Cancer – squamous cell carcinoma Health Dictionary

Cancer – Squamous Cell Carcinoma: From 1 Different Sources

Given three months to live, Jason Winters, terminal cancer patient, was suffering from infiltrating squamous cell carcinoma wrapped round his carotid artery. Refusing major surgery, he travelled the world in search of native remedies. He was able to contact people who put him on the track of Wild Violet leaves, Red Clover flowers (Trifolium pratense) and leaves of the Chaparral bush (Larrea divaricata). The story of how he infused them, together with a well- known spice, is dramatically recorded in his book “Killing Cancer”. After a spectacular recovery, remission has lasted for over 15 years and others have benefited from his experience.

Treatment by oncologist. 

Health Source: Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine
Author: Health Encyclopedia


Malignant neoplasm. Uncontrolled cell growth with local invasion and/or distant spread.... cancer


A malignant epithelial tumour eventually becoming fatal... carcinoma

Basal Cell Carcinoma

A generally slow growing malignant epithelial tumour, which has potential to invade and metastasise, especially if untreated.... basal cell carcinoma

Carcinoma In Situ

The ?rst stage of CARCINOMA in which the malignant tumour is present only in the EPITHELIUM, and when surgical excision of the local growth, with its pathological status con?rmed in the laboratory, should ensure a cure.... carcinoma in situ


The spread of cancer cells from their original site of growth to other tissues in the body. Such a spread of cancer, which takes place mainly via blood and lymph vessels, is usually fatal. CHEMOTHERAPY and RADIOTHERAPY may, however, check the spread or sometimes destroy the cancerous growth.... carcinomatosis


The smallest unit of living material that can function independently.... cell

Germ Cell

Those embryonic cells with the potential to develop into ova (see OVUM) or spermatozoa (see SPERMATOZOON).... germ cell

Renal Cell Carcinoma

See HYPERNEPHROMA.... renal cell carcinoma

Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Malignant tumour of squamous epithelium of skin, which generally spreads and metastasises.... squamous cell carcinoma

Stem Cell

Stem CELLS develop a few days after an egg (ovum) is fertilised by a spermatozoon and starts developing to form an EMBRYO. These master cells are crucial to the development of a normal embryo. They contain a specialised ENZYME that gives them the facility to divide inde?nitely, developing into the many di?erent specialised cells that comprise the various tissues in the body – for example, skin, blood, muscle, glands or nerves.

In a highly signi?cant advance in research, a scienti?c team in the United States obtained stem cells from newly formed human embryos

– donated by women who had become pregnant after successful in vitro fertilisation – and successfully cultivated these cells in the laboratory. This achievement opened the way to replicating in the laboratory, the various specialised cells that develop naturally in the body. UK government legislation constrains the use of human embryos in research (see ETHICS) and the ethical aspects of taking this stem-cell culture technique forwards will have to be resolved. Nevertheless, this discovery points the biological way to the use of genetic engineering in selecting di?erentiated specialised cells from which replacement tissues could be grown for use as transplants to rectify absent or damaged tissues in the human body.

Research into potential use of stem cells has raised expectations that in the long term they may prove to be an e?ective regenerative treatment for a wide range of disorders including PARKINSONISM, ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE, type-2 diabetes (see under DIABETES MELLITUS), myocardial infarction (see HEART, DISEASES OF), severe burns, osteoporosis (see under BONE, DISORDERS OF) and the regeneration of blood to replace the need for BONE MARROW TRANSPLANT. Recent research has shown that adult stem cells may also be stimulated to produce new cell lines. If successful, this would eliminate the need to use embryos and thus resolve existing ethical dilemmas over the use of stem cells.... stem cell

Thyroid Cancer

A rare disease that accounts for around 1 per cent of all cancers, cancer of the THYROID GLAND usually presents as an isolated hard nodule in the neck. The rate at which the nodule grows depends upon the patient’s age and type of cancer cell. Pain is not usually a feature, but the increasing size may result in the tumour pressing on vital structures in the neck – for example, the nerves controlling the LARYNX (resulting in hoarseness) and the PHARYNX (causing di?culty in swallowing). If more than one nodule is present, they are likely to be benign, not malignant. Treatment is by surgical removal after which the patient will need to take THYROXINE for the rest of his or her life. Radioactive iodine is usually given after surgery to destroy any residual cancerous cells. If treated early, the outlook is good.... thyroid cancer

Giant Cell Arteritis

See: ARTERITIS. ... giant cell arteritis

Goblet Cell

A columnar secretory cell occurring in the EPITHELIUM of the respiratory and intestinal tracts.

The cells produce the main constituents of MUCUS.... goblet cell

Haemopoietic Stem Cell

This is the basic cell from which all types of blood cells originate. Its appearance is believed to be similar to that of a LYMPHOCYTE.... haemopoietic stem cell

Nerve Cell

See NEURON(E).... nerve cell

Oat Cell

A type of cell found in one highly malignant form of lung cancer. The cell is small and either oval or round. The nucleus stains darkly and the cytoplasm is sparse and di?cult to identify. Oat-cell, or small-cell, carcinoma of the bronchus is usually caused by smoking, and comprises around 30 per cent of all bronchial cancers. It responds to radiotherapy and chemotherapy but, because the growth has usually spread widely by the time it is diagnosed, the prognosis is poor. Results of surgery are unsatisfactory.... oat cell

Cervical Cancer

Cancer of the cervix – the neck of the womb – is one of the most common cancers affecting women throughout the world. In some areas its incidence is increasing. This cancer has clearly identi?able precancerous stages with abnormal changes occurring in the cells on the surface of the cervix: these changes can be detected by a CERVICAL SMEAR test. Early cancer can be cured by diathermy, laser treatment, electrocoagulation or cryosurgery. If the disease has spread into the body of the cervix or beyond, more extensive surgery and possibly radiotherapy may be needed. The cure rate is 95 per cent if treated in the early stages but may fall as low as 10 per cent in some severe cases. Around 3,000 patients are diagnosed as having cervical cancer every year in the United Kingdom, and around 1,500 die from it. Latest ?gures in England show that the incidence rates have fallen to under 11 per 100,000 women, while death rates fell by more than 40 per cent during the 1990s. The sexual behaviour of a woman and her male partners in?uences the chances of getting this cancer; the earlier a woman has sexual intercourse, and the more partners she has, the greater is the risk of developing the disease.... cervical cancer

Packed Cell Volume

That fraction of the blood’s total volume made up of red cells. The packed cell volume is found by centrifuging blood in a tube and measuring the depth of the column of red cells as a fraction of the whole column of blood. (See also HAEMATOCRIT.)... packed cell volume

Red Blood Cell

See ERYTHROCYTES; BLOOD.... red blood cell

Small-cell Carcinoma

See OAT CELL.... small-cell carcinoma


A specialised white cell (lymphocyte) responsible for cell-mediated immunity. See also T-lymphocyte.... t-cell

Target Cell

Abnormal ERYTHROCYTES which are large and ‘?oppy’ and have a ringed appearance, similar to that of a target, when stained and viewed under the microscope. This change from normal may occur with iron-de?ciency ANAEMIA, liver disease, a small SPLEEN, haemoglobinopathies (disorders of HAEMOGLOBIN), and THALASSAEMIA.

A target cell is also a cell that is the focus of attack by macrophages (killer cells – see MACROPHAGE) or ANTIBODIES; it may also be the site of action of a speci?c hormone (see HORMONES).... target cell

White Blood Cell

See LEUCOCYTES.... white blood cell


See lymphocyte.... b-cell

Cell Division

The processes by which cells multiply. Mitosis is the most common form of cell division, giving rise todaughter cells identical to the parent cells.

Meiosis produces egg (see ovum) and sperm cells that differ from their parent cells in that they have only half the normal number of chromosomes.... cell division

Endometrial Cancer

See uterus, cancer of.... endometrial cancer

Germ Cell Tumour

A growth comprised of immature sperm cells in the male testis or of immature ova in the female ovary. A seminoma is one type of germ cell tumour (see testis, cancer of).... germ cell tumour

Mast Cell

A type of cell that plays an important part in allergy.

In an allergic response, mast cells release histamine.... mast cell

Breast Cancer

A cancerous tumour of the breast. The incidence is raised in women whose menstrual periods began at an early age and whose menopause was late; in those who had no children or had their first child later in life; in those with mothers or sisters who had breast cancer; and in those who are obese. The disease is also more common in countries in which the typical diet contains a lot of fat. One form of breast cancer has a genetic component; 2 genes called BRAC1 and BRAC2 have been identified and appear to be involved in this type of breast cancer.

The first sign of breast cancer may be a painless lump. Other symptoms may include a dark discharge from the nipple, retraction (indentation) of the nipple, and an area of dimpled, creased skin over the lump. In 90 per cent of the cases, only 1 breast is affected. The cancer may be suspected after discovering a lump during breast self-examination or mammography. If a lump is detected, cells will be collected from it by needle aspiration or surgical biopsy. If the lump is cancerous, the treatment given depends on the woman’s age, the size of the tumour, whether or not there are signs of spread to the lymph nodes, and the sensitivity of the tumour cells to hormones, as assessed in the laboratory. A small tumour, with no evidence of having spread outside the breast, is removed surgically. Lymph nodes in the armpit are also commonly removed at the same time. Surgery may be combined with radiotherapy and/or anticancer drugs.

Secondary tumours in other parts of the body are treated with anticancer drugs and hormones. Regular check-ups are required to detect recurrence or the development of a new cancer in the other breast. If the cancer recurs, it can be controlled, in some cases, for years by drugs and/or radiotherapy.... breast cancer

B-lymphocyte (or B-cell)

A type of white blood cell that circulates through the body and is able to detect the presence of the foreign agents. Once exposed to an antigen on the agent, these cells differentiate into plasma cells to produce antibody.... b-lymphocyte (or b-cell)

Barley Tea May Fight Cancer

Barley tea is widely consumed due to its medicinal properties. It fights effectively against several types of cancer, due to its high content of antioxidants. Barley Tea description Barley is a self-pollinating annual plant, member of the grass family. It grows to a height of 1 to 4 feet, being able to withstand various growing conditions. It is found in grasslands, woodlands, disturbed habitats, roadsides and orchards. The grass of barley is acknowledged to be a source of fiber, vitamins, minerals, and amino acids and it also has a high content of antioxidants. In traditional Chinese medicine, Barley grass has been prescribed to fight diseases of the spleen or poor digestion. It has also been effectively used to treat depression or emotional imbalance. Barley tea is the resulting beverage from brewing the abovementioned plant. This is a very common and appreciated drink in many parts of Asia including Japan, China, Malaysia and Singapore. Barley tea is popular in Japanese and Korean cuisine: the barley grass is often roasted and then stewed in hot water. It is also intaken as a caffeine-free coffee substitute in American cuisine. It is traditionally used for detoxification, to improve digestion and for urinary tract infections. Barley Tea brewing Barley tea is available in loose grains, tea bags or already prepared tea drinks. It is usually made by briefly simmering roasted barley grains. The resulting beverage has a toasty taste, with slight bitter undertones. Barley tea is best consumed hot, though some report that room temperature and even cold barley water is still effective. Barley Tea benefits Studies conducted so far showed that Barley tea is effective in treating:
  • certain forms of cancer
  • digestion
  • prostate
  • sleep disorder
Barley tea is believed to help relieving early symptoms of colds, acting as a daily nutritional supplement and successfully cleansing the body of toxins. This tea may help improve blood sugar levels and also reduce bad cholesterol levels. Barley Tea side effects Barley tea is not recommended for nursing and pregnant women because it may stop lactation. Barley tea is a healthy alternative to caffeine drinks and people choose it daily to replace the first mentioned beverage.... barley tea may fight cancer

Carcinoma Simplex

Poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma.... carcinoma simplex

Cell Salvage Transfusion

See TRANSFUSION.... cell salvage transfusion

Cell-mediated Immunity

A defence mechanism involving the coordinated activity of two subpopulations of TLymphocytes, helper T-Cells and killer T-Cells. Helper T-Cells produce a variety of substances that stimulate and regulate other participants in the immune response. Killer T-Lymphocytes destroy cells in the body that bear foreign antigens (e.g. cells that are infected with viruses or other microorganisms).... cell-mediated immunity

Epidermoid Carcinoma

Squamous cell carcin oma; cancer of squamous epithelium.... epidermoid carcinoma

Chaga Tea Has Anti-cancer Properties

Chaga tea is a medicinal beverage with anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties. It is also an adjuvant in the liver treatment. Chaga Tea description Chaga is an irregularly-shaped polypore fungus (a mushroom), mainly found on the wounds of birch trees, on elm trees, alder trees and ironwood trees. This mushroom has a brown color, its veins being white or cream. It is acknowledged to hold less water than other types of mushrooms. In North Europe and Russia, the chaga mushroom has been used for a long period of time as a popular medicine remedy. Scientists have demonstrated that chaga has anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, antiviral and immune-stimulating actions. It could also be used to relieve pain. Changa tea is the resulting beverage from brewing the abovementioned mushroom. Chaga Tea brewing Chaga tea is prepared in the following way:
  • shred the Chaga mushrooms
  • soften the pieces in cold water for about five hours
  • get the softened mushrooms out
  • save the liquid
  • add heated water to the softened mushrooms
  • let the mixture stand for about 2 days
  • mix the resultant Chaga tea with the saved liquid from the softening process
  • drink it slowly
Chaga tea may be consumed three times a day. Chaga Tea benefits Chaga tea has been successfully used to:
  • boost and strengthen the immune system
  • help in the treatment of various stomach diseases
  • help in expelling intestinal worms
  • help in the treatment of liver problems
  • help in the treatment of certain heart ailments, including hypertension
  • help in fighting tumors and lowering the risk of certain cancers (like breast, liver, uterus and stomach cancers)
  • help in the treatment of diabetes
  • act against HIV
  • treat inflammations
Chaga Tea side effects Before drinking Chaga tea, consult a health care provider. Chaga tea is a natural beverage used as a treatment for diabetes, several heart ailments as well as for inflammations.... chaga tea has anti-cancer properties

Perioperative Cell Salvage

A method of autologous blood TRANSFUSION – using a patient’s own blood, salvaged during a surgical operation – instead of conventional blood-bank transfusion.... perioperative cell salvage

Peripheral-blood Stem-cell Transplants

These have almost completely replaced BONE MARROW TRANSPLANT, used to treat malignancies such as LEUKAEMIA and LYMPHOMA for the past 20 years. The high doses of CHEMOTHERAPY or RADIOTHERAPY used to treat these diseases destroy the bone marrow which contains stem cells from which all the blood cells derive. In 1989 stem cells were found in the blood during recovery from chemotherapy. By giving growth factors (cytokines), the number of stem cells in the blood increased for about three to four days. In a peripheral-blood stem-cell transplant, these cells can be separated from the peripheral blood, without a general anaesthetic. The cells taken by either method are then frozen and returned intravenously after the chemotherapy or radiotherapy is completed. Once transplanted, the stem cells usually take less than three weeks to repopulate the blood, compared to a month or more for a bone marrow transplant. This means that there is less risk of infection or bleeding during the recovery from the transplant. The whole procedure has a mortality risk of less than 5 per cent – half the risk of a bone marrow transplant.... peripheral-blood stem-cell transplants

Primary Cancer

An original cancer still at the site at which it started to grow.... primary cancer

Schwann Cell

The cells that produce the MYELIN sheath of the AXON of a medullated NERVE. They are wrapped around a segment of the axon, forming concentric layers.... schwann cell

Secondary Cancer

A cancer that originally started somewhere else in the body, but is now growing at another site. A metastasis.... secondary cancer

T-cell Lymphoma

See LYMPHOMA.... t-cell lymphoma

Anaemia: Sickle Cell

A form of anaemia growing into an acute social problem, affecting people of African, Asian, and Mediterranean origin. Thalassaemias are caused by defects of a gene that produces the globin part of haemoglobin. Such defects in the DNA can now be detected in the womb before birth. The name derives from sickle-shaped cells instead of circular red blood cells. Few sufferers survive beyond their 40th year.

Symptoms. Unhealthy pallor, listlessness, sore tongue, dizziness, vague aches and pains, rapid pulse and breathing, tinnitus, palpitation. The skull may be disproportionately large, resistance to infection feeble, chances of survival poor. This form of anaemia is linked with defective colour vision. Impaired liver function. Stunted growth, great pain. Sufferers have a higher risk of infection.

Malaria. Sufferers are less likely to die of malaria because their red cells do not support the growth of malaria parasites very well.

Carriers: Carriers of the sickle-cell gene can now be identified by a simple blood test.

Treatment. No specifics exist but supportive herbal treatment has been known to increase output of red cells and raise haemoglobin levels:– Red Clover flowers, Yellow Dock, Echinacea, Burdock, Wild Indigo, Gentian, Nettles, Birch leaves, Sage, Walnut leaves, Centaury, Gota Kola (Indian Pennywort). Alternatives:– Tea. Mix equal parts: Iceland Moss, Nettles, Red Clover flowers. 2 teaspoons to each cup boiling water; infuse 15 minutes; 1 cup morning and evening.

Decoction. Mix equal parts; Echinacea, Walnut leaves, Balm of Gilead buds; 1 teaspoon to each cup water gently simmered for 20 minutes. Half-1 cup, cold, 3 times daily, before meals.

Tablets/capsules. Sarsaparilla. Ginseng. Iceland Moss. Red Clover. Echinacea. Gentian.

Powders. Formula: Echinacea 1; Fringe Tree half; Ginseng half; White Poplar bark 1. Dose: 500mg (two 00 capsules or one-third teaspoon) thrice daily before meals.

Liquid extracts. Formula. Echinacea 2; Dandelion 1; Oat Husk (avena sativa) 1. Mix. Dose, 1-2 teaspoons before meals, in water or one of the above teas or decoctions.

Tinctures. Same combination. Dose: 2-3 teaspoons.

Dong quai. See entry.

Pollen. Claimed to be of value.

Diet. Dandelion coffee. Molasses. Desiccated liver. Calf liver, fresh. Green leafy vegetables contain chlorophyll, iron and folic acid. Cider vinegar. Dried beans, apricots and shellfish. Dandelion leaves in salads. Milk, eggs, meats, Soya. Carrot juice to increase red cells.

Supplements. Daily. Vitamin B12. Vitamin C, 1g; Folic acid 400mcg, Floradix. Of particular value: Vitamin E 400iu. Zinc.

Note: Those at risk should submit themselves for screening. The disease cannot be cured but can be controlled largely by orthodox measures and sometimes by natural medicine. ... anaemia: sickle cell

Cancer – Bone

May be myeloma (tumour-like over-growth of bone marrow tissue, a giant cell sarcoma, a medullary tumour or secondary deposit from breast, lung, prostate cancer etc. Risk of fracture. Inflammation of the bone – Yarrow. Comfrey. See: MYELOMA, SARCOMA. ... cancer – bone

Cancer – Anal


Of possible value. Condor plant, Figwort, Goldenseal, Echinacea. Wm Boericke MD advised Goldenseal. J.T. Kent MD mentions Poke root.

Powders. Formula. Echinacea 2; Figwort 1; Goldenseal half; Condurango half; Thuja quarter. Pinch Cayenne. Dose: 500mg (two 00 capsules or one-third teaspoon) thrice or more daily, as tolerated. Tinctures. Formula. Echinacea 2; Stone root half; Condurango half; Asafoetida quarter. Few drops Tincture Capsicum. Dose: 30-60 drops thrice or more daily, as tolerated.

Topical. Comfrey ointment made from the fresh plant.

Diet. See: DIET – CANCER.

Treatment by or in liaison with a general medical practitioner. ... cancer – anal

Cancer – Bladder

Neoplasm of bladder. One third of patients are over 70 years. Most cases today arise from exposure to injurious chemicals only partly eliminated from the body, as from food additives, analine dyes, etc. Evidence also links the disease to excessive coffee-drinking, the general consensus being that caffeine blocks the action of a compound named adenosine – one of the building blocks of DNA – involved in cellular energy. In this way it interferes with natural metabolic processes.

Symptoms: Blood in the urine with absence of pain on passing water in early stages. Then, burning frequency, especially at night. Kidneys become involved. Growths range from papilloma to tumour which may ulcerate in later stages.

The lesion is confirmed by cystoscopy (examination of the bladder by insertion of an instrument to illuminate inner surfaces and makes possible a direct view of the affected tissues). Even when the condition is healed this examination is repeatedly necessary to detect recurrence.

Two kinds: (1) papillary epithelioma (2) squamous cell epithelioma.

Tea. Formula. Equal parts: Marshmallow root, Clivers, Horsetail, Shepherd’s purse. 1-2 teaspoons to each cup boiling water; infuse 10-15 minutes. 2 cups or more daily.

Decoction. Barberry bark cold infusion. 1 teaspoon to each cup cold water. Steep over night. 2 cups or more daily.

Tinctures. Formula. Horsetail 1; Clivers 2; Barberry 1. Mix. 1-2 teaspoons (5-10ml) 2 or more times daily. If inflammation is present add Meadowsweet 1.

Dr William Boericke, physician, advised Dandelion to lessen symptoms.

Diet. See: DIET – CANCER.

Supplements. Emphasis on Vitamins A and C. (Vitamin A in epithelial tumours, ‘New Scientist’ (1975) 303)

Treatment offered as a supportive to specific modern hospital techniques. Treatment by or in liaison with a general medical practitioner. ... cancer – bladder

Cancer – Bowel

See: COLORECTAL CANCER. ... cancer – bowel

Cancer - Breast

Commonest form of cancer in women. Overall mortality remains about 50 per cent at five years. Appears to run in families. Strikes hard unmarried women. Married women who have no children. Those who do not nurse their babies, or who are infertile and have no child before thirty. Eight out of ten chest lumps are benign.

Symptoms. A small lump comes to light while washing, a discharge from the nipple, change in nipple size and colour, irregular contour of the breast surface. Though tissue change is likely to be a cyst, speedy diagnosis and treatment are necessary. Some hospital physicians and surgeons are known to view favourably supportive herbal aids, and do not always think in terms of radical mastectomy. Dr Finlay Ellingwood, Chicago physician (1916) cured a case by injection of one dram Echinacea root extract twice a week into the surrounding tissues.

The condition is believed to be due to a number of causes including suppression of ovulation and oestrogen secretion in pregnant and lactating women. A high fat diet is suspected of interference with the production of oestrogen. Some women are constitutionally disposed to the condition which may be triggered by trauma or emotional shock. Increase in incidence in older women has been linked with excessive sugar consumption. “Consumption overwhelms the pancreas which has to ‘push it out’ to all parts of the body (when broken down by the digestive process) whether they need it or not. The vital organs are rationed according to their requirements of nutrients from the diet. What is left over has to ‘go into store elsewhere’. And the breast is forced to take its share and store it. If it gets too much, for too long, it may rebel!” (Stephen Seely, Department of Bacteriology and Virology, Manchester)

“Women who nurse their babies less than one month are at an increased risk for breast cancer. The longer a woman breast-feeds – no matter what her age – the more the risk decreases. (Marion Tompson, co-founder, The La Leche League, in the American Journal of Epidemiology)

Lactation reduces the risk of pre-menopausal breast cancer. (Newcomb P.A. et al New England Journal of Medicine, 330 1994)

There is currently no treatment to cure metastatic breast cancer. In spite of chemotherapy, surgery and radiotherapy survival rate has not diminished. Herbs not only have a palliative effect but, through their action on hormone function offer a positive contribution towards overcoming the condition. Their activity has been widely recorded in medical literature. Unlike cytotoxic drugs, few have been known to cause alopecia, nausea, vomiting or inflammation of the stomach.

Treatment by a general medical practitioner or oncologist.

Special investigations. Low radiation X-ray mammography to confirm diagnosis. Test for detection of oestrogen receptor protein.

Treatment. Surgery may be necessary. Some patients may opt out from strong personal conviction, choosing a rigid self-disciplined approach – the Gentle Way. Every effort is made to build up the body’s natural defences (immune system).

An older generation of herbalists believed tissue change could follow a bruise on the breast, which should not be neglected but immediately painted with Tincture Arnica or Tincture Bellis perennis.

Vincristine, an alkaloid from Vinca rosea (Catharanthus roseus) is used by the medical profession as an anti-neoplastic and anti-mitotic agent to inhibit cell division.

Of possible therapeutic value. Blue Flag root, Burdock root, Chaparral, Clivers, Comfrey root, Echinacea, Figwort, Gotu Kola, Marshmallow root, Mistletoe, Myrrh, Prickly Ash bark, Red Clover, Thuja, Wild Violet, Yellow Dock.

Tea. Equal parts: Red Clover, Clivers, Gotu Kola, Wild Violet. 1 heaped teaspoon to each cup boiling water; infuse 5-15 minutes. 3 or more cups daily.

Decoctions. Echinacea, Blue Flag root, Queen’s Delight, Yellow Dock.

Tablets/capsules. Blue Flag root, Echinacea, Poke root, Mistletoe.

Formula. Echinacea 2; Gotu Kola 1; Poke root 1; Mistletoe 1; Vinca rosea 1. Mix. Dose: Powders: 500mg (two 00 capsules or one-third teaspoon). Liquid extracts: 1 teaspoon. Tinctures: 2 teaspoons. Thrice daily and at bedtime. According to progress of the disease, increase dosage as tolerated.

Maria Treben’s tea. Parts: Marigold (3), Yarrow 1; Nettles 1. Mix. 2 teaspoons to each cup boiling water. 1 cup as many times daily as tolerated.

William Boericke, M.D. recommends Houseleek. E.H. Ruddock M.D. favours Figwort.

Topical. Treatments believed to be of therapeutic value or for use as a soothing application.

(1) Cold poultice: Comfrey root.

(2) Poultice of fresh Marshmallow root pulped in juicer.

(3) Injection of Extract Greater Celandine (Chelidonium), locally, gained a reputation in the Eclectic school.

(4) The action of Blood root (Sanguinaria) is well known as a paint or injection.

(5) Ragwort poultice: 2oz Ragwort boiled in half a pint potato water for 15 minutes. See: POULTICE.

(6) Popular Russian traditional remedy: Badiaga (Spongilla fluviatilis), fresh water sponge gathered in the autumn; dried plant rubbed to a powder. Poultice.

(7) Maria Treben’s Poultice: Carefully washed fresh Plantain leaves, pulped, and applied direct to the lesion.

(8) If lymph glands are affected, apply Plantain poultice to glands.

(9) Dr Brandini’s treatment. Dr Brandini, Florence, used 4 grains Citric Acid (prepared from lemons) in 1oz (30ml) water for ulcerated cancer of the breast considered incurable. “The woman’s torments were so distressing that neither she nor other patients could get any rest. Applying lint soaked in the solution, relief was instantaneous. Repeated, it was successful.”

(10) Circuta leaves. Simmered till soft and mixed with Slippery Elm bark powder as a poultice morning and night.

(11) Decoction. Simmer gently Yellow Dock roots, fine cut or powdered, 1oz to 1 pint, 20 minutes. Saturate lint or suitable material and apply.

(12) Yellow Dock ointment. Half ounce Lobelia seed, half ounce Yellow Dock root powder. Baste into an ointment base. See: OINTMENT BASE.

(13) Infusion, for use as a wash. Equal parts: Horsetail, Red Clover, Raspberry leaves. 1oz to 1 pint boiling water infuse 15 minutes.

(14) Dr Christopher’s Ointment. Half an ounce White Oak, half an ounce Garden Sage, half an ounce Tormentil, half an ounce Horsetail, half an ounce Lemon Balm. Method: Boil gently half an hour in quart water, strain. Reduce to half a pint by simmering. Add half a pound honey. Bring to boil. Skim off scum. Allow cool. Apply: twice daily on sores.

(15) Dr Finlay Ellingwood. Poke root juice. “Fresh juice from the stems, leaves and roots applied directly to diseased tissue. Exercises a selective action; induces liquefaction and promotes removal, sometimes healing the open wound and encouraging scar formation. Masses of such tissue have been known to be destroyed in a few weeks with only a scar, with no other application but the fresh juice. Produces pain at first, but is otherwise harmless.”

(16) Lesion painted with Mandrake resin. (American Podophyllum)

(17) Dust affected parts with Comfrey powder. Mucilage from Comfrey powder or crushed root with the aid of a little milk. See: COMFREY.

(18) Dr Samuel Thomson’s Cancer Plaster. “Take heads of Red Clover and fill a kettle. Boil in water for one hour. Remove and fill kettle with fresh flower heads. Boil as before in the same liquor. Strain and press heads to express all the liquor. Simmer over a low fire till of the consistency of tar. It must not burn. Spread over a piece of suitable material.”

(19) Wipe affected area with cut Houseleek. (Dr Wm Boericke)

(20) Chinese Herbalism. Take 1-2 Liang pulverised liao-ko-wang (Wickstroemia indica), mix with cold boiled water or rice wine for local compress. Also good for mastitis.

(21) Italian women once used an old traditional remedy – Fenugreek tea.

(22) A clinical trial of Vitamin D provided encouraging results. Patients with locally advanced breast cancer were given a highly active Vitamin D analogue cream to rub on their tumours. “It was effective in one third of the tumours,” said Professor Charles Coombes, clinical oncologist, Charing Cross Hospital, London.

Diet. “A diet rich in cereal products (high in dietary fibre) and green leafy vegetables (antioxidants) would appear to offer women some protection against breast cancer due to the relation between fibre and oestrogen metabolism. Meat-free diet. In a study of 75 adolescent girls, vegetarians were found to have higher levels of a hormone that women suffering from breast cancer often lack. (Cancer Research) Supplements. Daily. Chromium. Selenium (600mcg). Zinc chelate (100mg morning and evening). Beta carotene. “Low levels of Selenium and Vitamins A and E are shown in breast cancer cases.” (British Journal of Cancer 49: 321-324, 1984).

Vitamins A and D inhibit virus penetration in healthy cell walls. Multivitamin combinations should not include Vitamin B12, production of which in the body is much increased in cancerous conditions. Vitamins B-complex and C especially required.

Note: A link between sugar consumption and breast cancer has been reported by some authorities who suggest that countries at the top of the mortality table are the highest also in sugar consumption; the operative factor believed to be insulin.

Screening. Breast screening should be annual from the age of forty.

General. Mothers are encouraged to breast-feed children for the protection it offers against mammary malignancy. (Am.J. Obstet. Gyn. 15/9/1984. 150.)

Avoidance of stress situations by singing, playing an instrument. Adopt relaxation techniques, spiritual healing and purposeful meditation to arouse the immune system; intensive visualisation. Avoid the carcinogens: smoking, alcohol.

Information. Breast Cancer Care. Free Help Line. UK Telephone: 0500 245345. ... cancer - breast

Cancer - Bronchial Carcinoma

The most common form of cancer throughout the world. Five year survival: 10 per cent. Its association with cigarette smoking is now established beyond doubt. Other causes include such occupational poisons as asbestos, arsenic, chromium, diesel fumes, etc. The squamous cell carcinoma is the most common of the four types.

Diagnosis is confirmed by sputum test, chest X-ray, bronchoscopy or biopsy. Earliest symptoms are persistent cough, pain in the chest, hoarseness of voice and difficulty of breathing. Physical examination is likely to reveal sensitivity and swelling of lymph nodes under arms.

Symptoms. Tiredness, lack of energy, possible pains in bones and over liver area. Clubbing of finger-tips indicate congestion of the lungs. Swelling of arms, neck and face may be obvious. A haematologist may find calcium salts in the blood. The supportive action of alteratives, eliminatives and lymphatic agents often alleviate symptoms where the act of swallowing has not been impaired.

Broncho-dilators (Lobelia, Ephedra, etc) assist breathing. Mullein has some reputation for pain relief. To arrest bleeding from the lesion (Blood root).

According to Dr Madaus, Germany, Rupturewort is specific on lung tissue. To disperse sputum (Elecampane, Red Clover). In advanced cases there may be swollen ankles and kidney breakdown for which Parsley root, Parsley Piert or Buchu may be indicated. Cough (Sundew, Irish Moss). Soft cough with much sputum (Iceland Moss). To increase resistance (Echinacea).

Alternatives. Secondary to primary treatment. Of possible value.

Teas. Violet leaves, Mullein leaves, Yarrow leaves, Gotu Kola leaves, White Horehound leaves. Flavour with a little Liquorice if unpalatable.

Tablets/capsules. Lobelia, Iceland Moss, Echinacea, Poke root.

Formula. Equal parts: Violet, Red Clover, Garden Thyme, Yarrow, Liquorice. Dose: Powders: 750mg (three 00 capsules or half a teaspoon. Liquid Extracts: 1-2 teaspoons. Tinctures: 1-3 teaspoons. Thrice daily, and during the night if relief is sought.

Practitioner. Tinctures BHP (1983). Ephedra 4; Red Clover 4, Yellow Dock 2; Bugleweed 2; Blood root quarter; Liquorice quarter (liquid extract). Mix. Start low: 30-60 drops in water before meals and at bedtime increasing to maximum tolerance level.

Aromatherapy. Oils: Eucalyptus or Thyme on tissue to assist breathing. Inhale.

Diet. See: DIET – CANCER.

Treatment by a general medical practitioner or hospital specialist. ... cancer - bronchial carcinoma

Cancer – Cervical

See: CANCER OF THE WOMB. ... cancer – cervical

Cancer Rectal

See: COLORECTAL CANCER. ... cancer rectal

Cancer – Throat

See: CANCER OF THE NOSE AND THROAT. ... cancer – throat

Cancer – To Neutralise Odour

Dr Desmartis, in a paper to The American Academy of Sciences announced that Logwood, (Haematoxylum campechianum) was an antiseptic of value in cancer. This was discovered by accident. Having under his care several cancer patients presenting ulcerative sores ‘emitting a nauseous odour’, he composed a plaster of equal parts of Extract of Logwood and hog’s lard. To his surprise, on application the fetter immediately disappeared. ... cancer – to neutralise odour


Arises from premalignant adenoma. About one in ten adenomatous polyps develop into a carcinoma. Simple excision of polyps with in situ carcinoma sometimes leads to complete cure.

Symptoms: bleeding, with alteration of bowel habit. Common in diverticular disease where large polyps may be undetected. Early detection by flexible sigmoidoscopy at hospital is essential to accurate diagnosis. Sudden episodes of unexplained diarrhoea and constipation.

The term refers to cancers of the ascending colon, caecum, transverse colon, hepatic flexure, descending colon, splenic flexure, sigmoid colon and rectum. The large bowel tumours are almost wholly adeno-carcinoma.

Common causes: ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease, necrotic changes in polyps. The colon is at risk from cancer on a diet high in protein, fat and alcohol and which is low in fibre. An exception is the average diet in Finland where a high fat intake is present with a low incidence of cancer. Strong evidence advanced, includes the heavy consumption of yoghurt (acidophylus lacto bacillus) by the population.

A study of 8006 Japanese men living in Hawaii revealed the close relationship between cancer of the rectum and alcohol consumption. A family history of pernicious anaemia predisposes.

A 19-year prospective study of middle-aged men employed by a Chicago electric company reveals a strong correlation between colorectal cancer and Vitamin D and calcium deficiency. Results “support the suggestion that Vitamin D and calcium may reduce the risk of colorectal cancer”. (Lancet, 1985, Feb 9, i, 307)

Patients with ulcerative colitis of more than 10 years standing carry the increased risk of developing colorectal cancer. There is evidence that malignancy in the bowel may be reduced by saponins. Alternatives of possible value. Inoperable lesions may respond to: Bayberry, Goldenseal, Echinacea, Wild Yam, Stone root, Black root, Mistletoe, Clivers, Marshmallow root, Violet leaves, Chickweed, Red Clover, Thuja.

Tea. Equal parts: Red Clover, Gotu Kola, Violet leaves. 2-3 teaspoons to each cup boiling water; infuse 15 minutes. Freely, as tolerated.

Tablets/capsules. Echinacea, Goldenseal, Wild Yam.

Formula. Echinacea 2; Bayberry 1; Wild Yam 1; Stone root 1; Goldenseal half; Liquorice quarter. Mix. Dose: Powders: 500mg (two 00 capsules or one-third teaspoon). Liquid extracts: 1 teaspoon. Tinctures: 2 teaspoons. Thrice daily and at bedtime.

Mistletoe: Injections of fresh plant (Iscador). (Dr Rudolph Steiner Institute, Switzerland)

Violet leaves: Daily irrigations of strong infusion.

Chickweed: Bathe rectum with strong infusion. Follow with Chickweed ointment.

Chinese Herbalism. (1) Tea – Pan-chih-lien (Scutellaria barbarta), 2 liang. (2) Tea. Feng-wei ts’ao (Pteris multifida) 1 liang, and po-chi (water chestnut) 2 liang. (3) Concoction of suitable amount of ts’ang-erh ts’ao, for bathing affected area. (Barefoot Doctor’s Manual)

Diagnosis. Exploration of proctosigmoidoscope to confirm.

Diet. Special emphasis on yoghurt which is conducive to bowel health; orally and by enema. A vegan uncooked raw food diet has been shown to reduce the body’s production of toxins linked with colon cancer. A switch from conventional Western cooked diet to an uncooked vegan diet reduced harmful enzymes produced by gut bacteria. (Journal of Nutrition)

A substance has been found in fish oil believed to prevent cancer of the colon. Mackerel, herring and sardines are among fish with this ingredient. Bowel cancer and additives. See: CROHN’S DISEASE (Note).

Preventive care. All 55-year-olds with this predisposing condition should be screened by sigmoidoscopy. Regular faecal occult blood tests advised.

Regular exercise helps prevent development of bowel cancer. (Nottingham University researchers) Treatment by general medical practitioner or oncologist. ... cancer-colorectal

Cancer – Facial

In October 1967, after three previous surgically removed growths, an 85-year-old cattleman of Mesa, Arizona, refused treatment on the same fourth-recurrent growth, documented as malignant melanoma, in favour of “Chaparral tea”, an old Indian remedy. Of this tea he drank 2-3 cups a day. In September 1968 he was re-examined by the Medical Centre, Utah, USA. They found the growth had decreased from the size of a large lemon to that of a dime. No other medication was used, only the Chaparral tea. In eleven months he gained a needed 25lb with improvements in general health, as previous to Chaparral treatment he was pale, weak and lethargic. (“Indian Herbology”, Alma Hutchens. Pub: Merco, Ontaria).

The facial lesion finally disappeared. ... cancer – facial

Anus, Cancer Of

A rare cancer of the skin of the anus. Possible early signs are development of swelling or an ulcer at the anus accompanied by bleeding and discomfort. Treatment is by surgical removal and/or radiotherapy.... anus, cancer of

Apud Cell Tumour

A growth composed of cells that produce various hormones. These cells, amine precursor uptake and decarboxylation (APUD) cells, occur in different parts of the body. Some tumours of the thyroid gland, pancreas, and lungs are cell tumours, as are a carcinoid tumour (see carcinoid syndrome) and phaeochromocytoma (a type of adrenal tumour).... apud cell tumour

Bladder Cancer

See bladder tumours.... bladder cancer

Bronchus, Cancer Of

See lung cancer.... bronchus, cancer of

Cancer Screening

Tests to detect early signs of cancer in groups of people who are susceptible to cancer because of their age, occupation, lifestyle, or genetic predisposition. Tests for cancers of the cervix (see cervical smear test), breast (see mammography), bladder, and colon have proven to be effective.... cancer screening

Cancer – Kidney

Cancer of the kidney may appear in the renal pelvis, the area where urine is collected, or as a hypernephroma in the kidney itself. Not common. Symptoms include blood in the urine but with little pain. Herbal anti-neoplastics may enable the body to tolerate and reduce the toxicity of chemotherapy, the following being subordinate to conventional treatment.

Formula. Corn Silk 3; Plantain (Plantago major L) 2; Golden Rod 1; Hydrangea 1; Valerian half. Dosage: thrice daily before meals. Liquid Extracts: 1 teaspoon. Tinctures: 2 teaspoons. Powders: two 00 capsules or one-third teaspoon. This may be used as a basic combination to be adapted to a changing clinical picture.

Treatment by a general medical practitioner or oncologist. ... cancer – kidney

Cancer – Larynx

Chiefly due to continued inflammation from faulty use of the voice, smoking, drugs or infection.

Symptoms. Cough, hoarseness, difficult swallowing. ‘Always clearing the throat.’ Differs from a polyp or papilloma on the vocal chords which are benign.

Of possible value:– Teas. Balm, Chamomile, Gotu Kola, Red Clover, Red Sage, Yarrow. Plantain (Arthur Hyde MNIMH)

Tea (mild analgesic). Mix equal parts: Balm and German Chamomile. 1 heaped teaspoon to each cup boiling water; infuse 5 minutes. 1 cup freely.

Tablets/capsules. Blue Flag root, Echinacea, Poke root.

Formula. Echinacea 2; Mullein 2; Goldenseal quarter. Mix. Dose: Powders: 750mg (three 00 capsules or half a teaspoon). Liquid extracts: 1-2 teaspoons. Tinctures: 1-3 teaspoons. Thrice daily and at bedtime. Diet. Slippery Elm gruel.

Supplements. Vitamins A and C.

Treatment by a general medical practitioner or a hospital oncologist. ... cancer – larynx

Cancer – Liver

A primary lesion in the liver is rare. Usually invasion of carcinoma from the pancreas, gall bladder, stomach or intestines. Enlargement is rapid.

Symptoms. Jaundice. Ascites (excess fluid in the abdomen). Tenderness and enlargement of right upper abdomen; hobnail to the touch.

Alternatives: for possible relief of symptoms:–

Dandelion juice (fresh): 4 drachms (14ml) every 4 hours.

Wormwood tea freely.

Tea. Equal parts: Agrimony, Gotu Kola, Milk Thistle. Mix. 1 heaped teaspoon to each cup boiling water; infuse 5-10 minutes. 1 cup freely.

Decoction. Dandelion 2; Clivers 1; Liquorice 1; Blue Flag root half. Mix. 30g (1oz) to 500ml (1 pint) water gently simmered 20 minutes. Dose: half-1 cup 3 or more times daily.

Tablets/capsules. Blue Flag root, Goldenseal, Prickly Ash.

Formula. Dandelion 2; Milk Thistle 2; Fennel 1; Peppermint 1. Mix. Dose: Powders: 750mg (three 00 capsules or half a teaspoon). Liquid extracts: 1-2 teaspoons. Tinctures: 1-2 teaspoons. 3 or more times daily.

Biostrath artichoke formula.

Practitioner. Dandelion juice (fresh) 4oz; Wahoo bark Liquid extract 10 drops. Violet leaves Liquid extract 10.5ml. Tincture Goldenseal 10 drops. Dose: 2 teaspoons in water thrice daily. To each dose add 10 drops Liquid extract Oats (avena). (W. Burns-Lingard MNIMH)

Vinchristine. Success has been reported following use of the Periwinkle plant (Vinca rosea).

Greater Celandine has been regarded of value.

Chinese Herbalism. See: CANCER: CHINESE PRESCRIPTION. Also: Pulverised t’ien chihuang (Hypericum japonicum) 1 liang, mixed with rock sugar, with boiled water, 3 times daily. Also of value for cirrhosis.

Epsom’s salt Baths (hot): to encourage elimination of impurities through the skin. Diet. Limit fats. Protein diet to increase bile flow.

Treatment by a general medical practitioner or hospital oncologist. CANCER – LYMPH VESSELS. See: HODGKIN’S DISEASE. ... cancer – liver

Cancer – Mouth And Lips


Causes: occupational hazards, contact with toxic metals and minerals.

A Health Department’s committee found an increased risk of developing mouth cancer from “snuff- dipping”, the practice of sucking tobacco from a small sachet, “tobacco teabags”.

Of possible value:– Fresh plant juices, Houseleek, Aloe Vera.

Teas: Chickweed, Mullein, Comfrey. 1 heaped teaspoon to each cup boiling water; infuse 15 minutes; dose – 1 cup thrice daily, increasing to as much as well tolerated.

Condurango Liquid extract. 10-30 drops in water before meals.

Goldenseal Liquid extract. 3-5 drops in water before meals.

George Burford MD. Condurango and Goldenseal.

E.H. Ruddock MD 1925. “Several cases of cancer of the lips have been cured by Goldenseal.”

Topical. Wipe area with Liquid Extract Condurango, Goldenseal, Thuja, Poke root or fresh plant juices of above. Slippery Elm paste: powdered Slippery Elm in few drops milk or water.

Mouthwash. Equal parts: Liquid Extract Goldenseal, Liquid Extract Bayberry, Tincture Myrrh and Glycerine. Some may be swallowed as internal medicine. Comfrey, Mullein or Chickweed cream.

Diet. See: DIET – CANCER.

Treatment by a general medical practitioner or hospital oncologist. ... cancer – mouth and lips

Gallbladder Cancer

A rare cancer of unknown cause that occurs mainly in the elderly. The cancer may cause jaundice and tenderness in the abdomen, but it is sometimes symptomless. It is usually diagnosed by ultrasound scanning.

Treatment is by surgical removal of the tumour, but the cancer has often spread to the liver by the time it is detected, making the outlook poor.... gallbladder cancer

Intestine, Cancer Of

A malignant tumour in the intestine.

Both the small and large intestine may develop carcinoid tumours (leading to carcinoid syndrome) and lymphomas.

Cancer of the small intestine is rare, but cancer of the large intestine is one of the most common of all cancers (see colon, cancer of; rectum, cancer of).... intestine, cancer of

Larynx, Cancer Of

A cancerous tumour of the larynx. The exact causes of this cancer are not known, but smoking and high alcohol consumption may be associated factors. Hoarseness is the main symptom, particularly when the tumour originates on the vocal cords. At an advanced stage, symptoms may include difficulty in breathing and swallowing, and coughing up blood.

If laryngoscopy reveals a tumour on the larynx, a biopsy is carried out.

If the tumour is small, radiotherapy or laser treatment may be used.

For unresponsive and large tumours, partial or total laryngectomy may be considered.... larynx, cancer of

Cancer – Nose And Throat

Usually epithelioma with burning. Lesion may extend upwards into the base of the skull. Thickening of nasal membranes may cause deafness by compressing Eustachian tubes.

Anyone over 40 who has recurrent sore throat for more than six weeks should visit his family doctor. Symptoms. Pain, headache, paralysis of eye muscles.

Of possible value. Alternatives:– Teas. Violet leaves, Red Clover flowers, Plantain. 1-2 teaspoons to each cup boiling water; infuse 5-15 minutes. Drink freely.

Decoction. Combination. Goldenseal 1; Poke root 1; Yellow Dock 3; Marshmallow root 3. Place half an ounce (15g) in 1 pint (500ml) water simmered gently 20 minutes. Half a cup or more, as freely as tolerated.

Formula. Echinacea 2; Goldenseal 1; Poke root half; Thuja quarter; Liquorice half. Mix. Dose: Powders: 500mg (two 00 capsules or one-third teaspoon). Liquid extracts: 1 teaspoon. Tinctures: 2 teaspoons. Three or more times daily as tolerated.

Case of Lady Margaret Marsham, Maidstone. Cured of cancer of the throat by Violet leaf tea. Boiling water was poured on fresh Violet leaves (wild, not cultivated) and allowed to stand 12 hours. Compresses were moistened and applied externally to the throat and covered with oil silk. Relief was immediate. Difficult swallowing, sense of suffocation and the visible swelling disappeared within one week, the growth on the tonsil within a fortnight.

Treatment by a general medical practitioner or hospital oncologist. Diet. See: DIET – CANCER. ... cancer – nose and throat

Cancer – Oesophagus

Usually epithelial in character, similar to that of the lips. Mostly in males.

Seldom before 45 years. Frequently in lower one-third of gullet. Dysphagia, with sense of obstruction on swallowing food. May perforate wall of trachea. Pain, worse at night, radiates from an exact spot. Eating hot food and drinking piping hot tea are heavily suspect.

At risk. Heavy smokers and alcoholics with depleted reserves of Vitamin A and zinc. These two factors play an important role in modern treatment.

Occurs in areas where the soil is low in molybdenum which causes plants to have a high level of nitrates. When such plants are stored they form nitrites which in turn form nitrosamines – which are carcinogens. Experimental rats given nitrous amines have a strong tendency to form cancer of the oesophagus. Eating pickled vegetables carries a high risk.

There are a few areas of the world where these adverse soil conditions pertain – one in Iran, another in Calvados, but the worst was in Lin Xian of the province of Honan, China. In Lin Xian, in the 1970s, it was found that villagers ate mainly persimmon and corn cakes and pickled vegetables. These, and their water, were high in nitrates. It was also their habit to eat mouldy bread which is high in amines – even nitrosamines. Their food was deficient in Vitamin C, which is likely to produce nitrous amines in the stomach.

The molybdenum problem was solved by sowing seeds with a fertiliser containing molybdenum. Piped water replaced old cistern wells and food was carefully stored. Even the chickens oesophageal cancers were cured. As a result of modern scientific investigation and treatment in which medicinal herbs made an important contribution, what was once a high gullet cancer area was resolved into one of the success stories of modern medicine.

Tannin has long been identified as a cancer-causing chemical, supported by findings of a high incidence of the disease among those who consume large quantities of tannin-containing beverages such as tea. Milk binds with tannin and is advised in tea-drinking where lemon is not taken.

Solid drugs and tablets should not be swallowed in the recumbent position without chewing a piece of banana.

Symptoms. (1) Sensation of obstruction when swallowing food. (2) Sharp pain behind breastbone. (3) “Something stuck in the gullet.” (4) Stomach ache, dry throat. (5) Belching when taking food. (6) Soreness of the upper back. (Dr Ge-ming, Lin Xian, Province of Honan, Chinese People’s Republic)

Of possible value. Alternatives:– Tea. Equal parts: Chaparral, Gotu Kola, Red Clover. 1 heaped teaspoon to each cup boiling water; infuse 15 minutes. Drink freely.

Powders. Combination. Goldenseal 1; Echinacea 2; Slippery Elm 3. Dose: 750mg (three 00 capsules or half a teaspoon). 3 or more times daily.

Tinctures. Combination. Goldenseal 1; Bayberry 1; Thuja 1; Condurango 1; Rosebay Willowherb 2. One teaspoon 3 or more times daily.

Chinese Herbalism. Powdered Huang yao-tzu 3 ch’ien, 3 times daily. Remedy is prepared by taking 12 liang of huang yao-tzu and steeping in 3 chin of white wine 24 hours. Then place huang yao-tzu in cold water and soak for another 7 days and 7 nights. Take out, dry and crush into powder. (A Barefoot Doctor’s Manual)

Diet. Leafy vegetables, carrots, tomatoes and fruit help to protect against the disease. Supplements. Especially Vitamin A, zinc and molybdenum.

Treatment by a general medical practitioner or hospital oncologist. ... cancer – oesophagus

Lip Cancer

A malignant tumour, usually on the lower lip.

Lip cancer is largely confined to older people, particularly those who have been exposed to a lot of sunlight and those who have smoked cigarettes or a pipe for many years.

The first symptom is a white patch that develops on the lip and soon becomes scaly and cracked with a yellow crust.

The affected area grows and eventually becomes ulcerated.

In some cases, the cancer spreads to the lymph nodes in the jaw and neck.

Lip cancer (usually a squamous cell carcinoma) is diagnosed by biopsy.

Treatment is surgical removal, radiotherapy, or a combination of both.... lip cancer

Penis, Cancer Of

A rare type of cancerous tumour that is more common in uncircumcised men with poor personal hygiene. Viral infection and smoking have both been shown to be additional risk factors. The tumour usually starts on the glans or on the foreskin as a painless, wart-like lump or a painful ulcer, and develops into a cauliflowerlike mass. The growth usually spreads slowly, but in some cases it can spread to the lymph nodes in the groin within a few months.

Diagnosis is made by a biopsy.

If the tumour is detected early, radiotherapy is usually successful.

Otherwise, removal of part or all of the penis may be necessary.... penis, cancer of

Skin Cancer

A malignant tumour in the skin. Basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and malignant melanoma are common forms related to long-term exposure to sunlight. Bowen’s disease, a rare disorder that can become cancerous, may also be related to sun exposure. Less common types include Paget’s disease of the nipple and mycosis fungoides. Kaposi’s sarcoma is a type usually found in people with AIDS. Most skin cancers can be cured if treated early.... skin cancer

Cancer – Ovaries

Ovarian carcinoma. The fifth most common cause of death in women. Often together with bowel and breast cancers. Adeno-carcinoma. Prognosis poor because of delay in seeking medical advise.

Symptoms. Failing appetite, weight loss, flatulence, bowel symptoms, bladder disturbance, abdominal pain, clothes tight around the abdomen. The disease usually presents after the age of 45, users of contraceptives having a lower risk of development.

Risk of ovarian cancer has been related to women who consume too much animal fat and too little vegetable fat (JAM Nov. 1984). A similar risk is recorded in a report from Milan providing strong evidence of its relation to excessive coffee consumption.

Researchers at John Hopkin’s University, Baltimore, USA, report success with Taxol, extracted from the bark of the Pacific Yew Tree, given intravenously to 40 women with ovarian cancer resistant to other therapies, caused a 50 per cent decrease in size of the tumours. (New Scientist 1989, 1687, p37) Treatment. Should it be necessary to defer surgery or cytotoxic chemotherapy, any of the following alternatives may be taken with profit, or prescribed as secondary to primary treatment.

Tea. Equal parts: Agnus Castus, Gotu Kola, Red Clover. 1 heaped teaspoon to each cup boiling water; infuse 5-15 minutes. Drink freely.

Formula. Cramp bark 3; Liquorice 1; Thuja 1; Poke root half. Mix. Dose: Powders: 750mg (three 00 capsules or half a teaspoon). Liquid extracts: 1 teaspoon. Tinctures: 2 teaspoons. Thrice daily.

Vaginal pack. 8 parts Slippery Elm powder mixed with 1 part Thuja powder in a little water to form a paste; saturate tampon and insert.

Dr J. Christopher. For pre- and post-operative pain: Black Willow.

British Herbal Pharmacopoeia. Cramp bark for pain.

Diet. See: DIET – CANCER. Drinks of Violet leaf tea freely.

Supplements. Post-operative treatment should include Comfrey and Calcium to counter the loss of calcium on surgical removal, with possible brittle and broken bones in ageing women.

Note: When a potential lesion is found, a pelvic ultrasound scan may confirm.

Treatment by gynaecologist or oncologist. ... cancer – ovaries

Cancer – Pancreas

Adeno-carcinoma. Cause: often related to chronic pancreatitis, alcoholism. Beer drinkers, more than 7 pints a week, run a three times greater risk of the disease than one in a 100 threat to the rest of the population. (Imperial Cancer Research Report, April, 1989) Diabetes. A study carried out at Harvard School of Public Health found strong evidence in favour of the excessive consumption of coffee. Seventh Day Adventists and Mormons, who abstain from coffee, have much lower rates than the average. Relative risk was 1-8 with up to two cups a day and 2.7 with three or more. (New England Journal of Medicine, 1981, March 12, Vol 304, No 11, p630)

Symptoms. Weight loss. Pain upper abdomen. Change of bowel habit. Phlebitis. Low blood sugar. Sugar in the urine. Jaundice when head of the pancreas is involved. As little benefit is said to be gained from chemotherapy or radiotherapy, and because a majority of these tumours are unresectable, there would appear to be good grounds for herbal medicine, either as primary or supportive treatment.

Of possible therapeutic value for relief of accompanying gastric and pressure symptoms only: Sarsaparilla, Liquorice, Dandelion, Peppermint, Fennel, German Chamomile.

Tea. Barberry bark. 1 teaspoon to each cup of cold water. Steep overnight. Dose: half-1 cup 3 or more times daily.

Formula. Equal parts: Barberry bark, Dandelion, Galangal. Dose: Powders: 500mg (two 00 capsules or one-third teaspoon). Liquid extracts: 1 teaspoon (5ml). Tinctures: 2 teaspoons. Thrice daily to commence: after fourteen days increase as tolerated.

Primrose oil. High doses GLA believed to improve immune system and prevent weight loss.

Macrobiotic diet. A retired English doctor had cancer of the pancreas, inoperable, the size of a cricket ball, for which conventional treatment could do nothing. Regression being almost impossible, he would die within a few months. In the meantime he was advised to try the Macrobiotic diet comprising wholefoods, compost grown vegetables, vegetable oils and natural drinks such as carrot juice and herbal teas. He and his wife, living in Italy, carefully followed the diet, drank water only from a local spring and ate vegetables organically grown on their own land. The tumour diminished in size and the doctor recovered.

Note: Cessation of cigarette smoking will result in a decreased incidence of the disease in the male adult population. (American Journal of Public Health 1989 79 1016)

A substance found in fish oil has been shown experimentally to prevent cancer of the pancreas. Mackerel, herring and sardines are among fish with the ingredient.

Treatment by oncologist or general practitioner. ... cancer – pancreas

Testis, Cancer Of

A rare, cancerous tumour of the testis. Testicular cancer is most common in young to middle-aged men, and the risk increases in individuals with a history of undescended testis (see testis, undescended). The most common types of testicular cancer are seminomas, which are made up of only 1 type of cell, and teratomas. The cancer usually appears as a firm, painless swelling of 1 testis. There may also be pain and inflammation. Biopsy, followed by orchidectomy, is the usual treatment, and may be combined with chemotherapy. The tumours usually respond well to treatment.... testis, cancer of

Throat Cancer

See pharynx, cancer of; larynx, cancer of.... throat cancer

Tongue Cancer

The most serious type of mouth cancer due to its rapid spread. It mainly affects people over 40 and is associated with smoking, heavy alcohol consumption, and poor oral hygiene. The edge of the tongue is most commonly affected. The first sign may be a small ulcer with a raised margin, a leukoplakia, a fissure, or a raised, hard mass.

Diagnosis of tongue cancer is made by a biopsy. Small tumours, especially those occurring at the tip of the tongue, are usually removed surgically. Larger tumours or those that have spread often require radiotherapy.... tongue cancer

Vulva, Cancer Of

A rare disorder that most commonly affects postmenopausal women. Cancer of the vulva may be preceded by vulval itching, but in many cases the first symptom is a lump or painful ulcer on the vulva.A diagnosis of vulval cancer is made by biopsy.

Treatment is by surgical removal of the affected area.

The outlook depends on how soon the cancer is diagnosed and treated.... vulva, cancer of

Cancer – Prostate Gland

Adeno-carcinoma. A hormone-related tumour in elderly men. Enlargement of the gland may be benign or carcinomatous. Fibrosis (hardening) may arise from inflammation. Obstruction of the outlet of the bladder through swelling of the gland (prostatism) may cause uraemia.

Symptoms. Bladder irritability; increased frequency during the night. Feeble forked stream of urine. Sometimes blood. Three quarters of such tumours are located in the posterior lobe of the prostate gland – readily accessible to the examining finger through the front wall of the rectum. Rectal examination reveals a hard rugged prostate. Cystoscopy confirms. Bone pains in the low back or pelvis reflect a stage where the tumour has already spread. Anaemia, weight loss, urgency.

All symptoms are worse by alcohol and spicy foods.

Harvard University scientists report: heavy consumption of animal fat, especially the fat in red meat appears to increase the chance that a man will develop advanced prostate cancer.

Of therapeutic value. Comfrey, Echinacea, Horsetail, Poke root, Thuja, Cornsilk, Goldenseal.

Tea. Combination. Comfrey leaves, Horsetail, Cornsilk. Equal parts. 2-3 teaspoons to each cup boiling water. Drink freely.

Formula No. 1. Echinacea 2; Comfrey 1; Poke root half; Thuja half. Mix. Dose: Powders: 500mg (two 00 capsules or one-third teaspoon). Liquid extracts: 1 teaspoon. Tinctures: 2 teaspoons. Thrice daily in water or cup of Cornsilk tea.

Formula No. 2. (Alternative) Echinacea 2; Goldenseal 1; Gotu Kola 1; Poke root half. Mix. Dose: Powders: 500mg (two 00 capsules or one-third teaspoon). Liquid extracts: 1 teaspoon. Tinctures: 2 teaspoons in water or cup of Cornsilk tea.

Bee pollen. Of value.

Garlic. Of value.

Diet. See: DIET – CANCER.

There is a very low incidence of prostate cancer in countries where Soya products are widely consumed – Soya contains a female hormone which is a protector factor.

Supplements. Morning and evening.

Vitamin A 7500iu or more. Large doses may be required. Vitamin C 1-2g. Vitamin E 200iu. Calcium 500mg. Selenium 100mcg. Zinc.

Study. Men with prostate cancer may not need to undergo radical prostatectomy (removal of the prostate gland). A 10-year follow-up study of men with early prostate cancer left untreated showed that 10 years later only 8.5 per cent of the 223 patients had died from prostate cancer. The survival rate of 86.8 per cent in the untreated group was nearly identical to a subgroup who met all the conditions for radical prostatectomy. (Journal of American Medical Association, 22/29 April 1992)

Commonly treated with female sex hormone or by orchidectomy.

It would appear that surgical removal of the gland offers little benefit, and possibly a disadvantage to patients wishing to leave well alone, particularly the elderly. Treatment by a general medical practitioner or oncologist. ... cancer – prostate gland

Cancer – Pulmonary

Cancer of the lung.

By the blood and lymph cancer may be transferred (metastasised) to the lymph nodes under the arm, liver, brain or lungs. An association has been shown between a low intake of Vitamin A and lung cancer. Causes: occupational hazards, environmental pollution, radiation, keeping of pet birds. Cigarette smoking is a strong risk factor. Studies show that a high Vitamin A/carotene intake is protective against the disease in men. Among women, evidence of a similar protective effect has not been found. Vitamin C reduces cancer risk. The increased prevalence of smoking among women results in more female lung cancer. All smokers should drink freely carrot juice (Vitamin A).

Symptoms. Chronic irritative cough, difficult breathing, pain in the chest, recurrent spitting of blood, clubbing of fingers, weight loss.

Alternatives. Only transient benefit is obtainable, yet it may be sufficient to achieve a measure of relief from distressing symptoms. See: CANCER: GENERAL REMARKS. Mullein tea has its supporters. Bugleweed strengthens lung tissue and supports the action of the heart. Blood root is known to arrest bleeding (haemoptysis).

Tea. Equal parts: Red Clover, Gota Kola, Mullein. 2 teaspoons to each cup boiling water; infuse 5-15 minutes. 1 cup three or more times daily.

Formula No 1. Equal parts: Elecampane, Violet, Red Clover, Echinacea. Mix. Dose: Powders: 750mg (three 00 capsules or half a teaspoon). Liquid extracts: 1-2 teaspoons. Tinctures: 1-3 teaspoons. Thrice daily and, if necessary, at bedtime for relief.

Formula No 2. Tincture Blood root 10 drops; Liquid extract Dogwood 20 drops; Liquid extract Elecampane 200 drops (14ml); Liquid extract Bugleweed (Lycopus europ) 30 drops. Flavour with Liquorice if necessary. Dose: 1-2 teaspoons in water 3 or more times daily. (W. Burns-Lingard MNIMH)

Where accompanied by active inflammation, anti-inflammatories are indicated: Mistletoe, Wild Yam, etc.

Diet. A substance in fish oil has been shown to experimentally prevent cancer of the lung. Mackerel, herring and sardines are among fish with the ingredient. See: DIET – CANCER.


Treatment by a general medical practitioner or hospital oncologist. ... cancer – pulmonary

Antigen-presenting Cell

(APC) a cell, such as a *dendritic cell or a *macrophage, that processes antigen for presentation to a T lymphocytes (see helper T cell).... antigen-presenting cell

Blood Cell

(blood corpuscle) any of the cells that are present in the blood in health or disease. The cells may be subclassified into three major categories, namely red cells (*erythrocytes); white cells (*leucocytes), which include granulocytes, lymphocytes, and monocytes; and *platelets (see illustration). The blood cells account for approximately 40% of the total volume of the blood in health; red cells comprise the vast majority.... blood cell

Bronchial Carcinoma

cancer of the bronchus, one of the commonest causes of death in smokers. See also lung cancer; small-cell lung cancer.... bronchial carcinoma

Burr Cell

(echinocyte) a red blood cell (erythrocyte) with abnormal small thorny projections. See crenation.... burr cell

Cancer Phobia

a disorder of the phobic type in which minor symptoms are interpreted as signs of cancer and panic attacks may occur. As with any other phobic disorder, cancer phobia cannot be treated by appeals to reason. Some success has been achieved by various forms of *behaviour therapy and *SSRIs.... cancer phobia

Cancer – Sarcoma

Cancer appearing in bone, muscle, connective tissue or cartilage. Malignant tissue which differs from carcinoma. Pain is intermittent, often relieved by exercise. The following is an example.

“I saw a man suffering from sarcomatous tumour infiltrating the body tissue of the upper jaw, extending to the nose. We recommended an operation. Dr O’Sullivan, Professor of Pathology, Trinity College, declared the growth to be a round-celled sarcoma. Of that there was no doubt. A month after excision the growth returned with increased vigour, bulging through the incision and protruding upon the face. The new tumour, almost closing the right eye, was blue, tense, firm and tabulated, but it did not break.

“Early in October the patient walked into my study. He looked better in health than I have ever seen him. The tumour had completely disappeared from the face and I could not identify any trace of it in the mouth. He said he had no pain of any kind. He has since gone home apparently well.

“He told me he had applied poultices of Comfrey root, and that the swelling had gradually disappeared. Now this was a case of which none of us had any doubt at all. Our first view was confirmed by the distinguished pathologist mentioned and by my own observation at the time of the major operation.” (Dr Wm Thompson, President, Royal College of Surgeons, Eire, in his address in Dublin).

Vinchristine. An alkaloid of the Vinca plant.

Internal Treatment. See: CANCER – NOSE AND THROAT. Diet. See: DIET – CANCER.

Treatment by a general medical practitioner or hospital oncologist. ... cancer – sarcoma

Cancer – Skin

There is strong evidence that sunlight plays a major role in the development of human skin cancers. Skin malignancy usually takes the form of Basal Cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and melanoma that may develop from pre-existing naevi.

Basal Cell Cancer. Strong sunlight on fair skins. Common on face and hands and other exposed areas. Commences as a tiny hard nodule. See – RODENT ULCER.

Squamous Cell Cancer. The role of sunlight in this type of cancer is even more positive. Other causes: photosensitisers such as pitch and PUVA photochemotherapy. Commences as a raised scaly rapidly- growing nodule.

Malignant Melanoma. Rare, but incidence rising. Four different kinds. Incidence is increased in individuals with fair or red hair who tend to burn rather than tan in the sun.

Causes may be numerous: genetic, occupational hazards or exposure to low-level radiation. Heavy freckling in youth doubles the risk. (Western Canada Melanoma study)

A study carried out by the New York’s Memorial-Sloan Kettering Cancer Centre refers to damage to the ultra violet-blocking ozone layer by supersonic jet exhaust and aerosol propellants that can also raise the malignant melanoma rate. A University of Sydney study links fluorescent lighting with the disease. Symptoms. Itching lesion increases in size and with growing discoloration. Colours may present as brown, black, red, blue, white, with a red inflammatory border. May progress to a dry crust, with bleeding.

Study. A study conducted by a team from Melbourne University, Anti-Cancer Council and St Vincent’s Hospital, Australia, describes a summer-long experiment that showed that people who used a sun-screen lotion (in this case SPF-17) cut their chances of developing the first signs of skin cancer.

Study. Patients who receive blood transfusions are more likely to develop malignant lymphomas and non- melanomatous skin cancers. (European Journal of Cancer (Nov 1993))

Eclectic physicians of the 19th century reported success from the use of American Mandrake (podophylum peltatum). Recent experience includes a 76 per cent cure rate achieved in 68 patients with carcinoma of the skin by treatment twice daily for 14 days with an ointment consisting of Podophyllum resin 20 per cent, and Linseed oil 20 per cent, in lanolin, followed by an antibiotic ointment. (Martindale 27; 1977, p. 1341) Podophyllum is an anti-mitotic and inhibits cell-division and should not be applied to normal cells.

Aloe Vera. Fresh cut leaf, or gel, to wipe over exposed surfaces.

Vitamin E oil. Applying the oil to the skin can reduce chances of acquiring skin cancer from the sun. (University of Arizona College of Medicine)

Red Clover. “I have seen a case of skin cancer healed by applying Red Clover blossoms. After straining a strong tea, the liquid was simmered until it was the consistency of tar. After several applications the skin cancer was gone, and has not returned.” (May Bethel, in “Herald of Health”, Dec. 1963)

Clivers. Equal parts juice of Clivers (from juice extractor) and glycerine. Internally and externally.

Thuja. Internal: 3-5 drops Liquid Extract, morning and evening.

Topical. “Take a small quantity powdered Slippery Elm and add Liquid Extract Thuja to make a stiff paste. Apply paste to the lesion. Cover with gauze and protective covering. When dry remove pack and follow with compresses saturated with Thuja.” (Ellingwood’s Therapeutist, Vol 10, No 6, p. 212) Echinacea and Thuja. Equal parts liquid extracts assist healthy granulation and neutralise odour.

Rue Ointment. Simmer whole fresh leaves in Vaseline.

Poke Root. An old physician laid great stress on the use of concentrated juice of green leaves. Leaves are bruised, juice extracted, and concentrated by slow evaporation until the consistency of a paste, for persistent skin cancer. Care should be taken to confine to the distressed area. (Ellingwood’s Therapeutist, Vol 8, No 7, p. 275)

Maria Treben. Horsetail poultice.

Laetrile. Some improvement claimed. 1 gram daily.

Cider vinegar. Anecdotal evidence: external use: small melanoma.

Diet. See: DIET – CANCER. Beta-carotene foods.

Treatment by skin specialist or oncologist. ... cancer – skin

Cell Body

(perikaryon) the enlarged portion of a *neuron (nerve cell), containing the nucleus. It is concerned more with the nutrition of the cell than with propagation of nerve impulses.... cell body

Cell Saver

a machine that aspirates blood lost during surgery and immediately spins, washes, and filters it for retransfusion back into the patient’s body (see autotransfusion). The process, called intraoperative cell salvage, is used in surgery that has significant blood loss, such as orthopaedic and vascular surgery and Caesarean section, and avoids the costs and risks of *allogeneic transfusion.... cell saver

Cell-surface Molecules

molecules on the surface of cell membranes that are responsible for most cellular functions directly related to their immediate environment. Many have very precise functions of adhesion (see adhesion molecules), metabolic exchange, hormone reception, respiration, and immune reactions. Cell-to-cell exchanges involve specialized surface structures (junctions), which form a communicating nexus.... cell-surface molecules

Cancer – Spleen

Chronic enlargement with tumour. Cannot lie on the left side for pain. A common cause is the use of vaccines for which Thuja would be indicated.

Where irradiation and chemotherapy are not possible, any of the following alternatives may be taken with profit as secondary to medical treatment.

Astragalus. Popular spleen protective in Chinese medicine. Reduces toxicity of chemotherapy.

New Jersey tea. (Ceanothus americanus) has an affinity for the spleen and may sustain that organ under stress.

Chinese medicine. Ho-Shou-wu (Polygonum multiflorum).

Decoction, Red root. 1 teaspoon to each cup water simmered gently 10 minutes. Dose: half-1 cup 3-4 times daily.

Formula. Red root 2; Barberry 1; Bayberry 1. Mix. Dose: Powders: 500mg (two 00 capsules or one-third teaspoon). Liquid extracts: 1 teaspoon. Tinctures: 2 teaspoons. 3-4 times daily in water or honey. Formula. Alternative. Tinctures. Fringe Tree 1; Goldenseal 2; Red root 3. Mix. Dose: 15-30 drops before meals and at bedtime.

Diet: See: DIET – CANCER.

Vinchristine: use in orthodox medicine reported.

Treatment by a general medical practitioner or hospital oncologist. ... cancer – spleen

Cancer – Stomach And Intestines

Fibroma, myoma, lipoma, polyp, etc. When any of these breakdown bleeding can cause anaemia and melaena. Rarely painful. May obstruct intestinal canal causing vomiting. Periodic vomiting of over one year suspect.

Symptoms (non-specific). Loss of appetite, anaemia, weight loss; pain in abdomen, especially stomach area. Vomit appears as coffee grounds. Occult blood (tarry stools).

Causes. Alcohol, smoking cigarettes, low intake of fruits and vegetables. Foods rich in salt and nitrites including bacon, pickles, ham and dried fish. (Cancer Researchers in Digestive Diseases and Sciences) Long term therapy with drugs that inhibit gastric acid secretion increase risk of stomach cancer.

Of possible value. Alternatives:– Tea. Mixture. Equal parts: Red Clover, Gotu Kola, Yarrow. Strong infusion (2 or more teaspoons to each cup boiling water; infuse 15 minutes. As many cups daily as tolerated.

Formula. Condurango 2; Bayberry 1; Liquorice 1; Goldenseal quarter. Mix. Dose: Powders: 750mg (three 00 capsules or half a teaspoon). Liquid extracts: 1 teaspoon. Tinctures: 1-2 teaspoons. Thrice daily in water or honey.

Traditional. Rosebay Willowherb. Star of Bethlehem.

Chinese green tea. Anti-cancer effects have been found in the use of Chinese green tea extracts. Clinical trials on the therapeutic effects against early stomach cancer were promising. (Chinese Journal Preventative Medicines 1990. 24 (2) 80-2)

Chinese Herbalism. Combination. Oldenlandia diffusa 2 liang; Roots of Lu (Phragmites communis) 1 liang; Blackened Ginger 1 ch’ien; Pan-chih-lien (Scutellaria barbarta 5 ch’ein; Chih-tzu (gardenia jasminoides) 3 ch’ien. One concoction/dose daily. Follow with roots of Bulrush tea.

William H. Cook, MD. “Mullein greatly relieves pain, and may be used with Wild Yam and a little Water- Pepper (Polygonum Hydropiper).” The addition of Water-Pepper (or Cayenne) ensures diffusive stimulation and increased arterial force. Burns Lingard, MNIMH. Inoperable cancer of the stomach. Prescribed: Liquid Extract Violet leaves and Red Clover, each 4 drachms; Liquid Extract Cactus grand., 2 drops. Dose every 4 hours. Woman lived 30 years after treatment attaining age of 70.

Arthur Barker, FNIMH. Mullein sometimes helpful for pain.

Wm Boericke MD. American Cranesbill.

George Burford MD. Goldenseal.

Maria Treben. “After returning from a prison camp in 1947 I had stomach cancer. Three doctors told me it was incurable. From sheer necessity I turned to Nature’s herbs and gathered Nettle, Yarrow, Dandelion and Plantain; the juice of which I took hourly. Already after several hours I felt better. In particular I was able to keep down a little food. This was my salvation.” (Health Through God’s Pharmacy – 1981) Essiac: Old Ontario Cancer Remedy. Sheila Snow explored the controversy surrounding the famous cancer formula ‘Essiac’. This was developed by Rene Caisse, a Canadian nurse born in Bracebridge, Ontario, in 1888. Rene noticed that an elderly patient had cured herself of breast cancer with an Indian herbal tea. She asked for the recipe and later modified it. Rene’s aunt, after using the remedy for 2 years, fully recovered from an inoperable stomach cancer with liver involvement, and other terminal patients began to improve.

Rene’s request to be given the opportunity to treat cancer patients in a larger way was turned down by Ottawa’s Department of Health and Welfare. She eventually handed over the recipe to the Resperin Corporation in 1977, for the sum of one dollar, from whom cancer patients may obtain the mixture if their doctors submit a written request. However, records have not been kept up.

In 1988 Dr Gary Glum, a chiropractor in Los Angeles, published a book called ‘Calling of an Angel’: the true story of Rene Caisse. He gives the formula, which consists of 11b of powdered Rumex acetosella

(Sorrel), 1 and a half pounds cut Arctium lappa (Burdock), 4oz powdered Ulmus fulva (Slippery Elm bark), and 1oz Rheum palmatum (Turkey Rhubarb). The dosage Rene recommended was one ounce of Essiac with two ounces of hot water every other day at bedtime; on an empty stomach, 2-3 hours after supper. The treatment should be continued for 32 days, then taken every 3 days. (Canadian Journal of Herbalism, July 1991 Vol XII, No. III)

Diet. See: DIET – CANCER. Slippery Elm gruel.

Note: Anyone over 40 who has recurrent indigestion for more than three weeks should visit his family doctor. Persistent pain and indigestion after eating can be a sign of gastric cancer and no-one over 40 should ignore the symptoms. A patient should be referred to hospital for examination by endoscope which allows the physician to see into the stomach.

Study. Evidence to support the belief that the high incidence of gastric cancer in Japan is due to excessive intake of salt.

Note: A substance found in fish oil has been shown experimentally to prevent cancer of the stomach. Mackerel, herring and sardines are among the fish with the ingredient.

Treatment by or in liaison with hospital oncologist or general medical practitioner. ... cancer – stomach and intestines

Clear-cell Carcinoma

(clear-cell adenocarcinoma) a variant of *adenocarcinoma that tends to arise from the kidneys or the female genital tract. In the latter case it is linked to intrauterine exposure to *diethylstilbestrol during the 1950s and 1960s and takes the form of a vaginal cancer, which can be treated by radical surgery followed by radiotherapy.... clear-cell carcinoma

Cutaneous T-cell Lymphoma

a group of lymphomas in which abnormal T *lymphocytes are concentrated in the skin. The most common form is *mycosis fungoides.... cutaneous t-cell lymphoma

Cancer – Testicles

Rare, but increasing in most countries. Three main types: teratomas, seminomas and lymphomas. The latter affect older men.

Symptoms. A hard usually painless mass in the scrotum can give rise to gynaecomastia – abnormal enlargement of the male breasts.

Of possible value. Alternatives: – Abundant herb teas – Cornsilk, Red Clover, Violet leaves.

Decoction. Echinacea 2; Kava Kava 1; Sarsaparilla 1. Mix. Half an ounce (15g) to 1 pint (500ml) water simmered gently 20 minutes. Cup thrice daily.

Formula. Sarsaparilla 2; Kava Kava l; Pulsatilla half; Thuja quarter. Mix. Dose: Powders: 500mg (two 00 capsules or one-third teaspoon). Liquid extracts: 1 teaspoon. Tinctures: 2 teaspoons. Thrice daily. Vinchristine.

Diet. See: DIET – CANCER. Researchers from Cambridge University found that an extra pint of milk a day during adolescence was associated with 2 and a half times increased risk of testicular cancer. (Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Oct. 1993)

Treatment by or in liaison with a general medical practitioner. ... cancer – testicles

Cancer – Tongue

May be scirrhus or epithelial.

Causes. Smoking, alcohol, jagged teeth, chemical irritants, septic toxins, sprayed fruit and vegetables, poisoning by lead, arsenic and other chemicals, additives, hot foods, spicy curries and peppers, chewing tobacco.

Over 80 per cent found to be present in old syphilitic cases. Charles Ryall, surgeon, Cancer Hospital, regarded the two as comparable with that between syphilis and tabes. Dr F. Foester, Surgeon, concluded that epithelioma of the tongue as far more frequently preceded by syphilis than any other form of cancer.

(Hastings Gilford FRCS, “Tumours and Cancers”)

The condition may arise from a gumma or patch of leucoplakia (white patches) – at one time known as smoker’s tongue.

Of possible value. Alternatives:– Many plants have been shown to produce neoplastic activity, as observed in discovery of anti-cancer alkaloids of the Vinca plant (Vinchristine) and Mistletoe. Dr Wm Boericke confirms clinical efficacy of Clivers, promoting healthy granulations in ulcers and tumour of the tongue. Dr W.H. Cook advises a mouthwash of Goldenseal. For scirrhous hardening, juice of fresh Houseleek has a traditional reputation.

Tinctures. Equal parts Condurango and Goldenseal. 30-60 drops before meals in water; drops increased according to tolerance.

Local paint. Thuja lotion.

Case record. Dr Brandini, Florence, had a patient, 71, with inoperable cancer of the tongue. In the midst of his pain he asked for a lemon which immediately assuaged the pain. The next day gave him even greater relief. The doctor tried it on a number of similar patients with the same results, soaking lint in lemon juice.

Diet. See: DIET – CANCER.

Treatment by a general medical practitioner or hospital oncologist. ... cancer – tongue

Diet - Cancer

GENERAL DIET use as a base.

Life is our most precious gift. But at some point that gift might be at risk. It is at such time that food and drink may contribute to our sense of well-being.

Rapidly accumulating evidence links cancer to a growing public awareness of the role of diet. Also, involvement of supplements in cancer prevention are a fruitful area of research.

Vital food enzymes are not destroyed in cooking when a large proportion of food is eaten raw. All food should be free from additives.

A high fat intake is a risk factor in cancer of the ovary, womb and prostate gland. It also affects the bowel flora, changing bile acid metabolism and the concentration of carcinogenic bile acid metabolites. Obesity significantly increases risk of cancer.

Epidemiological studies in man show that people with low Vitamin A levels are more susceptible to lung cancer. Cancer risk is increased by low levels of Vitamin A, particularly Beta Carotene, Vitamin E and Selenium.

Antioxidants control the activity of free-radicals that destroy body cells, and source foods containing them are therefore of value in cancer prevention. Most cancers generate a high degree of toxicity and this is where antioxidants, particularly Vitamin C are indicated. A deficiency of Vitamin C has been associated with cancer of the oesophagus, stomach, lungs and breast. This vitamin is known to increase life expectancy in terminally ill patients and is a mild analgesic for pain. Vitamin B6 may be of value for nausea.

Vitamins and minerals of value: Vitamins A, B6, C, E, Calcium, Chromium, Magnesium, Molybdenum, Selenium, Zinc.

Stimulants should be avoided: cocoa, alcohol, sugar, coffee (including decaffeinated). Tea should not be too strong as it inhibits absorption of iron. Choice should be over a wide range of foods, to eat less fat and more wholegrain cereals and raw fresh fruit and vegetables. ... diet - cancer

Cytotoxic T Cell

a type of T *lymphocyte that destroys cancerous cells, virus-infected cells, and *allografts. Cytotoxic T cells recognize peptide antigens attached to proteins that are encoded by the *HLA system.... cytotoxic t cell

Dendritic Cell

a type of haemopoietic cell with specialized antigen-presenting functions. The head and neck are common sites for dendritic cell pathology. See antigen-presenting cell.... dendritic cell

Ductal Carcinoma In Situ

(DCIS) the earliest stage of breast cancer, detectable by mammography, which is confined to the lactiferous (milk) ducts of the breast. See carcinoma in situ.... ductal carcinoma in situ

Egg Cell

see ovum.... egg cell


n. any of the gastrin-secreting cells of the stomach lining located predominantly in the gastric *antrum. Gastrin stimulates the production of gastric acid by parietal cells in the stomach. Increased G-cell activity is associated with the formation of duodenal ulcers and the *Zollinger-Ellison syndrome.... g-cell

Giant Cell

any large cell, such as a *megakaryocyte. Giant cells may have one or many nuclei.... giant cell

Hairy Cell

an abnormal white blood cell that has the appearance of an immature lymphocyte with fine hairlike cytoplasmic projections around the perimeter of the cell. It is found in a rare form of leukaemia (hairy-cell leukaemia) most commonly occurring in young men.... hairy cell

Cancer – Womb

The second most common cancer in women. The alarming aspect of national health is the almost epidemic increase of cervical malignancy in younger women due to frequency of coitus, promiscuity, early coitus and contact with the herpes virus. All are mostly squamous cell carcinoma. Research studies have demonstrated a link between cigarette smoking and cancer of the cervix. (Dr Dan Hellberg)

Symptoms. Low backache, bleeding after intercourse, between periods or after ‘the change’. Abdominal swelling after 40 years of age. Sixty per cent of patients have no symptoms. Malodorous vaginal discharge. A positive cervical “pap” smear or cone-shaped biopsy examined by a pathologist confirms. Vaginal bleeding occurs in the later stages.

A letter in the New England Journal of Medicine suggests a strong link between increased risk of cervical cancer and cigarette smoking, nicotine being detected in the cervical fluids of cigarette smokers. This form of cancer is almost unknown in virgins living in closed communities such as those of the Church.

Conventional treatment is usually hysterectomy. Whatever treatment is adopted little ground is lost by supportive cleansing herbal teas. Mullein for pain.

Sponges loaded with powdered Goldenseal held against the cervix with a contraceptive cap can give encouraging results. Replace after three days. Vitamin A supplements are valuable to protect against the disease. The vitamin may also be applied topically in creams.

This form of cancer resists chemical treatment, but has been slowed down and halted by Periwinkle (Vinchristine) without damaging normal cells.

G.B. Ibotson, MD, reported disappearance of cancer of the cervix by infusions of Violet leaves by mouth and by vaginal injection. (Lancet 1917, i, 224)

In a study group of cervical cancer patients it was found that women with carcinoma in situ (CIS) were more likely to have a total Vitamin A intake below the pooled median (3450iu). Vitamin A supplementation is indicated together with zinc. (Bio-availability of Vitamin A is linked with zinc levels.) Vitamin A and zinc may be applied topically in creams and ointments.

Orthodox treatment: radiotherapy, chemotherapy, hysterectomy. As oestrogen can stimulate dormant cells the surgeon may wish to remove ovaries also. Whatever the decision, herbal supportive treatment may be beneficial. J.T Kent, MD, recommends Thuja and Shepherd’s Purse. Agents commonly indicated: Echinacea, Wild Indigo, Thuja, Mistletoe, Wild Yam. Herbal teas may be taken with profit. Dr Alfred Vogel advises Mistletoe from the oak (loranthus europaeus).

Other alternatives:– Teas. Red Clover, Violet, Mistletoe, Plantain, Clivers. 1-2 teaspoons to each cup boiling water. Infuse 15 minutes. 1 cup freely.

Decoctions. White Pond Lily. Thuja. Echinacea. Wild Yam. Any one.

Tablets/capsules. Echinacea. Goldenseal. Wild Yam. Thuja.

Formula No. 1. Red Clover 2; Echinacea 1; Shepherd’s Purse 1; Thuja quarter. Mix. Dose: Powders: 750mg (three 00 capsules or half a teaspoon). Liquid extracts: 1-2 teaspoons. Tinctures: 1-3 teaspoons. Formula No. 2. Equal parts: Poke root, Goldenseal, Mistletoe. Mix. Dose: Powders: 500mg (two 00 capsules or one-third teaspoon). Liquid extracts: 1 teaspoon. Tinctures: 2 teaspoons.

Diet. Women who eat large quantities of meat and fatty foods are up to four times the risk of those eating mainly fruit and vegetables.

Vaginal injection. 1. Strong infusion Red Clover to which 10-15 drops Tincture Goldenseal is added. Follow with tampon smeared with Goldenseal Salve.

2. Strong decoction Yellow Dock to which 10-15 drops Tincture Goldenseal is added. Follow with tampon smeared with Goldenseal salve.

If bleeding is severe douche with neat distilled extract of Witch Hazel.

Chinese Herbalism. See – CANCER: CHINESE PRESCRIPTION. Also: Decoction of ssu-hsieh-lu (Galium gracile) 2-4 liang.

Advice. One-yearly smear test for all women over 40.

Diet. See: DIET – CANCER.

Treatment by a general medical practitioner or hospital oncologist. ... cancer – womb

Gerson Cancer Therapy

GERSON CANCER THERAPY is described in A Cancer Therapy; Results of Fifty Cases, Gerson, Max; 3rd edition, 1977, Pub: The Gerson Institute Bonita, CA 92002, USA.

Basically, the therapy consists of a vegetarian diet with meals of vegetables, fruits and whole grains, fresh or freshly prepared. Drinking water is replaced by hourly, fresh, raw juices of vegetables and fruits. Refined, altered, denatured or enhanced foodstuffs are forbidden. The diet is sodium, chloride, fat and protein restricted. Supplemental potassium, iodine, thyroid and crude liver extract comprise the medical armamentarium. A repeatable choleretic, enemas of a solution of boiled coffee, is administered to lower serum toxin levels. Coffee is a potent enhancer of the carcinogen detoxifying enzyme system, glutathione S-translerase (Wattenburg). The Gerson cancer therapy reduces accumulated tissue sodium and chloride, promoting diuresis. Gerson Therapy Center: Hospital de Baja California, at La Gloria, Mexico

Diet. Lunch and dinner contain ample cooked food, mainly to act as a ‘blotter’ to the daily intake of 5.25 pints fresh raw fruit juices that are the backbone of the therapy. Ingredients of the juices include 41bs raw organic carrots a day, with no harm to the liver. (JAM, May 1991, p5. Beata Bishop on her recovery from metastasised malignant melanoma)

The Gerson therapy is based on the ‘holistic’ philosophy which states that cancer represents a clinical manifestation of an underlying toxic condition. Such condition should receive primary treatment that is lifestyle orientated. The theme is: detoxification through internal cleansing. The diet and supplements are re-inforced by ‘positive thinking’ and supported by meditation and emotional balance. ... gerson cancer therapy

Helper T Cell

a type of T *lymphocyte that plays a key role in cell-mediated immunity by recognizing foreign antigen on the surface of *antigen-presenting cells when this is associated with the individual’s *MHC antigens, having been processed by antigen-presenting cells. Helper T cells stimulate the production of *cytotoxic T cells, which destroy the target cells.... helper t cell

Hereditary Nonpolyposis Colorectal Cancer

(HNPCC, Lynch syndrome) an inherited disorder in which there is an increased incidence of colorectal *polyp formation, although to a lesser extent than in familial adenomatous *polyposis (FAP). HNPCC has also been associated with other types of tumour, particularly ovarian and endometrial tumours. This increased risk is due to inherited mutations that impair DNA mismatch repair.... hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer

Hilar Cell Tumour

an androgen-producing tumour of the ovary found in older women and often resulting in *virilization. Such tumours are so called as they tend to occur around the area of the ovary where the blood vessels enter (the hilum). They are usually small and are treated by surgical removal, with resolution of most of the symptoms.... hilar cell tumour

Bone Cancer

Malignant growth in bone, which may originate in the bone itself (primary bone cancer) or, more commonly, occur as a result of cancer spreading from elsewhere in the body (secondary, or metatastic, bone cancer). Primary bone cancers are rare. The type that occurs most often is osteosarcoma. Other types include chondrosarcoma and fibrosarcoma. Bone cancer can also start in the bone marrow (see multiple myeloma and leukaemia). The treatment of primary bone cancer depends on the extent to which the disease has spread. If it remains confined to bone, amputation may be recommended; but it may be possible to remove the cancer and fill the defect with a bone graft. Radiotherapy or chemotherapy, or both, may also be needed

The cancers that spread readily to form secondary bone cancer are those of the breast, lung, prostate, thyroid, and kidney.

These bone metastases occur commonly in the spine, pelvis, ribs, and skull.

Pain is usually the main symptom.

Affected bones are abnormally fragile and may easily fracture.

Bone cancer that affects the spine may cause collapse or crushing of vertebrae, damaging the spinal cord and causing weakness or paralysis of one or more limbs.

Secondary bone cancers from the breast and prostate often respond to treatment with hormone antagonists.... bone cancer

Cervix, Cancer Of

One of the most common cancers affecting women worldwide. Cancer of the cervix has well-defined precancerous stages (see cervical dysplasia) that can be detected by a cervical smear test, allowing, in many cases, early treatment and a complete cure. Untreated, cancer of the cervix may spread to the organs in the pelvis.

There are 2 main types of cervical cancer: the squamous type is the most common and is thought to be associated with the human papilloma virus, acquired during sexual intercourse. Factors that predispose to this type of cancer are smoking, starting to have sex at an early age, and having many sexual partners.

The second, rarer, type of cervical cancer, adenocarcinoma, sometimes occurs in women who have never had sexual intercourse. Its causes are unclear.

Symptoms do not develop until the condition is advanced, when there is vaginal bleeding or a bloodstained discharge at unexpected times, and pain if the cancer has spread within the pelvis.

Following an abnormal smear test result, colposcopy or a cone biopsy may be carried out to diagnose the condition.

A localized early cancer may be destroyed by electrocoagulation, diathermy, laser treatment, or cryosurgery.

If the cancer has spread into the cervical canal, a cone biopsy may be sufficient to remove all the diseased tissue.

In more advanced cases affecting the pelvic organs, radiotherapy may be given.

Radical surgery, in which the bladder, vagina, cervix, uterus, and rectum are removed, may be recommended in certain cases.... cervix, cancer of

Hürthle Cell Tumour

a malignant tumour of the thyroid gland that arises from Hürthle (or Askanazy) cells, altered follicular cells of the gland that have large nuclei and stain deeply with eosin (these cells are also found in benign nodules and Hashimoto’s disease). Hürthle cell carcinoma is not as common as papillary, follicular, or anaplastic thyroid carcinomas (see thyroid cancer). [K. W. Hürthle (1860–1945), German histologist]... hürthle cell tumour

Interstitial-cell-stimulating Hormone

see luteinizing hormone.... interstitial-cell-stimulating hormone

Islet Cell Antibodies

a group of autoantibodies directed against components of the insulin-secreting beta cells of the pancreas. They are usually detectable in the blood of people presenting with type 1 diabetes. Antibodies against *glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) in the beta cells have become a more specific test for islet cell antibodies, to help confirm a diagnosis of type 1 diabetes.... islet cell antibodies

Islet Cell Transplantation

a new technique still under evaluation for curing type 1 *diabetes mellitus, which involves the injection of donated cells from the pancreatic *islets of Langerhans into the liver, where it is hoped they will seed and survive. The transplanted cells then take over insulin production from the recipient’s diseased pancreas.... islet cell transplantation

Islet Cell Tumour

any tumour arising in a cell of the pancreatic *islets of Langerhans. These tumours, which include *insulinomas, *glucagonomas, and *somatostatinomas, form one of the two major subclasses of gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumours, the other being the *carcinoid tumours.... islet cell tumour

Colon, Cancer Of

A malignant tumour of the colon. First symptoms of the disease include an inexplicable change in bowel movements (either constipation or diarrhoea), blood mixed in with the faeces, and pain in the lower abdomen. Sometimes, there are no symptoms until the tumour has grown big enough to cause an obstruction in the intestine (see intestine, obstruction of) or perforate it (see perforation).

A genetic basis has been found for some types of colon cancer.

However, in most cases, the precise cause is unknown.

Contributory factors include diet: eating a lot of meat and fatty foods and not enough fibre may increase the risk.

The disease often occurs in association with other diseases of the colon, such as ulcerative colitis and familial polyposis.

The chances of cure depend critically on early diagnosis.

Screening for this cancer includes an occult blood test; if the test is positive, sigmoidoscopy and colonoscopy may be carried out.

In most cases of colon cancer, a partial colectomy is performed.... colon, cancer of

Kidney Cancer

A cancerous tumour of the kidney. Most kidney cancers originate in the kidney itself, but in rare cases cancer spreads to the kidney from another organ. There are 3 main types of kidney cancer. The most common, renal cell carcinoma, usually occurs in people over 40. Nephroblastoma (also called Wilms’ tumour) is a fast-growing tumour that mainly affects children under 5. Transitional cell carcinoma arises from cells lining the renal pelvis; it is more common in smokers or those who have taken analgesic drugs for a long time.Symptoms of kidney cancer vary. It is often symptomless in the early stages, although later there may be blood in the urine. All types require surgical removal of the kidney and sometimes also of the ureter. For nephroblastoma, surgery is followed by treatment with anticancer drugs. Kidney cancer is likely to be fatal if it has spread to other organs before treatment is started.... kidney cancer

Liver Cancer

A cancerous tumour in the liver. The tumour may be primary (originating within the liver) or secondary (having spread from elsewhere, often the stomach, pancreas, or large intestine). There are 2 main types of primary tumour: a hepatoma, which develops in the liver cells, and a cholangiocarcinoma, which arises from cells lining the bile ducts.The most common symptoms of any liver cancer are loss of appetite, weight loss, lethargy, and sometimes pain in the upper right abdomen.

The later stages of the disease are marked by jaundice and ascites (excess fluid in the abdomen).

Tumours are often detected by ultrasound scanning, and diagnosis may be confirmed by liver biopsy.

A hepatoma can sometimes be cured by complete removal.

In other cases, anticancer drugs can help to slow the progress of the disease.

It is usually not possible to cure secondary liver cancer, but anticancer drugs or, in some cases, removal of a solitary metastasis may be advised.... liver cancer

Mouth Cancer

Forms of cancerous tumour that affect the lips, tongue, and oral cavity. Lip cancer and tongue cancer are the most common types.

Predisposing causes of mouth cancer are poor oral hygiene, drinking alcoholic spirits, tobacco-smoking, chewing tobacco, and inhaling snuff. Irritation from ill-fitting dentures or jagged teeth are other factors. Men are affected twice as often as women; most cases occur in men over the age of 40.

Mouth cancer usually begins with a whitish patch, called leukoplakia, or a small lump. These may cause a burning sensation, but are usually painless. As the tumour grows, it may develop into an ulcer or a deep fissure, which may bleed and erode surrounding tissue.

Diagnosis is based on a biopsy. Treatment consists of surgery, radiotherapy, or both. Extensive surgery may cause facial disfigurement and problems with eating and speaking, which may require reconstructive surgery. Radiotherapy sometimes damages the salivary glands (see mouth, dry).

When mouth cancer is detected and treated early, the outlook is good.... mouth cancer

Oesophagus, Cancer Of

A malignant tumour, most common in people over 50, that mainly affects the middle or lower oesophagus and leads to swallowing difficulties. Smoking and heavy alcohol intake are risk factors.

Symptoms progressively worsen to a point where food is immediately regurgitated and there is rapid weight loss. Regurgitated fluid spilling into the trachea often causes respiratory infections.

Diagnosis is with a barium swallow (see barium X-ray examinations) and a biopsy taken during endoscopy. Removal of the oesophagus may be possible in some cases. Radiotherapy may cause regression of the cancer, relieve symptoms, and occasionally cure older patients who might not survive major surgery. Insertion of a rigid tube through the tumour, or laser treatment to burn through it, can help to relieve symptoms and improve nutrition. The overall outlook is poor, but is improved with early diagnosis.... oesophagus, cancer of

Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis

overgrowth of cells of the *reticuloendothelial system. This includes disorders previously called histiocytosis X, including eosinophilic granuloma, Hand–Schüller–Christian disease, and Letterer–Siwe disease. [P. Langerhans (1847–88), German physician and anatomist]... langerhans cell histiocytosis

Lobular Carcinoma

cancer that arises in the lobules (rather than the ducts) of the breast. Like ductal carcinoma, it may be confined to its site of origin but can invade other tissues; however, it has a greater tendency than ductal carcinoma to affect both breasts.... lobular carcinoma

Lung Cancer

cancer arising in the epithelium of the air passages (bronchial cancer) or lung (see also non-small-cell lung cancer; small-cell lung cancer). It is a very common form of cancer, particularly in Britain, and is strongly associated with cigarette smoking and exposure to industrial air pollutants (including asbestos). There are often no symptoms in the early stages of the disease, when diagnosis is made on X-ray examination. Treatment includes surgical removal of the affected lobe or lung (less than 20% of cases are suitable for surgery), radiotherapy, and chemotherapy.... lung cancer

Medullary Carcinoma

a tumour whose consistency was thought to resemble that of bone marrow. Medullary carcinoma of the thyroid has associations with tumours of other organs (multiple endocrine neoplasia; see MENS) and is often familial: it arises from the *C cells of the thyroid and produces calcitonin, which can often be used as a *tumour marker.... medullary carcinoma

Ovary, Cancer Of

A malignant growth of the ovary. The cancer may be either primary (arising in the ovary) or secondary (due to the spread of cancer from another part of the body). Ovarian cancer can occur at any age but is most common after 50 and in women who have never had children. A family history of cancer of the ovary, breast, or colon, especially in close relatives under 50, is an important risk factor. Taking oral contraceptives reduces the risk.

In most cases, ovarian cancer causes no symptoms until it is widespread. The first symptoms may include vague discomfort and swelling in the abdomen; nausea and vomiting; abnormal vaginal bleeding; and ascites.

If ovarian cancer is suspected, a doctor will carry out a physical examination to detect any swellings in the pelvis. A laparoscopy will usually be performed to confirm the diagnosis.

Treatment is by surgical removal of the growth or as much cancerous tissue as possible.

This usually involves salpingooophorectomy and hysterectomy followed by radiotherapy and anticancer drugs.... ovary, cancer of

Pancreas, Cancer Of

A cancerous tumour of the exocrine tissue of the pancreas. The cause is unknown, but smoking and a high intake of fats or alcohol may be contributing factors. Symptoms include upper abdominal pain, loss of appetite, weight loss, and jaundice. There may also be indigestion, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, and tiredness. In many cases, symptoms do not appear until the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.

Diagnosis usually requires ultrasound scanning, CT scanning or MRI of the upper abdomen, or ERCP.

In early stages, pancreatectomy, radiotherapy and anticancer drugs may provide a cure.

In later stages, little can be done apart from provision of palliative treatment.... pancreas, cancer of

Pharynx, Cancer Of

A cancerous tumour of the pharynx. Pharyngeal cancer usually develops in the mucous membrane lining. In the West, almost all cases of pharyngeal cancer are related to smoking and to drinking alcohol. The incidence rises with age, and the disorder is more common in men.

Cancerous tumours of the oropharynx (the middle section of the pharynx) usually cause difficulty swallowing, often with a sore throat and earache. Bloodstained sputum may be coughed up. Sometimes there is only the feeling of a lump in the throat or a visible enlarged lymph node in the neck. Cancer of the laryngopharynx (the lowermost part of the pharynx) initially causes a sensation of incomplete swallowing, then a muffled voice, hoarseness, and increased difficulty in swallowing. Tumours of the nasopharynx have different causes.Diagnosis of cancer of the pharynx is made by biopsy, often in conjunction with laryngoscopy, bronchoscopy, or oesophagoscopy.

The growth may be removed surgically or treated with radiotherapy.

Anticancer drugs may also be given.... pharynx, cancer of

Prostate, Cancer Of

A cancerous growth in the prostate gland, of unknown cause. One of the most common cancers in men, it mainly occurs in elderly men.

An enlarged prostate (see prostate, enlarged) may cause symptoms including difficulty in starting to pass urine, poor urine flow, and increased frequency of urination. Urine flow may eventually cease altogether. When there are no urinary symptoms, the first sign may be pain in the bones from secondary cancers. Screening tests detect blood levels of a protein called prostate specific antigen;

if above a certain level, it may indicate prostate cancer.

Rectal examination allows a doctor to assess the size and hardness of the gland.

Ultrasound scanning and a biopsy confirm the diagnosis.

Blood tests and a bone scan (see radionuclide scanning) may also be done.

In an elderly man with a small prostate cancer that has not spread, no treatment may be recommended.

For younger men, prostatectomy or radiotherapy may be performed.

Widespread disease is usually controllable for some years with orchidectomy or drugs.... prostate, cancer of

Rectum, Cancer Of

A cancerous tumour in the rectum. The cause is unknown, but dietary factors and genetic factors are thought to play a part. It is more common between ages 50 and 70.

Early symptoms are rectal bleeding during defecation and diarrhoea or constipation. Later, pain may occur. Left untreated, the cancer may eventually cause severe bleeding and pain and block the intestine. It may also spread to other organs.

The cancer may be detected by a rectal examination and confirmed with proctoscopy or sigmoidoscopy and biopsy.

Treatment is usually with surgery. For a tumour in the upper rectum, the affected area and the last part of the colon are removed and the 2 free ends of the intestine are sewn together. To promote healing, a temporary colostomy may be made. For a growth in the lower rectum, the entire rectum and anus are removed. Because there is no outlet for faeces, a permanent colostomy is created.

Radiotherapy and anticancer drugs may be used in addition to or instead of surgery.

Up to 40 per cent of people treated for rectal cancer live for 10 years or more.... rectum, cancer of

Memory Cell

a long-lived lymphocyte that is formed following primary infection. It enables a faster and more robust immune response following a second exposure to the antigen.... memory cell

Natural Killer Cell

(NK cell) a type of *lymphocyte that is able to kill virus-infected cells and cancerous cells and mediates rejection of bone-marrow grafts. NK cells are a part of natural (or innate) *immunity. Their function is regulated by a balance between activating receptors, which recognize proteins on cancerous or virus-infected cells, and inhibitory receptors specific for certain molecules encoded by the *HLA system.... natural killer cell

Nk Cell

see natural killer cell.

nm symbol for *nanometre.... nk cell

Non-small-cell Lung Cancer

(NSCLC) any type of lung cancer other than *small-cell lung cancer. Such cancers include *adenocarcinoma of the lung, large-cell carcinomas, and squamous-cell carcinoma of the lung.... non-small-cell lung cancer

Onodi Cell

a posterior ethmoidal sinus air cell (see paranasal sinuses). They are surgically important because of their proximity to the optic nerve and internal carotid artery. [A. Onodi (1857–1919), Hungarian rhinolaryngologist]... onodi cell

Sickle Cell Anaemia

An inherited blood disease in which the red blood cells contain haemoglobin S, an abnormal type of haemoglobin. This crystallizes in the capillaries, making red cells sickle-shaped and fragile, and leading to haemolytic anaemia. The abnormal cells are unable to pass easily through tiny blood vessels. The blood supply to organs is blocked intermittently, causing sickle cell crises. The disease affects mainly black people.Symptoms usually appear after age 6 months, often beginning with painful swelling of the hands and feet. Chronic haemolytic anaemia causes fatigue, headaches, shortness of breath on exertion, pallor, and jaundice. Sickle cell crises start suddenly; they are sometimes brought on by an infection, cold weather, or dehydration, but may also occur for no apparent reason. The sufferer may experience pains (especially in the bones), blood in the urine (from kidney damage) or damage to the lungs or intestines. If the brain is affected, seizures, a stroke, or unconsciousness may result.

In some affected children, the spleen enlarges and traps red cells at a particularly high rate, causing a life-threatening form of anaemia. After adolescence, the spleen usually stops functioning, increasing the risk of infection in those affected.

Diagnosis is made from examination of a blood smear and electrophoresis.

Supportive treatment may include folic acid supplements, and penicillin and immunization to protect against infection.

Life-threatening crises are treated with intravenous infusions of fluids, antibiotics, oxygen therapy, and analgesic drugs.

If the crisis still does not respond, an exchange blood transfusion may be performed.

This may be done regularly for people who suffer frequent severe crises.... sickle cell anaemia

Stomach Cancer

A malignant tumour that arises from the lining of the stomach. The exact cause is unknown, but HELICOBACTER PYLORI infection is thought to be linked to increased incidence. Other likely factors include smoking and alcohol intake; diet may also play a part, in particular eating large amounts of salted or pickled foods. Pernicious anaemia, a partial gastrectomy, and belonging to blood group A also seem to increase the risk. Stomach cancer rarely affects people under 40 and is more common in men.

There may also be other symptoms indistinguishable from those of peptic ulcer.

Diagnosis is usually made by gastroscopy or by a barium X-ray examination.

The only effective treatment is total gastrectomy.

In advanced cases in which the tumour has spread, radiotherapy and anticancer drugs may prolong life.... stomach cancer

Uterus, Cancer Of

A malignant growth in the tissues of the uterus. Cancer of the uterus mainly affects the cervix (see cervix, cancer of) and endometrium. In rare cases, the uterine muscle is affected by a type of cancer called a leiomyosarcoma. The term uterine cancer usually refers to cancer of the endometrium.

Risk factors for endometrial cancer include anything that may raise oestrogen levels in the body, such as obesity, a history of failure to ovulate, or taking oestrogen hormones long term if these are not balanced with progestogen drugs. It is also more common in women who have had few or no children.

Before the menopause, the first symptom of cancer of the uterus may be menorrhagia or bleeding between periods or after sexual intercourse; after the menopause, it is usually a bloodstained vaginal discharge. Diagnosis is made by hysteroscopy or biopsy.

Very early endometrial cancer is usually treated by hysterectomy and removal of the fallopian tubes and ovaries.

If the cancer has spread, radiotherapy and anticancer drug treatment may also be used.... uterus, cancer of

Colorectal Cancer

malignancy of the large intestine (i.e. the colon, appendix, and rectum). It is the fourth most common cause of death from cancer: one million people are diagnosed each year. Most cases should be preventable by screening and surveillance protocols (including the *faecal occult blood test) and modifiable lifestyle factors. Risk factors include older age, increased consumption of red meat and fatty foods, excessive alcohol intake, smoking, and sedentary lifestyle. Clinical symptoms include change in bowel habit, rectal bleeding, loss of appetite and weight, anaemia, and gastrointestinal obstruction. Diagnosis is made following analysis of samples taken during *colonoscopy. CT scanning of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis defines the extent of the disease; MRI and PET scanning may yield additional radiological information. These findings are assessed using the *TNM classification. Early localized disease is amenable to surgery, preoperative chemoradiation, and postoperative chemotherapy; advanced disease with metastases necessitates a palliative approach.... colorectal cancer

Pyramidal Cell

a type of neuron found in the *cerebral cortex, with a pyramid-shaped cell body, a branched dendrite extending from the apex towards the brain surface, several dendrites extending horizontally from the base, and an axon running in the white matter of the hemisphere.... pyramidal cell

Reed–sternberg Cell

a large binucleate cell that is characteristic of *Hodgkin’s disease. [D. Reed Mendenhall (1874–1964), US pathologist; C. Sternberg (1872–1935), Austrian pathologist]... reed–sternberg cell

Regulatory T Cell

(Treg cell) a type of T *lymphocyte that suppresses immune responses.... regulatory t cell

Resting Cell

a cell that is not undergoing division. See interphase.... resting cell

Sickle-cell Nephropathy

progressive renal disease developing in 5–8% of patients with *sickle-cell disease. Infarcts in the cortex can occur with sickle-cell crises and present with pain and haematuria. Acute or more insidious damage to the medulla will lead to a urinary concentrating defect and later to papillary necrosis and/or fibrosis. Occlusion of vessels within the glomerular capillary tuft leads to a secondary form of *focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and can present with the *nephrotic syndrome.... sickle-cell nephropathy

Small-cell Lung Cancer

(SCLC) a type of bronchial carcinoma characterized by small cells (or oat cells), small round or oval cells with darkly staining nuclei and scanty indistinct cytoplasm. Small-cell carcinoma is usually related to smoking and accounts for about one-quarter of bronchial carcinomas; it carries a poor prognosis due to early distant spread, typically to bones, liver, and brain. Treatment is primarily with chemotherapy and radiotherapy and paraneoplastic symptoms (see paraneoplastic syndrome) from *ectopic hormone production are common. Compare non-small-cell lung cancer.... small-cell lung cancer

Ovarian Cancer

a malignant tumour of the ovary, usually a carcinoma. Because of its wide-ranging pathology and an imperfect understanding of its causes, ovarian cancer is not readily detected in the early stages of development, when the tumour is small and produces few suspicious symptoms. Increased susceptibility to the disease is associated with raised serum levels of *CA125 (see also risk of malignancy index; BRCA1 and BRCA2). Diagnosis is based on the finding of a solid or cystic mass arising from the pelvis; there may be associated *ascites. The incidence of ovarian cancer reaches a peak in postmenopausal women; treatment involves surgery and most cases also require combined chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy.... ovarian cancer

Prostate Cancer

a malignant tumour (*carcinoma) of the prostate gland, a common form of cancer in elderly men. In most men it progresses slowly over many years and gives symptoms similar to those of benign enlargement of the prostate (see prostate gland). Before it was possible to test for *prostate specific antigen (PSA), the tumour had often invaded locally, spread to regional lymph nodes, and metastasized to bone before clinical presentation. By checking elevated levels of PSA or *PCA3, prostate cancer can be detected 5–10 years before the tumour would present symptomatically. If the disease is confined to the prostate, the patient may be offered active surveillance or radical *prostatectomy, radical radiotherapy, or *brachytherapy; *cryotherapy or *HIFU are available in specialized centres. In elderly patients, it may be enough to monitor the tumour growth. If the disease is outside the prostate, androgen deprivation therapy may be used; this may be achieved by *gonadorelin analogues, *anti-androgens, surgical castration, or oestrogen therapy.... prostate cancer

Sickle-cell Disease

(drepanocytosis) a hereditary blood disease that mainly affects people of African ancestry but also occurs in the Mediterranean region and reaches high frequencies in parts of Saudi Arabia and India. It occurs when the sickle-cell gene has been inherited from both parents and is characterized by the production of an abnormal type of *haemoglobin – sickle-cell haemoglobin (Hbs) – which precipitates in the red cells when the blood is deprived of oxygen, forming crystals that distort the cells into the characteristic sickle shape: this process is known as sickling. An excess of sickle cells in the circulation results in blockage of small blood vessels, producing episodes of severe pain (a sickle-cell crisis). Sickle cells are rapidly removed from the circulation, leading to anaemia and jaundice. There is no satisfactory treatment; the highest mortality is in childhood but some patients may live to an age of 60–70 years.

The carrier condition (sickle-cell trait) occurs when the defective gene is inherited from only one parent. It generally causes no symptoms but confers some protection from malaria, which accounts for the high frequency of the gene in malarious areas. If a general anaesthetic is to be given to a patient with this condition, the anaesthetist should be alerted.... sickle-cell disease

Squamous Bone

see temporal bone.... squamous bone

Squamous Epithelium

see epithelium.... squamous epithelium

Sternberg–reed Cell

see Reed–Sternberg cell.... sternberg–reed cell

Suppressor T Cell

a type of T *lymphocyte that prevents an immune response by B cells or other T cells to an antigen.... suppressor t cell

Transitional Cell Carcinoma

a form of cancer that affects the urothelium, which lines the urinary collecting system of the kidney, ureters, bladder, and the proximal part of the urethra. It is the most common type of bladder cancer.... transitional cell carcinoma

Treg Cell

see regulatory T cell.... treg cell

Union International Contre Le Cancer

see UICC.... union international contre le cancer

Verrucous Carcinoma

an *indolent preinvasive wartlike carcinoma typically of the oral cavity, associated with chewing tobacco, and vulva.... verrucous carcinoma

Vulval Cancer

a relatively rare gynaecological cancer, most common in the elderly. The most common symptom is longstanding itch, but vulval pain, discharge, and bleeding have also been reported. Surgery is the primary treatment, with wide excision by radical *vulvectomy and regional *lymphadenectomy. Radiotherapy and chemotherapy can also be used.... vulval cancer

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