The meaning of the symbols of pyogenes seen in a dream.


Streptococcus is a variety of gram-positive bacterium (see GRAM’S STAIN; BACTERIA) which under the microscope has much the appearance of a string of beads. Most species are saprophytic (see SAPROPHYTE); a few are PATHOGENIC and these include haemolytic types which can destroy red blood cells in a culture of blood agar. This o?ers a method of classifying the varying streptococcal strains. Alphahaeomolytic streptococci are usually associated with bacterial ENDOCARDITIS. SCARLET FEVER is caused by a ?-haeomolytic streptococcus called S. pyogenes. S. pneumoniae, also called PNEUMOCOCCUS, causes respiratory-tract infections, including PNEUMONIA. S. pyogenes may on its own, or with other bacteria, cause severe NECROTISING FASCIITIS or CELLULITIS in which oedema and death of subcutaneous tissues occur. The infection can spread very rapidly and, unless urgently treated with ANTIBIOTICS and sometimes surgery, death may quickly result. This spread is related to the ability of S. pyogenes to produce toxic substances called exotoxins. Although drug-resistant forms are occurring, streptococcal infections usually respond to treatment with antibiotics.... streptococcus


A VIRUS which invades a bacterium (see BACTERIA). Containing either single-stranded or double-stranded DNA or RNA, a particular phage generally may infect one or a limited number of bacterial strains or species. After infection, once phage nucleic acid has entered the host cell, a cycle may result whereby the bacteria are programmed to produce viral components, which are assembled into virus particles and released on bacterial lysis (disintegration). Other (temperate) phages induce a non-lytic, or lysogenic, state, in which phage nucleic acid integrates stably into and replicates with the bacterial chromosome. The relationship can revert to a lytic cycle and production of new phages. In the process the phage may carry small amounts of donor bacterial DNA to a new host: the production of diphtheria toxin by Corynebacterium diphtheriae and of erythrogenic toxin by Streptococcus pyogenes are well-known examples of this e?ect.... bacteriophage


An infectious skin disease caused usually by Staphylococcus aureus and less often by Streptococcus pyogenes. The itching rash is seen especially on the face but may spread widely. Vesicles and pustules erupt and dry to form yellow-brown scabs. Untreated, the condition may last for weeks. In very young infants, large blisters may form (bullous impetigo).

Treatment Crusts should be gently removed with SALINE. Mild cases respond to frequent application of mupiricin or NEOMYCIN/BACITRACIN ointment; more severe cases should be treated orally or, sometimes, intravenously with FLUCLOXACILLIN or one of the CEPHALOSPORINS. If the patient is allergic to penicillin, ERYTHROMYCIN can be used.

For severe, intractable cases, an oral retinoid drug called isotretinoin (commercially produced as Roaccutane®) can be used. It is given systemically but treatment must be supervised by a consultant dermatologist as serious side-effects, including possible psychiatric disturbance, can occur. The drug is also teratogenic (see TERATOGENESIS), so women who are, or who may become, pregnant must not take isotretinoin. It acts mainly by suppressing SEBUM production in the sebaceous glands and can be very e?ective. Recurrent bouts of impetigo should raise suspicion of underlying SCABIES or head lice. Bactericidal soaps and instilling an antibiotic into the nostrils may also help.... impetigo

Lantana Camara

Linn. var. aculeata Moldenke.

Synonym: L. aculeata L.

Family: Verbenaceae.

Habitat: Native to tropical America; naturalized and occurs throughout India. Also grown as hedge plant.

English: Lantana, Wild Sage, Surinam Tea Plant.

Ayurvedic: Chaturaangi, Vanachch- hedi.

Siddha/Tamil: Unnichedi.

Folk: Ghaaneri (Maharashtra).

Action: Plant—antirheumatic, antimalarial; used in tetanus and ataxy of abdominal viscera. Pounded leaves are applied to cuts, ulcers and swellings; a decoction of leaves and fruits is used as a lotion for wounds.

The plant is considered poisonous. The leaves contain toxic principles, lantadenes A and B, which cause acute photosensitization, jaundice, kidney and liver lesions. A steroid, lanca- marone, is cardioactive and fish poison.

The bark of stems and roots contain a quinine-like alkaloid, lantanine. The extract of the shoot showed antibacterial activity against E. coli and Micrococcus pyogenes var. aureus. Flowers contain anthocyanin.... lantana camara

Leea Aequata


Synonym: L. hirta Roxb. ex Hornem.

Family: Vitaceae.

Habitat: Northern Eastern India, West Peninsula and the Andamans.

Ayurvedic: Kaakajanghaa, Nadikaantaa, Sulomaasha, Paaraa- vatapaadi.

Folk: Surapadi (Telugu).

Action: Stem and root—astringent, anthelmintic. Used for indigestion, jaundice, chronic fever and malaria. Essential oil—inhibits the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Schroeter) Lehmann & Neumann; also inhibits the growth of Micro- coccus pyogenes var. aureus and Pasteurella pestis. Root, tuber and stem—mucilaginous, astringent. Leaves and twigs—antiseptic; used for poulticing wounds.... leea aequata

Necrotising Fasciitis

Also known as CELLULITIS. A potentially lethal infection caused by the gram-positive (see GRAM’S STAIN) bacterium Streptococcus pyogenes which has the property of producing dangerous exotoxins. The infection, which starts in the layer of FASCIA under the SKIN, may spread very rapidly, destroying tissue as it spreads. Urgent antibiotic treatment may check the infection, and surgery is sometimes required, but even with treatment patients may die (see STREPTOCOCCUS).... necrotising fasciitis


n. an infection of the skin caused by Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and other bacteria. The full thickness of the epidermis is involved (compare impetigo, which is a superficial infection). Ecthyma heals slowly and causes scarring. It may be associated with poor hygiene or depressed immunity.... ecthyma


The study of all aspects of micro-organisms (microbes) – that is, organisms which individually are generally too small to be visible other than by microscopy. The term is applicable to viruses (see VIRUS), BACTERIA, and microscopic forms of fungi, algae, and PROTOZOA.

Among the smallest and simplest microorganisms are the viruses. First described as ?lterable agents, and ranging in size from 20–30 nm to 300 nm, they may be directly visualised only by electron microscopy. They consist of a core of deoxyribonucleic or ribonucleic acid (DNA or RNA) within a protective protein coat, or capsid, whose subunits confer a geometric symmetry. Thus viruses are usually cubical (icosahedral) or helical; the larger viruses (pox-, herpes-, myxo-viruses) may also have an outer envelope. Their minimal structure dictates that viruses are all obligate parasites, relying on living cells to provide essential components for their replication. Apart from animal and plant cells, viruses may infect and replicate in bacteria (bacteriophages) or fungi (mycophages), which are damaged in the process.

Bacteria are larger (0·01–5,000 µm) and more complex. They have a subcellular organisation which generally includes DNA and RNA, a cell membrane, organelles such as ribosomes, and a complex and chemically variable cell envelope – but, unlike EUKARYOTES, no nucleus. Rickettsiae, chlamydia, and mycoplasmas, once thought of as viruses because of their small size and absence of a cell wall (mycoplasma) or major wall component (chlamydia), are now acknowledged as bacteria; rickettsiae and chlamydia are intracellular parasites of medical importance. Bacteria may also possess additional surface structures, such as capsules and organs of locomotion (?agella) and attachment (?mbriae and stalks). Individual bacterial cells may be spheres (cocci); straight (bacilli), curved (vibrio), or ?exuous (spirilla) rods; or oval cells (coccobacilli). On examination by light microscopy, bacteria may be visible in characteristic con?gurations (as pairs of cocci [diplococci], or chains [streptococci], or clusters); actinomycete bacteria grow as ?laments with externally produced spores. Bacteria grow essentially by increasing in cell size and dividing by ?ssion, a process which in ideal laboratory conditions some bacteria may achieve about once every 20 minutes. Under natural conditions, growth is usually much slower.

Eukaryotic micro-organisms comprise fungi, algae, and protozoa. These organisms are larger, and they have in common a well-developed internal compartmentation into subcellular organelles; they also have a nucleus. Algae additionally have chloroplasts, which contain photosynthetic pigments; fungi lack chloroplasts; and protozoa lack both a cell wall and chloroplasts but may have a contractile vacuole to regulate water uptake and, in some, structures for capturing and ingesting food. Fungi grow either as discrete cells (yeasts), multiplying by budding, ?ssion, or conjugation, or as thin ?laments (hyphae) which bear spores, although some may show both morphological forms during their life-cycle. Algae and protozoa generally grow as individual cells or colonies of individuals and multiply by ?ssion.

Micro-organisms of medical importance include representatives of the ?ve major microbial groups that obtain their essential nutrients at the expense of their hosts. Many bacteria and most fungi, however, are saprophytes (see SAPROPHYTE), being major contributors to the natural cycling of carbon in the environment and to biodeterioration; others are of ecological and economic importance because of the diseases they cause in agricultural or horticultural crops or because of their bene?cial relationships with higher organisms. Additionally, they may be of industrial or biotechnological importance. Fungal diseases of humans tend to be most important in tropical environments and in immuno-compromised subjects.

Pathogenic (that is, disease-causing) microorganisms have special characteristics, or virulence factors, that enable them to colonise their hosts and overcome or evade physical, biochemical, and immunological host defences. For example, the presence of capsules, as in the bacteria that cause anthrax (Bacillus anthracis), one form of pneumonia (Streptococcus pneumoniae), scarlet fever (S. pyogenes), bacterial meningitis (Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus in?uenzae) is directly related to the ability to cause disease because of their antiphagocytic properties. Fimbriae are related to virulence, enabling tissue attachment – for example, in gonorrhoea (N. gonorrhoeae) and cholera (Vibrio cholerae). Many bacteria excrete extracellular virulence factors; these include enzymes and other agents that impair the host’s physiological and immunological functions. Some bacteria produce powerful toxins (excreted exotoxins or endogenous endotoxins), which may cause local tissue destruction and allow colonisation by the pathogen or whose speci?c action may explain the disease mechanism. In Staphylococcus aureus, exfoliative toxin produces the staphylococcal scalded-skin syndrome, TSS toxin-1 toxic-shock syndrome, and enterotoxin food poisoning. The pertussis exotoxin of Bordetella pertussis, the cause of whooping cough, blocks immunological defences and mediates attachment to tracheal cells, and the exotoxin produced by Corynebacterium diphtheriae causes local damage resulting in a pronounced exudate in the trachea.

Viruses cause disease by cellular destruction arising from their intracellular parasitic existence. Attachment to particular cells is often mediated by speci?c viral surface proteins; mechanisms for evading immunological defences include latency, change in viral antigenic structure, or incapacitation of the immune system – for example, destruction of CD 4 lymphocytes by the human immunode?ciency virus.... microbiology

Oxalis Corniculata


Family: Oxalidaceae.

Habitat: Throughout the warmer parts of India.

English: Indian Sorrel.

Ayurvedic: Chaangeri, Am- lapatrikaa, Amlikaa, Chukraa, Chukrikaa, Chhatraamlikaa.

Unani: Ambutaa bhaaji, Amutaa saag.

Siddha/Tamil: Puliyarai.

Folk: Tinpatiyaa, Ambilonaa.

Action: Plant—boiled with butter milk is a home remedy for indigestion and diarrhoea in children. Used for tympanitis, dyspepsia, biliousness and dysentery; also for its anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic and antiscorbutic activities. Leaf paste is applied over forehead to cure headache.

The leaves contain the flavonoids, vitexin, isovitexin and vitexin-2"-O- beta-D-glucopyranoside. The leaves contain 1.47% of lipid (dry weight), a rich source of essential fatty acids and alpha-and beta-tocopherol (1.58 and 6.18 mg/g dry basis, respectively.) They are a good source of vitamin C (125 mg/100 g), carotene (3.6 mg/100 g) and calcium (5.6% of dry material) but contain a high content of oxalates (12% of dry material).

The leaves and stem contain tartar- ic and citric acid; stems contain also malic acid.

An aqueous extract of the plant shows activity against Micrococcus pyogenes var. aureus. Expressed juice of the entire plant shows activity against Gram-positive bacteria.

Oxalis martiana Zucc. (native to America, naturalized in moist and shady placaes in temperate parts of India) is equated with Wood-Sorrel. It is known as Khatmitthi in Delhi and Peria-puliyarai in Tamil Nadu.

Dosage: Whole plant—5-10 ml juice. (API, Vol. III.)... oxalis corniculata

Pergularia Extensa

N. E. Br.

Synonym: P. daemia (Forsk.) Chiov.

Family: Asclepiadaceae; Periplo- caceae.

Habitat: Throughout India and hotter parts.

English: Hairknot Plant, Whitlow Plant.

Ayurvedic: Uttamaarani, Vrischikaali, Vishaanikaa. Phala- kantaka. Ajashringi is a doubtful synonym.

Siddha/Tamil: Utthaamani, Veli- paruthi.

Folk: Utaran.

Action: Plant—Uterine stimulant, tones up urinary bladder, stimulates gastric secretion, expectorant, emetic. Leaf—used for amenorrhoea, dysmenorrhoea; externally applied to carbuncles.

The plant gave betaine, a polypep- tide, hentriacontane, lupeol, alpha-and beta-amyrin, beta-sitosterol as major constituents. Seeds and stems gave car- denolides—calactin, calotropin, calo- tropagenin, uzarigenin and coroglau- cigenin.

The plant extract exhibits stimulating action on uterine and other involuntary muscles. The extracts cause rise in arterial blood pressure, increase in movement and tone of urinary bladder, and stimulation of gastric secretions. An aqueous extract of the leaves shows antibacterial activity against E. coli and Micrococcus pyogenes var. aureus.... pergularia extensa

Plantago Lanceolata


Family: Plantaginaceae.

Habitat: Western Himalayas, from Kashmir to Garhwal and Simla.

English: Rib Grass, Ribwort Plantain, English Plantain, Buckhorn Plantain.

Unani: Baartang, Aspaghol.

Folk: Balatang.

Action: Leaf and root—astringent, bechic, antiasthmatic, anti-inflammatory, hypothermic, diuretic. Seed—cathartic, diuretic, haemostatic.

Key application: Internally, for catarrhs of the respiratory tract and inflammatory alterations of the oral and pharyngeal mucosa; externally for inflammatory reactions of the skin. (German Commission E, ESCOP.)

Globularin and methyl ester of de- sacetyl asperulosidic acid were isolated from the plant along with cat- apol. A crude mucilage, isolated from the leaves, contains L-arabinose 26.0, D-galactose 35.8, D-glucose 21.9, D- mannose 4.6, L-rhamnose 4.6 and uronic acid 6.9%. Alpha-D-glucan was separated from this mucilage.

Leaves gave aucubin and esculetin, in addition to polysaccharides. The whole plant yielded rhamnosidoglyco- side of caffeic acid. Seeds contain 1.1% aucubin. Aucubin exhibits antibacterial activity. Hepatoprotective effect is also attributed to the aucubin content.

Alcoholic extract of young leaves exhibit antibacterial action against Streptococcus betahaemolyticus, Micrococ- cus pyogenes var. aureus and Bacillus subtilis, thus confirming their wound- healing properties.... plantago lanceolata

Pogostemon Cablin


Synonym: P. patchouli var. sauvis Hook. f.

Family: Labiatae; Lamiaceae.

Habitat: Native to the Philippines; introduced in India.

English: Patchouli.

Ayurvedic: Paachi.

Folk: Paanari.

Action: Plant—insecticidal. Leaves—an infusion is given in menstrual troubles.

The oil, extracted from dried leaves, is reported to possess antibacterial activity against E. coli, Staphylococcus au- reus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Bacterium coli and B. typhosum. It is also found effective against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The oil is used in insect- repellent preparations.... pogostemon cablin

Pyrus Communis


Family: Rosaceae.

Habitat: Distributed in the temperate regions of Europe and West Asia. Grown in Punjab and Kashmir.

English: Common or European Pear.

Folk: Bagu-goshaa, Babbu-goshaa.

Action: Fruits—a good source of pectin, help in maintaining a desirable acid balance in the body. Recommended to patients suffering from diabetes because of low sucrose content; and included in low antigen content diets to alleviate the symptoms in the management of immune-mediated disease.

Fresh pear juice exhibited good activity against Micrococcus pyogenes var. aureus and Escherichia coli.

An aqueous extract of the leaves was active against some strains of E. coli.

The leaves contain arbutin, iso- quercitrin, sorbitol, ursolic acid, astra- galin and tannin (0.8-2.9%). The bark contains friedelin, epifriedelanol and beta-sitosterol. Phloridzin is present in the root bark.

The plant extract controls the development of freckles and blemishes on the skin and prevents melanin formation. It finds application in skin- lightening creams.... pyrus communis

Reissantia Grahamii

(Wight) Ding Hou.

Synonym: Hippocratea grahamii Wight.

Pristimera grahamii A. C. Smith.

Family: Celastraceae; Hip- pocrateaceae.

Habitat: Konkan, and the South Andamans.

Folk: Danshir, Daushir, Lokhandi, Yesti, Zerwati (Maharashtra).

Action: Root—used for the treatment of respiratory affections, common cold and influenza.

The roots contain about twice the amount of pristimerin as in R. indica and show similar antibiotic properties. Pristimerin is found active against Streptococcus viridans, causative organism for sore throat and tonsilitis, and S. pyogenes.... reissantia grahamii

Sphaeranthus Indicus

Linn. (also auct. non L.)

Synonym: S. senegalensis DC. S. hirtus Willd.

Family: Compositae; Asteraceae.

Habitat: Tropical parts of India, in rice fields, cultivated lands as a weed.

Ayurvedic: Mundi, Mundika, Munditikaa, Bhuukadamba, Alam- busta, Shraavani, Tapodhanaa.

(Mahamundi, Mahaa-Shraavani Is Equated With S. Africanus Linn.)

Unani: Mundi.

Siddha/Tamil: Kottakarthai.

Folk: Gorakh-Mundi.

Action: Juice—Styptic, Emollient, Resolvent. Also Used In Hepatic And Gastric Disorders. Seeds And Root—Anthelmintic. Decoction Is Used In Cough And Other Catarrhal Affections And Chest Diseases. Root Bark—Given In Bleeding Piles. Flowers—Blood Purifier, Alterative, Depurative.

The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia Of India Recommends The Dried Leaf In Cervical Lymphadenitis, Chronic Sinusitis, Migraine, Epilepsy, Lipid Disorders, Diseases Of Spleen, Anaemia, Dysuria.

The Drug Is Mostly Administered In The Form Of Its Steam-Distillate. Steam Distillation Of Fresh Flowering Herb Yields An Essential Oil Containing Methyl Chavicol, Alpha-Ionone, D-Cadinene, P-Methoxycinnamaldehyde As Major Constituents. A Bitter Alkaloid, Sphaer- Anthine, Has Been Reported In The Plant.

Capitula Contains Albumin, A Fatty Oil (Up To 5%), Reducing Sugars, Tannins, Mineral Matter, A Volatile Oil (0.07%), And A Glucoside. No Alkaloid Was Detected In The Inflorescence. The Glucoside On Hydrolysis Gave A Aglycone, Phenolic In Nature. The Unsaponifiable Matter Of The Fatty Oil Showed Beta-Sitosterol, Stigmas- Terol, N-Triacontanol, N-Pentacosane And Hentriacontane. The Essential Oil Is Active Against Vibrio Cholera And Mi- Crococcus Pyogenes Var. Aureus. The Flower Heads Gave Beta-D-Glucoside Of Beta-Sitosterol.

Eudesmanolides, Cryptomeridiol And 4-Epicryptomeridiol Have Been Isolated From Flowers.

Flowers Gave A Sesquiterpene Glyco- Side, Sphaeranthanolide, Which Exhibited Immune Stimulating Activity.

Dosage: Leaf— 3-6 G (Api, Vol Iii); Whole Plant—10-20 Ml Juice (Api, Vol. IV).... sphaeranthus indicus

Symplocos Racemosa


Synonym: S. beddomei C. B. Clarke S. candolleana Brand.

Family: Symplocaceae.

Habitat: Throughout North and eastern India, extending southwards to Peninsular India.

English: Lodh tree, Sapphire Berry

Ayurvedic: Lodhra, Rodhra, Shaavara., Sthulavalkal, Trita, Pattikaa Lodhra, Shaabara Lodhra.

Unani: Lodh Pathaani.

Siddha/Tamil: Vellilethi, Velli- lothram.

Action: Bark—used as specific remedy for uterine complaints, vaginal diseases and menstrual disorders; menorrhagia, leucorrhoea (The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India); also used in diarrhoea, dysentery, vaginal ulcers, inflammatory affections and liver disorders.

The bark gave colloturine, harman (loturine) and loturidine. Stem bark gave proanthocyanidin-3-monogluco- furanosides of 7-O-methyl-and 4'-O- methyl-leucopelargonidin. Betulinic, oleanolic, acetyl oleanolic and ellagic acids are reported from the plant.

Glycosides, isolated from the ethanolic extract of the stem bark, are highly astringent and are reported to be responsible for the medicinal properties of the bark.

The bark extracts have been reported to reduce the frequency and intensity of the contractions in vitro of both pregnant and non-pregnant uteri of animals. A fraction from the bark, besides showing action on uteri, was spasmogenic on various parts of the gastrointestinal tract and could be antagonized by atropine.

The bark extracts were found to inhibit the growth of E. coli, Micrococcus pyogenes var. aureus, and enteric and dysenteric groups of organisms.

Dosage: Stem bark—3-5 g powder; 20-30 g for decoction. (API, Vol. I.)

S. laurina Wall., synonym S. spica- ta Roxb. (North and East Idia, Western and Eastern Ghats); S. ramosis- sima Wall. (the temperate Himalayas from Garhwal to Bhutan); S. sumuntia Buch.-Ham. (Nepal to Bhutan) are also equated with Lodhra.

The powdered bark is used in folk medicine for biliousness, haemorrhages, diarrhoea, dysentery and genitourinary diseases.

Symplocos theaefolia Buch-Ham. ex D. Don (the Eastern Himalayas from Nepal to Bhutan and in the Khasi Hills at altitudes between 1,200 and 2,500 m) is known as Kharanl in Nepal and Dieng-pei or Dieng-twe-pe in khasi.

The ethanolic extract of leaves showed hypoglycaemic activity in rats and anticancer activity against Friend- virus-leukaemia (solid) in mice. The extract of the leaves and of stems showed activity against human epider- moid carcinoma of the nasopharynx in tissue-culture.

The Wealth of India equated S. laurina with Lodh Bholica (Bengal) and S. sumuntia with Pathaani Lodh.

The wood of Symplocos phyllocalyx C. B. Clarke is known as Chandan and Laal-chandan. It should not be confused with Santalum album or Ptero- carpus santalinus.... symplocos racemosa

Syzygium Malaccense

(Linn.) Merrill & Perry.

Synonym: Eugenia malccensis Linn.

Family: Myrtaceae.

Habitat: Cultivated in Bengal and South India, chiefly in gardens.

English: Malay Apple, Mountain Apple.

Action: Leaves—dried and powdered, used against stomatitis. Bark—astringent; used for making a mouthwash for thrush.

The extracts of seeds, fruits, leaves, stem and bark show varying degree of antibiotic activity against Micrococcus pyogenes var. aureus. An extract of fruits (without seeds) is moderately effective against E. coli and those of bark and leaves against Shigella paradys.

The extracts of the plant, excluding root, affect the rate and amplitude of respiration and also blood pressure.... syzygium malaccense

Withania Coagulans


Family: Solanaceae.

Habitat: Drier parts of Punjab, Gujarat, Simla and Kumaon.

English: Vegetable Rennet, Indian Cheese-maker.

Unani: Desi Asgandh, Kaaknaj-e- Hindi, Paneer, Paneer-band. Akri (fruit).

Siddha/Tamil: Ammukkura.

Action: Alterative, emetic, diuretic. Ripe fruits—sedative, CNS depressant, antibilious, emetic, antiasth- matic, diuretic, anti-inflammatory; used in chronic liver troubles and strangury. Dried fruits— carminative, depurative; used for dyspepsia, flatulence and strangury. Leaf—alterative, febrifuge. Seeds— anti-inflammatory, emetic, diuretic, emmenagogue.

Though known as Desi Asgandh, the root is not used in Indian medicine. Ashwagandhaa (Bengali) and Ashwa- gandhi (Kannada) are confusing synonyms of W. coagulans. In the market no distinction is made between the berries of W. coagulans and W. somnifera.

The berries contain a milk-coagulating enzyme, esterases, free amino acids, fatty oil, an essential oil and alkaloids. The amino acid composition fairly agrees with that of papain. The essential oil was active against Micro- coccus pyogenes var. aureus and Vibro cholerae; also showed anthelmintic activity.

The withanolides, withacoagin, coagulan and withasomidienone have been isolated from the plant, along with other withanolides and withaferin. 3- beta-hydroxy-2,3- dihydrowithanolide E, isolated from the fruit showed significant hepatoprotective activity and anti-inflammatory activity equal to hydrocortisone. The ethanolic extract of the fruit showed antifungal and that of the leaves and stem antibacterial activity.... withania coagulans

Zingiber Zerumbet

Rose. ex.Sm.

Synonym: Z. spurium Koen. Amomum spurium Gmel. A. sylvestre Poir.

Habitat: Throughout India from the Himalayas, southwards. Cultivated in Asian tropics.

English: Zerumbet Ginger.

Ayurvedic: Mahaabhari-vachaa (also equated with Alpinia galanga), Sthula-granthi (also equated with Alpinia speciosa). Source of Martinique Ginger, used as Shunthi in Indian medicine.

Unani: Narkachoor, Zarambaad. (Curcuma caesia is also equated with Narkachoor.)

Folk: Karrallamu (Telugu).

Action: Rhizomes—used for cough, asthma; colic; intestinal worms, and in leprosy and skin diseases. Oil— antiseptic.

The rhizome contains several flavo- noid glycosides and curcumin.

The oil of Zerumbet contains about 13% monoterpenes and several ses- quiterpenes of which humulene and zerumbone are major constituents. The major constituent of monoter- penes is camphene. Unlike the oil of Z. officinale, Zerumbet oil does not contain any methyl heptanone; instead, it contains camphor.

Zerumbone inhibits the growth of Micrococcus pyogenes var. aureus and Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

Indian samples contain only 37.5% of zerumbone, while those from Fiji 58.7, Vietnam 72.3 and Tahiti 65.3%.... zingiber zerumbet


St Anthony’s Fire. An acute contagious disease caused by Group A Beta Haemolytic Streptococcus erysipelatis, or pyogenes. Onset with chilliness followed by rigor, thirst, feverishness, drowsiness. Burning, irritating skin lesions which ulcerate with great pain. Symptoms include nervous prostration, delirium from pain, fast and full pulse, swollen eyes and turgid face.

Treatment. Bedrest. Alteratives, analgesics, sedatives. Spreads via the lymphatic system (Poke root, Clivers). Sustain heart (Hawthorn or Lily of the Valley); kidneys (Buchu or Juniper); as appropriate. Yarrow – to reduce temperature. Echinacea to strengthen immune system.

Tea: Formula: Yarrow 1; Raspberry leaves 1; Red Clover 1; Clivers 1; Liquorice root half. 2 teaspoons to each cup boiling water; infuse 5-15 minutes. Half-1 cup every 2 hours, or as tolerated. If ingredients not available: substitute Elderflowers, Boneset, or Balm.

Alternatives. Tablets/capsules. Echinacea, Lobelia.

Powders. Formula: Sarsaparilla 2; Poke root 1; Liquorice 1. Dose: 500mg (two 00 capsules or one-third teaspoon) every 2 hours or as tolerated.

Tinctures. Alternatives: (1) Echinacea 2; Fringe Tree 1. (2) Sarsaparilla 2; Queen’s Delight 1. (3) Clivers 2; Echinacea 2. 1-2 teaspoons in water every 2 hours, or as long as tolerated.

Topical. Ointments or creams: Marigold, Comfrey, Evening Primrose, Echinacea, Logwood, Aloe Vera gel.

Traditional: Equal parts Houseleek and dairy cream.

Early Florida settlers: Powdered Slippery Elm as a dusting powder or with a little milk to form a paste. Maria Treben. Application of crushed leaves of cabbage, Coltsfoot, Houseleek and Speedwell all have their successes in reducing pain and facilitating healing.

Cleansing wash: warm infusion of Yarrow or Marshmallow.

Diet. Lacto-vegetarian. Abundant Vitamin C in lemon and other fruit juices.

Supplements. Vitamin A, B-complex, C, D.

To be treated by or in liaison with a general medical practitioner. ... erysipelas

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