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Given three months to live, Jason Winters, terminal cancer patient, was suffering from infiltrating squamous cell carcinoma wrapped round his carotid artery. Refusing major surgery, he travelled the world in search of native remedies. He was able to contact people who put him on the track of Wild Violet leaves, Red Clover flowers (Trifolium pratense) and leaves of the Chaparral bush (Larrea divaricata). The story of how he infused them, together with a well- known spice, is dramatically recorded in his book “Killing Cancer”. After a spectacular recovery, remission has lasted for over 15 years and others have benefited from his experience.
Treatment by oncologist.
form gland-like structures. An adenocarcinoma arises from epithelium (the layer of cells that lines the inside of organs). Cancers of the colon, breast, pancreas, and kidney are usually adenocarcinomas, as are some cancers of the cervix, oesophagus, salivary glands, and other organs. (See also intestine, cancer of; kidney cancer; pancreas, cancer of.)... BMA Medical Dictionary
Symptoms. Unhealthy pallor, listlessness, sore tongue, dizziness, vague aches and pains, rapid pulse and breathing, tinnitus, palpitation. The skull may be disproportionately large, resistance to infection feeble, chances of survival poor. This form of anaemia is linked with defective colour vision. Impaired liver function. Stunted growth, great pain. Sufferers have a higher risk of infection.
Malaria. Sufferers are less likely to die of malaria because their red cells do not support the growth of malaria parasites very well.
Carriers: Carriers of the sickle-cell gene can now be identified by a simple blood test.
Treatment. No specifics exist but supportive herbal treatment has been known to increase output of red cells and raise haemoglobin levels:– Red Clover flowers, Yellow Dock, Echinacea, Burdock, Wild Indigo, Gentian, Nettles, Birch leaves, Sage, Walnut leaves, Centaury, Gota Kola (Indian Pennywort). Alternatives:– Tea. Mix equal parts: Iceland Moss, Nettles, Red Clover flowers. 2 teaspoons to each cup boiling water; infuse 15 minutes; 1 cup morning and evening.
Decoction. Mix equal parts; Echinacea, Walnut leaves, Balm of Gilead buds; 1 teaspoon to each cup water gently simmered for 20 minutes. Half-1 cup, cold, 3 times daily, before meals.
Tablets/capsules. Sarsaparilla. Ginseng. Iceland Moss. Red Clover. Echinacea. Gentian.
Powders. Formula: Echinacea 1; Fringe Tree half; Ginseng half; White Poplar bark 1. Dose: 500mg (two 00 capsules or one-third teaspoon) thrice daily before meals.
Liquid extracts. Formula. Echinacea 2; Dandelion 1; Oat Husk (avena sativa) 1. Mix. Dose, 1-2 teaspoons before meals, in water or one of the above teas or decoctions.
Tinctures. Same combination. Dose: 2-3 teaspoons.
Dong quai. See entry.
Pollen. Claimed to be of value.
Diet. Dandelion coffee. Molasses. Desiccated liver. Calf liver, fresh. Green leafy vegetables contain chlorophyll, iron and folic acid. Cider vinegar. Dried beans, apricots and shellfish. Dandelion leaves in salads. Milk, eggs, meats, Soya. Carrot juice to increase red cells.
Supplements. Daily. Vitamin B12. Vitamin C, 1g; Folic acid 400mcg, Floradix. Of particular value: Vitamin E 400iu. Zinc.
Note: Those at risk should submit themselves for screening. The disease cannot be cured but can be controlled largely by orthodox measures and sometimes by natural medicine. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine
Most anticancer drugs are cytotoxic (kill or damage rapidly dividing cells), but some act by slowing the growth of hormone-sensitive tumours. Anticancer drugs are often prescribed in combination to maximize their effects.
Treatment with cytotoxic drugs is often given by injection in short courses repeated at intervals. Some drugs cause nausea and vomiting and may result in hair loss and increased susceptibility to infection. Others, such as tamoxifen, which is used for breast cancer, are given continuously by mouth for months or years and cause few side effects.... BMA Medical Dictionary
Red blood cells (also known as RBCs, red blood corpuscles, or erythrocytes) transport oxygen from the lungs to the tissues (see respiration). Each is packed with haemoglobin, enzymes, minerals, and sugars. Abnormalities can occur in the rate at which RBCs are either produced or destroyed, in their numbers, and in their shape, size, and haemoglobin content, causing forms of
anaemia and polycythaemia (see blood, disorders of).
White blood cells (also called WBCs, white blood corpuscles, or leukocytes) protect the body against infection and fight infection when it occurs. The 3 main types of are granulocytes (also called polymorphonuclear leukocytes), monocytes, and lymphocytes. Granulocytes are further classified as neutrophils, eosinophils, or basophils, and each type of granulocyte has a role in either fighting infection or in inflammatory or allergic reactions. Monocytes and lymphocytes also play an important part in the immune system. Lymphocytes are usually formed in the lymph nodes. One type, a T-lymphocyte, is responsible for the delayed hypersensitivity reactions
White (see allergy) and Red blood blood cell is also involved in cell (neutrophil) protection against cancer. T-lymphocytes manufacture chemicals, known as lymphokines, which affect the function of other cells. In addition, the T-cells moderate the activity of B-lymphocytes, which form the antibodies that can prevent a second attack of certain infectious diseases. Platelets (also known as thrombocytes), are the smallest blood cells and are important in blood clotting.
The numbers, shapes, and appearance of the various types of blood cell are of great value in the diagnosis of disease (see blood count; blood film).... BMA Medical Dictionary
The cancers that spread readily to form secondary bone cancer are those of the breast, lung, prostate, thyroid, and kidney.
These bone metastases occur commonly in the spine, pelvis, ribs, and skull.
Pain is usually the main symptom.
Affected bones are abnormally fragile and may easily fracture.
Bone cancer that affects the spine may cause collapse or crushing of vertebrae, damaging the spinal cord and causing weakness or paralysis of one or more limbs.
Secondary bone cancers from the breast and prostate often respond to treatment with hormone antagonists.... BMA Medical Dictionary
The classic sign is a lump in the breast, usually painless; bleeding or discharge from the nipple may occur infrequently. Sometimes the first thing to be noticed is a lump in the axilla (armpit), which is caused by spread of the cancer to the drainage lymph nodes. The tumour may also spread to the bones, lungs, and liver. Current treatment of a localized tumour is usually by surgery (see lumpectomy; mastectomy), with or without radiotherapy; cytotoxic drugs and hormone therapy are used as *adjuvant therapy and *neoadjuvant chemotherapy and for widespread (metastatic) disease. Anti-oestrogenic agents used include *tamoxifen and (more recently) *aromatase inhibitors and *trastuzumab (Herceptin).... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary
The first sign of breast cancer may be a painless lump. Other symptoms may include a dark discharge from the nipple, retraction (indentation) of the nipple, and an area of dimpled, creased skin over the lump. In 90 per cent of the cases, only 1 breast is affected. The cancer may be suspected after discovering a lump during breast self-examination or mammography. If a lump is detected, cells will be collected from it by needle aspiration or surgical biopsy. If the lump is cancerous, the treatment given depends on the woman’s age, the size of the tumour, whether or not there are signs of spread to the lymph nodes, and the sensitivity of the tumour cells to hormones, as assessed in the laboratory. A small tumour, with no evidence of having spread outside the breast, is removed surgically. Lymph nodes in the armpit are also commonly removed at the same time. Surgery may be combined with radiotherapy and/or anticancer drugs.
Secondary tumours in other parts of the body are treated with anticancer drugs and hormones. Regular check-ups are required to detect recurrence or the development of a new cancer in the other breast. If the cancer recurs, it can be controlled, in some cases, for years by drugs and/or radiotherapy.... BMA Medical Dictionary
It is a disease of the slaughter house, veterinary surgeon, farm and meat trade worker. Young males are particularly at risk. In cows, infection may precipitate abortion of a calf but it does not affect the foetus in humans. May produce a rash on the arm of a vet handling a case.
Resembles glandular fever in the acute stage, with fever and high temperature, shivering, headache, profuse sweating, fatigue and anxiety-depression. Symptoms include enlargement of the spleen, liver, lymph glands, sore throat, possible rash, tremor and irritability. In long-standing cases a reactive arthritis may attack the joints. Often, it assumes an attack of influenza, its real nature remaining undiagnosed. Treatment. By medical practitioner. Herbal antibiotics may be regarded as a supportive role. Antibacterials: Garden Thyme, Garlic, Elecampane, Burdock root, Pulsatilla, Echinacea, Poke root, Myrrh, Goldenseal.
Tinctures. Formula. Blue Flag root 30ml; Poke root 15ml; Fringe Tree 30ml; Echinacea 60ml. Dose: 1-2 teaspoons in water every 2 hours (acute); 1 teaspoon thrice daily (chronic condition). ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine
Causes In Malta and the Mediterranean littoral, the causative organism is the bacterium Brucella melitensis which is conveyed in goat’s milk. In Great Britain, the US and South Africa, the causative organism is the Brucella abortus, which is conveyed in cow’s milk: this is the organism which is responsible for contagious abortion in cattle. In Great Britain brucellosis is largely an occupational disease and is now prescribed as an industrial disease (see OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES), and insured persons who contract the disease at work can claim industrial injuries bene?t. The incidence of brucellosis in the UK has fallen from more than 300 cases a year in 1970 to single ?gures.
Symptoms The characteristic features of the disease are undulating fever, drenching sweats, pains in the joints and back, and headache. The liver and spleen may be enlarged. The diagnosis is con?rmed by the ?nding of Br. abortus, or antibodies to it, in the blood. Recovery and convalescence tend to be slow.
Treatment The condition responds well to one of the tetracycline antibiotics, and also to gentamicin and co-trimoxazole, but relapse is common. In chronic cases a combination of streptomycin and one of the tetracyclines is often more e?ective.
Prevention It can be prevented by boiling or pasteurising all milk used for human consumption. In Scandinavia, the Netherlands, Switzerland and Canada the disease has disappeared following its eradication in animals. Brucellosis has been eradicated from farm animals in the United Kingdom.... Medical Dictionary
Causes of cancer include environmental factors such as sunlight, smoking, pollutants, alcohol consumption, and dietary factors. These factors may provoke critical changes in body cells in susceptible people. Susceptibility to certain cancers may be inherited.
Many cancers are now curable, usually by combinations of surgery, radiotherapy, and anticancer drugs. For information on particular cancers, refer to the organ in question (for example lung cancer; stomach cancer).... BMA Medical Dictionary
There are many causative factors, some of which are known; for example, cigarette smoking is associated with lung cancer, radiation with some sarcomas and leukaemia, and several viruses are implicated (see oncogenic). A genetic element is implicated in the development of many cancers. In many cancers a gene called *p53 is deleted or impaired: its normal function is to prevent the uncontrolled division of cells (see tumour necrosis factor). Whatever the initiating cause, cancer always results ultimately from DNA mutations.
Treatment of cancer depends on the type of tumour, the site of the primary tumour, and the extent of spread. *Truth-telling will be important for most cancer patients but is still hard for some clinicians.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary
Cancers are classi?ed according to the type of cell from which they are derived as well as the organ of origin. Hence cancers arising within the bronchi, often collectively referred to as ‘lung cancer’, include both adenocarcinomas, derived from epithelium (surface tissue), and carcinomas from glandular tissue. Sarcomas are cancers of connective tissue, including bone and cartilage. The behaviour of cancers and their response to therapy vary widely depending on this classi?cation as well as on numerous other factors such as how large the cancer is, how fast the cells grow and how well de?ned they are. It is entirely wrong to see cancer as a single disease entity with a universally poor prognosis. For example, fewer than one-half of women in whom breast cancer (see BREASTS, DISEASES OF) is discovered will die from the disease, and 75 per cent of children with lymphoblastic LEUKAEMIA can be cured.
Incidence In most western countries, cancer is the second most important cause of death after heart disease and accounts for 20–25 per cent of all deaths. In the United Kingdom in 2003, more than 154,000 people died of malignant disease. There is wide international variation in the most frequently encountered types of cancer, re?ecting the importance of environmental factors in the development of cancer. In the UK as well as the US, carcinoma of the BRONCHUS is the most common. Since it is usually inoperable at the time of diagnosis, it is even more strikingly the leading cause of cancer deaths. In women, breast cancer was for a long time the most common malignant disease, accounting for a quarter of all cancers, but ?gures for the late 1990s show that lung cancer now heads the incidence list – presumably the consequence of a rising incidence of smoking among young women. Other common sites are as follows: males – colon and rectum, prostate and bladder; females – colon and rectum, uterus, ovary and pancreas.
In 2003, of the more than 154,000 people in the UK who died of cancer, over 33,000 had the disease in their respiratory system, nearly 13,000 in the breast, over 5,800 in the stomach and more than 2,000 in the uterus or cervix, while over 4,000 people had leukaemia. The incidence of cancer varies with age; the older a person is, the more likely it is that he or she will develop the disease. The over-85s have an incidence about nine times greater than those in the 25–44 age group. There are also di?erences in incidence between sexes: for example, more men than women develop lung cancer, though the incidence in women is rising as the effects of smoking work through. The death rate from cancer is falling in people under 75 in the UK, a trend largely determined by the cancers which cause the most deaths: lung, breast, colorectal, stomach and prostate.
Causes In most cases the causes of cancer remain unknown, though a family history of cancer may be relevant. Rapid advances have, however, been made in the past two decades in understanding the di?erences between cancer cells and normal cells at the genetic level. It is now widely accepted that cancer results from acquired changes in the genetic make-up of a particular cell or group of cells which ultimately lead to a failure of the normal mechanisms regulating their growth. It appears that in most cases a cascade of changes is required for cells to behave in a truly malignant fashion; the critical changes affect speci?c key GENES, known as oncogenes, which are involved in growth regulation. (See APOPTOSIS.)
Since small genetic errors occur within cells at all times – most but not all of which are repaired – it follows that some cancers may develop as a result of an accumulation of random changes which cannot be attributed to environmental or other causes. The environmental factors known to cause cancer, such as radiation and chemicals (including tar from tobacco, asbestos, etc.), do so by increasing the overall rate of acquired genetic damage. Certain viral infections can induce speci?c cancers (e.g. HEPATITIS B VIRUS and HEPATOMA, EPSTEIN BARR VIRUS and LYMPHOMA) probably by inducing alterations in speci?c genes. HORMONES may also be a factor in the development of certain cancers such as those of the prostate and breast. Where there is a particular family tendency to certain types of cancer, it now appears that one or more of the critical genetic abnormalities required for development of that cancer may have been inherited. Where environmental factors such as tobacco smoking or asbestos are known to cause cancer, then health education and preventive measures can reduce the incidence of the relevant cancer. Cancer can also affect the white cells in the blood and is called LEUKAEMIA.
Treatment Many cancers can be cured by surgical removal if they are detected early, before there has been spread of signi?cant numbers of tumour cells to distant sites. Important within this group are breast, colon and skin cancer (melanoma). The probability of early detection of certain cancers can be increased by screening programmes in which (ideally) all people at particular risk of development of such cancers are examined at regular intervals. Routine screening for CERVICAL CANCER and breast cancer (see BREASTS, DISEASES OF) is currently practised in the UK. The e?ectiveness of screening people for cancer is, however, controversial. Apart from questions surrounding the reliability of screening tests, they undoubtedly create anxieties among the subjects being screened.
If complete surgical removal of the tumour is not possible because of its location or because spread from the primary site has occurred, an operation may nevertheless be helpful to relieve symptoms (e.g. pain) and to reduce the bulk of the tumour remaining to be dealt with by alternative means such as RADIOTHERAPY or CHEMOTHERAPY. In some cases radiotherapy is preferable to surgery and may be curative, for example, in the management of tumours of the larynx or of the uterine cervix. Certain tumours are highly sensitive to chemotherapy and may be cured by the use of chemotherapeutic drugs alone. These include testicular tumours, LEUKAEMIA, LYMPHOMA and a variety of tumours occurring in childhood. These tend to be rapidly growing tumours composed of primitive cells which are much more vulnerable to the toxic effects of the chemotherapeutic agents than the normal cells within the body.
Unfortunately neither radiotherapy nor currently available chemotherapy provides a curative option for the majority of common cancers if surgical excision is not feasible. New e?ective treatments in these conditions are urgently needed. Nevertheless the rapidly increasing knowledge of cancer biology will almost certainly lead to novel therapeutic approaches – including probably genetic techniques utilising the recent discoveries of oncogenes (genes that can cause cancer). Where cure is not possible, there often remains much that can be done for the cancer-sufferer in terms of control of unpleasant symptoms such as pain. Many of the most important recent advances in cancer care relate to such ‘palliative’ treatment, and include the establishment in the UK of palliative care hospices.
Families and patients can obtain valuable help and advice from Marie Curie Cancer Care, Cancer Relief Macmillan Fund, or the British Association of Cancer United Patients.
www.mariecurie.org.uk... Medical Dictionary
Course of the disease is unpredictable, cases surviving for many years on primary or supportive herbal treatment. Suspected malignancy should be referred to modern hospital treatment immediately. Early detection is vital.
Common signs calling attention are: (1) Unusual bleeding or discharge. (2) Tired feeling all the time. (3) Thickening or lump in breast or elsewhere. (4) Sudden change in hair texture and colour. (5) Irritable cough or hoarseness. (6) Extreme mental depression. (7) Obvious change in a mole or wart. (8) Muscle weakness and cramps. (9) A sore that does not heal. (10) Change in bowel or bladder habit. (11) Sudden weakness of the eyes. (12) Difficulties in swallowing; indigestion. (13) Excess wind in stomach or bowel.
Tumour-killing effect of chemotherapy may be intensified and side-effects minimised (loss of weight, and of white blood cells) when certain neoplastic herbs are prescribed. Cytotoxic drugs inhibit the ability of Vitamin C to stimulate the body’s defences. Herbs enhance the body’s self-healing ability to eliminate. An inoperable cancer would appear to be good grounds for herbal medication which often relieves pain and preserves a man’s dignity in his hour of extremity.
A series of medical trials in Finland revealed that terminal cases had 12 per cent lower mean serum selenium concentration than controls. Other similar trials point to the need for selenium supplements. Those with both low selenium and low Vitamin E levels are especially at risk.
See: GERSON CANCER THERAPY.
Exercise. High levels of fitness are associated with lower death rates. (American study)
Plants with a special reference to cancer include: Blue Flag, Burdock, Clivers, Condurango, Echinacea, Guaiacum, Houseleek, Poke root. There are many more referred to in medical literature.
Poke Root. John Bartram reported in the late 18th century that from his experience among the Mohawk Indians, Poke root (Phytolacca decandra) was a “cure” for cancer. (American Indian Medicine, Virgil J. Vogel)
Blood Root. For internal or external bleeding of cancer.
Calendula (Marigold). For the same purpose.
Mistletoe. Dr Alfred Vogel advises an extract of the plant (Loranthus europaeus) as grown on the Oak tree: dose: 10-15 drops.
Almonds. Edgar Cayce, Virginia Beach, USA, with some successes to his credit, advised eating three almonds a day to counter any tendency towards the disease.
Laetrile. From Apricot kernels that contain cyanogenic glucosides. Though competent physicians have reported positive results in some terminal cases without prior surgery or radiation, the remedy has been withdrawn from general practice because of possible toxicity.
Much needless suffering may be incurred because of out-moded resistance of doctors and governments against prescribing morphine early in cancer patients. It is estimated that 50-80 per cent of patients do not receive satisfactory pain-relief because doctors fear tolerance of the drug would increase, necessitating a higher dosage. From the beginning of time the Opium Poppy has been the most effective analgesic for the terminal condition. Morphine is a respiratory depressant and some authorities believe it should be given before the final stages in continuous doses for adequate pain control. Risks must be balanced with benefits. Dangerous in asthmatics.
Way of Life. Herbal medication of malignant disease involves the patient with his treatment. Here is something he or she can do to regain some control over their life. It can give them the satisfaction of knowing that in some way they are ‘fighting back’ thus influencing the quality of life and a sense of well- being.
If improvement in cancer is not possible maybe the condition can be stabilised and the patient helped to cope with the very unpleasant side-effects of chemotherapy and radiation. Thus, may be restored the body’s natural balance and a possible extension of lifespan.
For this, patients and practitioners may need information and support. That is why suggestions for malignant disease are included in this book. Moreover, well-meaning friends and relatives may exert pressure on the patient ‘to leave no stone unturned’ in search of a cure. Thus every possible secondary treatment should be considered since any one may prove to contribute towards recovery. It is hoped that this book will invite a therapeutic alliance with members of the medical profession as well as with other practitioners.
Macmillan nurses help alleviate physical pain and the psychological distress that can accompany this illness. They are trained to help people with cancer and their families fight cancer with more than medicine.
All forms of cancer should be treated by or in liaison with a qualified medical practitioner or an oncologist. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine
Symptoms. A small lump comes to light while washing, a discharge from the nipple, change in nipple size and colour, irregular contour of the breast surface. Though tissue change is likely to be a cyst, speedy diagnosis and treatment are necessary. Some hospital physicians and surgeons are known to view favourably supportive herbal aids, and do not always think in terms of radical mastectomy. Dr Finlay Ellingwood, Chicago physician (1916) cured a case by injection of one dram Echinacea root extract twice a week into the surrounding tissues.
The condition is believed to be due to a number of causes including suppression of ovulation and oestrogen secretion in pregnant and lactating women. A high fat diet is suspected of interference with the production of oestrogen. Some women are constitutionally disposed to the condition which may be triggered by trauma or emotional shock. Increase in incidence in older women has been linked with excessive sugar consumption. “Consumption overwhelms the pancreas which has to ‘push it out’ to all parts of the body (when broken down by the digestive process) whether they need it or not. The vital organs are rationed according to their requirements of nutrients from the diet. What is left over has to ‘go into store elsewhere’. And the breast is forced to take its share and store it. If it gets too much, for too long, it may rebel!” (Stephen Seely, Department of Bacteriology and Virology, Manchester)
“Women who nurse their babies less than one month are at an increased risk for breast cancer. The longer a woman breast-feeds – no matter what her age – the more the risk decreases. (Marion Tompson, co-founder, The La Leche League, in the American Journal of Epidemiology)
Lactation reduces the risk of pre-menopausal breast cancer. (Newcomb P.A. et al New England Journal of Medicine, 330 1994)
There is currently no treatment to cure metastatic breast cancer. In spite of chemotherapy, surgery and radiotherapy survival rate has not diminished. Herbs not only have a palliative effect but, through their action on hormone function offer a positive contribution towards overcoming the condition. Their activity has been widely recorded in medical literature. Unlike cytotoxic drugs, few have been known to cause alopecia, nausea, vomiting or inflammation of the stomach.
Treatment by a general medical practitioner or oncologist.
Special investigations. Low radiation X-ray mammography to confirm diagnosis. Test for detection of oestrogen receptor protein.
Treatment. Surgery may be necessary. Some patients may opt out from strong personal conviction, choosing a rigid self-disciplined approach – the Gentle Way. Every effort is made to build up the body’s natural defences (immune system).
An older generation of herbalists believed tissue change could follow a bruise on the breast, which should not be neglected but immediately painted with Tincture Arnica or Tincture Bellis perennis.
Vincristine, an alkaloid from Vinca rosea (Catharanthus roseus) is used by the medical profession as an anti-neoplastic and anti-mitotic agent to inhibit cell division.
Of possible therapeutic value. Blue Flag root, Burdock root, Chaparral, Clivers, Comfrey root, Echinacea, Figwort, Gotu Kola, Marshmallow root, Mistletoe, Myrrh, Prickly Ash bark, Red Clover, Thuja, Wild Violet, Yellow Dock.
Tea. Equal parts: Red Clover, Clivers, Gotu Kola, Wild Violet. 1 heaped teaspoon to each cup boiling water; infuse 5-15 minutes. 3 or more cups daily.
Decoctions. Echinacea, Blue Flag root, Queen’s Delight, Yellow Dock.
Tablets/capsules. Blue Flag root, Echinacea, Poke root, Mistletoe.
Formula. Echinacea 2; Gotu Kola 1; Poke root 1; Mistletoe 1; Vinca rosea 1. Mix. Dose: Powders: 500mg (two 00 capsules or one-third teaspoon). Liquid extracts: 1 teaspoon. Tinctures: 2 teaspoons. Thrice daily and at bedtime. According to progress of the disease, increase dosage as tolerated.
Maria Treben’s tea. Parts: Marigold (3), Yarrow 1; Nettles 1. Mix. 2 teaspoons to each cup boiling water. 1 cup as many times daily as tolerated.
William Boericke, M.D. recommends Houseleek. E.H. Ruddock M.D. favours Figwort.
Topical. Treatments believed to be of therapeutic value or for use as a soothing application.
(1) Cold poultice: Comfrey root.
(2) Poultice of fresh Marshmallow root pulped in juicer.
(3) Injection of Extract Greater Celandine (Chelidonium), locally, gained a reputation in the Eclectic school.
(4) The action of Blood root (Sanguinaria) is well known as a paint or injection.
(5) Ragwort poultice: 2oz Ragwort boiled in half a pint potato water for 15 minutes. See: POULTICE.
(6) Popular Russian traditional remedy: Badiaga (Spongilla fluviatilis), fresh water sponge gathered in the autumn; dried plant rubbed to a powder. Poultice.
(7) Maria Treben’s Poultice: Carefully washed fresh Plantain leaves, pulped, and applied direct to the lesion.
(8) If lymph glands are affected, apply Plantain poultice to glands.
(9) Dr Brandini’s treatment. Dr Brandini, Florence, used 4 grains Citric Acid (prepared from lemons) in 1oz (30ml) water for ulcerated cancer of the breast considered incurable. “The woman’s torments were so distressing that neither she nor other patients could get any rest. Applying lint soaked in the solution, relief was instantaneous. Repeated, it was successful.”
(10) Circuta leaves. Simmered till soft and mixed with Slippery Elm bark powder as a poultice morning and night.
(11) Decoction. Simmer gently Yellow Dock roots, fine cut or powdered, 1oz to 1 pint, 20 minutes. Saturate lint or suitable material and apply.
(12) Yellow Dock ointment. Half ounce Lobelia seed, half ounce Yellow Dock root powder. Baste into an ointment base. See: OINTMENT BASE.
(13) Infusion, for use as a wash. Equal parts: Horsetail, Red Clover, Raspberry leaves. 1oz to 1 pint boiling water infuse 15 minutes.
(14) Dr Christopher’s Ointment. Half an ounce White Oak, half an ounce Garden Sage, half an ounce Tormentil, half an ounce Horsetail, half an ounce Lemon Balm. Method: Boil gently half an hour in quart water, strain. Reduce to half a pint by simmering. Add half a pound honey. Bring to boil. Skim off scum. Allow cool. Apply: twice daily on sores.
(15) Dr Finlay Ellingwood. Poke root juice. “Fresh juice from the stems, leaves and roots applied directly to diseased tissue. Exercises a selective action; induces liquefaction and promotes removal, sometimes healing the open wound and encouraging scar formation. Masses of such tissue have been known to be destroyed in a few weeks with only a scar, with no other application but the fresh juice. Produces pain at first, but is otherwise harmless.”
(16) Lesion painted with Mandrake resin. (American Podophyllum)
(17) Dust affected parts with Comfrey powder. Mucilage from Comfrey powder or crushed root with the aid of a little milk. See: COMFREY.
(18) Dr Samuel Thomson’s Cancer Plaster. “Take heads of Red Clover and fill a kettle. Boil in water for one hour. Remove and fill kettle with fresh flower heads. Boil as before in the same liquor. Strain and press heads to express all the liquor. Simmer over a low fire till of the consistency of tar. It must not burn. Spread over a piece of suitable material.”
(19) Wipe affected area with cut Houseleek. (Dr Wm Boericke)
(20) Chinese Herbalism. Take 1-2 Liang pulverised liao-ko-wang (Wickstroemia indica), mix with cold boiled water or rice wine for local compress. Also good for mastitis.
(21) Italian women once used an old traditional remedy – Fenugreek tea.
(22) A clinical trial of Vitamin D provided encouraging results. Patients with locally advanced breast cancer were given a highly active Vitamin D analogue cream to rub on their tumours. “It was effective in one third of the tumours,” said Professor Charles Coombes, clinical oncologist, Charing Cross Hospital, London.
Diet. “A diet rich in cereal products (high in dietary fibre) and green leafy vegetables (antioxidants) would appear to offer women some protection against breast cancer due to the relation between fibre and oestrogen metabolism. Meat-free diet. In a study of 75 adolescent girls, vegetarians were found to have higher levels of a hormone that women suffering from breast cancer often lack. (Cancer Research) Supplements. Daily. Chromium. Selenium (600mcg). Zinc chelate (100mg morning and evening). Beta carotene. “Low levels of Selenium and Vitamins A and E are shown in breast cancer cases.” (British Journal of Cancer 49: 321-324, 1984).
Vitamins A and D inhibit virus penetration in healthy cell walls. Multivitamin combinations should not include Vitamin B12, production of which in the body is much increased in cancerous conditions. Vitamins B-complex and C especially required.
Note: A link between sugar consumption and breast cancer has been reported by some authorities who suggest that countries at the top of the mortality table are the highest also in sugar consumption; the operative factor believed to be insulin.
Screening. Breast screening should be annual from the age of forty.
General. Mothers are encouraged to breast-feed children for the protection it offers against mammary malignancy. (Am.J. Obstet. Gyn. 15/9/1984. 150.)
Avoidance of stress situations by singing, playing an instrument. Adopt relaxation techniques, spiritual healing and purposeful meditation to arouse the immune system; intensive visualisation. Avoid the carcinogens: smoking, alcohol.
Information. Breast Cancer Care. Free Help Line. UK Telephone: 0500 245345. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine
Diagnosis is confirmed by sputum test, chest X-ray, bronchoscopy or biopsy. Earliest symptoms are persistent cough, pain in the chest, hoarseness of voice and difficulty of breathing. Physical examination is likely to reveal sensitivity and swelling of lymph nodes under arms.
Symptoms. Tiredness, lack of energy, possible pains in bones and over liver area. Clubbing of finger-tips indicate congestion of the lungs. Swelling of arms, neck and face may be obvious. A haematologist may find calcium salts in the blood. The supportive action of alteratives, eliminatives and lymphatic agents often alleviate symptoms where the act of swallowing has not been impaired.
Broncho-dilators (Lobelia, Ephedra, etc) assist breathing. Mullein has some reputation for pain relief. To arrest bleeding from the lesion (Blood root).
According to Dr Madaus, Germany, Rupturewort is specific on lung tissue. To disperse sputum (Elecampane, Red Clover). In advanced cases there may be swollen ankles and kidney breakdown for which Parsley root, Parsley Piert or Buchu may be indicated. Cough (Sundew, Irish Moss). Soft cough with much sputum (Iceland Moss). To increase resistance (Echinacea).
Alternatives. Secondary to primary treatment. Of possible value.
Teas. Violet leaves, Mullein leaves, Yarrow leaves, Gotu Kola leaves, White Horehound leaves. Flavour with a little Liquorice if unpalatable.
Tablets/capsules. Lobelia, Iceland Moss, Echinacea, Poke root.
Formula. Equal parts: Violet, Red Clover, Garden Thyme, Yarrow, Liquorice. Dose: Powders: 750mg (three 00 capsules or half a teaspoon. Liquid Extracts: 1-2 teaspoons. Tinctures: 1-3 teaspoons. Thrice daily, and during the night if relief is sought.
Practitioner. Tinctures BHP (1983). Ephedra 4; Red Clover 4, Yellow Dock 2; Bugleweed 2; Blood root quarter; Liquorice quarter (liquid extract). Mix. Start low: 30-60 drops in water before meals and at bedtime increasing to maximum tolerance level.
Aromatherapy. Oils: Eucalyptus or Thyme on tissue to assist breathing. Inhale.
Diet. See: DIET – CANCER.
Treatment by a general medical practitioner or hospital specialist. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine
Of possible value. Condor plant, Figwort, Goldenseal, Echinacea. Wm Boericke MD advised Goldenseal. J.T. Kent MD mentions Poke root.
Powders. Formula. Echinacea 2; Figwort 1; Goldenseal half; Condurango half; Thuja quarter. Pinch Cayenne. Dose: 500mg (two 00 capsules or one-third teaspoon) thrice or more daily, as tolerated. Tinctures. Formula. Echinacea 2; Stone root half; Condurango half; Asafoetida quarter. Few drops Tincture Capsicum. Dose: 30-60 drops thrice or more daily, as tolerated.
Topical. Comfrey ointment made from the fresh plant.
Diet. See: DIET – CANCER.
Treatment by or in liaison with a general medical practitioner. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine
Symptoms: Blood in the urine with absence of pain on passing water in early stages. Then, burning frequency, especially at night. Kidneys become involved. Growths range from papilloma to tumour which may ulcerate in later stages.
The lesion is confirmed by cystoscopy (examination of the bladder by insertion of an instrument to illuminate inner surfaces and makes possible a direct view of the affected tissues). Even when the condition is healed this examination is repeatedly necessary to detect recurrence.
Two kinds: (1) papillary epithelioma (2) squamous cell epithelioma.
Tea. Formula. Equal parts: Marshmallow root, Clivers, Horsetail, Shepherd’s purse. 1-2 teaspoons to each cup boiling water; infuse 10-15 minutes. 2 cups or more daily.
Decoction. Barberry bark cold infusion. 1 teaspoon to each cup cold water. Steep over night. 2 cups or more daily.
Tinctures. Formula. Horsetail 1; Clivers 2; Barberry 1. Mix. 1-2 teaspoons (5-10ml) 2 or more times daily. If inflammation is present add Meadowsweet 1.
Dr William Boericke, physician, advised Dandelion to lessen symptoms.
Diet. See: DIET – CANCER.
Supplements. Emphasis on Vitamins A and C. (Vitamin A in epithelial tumours, ‘New Scientist’ (1975) 303)
Treatment offered as a supportive to specific modern hospital techniques. Treatment by or in liaison with a general medical practitioner. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine
The facial lesion finally disappeared. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine
Formula. Corn Silk 3; Plantain (Plantago major L) 2; Golden Rod 1; Hydrangea 1; Valerian half. Dosage: thrice daily before meals. Liquid Extracts: 1 teaspoon. Tinctures: 2 teaspoons. Powders: two 00 capsules or one-third teaspoon. This may be used as a basic combination to be adapted to a changing clinical picture.
Treatment by a general medical practitioner or oncologist. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine
Symptoms. Cough, hoarseness, difficult swallowing. ‘Always clearing the throat.’ Differs from a polyp or papilloma on the vocal chords which are benign.
Of possible value:– Teas. Balm, Chamomile, Gotu Kola, Red Clover, Red Sage, Yarrow. Plantain (Arthur Hyde MNIMH)
Tea (mild analgesic). Mix equal parts: Balm and German Chamomile. 1 heaped teaspoon to each cup boiling water; infuse 5 minutes. 1 cup freely.
Tablets/capsules. Blue Flag root, Echinacea, Poke root.
Formula. Echinacea 2; Mullein 2; Goldenseal quarter. Mix. Dose: Powders: 750mg (three 00 capsules or half a teaspoon). Liquid extracts: 1-2 teaspoons. Tinctures: 1-3 teaspoons. Thrice daily and at bedtime. Diet. Slippery Elm gruel.
Supplements. Vitamins A and C.
Treatment by a general medical practitioner or a hospital oncologist. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine
Symptoms. Jaundice. Ascites (excess fluid in the abdomen). Tenderness and enlargement of right upper abdomen; hobnail to the touch.
Alternatives: for possible relief of symptoms:–
Dandelion juice (fresh): 4 drachms (14ml) every 4 hours.
Wormwood tea freely.
Tea. Equal parts: Agrimony, Gotu Kola, Milk Thistle. Mix. 1 heaped teaspoon to each cup boiling water; infuse 5-10 minutes. 1 cup freely.
Decoction. Dandelion 2; Clivers 1; Liquorice 1; Blue Flag root half. Mix. 30g (1oz) to 500ml (1 pint) water gently simmered 20 minutes. Dose: half-1 cup 3 or more times daily.
Tablets/capsules. Blue Flag root, Goldenseal, Prickly Ash.
Formula. Dandelion 2; Milk Thistle 2; Fennel 1; Peppermint 1. Mix. Dose: Powders: 750mg (three 00 capsules or half a teaspoon). Liquid extracts: 1-2 teaspoons. Tinctures: 1-2 teaspoons. 3 or more times daily.
Biostrath artichoke formula.
Practitioner. Dandelion juice (fresh) 4oz; Wahoo bark Liquid extract 10 drops. Violet leaves Liquid extract 10.5ml. Tincture Goldenseal 10 drops. Dose: 2 teaspoons in water thrice daily. To each dose add 10 drops Liquid extract Oats (avena). (W. Burns-Lingard MNIMH)
Vinchristine. Success has been reported following use of the Periwinkle plant (Vinca rosea).
Greater Celandine has been regarded of value.
Chinese Herbalism. See: CANCER: CHINESE PRESCRIPTION. Also: Pulverised t’ien chihuang (Hypericum japonicum) 1 liang, mixed with rock sugar, with boiled water, 3 times daily. Also of value for cirrhosis.
Epsom’s salt Baths (hot): to encourage elimination of impurities through the skin. Diet. Limit fats. Protein diet to increase bile flow.
Treatment by a general medical practitioner or hospital oncologist. CANCER – LYMPH VESSELS. See: HODGKIN’S DISEASE. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine
Causes: occupational hazards, contact with toxic metals and minerals.
A Health Department’s committee found an increased risk of developing mouth cancer from “snuff- dipping”, the practice of sucking tobacco from a small sachet, “tobacco teabags”.
Of possible value:– Fresh plant juices, Houseleek, Aloe Vera.
Teas: Chickweed, Mullein, Comfrey. 1 heaped teaspoon to each cup boiling water; infuse 15 minutes; dose – 1 cup thrice daily, increasing to as much as well tolerated.
Condurango Liquid extract. 10-30 drops in water before meals.
Goldenseal Liquid extract. 3-5 drops in water before meals.
George Burford MD. Condurango and Goldenseal.
E.H. Ruddock MD 1925. “Several cases of cancer of the lips have been cured by Goldenseal.”
Topical. Wipe area with Liquid Extract Condurango, Goldenseal, Thuja, Poke root or fresh plant juices of above. Slippery Elm paste: powdered Slippery Elm in few drops milk or water.
Mouthwash. Equal parts: Liquid Extract Goldenseal, Liquid Extract Bayberry, Tincture Myrrh and Glycerine. Some may be swallowed as internal medicine. Comfrey, Mullein or Chickweed cream.
Diet. See: DIET – CANCER.
Treatment by a general medical practitioner or hospital oncologist. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine
Anyone over 40 who has recurrent sore throat for more than six weeks should visit his family doctor. Symptoms. Pain, headache, paralysis of eye muscles.
Of possible value. Alternatives:– Teas. Violet leaves, Red Clover flowers, Plantain. 1-2 teaspoons to each cup boiling water; infuse 5-15 minutes. Drink freely.
Decoction. Combination. Goldenseal 1; Poke root 1; Yellow Dock 3; Marshmallow root 3. Place half an ounce (15g) in 1 pint (500ml) water simmered gently 20 minutes. Half a cup or more, as freely as tolerated.
Formula. Echinacea 2; Goldenseal 1; Poke root half; Thuja quarter; Liquorice half. Mix. Dose: Powders: 500mg (two 00 capsules or one-third teaspoon). Liquid extracts: 1 teaspoon. Tinctures: 2 teaspoons. Three or more times daily as tolerated.
Case of Lady Margaret Marsham, Maidstone. Cured of cancer of the throat by Violet leaf tea. Boiling water was poured on fresh Violet leaves (wild, not cultivated) and allowed to stand 12 hours. Compresses were moistened and applied externally to the throat and covered with oil silk. Relief was immediate. Difficult swallowing, sense of suffocation and the visible swelling disappeared within one week, the growth on the tonsil within a fortnight.
Treatment by a general medical practitioner or hospital oncologist. Diet. See: DIET – CANCER. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine
Seldom before 45 years. Frequently in lower one-third of gullet. Dysphagia, with sense of obstruction on swallowing food. May perforate wall of trachea. Pain, worse at night, radiates from an exact spot. Eating hot food and drinking piping hot tea are heavily suspect.
At risk. Heavy smokers and alcoholics with depleted reserves of Vitamin A and zinc. These two factors play an important role in modern treatment.
Occurs in areas where the soil is low in molybdenum which causes plants to have a high level of nitrates. When such plants are stored they form nitrites which in turn form nitrosamines – which are carcinogens. Experimental rats given nitrous amines have a strong tendency to form cancer of the oesophagus. Eating pickled vegetables carries a high risk.
There are a few areas of the world where these adverse soil conditions pertain – one in Iran, another in Calvados, but the worst was in Lin Xian of the province of Honan, China. In Lin Xian, in the 1970s, it was found that villagers ate mainly persimmon and corn cakes and pickled vegetables. These, and their water, were high in nitrates. It was also their habit to eat mouldy bread which is high in amines – even nitrosamines. Their food was deficient in Vitamin C, which is likely to produce nitrous amines in the stomach.
The molybdenum problem was solved by sowing seeds with a fertiliser containing molybdenum. Piped water replaced old cistern wells and food was carefully stored. Even the chickens oesophageal cancers were cured. As a result of modern scientific investigation and treatment in which medicinal herbs made an important contribution, what was once a high gullet cancer area was resolved into one of the success stories of modern medicine.
Tannin has long been identified as a cancer-causing chemical, supported by findings of a high incidence of the disease among those who consume large quantities of tannin-containing beverages such as tea. Milk binds with tannin and is advised in tea-drinking where lemon is not taken.
Solid drugs and tablets should not be swallowed in the recumbent position without chewing a piece of banana.
Symptoms. (1) Sensation of obstruction when swallowing food. (2) Sharp pain behind breastbone. (3) “Something stuck in the gullet.” (4) Stomach ache, dry throat. (5) Belching when taking food. (6) Soreness of the upper back. (Dr Ge-ming, Lin Xian, Province of Honan, Chinese People’s Republic)
Of possible value. Alternatives:– Tea. Equal parts: Chaparral, Gotu Kola, Red Clover. 1 heaped teaspoon to each cup boiling water; infuse 15 minutes. Drink freely.
Powders. Combination. Goldenseal 1; Echinacea 2; Slippery Elm 3. Dose: 750mg (three 00 capsules or half a teaspoon). 3 or more times daily.
Tinctures. Combination. Goldenseal 1; Bayberry 1; Thuja 1; Condurango 1; Rosebay Willowherb 2. One teaspoon 3 or more times daily.
Chinese Herbalism. Powdered Huang yao-tzu 3 ch’ien, 3 times daily. Remedy is prepared by taking 12 liang of huang yao-tzu and steeping in 3 chin of white wine 24 hours. Then place huang yao-tzu in cold water and soak for another 7 days and 7 nights. Take out, dry and crush into powder. (A Barefoot Doctor’s Manual)
Diet. Leafy vegetables, carrots, tomatoes and fruit help to protect against the disease. Supplements. Especially Vitamin A, zinc and molybdenum.
Treatment by a general medical practitioner or hospital oncologist. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine
Symptoms. Failing appetite, weight loss, flatulence, bowel symptoms, bladder disturbance, abdominal pain, clothes tight around the abdomen. The disease usually presents after the age of 45, users of contraceptives having a lower risk of development.
Risk of ovarian cancer has been related to women who consume too much animal fat and too little vegetable fat (JAM Nov. 1984). A similar risk is recorded in a report from Milan providing strong evidence of its relation to excessive coffee consumption.
Researchers at John Hopkin’s University, Baltimore, USA, report success with Taxol, extracted from the bark of the Pacific Yew Tree, given intravenously to 40 women with ovarian cancer resistant to other therapies, caused a 50 per cent decrease in size of the tumours. (New Scientist 1989, 1687, p37) Treatment. Should it be necessary to defer surgery or cytotoxic chemotherapy, any of the following alternatives may be taken with profit, or prescribed as secondary to primary treatment.
Tea. Equal parts: Agnus Castus, Gotu Kola, Red Clover. 1 heaped teaspoon to each cup boiling water; infuse 5-15 minutes. Drink freely.
Formula. Cramp bark 3; Liquorice 1; Thuja 1; Poke root half. Mix. Dose: Powders: 750mg (three 00 capsules or half a teaspoon). Liquid extracts: 1 teaspoon. Tinctures: 2 teaspoons. Thrice daily.
Vaginal pack. 8 parts Slippery Elm powder mixed with 1 part Thuja powder in a little water to form a paste; saturate tampon and insert.
Dr J. Christopher. For pre- and post-operative pain: Black Willow.
British Herbal Pharmacopoeia. Cramp bark for pain.
Diet. See: DIET – CANCER. Drinks of Violet leaf tea freely.
Supplements. Post-operative treatment should include Comfrey and Calcium to counter the loss of calcium on surgical removal, with possible brittle and broken bones in ageing women.
Note: When a potential lesion is found, a pelvic ultrasound scan may confirm.
Treatment by gynaecologist or oncologist. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine
Symptoms. Weight loss. Pain upper abdomen. Change of bowel habit. Phlebitis. Low blood sugar. Sugar in the urine. Jaundice when head of the pancreas is involved. As little benefit is said to be gained from chemotherapy or radiotherapy, and because a majority of these tumours are unresectable, there would appear to be good grounds for herbal medicine, either as primary or supportive treatment.
Of possible therapeutic value for relief of accompanying gastric and pressure symptoms only: Sarsaparilla, Liquorice, Dandelion, Peppermint, Fennel, German Chamomile.
Tea. Barberry bark. 1 teaspoon to each cup of cold water. Steep overnight. Dose: half-1 cup 3 or more times daily.
Formula. Equal parts: Barberry bark, Dandelion, Galangal. Dose: Powders: 500mg (two 00 capsules or one-third teaspoon). Liquid extracts: 1 teaspoon (5ml). Tinctures: 2 teaspoons. Thrice daily to commence: after fourteen days increase as tolerated.
Primrose oil. High doses GLA believed to improve immune system and prevent weight loss.
Macrobiotic diet. A retired English doctor had cancer of the pancreas, inoperable, the size of a cricket ball, for which conventional treatment could do nothing. Regression being almost impossible, he would die within a few months. In the meantime he was advised to try the Macrobiotic diet comprising wholefoods, compost grown vegetables, vegetable oils and natural drinks such as carrot juice and herbal teas. He and his wife, living in Italy, carefully followed the diet, drank water only from a local spring and ate vegetables organically grown on their own land. The tumour diminished in size and the doctor recovered.
Note: Cessation of cigarette smoking will result in a decreased incidence of the disease in the male adult population. (American Journal of Public Health 1989 79 1016)
A substance found in fish oil has been shown experimentally to prevent cancer of the pancreas. Mackerel, herring and sardines are among fish with the ingredient.
Treatment by oncologist or general practitioner. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine
Symptoms. Bladder irritability; increased frequency during the night. Feeble forked stream of urine. Sometimes blood. Three quarters of such tumours are located in the posterior lobe of the prostate gland – readily accessible to the examining finger through the front wall of the rectum. Rectal examination reveals a hard rugged prostate. Cystoscopy confirms. Bone pains in the low back or pelvis reflect a stage where the tumour has already spread. Anaemia, weight loss, urgency.
All symptoms are worse by alcohol and spicy foods.
Harvard University scientists report: heavy consumption of animal fat, especially the fat in red meat appears to increase the chance that a man will develop advanced prostate cancer.
Of therapeutic value. Comfrey, Echinacea, Horsetail, Poke root, Thuja, Cornsilk, Goldenseal.
Tea. Combination. Comfrey leaves, Horsetail, Cornsilk. Equal parts. 2-3 teaspoons to each cup boiling water. Drink freely.
Formula No. 1. Echinacea 2; Comfrey 1; Poke root half; Thuja half. Mix. Dose: Powders: 500mg (two 00 capsules or one-third teaspoon). Liquid extracts: 1 teaspoon. Tinctures: 2 teaspoons. Thrice daily in water or cup of Cornsilk tea.
Formula No. 2. (Alternative) Echinacea 2; Goldenseal 1; Gotu Kola 1; Poke root half. Mix. Dose: Powders: 500mg (two 00 capsules or one-third teaspoon). Liquid extracts: 1 teaspoon. Tinctures: 2 teaspoons in water or cup of Cornsilk tea.
Bee pollen. Of value.
Garlic. Of value.
Diet. See: DIET – CANCER.
There is a very low incidence of prostate cancer in countries where Soya products are widely consumed – Soya contains a female hormone which is a protector factor.
Supplements. Morning and evening.
Vitamin A 7500iu or more. Large doses may be required. Vitamin C 1-2g. Vitamin E 200iu. Calcium 500mg. Selenium 100mcg. Zinc.
Study. Men with prostate cancer may not need to undergo radical prostatectomy (removal of the prostate gland). A 10-year follow-up study of men with early prostate cancer left untreated showed that 10 years later only 8.5 per cent of the 223 patients had died from prostate cancer. The survival rate of 86.8 per cent in the untreated group was nearly identical to a subgroup who met all the conditions for radical prostatectomy. (Journal of American Medical Association, 22/29 April 1992)
Commonly treated with female sex hormone or by orchidectomy.
It would appear that surgical removal of the gland offers little benefit, and possibly a disadvantage to patients wishing to leave well alone, particularly the elderly. Treatment by a general medical practitioner or oncologist. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine
By the blood and lymph cancer may be transferred (metastasised) to the lymph nodes under the arm, liver, brain or lungs. An association has been shown between a low intake of Vitamin A and lung cancer. Causes: occupational hazards, environmental pollution, radiation, keeping of pet birds. Cigarette smoking is a strong risk factor. Studies show that a high Vitamin A/carotene intake is protective against the disease in men. Among women, evidence of a similar protective effect has not been found. Vitamin C reduces cancer risk. The increased prevalence of smoking among women results in more female lung cancer. All smokers should drink freely carrot juice (Vitamin A).
Symptoms. Chronic irritative cough, difficult breathing, pain in the chest, recurrent spitting of blood, clubbing of fingers, weight loss.
Alternatives. Only transient benefit is obtainable, yet it may be sufficient to achieve a measure of relief from distressing symptoms. See: CANCER: GENERAL REMARKS. Mullein tea has its supporters. Bugleweed strengthens lung tissue and supports the action of the heart. Blood root is known to arrest bleeding (haemoptysis).
Tea. Equal parts: Red Clover, Gota Kola, Mullein. 2 teaspoons to each cup boiling water; infuse 5-15 minutes. 1 cup three or more times daily.
Formula No 1. Equal parts: Elecampane, Violet, Red Clover, Echinacea. Mix. Dose: Powders: 750mg (three 00 capsules or half a teaspoon). Liquid extracts: 1-2 teaspoons. Tinctures: 1-3 teaspoons. Thrice daily and, if necessary, at bedtime for relief.
Formula No 2. Tincture Blood root 10 drops; Liquid extract Dogwood 20 drops; Liquid extract Elecampane 200 drops (14ml); Liquid extract Bugleweed (Lycopus europ) 30 drops. Flavour with Liquorice if necessary. Dose: 1-2 teaspoons in water 3 or more times daily. (W. Burns-Lingard MNIMH)
Where accompanied by active inflammation, anti-inflammatories are indicated: Mistletoe, Wild Yam, etc.
Diet. A substance in fish oil has been shown to experimentally prevent cancer of the lung. Mackerel, herring and sardines are among fish with the ingredient. See: DIET – CANCER.
Chinese Herbalism. See: CANCER – CHINESE PRESCRIPTION.
Treatment by a general medical practitioner or hospital oncologist. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine
“I saw a man suffering from sarcomatous tumour infiltrating the body tissue of the upper jaw, extending to the nose. We recommended an operation. Dr O’Sullivan, Professor of Pathology, Trinity College, declared the growth to be a round-celled sarcoma. Of that there was no doubt. A month after excision the growth returned with increased vigour, bulging through the incision and protruding upon the face. The new tumour, almost closing the right eye, was blue, tense, firm and tabulated, but it did not break.
“Early in October the patient walked into my study. He looked better in health than I have ever seen him. The tumour had completely disappeared from the face and I could not identify any trace of it in the mouth. He said he had no pain of any kind. He has since gone home apparently well.
“He told me he had applied poultices of Comfrey root, and that the swelling had gradually disappeared. Now this was a case of which none of us had any doubt at all. Our first view was confirmed by the distinguished pathologist mentioned and by my own observation at the time of the major operation.” (Dr Wm Thompson, President, Royal College of Surgeons, Eire, in his address in Dublin).
Vinchristine. An alkaloid of the Vinca plant.
Internal Treatment. See: CANCER – NOSE AND THROAT. Diet. See: DIET – CANCER.
Basal Cell Cancer. Strong sunlight on fair skins. Common on face and hands and other exposed areas. Commences as a tiny hard nodule. See – RODENT ULCER.
Squamous Cell Cancer. The role of sunlight in this type of cancer is even more positive. Other causes: photosensitisers such as pitch and PUVA photochemotherapy. Commences as a raised scaly rapidly- growing nodule.
Malignant Melanoma. Rare, but incidence rising. Four different kinds. Incidence is increased in individuals with fair or red hair who tend to burn rather than tan in the sun.
Causes may be numerous: genetic, occupational hazards or exposure to low-level radiation. Heavy freckling in youth doubles the risk. (Western Canada Melanoma study)
A study carried out by the New York’s Memorial-Sloan Kettering Cancer Centre refers to damage to the ultra violet-blocking ozone layer by supersonic jet exhaust and aerosol propellants that can also raise the malignant melanoma rate. A University of Sydney study links fluorescent lighting with the disease. Symptoms. Itching lesion increases in size and with growing discoloration. Colours may present as brown, black, red, blue, white, with a red inflammatory border. May progress to a dry crust, with bleeding.
Study. A study conducted by a team from Melbourne University, Anti-Cancer Council and St Vincent’s Hospital, Australia, describes a summer-long experiment that showed that people who used a sun-screen lotion (in this case SPF-17) cut their chances of developing the first signs of skin cancer.
Study. Patients who receive blood transfusions are more likely to develop malignant lymphomas and non- melanomatous skin cancers. (European Journal of Cancer (Nov 1993))
Eclectic physicians of the 19th century reported success from the use of American Mandrake (podophylum peltatum). Recent experience includes a 76 per cent cure rate achieved in 68 patients with carcinoma of the skin by treatment twice daily for 14 days with an ointment consisting of Podophyllum resin 20 per cent, and Linseed oil 20 per cent, in lanolin, followed by an antibiotic ointment. (Martindale 27; 1977, p. 1341) Podophyllum is an anti-mitotic and inhibits cell-division and should not be applied to normal cells.
Aloe Vera. Fresh cut leaf, or gel, to wipe over exposed surfaces.
Vitamin E oil. Applying the oil to the skin can reduce chances of acquiring skin cancer from the sun. (University of Arizona College of Medicine)
Red Clover. “I have seen a case of skin cancer healed by applying Red Clover blossoms. After straining a strong tea, the liquid was simmered until it was the consistency of tar. After several applications the skin cancer was gone, and has not returned.” (May Bethel, in “Herald of Health”, Dec. 1963)
Clivers. Equal parts juice of Clivers (from juice extractor) and glycerine. Internally and externally.
Thuja. Internal: 3-5 drops Liquid Extract, morning and evening.
Topical. “Take a small quantity powdered Slippery Elm and add Liquid Extract Thuja to make a stiff paste. Apply paste to the lesion. Cover with gauze and protective covering. When dry remove pack and follow with compresses saturated with Thuja.” (Ellingwood’s Therapeutist, Vol 10, No 6, p. 212) Echinacea and Thuja. Equal parts liquid extracts assist healthy granulation and neutralise odour.
Rue Ointment. Simmer whole fresh leaves in Vaseline.
Poke Root. An old physician laid great stress on the use of concentrated juice of green leaves. Leaves are bruised, juice extracted, and concentrated by slow evaporation until the consistency of a paste, for persistent skin cancer. Care should be taken to confine to the distressed area. (Ellingwood’s Therapeutist, Vol 8, No 7, p. 275)
Maria Treben. Horsetail poultice.
Laetrile. Some improvement claimed. 1 gram daily.
Cider vinegar. Anecdotal evidence: external use: small melanoma.
Diet. See: DIET – CANCER. Beta-carotene foods.
Treatment by skin specialist or oncologist. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine
Where irradiation and chemotherapy are not possible, any of the following alternatives may be taken with profit as secondary to medical treatment.
Astragalus. Popular spleen protective in Chinese medicine. Reduces toxicity of chemotherapy.
New Jersey tea. (Ceanothus americanus) has an affinity for the spleen and may sustain that organ under stress.
Chinese medicine. Ho-Shou-wu (Polygonum multiflorum).
Decoction, Red root. 1 teaspoon to each cup water simmered gently 10 minutes. Dose: half-1 cup 3-4 times daily.
Formula. Red root 2; Barberry 1; Bayberry 1. Mix. Dose: Powders: 500mg (two 00 capsules or one-third teaspoon). Liquid extracts: 1 teaspoon. Tinctures: 2 teaspoons. 3-4 times daily in water or honey. Formula. Alternative. Tinctures. Fringe Tree 1; Goldenseal 2; Red root 3. Mix. Dose: 15-30 drops before meals and at bedtime.
Diet: See: DIET – CANCER.
Vinchristine: use in orthodox medicine reported.
Treatment by oncologist. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine
Symptoms (non-specific). Loss of appetite, anaemia, weight loss; pain in abdomen, especially stomach area. Vomit appears as coffee grounds. Occult blood (tarry stools).
Causes. Alcohol, smoking cigarettes, low intake of fruits and vegetables. Foods rich in salt and nitrites including bacon, pickles, ham and dried fish. (Cancer Researchers in Digestive Diseases and Sciences) Long term therapy with drugs that inhibit gastric acid secretion increase risk of stomach cancer.
Of possible value. Alternatives:– Tea. Mixture. Equal parts: Red Clover, Gotu Kola, Yarrow. Strong infusion (2 or more teaspoons to each cup boiling water; infuse 15 minutes. As many cups daily as tolerated.
Formula. Condurango 2; Bayberry 1; Liquorice 1; Goldenseal quarter. Mix. Dose: Powders: 750mg (three 00 capsules or half a teaspoon). Liquid extracts: 1 teaspoon. Tinctures: 1-2 teaspoons. Thrice daily in water or honey.
Traditional. Rosebay Willowherb. Star of Bethlehem.
Chinese green tea. Anti-cancer effects have been found in the use of Chinese green tea extracts. Clinical trials on the therapeutic effects against early stomach cancer were promising. (Chinese Journal Preventative Medicines 1990. 24 (2) 80-2)
Chinese Herbalism. Combination. Oldenlandia diffusa 2 liang; Roots of Lu (Phragmites communis) 1 liang; Blackened Ginger 1 ch’ien; Pan-chih-lien (Scutellaria barbarta 5 ch’ein; Chih-tzu (gardenia jasminoides) 3 ch’ien. One concoction/dose daily. Follow with roots of Bulrush tea.
William H. Cook, MD. “Mullein greatly relieves pain, and may be used with Wild Yam and a little Water- Pepper (Polygonum Hydropiper).” The addition of Water-Pepper (or Cayenne) ensures diffusive stimulation and increased arterial force. Burns Lingard, MNIMH. Inoperable cancer of the stomach. Prescribed: Liquid Extract Violet leaves and Red Clover, each 4 drachms; Liquid Extract Cactus grand., 2 drops. Dose every 4 hours. Woman lived 30 years after treatment attaining age of 70.
Arthur Barker, FNIMH. Mullein sometimes helpful for pain.
Wm Boericke MD. American Cranesbill.
George Burford MD. Goldenseal.
Maria Treben. “After returning from a prison camp in 1947 I had stomach cancer. Three doctors told me it was incurable. From sheer necessity I turned to Nature’s herbs and gathered Nettle, Yarrow, Dandelion and Plantain; the juice of which I took hourly. Already after several hours I felt better. In particular I was able to keep down a little food. This was my salvation.” (Health Through God’s Pharmacy – 1981) Essiac: Old Ontario Cancer Remedy. Sheila Snow explored the controversy surrounding the famous cancer formula ‘Essiac’. This was developed by Rene Caisse, a Canadian nurse born in Bracebridge, Ontario, in 1888. Rene noticed that an elderly patient had cured herself of breast cancer with an Indian herbal tea. She asked for the recipe and later modified it. Rene’s aunt, after using the remedy for 2 years, fully recovered from an inoperable stomach cancer with liver involvement, and other terminal patients began to improve.
Rene’s request to be given the opportunity to treat cancer patients in a larger way was turned down by Ottawa’s Department of Health and Welfare. She eventually handed over the recipe to the Resperin Corporation in 1977, for the sum of one dollar, from whom cancer patients may obtain the mixture if their doctors submit a written request. However, records have not been kept up.
In 1988 Dr Gary Glum, a chiropractor in Los Angeles, published a book called ‘Calling of an Angel’: the true story of Rene Caisse. He gives the formula, which consists of 11b of powdered Rumex acetosella
(Sorrel), 1 and a half pounds cut Arctium lappa (Burdock), 4oz powdered Ulmus fulva (Slippery Elm bark), and 1oz Rheum palmatum (Turkey Rhubarb). The dosage Rene recommended was one ounce of Essiac with two ounces of hot water every other day at bedtime; on an empty stomach, 2-3 hours after supper. The treatment should be continued for 32 days, then taken every 3 days. (Canadian Journal of Herbalism, July 1991 Vol XII, No. III)
Diet. See: DIET – CANCER. Slippery Elm gruel.
Note: Anyone over 40 who has recurrent indigestion for more than three weeks should visit his family doctor. Persistent pain and indigestion after eating can be a sign of gastric cancer and no-one over 40 should ignore the symptoms. A patient should be referred to hospital for examination by endoscope which allows the physician to see into the stomach.
Study. Evidence to support the belief that the high incidence of gastric cancer in Japan is due to excessive intake of salt.
Note: A substance found in fish oil has been shown experimentally to prevent cancer of the stomach. Mackerel, herring and sardines are among the fish with the ingredient.
Treatment by or in liaison with hospital oncologist or general medical practitioner. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine
Symptoms. A hard usually painless mass in the scrotum can give rise to gynaecomastia – abnormal enlargement of the male breasts.
Of possible value. Alternatives: – Abundant herb teas – Cornsilk, Red Clover, Violet leaves.
Decoction. Echinacea 2; Kava Kava 1; Sarsaparilla 1. Mix. Half an ounce (15g) to 1 pint (500ml) water simmered gently 20 minutes. Cup thrice daily.
Formula. Sarsaparilla 2; Kava Kava l; Pulsatilla half; Thuja quarter. Mix. Dose: Powders: 500mg (two 00 capsules or one-third teaspoon). Liquid extracts: 1 teaspoon. Tinctures: 2 teaspoons. Thrice daily. Vinchristine.
Diet. See: DIET – CANCER. Researchers from Cambridge University found that an extra pint of milk a day during adolescence was associated with 2 and a half times increased risk of testicular cancer. (Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Oct. 1993)
Treatment by or in liaison with a general medical practitioner. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine
Causes. Smoking, alcohol, jagged teeth, chemical irritants, septic toxins, sprayed fruit and vegetables, poisoning by lead, arsenic and other chemicals, additives, hot foods, spicy curries and peppers, chewing tobacco.
Over 80 per cent found to be present in old syphilitic cases. Charles Ryall, surgeon, Cancer Hospital, regarded the two as comparable with that between syphilis and tabes. Dr F. Foester, Surgeon, concluded that epithelioma of the tongue as far more frequently preceded by syphilis than any other form of cancer.
(Hastings Gilford FRCS, “Tumours and Cancers”)
The condition may arise from a gumma or patch of leucoplakia (white patches) – at one time known as smoker’s tongue.
Of possible value. Alternatives:– Many plants have been shown to produce neoplastic activity, as observed in discovery of anti-cancer alkaloids of the Vinca plant (Vinchristine) and Mistletoe. Dr Wm Boericke confirms clinical efficacy of Clivers, promoting healthy granulations in ulcers and tumour of the tongue. Dr W.H. Cook advises a mouthwash of Goldenseal. For scirrhous hardening, juice of fresh Houseleek has a traditional reputation.
Tinctures. Equal parts Condurango and Goldenseal. 30-60 drops before meals in water; drops increased according to tolerance.
Local paint. Thuja lotion.
Case record. Dr Brandini, Florence, had a patient, 71, with inoperable cancer of the tongue. In the midst of his pain he asked for a lemon which immediately assuaged the pain. The next day gave him even greater relief. The doctor tried it on a number of similar patients with the same results, soaking lint in lemon juice.
Diet. See: DIET – CANCER.
Symptoms. Low backache, bleeding after intercourse, between periods or after ‘the change’. Abdominal swelling after 40 years of age. Sixty per cent of patients have no symptoms. Malodorous vaginal discharge. A positive cervical “pap” smear or cone-shaped biopsy examined by a pathologist confirms. Vaginal bleeding occurs in the later stages.
A letter in the New England Journal of Medicine suggests a strong link between increased risk of cervical cancer and cigarette smoking, nicotine being detected in the cervical fluids of cigarette smokers. This form of cancer is almost unknown in virgins living in closed communities such as those of the Church.
Conventional treatment is usually hysterectomy. Whatever treatment is adopted little ground is lost by supportive cleansing herbal teas. Mullein for pain.
Sponges loaded with powdered Goldenseal held against the cervix with a contraceptive cap can give encouraging results. Replace after three days. Vitamin A supplements are valuable to protect against the disease. The vitamin may also be applied topically in creams.
This form of cancer resists chemical treatment, but has been slowed down and halted by Periwinkle (Vinchristine) without damaging normal cells.
G.B. Ibotson, MD, reported disappearance of cancer of the cervix by infusions of Violet leaves by mouth and by vaginal injection. (Lancet 1917, i, 224)
In a study group of cervical cancer patients it was found that women with carcinoma in situ (CIS) were more likely to have a total Vitamin A intake below the pooled median (3450iu). Vitamin A supplementation is indicated together with zinc. (Bio-availability of Vitamin A is linked with zinc levels.) Vitamin A and zinc may be applied topically in creams and ointments.
Orthodox treatment: radiotherapy, chemotherapy, hysterectomy. As oestrogen can stimulate dormant cells the surgeon may wish to remove ovaries also. Whatever the decision, herbal supportive treatment may be beneficial. J.T Kent, MD, recommends Thuja and Shepherd’s Purse. Agents commonly indicated: Echinacea, Wild Indigo, Thuja, Mistletoe, Wild Yam. Herbal teas may be taken with profit. Dr Alfred Vogel advises Mistletoe from the oak (loranthus europaeus).
Other alternatives:– Teas. Red Clover, Violet, Mistletoe, Plantain, Clivers. 1-2 teaspoons to each cup boiling water. Infuse 15 minutes. 1 cup freely.
Decoctions. White Pond Lily. Thuja. Echinacea. Wild Yam. Any one.
Tablets/capsules. Echinacea. Goldenseal. Wild Yam. Thuja.
Formula No. 1. Red Clover 2; Echinacea 1; Shepherd’s Purse 1; Thuja quarter. Mix. Dose: Powders: 750mg (three 00 capsules or half a teaspoon). Liquid extracts: 1-2 teaspoons. Tinctures: 1-3 teaspoons. Formula No. 2. Equal parts: Poke root, Goldenseal, Mistletoe. Mix. Dose: Powders: 500mg (two 00 capsules or one-third teaspoon). Liquid extracts: 1 teaspoon. Tinctures: 2 teaspoons.
Diet. Women who eat large quantities of meat and fatty foods are up to four times the risk of those eating mainly fruit and vegetables.
Vaginal injection. 1. Strong infusion Red Clover to which 10-15 drops Tincture Goldenseal is added. Follow with tampon smeared with Goldenseal Salve.
2. Strong decoction Yellow Dock to which 10-15 drops Tincture Goldenseal is added. Follow with tampon smeared with Goldenseal salve.
If bleeding is severe douche with neat distilled extract of Witch Hazel.
Chinese Herbalism. See – CANCER: CHINESE PRESCRIPTION. Also: Decoction of ssu-hsieh-lu (Galium gracile) 2-4 liang.
Advice. One-yearly smear test for all women over 40.
Diet. See: DIET – CANCER.
Symptoms: bleeding, with alteration of bowel habit. Common in diverticular disease where large polyps may be undetected. Early detection by flexible sigmoidoscopy at hospital is essential to accurate diagnosis. Sudden episodes of unexplained diarrhoea and constipation.
The term refers to cancers of the ascending colon, caecum, transverse colon, hepatic flexure, descending colon, splenic flexure, sigmoid colon and rectum. The large bowel tumours are almost wholly adeno-carcinoma.
Common causes: ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease, necrotic changes in polyps. The colon is at risk from cancer on a diet high in protein, fat and alcohol and which is low in fibre. An exception is the average diet in Finland where a high fat intake is present with a low incidence of cancer. Strong evidence advanced, includes the heavy consumption of yoghurt (acidophylus lacto bacillus) by the population.
A study of 8006 Japanese men living in Hawaii revealed the close relationship between cancer of the rectum and alcohol consumption. A family history of pernicious anaemia predisposes.
A 19-year prospective study of middle-aged men employed by a Chicago electric company reveals a strong correlation between colorectal cancer and Vitamin D and calcium deficiency. Results “support the suggestion that Vitamin D and calcium may reduce the risk of colorectal cancer”. (Lancet, 1985, Feb 9, i, 307)
Patients with ulcerative colitis of more than 10 years standing carry the increased risk of developing colorectal cancer. There is evidence that malignancy in the bowel may be reduced by saponins. Alternatives of possible value. Inoperable lesions may respond to: Bayberry, Goldenseal, Echinacea, Wild Yam, Stone root, Black root, Mistletoe, Clivers, Marshmallow root, Violet leaves, Chickweed, Red Clover, Thuja.
Tea. Equal parts: Red Clover, Gotu Kola, Violet leaves. 2-3 teaspoons to each cup boiling water; infuse 15 minutes. Freely, as tolerated.
Tablets/capsules. Echinacea, Goldenseal, Wild Yam.
Formula. Echinacea 2; Bayberry 1; Wild Yam 1; Stone root 1; Goldenseal half; Liquorice quarter. Mix. Dose: Powders: 500mg (two 00 capsules or one-third teaspoon). Liquid extracts: 1 teaspoon. Tinctures: 2 teaspoons. Thrice daily and at bedtime.
Mistletoe: Injections of fresh plant (Iscador). (Dr Rudolph Steiner Institute, Switzerland)
Violet leaves: Daily irrigations of strong infusion.
Chickweed: Bathe rectum with strong infusion. Follow with Chickweed ointment.
Chinese Herbalism. (1) Tea – Pan-chih-lien (Scutellaria barbarta), 2 liang. (2) Tea. Feng-wei ts’ao (Pteris multifida) 1 liang, and po-chi (water chestnut) 2 liang. (3) Concoction of suitable amount of ts’ang-erh ts’ao, for bathing affected area. (Barefoot Doctor’s Manual)
Diagnosis. Exploration of proctosigmoidoscope to confirm.
Diet. Special emphasis on yoghurt which is conducive to bowel health; orally and by enema. A vegan uncooked raw food diet has been shown to reduce the body’s production of toxins linked with colon cancer. A switch from conventional Western cooked diet to an uncooked vegan diet reduced harmful enzymes produced by gut bacteria. (Journal of Nutrition)
A substance has been found in fish oil believed to prevent cancer of the colon. Mackerel, herring and sardines are among fish with this ingredient. Bowel cancer and additives. See: CROHN’S DISEASE (Note).
Preventive care. All 55-year-olds with this predisposing condition should be screened by sigmoidoscopy. Regular faecal occult blood tests advised.
Regular exercise helps prevent development of bowel cancer. (Nottingham University researchers) Treatment by general medical practitioner or oncologist. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine
Patterns of behaviour typical of obsessive–compulsive disorder (for example, prolonged washing rituals) may be adopted in an attempt to reduce the risk of cancer.
Psychotherapy including behaviour therapy may be of benefit.... BMA Medical Dictionary
The most common cancers of the lungs, breast, stomach, skin, cervix, colon and rectum are carcinomas.... BMA Medical Dictionary
Symptoms depend on the site of the metastases (secondary tumours).
Carcinomatosis may be confirmed by X-rays or by radionuclide scanning of the bones and lungs, by biochemical tests, or during an operation.
The condition is not improved by removing the primary tumour unless the tumour is producing a hormone that stimulates the growth of metastases.
Anticancer drugs or radiotherapy may be given to treat metastases.... BMA Medical Dictionary
Complex organisms are built up of millions of cells that are specially adapted to carry out particular functions. The process of cell differentiation begins early on in the development of the embryo and cells of a particular type (e.g. blood cells, liver cells) always give rise to cells of the same type. Each cell has a particular number of *chromosomes in its nucleus. The sex cells (sperm and ova) always contain half the number of chromosomes of all the other cells of the body (see meiosis); at fertilization a sperm and ovum combine to form a cell with a complete set of chromosomes that will develop into the embryo.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary
All cells, except red blood cells, have a nucleus, a control centre that governs all major cell activities by regulating the amount and types of proteins made in the cell. Inside the nucleus are the chromosomes, which are made of the nucleic acid DNA. This contains the instructions for protein synthesis, which are carried into the cytoplasm by a type of RNA, another nucleic acid, and are decoded in particles called ribosomes. The nucleus also contains a spherical structure called the nucleolus, which plays a role in the production of ribosomes.
The cell also contains various organelles, each with a specific role.
Energy is generated from the breakdown of sugars and fatty acids by mitochondria.
Substances that would damage the cell if they came into contact with the cytoplasm are contained in particles called lysosomes and peroxisomes.
A system of membranes in the cytoplasm called the endoplasmic reticulum transports materials through the cell.
Flattened sacs called the Golgi complex receive and process proteins dispatched by the endoplasmic reticulum.
Products for export, such as enzymes and hormones, are secreted by vesicles at the cell surface.
Other materials, water, and waste products are transported and stored in the cytoplasm by vacuoles.
The cytoplasm itself has a network of fine tubes (microtubules) and filaments (microfilaments) known as the cytoskeleton, which gives the cell a definite shape.... BMA Medical Dictionary
Meiosis produces egg (see ovum) and sperm cells that differ from their parent cells in that they have only half the normal number of chromosomes.... BMA Medical Dictionary
Every cell consists essentially of a cell-body of soft albuminous material called cytoplasm, in which lies a kernel or nucleus which seems to direct all the activities of the cell. Within the nucleus may be seen a minute body, the nucleolus; and there may or may not be a cell-envelope around all. (See also MITOCHONDRIA.) Each cell nucleus carries a set of identical CHROMOSOMES, the body’s genetic instructions.
Cells vary much in size, ranging in the human body from 0·0025 mm to about 0·025 mm.
All animals and plants consist at ?rst of a single cell (the egg-cell, or ovum), which begins to develop when fertilised by the sperm-cell derived from the opposite sex. Development begins by a division into two new cells, then into four, and so on till a large mass is formed. These cells – among them stem cells (see STEM CELL) which have the potential to develop into a variety of specialised cells – then arrange themselves into layers, and form various tubes, rods, and masses which represent in the embryo the organs of the fully developed animal. (See FETUS.)
When the individual organs have been laid down on a sca?olding of cells, these gradually change in shape and in chemical composition. The cells in the nervous system send out long processes to form the nerves; those in the muscles become long and striped in appearance; and those which form fat become ?lled with fat droplets which distend the cells. Further, they begin to produce, between one another, the substances which give the various tissues their special character. Thus, in the future bones, some cells deposit lime salts and others form cartilage, while in tendons they produce long white ?bres of a gelatinous substance. In some organs the cells change little: thus the liver consists of columns of large cells packed together, while many cells, like the white blood corpuscles, retain their primitive characters almost entire.
Thus cells are the active agents in forming the body, and they have a similar function in repairing its wear and tear. Tumours, and especially malignant tumours, have a highly cellular structure, the cells being of an embryonic type, or, at best, forming poor imitations of the tissues in which they grow (see TUMOUR).... Medical Dictionary
Treatment. To activate capillary function and assist toxic elimination: Bladderwrack, Gotu Kola, Kola, Parsley tea. A diuretic may assist by eliminating excess fluid.
Gotu Kola tea: Quarter to half a teaspoon leaves to each cup boiling water; infuse 5-10 minutes. 1 cup morning and evening.
Formula. Tea. Equal parts: Alfalfa, Clivers, Fennel, Senna leaves. 1 heaped teaspoon to each cup boiling water: infuse 5-10 minutes. Half-1 cup morning and evening.
Seline. Tablets. Ingredients: Each tablet contains Lecithin 100mg; Pulverised Dandelion 100mg; Pulverised Horsetail 100mg; Pulverised extract Fucus 5:1 30mg; Vitamin C 40mg; Vitamin B6 1mg. 1 tablet thrice daily.
Aescin. Compound isolated from Horse-chestnuts to decrease capillary permeability and swelling. Topical. Decoction of Horse-chestnuts as a lotion. Or: infusion of Bladderwrack.
Aromatherapy and Herb essences. Combination for external use. Ingredients: Almond oil 47ml; Fennel oil 1ml; Juniper oil 1ml; Cypress essence 0.5ml; Lemon essence 0.5ml. Apply to affected areas morning and evening; small area 5 drops, large area 10 drops (Gerard). Gentle massage with a string glove, loofah or massage glove.
Diet. Reduce calorie intake. Raw fresh fruits and vegetable salads to account for 50 per cent of the diet. No sweet or dried fruits. Conservatively-cooked vegetables. Seafood. Iodine-rich foods. Wholegrain cereals. Protein: beans, chicken, poached eggs, fish, little lean meat: no pork, bacon or ham. Low-fat yoghurt. Cold-pressed unsaturated oils for salad dressings with lemon juice. Dandelion coffee to stimulate liver. Avoid sugar, alcohol, bananas and white flour products. Spring water.
Supportives. Stop smoking. Adopt an alternative to the contraceptive pill. To avoid fluid retention, 2-3 glasses of water daily. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine
Symptoms: Hot, painful swollen skin sensitive to touch, with constitutional unrest.
Indicated: alteratives, lymphatics. Echinacea to increase resistance. See: ABSCESS. ERYSIPELAS. Butcher’s Broom combination. Butcher’s Broom 100mg; Hawthorn berry 100mg; Garlic 100mg; Apple pectin 50mg; Cayenne (capsicum) 50mg; Ginger root 50mg; One capsule or tablet thrice daily.
Garlic. Good results reported. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine
There are 2 main types of cervical cancer: the squamous type is the most common and is thought to be associated with the human papilloma virus, acquired during sexual intercourse. Factors that predispose to this type of cancer are smoking, starting to have sex at an early age, and having many sexual partners.
The second, rarer, type of cervical cancer, adenocarcinoma, sometimes occurs in women who have never had sexual intercourse. Its causes are unclear.
Symptoms do not develop until the condition is advanced, when there is vaginal bleeding or a bloodstained discharge at unexpected times, and pain if the cancer has spread within the pelvis.
Following an abnormal smear test result, colposcopy or a cone biopsy may be carried out to diagnose the condition.
A localized early cancer may be destroyed by electrocoagulation, diathermy, laser treatment, or cryosurgery.
If the cancer has spread into the cervical canal, a cone biopsy may be sufficient to remove all the diseased tissue.
In more advanced cases affecting the pelvic organs, radiotherapy may be given.
Radical surgery, in which the bladder, vagina, cervix, uterus, and rectum are removed, may be recommended in certain cases.... BMA Medical Dictionary
If a woman has a hydatidiform mole, she is screened regularly after treatment using ultrasound scanning and tests to measure blood and urine levels of the hormone human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG).
High levels HCG of are associated with choreocarcinoma.
Treatment is with anticancer drugs.... BMA Medical Dictionary
A genetic basis has been found for some types of colon cancer.
However, in most cases, the precise cause is unknown.
Contributory factors include diet: eating a lot of meat and fatty foods and not enough fibre may increase the risk.
The disease often occurs in association with other diseases of the colon, such as ulcerative colitis and familial polyposis.
The chances of cure depend critically on early diagnosis.
Screening for this cancer includes an occult blood test; if the test is positive, sigmoidoscopy and colonoscopy may be carried out.
In most cases of colon cancer, a partial colectomy is performed.... BMA Medical Dictionary
The new Council for Healthcare Regulatory Excellence will help to promote the interests of patients and to improve co-operation between the existing regulatory bodies – providing, in e?ect, a quality-control mechanism for their activities. The government and relevant professions will nominate individuals for this overarching council. The new council will not have the authority to intervene in the determination by the eight regulatory bodies of individual ?tness-to-practise cases unless these concern complaints about maladministration.... Medical Dictionary
Habitat: Sub-tropical Himalaya from Himachal Pradesh to Aruna- chal Pradesh at 500-2,500 m.Ayurvedic: Kshudra-Paashaana- bheda, Shilaa-valkaa, Shilaa- pushpa.
Action: Leaf—antilithic. Used for stones in kidney and bladder.The leaves contain a number of chal- cones, quinochalcones and flavanones. Pediflavone has also been isolated from young leaves.... Indian Medicinal Plants
Life is our most precious gift. But at some point that gift might be at risk. It is at such time that food and drink may contribute to our sense of well-being.
Rapidly accumulating evidence links cancer to a growing public awareness of the role of diet. Also, involvement of supplements in cancer prevention are a fruitful area of research.
Vital food enzymes are not destroyed in cooking when a large proportion of food is eaten raw. All food should be free from additives.
A high fat intake is a risk factor in cancer of the ovary, womb and prostate gland. It also affects the bowel flora, changing bile acid metabolism and the concentration of carcinogenic bile acid metabolites. Obesity significantly increases risk of cancer.
Epidemiological studies in man show that people with low Vitamin A levels are more susceptible to lung cancer. Cancer risk is increased by low levels of Vitamin A, particularly Beta Carotene, Vitamin E and Selenium.
Antioxidants control the activity of free-radicals that destroy body cells, and source foods containing them are therefore of value in cancer prevention. Most cancers generate a high degree of toxicity and this is where antioxidants, particularly Vitamin C are indicated. A deficiency of Vitamin C has been associated with cancer of the oesophagus, stomach, lungs and breast. This vitamin is known to increase life expectancy in terminally ill patients and is a mild analgesic for pain. Vitamin B6 may be of value for nausea.
Vitamins and minerals of value: Vitamins A, B6, C, E, Calcium, Chromium, Magnesium, Molybdenum, Selenium, Zinc.
Stimulants should be avoided: cocoa, alcohol, sugar, coffee (including decaffeinated). Tea should not be too strong as it inhibits absorption of iron. Choice should be over a wide range of foods, to eat less fat and more wholegrain cereals and raw fresh fruit and vegetables. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine
Treatment is by surgical removal of the tumour, but the cancer has often spread to the liver by the time it is detected, making the outlook poor.... BMA Medical Dictionary
a gamete or any cell that is undergoing gametogenesis (the process by which gametes are formed).... BMA Medical Dictionary
Basically, the therapy consists of a vegetarian diet with meals of vegetables, fruits and whole grains, fresh or freshly prepared. Drinking water is replaced by hourly, fresh, raw juices of vegetables and fruits. Refined, altered, denatured or enhanced foodstuffs are forbidden. The diet is sodium, chloride, fat and protein restricted. Supplemental potassium, iodine, thyroid and crude liver extract comprise the medical armamentarium. A repeatable choleretic, enemas of a solution of boiled coffee, is administered to lower serum toxin levels. Coffee is a potent enhancer of the carcinogen detoxifying enzyme system, glutathione S-translerase (Wattenburg). The Gerson cancer therapy reduces accumulated tissue sodium and chloride, promoting diuresis. Gerson Therapy Center: Hospital de Baja California, at La Gloria, Mexico
Diet. Lunch and dinner contain ample cooked food, mainly to act as a ‘blotter’ to the daily intake of 5.25 pints fresh raw fruit juices that are the backbone of the therapy. Ingredients of the juices include 41bs raw organic carrots a day, with no harm to the liver. (JAM, May 1991, p5. Beata Bishop on her recovery from metastasised malignant melanoma)
The Gerson therapy is based on the ‘holistic’ philosophy which states that cancer represents a clinical manifestation of an underlying toxic condition. Such condition should receive primary treatment that is lifestyle orientated. The theme is: detoxification through internal cleansing. The diet and supplements are re-inforced by ‘positive thinking’ and supported by meditation and emotional balance. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine
The cells produce the main constituents of MUCUS.... Medical Dictionary
Both the small and large intestine may develop carcinoid tumours (leading to carcinoid syndrome) and lymphomas.
Cancer of the small intestine is rare, but cancer of the large intestine is one of the most common of all cancers (see colon, cancer of; rectum, cancer of).... BMA Medical Dictionary
If laryngoscopy reveals a tumour on the larynx, a biopsy is carried out.
If the tumour is small, radiotherapy or laser treatment may be used.
For unresponsive and large tumours, partial or total laryngectomy may be considered.... BMA Medical Dictionary
Lip cancer is largely confined to older people, particularly those who have been exposed to a lot of sunlight and those who have smoked cigarettes or a pipe for many years.
The first symptom is a white patch that develops on the lip and soon becomes scaly and cracked with a yellow crust.
The affected area grows and eventually becomes ulcerated.
In some cases, the cancer spreads to the lymph nodes in the jaw and neck.
Lip cancer (usually a squamous cell carcinoma) is diagnosed by biopsy.
Treatment is surgical removal, radiotherapy, or a combination of both.... BMA Medical Dictionary
The later stages of the disease are marked by jaundice and ascites (excess fluid in the abdomen).
Tumours are often detected by ultrasound scanning, and diagnosis may be confirmed by liver biopsy.
A hepatoma can sometimes be cured by complete removal.
In other cases, anticancer drugs can help to slow the progress of the disease.
It is usually not possible to cure secondary liver cancer, but anticancer drugs or, in some cases, removal of a solitary metastasis may be advised.... BMA Medical Dictionary
In an allergic response, mast cells release histamine.... BMA Medical Dictionary
Methylcellulose increases the firmness of faeces in chronic watery diarrhoea and regulates their consistency in people who have a colostomy or ileostomy.
It is also given as eyedrops to relieve dry eyes.
As methylcellulose causes a feeling of fullness, it is sometimes used to help treat obesity.... BMA Medical Dictionary
Predisposing causes of mouth cancer are poor oral hygiene, drinking alcoholic spirits, tobacco-smoking, chewing tobacco, and inhaling snuff. Irritation from ill-fitting dentures or jagged teeth are other factors. Men are affected twice as often as women; most cases occur in men over the age of 40.
Mouth cancer usually begins with a whitish patch, called leukoplakia, or a small lump. These may cause a burning sensation, but are usually painless. As the tumour grows, it may develop into an ulcer or a deep fissure, which may bleed and erode surrounding tissue.
Diagnosis is based on a biopsy. Treatment consists of surgery, radiotherapy, or both. Extensive surgery may cause facial disfigurement and problems with eating and speaking, which may require reconstructive surgery. Radiotherapy sometimes damages the salivary glands (see mouth, dry).
When mouth cancer is detected and treated early, the outlook is good.... BMA Medical Dictionary
NICE – its Scottish equivalent is the Scottish Health Technology Assessment Centre – has three main functions:
appraisal of new and existing technologies.
development of clinical guidelines.
promotion of clinical audit and con?dential inquiries. Central to its task is public concern about ‘postcode prescribing’ – that is, di?erent availability of health care according to geography.
In 2003 the World Health Organisation appraised NICE. Amongst its recomendations were that there should be greater consistency in the methods used for appraisal and the way in which results and decisions were reported. WHO was concerned about the need for transparency about the con?ict between NICE’s use of manufacturers’ commercial evidence in con?dence, and believed there should be greater de?nition of justi?cation for ‘threshold’ levels for cost-e?ectiveness in the Centre’s judgement of what represents value for money.
In all, WHO was congratulatory – but questions remain about the practical value and imlementation of NICE guidelines.... Medical Dictionary
nm symbol for *nanometre.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary
Symptoms progressively worsen to a point where food is immediately regurgitated and there is rapid weight loss. Regurgitated fluid spilling into the trachea often causes respiratory infections.
Diagnosis is with a barium swallow (see barium X-ray examinations) and a biopsy taken during endoscopy. Removal of the oesophagus may be possible in some cases. Radiotherapy may cause regression of the cancer, relieve symptoms, and occasionally cure older patients who might not survive major surgery. Insertion of a rigid tube through the tumour, or laser treatment to burn through it, can help to relieve symptoms and improve nutrition. The overall outlook is poor, but is improved with early diagnosis.... BMA Medical Dictionary
Infection is potentially serious as it may spread to the brain.
Treatment is with high doses of antibiotic drugs.... BMA Medical Dictionary
In most cases, ovarian cancer causes no symptoms until it is widespread. The first symptoms may include vague discomfort and swelling in the abdomen; nausea and vomiting; abnormal vaginal bleeding; and ascites.
If ovarian cancer is suspected, a doctor will carry out a physical examination to detect any swellings in the pelvis. A laparoscopy will usually be performed to confirm the diagnosis.
Treatment is by surgical removal of the growth or as much cancerous tissue as possible.
This usually involves salpingooophorectomy and hysterectomy followed by radiotherapy and anticancer drugs.... BMA Medical Dictionary
Diagnosis usually requires ultrasound scanning, CT scanning or MRI of the upper abdomen, or ERCP.
In early stages, pancreatectomy, radiotherapy and anticancer drugs may provide a cure.
In later stages, little can be done apart from provision of palliative treatment.... BMA Medical Dictionary
Diagnosis is made by a biopsy.
If the tumour is detected early, radiotherapy is usually successful.
Otherwise, removal of part or all of the penis may be necessary.... BMA Medical Dictionary
Cancerous tumours of the oropharynx (the middle section of the pharynx) usually cause difficulty swallowing, often with a sore throat and earache. Bloodstained sputum may be coughed up. Sometimes there is only the feeling of a lump in the throat or a visible enlarged lymph node in the neck. Cancer of the laryngopharynx (the lowermost part of the pharynx) initially causes a sensation of incomplete swallowing, then a muffled voice, hoarseness, and increased difficulty in swallowing. Tumours of the nasopharynx have different causes.Diagnosis of cancer of the pharynx is made by biopsy, often in conjunction with laryngoscopy, bronchoscopy, or oesophagoscopy.
The growth may be removed surgically or treated with radiotherapy.
Anticancer drugs may also be given.... BMA Medical Dictionary
Habitat: Cultivated throughout the plains of India.English: Minila Tamarind, Madras Thorn, Quamachil.Siddha/Tamil: Karapilly, Kodukkaa Puli.Folk: Vilaayati Imli, Dakhini Babool.
Action: Bark—astringent, febrifuge, antidysenteric. Stem-bark—spasmolytic. Seeds—anti-inflammatory.The leaves contain alpha-spinaste- rol; its beta-D-glucoside, octacosanol, kaempferol, its 3-rhamnoside, behenic and lignoceric acids. An insulin-like principle has also been reported in the leaves.Seeds gave kaempferol, quercetin and a saponin consisting of a mixture of oleanolic and echinocystic acid gly- cosides. Lecithin is also reported from seeds.The seed exhibited haemolytic agglutinating reaction with human blood. Saponins from seeds show spermicidal activity.The bark contains tannins (up to 37%) of a catechol type; non-tans 1015%; 1.5% of pectin.... Indian Medicinal Plants
Habitat: Eastern Himalayas, Khasi, Jaintia and Lushai Hills.Siddha/Tamil: Kalpakku.Folk: Kachloraa.
Action: Leaf—used externally as a mostrum for leprosy; also applied for promoting growth of hair. Seed—hypoglycaemic. Aerial parts—diuretic, spasmolytic.The seeds contain 18.3% protein; major amino acids are aspartic acid 13.2, glutamic acid 10.9, alanine 9.7, leucine 8.3, glycine 8.2, serine 7.4%. Seeds contain a poisonous principle pithecolobine. They are used after repeated boiling and discarding of water.... Indian Medicinal Plants
There are 3 types of such conditions.
In the 1st, there are no tumours present but the condition carries an increased risk of cancer.
In the 2nd, there are noncancerous tumours that tend to become cancerous or are associated with the development of cancerous tumours elsewhere.
The 3rd type comprises disorders which have irregular features from the beginning but do not always become fully cancerous.... BMA Medical Dictionary
An enlarged prostate (see prostate, enlarged) may cause symptoms including difficulty in starting to pass urine, poor urine flow, and increased frequency of urination. Urine flow may eventually cease altogether. When there are no urinary symptoms, the first sign may be pain in the bones from secondary cancers. Screening tests detect blood levels of a protein called prostate specific antigen;
if above a certain level, it may indicate prostate cancer.
Rectal examination allows a doctor to assess the size and hardness of the gland.
Ultrasound scanning and a biopsy confirm the diagnosis.
Blood tests and a bone scan (see radionuclide scanning) may also be done.
In an elderly man with a small prostate cancer that has not spread, no treatment may be recommended.
For younger men, prostatectomy or radiotherapy may be performed.
Widespread disease is usually controllable for some years with orchidectomy or drugs.... BMA Medical Dictionary
Early symptoms are rectal bleeding during defecation and diarrhoea or constipation. Later, pain may occur. Left untreated, the cancer may eventually cause severe bleeding and pain and block the intestine. It may also spread to other organs.
The cancer may be detected by a rectal examination and confirmed with proctoscopy or sigmoidoscopy and biopsy.
Treatment is usually with surgery. For a tumour in the upper rectum, the affected area and the last part of the colon are removed and the 2 free ends of the intestine are sewn together. To promote healing, a temporary colostomy may be made. For a growth in the lower rectum, the entire rectum and anus are removed. Because there is no outlet for faeces, a permanent colostomy is created.
Radiotherapy and anticancer drugs may be used in addition to or instead of surgery.
Up to 40 per cent of people treated for rectal cancer live for 10 years or more.... BMA Medical Dictionary
In some affected children, the spleen enlarges and traps red cells at a particularly high rate, causing a life-threatening form of anaemia. After adolescence, the spleen usually stops functioning, increasing the risk of infection in those affected.
Diagnosis is made from examination of a blood smear and electrophoresis.
Supportive treatment may include folic acid supplements, and penicillin and immunization to protect against infection.
Life-threatening crises are treated with intravenous infusions of fluids, antibiotics, oxygen therapy, and analgesic drugs.
If the crisis still does not respond, an exchange blood transfusion may be performed.
This may be done regularly for people who suffer frequent severe crises.... BMA Medical Dictionary
The carrier condition (sickle-cell trait) occurs when the defective gene is inherited from only one parent. It generally causes no symptoms but confers some protection from malaria, which accounts for the high frequency of the gene in malarious areas. If a general anaesthetic is to be given to a patient with this condition, the anaesthetist should be alerted.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary
The tumour starts as a small, painless lump or patch (usually on the lip, ear, or back of the hand), which enlarges fairly rapidly, often resembling a wart or ulcer. Left untreated, the cancer may spread to other parts of the body and prove fatal.
Diagnosis is based on a skin biopsy. The tumour is removed surgically or destroyed by radiotherapy.... BMA Medical Dictionary
In a highly signi?cant advance in research, a scienti?c team in the United States obtained stem cells from newly formed human embryos
– donated by women who had become pregnant after successful in vitro fertilisation – and successfully cultivated these cells in the laboratory. This achievement opened the way to replicating in the laboratory, the various specialised cells that develop naturally in the body. UK government legislation constrains the use of human embryos in research (see ETHICS) and the ethical aspects of taking this stem-cell culture technique forwards will have to be resolved. Nevertheless, this discovery points the biological way to the use of genetic engineering in selecting di?erentiated specialised cells from which replacement tissues could be grown for use as transplants to rectify absent or damaged tissues in the human body.
Research into potential use of stem cells has raised expectations that in the long term they may prove to be an e?ective regenerative treatment for a wide range of disorders including PARKINSONISM, ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE, type-2 diabetes (see under DIABETES MELLITUS), myocardial infarction (see HEART, DISEASES OF), severe burns, osteoporosis (see under BONE, DISORDERS OF) and the regeneration of blood to replace the need for BONE MARROW TRANSPLANT. Recent research has shown that adult stem cells may also be stimulated to produce new cell lines. If successful, this would eliminate the need to use embryos and thus resolve existing ethical dilemmas over the use of stem cells.... Medical Dictionary
There may also be other symptoms indistinguishable from those of peptic ulcer.
Diagnosis is usually made by gastroscopy or by a barium X-ray examination.
The only effective treatment is total gastrectomy.
In advanced cases in which the tumour has spread, radiotherapy and anticancer drugs may prolong life.... BMA Medical Dictionary
A target cell is also a cell that is the focus of attack by macrophages (killer cells – see MACROPHAGE) or ANTIBODIES; it may also be the site of action of a speci?c hormone (see HORMONES).... Medical Dictionary
In most cases the cause is unknown, although exposure to radioactive fallout increases the risk of developing the condition.
There are several types, depending on the type of cells involved.
In all of them, however, the first sign is a firm nodule in the neck, which may grow slowly or rapidly.
In many cases, the cancer is painless and symptoms such as difficulty swallowing, and hoarseness or loss of voice, only develop when the tumour presses on other structures.
A diagnosis is made by thyroid scanning and needle aspiration or a biopsy.
A thyroidectomy is usually followed by treatment with radioactive iodine to destroy any residual cancer.
Cure rates depend on the cell type and on the size and spread of the tumour when diagnosed.
Patients need to take thyroxine for the rest of their lives.... BMA Medical Dictionary
Diagnosis of tongue cancer is made by a biopsy. Small tumours, especially those occurring at the tip of the tongue, are usually removed surgically. Larger tumours or those that have spread often require radiotherapy.... BMA Medical Dictionary
Risk factors for endometrial cancer include anything that may raise oestrogen levels in the body, such as obesity, a history of failure to ovulate, or taking oestrogen hormones long term if these are not balanced with progestogen drugs. It is also more common in women who have had few or no children.
Before the menopause, the first symptom of cancer of the uterus may be menorrhagia or bleeding between periods or after sexual intercourse; after the menopause, it is usually a bloodstained vaginal discharge. Diagnosis is made by hysteroscopy or biopsy.
Very early endometrial cancer is usually treated by hysterectomy and removal of the fallopian tubes and ovaries.
If the cancer has spread, radiotherapy and anticancer drug treatment may also be used.... BMA Medical Dictionary
Treatment is by surgical removal of the affected area.
The outlook depends on how soon the cancer is diagnosed and treated.... BMA Medical Dictionary