

The technical name for a cancer of a gland or glandular tissue, or for a cancer in which the cells

form gland-like structures. An adenocarcinoma arises from epithelium (the layer of cells that lines the inside of organs). Cancers of the colon, breast, pancreas, and kidney are usually adenocarcinomas, as are some cancers of the cervix, oesophagus, salivary glands, and other organs. (See also intestine, cancer of; kidney cancer; pancreas, cancer of.)... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Adenocarcinoma

n. a malignant epithelial tumour arising from glandular structures, which are constituent parts of most organs of the body. The term is also applied to tumours showing a glandular growth pattern. These tumours may be subclassified according to the substances that they produce, for example mucinous and serous adenocarcinomas, or to the microscopic arrangement of their cells into patterns, for example papillary and follicular adenocarcinomas (see also clear-cell carcinoma). They may be solid or cystic (cystadenocarcinomas).... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Adenocarcinoma

Malignant tumour of glandular epithelium.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Adenocarcinoma

A malignant growth of glandular tissue. This tissue is widespread throughout the body’s organs and the tumours may occur, for example, in the STOMACH, OVARIES and UTERUS. Adenocarcinomas may be subdivided into those that arise from mucous or serous secreting glandular tissue.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

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Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

Anaemia: Sickle Cell

A form of anaemia growing into an acute social problem, affecting people of African, Asian, and Mediterranean origin. Thalassaemias are caused by defects of a gene that produces the globin part of haemoglobin. Such defects in the DNA can now be detected in the womb before birth. The name derives from sickle-shaped cells instead of circular red blood cells. Few sufferers survive beyond their 40th year.

Symptoms. Unhealthy pallor, listlessness, sore tongue, dizziness, vague aches and pains, rapid pulse and breathing, tinnitus, palpitation. The skull may be disproportionately large, resistance to infection feeble, chances of survival poor. This form of anaemia is linked with defective colour vision. Impaired liver function. Stunted growth, great pain. Sufferers have a higher risk of infection.

Malaria. Sufferers are less likely to die of malaria because their red cells do not support the growth of malaria parasites very well.

Carriers: Carriers of the sickle-cell gene can now be identified by a simple blood test.

Treatment. No specifics exist but supportive herbal treatment has been known to increase output of red cells and raise haemoglobin levels:– Red Clover flowers, Yellow Dock, Echinacea, Burdock, Wild Indigo, Gentian, Nettles, Birch leaves, Sage, Walnut leaves, Centaury, Gota Kola (Indian Pennywort). Alternatives:– Tea. Mix equal parts: Iceland Moss, Nettles, Red Clover flowers. 2 teaspoons to each cup boiling water; infuse 15 minutes; 1 cup morning and evening.

Decoction. Mix equal parts; Echinacea, Walnut leaves, Balm of Gilead buds; 1 teaspoon to each cup water gently simmered for 20 minutes. Half-1 cup, cold, 3 times daily, before meals.

Tablets/capsules. Sarsaparilla. Ginseng. Iceland Moss. Red Clover. Echinacea. Gentian.

Powders. Formula: Echinacea 1; Fringe Tree half; Ginseng half; White Poplar bark 1. Dose: 500mg (two 00 capsules or one-third teaspoon) thrice daily before meals.

Liquid extracts. Formula. Echinacea 2; Dandelion 1; Oat Husk (avena sativa) 1. Mix. Dose, 1-2 teaspoons before meals, in water or one of the above teas or decoctions.

Tinctures. Same combination. Dose: 2-3 teaspoons.

Dong quai. See entry.

Pollen. Claimed to be of value.

Diet. Dandelion coffee. Molasses. Desiccated liver. Calf liver, fresh. Green leafy vegetables contain chlorophyll, iron and folic acid. Cider vinegar. Dried beans, apricots and shellfish. Dandelion leaves in salads. Milk, eggs, meats, Soya. Carrot juice to increase red cells.

Supplements. Daily. Vitamin B12. Vitamin C, 1g; Folic acid 400mcg, Floradix. Of particular value: Vitamin E 400iu. Zinc.

Note: Those at risk should submit themselves for screening. The disease cannot be cured but can be controlled largely by orthodox measures and sometimes by natural medicine. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

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Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

Anticancer Drugs

Drugs that are used to treat many forms of cancer. They are particularly useful in the treatment of lymphomas, leukaemias, breast cancer, cancer of the testis (see testis, cancer of), and prostate cancer and are often used together with surgery or radiotherapy.

Most anticancer drugs are cytotoxic (kill or damage rapidly dividing cells), but some act by slowing the growth of hormone-sensitive tumours. Anticancer drugs are often prescribed in combination to maximize their effects.

Treatment with cytotoxic drugs is often given by injection in short courses repeated at intervals. Some drugs cause nausea and vomiting and may result in hair loss and increased susceptibility to infection. Others, such as tamoxifen, which is used for breast cancer, are given continuously by mouth for months or years and cause few side effects.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Antigen-presenting Cell

(APC) a cell, such as a *dendritic cell or a *macrophage, that processes antigen for presentation to a T lymphocytes (see helper T cell).... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Anus, Cancer Of

A rare cancer of the skin of the anus. Possible early signs are development of swelling or an ulcer at the anus accompanied by bleeding and discomfort. Treatment is by surgical removal and/or radiotherapy.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Apud Cell Tumour

A growth composed of cells that produce various hormones. These cells, amine precursor uptake and decarboxylation (APUD) cells, occur in different parts of the body. Some tumours of the thyroid gland, pancreas, and lungs are cell tumours, as are a carcinoid tumour (see carcinoid syndrome) and phaeochromocytoma (a type of adrenal tumour).... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Apud Cells

cells that share the metabolic property of amine-precursor uptake and decarboxylation. They have a wide distribution, especially in the mucosa of the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas, and their function is to synthesize and release polypeptides that serve as regulator peptides and neurotransmitters. They are often known as the diffuse neuroendocrine system.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Argentaffin Cells

cells that stain readily with silver salts. Such cells occur, for example, in the crypts of Lieberkühn in the intestine.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Askanazy Cells

see Hürthle cell tumour.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

B Cell

n. see lymphocyte.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

B-cell

See lymphocyte.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

B-lymphocyte (or B-cell)

A type of white blood cell that circulates through the body and is able to detect the presence of the foreign agents. Once exposed to an antigen on the agent, these cells differentiate into plasma cells to produce antibody.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

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Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

Barley Tea May Fight Cancer

Barley tea is widely consumed due to its medicinal properties. It fights effectively against several types of cancer, due to its high content of antioxidants. Barley Tea description Barley is a self-pollinating annual plant, member of the grass family. It grows to a height of 1 to 4 feet, being able to withstand various growing conditions. It is found in grasslands, woodlands, disturbed habitats, roadsides and orchards. The grass of barley is acknowledged to be a source of fiber, vitamins, minerals, and amino acids and it also has a high content of antioxidants. In traditional Chinese medicine, Barley grass has been prescribed to fight diseases of the spleen or poor digestion. It has also been effectively used to treat depression or emotional imbalance. Barley tea is the resulting beverage from brewing the abovementioned plant. This is a very common and appreciated drink in many parts of Asia including Japan, China, Malaysia and Singapore. Barley tea is popular in Japanese and Korean cuisine: the barley grass is often roasted and then stewed in hot water. It is also intaken as a caffeine-free coffee substitute in American cuisine. It is traditionally used for detoxification, to improve digestion and for urinary tract infections. Barley Tea brewing Barley tea is available in loose grains, tea bags or already prepared tea drinks. It is usually made by briefly simmering roasted barley grains. The resulting beverage has a toasty taste, with slight bitter undertones. Barley tea is best consumed hot, though some report that room temperature and even cold barley water is still effective. Barley Tea benefits Studies conducted so far showed that Barley tea is effective in treating:
  • certain forms of cancer
  • digestion
  • prostate
  • sleep disorder
Barley tea is believed to help relieving early symptoms of colds, acting as a daily nutritional supplement and successfully cleansing the body of toxins. This tea may help improve blood sugar levels and also reduce bad cholesterol levels. Barley Tea side effects Barley tea is not recommended for nursing and pregnant women because it may stop lactation. Barley tea is a healthy alternative to caffeine drinks and people choose it daily to replace the first mentioned beverage.... Beneficial Teas

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Beneficial Teas

Basal Cell Carcinoma

A type of skin cancer, also known as a rodent ulcer or , that occurs most commonly on the face or neck. It starts as a small, flat nodule and grows slowly, eventually forming a shallow ulcer with raised pearly edges. Basal cell carcinoma is caused by skin damage from the ultraviolet radiation in sunlight. Fair-skinned people over 50 are the most commonly affected; dark and black-skinned people are protected by the larger amount of... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Basal Cell Carcinoma

A generally slow growing malignant epithelial tumour, which has potential to invade and metastasise, especially if untreated.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

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Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

Basal Cell Carcinoma

The most common form of skin cancer. Its main cause is cumulative exposure to ultraviolet light; most tumours develop on exposed sites, chie?y the face and neck. It grows very slowly, often enlarging with a raised, pearly edge, and the centre may ulcerate (rodent ulcer). It does not metastasise (see METASTASIS) and can be cured by surgical excision or RADIOTHERAPY. Small lesions can also be successfuly treated by curettage and cauterisation (see ELECTROCAUTERY), LASER treatment or CRYOSURGERY. If the diagnosis is uncertain, a biopsy and histological examination should be done.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Basal Cell Carcinoma

(BCC) the commonest form of skin cancer. Although classified as a malignant tumour, it grows very slowly and hardly ever metastasizes. BCC usually occurs on the central area of the face, especially in fair-skinned people; the prevalence increases greatly with episodes of sunburn. The initial sign is a spot or lump that fails to heal, which slowly enlarges. Treatment depends on subtype and is usually straightforward, e.g. topical chemotherapy agents (such as 5-fluorouracil), *curettage and cautery, surgical excision, *cryotherapy, or *radiotherapy. High-risk BCCs around the eyes or nose may be treated with *Mohs’ micrographic surgery to ensure low rates of recurrence and maximal tissue conservation. Only if neglected for decades does a BCC eventually become a so-called rodent ulcer and destroy the surrounding tissue. However, the term ‘rodent ulcer’ is still sometimes used to mean any basal cell carcinoma.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Beta Cells

see islets of Langerhans.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Bladder Cancer

See bladder tumours.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Blood Cell

(blood corpuscle) any of the cells that are present in the blood in health or disease. The cells may be subclassified into three major categories, namely red cells (*erythrocytes); white cells (*leucocytes), which include granulocytes, lymphocytes, and monocytes; and *platelets (see illustration). The blood cells account for approximately 40% of the total volume of the blood in health; red cells comprise the vast majority.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Blood Cells

Cells, also called blood corpuscles, present in blood for most or part of their lifespan. They include red blood cells, which make up about 45 per cent by volume of normal blood, white blood cells, and platelets. Blood cells are made in the bone marrow by a series of divisions from stem cells.

Red blood cells (also known as RBCs, red blood corpuscles, or erythrocytes) transport oxygen from the lungs to the tissues (see respiration). Each is packed with haemoglobin, enzymes, minerals, and sugars. Abnormalities can occur in the rate at which RBCs are either produced or destroyed, in their numbers, and in their shape, size, and haemoglobin content, causing forms of

anaemia and polycythaemia (see blood, disorders of).

White blood cells (also called WBCs, white blood corpuscles, or leukocytes) protect the body against infection and fight infection when it occurs. The 3 main types of are granulocytes (also called polymorphonuclear leukocytes), monocytes, and lymphocytes. Granulocytes are further classified as neutrophils, eosinophils, or basophils, and each type of granulocyte has a role in either fighting infection or in inflammatory or allergic reactions. Monocytes and lymphocytes also play an important part in the immune system. Lymphocytes are usually formed in the lymph nodes. One type, a T-lymphocyte, is responsible for the delayed hypersensitivity reactions

White (see allergy) and Red blood blood cell is also involved in cell (neutrophil) protection against cancer. T-lymphocytes manufacture chemicals, known as lymphokines, which affect the function of other cells. In addition, the T-cells moderate the activity of B-lymphocytes, which form the antibodies that can prevent a second attack of certain infectious diseases. Platelets (also known as thrombocytes), are the smallest blood cells and are important in blood clotting.

The numbers, shapes, and appearance of the various types of blood cell are of great value in the diagnosis of disease (see blood count; blood film).... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Bone Cancer

Malignant growth in bone, which may originate in the bone itself (primary bone cancer) or, more commonly, occur as a result of cancer spreading from elsewhere in the body (secondary, or metatastic, bone cancer). Primary bone cancers are rare. The type that occurs most often is osteosarcoma. Other types include chondrosarcoma and fibrosarcoma. Bone cancer can also start in the bone marrow (see multiple myeloma and leukaemia). The treatment of primary bone cancer depends on the extent to which the disease has spread. If it remains confined to bone, amputation may be recommended; but it may be possible to remove the cancer and fill the defect with a bone graft. Radiotherapy or chemotherapy, or both, may also be needed

The cancers that spread readily to form secondary bone cancer are those of the breast, lung, prostate, thyroid, and kidney.

These bone metastases occur commonly in the spine, pelvis, ribs, and skull.

Pain is usually the main symptom.

Affected bones are abnormally fragile and may easily fracture.

Bone cancer that affects the spine may cause collapse or crushing of vertebrae, damaging the spinal cord and causing weakness or paralysis of one or more limbs.

Secondary bone cancers from the breast and prostate often respond to treatment with hormone antagonists.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Breast Cancer

a malignant tumour of the breast, usually a *carcinoma, rarely a *sarcoma. It is unusual in men but is the most common form of cancer in women, in some cases involving both breasts. Cumulative exposure to higher oestrogen levels is implicated as a causal factor: breast cancer is most strongly associated with early menarche and late menopause, childlessness, and late age at the birth of the first child, and hence with an increase in the total number of menstrual cycles in a woman’s life. Approximately 5% of cases are due to the *BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene mutations.

The classic sign is a lump in the breast, usually painless; bleeding or discharge from the nipple may occur infrequently. Sometimes the first thing to be noticed is a lump in the axilla (armpit), which is caused by spread of the cancer to the drainage lymph nodes. The tumour may also spread to the bones, lungs, and liver. Current treatment of a localized tumour is usually by surgery (see lumpectomy; mastectomy), with or without radiotherapy; cytotoxic drugs and hormone therapy are used as *adjuvant therapy and *neoadjuvant chemotherapy and for widespread (metastatic) disease. Anti-oestrogenic agents used include *tamoxifen and (more recently) *aromatase inhibitors and *trastuzumab (Herceptin).... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Breast Cancer

A cancerous tumour of the breast. The incidence is raised in women whose menstrual periods began at an early age and whose menopause was late; in those who had no children or had their first child later in life; in those with mothers or sisters who had breast cancer; and in those who are obese. The disease is also more common in countries in which the typical diet contains a lot of fat. One form of breast cancer has a genetic component; 2 genes called BRAC1 and BRAC2 have been identified and appear to be involved in this type of breast cancer.

The first sign of breast cancer may be a painless lump. Other symptoms may include a dark discharge from the nipple, retraction (indentation) of the nipple, and an area of dimpled, creased skin over the lump. In 90 per cent of the cases, only 1 breast is affected. The cancer may be suspected after discovering a lump during breast self-examination or mammography. If a lump is detected, cells will be collected from it by needle aspiration or surgical biopsy. If the lump is cancerous, the treatment given depends on the woman’s age, the size of the tumour, whether or not there are signs of spread to the lymph nodes, and the sensitivity of the tumour cells to hormones, as assessed in the laboratory. A small tumour, with no evidence of having spread outside the breast, is removed surgically. Lymph nodes in the armpit are also commonly removed at the same time. Surgery may be combined with radiotherapy and/or anticancer drugs.

Secondary tumours in other parts of the body are treated with anticancer drugs and hormones. Regular check-ups are required to detect recurrence or the development of a new cancer in the other breast. If the cancer recurs, it can be controlled, in some cases, for years by drugs and/or radiotherapy.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Bronchial Carcinoma

cancer of the bronchus, one of the commonest causes of death in smokers. See also lung cancer; small-cell lung cancer.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Bronchus, Cancer Of

See lung cancer.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Brucella

n. a genus of Gram-negative aerobic spherical or rodlike parasitic bacteria responsible for *brucellosis (undulant fever) in humans and contagious abortion in cattle, pigs, sheep, and goats. The principal species are B. abortus and B. melitensis. Brucella ring test is a diagnostic test for brucellosis involving the clumping together of a standard Brucella strain by antibodies in an infected person’s serum.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Brucellosis

A rare bacterial infection, caused by various strains of BRUCELLA, which may be transmitted to humans from affected cattle, goats, and pigs. Brucellosis may also be transmitted in unpasteurized dairy products. Initially, it causes a single bout of high fever, aches, headache, backache, poor appetite, weakness, and depression. Rarely, untreated severe cases may lead to pneumonia or meningitis. In long-term brucellosis, bouts of the illness recur over months or years; and depression can be severe. The disease is treated by antibiotic drugs.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Brucellosis

Undulant fever. An animal disease which may invade the human specie through contact with an infected animal (cattle, sheep, pigs, dogs or horses) or by consuming infected milk, cream or cheese. After drinking raw unpasteurised milk a hospital nurse suffered severe brucellosis; five patients quickly followed.

It is a disease of the slaughter house, veterinary surgeon, farm and meat trade worker. Young males are particularly at risk. In cows, infection may precipitate abortion of a calf but it does not affect the foetus in humans. May produce a rash on the arm of a vet handling a case.

Resembles glandular fever in the acute stage, with fever and high temperature, shivering, headache, profuse sweating, fatigue and anxiety-depression. Symptoms include enlargement of the spleen, liver, lymph glands, sore throat, possible rash, tremor and irritability. In long-standing cases a reactive arthritis may attack the joints. Often, it assumes an attack of influenza, its real nature remaining undiagnosed. Treatment. By medical practitioner. Herbal antibiotics may be regarded as a supportive role. Antibacterials: Garden Thyme, Garlic, Elecampane, Burdock root, Pulsatilla, Echinacea, Poke root, Myrrh, Goldenseal.

Tinctures. Formula. Blue Flag root 30ml; Poke root 15ml; Fringe Tree 30ml; Echinacea 60ml. Dose: 1-2 teaspoons in water every 2 hours (acute); 1 teaspoon thrice daily (chronic condition). ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

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Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

Brucellosis

A zoonotic disease of humans contracted from goats, sheep, pigs or cattle. Can be caused by Brucella melitensis, B. abortus or B. suis Unpasteurised milk can be a source for human infection. Often presents as a PUO.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

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Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

Brucellosis

Also known as undulant fever, or Malta fever.

Causes In Malta and the Mediterranean littoral, the causative organism is the bacterium Brucella melitensis which is conveyed in goat’s milk. In Great Britain, the US and South Africa, the causative organism is the Brucella abortus, which is conveyed in cow’s milk: this is the organism which is responsible for contagious abortion in cattle. In Great Britain brucellosis is largely an occupational disease and is now prescribed as an industrial disease (see OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES), and insured persons who contract the disease at work can claim industrial injuries bene?t. The incidence of brucellosis in the UK has fallen from more than 300 cases a year in 1970 to single ?gures.

Symptoms The characteristic features of the disease are undulating fever, drenching sweats, pains in the joints and back, and headache. The liver and spleen may be enlarged. The diagnosis is con?rmed by the ?nding of Br. abortus, or antibodies to it, in the blood. Recovery and convalescence tend to be slow.

Treatment The condition responds well to one of the tetracycline antibiotics, and also to gentamicin and co-trimoxazole, but relapse is common. In chronic cases a combination of streptomycin and one of the tetracyclines is often more e?ective.

Prevention It can be prevented by boiling or pasteurising all milk used for human consumption. In Scandinavia, the Netherlands, Switzerland and Canada the disease has disappeared following its eradication in animals. Brucellosis has been eradicated from farm animals in the United Kingdom.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Brucellosis

(Malta fever, Mediterranean fever, undulant fever) n. a chronic disease of farm animals caused by bacteria of the genus *Brucella, which can be transmitted to humans either by contact with an infected animal or by drinking nonpasteurized contaminated milk. Symptoms include headache, fever, aches and pains, sickness, loss of appetite, and weakness; occasionally a chronic form develops, with recurrent symptoms. Untreated the disease may last for years but prolonged administration of tetracycline antibiotics or streptomycin is effective.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Burr Cell

(echinocyte) a red blood cell (erythrocyte) with abnormal small thorny projections. See crenation.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

C Cells

parafollicular cells of the thyroid gland, which are derived from neural crest tissue. They produce *calcitonin. *Medullary carcinoma of the thyroid has its origin in the C cells.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Cancellous

adj. lattice-like: applied to the porous spongy network of flattened sheets of *bone, interconnected like a honeycomb, that forms the interior of bones and has a lower density than the surrounding cortical bone. See also lamellar bone.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Cancellous

A term applied to loose bony tissues as found in the ends of the long bones.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Cancer

A group of diseases characterized by the abnormal and unrestrained growth of cells in body organs or tissues. Tumour-forming cells develop when the oncogenes (genes controlling cell growth and multiplication) in a cell or cells undergo a series of changes. A small group of abnormal cells develop that divide more rapidly than normal, lack differentiation (they no longer perform their specialized task), and may escape the normal control of hormones and nerves. Cancers differ from benign neoplasms (abnormal growths, such as warts) in that they spread and infiltrate surrounding tissue and may cause blockages, destroy nerves, and erode bone. Cancer cells may also spread via the blood vessels and lymphatic system to form secondary tumours (see metastasis).

Causes of cancer include environmental factors such as sunlight, smoking, pollutants, alcohol consumption, and dietary factors. These factors may provoke critical changes in body cells in susceptible people. Susceptibility to certain cancers may be inherited.

Many cancers are now curable, usually by combinations of surgery, radiotherapy, and anticancer drugs. For information on particular cancers, refer to the organ in question (for example lung cancer; stomach cancer).... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Cancer

n. any *malignant tumour, including *carcinoma, *lymphoma, *leukaemia, and *sarcoma. It arises from the abnormal, purposeless, and uncontrolled division of cells that then invade and destroy the surrounding tissues. Spread of cancer cells (*metastasis) may occur via the bloodstream or the lymphatic channels or across body cavities such as the pleural and peritoneal spaces (see transcoelomic spread), thus setting up secondary tumours (metastases) at sites distant from the original tumour. Each individual primary tumour has its own pattern of local behaviour and spread; for example, bone metastasis is very common in cancers of the breast, bronchus, thyroid, kidney, and prostate but less common in other tumours.

There are many causative factors, some of which are known; for example, cigarette smoking is associated with lung cancer, radiation with some sarcomas and leukaemia, and several viruses are implicated (see oncogenic). A genetic element is implicated in the development of many cancers. In many cancers a gene called *p53 is deleted or impaired: its normal function is to prevent the uncontrolled division of cells (see tumour necrosis factor). Whatever the initiating cause, cancer always results ultimately from DNA mutations.

Treatment of cancer depends on the type of tumour, the site of the primary tumour, and the extent of spread. *Truth-telling will be important for most cancer patients but is still hard for some clinicians.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Cancer

Malignant neoplasm. Uncontrolled cell growth with local invasion and/or distant spread.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

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Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

Cancer

The general term used to refer to a malignant TUMOUR, irrespective of the tissue of origin. ‘Malignancy’ indicates that (i) the tumour is capable of progressive growth, unrestrained by the capsule of the parent organ, and/or (ii) that it is capable of distant spread via lymphatics or the bloodstream, resulting in development of secondary deposits of tumour known as ‘metastases’. Microscopically, cancer cells appear different from the equivalent normal cells in the affected tissue. In particular they may show a lesser degree of di?erentiation (i.e. they are more ‘primitive’), features indicative of a faster proliferative rate and disorganised alignment in relationship to other cells or blood vessels. The diagnosis of cancer usually depends upon the observation of these microscopic features in biopsies, i.e. tissue removed surgically for such examination.

Cancers are classi?ed according to the type of cell from which they are derived as well as the organ of origin. Hence cancers arising within the bronchi, often collectively referred to as ‘lung cancer’, include both adenocarcinomas, derived from epithelium (surface tissue), and carcinomas from glandular tissue. Sarcomas are cancers of connective tissue, including bone and cartilage. The behaviour of cancers and their response to therapy vary widely depending on this classi?cation as well as on numerous other factors such as how large the cancer is, how fast the cells grow and how well de?ned they are. It is entirely wrong to see cancer as a single disease entity with a universally poor prognosis. For example, fewer than one-half of women in whom breast cancer (see BREASTS, DISEASES OF) is discovered will die from the disease, and 75 per cent of children with lymphoblastic LEUKAEMIA can be cured.

Incidence In most western countries, cancer is the second most important cause of death after heart disease and accounts for 20–25 per cent of all deaths. In the United Kingdom in 2003, more than 154,000 people died of malignant disease. There is wide international variation in the most frequently encountered types of cancer, re?ecting the importance of environmental factors in the development of cancer. In the UK as well as the US, carcinoma of the BRONCHUS is the most common. Since it is usually inoperable at the time of diagnosis, it is even more strikingly the leading cause of cancer deaths. In women, breast cancer was for a long time the most common malignant disease, accounting for a quarter of all cancers, but ?gures for the late 1990s show that lung cancer now heads the incidence list – presumably the consequence of a rising incidence of smoking among young women. Other common sites are as follows: males – colon and rectum, prostate and bladder; females – colon and rectum, uterus, ovary and pancreas.

In 2003, of the more than 154,000 people in the UK who died of cancer, over 33,000 had the disease in their respiratory system, nearly 13,000 in the breast, over 5,800 in the stomach and more than 2,000 in the uterus or cervix, while over 4,000 people had leukaemia. The incidence of cancer varies with age; the older a person is, the more likely it is that he or she will develop the disease. The over-85s have an incidence about nine times greater than those in the 25–44 age group. There are also di?erences in incidence between sexes: for example, more men than women develop lung cancer, though the incidence in women is rising as the effects of smoking work through. The death rate from cancer is falling in people under 75 in the UK, a trend largely determined by the cancers which cause the most deaths: lung, breast, colorectal, stomach and prostate.

Causes In most cases the causes of cancer remain unknown, though a family history of cancer may be relevant. Rapid advances have, however, been made in the past two decades in understanding the di?erences between cancer cells and normal cells at the genetic level. It is now widely accepted that cancer results from acquired changes in the genetic make-up of a particular cell or group of cells which ultimately lead to a failure of the normal mechanisms regulating their growth. It appears that in most cases a cascade of changes is required for cells to behave in a truly malignant fashion; the critical changes affect speci?c key GENES, known as oncogenes, which are involved in growth regulation. (See APOPTOSIS.)

Since small genetic errors occur within cells at all times – most but not all of which are repaired – it follows that some cancers may develop as a result of an accumulation of random changes which cannot be attributed to environmental or other causes. The environmental factors known to cause cancer, such as radiation and chemicals (including tar from tobacco, asbestos, etc.), do so by increasing the overall rate of acquired genetic damage. Certain viral infections can induce speci?c cancers (e.g. HEPATITIS B VIRUS and HEPATOMA, EPSTEIN BARR VIRUS and LYMPHOMA) probably by inducing alterations in speci?c genes. HORMONES may also be a factor in the development of certain cancers such as those of the prostate and breast. Where there is a particular family tendency to certain types of cancer, it now appears that one or more of the critical genetic abnormalities required for development of that cancer may have been inherited. Where environmental factors such as tobacco smoking or asbestos are known to cause cancer, then health education and preventive measures can reduce the incidence of the relevant cancer. Cancer can also affect the white cells in the blood and is called LEUKAEMIA.

Treatment Many cancers can be cured by surgical removal if they are detected early, before there has been spread of signi?cant numbers of tumour cells to distant sites. Important within this group are breast, colon and skin cancer (melanoma). The probability of early detection of certain cancers can be increased by screening programmes in which (ideally) all people at particular risk of development of such cancers are examined at regular intervals. Routine screening for CERVICAL CANCER and breast cancer (see BREASTS, DISEASES OF) is currently practised in the UK. The e?ectiveness of screening people for cancer is, however, controversial. Apart from questions surrounding the reliability of screening tests, they undoubtedly create anxieties among the subjects being screened.

If complete surgical removal of the tumour is not possible because of its location or because spread from the primary site has occurred, an operation may nevertheless be helpful to relieve symptoms (e.g. pain) and to reduce the bulk of the tumour remaining to be dealt with by alternative means such as RADIOTHERAPY or CHEMOTHERAPY. In some cases radiotherapy is preferable to surgery and may be curative, for example, in the management of tumours of the larynx or of the uterine cervix. Certain tumours are highly sensitive to chemotherapy and may be cured by the use of chemotherapeutic drugs alone. These include testicular tumours, LEUKAEMIA, LYMPHOMA and a variety of tumours occurring in childhood. These tend to be rapidly growing tumours composed of primitive cells which are much more vulnerable to the toxic effects of the chemotherapeutic agents than the normal cells within the body.

Unfortunately neither radiotherapy nor currently available chemotherapy provides a curative option for the majority of common cancers if surgical excision is not feasible. New e?ective treatments in these conditions are urgently needed. Nevertheless the rapidly increasing knowledge of cancer biology will almost certainly lead to novel therapeutic approaches – including probably genetic techniques utilising the recent discoveries of oncogenes (genes that can cause cancer). Where cure is not possible, there often remains much that can be done for the cancer-sufferer in terms of control of unpleasant symptoms such as pain. Many of the most important recent advances in cancer care relate to such ‘palliative’ treatment, and include the establishment in the UK of palliative care hospices.

Families and patients can obtain valuable help and advice from Marie Curie Cancer Care, Cancer Relief Macmillan Fund, or the British Association of Cancer United Patients.

www.cancerbacup.org.uk

www.mariecurie.org.uk... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Cancer

An invasive growth which gradually emerges into life and, undisciplined, eats its way into neighbouring tissues. Malignancy is the growth of abnormal cells with the ability to form a primary lesion from which cells may be bloodborne to other parts of the body (metastasis). Growth usually follows the line of the lymph vessels (Violet leaves have an affinity for lymph vessels).

Course of the disease is unpredictable, cases surviving for many years on primary or supportive herbal treatment. Suspected malignancy should be referred to modern hospital treatment immediately. Early detection is vital.

Common signs calling attention are: (1) Unusual bleeding or discharge. (2) Tired feeling all the time. (3) Thickening or lump in breast or elsewhere. (4) Sudden change in hair texture and colour. (5) Irritable cough or hoarseness. (6) Extreme mental depression. (7) Obvious change in a mole or wart. (8) Muscle weakness and cramps. (9) A sore that does not heal. (10) Change in bowel or bladder habit. (11) Sudden weakness of the eyes. (12) Difficulties in swallowing; indigestion. (13) Excess wind in stomach or bowel.

Tumour-killing effect of chemotherapy may be intensified and side-effects minimised (loss of weight, and of white blood cells) when certain neoplastic herbs are prescribed. Cytotoxic drugs inhibit the ability of Vitamin C to stimulate the body’s defences. Herbs enhance the body’s self-healing ability to eliminate. An inoperable cancer would appear to be good grounds for herbal medication which often relieves pain and preserves a man’s dignity in his hour of extremity.

A series of medical trials in Finland revealed that terminal cases had 12 per cent lower mean serum selenium concentration than controls. Other similar trials point to the need for selenium supplements. Those with both low selenium and low Vitamin E levels are especially at risk.

See: GERSON CANCER THERAPY.

Exercise. High levels of fitness are associated with lower death rates. (American study)

Plants with a special reference to cancer include: Blue Flag, Burdock, Clivers, Condurango, Echinacea, Guaiacum, Houseleek, Poke root. There are many more referred to in medical literature.

Poke Root. John Bartram reported in the late 18th century that from his experience among the Mohawk Indians, Poke root (Phytolacca decandra) was a “cure” for cancer. (American Indian Medicine, Virgil J. Vogel)

Blood Root. For internal or external bleeding of cancer.

Calendula (Marigold). For the same purpose.

Mistletoe. Dr Alfred Vogel advises an extract of the plant (Loranthus europaeus) as grown on the Oak tree: dose: 10-15 drops.

Almonds. Edgar Cayce, Virginia Beach, USA, with some successes to his credit, advised eating three almonds a day to counter any tendency towards the disease.

Laetrile. From Apricot kernels that contain cyanogenic glucosides. Though competent physicians have reported positive results in some terminal cases without prior surgery or radiation, the remedy has been withdrawn from general practice because of possible toxicity.

Much needless suffering may be incurred because of out-moded resistance of doctors and governments against prescribing morphine early in cancer patients. It is estimated that 50-80 per cent of patients do not receive satisfactory pain-relief because doctors fear tolerance of the drug would increase, necessitating a higher dosage. From the beginning of time the Opium Poppy has been the most effective analgesic for the terminal condition. Morphine is a respiratory depressant and some authorities believe it should be given before the final stages in continuous doses for adequate pain control. Risks must be balanced with benefits. Dangerous in asthmatics.

Way of Life. Herbal medication of malignant disease involves the patient with his treatment. Here is something he or she can do to regain some control over their life. It can give them the satisfaction of knowing that in some way they are ‘fighting back’ thus influencing the quality of life and a sense of well- being.

If improvement in cancer is not possible maybe the condition can be stabilised and the patient helped to cope with the very unpleasant side-effects of chemotherapy and radiation. Thus, may be restored the body’s natural balance and a possible extension of lifespan.

For this, patients and practitioners may need information and support. That is why suggestions for malignant disease are included in this book. Moreover, well-meaning friends and relatives may exert pressure on the patient ‘to leave no stone unturned’ in search of a cure. Thus every possible secondary treatment should be considered since any one may prove to contribute towards recovery. It is hoped that this book will invite a therapeutic alliance with members of the medical profession as well as with other practitioners.

Macmillan nurses help alleviate physical pain and the psychological distress that can accompany this illness. They are trained to help people with cancer and their families fight cancer with more than medicine.

All forms of cancer should be treated by or in liaison with a qualified medical practitioner or an oncologist. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

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Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

Cancer

CHINESE PRESCRIPTION. Decoction of:– 2 liang of each of the following fresh plants: Pai-ying (Solanum lyratum), Oldenlandia diffusa, Lobelia radicans, Scutellaria barbarta. If dried, use half quantity. Drink as tea. For severe pain add Ch’ing-mu-hsiang (Aristolochia debilis), 1 liang. Take with rice-polishing water. For haemoptysis, add 1 liang chi’hsueh-t’eng (Millettia reticulata). For severe coughing add yin-yang-huo (Epimedium sagittatum) and ai-ti-ch’a (Ardisia japonica), 3 ch’ien of each. Advised for cancer of the lungs, liver, cervix and nasopharynx. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

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Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

Cancer - Breast

Commonest form of cancer in women. Overall mortality remains about 50 per cent at five years. Appears to run in families. Strikes hard unmarried women. Married women who have no children. Those who do not nurse their babies, or who are infertile and have no child before thirty. Eight out of ten chest lumps are benign.

Symptoms. A small lump comes to light while washing, a discharge from the nipple, change in nipple size and colour, irregular contour of the breast surface. Though tissue change is likely to be a cyst, speedy diagnosis and treatment are necessary. Some hospital physicians and surgeons are known to view favourably supportive herbal aids, and do not always think in terms of radical mastectomy. Dr Finlay Ellingwood, Chicago physician (1916) cured a case by injection of one dram Echinacea root extract twice a week into the surrounding tissues.

The condition is believed to be due to a number of causes including suppression of ovulation and oestrogen secretion in pregnant and lactating women. A high fat diet is suspected of interference with the production of oestrogen. Some women are constitutionally disposed to the condition which may be triggered by trauma or emotional shock. Increase in incidence in older women has been linked with excessive sugar consumption. “Consumption overwhelms the pancreas which has to ‘push it out’ to all parts of the body (when broken down by the digestive process) whether they need it or not. The vital organs are rationed according to their requirements of nutrients from the diet. What is left over has to ‘go into store elsewhere’. And the breast is forced to take its share and store it. If it gets too much, for too long, it may rebel!” (Stephen Seely, Department of Bacteriology and Virology, Manchester)

“Women who nurse their babies less than one month are at an increased risk for breast cancer. The longer a woman breast-feeds – no matter what her age – the more the risk decreases. (Marion Tompson, co-founder, The La Leche League, in the American Journal of Epidemiology)

Lactation reduces the risk of pre-menopausal breast cancer. (Newcomb P.A. et al New England Journal of Medicine, 330 1994)

There is currently no treatment to cure metastatic breast cancer. In spite of chemotherapy, surgery and radiotherapy survival rate has not diminished. Herbs not only have a palliative effect but, through their action on hormone function offer a positive contribution towards overcoming the condition. Their activity has been widely recorded in medical literature. Unlike cytotoxic drugs, few have been known to cause alopecia, nausea, vomiting or inflammation of the stomach.

Treatment by a general medical practitioner or oncologist.

Special investigations. Low radiation X-ray mammography to confirm diagnosis. Test for detection of oestrogen receptor protein.

Treatment. Surgery may be necessary. Some patients may opt out from strong personal conviction, choosing a rigid self-disciplined approach – the Gentle Way. Every effort is made to build up the body’s natural defences (immune system).

An older generation of herbalists believed tissue change could follow a bruise on the breast, which should not be neglected but immediately painted with Tincture Arnica or Tincture Bellis perennis.

Vincristine, an alkaloid from Vinca rosea (Catharanthus roseus) is used by the medical profession as an anti-neoplastic and anti-mitotic agent to inhibit cell division.

Of possible therapeutic value. Blue Flag root, Burdock root, Chaparral, Clivers, Comfrey root, Echinacea, Figwort, Gotu Kola, Marshmallow root, Mistletoe, Myrrh, Prickly Ash bark, Red Clover, Thuja, Wild Violet, Yellow Dock.

Tea. Equal parts: Red Clover, Clivers, Gotu Kola, Wild Violet. 1 heaped teaspoon to each cup boiling water; infuse 5-15 minutes. 3 or more cups daily.

Decoctions. Echinacea, Blue Flag root, Queen’s Delight, Yellow Dock.

Tablets/capsules. Blue Flag root, Echinacea, Poke root, Mistletoe.

Formula. Echinacea 2; Gotu Kola 1; Poke root 1; Mistletoe 1; Vinca rosea 1. Mix. Dose: Powders: 500mg (two 00 capsules or one-third teaspoon). Liquid extracts: 1 teaspoon. Tinctures: 2 teaspoons. Thrice daily and at bedtime. According to progress of the disease, increase dosage as tolerated.

Maria Treben’s tea. Parts: Marigold (3), Yarrow 1; Nettles 1. Mix. 2 teaspoons to each cup boiling water. 1 cup as many times daily as tolerated.

William Boericke, M.D. recommends Houseleek. E.H. Ruddock M.D. favours Figwort.

Topical. Treatments believed to be of therapeutic value or for use as a soothing application.

(1) Cold poultice: Comfrey root.

(2) Poultice of fresh Marshmallow root pulped in juicer.

(3) Injection of Extract Greater Celandine (Chelidonium), locally, gained a reputation in the Eclectic school.

(4) The action of Blood root (Sanguinaria) is well known as a paint or injection.

(5) Ragwort poultice: 2oz Ragwort boiled in half a pint potato water for 15 minutes. See: POULTICE.

(6) Popular Russian traditional remedy: Badiaga (Spongilla fluviatilis), fresh water sponge gathered in the autumn; dried plant rubbed to a powder. Poultice.

(7) Maria Treben’s Poultice: Carefully washed fresh Plantain leaves, pulped, and applied direct to the lesion.

(8) If lymph glands are affected, apply Plantain poultice to glands.

(9) Dr Brandini’s treatment. Dr Brandini, Florence, used 4 grains Citric Acid (prepared from lemons) in 1oz (30ml) water for ulcerated cancer of the breast considered incurable. “The woman’s torments were so distressing that neither she nor other patients could get any rest. Applying lint soaked in the solution, relief was instantaneous. Repeated, it was successful.”

(10) Circuta leaves. Simmered till soft and mixed with Slippery Elm bark powder as a poultice morning and night.

(11) Decoction. Simmer gently Yellow Dock roots, fine cut or powdered, 1oz to 1 pint, 20 minutes. Saturate lint or suitable material and apply.

(12) Yellow Dock ointment. Half ounce Lobelia seed, half ounce Yellow Dock root powder. Baste into an ointment base. See: OINTMENT BASE.

(13) Infusion, for use as a wash. Equal parts: Horsetail, Red Clover, Raspberry leaves. 1oz to 1 pint boiling water infuse 15 minutes.

(14) Dr Christopher’s Ointment. Half an ounce White Oak, half an ounce Garden Sage, half an ounce Tormentil, half an ounce Horsetail, half an ounce Lemon Balm. Method: Boil gently half an hour in quart water, strain. Reduce to half a pint by simmering. Add half a pound honey. Bring to boil. Skim off scum. Allow cool. Apply: twice daily on sores.

(15) Dr Finlay Ellingwood. Poke root juice. “Fresh juice from the stems, leaves and roots applied directly to diseased tissue. Exercises a selective action; induces liquefaction and promotes removal, sometimes healing the open wound and encouraging scar formation. Masses of such tissue have been known to be destroyed in a few weeks with only a scar, with no other application but the fresh juice. Produces pain at first, but is otherwise harmless.”

(16) Lesion painted with Mandrake resin. (American Podophyllum)

(17) Dust affected parts with Comfrey powder. Mucilage from Comfrey powder or crushed root with the aid of a little milk. See: COMFREY.

(18) Dr Samuel Thomson’s Cancer Plaster. “Take heads of Red Clover and fill a kettle. Boil in water for one hour. Remove and fill kettle with fresh flower heads. Boil as before in the same liquor. Strain and press heads to express all the liquor. Simmer over a low fire till of the consistency of tar. It must not burn. Spread over a piece of suitable material.”

(19) Wipe affected area with cut Houseleek. (Dr Wm Boericke)

(20) Chinese Herbalism. Take 1-2 Liang pulverised liao-ko-wang (Wickstroemia indica), mix with cold boiled water or rice wine for local compress. Also good for mastitis.

(21) Italian women once used an old traditional remedy – Fenugreek tea.

(22) A clinical trial of Vitamin D provided encouraging results. Patients with locally advanced breast cancer were given a highly active Vitamin D analogue cream to rub on their tumours. “It was effective in one third of the tumours,” said Professor Charles Coombes, clinical oncologist, Charing Cross Hospital, London.

Diet. “A diet rich in cereal products (high in dietary fibre) and green leafy vegetables (antioxidants) would appear to offer women some protection against breast cancer due to the relation between fibre and oestrogen metabolism. Meat-free diet. In a study of 75 adolescent girls, vegetarians were found to have higher levels of a hormone that women suffering from breast cancer often lack. (Cancer Research) Supplements. Daily. Chromium. Selenium (600mcg). Zinc chelate (100mg morning and evening). Beta carotene. “Low levels of Selenium and Vitamins A and E are shown in breast cancer cases.” (British Journal of Cancer 49: 321-324, 1984).

Vitamins A and D inhibit virus penetration in healthy cell walls. Multivitamin combinations should not include Vitamin B12, production of which in the body is much increased in cancerous conditions. Vitamins B-complex and C especially required.

Note: A link between sugar consumption and breast cancer has been reported by some authorities who suggest that countries at the top of the mortality table are the highest also in sugar consumption; the operative factor believed to be insulin.

Screening. Breast screening should be annual from the age of forty.

General. Mothers are encouraged to breast-feed children for the protection it offers against mammary malignancy. (Am.J. Obstet. Gyn. 15/9/1984. 150.)

Avoidance of stress situations by singing, playing an instrument. Adopt relaxation techniques, spiritual healing and purposeful meditation to arouse the immune system; intensive visualisation. Avoid the carcinogens: smoking, alcohol.

Information. Breast Cancer Care. Free Help Line. UK Telephone: 0500 245345. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

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Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

Cancer - Bronchial Carcinoma

The most common form of cancer throughout the world. Five year survival: 10 per cent. Its association with cigarette smoking is now established beyond doubt. Other causes include such occupational poisons as asbestos, arsenic, chromium, diesel fumes, etc. The squamous cell carcinoma is the most common of the four types.

Diagnosis is confirmed by sputum test, chest X-ray, bronchoscopy or biopsy. Earliest symptoms are persistent cough, pain in the chest, hoarseness of voice and difficulty of breathing. Physical examination is likely to reveal sensitivity and swelling of lymph nodes under arms.

Symptoms. Tiredness, lack of energy, possible pains in bones and over liver area. Clubbing of finger-tips indicate congestion of the lungs. Swelling of arms, neck and face may be obvious. A haematologist may find calcium salts in the blood. The supportive action of alteratives, eliminatives and lymphatic agents often alleviate symptoms where the act of swallowing has not been impaired.

Broncho-dilators (Lobelia, Ephedra, etc) assist breathing. Mullein has some reputation for pain relief. To arrest bleeding from the lesion (Blood root).

According to Dr Madaus, Germany, Rupturewort is specific on lung tissue. To disperse sputum (Elecampane, Red Clover). In advanced cases there may be swollen ankles and kidney breakdown for which Parsley root, Parsley Piert or Buchu may be indicated. Cough (Sundew, Irish Moss). Soft cough with much sputum (Iceland Moss). To increase resistance (Echinacea).

Alternatives. Secondary to primary treatment. Of possible value.

Teas. Violet leaves, Mullein leaves, Yarrow leaves, Gotu Kola leaves, White Horehound leaves. Flavour with a little Liquorice if unpalatable.

Tablets/capsules. Lobelia, Iceland Moss, Echinacea, Poke root.

Formula. Equal parts: Violet, Red Clover, Garden Thyme, Yarrow, Liquorice. Dose: Powders: 750mg (three 00 capsules or half a teaspoon. Liquid Extracts: 1-2 teaspoons. Tinctures: 1-3 teaspoons. Thrice daily, and during the night if relief is sought.

Practitioner. Tinctures BHP (1983). Ephedra 4; Red Clover 4, Yellow Dock 2; Bugleweed 2; Blood root quarter; Liquorice quarter (liquid extract). Mix. Start low: 30-60 drops in water before meals and at bedtime increasing to maximum tolerance level.

Aromatherapy. Oils: Eucalyptus or Thyme on tissue to assist breathing. Inhale.

Diet. See: DIET – CANCER.

Treatment by a general medical practitioner or hospital specialist. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

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Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

Cancer Phobia

a disorder of the phobic type in which minor symptoms are interpreted as signs of cancer and panic attacks may occur. As with any other phobic disorder, cancer phobia cannot be treated by appeals to reason. Some success has been achieved by various forms of *behaviour therapy and *SSRIs.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Cancer Rectal

See: COLORECTAL CANCER. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

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Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

Cancer Screening

Tests to detect early signs of cancer in groups of people who are susceptible to cancer because of their age, occupation, lifestyle, or genetic predisposition. Tests for cancers of the cervix (see cervical smear test), breast (see mammography), bladder, and colon have proven to be effective.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Cancer – Anal

Epithelioma.

Of possible value. Condor plant, Figwort, Goldenseal, Echinacea. Wm Boericke MD advised Goldenseal. J.T. Kent MD mentions Poke root.

Powders. Formula. Echinacea 2; Figwort 1; Goldenseal half; Condurango half; Thuja quarter. Pinch Cayenne. Dose: 500mg (two 00 capsules or one-third teaspoon) thrice or more daily, as tolerated. Tinctures. Formula. Echinacea 2; Stone root half; Condurango half; Asafoetida quarter. Few drops Tincture Capsicum. Dose: 30-60 drops thrice or more daily, as tolerated.

Topical. Comfrey ointment made from the fresh plant.

Diet. See: DIET – CANCER.

Treatment by or in liaison with a general medical practitioner. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

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Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

Cancer – Bladder

Neoplasm of bladder. One third of patients are over 70 years. Most cases today arise from exposure to injurious chemicals only partly eliminated from the body, as from food additives, analine dyes, etc. Evidence also links the disease to excessive coffee-drinking, the general consensus being that caffeine blocks the action of a compound named adenosine – one of the building blocks of DNA – involved in cellular energy. In this way it interferes with natural metabolic processes.

Symptoms: Blood in the urine with absence of pain on passing water in early stages. Then, burning frequency, especially at night. Kidneys become involved. Growths range from papilloma to tumour which may ulcerate in later stages.

The lesion is confirmed by cystoscopy (examination of the bladder by insertion of an instrument to illuminate inner surfaces and makes possible a direct view of the affected tissues). Even when the condition is healed this examination is repeatedly necessary to detect recurrence.

Two kinds: (1) papillary epithelioma (2) squamous cell epithelioma.

Tea. Formula. Equal parts: Marshmallow root, Clivers, Horsetail, Shepherd’s purse. 1-2 teaspoons to each cup boiling water; infuse 10-15 minutes. 2 cups or more daily.

Decoction. Barberry bark cold infusion. 1 teaspoon to each cup cold water. Steep over night. 2 cups or more daily.

Tinctures. Formula. Horsetail 1; Clivers 2; Barberry 1. Mix. 1-2 teaspoons (5-10ml) 2 or more times daily. If inflammation is present add Meadowsweet 1.

Dr William Boericke, physician, advised Dandelion to lessen symptoms.

Diet. See: DIET – CANCER.

Supplements. Emphasis on Vitamins A and C. (Vitamin A in epithelial tumours, ‘New Scientist’ (1975) 303)

Treatment offered as a supportive to specific modern hospital techniques. Treatment by or in liaison with a general medical practitioner. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

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Cancer – Bone

May be myeloma (tumour-like over-growth of bone marrow tissue, a giant cell sarcoma, a medullary tumour or secondary deposit from breast, lung, prostate cancer etc. Risk of fracture. Inflammation of the bone – Yarrow. Comfrey. See: MYELOMA, SARCOMA. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

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Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

Cancer – Bowel

See: COLORECTAL CANCER. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

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Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

Cancer – Cervical

See: CANCER OF THE WOMB. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

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Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

Cancer – Facial

In October 1967, after three previous surgically removed growths, an 85-year-old cattleman of Mesa, Arizona, refused treatment on the same fourth-recurrent growth, documented as malignant melanoma, in favour of “Chaparral tea”, an old Indian remedy. Of this tea he drank 2-3 cups a day. In September 1968 he was re-examined by the Medical Centre, Utah, USA. They found the growth had decreased from the size of a large lemon to that of a dime. No other medication was used, only the Chaparral tea. In eleven months he gained a needed 25lb with improvements in general health, as previous to Chaparral treatment he was pale, weak and lethargic. (“Indian Herbology”, Alma Hutchens. Pub: Merco, Ontaria).

The facial lesion finally disappeared. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

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Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

Cancer – Kidney

Cancer of the kidney may appear in the renal pelvis, the area where urine is collected, or as a hypernephroma in the kidney itself. Not common. Symptoms include blood in the urine but with little pain. Herbal anti-neoplastics may enable the body to tolerate and reduce the toxicity of chemotherapy, the following being subordinate to conventional treatment.

Formula. Corn Silk 3; Plantain (Plantago major L) 2; Golden Rod 1; Hydrangea 1; Valerian half. Dosage: thrice daily before meals. Liquid Extracts: 1 teaspoon. Tinctures: 2 teaspoons. Powders: two 00 capsules or one-third teaspoon. This may be used as a basic combination to be adapted to a changing clinical picture.

Treatment by a general medical practitioner or oncologist. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

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Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

Cancer – Larynx

Chiefly due to continued inflammation from faulty use of the voice, smoking, drugs or infection.

Symptoms. Cough, hoarseness, difficult swallowing. ‘Always clearing the throat.’ Differs from a polyp or papilloma on the vocal chords which are benign.

Of possible value:– Teas. Balm, Chamomile, Gotu Kola, Red Clover, Red Sage, Yarrow. Plantain (Arthur Hyde MNIMH)

Tea (mild analgesic). Mix equal parts: Balm and German Chamomile. 1 heaped teaspoon to each cup boiling water; infuse 5 minutes. 1 cup freely.

Tablets/capsules. Blue Flag root, Echinacea, Poke root.

Formula. Echinacea 2; Mullein 2; Goldenseal quarter. Mix. Dose: Powders: 750mg (three 00 capsules or half a teaspoon). Liquid extracts: 1-2 teaspoons. Tinctures: 1-3 teaspoons. Thrice daily and at bedtime. Diet. Slippery Elm gruel.

Supplements. Vitamins A and C.

Treatment by a general medical practitioner or a hospital oncologist. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

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Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

Cancer – Liver

A primary lesion in the liver is rare. Usually invasion of carcinoma from the pancreas, gall bladder, stomach or intestines. Enlargement is rapid.

Symptoms. Jaundice. Ascites (excess fluid in the abdomen). Tenderness and enlargement of right upper abdomen; hobnail to the touch.

Alternatives: for possible relief of symptoms:–

Dandelion juice (fresh): 4 drachms (14ml) every 4 hours.

Wormwood tea freely.

Tea. Equal parts: Agrimony, Gotu Kola, Milk Thistle. Mix. 1 heaped teaspoon to each cup boiling water; infuse 5-10 minutes. 1 cup freely.

Decoction. Dandelion 2; Clivers 1; Liquorice 1; Blue Flag root half. Mix. 30g (1oz) to 500ml (1 pint) water gently simmered 20 minutes. Dose: half-1 cup 3 or more times daily.

Tablets/capsules. Blue Flag root, Goldenseal, Prickly Ash.

Formula. Dandelion 2; Milk Thistle 2; Fennel 1; Peppermint 1. Mix. Dose: Powders: 750mg (three 00 capsules or half a teaspoon). Liquid extracts: 1-2 teaspoons. Tinctures: 1-2 teaspoons. 3 or more times daily.

Biostrath artichoke formula.

Practitioner. Dandelion juice (fresh) 4oz; Wahoo bark Liquid extract 10 drops. Violet leaves Liquid extract 10.5ml. Tincture Goldenseal 10 drops. Dose: 2 teaspoons in water thrice daily. To each dose add 10 drops Liquid extract Oats (avena). (W. Burns-Lingard MNIMH)

Vinchristine. Success has been reported following use of the Periwinkle plant (Vinca rosea).

Greater Celandine has been regarded of value.

Chinese Herbalism. See: CANCER: CHINESE PRESCRIPTION. Also: Pulverised t’ien chihuang (Hypericum japonicum) 1 liang, mixed with rock sugar, with boiled water, 3 times daily. Also of value for cirrhosis.

Epsom’s salt Baths (hot): to encourage elimination of impurities through the skin. Diet. Limit fats. Protein diet to increase bile flow.

Treatment by a general medical practitioner or hospital oncologist. CANCER – LYMPH VESSELS. See: HODGKIN’S DISEASE. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

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Cancer – Mouth And Lips

Epithelioma.

Causes: occupational hazards, contact with toxic metals and minerals.

A Health Department’s committee found an increased risk of developing mouth cancer from “snuff- dipping”, the practice of sucking tobacco from a small sachet, “tobacco teabags”.

Of possible value:– Fresh plant juices, Houseleek, Aloe Vera.

Teas: Chickweed, Mullein, Comfrey. 1 heaped teaspoon to each cup boiling water; infuse 15 minutes; dose – 1 cup thrice daily, increasing to as much as well tolerated.

Condurango Liquid extract. 10-30 drops in water before meals.

Goldenseal Liquid extract. 3-5 drops in water before meals.

George Burford MD. Condurango and Goldenseal.

E.H. Ruddock MD 1925. “Several cases of cancer of the lips have been cured by Goldenseal.”

Topical. Wipe area with Liquid Extract Condurango, Goldenseal, Thuja, Poke root or fresh plant juices of above. Slippery Elm paste: powdered Slippery Elm in few drops milk or water.

Mouthwash. Equal parts: Liquid Extract Goldenseal, Liquid Extract Bayberry, Tincture Myrrh and Glycerine. Some may be swallowed as internal medicine. Comfrey, Mullein or Chickweed cream.

Diet. See: DIET – CANCER.

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Cancer – Nose And Throat

Usually epithelioma with burning. Lesion may extend upwards into the base of the skull. Thickening of nasal membranes may cause deafness by compressing Eustachian tubes.

Anyone over 40 who has recurrent sore throat for more than six weeks should visit his family doctor. Symptoms. Pain, headache, paralysis of eye muscles.

Of possible value. Alternatives:– Teas. Violet leaves, Red Clover flowers, Plantain. 1-2 teaspoons to each cup boiling water; infuse 5-15 minutes. Drink freely.

Decoction. Combination. Goldenseal 1; Poke root 1; Yellow Dock 3; Marshmallow root 3. Place half an ounce (15g) in 1 pint (500ml) water simmered gently 20 minutes. Half a cup or more, as freely as tolerated.

Formula. Echinacea 2; Goldenseal 1; Poke root half; Thuja quarter; Liquorice half. Mix. Dose: Powders: 500mg (two 00 capsules or one-third teaspoon). Liquid extracts: 1 teaspoon. Tinctures: 2 teaspoons. Three or more times daily as tolerated.

Case of Lady Margaret Marsham, Maidstone. Cured of cancer of the throat by Violet leaf tea. Boiling water was poured on fresh Violet leaves (wild, not cultivated) and allowed to stand 12 hours. Compresses were moistened and applied externally to the throat and covered with oil silk. Relief was immediate. Difficult swallowing, sense of suffocation and the visible swelling disappeared within one week, the growth on the tonsil within a fortnight.

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Cancer – Oesophagus

Usually epithelial in character, similar to that of the lips. Mostly in males.

Seldom before 45 years. Frequently in lower one-third of gullet. Dysphagia, with sense of obstruction on swallowing food. May perforate wall of trachea. Pain, worse at night, radiates from an exact spot. Eating hot food and drinking piping hot tea are heavily suspect.

At risk. Heavy smokers and alcoholics with depleted reserves of Vitamin A and zinc. These two factors play an important role in modern treatment.

Occurs in areas where the soil is low in molybdenum which causes plants to have a high level of nitrates. When such plants are stored they form nitrites which in turn form nitrosamines – which are carcinogens. Experimental rats given nitrous amines have a strong tendency to form cancer of the oesophagus. Eating pickled vegetables carries a high risk.

There are a few areas of the world where these adverse soil conditions pertain – one in Iran, another in Calvados, but the worst was in Lin Xian of the province of Honan, China. In Lin Xian, in the 1970s, it was found that villagers ate mainly persimmon and corn cakes and pickled vegetables. These, and their water, were high in nitrates. It was also their habit to eat mouldy bread which is high in amines – even nitrosamines. Their food was deficient in Vitamin C, which is likely to produce nitrous amines in the stomach.

The molybdenum problem was solved by sowing seeds with a fertiliser containing molybdenum. Piped water replaced old cistern wells and food was carefully stored. Even the chickens oesophageal cancers were cured. As a result of modern scientific investigation and treatment in which medicinal herbs made an important contribution, what was once a high gullet cancer area was resolved into one of the success stories of modern medicine.

Tannin has long been identified as a cancer-causing chemical, supported by findings of a high incidence of the disease among those who consume large quantities of tannin-containing beverages such as tea. Milk binds with tannin and is advised in tea-drinking where lemon is not taken.

Solid drugs and tablets should not be swallowed in the recumbent position without chewing a piece of banana.

Symptoms. (1) Sensation of obstruction when swallowing food. (2) Sharp pain behind breastbone. (3) “Something stuck in the gullet.” (4) Stomach ache, dry throat. (5) Belching when taking food. (6) Soreness of the upper back. (Dr Ge-ming, Lin Xian, Province of Honan, Chinese People’s Republic)

Of possible value. Alternatives:– Tea. Equal parts: Chaparral, Gotu Kola, Red Clover. 1 heaped teaspoon to each cup boiling water; infuse 15 minutes. Drink freely.

Powders. Combination. Goldenseal 1; Echinacea 2; Slippery Elm 3. Dose: 750mg (three 00 capsules or half a teaspoon). 3 or more times daily.

Tinctures. Combination. Goldenseal 1; Bayberry 1; Thuja 1; Condurango 1; Rosebay Willowherb 2. One teaspoon 3 or more times daily.

Chinese Herbalism. Powdered Huang yao-tzu 3 ch’ien, 3 times daily. Remedy is prepared by taking 12 liang of huang yao-tzu and steeping in 3 chin of white wine 24 hours. Then place huang yao-tzu in cold water and soak for another 7 days and 7 nights. Take out, dry and crush into powder. (A Barefoot Doctor’s Manual)

Diet. Leafy vegetables, carrots, tomatoes and fruit help to protect against the disease. Supplements. Especially Vitamin A, zinc and molybdenum.

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Cancer – Ovaries

Ovarian carcinoma. The fifth most common cause of death in women. Often together with bowel and breast cancers. Adeno-carcinoma. Prognosis poor because of delay in seeking medical advise.

Symptoms. Failing appetite, weight loss, flatulence, bowel symptoms, bladder disturbance, abdominal pain, clothes tight around the abdomen. The disease usually presents after the age of 45, users of contraceptives having a lower risk of development.

Risk of ovarian cancer has been related to women who consume too much animal fat and too little vegetable fat (JAM Nov. 1984). A similar risk is recorded in a report from Milan providing strong evidence of its relation to excessive coffee consumption.

Researchers at John Hopkin’s University, Baltimore, USA, report success with Taxol, extracted from the bark of the Pacific Yew Tree, given intravenously to 40 women with ovarian cancer resistant to other therapies, caused a 50 per cent decrease in size of the tumours. (New Scientist 1989, 1687, p37) Treatment. Should it be necessary to defer surgery or cytotoxic chemotherapy, any of the following alternatives may be taken with profit, or prescribed as secondary to primary treatment.

Tea. Equal parts: Agnus Castus, Gotu Kola, Red Clover. 1 heaped teaspoon to each cup boiling water; infuse 5-15 minutes. Drink freely.

Formula. Cramp bark 3; Liquorice 1; Thuja 1; Poke root half. Mix. Dose: Powders: 750mg (three 00 capsules or half a teaspoon). Liquid extracts: 1 teaspoon. Tinctures: 2 teaspoons. Thrice daily.

Vaginal pack. 8 parts Slippery Elm powder mixed with 1 part Thuja powder in a little water to form a paste; saturate tampon and insert.

Dr J. Christopher. For pre- and post-operative pain: Black Willow.

British Herbal Pharmacopoeia. Cramp bark for pain.

Diet. See: DIET – CANCER. Drinks of Violet leaf tea freely.

Supplements. Post-operative treatment should include Comfrey and Calcium to counter the loss of calcium on surgical removal, with possible brittle and broken bones in ageing women.

Note: When a potential lesion is found, a pelvic ultrasound scan may confirm.

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Cancer – Pancreas

Adeno-carcinoma. Cause: often related to chronic pancreatitis, alcoholism. Beer drinkers, more than 7 pints a week, run a three times greater risk of the disease than one in a 100 threat to the rest of the population. (Imperial Cancer Research Report, April, 1989) Diabetes. A study carried out at Harvard School of Public Health found strong evidence in favour of the excessive consumption of coffee. Seventh Day Adventists and Mormons, who abstain from coffee, have much lower rates than the average. Relative risk was 1-8 with up to two cups a day and 2.7 with three or more. (New England Journal of Medicine, 1981, March 12, Vol 304, No 11, p630)

Symptoms. Weight loss. Pain upper abdomen. Change of bowel habit. Phlebitis. Low blood sugar. Sugar in the urine. Jaundice when head of the pancreas is involved. As little benefit is said to be gained from chemotherapy or radiotherapy, and because a majority of these tumours are unresectable, there would appear to be good grounds for herbal medicine, either as primary or supportive treatment.

Of possible therapeutic value for relief of accompanying gastric and pressure symptoms only: Sarsaparilla, Liquorice, Dandelion, Peppermint, Fennel, German Chamomile.

Tea. Barberry bark. 1 teaspoon to each cup of cold water. Steep overnight. Dose: half-1 cup 3 or more times daily.

Formula. Equal parts: Barberry bark, Dandelion, Galangal. Dose: Powders: 500mg (two 00 capsules or one-third teaspoon). Liquid extracts: 1 teaspoon (5ml). Tinctures: 2 teaspoons. Thrice daily to commence: after fourteen days increase as tolerated.

Primrose oil. High doses GLA believed to improve immune system and prevent weight loss.

Macrobiotic diet. A retired English doctor had cancer of the pancreas, inoperable, the size of a cricket ball, for which conventional treatment could do nothing. Regression being almost impossible, he would die within a few months. In the meantime he was advised to try the Macrobiotic diet comprising wholefoods, compost grown vegetables, vegetable oils and natural drinks such as carrot juice and herbal teas. He and his wife, living in Italy, carefully followed the diet, drank water only from a local spring and ate vegetables organically grown on their own land. The tumour diminished in size and the doctor recovered.

Note: Cessation of cigarette smoking will result in a decreased incidence of the disease in the male adult population. (American Journal of Public Health 1989 79 1016)

A substance found in fish oil has been shown experimentally to prevent cancer of the pancreas. Mackerel, herring and sardines are among fish with the ingredient.

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Cancer – Prostate Gland

Adeno-carcinoma. A hormone-related tumour in elderly men. Enlargement of the gland may be benign or carcinomatous. Fibrosis (hardening) may arise from inflammation. Obstruction of the outlet of the bladder through swelling of the gland (prostatism) may cause uraemia.

Symptoms. Bladder irritability; increased frequency during the night. Feeble forked stream of urine. Sometimes blood. Three quarters of such tumours are located in the posterior lobe of the prostate gland – readily accessible to the examining finger through the front wall of the rectum. Rectal examination reveals a hard rugged prostate. Cystoscopy confirms. Bone pains in the low back or pelvis reflect a stage where the tumour has already spread. Anaemia, weight loss, urgency.

All symptoms are worse by alcohol and spicy foods.

Harvard University scientists report: heavy consumption of animal fat, especially the fat in red meat appears to increase the chance that a man will develop advanced prostate cancer.

Of therapeutic value. Comfrey, Echinacea, Horsetail, Poke root, Thuja, Cornsilk, Goldenseal.

Tea. Combination. Comfrey leaves, Horsetail, Cornsilk. Equal parts. 2-3 teaspoons to each cup boiling water. Drink freely.

Formula No. 1. Echinacea 2; Comfrey 1; Poke root half; Thuja half. Mix. Dose: Powders: 500mg (two 00 capsules or one-third teaspoon). Liquid extracts: 1 teaspoon. Tinctures: 2 teaspoons. Thrice daily in water or cup of Cornsilk tea.

Formula No. 2. (Alternative) Echinacea 2; Goldenseal 1; Gotu Kola 1; Poke root half. Mix. Dose: Powders: 500mg (two 00 capsules or one-third teaspoon). Liquid extracts: 1 teaspoon. Tinctures: 2 teaspoons in water or cup of Cornsilk tea.

Bee pollen. Of value.

Garlic. Of value.

Diet. See: DIET – CANCER.

There is a very low incidence of prostate cancer in countries where Soya products are widely consumed – Soya contains a female hormone which is a protector factor.

Supplements. Morning and evening.

Vitamin A 7500iu or more. Large doses may be required. Vitamin C 1-2g. Vitamin E 200iu. Calcium 500mg. Selenium 100mcg. Zinc.

Study. Men with prostate cancer may not need to undergo radical prostatectomy (removal of the prostate gland). A 10-year follow-up study of men with early prostate cancer left untreated showed that 10 years later only 8.5 per cent of the 223 patients had died from prostate cancer. The survival rate of 86.8 per cent in the untreated group was nearly identical to a subgroup who met all the conditions for radical prostatectomy. (Journal of American Medical Association, 22/29 April 1992)

Commonly treated with female sex hormone or by orchidectomy.

It would appear that surgical removal of the gland offers little benefit, and possibly a disadvantage to patients wishing to leave well alone, particularly the elderly. Treatment by a general medical practitioner or oncologist. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

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Cancer – Pulmonary

Cancer of the lung.

By the blood and lymph cancer may be transferred (metastasised) to the lymph nodes under the arm, liver, brain or lungs. An association has been shown between a low intake of Vitamin A and lung cancer. Causes: occupational hazards, environmental pollution, radiation, keeping of pet birds. Cigarette smoking is a strong risk factor. Studies show that a high Vitamin A/carotene intake is protective against the disease in men. Among women, evidence of a similar protective effect has not been found. Vitamin C reduces cancer risk. The increased prevalence of smoking among women results in more female lung cancer. All smokers should drink freely carrot juice (Vitamin A).

Symptoms. Chronic irritative cough, difficult breathing, pain in the chest, recurrent spitting of blood, clubbing of fingers, weight loss.

Alternatives. Only transient benefit is obtainable, yet it may be sufficient to achieve a measure of relief from distressing symptoms. See: CANCER: GENERAL REMARKS. Mullein tea has its supporters. Bugleweed strengthens lung tissue and supports the action of the heart. Blood root is known to arrest bleeding (haemoptysis).

Tea. Equal parts: Red Clover, Gota Kola, Mullein. 2 teaspoons to each cup boiling water; infuse 5-15 minutes. 1 cup three or more times daily.

Formula No 1. Equal parts: Elecampane, Violet, Red Clover, Echinacea. Mix. Dose: Powders: 750mg (three 00 capsules or half a teaspoon). Liquid extracts: 1-2 teaspoons. Tinctures: 1-3 teaspoons. Thrice daily and, if necessary, at bedtime for relief.

Formula No 2. Tincture Blood root 10 drops; Liquid extract Dogwood 20 drops; Liquid extract Elecampane 200 drops (14ml); Liquid extract Bugleweed (Lycopus europ) 30 drops. Flavour with Liquorice if necessary. Dose: 1-2 teaspoons in water 3 or more times daily. (W. Burns-Lingard MNIMH)

Where accompanied by active inflammation, anti-inflammatories are indicated: Mistletoe, Wild Yam, etc.

Diet. A substance in fish oil has been shown to experimentally prevent cancer of the lung. Mackerel, herring and sardines are among fish with the ingredient. See: DIET – CANCER.

Chinese Herbalism. See: CANCER – CHINESE PRESCRIPTION.

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Cancer – Sarcoma

Cancer appearing in bone, muscle, connective tissue or cartilage. Malignant tissue which differs from carcinoma. Pain is intermittent, often relieved by exercise. The following is an example.

“I saw a man suffering from sarcomatous tumour infiltrating the body tissue of the upper jaw, extending to the nose. We recommended an operation. Dr O’Sullivan, Professor of Pathology, Trinity College, declared the growth to be a round-celled sarcoma. Of that there was no doubt. A month after excision the growth returned with increased vigour, bulging through the incision and protruding upon the face. The new tumour, almost closing the right eye, was blue, tense, firm and tabulated, but it did not break.

“Early in October the patient walked into my study. He looked better in health than I have ever seen him. The tumour had completely disappeared from the face and I could not identify any trace of it in the mouth. He said he had no pain of any kind. He has since gone home apparently well.

“He told me he had applied poultices of Comfrey root, and that the swelling had gradually disappeared. Now this was a case of which none of us had any doubt at all. Our first view was confirmed by the distinguished pathologist mentioned and by my own observation at the time of the major operation.” (Dr Wm Thompson, President, Royal College of Surgeons, Eire, in his address in Dublin).

Vinchristine. An alkaloid of the Vinca plant.

Internal Treatment. See: CANCER – NOSE AND THROAT. Diet. See: DIET – CANCER.

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Cancer – Skin

There is strong evidence that sunlight plays a major role in the development of human skin cancers. Skin malignancy usually takes the form of Basal Cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and melanoma that may develop from pre-existing naevi.

Basal Cell Cancer. Strong sunlight on fair skins. Common on face and hands and other exposed areas. Commences as a tiny hard nodule. See – RODENT ULCER.

Squamous Cell Cancer. The role of sunlight in this type of cancer is even more positive. Other causes: photosensitisers such as pitch and PUVA photochemotherapy. Commences as a raised scaly rapidly- growing nodule.

Malignant Melanoma. Rare, but incidence rising. Four different kinds. Incidence is increased in individuals with fair or red hair who tend to burn rather than tan in the sun.

Causes may be numerous: genetic, occupational hazards or exposure to low-level radiation. Heavy freckling in youth doubles the risk. (Western Canada Melanoma study)

A study carried out by the New York’s Memorial-Sloan Kettering Cancer Centre refers to damage to the ultra violet-blocking ozone layer by supersonic jet exhaust and aerosol propellants that can also raise the malignant melanoma rate. A University of Sydney study links fluorescent lighting with the disease. Symptoms. Itching lesion increases in size and with growing discoloration. Colours may present as brown, black, red, blue, white, with a red inflammatory border. May progress to a dry crust, with bleeding.

Study. A study conducted by a team from Melbourne University, Anti-Cancer Council and St Vincent’s Hospital, Australia, describes a summer-long experiment that showed that people who used a sun-screen lotion (in this case SPF-17) cut their chances of developing the first signs of skin cancer.

Study. Patients who receive blood transfusions are more likely to develop malignant lymphomas and non- melanomatous skin cancers. (European Journal of Cancer (Nov 1993))

Eclectic physicians of the 19th century reported success from the use of American Mandrake (podophylum peltatum). Recent experience includes a 76 per cent cure rate achieved in 68 patients with carcinoma of the skin by treatment twice daily for 14 days with an ointment consisting of Podophyllum resin 20 per cent, and Linseed oil 20 per cent, in lanolin, followed by an antibiotic ointment. (Martindale 27; 1977, p. 1341) Podophyllum is an anti-mitotic and inhibits cell-division and should not be applied to normal cells.

Aloe Vera. Fresh cut leaf, or gel, to wipe over exposed surfaces.

Vitamin E oil. Applying the oil to the skin can reduce chances of acquiring skin cancer from the sun. (University of Arizona College of Medicine)

Red Clover. “I have seen a case of skin cancer healed by applying Red Clover blossoms. After straining a strong tea, the liquid was simmered until it was the consistency of tar. After several applications the skin cancer was gone, and has not returned.” (May Bethel, in “Herald of Health”, Dec. 1963)

Clivers. Equal parts juice of Clivers (from juice extractor) and glycerine. Internally and externally.

Thuja. Internal: 3-5 drops Liquid Extract, morning and evening.

Topical. “Take a small quantity powdered Slippery Elm and add Liquid Extract Thuja to make a stiff paste. Apply paste to the lesion. Cover with gauze and protective covering. When dry remove pack and follow with compresses saturated with Thuja.” (Ellingwood’s Therapeutist, Vol 10, No 6, p. 212) Echinacea and Thuja. Equal parts liquid extracts assist healthy granulation and neutralise odour.

Rue Ointment. Simmer whole fresh leaves in Vaseline.

Poke Root. An old physician laid great stress on the use of concentrated juice of green leaves. Leaves are bruised, juice extracted, and concentrated by slow evaporation until the consistency of a paste, for persistent skin cancer. Care should be taken to confine to the distressed area. (Ellingwood’s Therapeutist, Vol 8, No 7, p. 275)

Maria Treben. Horsetail poultice.

Laetrile. Some improvement claimed. 1 gram daily.

Cider vinegar. Anecdotal evidence: external use: small melanoma.

Diet. See: DIET – CANCER. Beta-carotene foods.

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Cancer – Spleen

Chronic enlargement with tumour. Cannot lie on the left side for pain. A common cause is the use of vaccines for which Thuja would be indicated.

Where irradiation and chemotherapy are not possible, any of the following alternatives may be taken with profit as secondary to medical treatment.

Astragalus. Popular spleen protective in Chinese medicine. Reduces toxicity of chemotherapy.

New Jersey tea. (Ceanothus americanus) has an affinity for the spleen and may sustain that organ under stress.

Chinese medicine. Ho-Shou-wu (Polygonum multiflorum).

Decoction, Red root. 1 teaspoon to each cup water simmered gently 10 minutes. Dose: half-1 cup 3-4 times daily.

Formula. Red root 2; Barberry 1; Bayberry 1. Mix. Dose: Powders: 500mg (two 00 capsules or one-third teaspoon). Liquid extracts: 1 teaspoon. Tinctures: 2 teaspoons. 3-4 times daily in water or honey. Formula. Alternative. Tinctures. Fringe Tree 1; Goldenseal 2; Red root 3. Mix. Dose: 15-30 drops before meals and at bedtime.

Diet: See: DIET – CANCER.

Vinchristine: use in orthodox medicine reported.

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Cancer – Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Given three months to live, Jason Winters, terminal cancer patient, was suffering from infiltrating squamous cell carcinoma wrapped round his carotid artery. Refusing major surgery, he travelled the world in search of native remedies. He was able to contact people who put him on the track of Wild Violet leaves, Red Clover flowers (Trifolium pratense) and leaves of the Chaparral bush (Larrea divaricata). The story of how he infused them, together with a well- known spice, is dramatically recorded in his book “Killing Cancer”. After a spectacular recovery, remission has lasted for over 15 years and others have benefited from his experience.

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Cancer – Stomach And Intestines

Fibroma, myoma, lipoma, polyp, etc. When any of these breakdown bleeding can cause anaemia and melaena. Rarely painful. May obstruct intestinal canal causing vomiting. Periodic vomiting of over one year suspect.

Symptoms (non-specific). Loss of appetite, anaemia, weight loss; pain in abdomen, especially stomach area. Vomit appears as coffee grounds. Occult blood (tarry stools).

Causes. Alcohol, smoking cigarettes, low intake of fruits and vegetables. Foods rich in salt and nitrites including bacon, pickles, ham and dried fish. (Cancer Researchers in Digestive Diseases and Sciences) Long term therapy with drugs that inhibit gastric acid secretion increase risk of stomach cancer.

Of possible value. Alternatives:– Tea. Mixture. Equal parts: Red Clover, Gotu Kola, Yarrow. Strong infusion (2 or more teaspoons to each cup boiling water; infuse 15 minutes. As many cups daily as tolerated.

Formula. Condurango 2; Bayberry 1; Liquorice 1; Goldenseal quarter. Mix. Dose: Powders: 750mg (three 00 capsules or half a teaspoon). Liquid extracts: 1 teaspoon. Tinctures: 1-2 teaspoons. Thrice daily in water or honey.

Traditional. Rosebay Willowherb. Star of Bethlehem.

Chinese green tea. Anti-cancer effects have been found in the use of Chinese green tea extracts. Clinical trials on the therapeutic effects against early stomach cancer were promising. (Chinese Journal Preventative Medicines 1990. 24 (2) 80-2)

Chinese Herbalism. Combination. Oldenlandia diffusa 2 liang; Roots of Lu (Phragmites communis) 1 liang; Blackened Ginger 1 ch’ien; Pan-chih-lien (Scutellaria barbarta 5 ch’ein; Chih-tzu (gardenia jasminoides) 3 ch’ien. One concoction/dose daily. Follow with roots of Bulrush tea.

William H. Cook, MD. “Mullein greatly relieves pain, and may be used with Wild Yam and a little Water- Pepper (Polygonum Hydropiper).” The addition of Water-Pepper (or Cayenne) ensures diffusive stimulation and increased arterial force. Burns Lingard, MNIMH. Inoperable cancer of the stomach. Prescribed: Liquid Extract Violet leaves and Red Clover, each 4 drachms; Liquid Extract Cactus grand., 2 drops. Dose every 4 hours. Woman lived 30 years after treatment attaining age of 70.

Arthur Barker, FNIMH. Mullein sometimes helpful for pain.

Wm Boericke MD. American Cranesbill.

George Burford MD. Goldenseal.

Maria Treben. “After returning from a prison camp in 1947 I had stomach cancer. Three doctors told me it was incurable. From sheer necessity I turned to Nature’s herbs and gathered Nettle, Yarrow, Dandelion and Plantain; the juice of which I took hourly. Already after several hours I felt better. In particular I was able to keep down a little food. This was my salvation.” (Health Through God’s Pharmacy – 1981) Essiac: Old Ontario Cancer Remedy. Sheila Snow explored the controversy surrounding the famous cancer formula ‘Essiac’. This was developed by Rene Caisse, a Canadian nurse born in Bracebridge, Ontario, in 1888. Rene noticed that an elderly patient had cured herself of breast cancer with an Indian herbal tea. She asked for the recipe and later modified it. Rene’s aunt, after using the remedy for 2 years, fully recovered from an inoperable stomach cancer with liver involvement, and other terminal patients began to improve.

Rene’s request to be given the opportunity to treat cancer patients in a larger way was turned down by Ottawa’s Department of Health and Welfare. She eventually handed over the recipe to the Resperin Corporation in 1977, for the sum of one dollar, from whom cancer patients may obtain the mixture if their doctors submit a written request. However, records have not been kept up.

In 1988 Dr Gary Glum, a chiropractor in Los Angeles, published a book called ‘Calling of an Angel’: the true story of Rene Caisse. He gives the formula, which consists of 11b of powdered Rumex acetosella

(Sorrel), 1 and a half pounds cut Arctium lappa (Burdock), 4oz powdered Ulmus fulva (Slippery Elm bark), and 1oz Rheum palmatum (Turkey Rhubarb). The dosage Rene recommended was one ounce of Essiac with two ounces of hot water every other day at bedtime; on an empty stomach, 2-3 hours after supper. The treatment should be continued for 32 days, then taken every 3 days. (Canadian Journal of Herbalism, July 1991 Vol XII, No. III)

Diet. See: DIET – CANCER. Slippery Elm gruel.

Note: Anyone over 40 who has recurrent indigestion for more than three weeks should visit his family doctor. Persistent pain and indigestion after eating can be a sign of gastric cancer and no-one over 40 should ignore the symptoms. A patient should be referred to hospital for examination by endoscope which allows the physician to see into the stomach.

Study. Evidence to support the belief that the high incidence of gastric cancer in Japan is due to excessive intake of salt.

Note: A substance found in fish oil has been shown experimentally to prevent cancer of the stomach. Mackerel, herring and sardines are among the fish with the ingredient.

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Cancer – Testicles

Rare, but increasing in most countries. Three main types: teratomas, seminomas and lymphomas. The latter affect older men.

Symptoms. A hard usually painless mass in the scrotum can give rise to gynaecomastia – abnormal enlargement of the male breasts.

Of possible value. Alternatives: – Abundant herb teas – Cornsilk, Red Clover, Violet leaves.

Decoction. Echinacea 2; Kava Kava 1; Sarsaparilla 1. Mix. Half an ounce (15g) to 1 pint (500ml) water simmered gently 20 minutes. Cup thrice daily.

Formula. Sarsaparilla 2; Kava Kava l; Pulsatilla half; Thuja quarter. Mix. Dose: Powders: 500mg (two 00 capsules or one-third teaspoon). Liquid extracts: 1 teaspoon. Tinctures: 2 teaspoons. Thrice daily. Vinchristine.

Diet. See: DIET – CANCER. Researchers from Cambridge University found that an extra pint of milk a day during adolescence was associated with 2 and a half times increased risk of testicular cancer. (Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Oct. 1993)

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Cancer – Throat

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Cancer – To Neutralise Odour

Dr Desmartis, in a paper to The American Academy of Sciences announced that Logwood, (Haematoxylum campechianum) was an antiseptic of value in cancer. This was discovered by accident. Having under his care several cancer patients presenting ulcerative sores ‘emitting a nauseous odour’, he composed a plaster of equal parts of Extract of Logwood and hog’s lard. To his surprise, on application the fetter immediately disappeared. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

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Cancer – Tongue

May be scirrhus or epithelial.

Causes. Smoking, alcohol, jagged teeth, chemical irritants, septic toxins, sprayed fruit and vegetables, poisoning by lead, arsenic and other chemicals, additives, hot foods, spicy curries and peppers, chewing tobacco.

Over 80 per cent found to be present in old syphilitic cases. Charles Ryall, surgeon, Cancer Hospital, regarded the two as comparable with that between syphilis and tabes. Dr F. Foester, Surgeon, concluded that epithelioma of the tongue as far more frequently preceded by syphilis than any other form of cancer.

(Hastings Gilford FRCS, “Tumours and Cancers”)

The condition may arise from a gumma or patch of leucoplakia (white patches) – at one time known as smoker’s tongue.

Of possible value. Alternatives:– Many plants have been shown to produce neoplastic activity, as observed in discovery of anti-cancer alkaloids of the Vinca plant (Vinchristine) and Mistletoe. Dr Wm Boericke confirms clinical efficacy of Clivers, promoting healthy granulations in ulcers and tumour of the tongue. Dr W.H. Cook advises a mouthwash of Goldenseal. For scirrhous hardening, juice of fresh Houseleek has a traditional reputation.

Tinctures. Equal parts Condurango and Goldenseal. 30-60 drops before meals in water; drops increased according to tolerance.

Local paint. Thuja lotion.

Case record. Dr Brandini, Florence, had a patient, 71, with inoperable cancer of the tongue. In the midst of his pain he asked for a lemon which immediately assuaged the pain. The next day gave him even greater relief. The doctor tried it on a number of similar patients with the same results, soaking lint in lemon juice.

Diet. See: DIET – CANCER.

Treatment by a general medical practitioner or hospital oncologist. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

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Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

Cancer – Womb

The second most common cancer in women. The alarming aspect of national health is the almost epidemic increase of cervical malignancy in younger women due to frequency of coitus, promiscuity, early coitus and contact with the herpes virus. All are mostly squamous cell carcinoma. Research studies have demonstrated a link between cigarette smoking and cancer of the cervix. (Dr Dan Hellberg)

Symptoms. Low backache, bleeding after intercourse, between periods or after ‘the change’. Abdominal swelling after 40 years of age. Sixty per cent of patients have no symptoms. Malodorous vaginal discharge. A positive cervical “pap” smear or cone-shaped biopsy examined by a pathologist confirms. Vaginal bleeding occurs in the later stages.

A letter in the New England Journal of Medicine suggests a strong link between increased risk of cervical cancer and cigarette smoking, nicotine being detected in the cervical fluids of cigarette smokers. This form of cancer is almost unknown in virgins living in closed communities such as those of the Church.

Conventional treatment is usually hysterectomy. Whatever treatment is adopted little ground is lost by supportive cleansing herbal teas. Mullein for pain.

Sponges loaded with powdered Goldenseal held against the cervix with a contraceptive cap can give encouraging results. Replace after three days. Vitamin A supplements are valuable to protect against the disease. The vitamin may also be applied topically in creams.

This form of cancer resists chemical treatment, but has been slowed down and halted by Periwinkle (Vinchristine) without damaging normal cells.

G.B. Ibotson, MD, reported disappearance of cancer of the cervix by infusions of Violet leaves by mouth and by vaginal injection. (Lancet 1917, i, 224)

In a study group of cervical cancer patients it was found that women with carcinoma in situ (CIS) were more likely to have a total Vitamin A intake below the pooled median (3450iu). Vitamin A supplementation is indicated together with zinc. (Bio-availability of Vitamin A is linked with zinc levels.) Vitamin A and zinc may be applied topically in creams and ointments.

Orthodox treatment: radiotherapy, chemotherapy, hysterectomy. As oestrogen can stimulate dormant cells the surgeon may wish to remove ovaries also. Whatever the decision, herbal supportive treatment may be beneficial. J.T Kent, MD, recommends Thuja and Shepherd’s Purse. Agents commonly indicated: Echinacea, Wild Indigo, Thuja, Mistletoe, Wild Yam. Herbal teas may be taken with profit. Dr Alfred Vogel advises Mistletoe from the oak (loranthus europaeus).

Other alternatives:– Teas. Red Clover, Violet, Mistletoe, Plantain, Clivers. 1-2 teaspoons to each cup boiling water. Infuse 15 minutes. 1 cup freely.

Decoctions. White Pond Lily. Thuja. Echinacea. Wild Yam. Any one.

Tablets/capsules. Echinacea. Goldenseal. Wild Yam. Thuja.

Formula No. 1. Red Clover 2; Echinacea 1; Shepherd’s Purse 1; Thuja quarter. Mix. Dose: Powders: 750mg (three 00 capsules or half a teaspoon). Liquid extracts: 1-2 teaspoons. Tinctures: 1-3 teaspoons. Formula No. 2. Equal parts: Poke root, Goldenseal, Mistletoe. Mix. Dose: Powders: 500mg (two 00 capsules or one-third teaspoon). Liquid extracts: 1 teaspoon. Tinctures: 2 teaspoons.

Diet. Women who eat large quantities of meat and fatty foods are up to four times the risk of those eating mainly fruit and vegetables.

Vaginal injection. 1. Strong infusion Red Clover to which 10-15 drops Tincture Goldenseal is added. Follow with tampon smeared with Goldenseal Salve.

2. Strong decoction Yellow Dock to which 10-15 drops Tincture Goldenseal is added. Follow with tampon smeared with Goldenseal salve.

If bleeding is severe douche with neat distilled extract of Witch Hazel.

Chinese Herbalism. See – CANCER: CHINESE PRESCRIPTION. Also: Decoction of ssu-hsieh-lu (Galium gracile) 2-4 liang.

Advice. One-yearly smear test for all women over 40.

Diet. See: DIET – CANCER.

Treatment by a general medical practitioner or hospital oncologist. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

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Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

Cancer-colorectal

Arises from premalignant adenoma. About one in ten adenomatous polyps develop into a carcinoma. Simple excision of polyps with in situ carcinoma sometimes leads to complete cure.

Symptoms: bleeding, with alteration of bowel habit. Common in diverticular disease where large polyps may be undetected. Early detection by flexible sigmoidoscopy at hospital is essential to accurate diagnosis. Sudden episodes of unexplained diarrhoea and constipation.

The term refers to cancers of the ascending colon, caecum, transverse colon, hepatic flexure, descending colon, splenic flexure, sigmoid colon and rectum. The large bowel tumours are almost wholly adeno-carcinoma.

Common causes: ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease, necrotic changes in polyps. The colon is at risk from cancer on a diet high in protein, fat and alcohol and which is low in fibre. An exception is the average diet in Finland where a high fat intake is present with a low incidence of cancer. Strong evidence advanced, includes the heavy consumption of yoghurt (acidophylus lacto bacillus) by the population.

A study of 8006 Japanese men living in Hawaii revealed the close relationship between cancer of the rectum and alcohol consumption. A family history of pernicious anaemia predisposes.

A 19-year prospective study of middle-aged men employed by a Chicago electric company reveals a strong correlation between colorectal cancer and Vitamin D and calcium deficiency. Results “support the suggestion that Vitamin D and calcium may reduce the risk of colorectal cancer”. (Lancet, 1985, Feb 9, i, 307)

Patients with ulcerative colitis of more than 10 years standing carry the increased risk of developing colorectal cancer. There is evidence that malignancy in the bowel may be reduced by saponins. Alternatives of possible value. Inoperable lesions may respond to: Bayberry, Goldenseal, Echinacea, Wild Yam, Stone root, Black root, Mistletoe, Clivers, Marshmallow root, Violet leaves, Chickweed, Red Clover, Thuja.

Tea. Equal parts: Red Clover, Gotu Kola, Violet leaves. 2-3 teaspoons to each cup boiling water; infuse 15 minutes. Freely, as tolerated.

Tablets/capsules. Echinacea, Goldenseal, Wild Yam.

Formula. Echinacea 2; Bayberry 1; Wild Yam 1; Stone root 1; Goldenseal half; Liquorice quarter. Mix. Dose: Powders: 500mg (two 00 capsules or one-third teaspoon). Liquid extracts: 1 teaspoon. Tinctures: 2 teaspoons. Thrice daily and at bedtime.

Mistletoe: Injections of fresh plant (Iscador). (Dr Rudolph Steiner Institute, Switzerland)

Violet leaves: Daily irrigations of strong infusion.

Chickweed: Bathe rectum with strong infusion. Follow with Chickweed ointment.

Chinese Herbalism. (1) Tea – Pan-chih-lien (Scutellaria barbarta), 2 liang. (2) Tea. Feng-wei ts’ao (Pteris multifida) 1 liang, and po-chi (water chestnut) 2 liang. (3) Concoction of suitable amount of ts’ang-erh ts’ao, for bathing affected area. (Barefoot Doctor’s Manual)

Diagnosis. Exploration of proctosigmoidoscope to confirm.

Diet. Special emphasis on yoghurt which is conducive to bowel health; orally and by enema. A vegan uncooked raw food diet has been shown to reduce the body’s production of toxins linked with colon cancer. A switch from conventional Western cooked diet to an uncooked vegan diet reduced harmful enzymes produced by gut bacteria. (Journal of Nutrition)

A substance has been found in fish oil believed to prevent cancer of the colon. Mackerel, herring and sardines are among fish with this ingredient. Bowel cancer and additives. See: CROHN’S DISEASE (Note).

Preventive care. All 55-year-olds with this predisposing condition should be screened by sigmoidoscopy. Regular faecal occult blood tests advised.

Regular exercise helps prevent development of bowel cancer. (Nottingham University researchers) Treatment by general medical practitioner or oncologist. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

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Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

Cancerphobia

An intense fear of developing cancer, out of proportion to the actual risk, that significantly affects the sufferer’s life.

Patterns of behaviour typical of obsessive–compulsive disorder (for example, prolonged washing rituals) may be adopted in an attempt to reduce the risk of cancer.

Psychotherapy including behaviour therapy may be of benefit.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Carcinoma

Any cancerous tumour (see cancer) arising from cells in the covering surface layer or lining membrane of an organ.

The most common cancers of the lungs, breast, stomach, skin, cervix, colon and rectum are carcinomas.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Carcinoma

n. *cancer that arises in epithelium, the tissue that lines the skin and internal organs of the body. It may occur in any tissue containing epithelial cells. In many cases the site of origin of the tumour may be identified by the nature of the cells it contains. Organs may exhibit more than one type of carcinoma; for example, an adenocarcinoma and a squamous carcinoma may be found in the cervix (but not usually concurrently). Treatment depends on the nature of the primary tumour, different types responding to different drug combinations. —carcinomatous adj.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Carcinoma

A malignant epithelial tumour eventually becoming fatal... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

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Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

Carcinoma

Cancer of the tissues which cover or line the body surfaces and internal organs.... Medicinal Plants Glossary

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Medicinal Plants Glossary

Carcinoma

A type of CANCER developing from cells found in the surface layer of an organ in the body.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Carcinoma In Situ

The earliest, usually curable, stage of a cancer in which it has not yet spread from the surface layer of cells of an organ.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Carcinoma In Situ

(CIS) the earliest stage of cancer spread, in which the neoplasm is confined by the basement membrane of the epithelium. Surgical removal of the growth should lead to cure. See also cervical cancer; cervical intraepithelial neoplasia; ductal carcinoma in situ.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Carcinoma In Situ

The ?rst stage of CARCINOMA in which the malignant tumour is present only in the EPITHELIUM, and when surgical excision of the local growth, with its pathological status con?rmed in the laboratory, should ensure a cure.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Carcinoma Simplex

Poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

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Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

Carcinoma-in-situ

Malignant epithelial tumour showing no invasion.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

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Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

Carcinomatosis

The presence of cancerous tissue in different sites of the body due to the spread of cancer cells from a primary (original) cancerous tumour.

Symptoms depend on the site of the metastases (secondary tumours).

Carcinomatosis may be confirmed by X-rays or by radionuclide scanning of the bones and lungs, by biochemical tests, or during an operation.

The condition is not improved by removing the primary tumour unless the tumour is producing a hormone that stimulates the growth of metastases.

Anticancer drugs or radiotherapy may be given to treat metastases.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Carcinomatosis

n. carcinoma that has spread widely throughout the body. Spread of the cancer cells occurs via the lymphatic channels and bloodstream and across body cavities, for example the peritoneal cavity.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Carcinomatosis

The spread of cancer cells from their original site of growth to other tissues in the body. Such a spread of cancer, which takes place mainly via blood and lymph vessels, is usually fatal. CHEMOTHERAPY and RADIOTHERAPY may, however, check the spread or sometimes destroy the cancerous growth.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Cell

n. the basic unit of all living organisms, which can reproduce itself exactly (see mitosis). Each cell is bounded by a cell membrane of lipids and protein, which controls the passage of substances into and out of the cell. Cells contain *cytoplasm, in which are suspended a *nucleus and other structures (*organelles) specialized to carry out particular activities in the cell (see illustration).

Complex organisms are built up of millions of cells that are specially adapted to carry out particular functions. The process of cell differentiation begins early on in the development of the embryo and cells of a particular type (e.g. blood cells, liver cells) always give rise to cells of the same type. Each cell has a particular number of *chromosomes in its nucleus. The sex cells (sperm and ova) always contain half the number of chromosomes of all the other cells of the body (see meiosis); at fertilization a sperm and ovum combine to form a cell with a complete set of chromosomes that will develop into the embryo.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Cell

The basic structural unit of all living organisms. The human body consists of billions of cells, structurally and functionally integrated to perform the complex tasks necessary for life. In spite of variation in size and function, most human cells have a similar basic structure. Each cell is an invisibly small bag containing liquid cytoplasm, surrounded by a cell membrane that regulates the passage of useful substances (such as oxygen and nutrients) into the cell; and waste materials (such as carbon dioxide) and manufactured substances (such as hormones) out of the cell. Some cells, such as those lining the small intestine, have microvilli, projections that increase the cells’ surface area to facilitate absorption.

All cells, except red blood cells, have a nucleus, a control centre that governs all major cell activities by regulating the amount and types of proteins made in the cell. Inside the nucleus are the chromosomes, which are made of the nucleic acid DNA. This contains the instructions for protein synthesis, which are carried into the cytoplasm by a type of RNA, another nucleic acid, and are decoded in particles called ribosomes. The nucleus also contains a spherical structure called the nucleolus, which plays a role in the production of ribosomes.

The cell also contains various organelles, each with a specific role.

Energy is generated from the breakdown of sugars and fatty acids by mitochondria.

Substances that would damage the cell if they came into contact with the cytoplasm are contained in particles called lysosomes and peroxisomes.

A system of membranes in the cytoplasm called the endoplasmic reticulum transports materials through the cell.

Flattened sacs called the Golgi complex receive and process proteins dispatched by the endoplasmic reticulum.

Products for export, such as enzymes and hormones, are secreted by vesicles at the cell surface.

Other materials, water, and waste products are transported and stored in the cytoplasm by vacuoles.

The cytoplasm itself has a network of fine tubes (microtubules) and filaments (microfilaments) known as the cytoskeleton, which gives the cell a definite shape.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Cell

The smallest unit of living material that can function independently.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

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Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

Cell Body

(perikaryon) the enlarged portion of a *neuron (nerve cell), containing the nucleus. It is concerned more with the nutrition of the cell than with propagation of nerve impulses.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Cell Division

reproduction of cells by division first of the chromosomes (karyokinesis) and then of the cytoplasm (cytokinesis). Cell division to produce more body (somatic) cells is by *mitosis; cell division during the formation of gametes is by *meiosis.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Cell Division

The processes by which cells multiply. Mitosis is the most common form of cell division, giving rise todaughter cells identical to the parent cells.

Meiosis produces egg (see ovum) and sperm cells that differ from their parent cells in that they have only half the normal number of chromosomes.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Cell Salvage Transfusion

See TRANSFUSION.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Cell Saver

a machine that aspirates blood lost during surgery and immediately spins, washes, and filters it for retransfusion back into the patient’s body (see autotransfusion). The process, called intraoperative cell salvage, is used in surgery that has significant blood loss, such as orthopaedic and vascular surgery and Caesarean section, and avoids the costs and risks of *allogeneic transfusion.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Cell-mediated Immunity

A defence mechanism involving the coordinated activity of two subpopulations of TLymphocytes, helper T-Cells and killer T-Cells. Helper T-Cells produce a variety of substances that stimulate and regulate other participants in the immune response. Killer T-Lymphocytes destroy cells in the body that bear foreign antigens (e.g. cells that are infected with viruses or other microorganisms).... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

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Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

Cell-surface Molecules

molecules on the surface of cell membranes that are responsible for most cellular functions directly related to their immediate environment. Many have very precise functions of adhesion (see adhesion molecules), metabolic exchange, hormone reception, respiration, and immune reactions. Cell-to-cell exchanges involve specialized surface structures (junctions), which form a communicating nexus.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Cellophane Maculopathy

see epiretinal membrane.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Cells

The basic structural unit of body tissues. There are around 10 billion cells in the human body and they are structurally and functionally linked to carry out the body’s many complex activities.

Every cell consists essentially of a cell-body of soft albuminous material called cytoplasm, in which lies a kernel or nucleus which seems to direct all the activities of the cell. Within the nucleus may be seen a minute body, the nucleolus; and there may or may not be a cell-envelope around all. (See also MITOCHONDRIA.) Each cell nucleus carries a set of identical CHROMOSOMES, the body’s genetic instructions.

Cells vary much in size, ranging in the human body from 0·0025 mm to about 0·025 mm.

All animals and plants consist at ?rst of a single cell (the egg-cell, or ovum), which begins to develop when fertilised by the sperm-cell derived from the opposite sex. Development begins by a division into two new cells, then into four, and so on till a large mass is formed. These cells – among them stem cells (see STEM CELL) which have the potential to develop into a variety of specialised cells – then arrange themselves into layers, and form various tubes, rods, and masses which represent in the embryo the organs of the fully developed animal. (See FETUS.)

When the individual organs have been laid down on a sca?olding of cells, these gradually change in shape and in chemical composition. The cells in the nervous system send out long processes to form the nerves; those in the muscles become long and striped in appearance; and those which form fat become ?lled with fat droplets which distend the cells. Further, they begin to produce, between one another, the substances which give the various tissues their special character. Thus, in the future bones, some cells deposit lime salts and others form cartilage, while in tendons they produce long white ?bres of a gelatinous substance. In some organs the cells change little: thus the liver consists of columns of large cells packed together, while many cells, like the white blood corpuscles, retain their primitive characters almost entire.

Thus cells are the active agents in forming the body, and they have a similar function in repairing its wear and tear. Tumours, and especially malignant tumours, have a highly cellular structure, the cells being of an embryonic type, or, at best, forming poor imitations of the tissues in which they grow (see TUMOUR).... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Cellulite

accumulation of toxic matter in the form of fat in the tissue.... The Encyclopedia of Essential Oils

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The Encyclopedia of Essential Oils

Cellulite

Not a medical term. Puffy skin from deposition of fat. “Orange peel skin”. Occurs chiefly in women as lumpy flesh on buttocks, thighs, stomach, knees and upper arm. Though not due to increased fluid in the tissues, it is sufficient to arrest the circulation. Constriction of capillaries causes toxic wastes to build up, forming nodules that lock away fat in the tissues. Hormone imbalance also suspected. Varicose veins may appear with cellulite from poorly supportive connective tissue. Usual cause: poor posture and unhealthy lifestyle.

Treatment. To activate capillary function and assist toxic elimination: Bladderwrack, Gotu Kola, Kola, Parsley tea. A diuretic may assist by eliminating excess fluid.

Gotu Kola tea: Quarter to half a teaspoon leaves to each cup boiling water; infuse 5-10 minutes. 1 cup morning and evening.

Formula. Tea. Equal parts: Alfalfa, Clivers, Fennel, Senna leaves. 1 heaped teaspoon to each cup boiling water: infuse 5-10 minutes. Half-1 cup morning and evening.

Seline. Tablets. Ingredients: Each tablet contains Lecithin 100mg; Pulverised Dandelion 100mg; Pulverised Horsetail 100mg; Pulverised extract Fucus 5:1 30mg; Vitamin C 40mg; Vitamin B6 1mg. 1 tablet thrice daily.

Aescin. Compound isolated from Horse-chestnuts to decrease capillary permeability and swelling. Topical. Decoction of Horse-chestnuts as a lotion. Or: infusion of Bladderwrack.

Aromatherapy and Herb essences. Combination for external use. Ingredients: Almond oil 47ml; Fennel oil 1ml; Juniper oil 1ml; Cypress essence 0.5ml; Lemon essence 0.5ml. Apply to affected areas morning and evening; small area 5 drops, large area 10 drops (Gerard). Gentle massage with a string glove, loofah or massage glove.

Diet. Reduce calorie intake. Raw fresh fruits and vegetable salads to account for 50 per cent of the diet. No sweet or dried fruits. Conservatively-cooked vegetables. Seafood. Iodine-rich foods. Wholegrain cereals. Protein: beans, chicken, poached eggs, fish, little lean meat: no pork, bacon or ham. Low-fat yoghurt. Cold-pressed unsaturated oils for salad dressings with lemon juice. Dandelion coffee to stimulate liver. Avoid sugar, alcohol, bananas and white flour products. Spring water.

Supportives. Stop smoking. Adopt an alternative to the contraceptive pill. To avoid fluid retention, 2-3 glasses of water daily. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

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Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

Cellulitis

n. an infection of the deep layers of the skin and subcutaneous tissue by staphylococci, streptococci, or other bacteria. The patient is systemically unwell and feverish. It is most common on the lower legs and there may be associated *lymphangitis and *lymphadenitis. It is otherwise similar to *erysipelas, but the margins are less clearly defined because the infection is deeper. Intravenous antibiotics are often required.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Cellulitis

A bacterial infection of the skin and the tissues beneath it, usually affecting the face, neck, or legs. Cellulitis is most commonly caused by streptococci bacteria, which enter the skin via a wound. The affected area is hot, tender, and red, and there may be fever and chills. Untreated cellulitis at the site of a wound may progress to bacteraemia and septicaemia or, occasionally, to gangrene. Cellulitis is usually more severe in people with reduced immune response, such as those with diabetes mellitus or an immunodeficiency disorder. Treatment is with an antibiotic such as a penicillin drug or erythromycin. (See also erysipelas.)... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Cellulitis

Inflammation of the skin and underlying tissues by inflammation and spreading infection. Usually staphylococcal or streptococcal.

Symptoms: Hot, painful swollen skin sensitive to touch, with constitutional unrest.

Indicated: alteratives, lymphatics. Echinacea to increase resistance. See: ABSCESS. ERYSIPELAS. Butcher’s Broom combination. Butcher’s Broom 100mg; Hawthorn berry 100mg; Garlic 100mg; Apple pectin 50mg; Cayenne (capsicum) 50mg; Ginger root 50mg; One capsule or tablet thrice daily.

Garlic. Good results reported. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

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Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

Cellulitis

In?ammation taking place in cellular tissue, and usually referring to infection in the subcutaneous tissue. A related word, cellulite, which has no medical meaning, is used in the slimming business to refer to excess fatty tissue in the arms, buttocks and thighs. (See ABSCESS; ERYSIPELAS.)... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Cellulose

n. a carbohydrate consisting of linked glucose units. It is an important constituent of plant cell walls. Cellulose cannot be digested by humans and is a component of *dietary fibre (roughage).... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Cellulose

A carbohydrate substance forming the skeleton of most plant structures. It is colourless, transparent, insoluble in water and is practically unaffected by digestion. In vegetable foods it therefore adds to the bulk, but it is of no value as a food-stu?. It is found in practically a pure state in cotton-wool.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Cervical Cancer

Cancer of the cervix – the neck of the womb – is one of the most common cancers affecting women throughout the world. In some areas its incidence is increasing. This cancer has clearly identi?able precancerous stages with abnormal changes occurring in the cells on the surface of the cervix: these changes can be detected by a CERVICAL SMEAR test. Early cancer can be cured by diathermy, laser treatment, electrocoagulation or cryosurgery. If the disease has spread into the body of the cervix or beyond, more extensive surgery and possibly radiotherapy may be needed. The cure rate is 95 per cent if treated in the early stages but may fall as low as 10 per cent in some severe cases. Around 3,000 patients are diagnosed as having cervical cancer every year in the United Kingdom, and around 1,500 die from it. Latest ?gures in England show that the incidence rates have fallen to under 11 per 100,000 women, while death rates fell by more than 40 per cent during the 1990s. The sexual behaviour of a woman and her male partners in?uences the chances of getting this cancer; the earlier a woman has sexual intercourse, and the more partners she has, the greater is the risk of developing the disease.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Cervical Cancer

(cervical carcinoma) cancer of the neck (cervix) of the uterus. The tumour may develop from the surface epithelium of the cervix (squamous carcinoma) or from the epithelial lining of the cervical canal (adenocarcinoma). In both cases the tumour is invasive, spreading to involve surrounding tissue and subsequently to neighbouring lymph nodes and adjacent organs, such as the bladder and rectum. Cancer of the cervix can be detected in an early stage of development (see cervical screening) and diagnosis is established by biopsy (see colposcopy). In carcinoma in situ (see cervical intraepithelial neoplasia) the tumour is confined to the epithelium: there is no invasion of surrounding tissue but, if untreated (by local ablation, *LLETZ, or surgical excision), it can become invasive. Common early features of invasive disease are abnormal vaginal bleeding and a foul-smelling blood-stained vaginal discharge. Treatment is by surgery with or without postoperative radiotherapy. See also human papillomavirus.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Cervix, Cancer Of

One of the most common cancers affecting women worldwide. Cancer of the cervix has well-defined precancerous stages (see cervical dysplasia) that can be detected by a cervical smear test, allowing, in many cases, early treatment and a complete cure. Untreated, cancer of the cervix may spread to the organs in the pelvis.

There are 2 main types of cervical cancer: the squamous type is the most common and is thought to be associated with the human papilloma virus, acquired during sexual intercourse. Factors that predispose to this type of cancer are smoking, starting to have sex at an early age, and having many sexual partners.

The second, rarer, type of cervical cancer, adenocarcinoma, sometimes occurs in women who have never had sexual intercourse. Its causes are unclear.

Symptoms do not develop until the condition is advanced, when there is vaginal bleeding or a bloodstained discharge at unexpected times, and pain if the cancer has spread within the pelvis.

Following an abnormal smear test result, colposcopy or a cone biopsy may be carried out to diagnose the condition.

A localized early cancer may be destroyed by electrocoagulation, diathermy, laser treatment, or cryosurgery.

If the cancer has spread into the cervical canal, a cone biopsy may be sufficient to remove all the diseased tissue.

In more advanced cases affecting the pelvic organs, radiotherapy may be given.

Radical surgery, in which the bladder, vagina, cervix, uterus, and rectum are removed, may be recommended in certain cases.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Chaga Tea Has Anti-cancer Properties

Chaga tea is a medicinal beverage with anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties. It is also an adjuvant in the liver treatment. Chaga Tea description Chaga is an irregularly-shaped polypore fungus (a mushroom), mainly found on the wounds of birch trees, on elm trees, alder trees and ironwood trees. This mushroom has a brown color, its veins being white or cream. It is acknowledged to hold less water than other types of mushrooms. In North Europe and Russia, the chaga mushroom has been used for a long period of time as a popular medicine remedy. Scientists have demonstrated that chaga has anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, antiviral and immune-stimulating actions. It could also be used to relieve pain. Changa tea is the resulting beverage from brewing the abovementioned mushroom. Chaga Tea brewing Chaga tea is prepared in the following way:
  • shred the Chaga mushrooms
  • soften the pieces in cold water for about five hours
  • get the softened mushrooms out
  • save the liquid
  • add heated water to the softened mushrooms
  • let the mixture stand for about 2 days
  • mix the resultant Chaga tea with the saved liquid from the softening process
  • drink it slowly
Chaga tea may be consumed three times a day. Chaga Tea benefits Chaga tea has been successfully used to:
  • boost and strengthen the immune system
  • help in the treatment of various stomach diseases
  • help in expelling intestinal worms
  • help in the treatment of liver problems
  • help in the treatment of certain heart ailments, including hypertension
  • help in fighting tumors and lowering the risk of certain cancers (like breast, liver, uterus and stomach cancers)
  • help in the treatment of diabetes
  • act against HIV
  • treat inflammations
Chaga Tea side effects Before drinking Chaga tea, consult a health care provider. Chaga tea is a natural beverage used as a treatment for diabetes, several heart ailments as well as for inflammations.... Beneficial Teas

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Beneficial Teas

Cholangiocarcinoma

A cancer in the bile ducts of the liver associated with opisthorchiasis. See Opisthorchiasis.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

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Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

Cholangiocarcinoma

n. a rare malignant tumour of the *bile ducts. Clinical features include abdominal pain, weight loss, pruritus, obstructive jaundice, and abnormal liver function tests. A tumour located at the junction of the right and left hepatic ducts within the liver is known as a Klatskin tumour. Primary sclerosing *cholangitis, *ulcerative colitis, chronic infection with specific liver flukes (such as Clonorchis sinensis), and exposure to the imaging contrast agent Thorotrast are potential risk factors for the development of cholangiocarcinoma. Differentiation from other causes of bile duct *stricture(s), e.g. sclerosing cholangitis, can be very difficult.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Cholangiocarcinoma

A cancerous growth in one of the bile ducts, which causes jaundice and weight loss.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Choriocarcinoma

A rare cancerous tumour that develops from placental tissue in the uterus, usually as a complication of a hydatidiform mole (a noncancerous tumour) but sometimes after a normal pregnancy or a miscarriage. Untreated, it destroys the walls of the uterus and may spread to the vagina and vulva and, eventually, to the liver, lungs, brain, and bones. Successful treatment relies on early diagnosis.

If a woman has a hydatidiform mole, she is screened regularly after treatment using ultrasound scanning and tests to measure blood and urine levels of the hormone human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG).

High levels HCG of are associated with choreocarcinoma.

Treatment is with anticancer drugs.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Choriocarcinoma

(chorionepithelioma) n. a rare malignant tumour of the placenta originating in the outer membrane (chorion) surrounding the fetus. Usually it is a complication of a *hydatidiform mole, although it may follow a miscarriage or even a normal pregnancy. The tumour rapidly spreads to the lungs, but is usually very sensitive to chemotherapy. It produces high levels of beta *human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG), which can be monitored as a tumour marker. See also gestational trophoblastic neoplasia.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Choriocarcinoma

A form of cancer affecting the CHORION, in the treatment of which particularly impressive results are being obtained from the use of methotrexate.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Clear-cell Carcinoma

(clear-cell adenocarcinoma) a variant of *adenocarcinoma that tends to arise from the kidneys or the female genital tract. In the latter case it is linked to intrauterine exposure to *diethylstilbestrol during the 1950s and 1960s and takes the form of a vaginal cancer, which can be treated by radical surgery followed by radiotherapy.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Colon, Cancer Of

A malignant tumour of the colon. First symptoms of the disease include an inexplicable change in bowel movements (either constipation or diarrhoea), blood mixed in with the faeces, and pain in the lower abdomen. Sometimes, there are no symptoms until the tumour has grown big enough to cause an obstruction in the intestine (see intestine, obstruction of) or perforate it (see perforation).

A genetic basis has been found for some types of colon cancer.

However, in most cases, the precise cause is unknown.

Contributory factors include diet: eating a lot of meat and fatty foods and not enough fibre may increase the risk.

The disease often occurs in association with other diseases of the colon, such as ulcerative colitis and familial polyposis.

The chances of cure depend critically on early diagnosis.

Screening for this cancer includes an occult blood test; if the test is positive, sigmoidoscopy and colonoscopy may be carried out.

In most cases of colon cancer, a partial colectomy is performed.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Colorectal Cancer

malignancy of the large intestine (i.e. the colon, appendix, and rectum). It is the fourth most common cause of death from cancer: one million people are diagnosed each year. Most cases should be preventable by screening and surveillance protocols (including the *faecal occult blood test) and modifiable lifestyle factors. Risk factors include older age, increased consumption of red meat and fatty foods, excessive alcohol intake, smoking, and sedentary lifestyle. Clinical symptoms include change in bowel habit, rectal bleeding, loss of appetite and weight, anaemia, and gastrointestinal obstruction. Diagnosis is made following analysis of samples taken during *colonoscopy. CT scanning of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis defines the extent of the disease; MRI and PET scanning may yield additional radiological information. These findings are assessed using the *TNM classification. Early localized disease is amenable to surgery, preoperative chemoradiation, and postoperative chemotherapy; advanced disease with metastases necessitates a palliative approach.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Council For Healthcare Regulatory Excellence

In 2002 the UK government set up this new statutory council with the aim of improving consistency of action across the eight existing regulatory bodies for professional sta? involved in the provision of various aspects of health care. These bodies are: General Medical Council; General Dental Council; General Optical Council; Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain; General Chiropractic Council; General Osteopathic Council; Health Professions Council; and Nursing and Midwifery Council.

The new Council for Healthcare Regulatory Excellence will help to promote the interests of patients and to improve co-operation between the existing regulatory bodies – providing, in e?ect, a quality-control mechanism for their activities. The government and relevant professions will nominate individuals for this overarching council. The new council will not have the authority to intervene in the determination by the eight regulatory bodies of individual ?tness-to-practise cases unless these concern complaints about maladministration.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Cutaneous T-cell Lymphoma

a group of lymphomas in which abnormal T *lymphocytes are concentrated in the skin. The most common form is *mycosis fungoides.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Cytotoxic T Cell

a type of T *lymphocyte that destroys cancerous cells, virus-infected cells, and *allografts. Cytotoxic T cells recognize peptide antigens attached to proteins that are encoded by the *HLA system.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

D Cells

see islets of Langerhans.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Dendritic Cell

a type of haemopoietic cell with specialized antigen-presenting functions. The head and neck are common sites for dendritic cell pathology. See antigen-presenting cell.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Didymocarpus Pedicellata

R.Br.

Synonym: D. macrophylla auct. non-Wall. ex D. Don.

Family: Gesneriaceae.

Habitat: Sub-tropical Himalaya from Himachal Pradesh to Aruna- chal Pradesh at 500-2,500 m.

Ayurvedic: Kshudra-Paashaana- bheda, Shilaa-valkaa, Shilaa- pushpa.

Action: Leaf—antilithic. Used for stones in kidney and bladder.

The leaves contain a number of chal- cones, quinochalcones and flavanones. Pediflavone has also been isolated from young leaves.... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Diet - Cancer

GENERAL DIET use as a base.

Life is our most precious gift. But at some point that gift might be at risk. It is at such time that food and drink may contribute to our sense of well-being.

Rapidly accumulating evidence links cancer to a growing public awareness of the role of diet. Also, involvement of supplements in cancer prevention are a fruitful area of research.

Vital food enzymes are not destroyed in cooking when a large proportion of food is eaten raw. All food should be free from additives.

A high fat intake is a risk factor in cancer of the ovary, womb and prostate gland. It also affects the bowel flora, changing bile acid metabolism and the concentration of carcinogenic bile acid metabolites. Obesity significantly increases risk of cancer.

Epidemiological studies in man show that people with low Vitamin A levels are more susceptible to lung cancer. Cancer risk is increased by low levels of Vitamin A, particularly Beta Carotene, Vitamin E and Selenium.

Antioxidants control the activity of free-radicals that destroy body cells, and source foods containing them are therefore of value in cancer prevention. Most cancers generate a high degree of toxicity and this is where antioxidants, particularly Vitamin C are indicated. A deficiency of Vitamin C has been associated with cancer of the oesophagus, stomach, lungs and breast. This vitamin is known to increase life expectancy in terminally ill patients and is a mild analgesic for pain. Vitamin B6 may be of value for nausea.

Vitamins and minerals of value: Vitamins A, B6, C, E, Calcium, Chromium, Magnesium, Molybdenum, Selenium, Zinc.

Stimulants should be avoided: cocoa, alcohol, sugar, coffee (including decaffeinated). Tea should not be too strong as it inhibits absorption of iron. Choice should be over a wide range of foods, to eat less fat and more wholegrain cereals and raw fresh fruit and vegetables. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

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Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

Ductal Carcinoma In Situ

(DCIS) the earliest stage of breast cancer, detectable by mammography, which is confined to the lactiferous (milk) ducts of the breast. See carcinoma in situ.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Egg Cell

see ovum.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Endometrial Cancer

a malignant tumour of the lining (*endometrium) of the uterus. Risk factors are nulliparity (never having given birth), obesity, and tamoxifen use as chemotherapy for breast cancer. The presenting symptom is usually *postmenopausal bleeding, but this cancer may present with postmenopausal discharge or *pyometra. The tumour invades the *myometrium and spreads down to the cervix and through the Fallopian tubes to the ovaries and peritoneal cavity and through the lymphatics to pelvic and aortic nodes. Prognosis depends on tumour differentiation, depth of myometrial invasion, extent of tumour spread, and involvement of retroperitoneal nodes. Treatment is laparoscopic abdominal *hysterectomy and bilateral *salpingo-oophorectomy, with *lymphadenectomy and radiotherapy if indicated.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Endometrial Cancer

See uterus, cancer of.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Epidermoid Carcinoma

Squamous cell carcin oma; cancer of squamous epithelium.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

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Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

Extracellular

adj. situated or occurring outside cells; for example, extracellular fluid is the fluid surrounding cells.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Extracellular

An adjective that describes an object or event outside a cell. An example is extracellular ?uid, the medium surrounding a cell.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

G-cell

n. any of the gastrin-secreting cells of the stomach lining located predominantly in the gastric *antrum. Gastrin stimulates the production of gastric acid by parietal cells in the stomach. Increased G-cell activity is associated with the formation of duodenal ulcers and the *Zollinger-Ellison syndrome.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Gallbladder Cancer

A rare cancer of unknown cause that occurs mainly in the elderly. The cancer may cause jaundice and tenderness in the abdomen, but it is sometimes symptomless. It is usually diagnosed by ultrasound scanning.

Treatment is by surgical removal of the tumour, but the cancer has often spread to the liver by the time it is detected, making the outlook poor.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Germ Cell

An embryonic cell with the potential to develop into a spermatozoon or ovum, which, on maturity, are called gametes. The term also describes

a gamete or any cell that is undergoing gametogenesis (the process by which gametes are formed).... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Germ Cell

(gonocyte) any of the embryonic cells that have the potential to develop into spermatozoa or ova. The term is also applied to any of the cells undergoing gametogenesis and to the gametes themselves.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Germ Cell

Those embryonic cells with the potential to develop into ova (see OVUM) or spermatozoa (see SPERMATOZOON).... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Germ Cell Tumour

A growth comprised of immature sperm cells in the male testis or of immature ova in the female ovary. A seminoma is one type of germ cell tumour (see testis, cancer of).... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Germ Cell Tumour

a tumour arising in *germ cells, commonly in the testis and ovary but also found at other sites. Examples are *teratomas, *seminomas, *dysgerminomas, and *choriocarcinomas. They may be benign or malignant and typically occur in children and young adults. Tumour markers, including *alpha-fetoprotein and beta *human chorionic gonadotrophin, can be used to monitor disease.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Gerson Cancer Therapy

GERSON CANCER THERAPY is described in A Cancer Therapy; Results of Fifty Cases, Gerson, Max; 3rd edition, 1977, Pub: The Gerson Institute Bonita, CA 92002, USA.

Basically, the therapy consists of a vegetarian diet with meals of vegetables, fruits and whole grains, fresh or freshly prepared. Drinking water is replaced by hourly, fresh, raw juices of vegetables and fruits. Refined, altered, denatured or enhanced foodstuffs are forbidden. The diet is sodium, chloride, fat and protein restricted. Supplemental potassium, iodine, thyroid and crude liver extract comprise the medical armamentarium. A repeatable choleretic, enemas of a solution of boiled coffee, is administered to lower serum toxin levels. Coffee is a potent enhancer of the carcinogen detoxifying enzyme system, glutathione S-translerase (Wattenburg). The Gerson cancer therapy reduces accumulated tissue sodium and chloride, promoting diuresis. Gerson Therapy Center: Hospital de Baja California, at La Gloria, Mexico

Diet. Lunch and dinner contain ample cooked food, mainly to act as a ‘blotter’ to the daily intake of 5.25 pints fresh raw fruit juices that are the backbone of the therapy. Ingredients of the juices include 41bs raw organic carrots a day, with no harm to the liver. (JAM, May 1991, p5. Beata Bishop on her recovery from metastasised malignant melanoma)

The Gerson therapy is based on the ‘holistic’ philosophy which states that cancer represents a clinical manifestation of an underlying toxic condition. Such condition should receive primary treatment that is lifestyle orientated. The theme is: detoxification through internal cleansing. The diet and supplements are re-inforced by ‘positive thinking’ and supported by meditation and emotional balance. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

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Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

Giant Cell

any large cell, such as a *megakaryocyte. Giant cells may have one or many nuclei.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Giant Cell Arteritis

An alternative name for temporal arteritis.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Giant Cell Arteritis

See: ARTERITIS. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

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Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

Giant-cell Arteritis

see arteritis.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Goblet Cell

A columnar secretory cell occurring in the EPITHELIUM of the respiratory and intestinal tracts.

The cells produce the main constituents of MUCUS.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Goblet Cell

a column-shaped secretory cell found in the *epithelium of the respiratory and intestinal tracts. Goblet cells secrete the principal constituents of mucus.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Golgi Cells

types of *neurons (nerve cells) within the central nervous system. Golgi type I neurons have very long axons that connect different parts of the system; Golgi type II neurons, also known as microneurons, have only short axons or sometimes none.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Haemopoietic Stem Cell

This is the basic cell from which all types of blood cells originate. Its appearance is believed to be similar to that of a LYMPHOCYTE.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Haemopoietic Stem Cell

the cell from which all classes of blood cells are derived. It cannot be identified microscopically, but can be defined by the presence of a combination of cell-surface proteins. It can be demonstrated by *tissue culture of the blood-forming tissue of the bone marrow, as well as by growth of human haemopoietic cells in immunodeficient mice strains, such as non-obese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient (NOD/SCID). See also haemopoiesis.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Hairy Cell

an abnormal white blood cell that has the appearance of an immature lymphocyte with fine hairlike cytoplasmic projections around the perimeter of the cell. It is found in a rare form of leukaemia (hairy-cell leukaemia) most commonly occurring in young men.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Helper T Cell

a type of T *lymphocyte that plays a key role in cell-mediated immunity by recognizing foreign antigen on the surface of *antigen-presenting cells when this is associated with the individual’s *MHC antigens, having been processed by antigen-presenting cells. Helper T cells stimulate the production of *cytotoxic T cells, which destroy the target cells.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Hepatocellular

adj. relating to or affecting the cells of the liver.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Hereditary Nonpolyposis Colorectal Cancer

(HNPCC, Lynch syndrome) an inherited disorder in which there is an increased incidence of colorectal *polyp formation, although to a lesser extent than in familial adenomatous *polyposis (FAP). HNPCC has also been associated with other types of tumour, particularly ovarian and endometrial tumours. This increased risk is due to inherited mutations that impair DNA mismatch repair.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Hilar Cell Tumour

an androgen-producing tumour of the ovary found in older women and often resulting in *virilization. Such tumours are so called as they tend to occur around the area of the ovary where the blood vessels enter (the hilum). They are usually small and are treated by surgical removal, with resolution of most of the symptoms.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Hürthle Cell Tumour

a malignant tumour of the thyroid gland that arises from Hürthle (or Askanazy) cells, altered follicular cells of the gland that have large nuclei and stain deeply with eosin (these cells are also found in benign nodules and Hashimoto’s disease). Hürthle cell carcinoma is not as common as papillary, follicular, or anaplastic thyroid carcinomas (see thyroid cancer). [K. W. Hürthle (1860–1945), German histologist]... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Intercellular

adj. situated or occurring between cells.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Interstitial Cells

cells that form part of the connective tissue (interstitium) between other tissues, especially the cells interspersed between the seminiferous tubules of the *testis (also called Leydig cells). They secrete *androgens in response to stimulation by *luteinizing hormone from the anterior pituitary gland.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Interstitial Cells

Also called Leydig cells, these cells are scattered between the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES of the testis (see TESTICLE). LUTEINISING HORMONE from the anterior PITUITARY GLAND stimulates the interstitial cells to produce androgens, or male hormones.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Interstitial-cell-stimulating Hormone

see luteinizing hormone.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Intestine, Cancer Of

A malignant tumour in the intestine.

Both the small and large intestine may develop carcinoid tumours (leading to carcinoid syndrome) and lymphomas.

Cancer of the small intestine is rare, but cancer of the large intestine is one of the most common of all cancers (see colon, cancer of; rectum, cancer of).... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Intracellular

adj. situated or occurring inside a cell or cells.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Islet Cell Antibodies

a group of autoantibodies directed against components of the insulin-secreting beta cells of the pancreas. They are usually detectable in the blood of people presenting with type 1 diabetes. Antibodies against *glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) in the beta cells have become a more specific test for islet cell antibodies, to help confirm a diagnosis of type 1 diabetes.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Islet Cell Transplantation

a new technique still under evaluation for curing type 1 *diabetes mellitus, which involves the injection of donated cells from the pancreatic *islets of Langerhans into the liver, where it is hoped they will seed and survive. The transplanted cells then take over insulin production from the recipient’s diseased pancreas.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Islet Cell Tumour

any tumour arising in a cell of the pancreatic *islets of Langerhans. These tumours, which include *insulinomas, *glucagonomas, and *somatostatinomas, form one of the two major subclasses of gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumours, the other being the *carcinoid tumours.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Kidney Cancer

A cancerous tumour of the kidney. Most kidney cancers originate in the kidney itself, but in rare cases cancer spreads to the kidney from another organ. There are 3 main types of kidney cancer. The most common, renal cell carcinoma, usually occurs in people over 40. Nephroblastoma (also called Wilms’ tumour) is a fast-growing tumour that mainly affects children under 5. Transitional cell carcinoma arises from cells lining the renal pelvis; it is more common in smokers or those who have taken analgesic drugs for a long time.Symptoms of kidney cancer vary. It is often symptomless in the early stages, although later there may be blood in the urine. All types require surgical removal of the kidney and sometimes also of the ureter. For nephroblastoma, surgery is followed by treatment with anticancer drugs. Kidney cancer is likely to be fatal if it has spread to other organs before treatment is started.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Kupffer Cells

Star-shaped cells present in the blood-sinuses of the LIVER. They form part of the RETICULOENDOTHELIAL SYSTEM and are to a large extent responsible for the breakdown of HAEMOGLOBIN into the BILE pigments.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Kupffer Cells

phagocytic cells that line the sinusoids of the *liver (see macrophage). They are particularly concerned with the formation of *bile and are often seen to contain fragments of red blood cells and pigment granules that are derived from the breakdown of haemoglobin. [K. W. von Kupffer (1829–1902), German anatomist]... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis

overgrowth of cells of the *reticuloendothelial system. This includes disorders previously called histiocytosis X, including eosinophilic granuloma, Hand–Schüller–Christian disease, and Letterer–Siwe disease. [P. Langerhans (1847–88), German physician and anatomist]... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Larynx, Cancer Of

A cancerous tumour of the larynx. The exact causes of this cancer are not known, but smoking and high alcohol consumption may be associated factors. Hoarseness is the main symptom, particularly when the tumour originates on the vocal cords. At an advanced stage, symptoms may include difficulty in breathing and swallowing, and coughing up blood.

If laryngoscopy reveals a tumour on the larynx, a biopsy is carried out.

If the tumour is small, radiotherapy or laser treatment may be used.

For unresponsive and large tumours, partial or total laryngectomy may be considered.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Leydig Cells

see interstitial cells. [F. von Leydig (1821–1908), German anatomist]... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Lip Cancer

A malignant tumour, usually on the lower lip.

Lip cancer is largely confined to older people, particularly those who have been exposed to a lot of sunlight and those who have smoked cigarettes or a pipe for many years.

The first symptom is a white patch that develops on the lip and soon becomes scaly and cracked with a yellow crust.

The affected area grows and eventually becomes ulcerated.

In some cases, the cancer spreads to the lymph nodes in the jaw and neck.

Lip cancer (usually a squamous cell carcinoma) is diagnosed by biopsy.

Treatment is surgical removal, radiotherapy, or a combination of both.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Liver Cancer

A cancerous tumour in the liver. The tumour may be primary (originating within the liver) or secondary (having spread from elsewhere, often the stomach, pancreas, or large intestine). There are 2 main types of primary tumour: a hepatoma, which develops in the liver cells, and a cholangiocarcinoma, which arises from cells lining the bile ducts.The most common symptoms of any liver cancer are loss of appetite, weight loss, lethargy, and sometimes pain in the upper right abdomen.

The later stages of the disease are marked by jaundice and ascites (excess fluid in the abdomen).

Tumours are often detected by ultrasound scanning, and diagnosis may be confirmed by liver biopsy.

A hepatoma can sometimes be cured by complete removal.

In other cases, anticancer drugs can help to slow the progress of the disease.

It is usually not possible to cure secondary liver cancer, but anticancer drugs or, in some cases, removal of a solitary metastasis may be advised.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Lobular Carcinoma

cancer that arises in the lobules (rather than the ducts) of the breast. Like ductal carcinoma, it may be confined to its site of origin but can invade other tissues; however, it has a greater tendency than ductal carcinoma to affect both breasts.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Lung Cancer

cancer arising in the epithelium of the air passages (bronchial cancer) or lung (see also non-small-cell lung cancer; small-cell lung cancer). It is a very common form of cancer, particularly in Britain, and is strongly associated with cigarette smoking and exposure to industrial air pollutants (including asbestos). There are often no symptoms in the early stages of the disease, when diagnosis is made on X-ray examination. Treatment includes surgical removal of the affected lobe or lung (less than 20% of cases are suitable for surgery), radiotherapy, and chemotherapy.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Marcella

(Latin) Feminine form of Marcellus; dedicated to Mars, the god of war Marcela, Marcele, Marcelina, Marcelinda, Marceline, Marcelle, Marcellina, Marcelline, Marcelyn, Marchella, Marchelle, Marcile, Marcilee, Marcille, Marquita, Marsalina, Marsella, Marselle, Marsellonia, Marshella, Marsiella, Marcila, Marsil, Marsille, Marsilla, Marsila, Marsali... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Mast Cell

A type of cell that plays an important part in allergy.

In an allergic response, mast cells release histamine.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Mast Cell

a large cell in *connective tissue with many coarse cytoplasmic granules. These granules contain the chemicals *heparin, *histamine, and *serotonin, which are released during inflammation and allergic responses.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Mast Cells

These are a group of cells that line the capillaries of tissues that come in contact with the outside, like skin, sinuses, and lung mucosa. They, like their first cousin basophils, are produced in the red bone marrow and migrate to the appropriate tissues, where they stay. They bind IgE, supply the histamine and heparin response that gives you a healing inflammation, and cause allergies.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Mast Cells

Round or oval cells found predominantly in the loose CONNECTIVE TISSUE. They contain HISTAMINE and HEPARIN, and carry immunoglobulin E, the antibody which plays a predominant part in allergic reactions (see ANTIBODIES; ALLERGY). Although known to play a part in in?ammatory reactions, allergy, and hypersensitivity, their precise function in health and disease is still not quite clear.... Herbal Medical

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Herbal Medical

Medullary Carcinoma

a tumour whose consistency was thought to resemble that of bone marrow. Medullary carcinoma of the thyroid has associations with tumours of other organs (multiple endocrine neoplasia; see MENS) and is often familial: it arises from the *C cells of the thyroid and produces calcitonin, which can often be used as a *tumour marker.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Memory Cell

a long-lived lymphocyte that is formed following primary infection. It enables a faster and more robust immune response following a second exposure to the antigen.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Mesangial Cells

see juxtaglomerular apparatus.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Mesenchymal Cells

Literally, those derived from embryonic mesoderm; practically, those in a tissue that give it structure and form. The opposite of parenchymal.... Herbal Medical

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Herbal Medical

Methylcellulose

n. a compound that absorbs water and is used as a bulk *laxative to treat constipation, to control diarrhoea, and in patients with a *colostomy. It usually has no side-effects.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Methylcellulose

A bulk-forming laxative drug used to treat constipation, irritable bowel syndrome, and diverticular disease.

Methylcellulose increases the firmness of faeces in chronic watery diarrhoea and regulates their consistency in people who have a colostomy or ileostomy.

It is also given as eyedrops to relieve dry eyes.

As methylcellulose causes a feeling of fullness, it is sometimes used to help treat obesity.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Methylcellulose

A COLLOID which absorbs water to swell to about 25 times its original volume. It is used in the treatment of CONSTIPATION and also in the management of OBESITY. The rationale for its use in obesity is that by swelling up in the stomach, it reduces the appetite.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Micelle

n. one of the microscopic particles into which the products of fat digestion (i.e. fatty acids and monoglycerides), present in the gut, are dispersed by the action of *bile salts. Fatty material in this finely dispersed form is more easily absorbed by the small intestine.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Mouth Cancer

Forms of cancerous tumour that affect the lips, tongue, and oral cavity. Lip cancer and tongue cancer are the most common types.

Predisposing causes of mouth cancer are poor oral hygiene, drinking alcoholic spirits, tobacco-smoking, chewing tobacco, and inhaling snuff. Irritation from ill-fitting dentures or jagged teeth are other factors. Men are affected twice as often as women; most cases occur in men over the age of 40.

Mouth cancer usually begins with a whitish patch, called leukoplakia, or a small lump. These may cause a burning sensation, but are usually painless. As the tumour grows, it may develop into an ulcer or a deep fissure, which may bleed and erode surrounding tissue.

Diagnosis is based on a biopsy. Treatment consists of surgery, radiotherapy, or both. Extensive surgery may cause facial disfigurement and problems with eating and speaking, which may require reconstructive surgery. Radiotherapy sometimes damages the salivary glands (see mouth, dry).

When mouth cancer is detected and treated early, the outlook is good.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

National Institute For Clinical Excellence (nice)

This special health authority in the National Health Service, launched in 1999, prepares formal advice for all managers and health professionals working in the service in England and Wales on the clinical- and cost-e?ectiveness of new and existing technologies. This includes diagnostic tests, medicines and surgical procedures. The institute also gives advice on best practice in the use of existing treatments.

NICE – its Scottish equivalent is the Scottish Health Technology Assessment Centre – has three main functions:

appraisal of new and existing technologies.

development of clinical guidelines.

promotion of clinical audit and con?dential inquiries. Central to its task is public concern about ‘postcode prescribing’ – that is, di?erent availability of health care according to geography.

In 2003 the World Health Organisation appraised NICE. Amongst its recomendations were that there should be greater consistency in the methods used for appraisal and the way in which results and decisions were reported. WHO was concerned about the need for transparency about the con?ict between NICE’s use of manufacturers’ commercial evidence in con?dence, and believed there should be greater de?nition of justi?cation for ‘threshold’ levels for cost-e?ectiveness in the Centre’s judgement of what represents value for money.

In all, WHO was congratulatory – but questions remain about the practical value and imlementation of NICE guidelines.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Natural Killer Cell

(NK cell) a type of *lymphocyte that is able to kill virus-infected cells and cancerous cells and mediates rejection of bone-marrow grafts. NK cells are a part of natural (or innate) *immunity. Their function is regulated by a balance between activating receptors, which recognize proteins on cancerous or virus-infected cells, and inhibitory receptors specific for certain molecules encoded by the *HLA system.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Nerve Cell

see neuron.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Nerve Cell

See NEURON(E).... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Nk Cell

see natural killer cell.

nm symbol for *nanometre.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Non-small-cell Lung Cancer

(NSCLC) any type of lung cancer other than *small-cell lung cancer. Such cancers include *adenocarcinoma of the lung, large-cell carcinomas, and squamous-cell carcinoma of the lung.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Oat Cell

see small-cell lung cancer.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Oat Cell

A type of cell found in one highly malignant form of lung cancer. The cell is small and either oval or round. The nucleus stains darkly and the cytoplasm is sparse and di?cult to identify. Oat-cell, or small-cell, carcinoma of the bronchus is usually caused by smoking, and comprises around 30 per cent of all bronchial cancers. It responds to radiotherapy and chemotherapy but, because the growth has usually spread widely by the time it is diagnosed, the prognosis is poor. Results of surgery are unsatisfactory.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Ocellus

The “eye”, present midway between the corners of cubozoan (“box”) jellyfish. It is capable of distinguishing light and dark, and is probably responsible for evasive action by the jellyfish. Term ocellus also refers to the “simple” eyes of insects and spiders as opposed to their “compund” eyes.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

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Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

Oesophagus, Cancer Of

A malignant tumour, most common in people over 50, that mainly affects the middle or lower oesophagus and leads to swallowing difficulties. Smoking and heavy alcohol intake are risk factors.

Symptoms progressively worsen to a point where food is immediately regurgitated and there is rapid weight loss. Regurgitated fluid spilling into the trachea often causes respiratory infections.

Diagnosis is with a barium swallow (see barium X-ray examinations) and a biopsy taken during endoscopy. Removal of the oesophagus may be possible in some cases. Radiotherapy may cause regression of the cancer, relieve symptoms, and occasionally cure older patients who might not survive major surgery. Insertion of a rigid tube through the tumour, or laser treatment to burn through it, can help to relieve symptoms and improve nutrition. The overall outlook is poor, but is improved with early diagnosis.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Onodi Cell

a posterior ethmoidal sinus air cell (see paranasal sinuses). They are surgically important because of their proximity to the optic nerve and internal carotid artery. [A. Onodi (1857–1919), Hungarian rhinolaryngologist]... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Orbital Cellulitis

Bacterial infection of the tissues within the eye socket, or orbit.

Infection is potentially serious as it may spread to the brain.

Treatment is with high doses of antibiotic drugs.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Ovarian Cancer

a malignant tumour of the ovary, usually a carcinoma. Because of its wide-ranging pathology and an imperfect understanding of its causes, ovarian cancer is not readily detected in the early stages of development, when the tumour is small and produces few suspicious symptoms. Increased susceptibility to the disease is associated with raised serum levels of *CA125 (see also risk of malignancy index; BRCA1 and BRCA2). Diagnosis is based on the finding of a solid or cystic mass arising from the pelvis; there may be associated *ascites. The incidence of ovarian cancer reaches a peak in postmenopausal women; treatment involves surgery and most cases also require combined chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Ovary, Cancer Of

A malignant growth of the ovary. The cancer may be either primary (arising in the ovary) or secondary (due to the spread of cancer from another part of the body). Ovarian cancer can occur at any age but is most common after 50 and in women who have never had children. A family history of cancer of the ovary, breast, or colon, especially in close relatives under 50, is an important risk factor. Taking oral contraceptives reduces the risk.

In most cases, ovarian cancer causes no symptoms until it is widespread. The first symptoms may include vague discomfort and swelling in the abdomen; nausea and vomiting; abnormal vaginal bleeding; and ascites.

If ovarian cancer is suspected, a doctor will carry out a physical examination to detect any swellings in the pelvis. A laparoscopy will usually be performed to confirm the diagnosis.

Treatment is by surgical removal of the growth or as much cancerous tissue as possible.

This usually involves salpingooophorectomy and hysterectomy followed by radiotherapy and anticancer drugs.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Oxyntic Cells

see parietal cells.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Packed Cell Volume

(haematocrit) the volume of the red cells (erythrocytes) in blood, expressed as a fraction of the total volume of the blood. The packed cell volume is determined by centrifuging blood in a tube and measuring the height of the red-cell column as a fraction of the total. Automated instruments calculate packed cell volume as the product of the erythrocyte count and the measured mean red cell volume (mean corpuscular volume; MCV).... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Packed Cell Volume

That fraction of the blood’s total volume made up of red cells. The packed cell volume is found by centrifuging blood in a tube and measuring the depth of the column of red cells as a fraction of the whole column of blood. (See also HAEMATOCRIT.)... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Pancreas, Cancer Of

A cancerous tumour of the exocrine tissue of the pancreas. The cause is unknown, but smoking and a high intake of fats or alcohol may be contributing factors. Symptoms include upper abdominal pain, loss of appetite, weight loss, and jaundice. There may also be indigestion, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, and tiredness. In many cases, symptoms do not appear until the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.

Diagnosis usually requires ultrasound scanning, CT scanning or MRI of the upper abdomen, or ERCP.

In early stages, pancreatectomy, radiotherapy and anticancer drugs may provide a cure.

In later stages, little can be done apart from provision of palliative treatment.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Papulosquamous

adj. describing a rash that is both papular and scaly.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Parietal Cells

(oxyntic cells) cells of the *gastric glands that secrete hydrochloric acid in the fundic region of the stomach.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Pathology, Cellular

Also called cytopathology, the branch of cytology concerned with the effects of disease on cells.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Penis, Cancer Of

A rare type of cancerous tumour that is more common in uncircumcised men with poor personal hygiene. Viral infection and smoking have both been shown to be additional risk factors. The tumour usually starts on the glans or on the foreskin as a painless, wart-like lump or a painful ulcer, and develops into a cauliflowerlike mass. The growth usually spreads slowly, but in some cases it can spread to the lymph nodes in the groin within a few months.

Diagnosis is made by a biopsy.

If the tumour is detected early, radiotherapy is usually successful.

Otherwise, removal of part or all of the penis may be necessary.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Perioperative Cell Salvage

A method of autologous blood TRANSFUSION – using a patient’s own blood, salvaged during a surgical operation – instead of conventional blood-bank transfusion.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Peripheral-blood Stem-cell Transplants

These have almost completely replaced BONE MARROW TRANSPLANT, used to treat malignancies such as LEUKAEMIA and LYMPHOMA for the past 20 years. The high doses of CHEMOTHERAPY or RADIOTHERAPY used to treat these diseases destroy the bone marrow which contains stem cells from which all the blood cells derive. In 1989 stem cells were found in the blood during recovery from chemotherapy. By giving growth factors (cytokines), the number of stem cells in the blood increased for about three to four days. In a peripheral-blood stem-cell transplant, these cells can be separated from the peripheral blood, without a general anaesthetic. The cells taken by either method are then frozen and returned intravenously after the chemotherapy or radiotherapy is completed. Once transplanted, the stem cells usually take less than three weeks to repopulate the blood, compared to a month or more for a bone marrow transplant. This means that there is less risk of infection or bleeding during the recovery from the transplant. The whole procedure has a mortality risk of less than 5 per cent – half the risk of a bone marrow transplant.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Phalangeal Cells

rows of supporting cells between the sensory hair cells of the organ of Corti (see cochlea).... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Pharynx, Cancer Of

A cancerous tumour of the pharynx. Pharyngeal cancer usually develops in the mucous membrane lining. In the West, almost all cases of pharyngeal cancer are related to smoking and to drinking alcohol. The incidence rises with age, and the disorder is more common in men.

Cancerous tumours of the oropharynx (the middle section of the pharynx) usually cause difficulty swallowing, often with a sore throat and earache. Bloodstained sputum may be coughed up. Sometimes there is only the feeling of a lump in the throat or a visible enlarged lymph node in the neck. Cancer of the laryngopharynx (the lowermost part of the pharynx) initially causes a sensation of incomplete swallowing, then a muffled voice, hoarseness, and increased difficulty in swallowing. Tumours of the nasopharynx have different causes.Diagnosis of cancer of the pharynx is made by biopsy, often in conjunction with laryngoscopy, bronchoscopy, or oesophagoscopy.

The growth may be removed surgically or treated with radiotherapy.

Anticancer drugs may also be given.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Pithecellobium Dulce

Benth.

Family: Mimosaceae.

Habitat: Cultivated throughout the plains of India.

English: Minila Tamarind, Madras Thorn, Quamachil.

Siddha/Tamil: Karapilly, Kodukkaa Puli.

Folk: Vilaayati Imli, Dakhini Babool.

Action: Bark—astringent, febrifuge, antidysenteric. Stem-bark—spasmolytic. Seeds—anti-inflammatory.

The leaves contain alpha-spinaste- rol; its beta-D-glucoside, octacosanol, kaempferol, its 3-rhamnoside, behenic and lignoceric acids. An insulin-like principle has also been reported in the leaves.

Seeds gave kaempferol, quercetin and a saponin consisting of a mixture of oleanolic and echinocystic acid gly- cosides. Lecithin is also reported from seeds.

The seed exhibited haemolytic agglutinating reaction with human blood. Saponins from seeds show spermicidal activity.

The bark contains tannins (up to 37%) of a catechol type; non-tans 1015%; 1.5% of pectin.... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Pithecellobium Monadelphum

Kosterm.

Synonym: P. bigeminatum auct. non-(L.) Mart. ex Benth.; P. gracile Bedd.

Habitat: Eastern Himalayas, Khasi, Jaintia and Lushai Hills.

Siddha/Tamil: Kalpakku.

Folk: Kachloraa.

Action: Leaf—used externally as a mostrum for leprosy; also applied for promoting growth of hair. Seed—hypoglycaemic. Aerial parts—diuretic, spasmolytic.

The seeds contain 18.3% protein; major amino acids are aspartic acid 13.2, glutamic acid 10.9, alanine 9.7, leucine 8.3, glycine 8.2, serine 7.4%. Seeds contain a poisonous principle pithecolobine. They are used after repeated boiling and discarding of water.... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Plasma Cells

These are cells that produce ANTIBODIES and occur in bone-forming tissue as well as the lining of the gastrointestinal tract and the lungs. The cells develop in LYMPH NODES, SPLEEN and BONE MARROW when T-lymphocytes (see IMMUNITY) are stimulated by antigens (see ANTIGEN) to produce the precursor cells from which plasma cells originate.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Plasma Cells

antibody-producing cells found in blood-forming tissue and also in the epithelium of the lungs and gut. They develop in the bone marrow, lymph nodes, and spleen when antigens stimulate B *lymphocytes to produce the precursor cells that give rise to them. Malignant proliferation of plasma cells results in either a *plasmacytoma or multiple *myeloma.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Precancerous

adj. describing a nonmalignant condition that is known to become malignant if left untreated. *Leukoplakia of the vulva is known to be a precancerous condition. See also metaplasia.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Precancerous

A term applied to any condition in which there is a tendency for cancer to develop.

There are 3 types of such conditions.

In the 1st, there are no tumours present but the condition carries an increased risk of cancer.

In the 2nd, there are noncancerous tumours that tend to become cancerous or are associated with the development of cancerous tumours elsewhere.

The 3rd type comprises disorders which have irregular features from the beginning but do not always become fully cancerous.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Prickle Cells

cells with cytoplasmic processes that form intercellular bridges. The germinative layer of the *epidermis is sometimes called the prickle cell layer.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Primary Cancer

An original cancer still at the site at which it started to grow.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

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Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

Prostate Cancer

a malignant tumour (*carcinoma) of the prostate gland, a common form of cancer in elderly men. In most men it progresses slowly over many years and gives symptoms similar to those of benign enlargement of the prostate (see prostate gland). Before it was possible to test for *prostate specific antigen (PSA), the tumour had often invaded locally, spread to regional lymph nodes, and metastasized to bone before clinical presentation. By checking elevated levels of PSA or *PCA3, prostate cancer can be detected 5–10 years before the tumour would present symptomatically. If the disease is confined to the prostate, the patient may be offered active surveillance or radical *prostatectomy, radical radiotherapy, or *brachytherapy; *cryotherapy or *HIFU are available in specialized centres. In elderly patients, it may be enough to monitor the tumour growth. If the disease is outside the prostate, androgen deprivation therapy may be used; this may be achieved by *gonadorelin analogues, *anti-androgens, surgical castration, or oestrogen therapy.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Prostate, Cancer Of

A cancerous growth in the prostate gland, of unknown cause. One of the most common cancers in men, it mainly occurs in elderly men.

An enlarged prostate (see prostate, enlarged) may cause symptoms including difficulty in starting to pass urine, poor urine flow, and increased frequency of urination. Urine flow may eventually cease altogether. When there are no urinary symptoms, the first sign may be pain in the bones from secondary cancers. Screening tests detect blood levels of a protein called prostate specific antigen;

if above a certain level, it may indicate prostate cancer.

Rectal examination allows a doctor to assess the size and hardness of the gland.

Ultrasound scanning and a biopsy confirm the diagnosis.

Blood tests and a bone scan (see radionuclide scanning) may also be done.

In an elderly man with a small prostate cancer that has not spread, no treatment may be recommended.

For younger men, prostatectomy or radiotherapy may be performed.

Widespread disease is usually controllable for some years with orchidectomy or drugs.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Purkinje Cells

Large specialised nerve cells occurring in great numbers in the cortex (super?cial layer of grey matter) of the cerebellum of the BRAIN. They have a ?ask-shaped body, an AXON and branching tree-like extensions called dendrites, which extend towards the surface of the brain (see NEURON(E)).... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Purkinje Cells

nerve cells found in great numbers in the cortex of the cerebellum. The cell body is flask-shaped, with numerous dendrites branching from the neck and extending fanwise among other cells towards the surface and a long axon that runs from the base deep into the cerebellum. [J. E. Purkinje (1787–1869), Bohemian physiologist]... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Pyramidal Cell

a type of neuron found in the *cerebral cortex, with a pyramid-shaped cell body, a branched dendrite extending from the apex towards the brain surface, several dendrites extending horizontally from the base, and an axon running in the white matter of the hemisphere.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Rectum, Cancer Of

A cancerous tumour in the rectum. The cause is unknown, but dietary factors and genetic factors are thought to play a part. It is more common between ages 50 and 70.

Early symptoms are rectal bleeding during defecation and diarrhoea or constipation. Later, pain may occur. Left untreated, the cancer may eventually cause severe bleeding and pain and block the intestine. It may also spread to other organs.

The cancer may be detected by a rectal examination and confirmed with proctoscopy or sigmoidoscopy and biopsy.

Treatment is usually with surgery. For a tumour in the upper rectum, the affected area and the last part of the colon are removed and the 2 free ends of the intestine are sewn together. To promote healing, a temporary colostomy may be made. For a growth in the lower rectum, the entire rectum and anus are removed. Because there is no outlet for faeces, a permanent colostomy is created.

Radiotherapy and anticancer drugs may be used in addition to or instead of surgery.

Up to 40 per cent of people treated for rectal cancer live for 10 years or more.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Red Blood Cell

see erythrocyte.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Red Blood Cell

See ERYTHROCYTES; BLOOD.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Reed–sternberg Cell

a large binucleate cell that is characteristic of *Hodgkin’s disease. [D. Reed Mendenhall (1874–1964), US pathologist; C. Sternberg (1872–1935), Austrian pathologist]... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Regulatory T Cell

(Treg cell) a type of T *lymphocyte that suppresses immune responses.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Renal Cell Carcinoma

The most common type of kidney cancer.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Renal Cell Carcinoma

(Grawitz tumour, hypernephroma) a malignant tumour of kidney cells (the alternative name refers to its supposed resemblance to part of the adrenal gland and at one time it was thought to originate from this site). It may be present for some years before giving rise to symptoms, which include fever, loin pain and swelling, and blood in the urine. Treatment is by surgery, but tumours are apt to recur locally or spread via the bloodstream and can often be seen growing along the renal vein. Secondary growths from a renal cell carcinoma in the lung have a characteristic ‘cannon-ball’ appearance. These tumours are relatively insensitive to radiotherapy and cytotoxic drugs but some respond to such hormones as progestogens. Targeted therapy with *sorafenib and *sunitinib has significantly changed the treatment of advanced tumours.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Renal Cell Carcinoma

See HYPERNEPHROMA.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Resting Cell

a cell that is not undergoing division. See interphase.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Schwann Cell

The cells that produce the MYELIN sheath of the AXON of a medullated NERVE. They are wrapped around a segment of the axon, forming concentric layers.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Schwann Cells

the cells that lay down the *myelin sheath around the axon of a medullated nerve fibre. Each cell is responsible for one length of axon, around which it twists as it grows, so that concentric layers of membrane envelop the axon. The gap between adjacent Schwann cells forms a *node of Ranvier. [T. Schwann (1810–82), German anatomist and physiologist]... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Secondary Cancer

A cancer that originally started somewhere else in the body, but is now growing at another site. A metastasis.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

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Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

Sertoli Cells

cells found in the walls of the seminiferous tubules of the *testis. Compared with the germ cells they appear large and pale. They anchor and probably nourish the developing germ cells, especially the *spermatids, which become partly embedded within them. A Sertoli-cell tumour is a rare testicular tumour causing *feminization. [E. Sertoli (1842–1910), Italian histologist]... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Sickle Cell Anaemia

An inherited blood disease in which the red blood cells contain haemoglobin S, an abnormal type of haemoglobin. This crystallizes in the capillaries, making red cells sickle-shaped and fragile, and leading to haemolytic anaemia. The abnormal cells are unable to pass easily through tiny blood vessels. The blood supply to organs is blocked intermittently, causing sickle cell crises. The disease affects mainly black people.Symptoms usually appear after age 6 months, often beginning with painful swelling of the hands and feet. Chronic haemolytic anaemia causes fatigue, headaches, shortness of breath on exertion, pallor, and jaundice. Sickle cell crises start suddenly; they are sometimes brought on by an infection, cold weather, or dehydration, but may also occur for no apparent reason. The sufferer may experience pains (especially in the bones), blood in the urine (from kidney damage) or damage to the lungs or intestines. If the brain is affected, seizures, a stroke, or unconsciousness may result.

In some affected children, the spleen enlarges and traps red cells at a particularly high rate, causing a life-threatening form of anaemia. After adolescence, the spleen usually stops functioning, increasing the risk of infection in those affected.

Diagnosis is made from examination of a blood smear and electrophoresis.

Supportive treatment may include folic acid supplements, and penicillin and immunization to protect against infection.

Life-threatening crises are treated with intravenous infusions of fluids, antibiotics, oxygen therapy, and analgesic drugs.

If the crisis still does not respond, an exchange blood transfusion may be performed.

This may be done regularly for people who suffer frequent severe crises.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Sickle-cell Disease

(drepanocytosis) a hereditary blood disease that mainly affects people of African ancestry but also occurs in the Mediterranean region and reaches high frequencies in parts of Saudi Arabia and India. It occurs when the sickle-cell gene has been inherited from both parents and is characterized by the production of an abnormal type of *haemoglobin – sickle-cell haemoglobin (Hbs) – which precipitates in the red cells when the blood is deprived of oxygen, forming crystals that distort the cells into the characteristic sickle shape: this process is known as sickling. An excess of sickle cells in the circulation results in blockage of small blood vessels, producing episodes of severe pain (a sickle-cell crisis). Sickle cells are rapidly removed from the circulation, leading to anaemia and jaundice. There is no satisfactory treatment; the highest mortality is in childhood but some patients may live to an age of 60–70 years.

The carrier condition (sickle-cell trait) occurs when the defective gene is inherited from only one parent. It generally causes no symptoms but confers some protection from malaria, which accounts for the high frequency of the gene in malarious areas. If a general anaesthetic is to be given to a patient with this condition, the anaesthetist should be alerted.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Sickle-cell Nephropathy

progressive renal disease developing in 5–8% of patients with *sickle-cell disease. Infarcts in the cortex can occur with sickle-cell crises and present with pain and haematuria. Acute or more insidious damage to the medulla will lead to a urinary concentrating defect and later to papillary necrosis and/or fibrosis. Occlusion of vessels within the glomerular capillary tuft leads to a secondary form of *focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and can present with the *nephrotic syndrome.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Skin Cancer

A malignant tumour in the skin. Basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and malignant melanoma are common forms related to long-term exposure to sunlight. Bowen’s disease, a rare disorder that can become cancerous, may also be related to sun exposure. Less common types include Paget’s disease of the nipple and mycosis fungoides. Kaposi’s sarcoma is a type usually found in people with AIDS. Most skin cancers can be cured if treated early.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Small Cell Carcinoma

One form of lung cancer.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Small-cell Carcinoma

See OAT CELL.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Small-cell Lung Cancer

(SCLC) a type of bronchial carcinoma characterized by small cells (or oat cells), small round or oval cells with darkly staining nuclei and scanty indistinct cytoplasm. Small-cell carcinoma is usually related to smoking and accounts for about one-quarter of bronchial carcinomas; it carries a poor prognosis due to early distant spread, typically to bones, liver, and brain. Treatment is primarily with chemotherapy and radiotherapy and paraneoplastic symptoms (see paraneoplastic syndrome) from *ectopic hormone production are common. Compare non-small-cell lung cancer.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Squamous Bone

see temporal bone.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Malignant tumour of squamous epithelium of skin, which generally spreads and metastasises.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

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Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

Squamous Cell Carcinoma

One of the most common types of skin cancer. Squamous cell carcinoma is linked to long-term exposure to sunlight. It is most common in fair-skinned people over 60.

The tumour starts as a small, painless lump or patch (usually on the lip, ear, or back of the hand), which enlarges fairly rapidly, often resembling a wart or ulcer. Left untreated, the cancer may spread to other parts of the body and prove fatal.

Diagnosis is based on a skin biopsy. The tumour is removed surgically or destroyed by radiotherapy.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Squamous Cell Carcinoma

(SCC) any cancer of squamous epithelium, arising from such tissues as the skin and the lining of the upper airways and digestive tract (especially in the head and neck). SCC is the second commonest form of skin cancer (after *basal cell carcinoma), occurring usually in late-middle and old age. Cumulative sun exposure is the commonest cause but other environmental carcinogens may be responsible. Renal transplant patients are at particularly high risk of this tumour. SCC is mainly found on areas exposed to light and is three times more common in men than in women. SCC grows faster than basal cell carcinoma; it spreads locally at first but later may spread to sites distant from its origin (see metastasis). Treatment is usually by surgical excision or radiotherapy.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Squamous Epithelium

see epithelium.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Stem Cell

Stem CELLS develop a few days after an egg (ovum) is fertilised by a spermatozoon and starts developing to form an EMBRYO. These master cells are crucial to the development of a normal embryo. They contain a specialised ENZYME that gives them the facility to divide inde?nitely, developing into the many di?erent specialised cells that comprise the various tissues in the body – for example, skin, blood, muscle, glands or nerves.

In a highly signi?cant advance in research, a scienti?c team in the United States obtained stem cells from newly formed human embryos

– donated by women who had become pregnant after successful in vitro fertilisation – and successfully cultivated these cells in the laboratory. This achievement opened the way to replicating in the laboratory, the various specialised cells that develop naturally in the body. UK government legislation constrains the use of human embryos in research (see ETHICS) and the ethical aspects of taking this stem-cell culture technique forwards will have to be resolved. Nevertheless, this discovery points the biological way to the use of genetic engineering in selecting di?erentiated specialised cells from which replacement tissues could be grown for use as transplants to rectify absent or damaged tissues in the human body.

Research into potential use of stem cells has raised expectations that in the long term they may prove to be an e?ective regenerative treatment for a wide range of disorders including PARKINSONISM, ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE, type-2 diabetes (see under DIABETES MELLITUS), myocardial infarction (see HEART, DISEASES OF), severe burns, osteoporosis (see under BONE, DISORDERS OF) and the regeneration of blood to replace the need for BONE MARROW TRANSPLANT. Recent research has shown that adult stem cells may also be stimulated to produce new cell lines. If successful, this would eliminate the need to use embryos and thus resolve existing ethical dilemmas over the use of stem cells.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Stem Cell

A basic cell in the body from which more specialized cells are formed. Stem cells within the bone marrow produce blood cells through a series of maturation steps. Stem cells are found in blood and can be transplanted as an alternative to bone marrow transplantation. Stem cells can be obtained from a donor sibling, a matched but unrelated donor, or from stored umbilical blood. Patients can also act as their own donors, with cells harvested and stored to be reinfused later after treatment has damaged the bone marrow. Stem-cell transplantation is used mainly for people being treated for leukaemia and other cancers but may, in the future, be used for noncancerous disorders.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Stem Cell

an undifferentiated cell that is able to renew itself and produce specialized cells. Embryonic stem cells at the *blastocyst stage of development can differentiate into almost any cell type (except placental cells); they are described as pluripotent. Embryonic cells preceding the blastocyst, produced by the first 3–4 divisions of the fertilized egg, are capable of producing all the different cell types required by the developing embryo (i.e. they are totipotent). Adult stem cells (also known as somatic stem cells) occur in many tissues and organs, including bone marrow (see haemopoietic stem cell), muscle, liver, pancreas, etc., and can produce the specialized cells needed in the particular tissue or organ in which they arise (i.e. they are multipotent). See also umbilical cord blood banked stem cells.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Sternberg–reed Cell

see Reed–Sternberg cell.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Stomach Cancer

A malignant tumour that arises from the lining of the stomach. The exact cause is unknown, but HELICOBACTER PYLORI infection is thought to be linked to increased incidence. Other likely factors include smoking and alcohol intake; diet may also play a part, in particular eating large amounts of salted or pickled foods. Pernicious anaemia, a partial gastrectomy, and belonging to blood group A also seem to increase the risk. Stomach cancer rarely affects people under 40 and is more common in men.

There may also be other symptoms indistinguishable from those of peptic ulcer.

Diagnosis is usually made by gastroscopy or by a barium X-ray examination.

The only effective treatment is total gastrectomy.

In advanced cases in which the tumour has spread, radiotherapy and anticancer drugs may prolong life.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Suppressor T Cell

a type of T *lymphocyte that prevents an immune response by B cells or other T cells to an antigen.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

T Cell

n. see lymphocyte; cytotoxic T cell; helper T cell; regulatory T cell; suppressor T cell.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

T-cell

A specialised white cell (lymphocyte) responsible for cell-mediated immunity. See also T-lymphocyte.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

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Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

T-cell Lymphoma

See LYMPHOMA.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

T-helper Cells

A type of lymphocyte which assists the B-Lymphocytes in producing antibodies.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

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Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

T-lymphocytes (or T-cells)

White blood cells that have matured in the thymus gland. There are at least two kinds of T-lymphocytes - helpers and suppressors. In AIDS, the number of helper cells is decreased.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

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Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

T-suppressor Cells

A type of T-lymphocyte that stops antibody production when the invading antigen has been inactivated.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

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Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

Target Cell

1. a cell that is the focus of attack by antibodies, cytotoxic T cells, or natural killer cells or is the object of the action of a specific hormone. 2. (in haematology) an abnormal form of red blood cell (*erythrocyte) in which the cell assumes the ringed appearance of a ‘target’ in stained blood films. Target cells are a feature of several types of anaemia, including those due to iron deficiency, liver disease, and abnormalities in haemoglobin structure.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Target Cell

Abnormal ERYTHROCYTES which are large and ‘?oppy’ and have a ringed appearance, similar to that of a target, when stained and viewed under the microscope. This change from normal may occur with iron-de?ciency ANAEMIA, liver disease, a small SPLEEN, haemoglobinopathies (disorders of HAEMOGLOBIN), and THALASSAEMIA.

A target cell is also a cell that is the focus of attack by macrophages (killer cells – see MACROPHAGE) or ANTIBODIES; it may also be the site of action of a speci?c hormone (see HORMONES).... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Tea For Cellulite

Cellulite is a painless affection which consists of the fat layer growth. This is not very unusual and many women around the world suffer from it. Generally, cellulite is your body’s way of protecting your organism when you’re pregnant. On the other hand, you can develop cellulite from having a very unbalanced diet: unhealthy foods and drinks (sodas and fast food). Also, the lack of workout and exercise will slow your calories from burning, making them stick mostly to your hips and thighs. How Tea for Cellulite Works A Tea for Cellulite’s main purpose is to make your blood veins work properly and eliminate the lipids surplus. Also, their action implies veins dilatation and increased blood pressure so that your entire body will work to get rid of the unwanted fats. What you need to know about cellulite is that this is not regular fat and, at times, even thin women have it. Keeping a diet will not make it go away so don’t starve yourself to death! Efficient Tea for Cellulite When choosing a Tea for Cellulite, you must keep in mind a couple of facts: it must be very efficient and safe. Since having a cellulite will not hurt more than your feelings, alternative medicine practitioners advice against all pills that promise to work miracles on your body and recommend, instead, an herbal treatment. If you don’t know which teas to choose from, here’s a list to guide you on: - Horse Chestnut Tea – it has anti inflammatory properties. Its main active constituent, Aescin, improves your blood flow by decreasing the pore size of your capillary walls. This will make your skin look a lot smoother and reduce the cellulite level. - Ginkgo Biloba Tea – is a great vasodilator whose main goal is to improve circulation. This Tea for Cellulite will also stop cholesterol level from enhancing and it can be used to treat memory loss, stress, anxiety, headaches and anemia. However, don’t drink more than 3 cups per day or you’ll get diarrhea. - Green Tea – has blood thinning properties, so you must avoid it at all costs in case you’re already on regular blood thinners. A cup of Green Tea per day will also improve your general health and bring relief in case you’re suffering from infertility, anemia, headaches or stress. However, don’t take it if you’re on menopause or menstruation in order to avoid stomach irritations and uterine contractions. - Dandelion Tea – will enhance your liver’s ability to process lipids faster and energize your entire body. However, this Tea for Cellulite is also a strong diuretic and purgative so you may want to avoid it if you suffer from diarrhea or upset stomach. Also, too much dandelion tea might cause urinary tract infections. Tea for Cellulite Side Effects When taken properly, these teas are generally safe. However, exceeding the number of cups recommended per day may weaken your digestive and nervous systems and lead to vomiting, nausea, headaches and even hallucinations. Before starting a treatment based on a Tea for Cellulite, talk to your doctor in order to find out which are the risks. Don’t take any of these teas if you’re pregnant, breastfeeding, on blood thinners, anticoagulants or preparing for a surgery. Children shouldn’t be allowed to take an herbal treatment since there is no study to prove how safe it is for them. But if you have the green light from your doctor and nothing could interfere with your Tea for Cellulite cure, choose a tea that fits best your needs and enjoy its health benefits!... Beneficial Teas

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Beneficial Teas

Testis, Cancer Of

A rare, cancerous tumour of the testis. Testicular cancer is most common in young to middle-aged men, and the risk increases in individuals with a history of undescended testis (see testis, undescended). The most common types of testicular cancer are seminomas, which are made up of only 1 type of cell, and teratomas. The cancer usually appears as a firm, painless swelling of 1 testis. There may also be pain and inflammation. Biopsy, followed by orchidectomy, is the usual treatment, and may be combined with chemotherapy. The tumours usually respond well to treatment.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Throat Cancer

See pharynx, cancer of; larynx, cancer of.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Thyroid Cancer

any malignant tumour of the thyroid gland, of which there are four main types: papillary, follicular, medullary, and anaplastic. These have characteristic presentations and degrees of malignancy, ranging from the papillary tumours, which tend to be relatively low-grade and in some cases can be treated by surgery and thyroxine suppression, to highly aggressive anaplastic tumours, which tend to present with locally advanced disease that is inoperable and unresponsive to radiotherapy or chemotherapy. See also Hürthle cell tumour.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Thyroid Cancer

Rare tumours of the thyroid gland.

In most cases the cause is unknown, although exposure to radioactive fallout increases the risk of developing the condition.

There are several types, depending on the type of cells involved.

In all of them, however, the first sign is a firm nodule in the neck, which may grow slowly or rapidly.

In many cases, the cancer is painless and symptoms such as difficulty swallowing, and hoarseness or loss of voice, only develop when the tumour presses on other structures.

A diagnosis is made by thyroid scanning and needle aspiration or a biopsy.

A thyroidectomy is usually followed by treatment with radioactive iodine to destroy any residual cancer.

Cure rates depend on the cell type and on the size and spread of the tumour when diagnosed.

Patients need to take thyroxine for the rest of their lives.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Thyroid Cancer

A rare disease that accounts for around 1 per cent of all cancers, cancer of the THYROID GLAND usually presents as an isolated hard nodule in the neck. The rate at which the nodule grows depends upon the patient’s age and type of cancer cell. Pain is not usually a feature, but the increasing size may result in the tumour pressing on vital structures in the neck – for example, the nerves controlling the LARYNX (resulting in hoarseness) and the PHARYNX (causing di?culty in swallowing). If more than one nodule is present, they are likely to be benign, not malignant. Treatment is by surgical removal after which the patient will need to take THYROXINE for the rest of his or her life. Radioactive iodine is usually given after surgery to destroy any residual cancerous cells. If treated early, the outlook is good.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Tongue Cancer

The most serious type of mouth cancer due to its rapid spread. It mainly affects people over 40 and is associated with smoking, heavy alcohol consumption, and poor oral hygiene. The edge of the tongue is most commonly affected. The first sign may be a small ulcer with a raised margin, a leukoplakia, a fissure, or a raised, hard mass.

Diagnosis of tongue cancer is made by a biopsy. Small tumours, especially those occurring at the tip of the tongue, are usually removed surgically. Larger tumours or those that have spread often require radiotherapy.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Transitional Cell Carcinoma

a form of cancer that affects the urothelium, which lines the urinary collecting system of the kidney, ureters, bladder, and the proximal part of the urethra. It is the most common type of bladder cancer.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Treg Cell

see regulatory T cell.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Umbilical Cord Blood Banked Stem Cells

haemopoietic *stem cells collected from umbilical cord blood donated at birth, which can be stored indefinitely and used if a sibling or any other blood-compatible baby develops an illness (such as leukaemia) that could only be treated by cord-blood stem-cell transplantation. This facility is now available in the UK and the USA.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Unicellular

adj. describing organisms or tissues that consist of a single cell. Unicellular organisms include the protozoans, most bacteria, and some fungi.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Uterus, Cancer Of

A malignant growth in the tissues of the uterus. Cancer of the uterus mainly affects the cervix (see cervix, cancer of) and endometrium. In rare cases, the uterine muscle is affected by a type of cancer called a leiomyosarcoma. The term uterine cancer usually refers to cancer of the endometrium.

Risk factors for endometrial cancer include anything that may raise oestrogen levels in the body, such as obesity, a history of failure to ovulate, or taking oestrogen hormones long term if these are not balanced with progestogen drugs. It is also more common in women who have had few or no children.

Before the menopause, the first symptom of cancer of the uterus may be menorrhagia or bleeding between periods or after sexual intercourse; after the menopause, it is usually a bloodstained vaginal discharge. Diagnosis is made by hysteroscopy or biopsy.

Very early endometrial cancer is usually treated by hysterectomy and removal of the fallopian tubes and ovaries.

If the cancer has spread, radiotherapy and anticancer drug treatment may also be used.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Varicella

n. see chickenpox.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Varicella

Another name for chickenpox.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Varicella

Another name for CHICKENPOX.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Varicella–zoster

The virus that causes chickenpox and shingles.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Verrucous Carcinoma

an *indolent preinvasive wartlike carcinoma typically of the oral cavity, associated with chewing tobacco, and vulva.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Vulva, Cancer Of

A rare disorder that most commonly affects postmenopausal women. Cancer of the vulva may be preceded by vulval itching, but in many cases the first symptom is a lump or painful ulcer on the vulva.A diagnosis of vulval cancer is made by biopsy.

Treatment is by surgical removal of the affected area.

The outlook depends on how soon the cancer is diagnosed and treated.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Vulval Cancer

a relatively rare gynaecological cancer, most common in the elderly. The most common symptom is longstanding itch, but vulval pain, discharge, and bleeding have also been reported. Surgery is the primary treatment, with wide excision by radical *vulvectomy and regional *lymphadenectomy. Radiotherapy and chemotherapy can also be used.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

White Blood Cell

See LEUCOCYTES.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

White Blood Cell

see leucocyte.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary