British National Formulary (BNF)
A pocket-book for those concerned with the prescribing, dispensing and administration of medicines in Britain. It is produced jointly by the Royal Pharmaceutical Society and the British Medical Association, is revised twice yearly and is distributed to NHS doctors by the Health Departments. The BNF is also available in electronic form.... Medical Dictionary
GMC website: includes the Council’s guide to Good Medical Practice... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary
The Council is funded by doctors’ annual fees and is responsible to the Privy Council. Substantial reforms of the GMC’s structure and functions have been and are still being undertaken to ensure that it operates e?ectively in today’s rapidly evolving medical and social environment. In particular, the Council has strengthened its supervisory and disciplinary functions, and among many changes has proposed the regular revalidation of doctors’ professional abilities on a periodic basis. The Medical Register, maintained by the GMC, is intended to enable the public to identify whom it is safe to approach to obtain medical services. Entry on the Register shows that the doctor holds a recognised primary medical quali?cation and is committed to upholding the profession’s values. Under revalidation requirements being ?nalised, in addition to holding an initial quali?cation, doctors wishing to stay on the Register will have to show their continuing ?tness to practise according to the professional attributes laid down by the GMC.
Once revalidation is fully established, there will be four categories of doctor:
Those on the Register who successfully show their ?tness to practise on a regular basis.
Those whose registration is limited, suspended or removed as a result of the Council’s disciplinary procedures.
Those who do not wish to stay on the Register or retain any links with the GMC.
Those, placed on a supplementary list, who do not wish to stay on the main Register but who want to retain a formal link with the medical profession through the Council. Such doctors will not be able to practise or prescribe.... Medical Dictionary
[catlist id=9 numberposts=100 pagination=yes instance=2 orderby=title order=asc]... Herbal Medical
[catlist id=11 numberposts=100 pagination=yes instance=2 orderby=title order=asc]... Medical Dictionary
A range of research investigations has developed within medical education. These apply to course monitoring, audit, development and validation, assessment methodologies and the application of educationally appropriate principles at undergraduate and postgraduate levels. Research is undertaken by medical educationalists whose backgrounds include teaching, social sciences and medicine and related health-care specialties, and who will hold a medical or general educational diploma, degree or other appropriate postgraduate quali?cation.
Development and validation for all courses are an important part of continuing accreditation processes. The relatively conservative courses at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels, including diplomas and postgraduate quali?cations awarded by the specialist medical royal colleges (responsible for standards of specialist education) and universities, have undergone a range of reassessment and rede?nition driven by the changing needs of the individual practitioner in the last decade. The stimuli to change aspects of medical training have come from the government through the former Chief Medical O?cer, Sir Kenneth Calman, and the introduction of new approaches to specialist training (the Calman programme), from the GENERAL MEDICAL COUNCIL (GMC) and its document Tomorrow’s Doctors, as well as from the profession itself through the activities of the British Medical Association and the medical royal colleges. The evolving expectations of the public in their perception of the requirements of a doctor, and changes in education of other groups of health professionals, have also led to pressures for changes.
Consequently, many new departments and units devoted to medical education within university medical schools, royal colleges and elsewhere within higher education have been established. These developments have built upon practice developed elsewhere in the world, particularly in North America, Australia and some European countries. Undergraduate education has seen application of new educational methods, including Problem-Based Learning (PBL) in Liverpool, Glasgow and Manchester; clinical and communications skills teaching; early patient contact; and the extensive adoption of Internet (World Wide Web) support and Computer-Aided Learning (CAL). In postgraduate education – driven by European directives and practices, changes in specialist training and the needs of community medicine – new courses have developed around the membership and fellowship examinations for the royal colleges. Examples of these changes driven by medical education expertise include the STEP course for the Royal College of Surgeons of England, and distance-learning courses for diplomas in primary care and rheumatology, as well as examples of good practice as adopted by the Royal College of General Practitioners.
Continuing Professional Development (CPD) and Continuing Medical Education (CME) are also important aspects of medical education now being developed in the United Kingdom, and are evolving to meet the needs of individuals at all stages of their careers.
Bodies closely involved in medical educational developments and their review include the General Medical Council, SCOPME (the Standing Committee on Postgraduate Medical Education), all the medical royal colleges and medical schools, and the British Medical Association through its Board of Medical Education. The National Health Service (NHS) is also involved in education and is a key to facilitation of CPD/CME as the major employer of doctors within the United Kingdom.
Several learned societies embrace medical education at all levels. These include ASME (the Association for the Study of Medical Education), MADEN (the Medical and Dental Education Network) and AMEE (the Association for Medical Education in Europe). Specialist journals are devoted to research reports relating to medical educational developments
(e.g. Academic Medicine, Health Care Education, Medical Education). The more general medical journals (e.g. British Medical Journal, New England Journal of Medicine, The Lancet, Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons) also carry articles on educational matters. Finally, the World Wide Web (WWW) is a valuable source of information relating to courses and course development and other aspects of modern medical education.
The UK government, which controls the number of students entering medical training, has recently increased the quota to take account of increasing demands for trained sta? from the NHS. More than 5,700 students – 3,300 women and 2,400 men – are now entering UK medical schools annually with nearly 28,600 at medical school in any one year, and an attrition rate of about 8–10 per cent. This loss may in part be due to the changes in university-funding arrangements. Students now pay all or part of their tuition fees, and this can result in medical graduates owing several thousand pounds when they qualify at the end of their ?ve-year basic quali?cation course. Doctors wishing to specialise need to do up to ?ve years (sometimes more) of salaried ‘hands-on’ training in house or registrar (intern) posts.
Though it may be a commonly held belief that most students enter medicine for humanitarian reasons rather than for the ?nancial rewards of a successful medical career, in developed nations the prospect of status and rewards is probably one incentive. However, the cost to students of medical education along with the widespread publicity in Britain about an under-resourced, seriously overstretched health service, with sta? working long hours and dealing with a rising number of disgruntled patients, may be affecting recruitment, since the number of applicants for medical school has dropped in the past year or so. Although there is still competition for places, planners need to bear this falling trend in mind.
Another factor to be considered for the future is the nature of the medical curriculum. In Britain and western Europe, the age structure of a probably declining population will become top-heavy with senior citizens. In the ?nancial interests of the countries affected, and in the personal interests of an ageing population, it would seem sensible to raise the pro?le of preventive medicine – traditionally rather a Cinderella subject – in medical education, thus enabling people to live healthier as well as longer lives. While learning about treatments is essential, the increasing specialisation and subspecialisation of medicine in order to provide expensive, high-technology care to a population, many of whom are suffering from preventable illnesses originating in part from self-indulgent lifestyles, seems insupportable economically, unsatisfactory for patients awaiting treatment, and not necessarily professionally ful?lling for health-care sta?. To change the mix of medical education would be a di?cult long-term task but should be worthwhile for providers and recipients of medical care.... Medical Dictionary
Guidance on good medical practice from the website of the General Medical Council... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary
In the hospital service, claims for clinical negligence have risen enormously since the 1970s. In 1975 the NHS spent about £1m a year on legal claims; by 2004 the NHS faced over £2 billion in outstanding claims. In 1995 a risk-pooling Clinical Negligence Scheme for Trusts (CNST) was set up in England, and is administered by the NHS Litigation Authority. NHS trusts are expected to follow a set of risk-management standards, the ?rst being that each trust should have a written risk-management strategy with an explicit commitment to managing clinical risk (see RISK MANAGEMENT).... Medical Dictionary
MRC website... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary
All voluntary skeletal movements are initiated in the part of the cerebrum (main mass of the brain) called the motor cortex. Signals are sent down the spinal cord along nerve fibres, and from there along separate nerve fibres to the appropriate muscles. Control relies on information supplied by sensory nerve receptors, in the muscles and elsewhere, that record the position of the different parts of the body and the amount of contraction in each muscle. This information is integrated in specific regions of the brain (including the cerebellum and basal ganglia) that control the coordination, initiation, and cessation of movement.
Skeletal movements can also occur as simple reflexes in response to certain sensory warning signals; the movement is automatic and less controlled, involving far fewer nerve connections.
Some body movements do not involve the skeleton. For example, eye and tongue movements are brought about by contractions of muscles that are attached to soft tissues. These movements may be voluntary or reflex.
Movements of the internal organs are involuntary; they include the heartbeat and peristalsis.... BMA Medical Dictionary
Members are directly involved with patient-care, carrying full responsibility for their recommendations, prescribing medication suitable to the individual biological requirements of each patient. Their role includes patient-counselling, health education and research.
Official recognition of the Institute, indicating its growing importance in the field of medicine came with the historic Grant of Arms by Her Majesty’s College of Heralds. Members regard this as evidence that the Royal Charter of King Henry VIII still stands and that there is no monopoly in healing the sick. See: HENRY VIII, HERBALISTS’ CHARTER.
The Institute played a major role in winning vital concessions for the survival of the herbalist in the passage through Parliament of the Medicine’s Bill. See: MEDICINE’S ACT, 1968.
In connection with the NIMH degree courses in herbal medicine are available at a London University, and Exeter University.
The Institute provides professional indemnity cover for its members, and is engaged in a series of clinical trials to evaluate traditional remedies.
All members are required to adhere to a strict professional Code of Ethics and are entitled to carry after their names the letters of qualification: MNIMH or FNIMH.
Members have a key role in preventative medicine and health promotion in their contribution to improvement of the nation’s health.
Address: 56 Longbrook Street, Exeter EX4 6AH, from which a list of members is obtainable. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine
Physiotherapy is used to prevent or reduce joint stiffness; restore muscle strength; reduce pain; inflammation, and muscle spasm; and retrain joints and muscles after stroke or nerve injury.
Methods include heat treatment, exercises, massage, ice-packs, hydrotherapy, and TENS.
Physiotherapy is also used to maintain breathing in people with impaired lung function, and to prevent and treat pulmonary complications after surgery.
Techniques include breathing exercises, postural drainage, and administration of oxygen, drugs, or moisture through a nebulizer.... BMA Medical Dictionary
Physiological changes, such as a fall in temperature and blood pressure, take place just before sleep and continue during the early stages of NREM sleep. There is an intrinsic rhythm of sleep which in most subjects has a periodicity of around 25 hours. This can be modi?ed by external factors to bring it into line with the 24-hour day. Two peaks of a tendency to sleep have been identi?ed, and these usually occur between around 14.00–18.00 hours, and 02.00–06.00 hours. There are, however, di?erences according to age, in that, for instance, infants sleep for most of the 24 hours; during adolescence there is also an increase in the duration of sleep. Sleep requirements fall later in life, but there are wide genetic di?erences in the amount of sleep that people require and also the time at which they fall asleep most readily.
The internal clock can be disturbed by a variety of external factors which include irregular sleeping habits due, for instance, to shift work or jet lag. Sleep is also more likely to occur after physical exertion, reading and social activity. The duration and intensity of exposure to light can also modify sleep profoundly. Light promotes wakefulness and is the main factor that adjusts the 25-hour internal rhythm to the 24hour daily cycle. Neural connections from the retina of the EYE act on an area in the brain called the supra-chiasmatic nucleus which stimulates the pineal gland which produces MELATONIN. This is thought to trigger the range of neurological and metabolic processes that characterise sleep.... Medical Dictionary
Information on the incidence and prevalence of various conditions is an important aspect of medical statistics.... BMA Medical Dictionary
The accuracy of a test is based on its sensitivity (ability to correctly identify diseased subjects), specificity (ability to correctly identify healthy subjects), and predictive value.
The predictive value is determined by a mathematical formula that involves the number of accurate test results and the total number of tests performed.
The best tests have both high specificity and high sensitivity, and therefore high predictive value.... BMA Medical Dictionary