The meaning of the symbols of dreams/ seen in a dream.


Severe protein deficiency disease seen in malnourished children.... kwashiorkor


Hard lumpy nodule of the skin due to overgrowth of ?brous tissue in the dermis. It usually follows surgical or accidental trauma or burns, but, rarely, may complicate acne on the upper trunk. Most commonly seen in the skin over the sternum, shoulders and upper back; coloured people are particularly prone. Injection of corticosteroid into the keloid may cause partial resolution. Excision should be avoided.... keloid


Inflammation of the cornea.... keratitis

Horseshoe Kidney

See KIDNEYS, DISEASES OF.... horseshoe kidney

Kala Azar

See visceral leishmaniasis.... kala azar


Kaolin, or china clay, is a smooth white powder consisting of natural white aluminium silicate resulting from the decomposition of minerals containing felspar. It is used as a dusting powder for eczema (see DERMATITIS) and other forms of irritation in the skin. It is also used internally in cases of diarrhoea. Talc, French chalk and Fuller’s earth are similar silicates.

Kaolin poultice contains kaolin, boric acid, glycerin and various aromatic substances.... kaolin

Kawasaki Disease

Also called mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome, this disorder of unknown origin occurs mainly in children under ?ve and was ?rst described in Japan. It is characterised by high fever, conjunctivitis (see under EYE, DISORDERS OF), skin rashes and swelling of the neck glands. After about two weeks the skin from ?ngertips and toes may peel. The disease may last for several weeks before spontaneously resolving. It is possible that it is caused by an unusual immune response to INFECTION (see IMMUNITY).

Arteritis is a common complication and can result in the development of coronary artery aneurysms (see ANEURYSM) in up to 60 per cent of those affected. These aneurysms and even myocardial infarction (see HEART, DISEASES OF – Coronary thrombosis) are often detected after the second week of illness. The disease can be hard to diagnose as it mimics many childhood viral illnesses, especially in its early stages. The incidence in the UK is over 3 per 100,000 children under ?ve years of age.

Treatment Because of the danger of coronary artery disease, prompt treatment is important. This is with intravenous IMMUNOGLOBULINS and low-dose aspirin. To be e?ective, treatment must start in the ?rst week or so of the illness – a time when it is most di?cult to diagnose.... kawasaki disease


The substance of which horn and the surface layer of the skin are composed.... keratin


Inflammation of the cornea and the conjunctiva.... keratoconjunctivitis


Softening of the cornea due to a severe vitamin A de?ciency (see EYE, DISORDERS OF).... keratomalacia


See CORNEAL GRAFT.... keratoplasty


Also known as actinic keratosis; a rough, scaly area on exposed skin caused by chronic solar damage from exposure to sun. The face and backs of the hands are most commonly affected. (See also MELANOMA; PHOTODERMATOSES.) CRYOTHERAPY is e?ective, but prevention by appropriate clothing and sun-blocking creams is a better strategy.... keratosis


A suppurating form of RINGWORM.... kerion


The staining with BILE of the basal nuclei of the BRAIN, with toxic degeneration of the nerve cells, which sometimes occurs in severe HAEMOLYTIC DISEASE OF THE NEWBORN – especially if prompt treatment by exchange TRANSFUSION has not been carried out. Rare nowadays, the result is a form of CEREBRAL PALSY.... kernicterus


An imidazole (see IMIDAZOLES) antifungal drug available for both oral and topical use. Better absorbed orally than other imidazoles, it also has an anti-androgen e?ect which may give rise to GYNAECOMASTIA and IMPOTENCE in men. In view of its potential hepatotoxicity it should not be given orally for trivial infections, but reserved instead for SYSTEMIC fungal infections (see FUNGAL AND YEAST INFECTIONS).... ketoconazole


Another name for acetone or dimethyl ketone. The term, ketone bodies, is applied to a group of substances closely allied to acetone, especially beta-hydroxybutyric acid and acetoacetic acid. These are produced in the body from imperfect oxidation of fats and protein foods, and are found in especially large amount in severe cases of DIABETES MELLITUS. Ketonuria is the term applied to the presence of these bodies in the urine.... ketone




A condition in which an excessive amount of ketones (see KETONE) are produced by the body and these accumulate in the bloodstream. The affected person becomes drowsy, suffers a headache, breathes deeply, and may lapse into a COMA. The condition results from an unbalanced metabolism of fat, which may occur in DIABETES MELLITUS or starvation.... ketosis

Keyhole Surgery

See MINIMALLY INVASIVE SURGERY (MIS).... keyhole surgery

Kiss Of Life

Emergency mouth-to-mouth resuscitation of an unconscious person (see APPENDIX 1: BASIC FIRST AID).... kiss of life


A bacteria genus of the Enterobacteriaceae. K. pneumoniae is implicated in much pneumonia, particularly when it is a secondary infection following a simple chest cold.... klebsiella


A psychological disorder in which the person a?icted has an irresistible compulsion to steal things, without necessarily having any need for the object stolen.... kleptomania


Knock-knee, or genu valgum, is a deformity of the lower limbs in such a direction that when the limbs are straightened the legs diverge from one another. As a result, in walking the knees knock against each other. The amount of knock-knee is measured by the distance between the medial malleoli of the ankles, with the inner surfaces of the knee touching and the knee-caps facing forwards. The condition is so common in children between the ages of 2–6 years that it may almost be regarded as a normal phase in childhood. When marked, or persisting into later childhood, it can be corrected by surgery (osteotomy).... knock-knee


The joint formed by the FEMUR, TIBIA and patella (knee-cap). It belongs to the class of hinge-joints, although movements are much more complex than the simple motion of a hinge, the condyles of the femur partly rolling, partly sliding over the ?at surfaces on the upper end of the tibia, and the acts of straightening and of bending the limb being ?nished and begun, respectively, by a certain amount of rotation. The cavity of the joint is very intricate: it consists really of three joints fused into one, but separated in part by ligaments and folds of the synovial membrane. The ligaments which bind the bones together are extremely strong, and include the popliteal and the collateral ligaments, a very strong patellar ligament uniting the patella to the front of the tibia, two CRUCIATE LIGAMENTS in the interior of the joint, and two ?brocartilages which are interposed between the surfaces of tibia and femur at their edge. All these structures give to the knee-joint great strength, so that it is seldom dislocated. The cruciate ligaments, although strong, sometimes rupture or stretch under severe physical stress such as contact sports or athletics. Surgical repair may be required, followed by prolonged physiotherapy.

A troublesome condition often found in the knee – and common among athletes, footballers and other energetic sportspeople – consists of the loosening of one of the ?bro-cartilages lying at the head of the tibia, especially of that on the inner side of the joint. The cartilage may either be loosened from its attachment and tend to slip beyond the edges of the bones, or it may become folded on itself. In either case, it tends to cause locking of the joint when sudden movements are made. This causes temporary inability to use the joint until the cartilage is replaced by forcible straightening, and the accident is apt to be followed by an attack of synovitis, which may last some weeks, causing lameness with pain and tenderness especially felt at a point on the inner side of the knee. This condition can be relieved by an operation

– sometimes by keyhole surgery (see MINIMALLY INVASIVE SURGERY (MIS)) – to remove the loose portion of the cartilage. Patients whose knees are severely affected by osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis which cause pain and sti?ness can now have the joint replaced with an arti?cial one. (See also ARTHROPLASTY; JOINTS, DISEASES OF.)... knee


The term applied to nails that are hollow and depressed like a spoon, a condition sometimes associated with chronic iron de?ciency.... koilonychia


A slowly progressive, fatal disease due to spongiform degeneration in the central nervous system, particularly the cerebellum (see BRAIN). It is con?ned to the Fore people in the Eastern Highlands of New Guinea, and causes increasingly severe muscular trembling. Kuru is believed to be due to an infection with a PRION, similar to that causing CREUTZFELDT-JAKOB DISEASE (CJD), acquired from the cannibalistic rite of eating the organs, particularly the brains, of deceased relatives (out of respect). This origin of the disease was suggested by the fact that originally it was a disease of women and children, and it was they who practised this rite. Since the rite was given up, the disease has largely disappeared.... kuru


A combination of SCOLIOSIS and KYPHOSIS in which the spine (see SPINAL COLUMN) is abnormally curved sideways and forwards. The condition may be the result of several diseases affecting the spinal muscles and vertebrae, or it may happen during development for no obvious reason. Although braces may reduce the deformity, an operation may be necessary to correct it.... kyphoscoliosis


The term applied to curvature of the spine in which the concavity of the curve is directed forwards. (See SPINE AND SPINAL CORD, DISEASES AND INJURIES OF.)... kyphosis

Kaposi’s Sarcoma

Vascular tumour. Begins with small reddish-purple plaques and skin nodules on the legs and feet. May remain benign for many years. Usually associated with AIDS, but the classical form may also be seen in renal transplant and elderly male patients receiving cortisone preparations. The tumours may appear anywhere in the body, especially around eyes and nose, giving a bruised appearance.

Diagnosis is difficult to the inexperienced practitioner. Referral to a dermatologist for skin biopsy. Homosexuals are at risk from semen ejaculated into a foreign environment. The blood abnormality extends to the lymph system for which Lymphatics such as Echinacea, Saw Palmetto and Poke root are indicated. See: AIDS.

Treatment by a general medical practitioner or hospital specialist. ... kaposi’s sarcoma

Creatine Kinase

An ENZYME which is proving to be of value in the investigation and diagnosis of muscular dystrophy (see MUSCLES, DISORDERS OF – Myopathy), in which it is found in the blood in greatly increased amounts.... creatine kinase


See SLEEP.... dreams

Gotu Kola

Meditation ... gotu kola

Kaposi’s Sarcoma

A cancer or tumour of the blood and/or lymphatic vessel walls. It usually appears as blue-violet to brownish skin blotches or lumps. Before the appearance of AIDS, it was rare in the developed world. AIDSassociated Kaposi’s sarcoma is much more aggressive than the earlier form of the disease and is associated with Human Herpes Virus 8.... kaposi’s sarcoma


An anaesthetic drug, administered by intravenous or intramuscular injection and used mainly in children. The drug has good analgesic properties when used in subanaesthetic doses. One disadvantage is that when used as an anaesthetic, a high incidence of hallucinations occur. Ketamine is contraindicated in patients with HYPERTENSION.... ketamine


The production of ketones (see KETONE) in the body; abnormal ketogenesis may result in KETOSIS.... ketogenesis

Ketogenic Diet

This contains such an excess of fats that acetone and other KETONE bodies appear in the urine. The diet is sometimes used in the treatment of EPILEPSY and chronic infections of the urinary tract by Escherichia coli; butter, cream, eggs and fat meat are allowed, whilst sugar, bread and other carbohydrates are cut out as far as possible.... ketogenic diet


Tender leaves of a shrub that grows in the Middle East called Catha edelis. The leaves are wrapped around betel nuts and chewed: the result is a feeling of EUPHORIA and an ability to tolerate harsh living conditions.... khat

Kidney Stone

Small, hard stone that may form in the kidneys and cause intense pain... kidney stone

Knee Jerk

See REFLEX ACTION.... knee jerk

Knee-joint Replacement

A surgical operation to replace a diseased – usually osteoarthritic – KNEE with an arti?cial (metal or plastic) implant which covers the worn cartilage. As much of the original joint as possible is retained. The operations, like hip replacements, are usually done on older people (there is some restriction of movement) and about 90 per cent are successful.... knee-joint replacement

Krebs Cycle

A series of key cellular chemical reactions starting and ending with oxaloacetic acid. Also called the citric acid or tricarboxylic acid cycle, it produces energy in the form of ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE (ATP) and is the last stage in the biological oxidation of fats, proteins, and carbohydrates. Named after Sir Hans Krebs, a German biochemist working in England in 1900, who won the Nobel Prize for his discovery.... krebs cycle

Kupffer Cells

Star-shaped cells present in the blood-sinuses of the LIVER. They form part of the RETICULOENDOTHELIAL SYSTEM and are to a large extent responsible for the breakdown of HAEMOGLOBIN into the BILE pigments.... kupffer cells

Kveim Test

The characteristic histological test used for the diagnosis of SARCOIDOSIS. The test involves an intradermal injection of sarcoid SPLEEN tissue. If positive, non-caseating granulomata (see GRANULOMA) are seen at the injection site in 4– 6 weeks. A positive test is highly speci?c for sarcoid, but if negative, this would not be excluded.... kveim test

Kidney Disorders

The kidneys are responsible for the excretion of many waste products, chiefly urea from the blood. They maintain the correct balance of salts and water. Any of the individual kidney disorders may interfere with these important functions. See: ABSCESS (kidney). BRIGHT’S DISEASE. CARDIAC DROPS. RENAL FLUID RETENTION. GRAVEL. HYDRONEPHROSIS. NEPHROSIS. PROTEINURIA. PYELITIS. RENAL COLIC. RETENTION OF URINE. STONE IN THE KIDNEY. SUPPRESSION OF URINE. URAEMIA. ... kidney disorders


The characteristics of chromosomes, in terms of number, size, and structure, in an individual or a species. The term “karyotype” is also applied to adiagram of chromosome pairs arranged in their assigned numerical order.... karyotype


A type of harmless skin nodule that commonly occurs in elderly people, most often on the face or arm. The cause is unknown, but many years of exposure to strong sunlight or long-term use of immunosuppressant drugs may be factors. Initially, the nodule resembles a small wart, but it grows to 1–2cm across in about 8 weeks. Although the nodule usually disappears gradually after this, surgical removal is often recommended to prevent scarring.... keratoacanthoma


An inherited disorder of the eye in which the cornea becomes gradually thinned and conical. The condition affects both eyes and usually develops around puberty, giving rise to increasing myopia and progressive distortion of vision that cannot be fully corrected by glasses. Hard contact lenses improve vision in the early stages, but when vision has seriously deteriorated and contact lenses are no longer helpful it generally becomes necessary to perform a corneal graft.... keratoconus


A general term used to describe a variety of disorders of the cornea.

Actinic keratopathy is a painful condition in which the outer layer of the cornea is damaged by ultraviolet light.

Exposure keratopathy is corneal damage due to loss of the protection afforded by the tear film and blink reflex.

It may occur in conditions in which the eyelids inadequately cover the cornea, including severe exophthalmos, facial palsy, and ectropion.... keratopathy

Keratosis Pilaris

A common condition in which patches of rough skin appear on the upper arms, thighs, and buttocks. The openings of the hair follicles become enlarged by plugs of keratin, and hair growth may be distorted. The condition occurs most commonly in

adolescents and obese people. It is not serious and usually clears up on its own. In severe cases, applying a mixture of salicylic acid and soft paraffin and scrubbing with a loofah may help.... keratosis pilaris


A combination of acidosis and ketosis.... ketoacidosis

Worm Killer

Aristolochia bracteolata


San: Kitamari

Hin: Kiramar, Kitamar Mal: Attuthottappala, Atuthinnappala

Tam: Atutinnappalai

Importance: The bracteated birthwort or worm killer is a perennial prostrate herb. As the name suggests it is a killer of intestinal worms especially roundworms. It is also used in vitiated conditions of kapha and vata, constipation, inflammations, amenorrhoea, dysmenorrhoea, foul ulcers, boils, syphilis, gonorrhoea, dyspepsia, colic, skin diseases, eczema, artheralgia and intermittent fevers. The plant is an insect repellent due to the presence of aristolochic acid, which is poisonous to man and livestock. Plant is also used against scorpion sting. Seeds ground in water to form a lotion and used for softening hair. Powdered root is used in fertility control.

Distribution: The plant is found in Sri Lanka, Arabian countries and tropical Africa. In India, the plant is grown in Deccan and Carnatic Plateau.

Botany: Aristolochia bracteolata Lam. syn. A. bracteata Retz. belongs to the family Aristolochiaceae. It is a perennial prostrate herb with weak, glabrous stems. Leaves are simple, alternate, reniform or broadly ovate, cordate at the base with a wide sinus upto 7.5cm in diameter, reticulately veined. Flowers are solitary with a large sessile orbicular bract at the base. Perianth tube is cylindric with dark purple tip having revolute margins. Fruits are oblong-ellipsoid 12-ribbed glabrous capsules. Seeds are deltoid with slightly cordate base (Warrier et al, 1993) Another important species belonging to the genus Aristolochia is A. indica Linn. The plant grows wild throughout the low hills and plains of India from Nepal to West Bengal and South India. It is a valuable anti-dote to snake bite and to bites of poisonous insects as scorpion, etc. It is given in cases of cholera and diarrhoea after macerating with black pepper corns. The juice of the leaves has stimulant, tonic and antiperiodic properties.

Agrotechnology: Shady areas and well-drained soils are most suited to Aristolochia. The plant can be seed propagated. 3-month-old seedlings raised in polybags are required for transplanting. Pits of size 50cm cube are to be taken at a distance of 3m and filled with sand, topsoil and dried cowdung. To these pits, the seedlings are to be transplanted. Regular irrigation and organic manure application is beneficial. The plant is to be trailed on iron wires tied to poles. The plant is not attacked by any serious pests or diseases. Plant attains good spread within one year. Leaves can be collected for the next 10 years. Roots and leaves constitute the economi c parts (Prasad et al, 1997).

Properties and activity: Leaves and fruits yield ceryl alcohol, -sitosterol and aristolochic acid. Root contains aristolochic acid. Seeds give an alkaloid magnoflorine, aristolochic acid, fatty oil comprising palmitic, stearic, lignoseric and oleic acids and -sitosterol.

The plant is anthelmintic, cathartic, antiperiodic and emmenagogue. Leaf is antigonorrhoeic, larvicidal and used in eczema on children’s leg and ulcers. The plant is oxytocic (Husain et al,1992).... worm killer


Either of the 2 organs that filter the blood and excrete waste products and excess water as urine. The kidneys are situated at the back of the abdominal cavity, on either side of the spine. Each kidney is surrounded by a fibrous capsule and is made up of an outer cortex and an inner medulla.

The cortex contains specialized capillaries called glomeruli, which, together with a series of tubules, make up the nephrons, the filtering units of the kidney. The nephrons filter blood under pressure and then selectively reabsorb water and certain other substances back into the blood. Urine is formed from substances that are not reabsorbed. The urine is conducted through tubules to the renal pelvis (the central collecting area of the kidney) and then through tubes called ureters to the bladder.

The kidneys also regulate the body’s fluid balance.

To do this, the kidneys excrete excess water, and when water is lost from the body (for example as a result of sweating), they conserve it (see ADH).

In addition, the kidneys control the body’s acid–base balance by adjusting urine acidity.

The kidneys are also involved in hormonal regulation of red blood cell production and blood pressure.... kidney


The unit of energy equal to 1,000 calories, abbreviated to kcal.

In dietetics, a kilocalorie is sometimes referred to simply as a Calorie (or C).... kilocalorie

Klumpke’s Paralysis

Paralysis of the lower arm, with wasting of the small muscles in the hand, and numbness of the fingers (excluding the thumb) and of the inside of the forearm.

Klumpke’s paralysis is caused by injury to the 1st thoracic nerve (one of the spinal nerves) in the brachial plexus, which is usually the result of dislocation of the shoulder.... klumpke’s paralysis

Klinefelter’s Syndrome

A chromosomal abnormality in which a male has 1, or occasionally more, extra X chromosomes in his cells, giving a complement of instead of. The risk of a baby having the condition increases with maternal age. Features of the syndrome vary in severity and may not become apparent until puberty, when gynaecomastia (breast enlargement) occurs and the testes remain small. Affected males are usually infertile (see infertility). They tend to be tall and thin with a female body shape and absence of body hair. Incidence of learning difficulties is higher in people with Klinefelter’s syndrome than in the general population. There is no cure for the disorder, but hormonal treatment can induce secondary sexual characteristics, and mastectomy may be used to treat gynaecomastia.... klinefelter’s syndrome

Koplik’s Spots

Tiny, grey-white spots that appear in the mouth during the incubation period of measles.... koplik’s spots

Photorefractive Keratectomy

A surgical treatment for astigmatism, myopia, and hypermetropia, in which areas of the cornea are shaved away by laser.... photorefractive keratectomy

Artificial Kidney

See DIALYSIS.... artificial kidney

Bearberry Or Kinnikinnick

Arctostaphylos uvaursi

Description: This plant is a common evergreen shrub with reddish, scaly bark and thick, leathery leaves 4 centimeters long and 1 centimeter wide. It has white flowers and bright red fruits.

Habitat and Distribution: This plant is found in arctic, subarctic, and temperate regions, most often in sandy or rocky soil.

Edible Parts: Its berries are edible raw or cooked. You can make a refreshing tea from its young leaves.... bearberry or kinnikinnick

Benefit In Kind

Non-cash forms of payment or assistance.... benefit in kind

Diospyros Kaki

Linn. f.

Habitat: Native to China; now grown in Himachal Pradesh, Kumaon, the Nilgiris and West Bengal for edible fruits.

English: Japanese Persimmon.

Ayurvedic: Tinduka (var.).

Action: Hypotensive, hepatopro- tective, antidote to poisons and bacterial toxins. Calyx and peduncle of fruit—used in the treatment of cough and dyspnoea. Roasted seeds—used as a substitute for coffee.

The fruit, in addition to sugars, glucose, fructose, ascorbic acid, citric acid, contains (% of fresh weight) 0.20-1.41 tannins, 0.21-10.07 total pectins, 0.67 pentosans and 0.16-0.25 polyphenols. The fruit also contains 2.4 mg/100 g carotenoids; carotene expressed as vitamin A 2200-2600 IU. The carote- noids identified in the pulp include cryptoxanthine, zeaxanthin, antherax- anthin, lycopene and beta-carotene. (Many carotenoids originally present in the fruit decompose during ripening.

The fruit pulp is an antidote to bacterial toxins and is used in the preparation of a vaccine for pertussis.

Condensed tannins from the fruits effectively inhibited 2-nitrofluorene mutagen.

The immature leaves contain a ster- oidal saponin, lignin and phenolic compounds. Eugenol and dihydroac- tinidiolide are reported from fresh leaves.

The leaves are reported to exhibit hepatoprotective activity. Leaves also contain hypotensive principles. Astra- galin and isoquercitrin have been isolated from leaves.... diospyros kaki

Gentiana Kurroo


Family: Gentianaceae.

Habitat: Kashmir and North-West Himalayas.

English: Himalayan Gentian, Indian Gentian Root.

Ayurvedic: Traayamaana, Traayanti, Traayanta, Traayantikaa, Neelkan- thi, Anujaa, Girijaa, Girishaanujaa, Balbhra, Paalani. (Paakhaanabheda is a wrong synonym)

Unani: Ghaafis.

Action: Sialagogue, digestant, appetite-stimulant, antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory, emmenagogue. Used for alkalosis, feeble digestion in the elderly from gastric acid deficiency (increases gastric juices without altering PH); also used for jaundice, nausea, vomiting, travel sickness, diarrhoea, malaria and nervous exhaustion. (In Chinese medicine, Gentiana sp., known as Longdan, are used for jaundice, hepatitis, urinary tract infections, pruritis and eczema.)

Key application: Gentiana lutea— internally, for digestive disorders, such as lack of appetite, fullness and flatulence (German Commission E, WHO), for anorexia following illness and dyspepsia (ESCOP). The British Herbal Compendium approves gentian for lack of appetite, anorexia, atonic dyspepsia, gastrointestinal atony, and as antiemetic. The British Herbal Pharmacopoia recognizes it as a bitter tonic.

The rhizome and roots of G. Kur- roo contain iridoid glycoside; major component was identified as 6'- cinnamoylcatalpol.

The rhizomes and roots of Picro- rhiza kurrooa Royle ex Benth., found in the Himalayas, have similar properties and uses and are mixed or substituted for those of G. kurroo.

Gentiana lutea (Yellow Gentian) is a native of Europe and Asia Minor and is imported into India. The most important constituents of the drug are secoiridoid bitter compounds, amaro- gentin and gentiopicroside, together with traces of swertiamarin and sweroside. The roots also contain alkaloids, gentianine and gentioflavine, xanthones, and bitter oligosaccharides, gentiobiose and gentianose.

Amarogentin, gentiopicrin, swer- tiamarin, sioeroside (iridoid monoter- penes) are toxic constituents.

Gentiana tenella Rottb., synonym Gentianella tenella H. Smith and G. decumbens Linn.f. occur at high altitudes in the Himalayas, and are used as substitutes for gentian. G. tenella is known as Kadu in Kashmir and Titaa in Punjab. The rhizome is used as Traayamaana in Ayurvedic medicine.

The flowering tops of G. olivieri Griseb., synonym G. dahurica Fisch., used in Unani medicine as Gul-e- Ghaafis, are imported into India from Persia.

Dosage: Root—1-3 g powder. (CCRAS.)... gentiana kurroo

Housemaid’s Knee

An in?ammation of the bursa in front of the knee-cap, often mistaken for some disease in the joint itself (see BURSITIS).... housemaid’s knee

Jumper’s Knee

See PATELLAR TENDINITIS.... jumper’s knee


(African) A petite woman Kabybe... kabibe


(African) One who is powerful Kabirah, Kabyra, Kabyrah, Kabeera, Kabeerah, Kabeira, Kabeirah, Kabiera, Kabierah, Kabeara, Kabearah... kabira


(African) A great huntress Kacelah, Kacella, Kacellah... kacela

Gotu Kola Tea

Gotu Kola Tea has been known for centuries in India due to its incredible medicinal properties. Gotu kola herb it is also known as Indian Pennywort and it has been recognized all over the world as a botanical medicine since 1884. The herb grows in tropical areas , having green, long stalked leaves with a smooth texture and palmate netted leaves. The main constituents of gotu kola are triterpenoid saponins and sapogenins that give the herb anti-viral, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, circulatory stimulant and diuretic properties. How To Make Gotu Kola Tea To brew Gotu Kola Tea, you will have to boil about one and a half teaspoon of dried gotu kola herb in a kettle for a few minutes. Let it steep for about 5 minutes and then, by using a strainer, pour the tea into your cup. If you prefer, you can sweeten it with sugar or honey. Gotu Kola Tea Benefits
  • Enhances brain and memory functions.
  • Being an antibacterial, helps the body fight bacteria.
  • Overcomes stress and fatigue.
  • Improves blood flow and prevents blood clots.
  • Helps relieve hemorrhoids.
  • Eases anxiety, acting as a sedative for the central nervous system.
  • Can help in treating ulcers.
  • Effective in treating common cold and flu.
  • Gotu Kola Tea can be safe for pregnant women ONLY when applied on skin for treating stretch marks.
Gotu Kola Tea Side Effects
  • Gotu Kola Tea might cause liver damage in some people.
  • Although Gotu Kola Tea is safe to apply on skin for treating stretch marks associated with pregnancy, pregnant and breastfeeding women shouldn’t drink Gotu Kola Tea.
  • Gotu Kola Tea may cause too much sleepiness if it is combined with medications used during a surgery. Make sure you don’t drink Gotu Kola Tea at least 2 weeks before a scheduled surgery.
Gotu kola tea makes an excellent choice, having many health benefits. Try not to drink more than 2-3 cups of this tea per day and make sure you won’t experience its side effects!... gotu kola tea

Hydnocarpus Kurzii

(King) Warb.

Synonym: H. heterophylla auct. non-Bl. Taractogenos Kurzii King.

Family: Flacourtiaceae.

Habitat: Assam and Tripura.

English: Chalmogra.

Ayurvedic: Tuvaraka (related species, substitute for H. laurifolia.)

Unani: Chaalmograa, Tukhm-e- Biranj Mograa.

Siddha/Tamil: Niradi-muttu.

Action: Antileprotic, dermatic, febrifuge, sedative. Used parenter- ally for leprosy; also for psoriasis, eczema and dermatitis.

The plant is a source of chaulmoogra oil (Oleum Chaulmoograe which contains hydnocarpic, chaulmoogric, gor- lic, oleic, palmitic acids and lower homologues of hydnocarpic acid. The oil mixed with neem oil or oil of Psoralea corylifolia is used in leprosy.

In mice, intraperitoneal and subcutaneous administration of chaul- moogra fatty acids demonstrated antimicrobial activity against Mycobac- terium leprae. (PDR.)... hydnocarpus kurzii


(Native American) A spiritual dancer

Kachine, Kachinah, Kachineh, Kachyna, Kacheena, Kachynah, Kacheenah, Kacheana, Kacheanah... kachina


(American) One who is bold Kacondrah, Kacondria, Kacondriah, Kacondrea, Kacondreah, Kaecondra, Kaycondra, Kakondra, Kaekondra, Kaykondra... kacondra


(American) Rhythmic and melodious; a musical woman Kadian, Kadienne, Kadianne, Kadiene, Kaydence, Kaedence, Kadense, Kaydense, Kaedense... kadence


(Arabic) A beloved companion Kadyn, Kadan, Kaden, Kadon, Kadun, Kaedin, Kaeden, Kaydin, Kayden... kadin


(Hebrew) A holy woman; one who is religious

Kadishah, Kadysha, Kadeesha, Kadiesha, Kadeasha, Kadyshah, Kadeeshah, Kadieshah, Kadeashah... kadisha


(Japanese) Resembling a maple leaf Kaide, Kayde... kaede


(English) A beautiful girl from the meadow

Kaelynn, Kaelynne, Kaelin, Kailyn, Kaylyn, Kaelinn, Kaelinne... kaelyn


(African) A quiet child; one who is well- behaved

Kaffi, Kafie, Kafy, Kafey, Kafee, Kafffy, Kaffie, Kaffey, Kaffee, Kafea, Kaffea... kafi


(Japanese) Displaying one’s true image

Kagamie, Kagamy, Kagamey, Kagamee, Kagamea... kagami


(Japanese) Resembling a small dragon

Kaidah, Kaeda, Kayda, Kada, Kaedah, Kaydah, Kadah... kaida


(Hebrew) Crowned with laurel Kailah, Kailan, Kaela, Kaelah, Kailene, Kailyn, Kailynne, Kailin, Kalea... kaila


(Hawaiian) Of the sky and sea Kailanie, Kaylani, Kaylanie, Kaelani, Kaelanie, Kailany, Kaylany, Kailaney, Kaylaney, Kailanee, Kaylanee, Kailanea, Kaylanea, Kaelany, Kaelaney, Kaelanee, Kaelanea... kailani


(Indian) From the silver mountain Kailasah, Kailassa, Kaylasa, Kaelasa, Kailas, Kailase... kailasa


(Polynesian) The seeker; one who searches

Kaimie, Kaimy, Kaimey, Kaimee, Kaimea... kaimi


(African) The daughter of a great hunter

Kaindah, Kaynda, Kaenda, Kayndah, Kaendah... kainda


(Greek) Woman of opportunity Kayros, Kaeros... kairos


(Greek) Form of Katherine, meaning “one who is pure, virginal” Kaitlin, Kaitlan, Kaitleen, Kaitlynn, Katalin, Katalina, Katalyn, Katelin, Kateline, Katelinn, Katelyn, Katelynn, Katilyn, Katlin... kaitlyn

Kadsura Heteroclita

(Roxb.) Craib.

Synonym: K. roxburghiana Arn. K. wightiana Arn.

Family: Magnoliaceae.

Habitat: Eastern Himalaya, Assam, Western Ghats in Malabar.

Folk: Pattiamlo, Salado-rik (Himalayas). Kang-mari, Mi-jangew, Theiarbawm (Assam).

Action: The stems have been used in Chinese folk medicine to promote blood circulation and for the treatment of gastric and duodenal ulcer, acute and chronic gastroenteritis, postpartum abdominal pain and trauma.

The stem contains dibenzocyclo- octadiene type lignans. The plant lig- nans showed PAF (platelet activating factor) receptor antagonistic activity. The lignans have also been reported to be potent inhibitors of lipid peroxidation in rat liver. The fruit contains gomisin D, which is an active ingredient of an antiulcer agent.... kadsura heteroclita

Kaempferia Galanga


Family: Zingiberaceae.

Habitat: Throughout the plains of India, cultivated in gardens.

Ayurvedic: Sugandha-vachaa, Chandramuula, Chandramuulikaa. (In Kerala, used as Karchura and Shathi.) (Kapurakachari is a different drug, equated with Hedychium spicatum.)

Siddha/Tamil: Kachoram.

Action: Tuber—stimulant, carminative, expectorant, diuretic used for respiratory ailments like cough, bronchitis and asthma.

The essential oil from rhizomes contain n-pentadecane, ethyl-p-methoxy cinnamate, ethyl cinnamate, carene, camphene, borneol, p-methoxysty- rene, p-methoxy cinnamate, p-meth- oxy-trans-cinnamic acid and cin namaldehyde. Insecticidal activity of the oil is attributed to ethyl cinna- mates. Ethyl-p-methoxy-cinnamate shows monoamine oxidase inhibitor activity and a cytotoxic principle (the rhizomes exhibit cytotoxic activity).

Leaves and flowers exhibit antiphlogistic and vitamin P activity. Ethyl-p- methoxy-trans cinnamate is the main compound in the root.... kaempferia galanga

Kaempferia Rotunda


Family: Zingiberaceae.

Habitat: Throughout India in wet or humid shaded areas.

Ayurvedic: Bhuumi-champaka, Bhuu-champaka, Hallakam.

Siddha/Tamil: Karunkuvalai.

Folk: Bhui-champaa.

Action: Tuber—antitumour. Used for swellings (removes blood clot), mumps and wounds.

Tubers gave crotepoxide and beta- sitosterol. The oil contained chavicol, cineole.... kaempferia rotunda


(Japanese) A forgiving woman Kaiyo, Kaeya, Kaeyo... kaiya


(Indian) A woman with appealing eyes... kajal


(Native American) A bitter woman... kakawangwa


(Egyptian) The younger of twins Kakrah... kakra


(Arabic / Hawaiian) A moment in time / form of Sarah, meaning “princess; lady” Kalah, Kalla, Kallah... kala


(Hawaiian) Resembling a flaming torch

Kalamah, Kalamia, Kalamiah, Kalamea, Kalameah... kalama

Kalanchoe Integra

(Medic.) Kuntze.

Synonym: K. brasiliensis Cambress. K. spathulata Roxb.

Family: Crassulaceae.

Habitat: Tropical Himalayas from Kashmir to Bhutan, on Lushai hills and in the Deccan.

Ayurvedic: Parnabija (var.).

Unani: Zakhm-e-Hayaat.

Folk: Rungru, Tatara. Bakalpattaa, Patkuari (Kumaon). Hathokane (Nepal).

Action: Plant—hypotensive, antiarrhythmic.

Aqueous extract of the leaves depressed CNS and potentiated barbiturate-induced hypnosis in mice.

The flowers yielded triterpenoids— friedelin, taraxerol and glutinol and a mixture of long chain hydrocarbons, n-alkanols and sterols. Kaempferol and its 3-O-rhamnoside, patuletin and patuletin-3, 7-di-O-rhamnoside, quer- cetin and quercetin-3-O-glucoside- 7-O-rhamnoside are reported from leaves and flowers.

The leaves exhibit wound healing properties.... kalanchoe integra


(Hawaiian) From the heavens Kalanie, Kalany, Kalaney, Kalanee, Kaloni, Kalonie, Kalonee, Kalony, Kaloney, Keilana, Keilani, Kalanea, Kalonea... kalani


(Hebrew) Resembling a flower... kalanit


(Slavic) Resembling a delicate flower Kaleena, Kaline, Kalynne, Kalyne, Kalina, Kalyna, Kaleene, Kalene, Kalena, Kaleane, Kaleana... kaleen


(French) Having beautiful energy Kalett, Kalete, Kalette, Kalay, Kalaye... kalet


(Hindi) The dark one; in Hinduism, a destructive force... kali


(Greek) The most beautiful woman Kalydas, Kaleedas, Kaleidas, Kaliedas, Kaleadas... kalidas


(Somali) A chaste and holy woman Kalifah, Kalyfa, Kalyfah, Kaleefa, Kaleefah, Kalipha, Kalypha, Kaleepha, Kaleafa, Kaleafah, Kaleapha... kalifa

Kalanchoe Laciniata

(Linn.) DC.

Synonym: K. schweinfurthii Penzig. Cotyledon laciniata Roxb.

Family: Crassulaceae.

Habitat: Maharashtra, Deccan and Bengal.

Ayurvedic: Parnabija (var.), Vatapatri.

Unani: Zakhm-e-Hayaat.

Siddha/Tamil: Malakalli.

Folk: Hemasaagar.

Action: Plant—used in fever, dyspepsia, skin allergy, asthma, bronchitis. Leaves—astringent, antiseptic, astringent. Applied to insect bites. Lotions are used for smallpox. Leaf juice is given in diarrhoea, dysentery, lithiasis.... kalanchoe laciniata

Kalanchoe Pinnata

(Lam.) Pers.

Synonym: Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam.) Oken. B. calycinum Salisb.

Family: Crassulaceae.

Habitat: Throughout the warm and moist parts of India, especially abundant in West Bengal.

Ayurvedic: Parnabija, Pattharchuur, Pattharchat, Hemsaagar. (Paashaa- nabheda is a misleading synonym.)

Unani: Zakhm-e-Hayaat.

Siddha/Tamil: Runakalli.

Action: Leaf—anti-inflammatory, antifungal, antibacterial. Applied to wounds, burns, boils, swellings.

The methanolic extract of leaves exhibited potent anti-inflammatory activity against both exudative and proliferative phases of inflammation. The leaf extract also showed analgesic activity.

The leaves gave flavonoids—querce- tin, kaempferol, quercetin-3-diarabi- noside andkaempferol-3-glucoside; also n-hentriacontane, n-tritriacontane, alpha- and beta-amyrin and sitosterol; p-coumaric, ferulic, syringic, caffeic and p-hydroxybenzoic acids.... kalanchoe pinnata


(Greek / Arabic) Resembling a rosebud; one who is dearly loved Kalikah, Kalyka, Kalykah, Kaleeka, Kaleekah, Kalica, Kalicca, Kalyca, Kaleeca, Kaleaka, Kaleakah... kalika


(Arabic) A darling girl; sweetheart Kalila, Kaleila, Kaleyla, Kaleela, Kaleilah, Kaleylah, Kaleelah, Kaliyah, Kaliya, Kaleala, Kalealah... kalilah


(Arabic) An eloquent speaker Kalimah, Kalyma, Kaleema, Kallima, Kalleema, Kallyma, Kaleama, Kalleama... kalima


(Indian) Of the sun Kalindah, Kalynda, Kalinde, Kalindeh, Kalindi, Kalindie, Kalyndi, Kalyndie, Kalindee, Kalyndee... kalinda


(American) A beautiful and caring woman

Kalishah, Kalysha, Kalyshah, Kaliesha, Kalieshah, Kaleisha, Kaleishah, Kaleesha, Kaleeshah, Kaleasha, Kaleashah... kalisha


(Scandinavian / Gaelic) Of the flowing water / powerful in battle... kallan


(English) A beautiful girl Kalli, Kallita, Kally, Kalley, Kallee, Kalleigh, Kallea, Kalleah... kallie


(Greek) Having a beautiful voice; in mythology, the muse of epic poetry Kalliopee, Kalliopy, Kalliopi, Kalliopie, Kaliope, Kaliopi, Kaliopie, Kaliopy, Kaliopee, Kalliopea, Kalipea... kalliope


(Greek) The most beautiful; in mythology, a nymph who was changed into a she-bear

Kallista, Kalisto, Kalista, Kalysta, Kalysto, Kallysto, Kallysta... kallisto


(Finnish) In mythology, goddess of the dead... kalma


(Greek) A victorious beauty Kalonyce, Kaloneece, Kaloneace, Kaloniece, Kaloneice... kalonice


(Indian) Having a great imagination Kalpanah, Kalpanna, Kalpannah ... kalpana


(Finnish) A heroine... kalwa


(Indian) A beautiful and auspicious woman

Kalyane, Kalyanne, Kalyann, Kaylana, Kaylanna, Kalliyan, Kaliyan, Kaliyane, Kaliyanne, Kalliyane... kalyan


(Indian) One who loves and is loved Kamah, Kamma, Kammah... kama


(Arabic) A woman of perfection Kamalah, Kammala, Kamalla... kamala


(Rhodesian) Having divine protection

Kamalie, Kamalli, Kamaly, Kamaley, Kamalee, Kamaleigh, Kamalea, Kamaleah... kamali


(Indian) One who is desired Kamanah, Kammana, Kamanna, Kamna... kamana


(African) Of the moon Kamariah, Kamarea, Kamareah, Kamariya, Kamariyah... kamaria


(African) Newest addition to the family

Kambirie, Kambiry, Kambyry, Kambiree, Kambirea, Kambyree, Kambyrea, Kambyri... kambiri


(African) A hardworking woman... kambo


(English) A woman of Wales Kambriah, Kambreea, Kambrea, Kambriya... kambria


(Hawaiian) The one and only; precious one Kameo... kamea


(Japanese) A turtle child; having a long life Kamyko, Kamiko... kameko


(English) Form of Cameron, meaning “having a crooked nose” Kamerin, Kameryn, Kamrin, Kamron, Kamryn, Kamren, Kameren, Kamran, Kameran... kameron


(Arabic / Italian) The perfect one / form of Camilla, meaning “ceremonial attendant; a noble virgin” Kamila, Kamilla, Kamillia, Kamille, Kamelia, Kamelea, Kamilia, Kamilea, Kami, Kamili, Kamlyn, Kammi, Kammie, Kamiila, Kamillra, Kamikla, Kamela, Kamella... kamilah


(Indian) A joyful child Kamen, Kamon, Kaman... kamin


(American) Surrounded by light Kamira, Kamera, Kamiera, Kameira, Kameera, Kameara... kamyra


(Japanese) A powerful woman... kana


An antibiotic derived from Streptomyces kanamyceticus. It is active against a wide range of organisms, including Staphylococcus aureus and Mycobacterium tuberculosis.... kanamycin


(Indian) From the garden... kanan


(Hawaiian) The beautiful girl Kananie, Kanany, Kananey, Kananni, Kananee, Kananea, Kananeah... kanani


(Hebrew) Resembling a small bird Kanarah, Kanarra, Kanarrah... kanara


(Native American) A magical woman Kandah... kanda


(English) Form of Candace, meaning “a queen / one who is white and glowing” Kandee, Kandi, Kandice, Kandis, Kandiss, Kandy, Kandyce, Kandys, Kandyss, Kandake, Kandie, Kandey, Kandea... kandace


(African) The firstborn daughter... kande

Kandelia Rheedii

Wight & Arn.

Synonym: K. candel (L.) Druce.

Family: Rhizophoraceae.

Habitat: Costal forests of eastern and western Peninsulas, the Sunderbans (West Bengal).

Siddha/Tamil: Thuvar kandan.

Folk: Rasunia (Orissa), Guria (Bengal).

Action: Bark—used with ginger or long pepper and rose water for diabetes (aqueous or alcoholic extracts of the bark did not exhibit any effect on the blood sugar of normal or alloxan-diabetic rabbits).

The Bark contains 17.3% tannin and 13.5% non-tans. Novel proanthocyani- din dimers and trimers—all containing a phenylpropionoid substituent in the upper flavan unit, along with pro- pelargonidin dimers and procyanidin trimers of common types, have been isolated from the bark.... kandelia rheedii


(American) A shining woman Kandrah... kandra


(Irish) A warrior woman ready for battle Kaine, Kayne, Kaene, Kain, Kayn, Kaen... kane


(American) A dark-skinned beauty Kaneisha, Kaniesha, Kaneasha, Kanesha, Kanisha, Kanysha... kaneesha


(Native American) Resembling a raven... kanga


(African) A dark, beautiful woman Kanikah, Kanyka, Kanicka, Kanycka, Kaneeka, Kaneecka, Kaneaka, Kaneacka... kanika


(Arabic) A servant girl Kaneez, Kanyz... kaniz


(Vietnamese) An angelic woman Kannytha, Kanitha, Kanytha... kannitha


(African) Resembling a little bird Kanonni, Kanonie, Kanony, Kanoney, Kanonee, Kanonea... kanoni


(Native American) Of the south wind people; from the state of Kansas... kansas


(Indian) A delicate woman Kanthah, Kanthe, Kantheh, Kanthia, Kanthia, Kanthea, Kantheah, Kanthiya, Kanthiyah, Kanthya, Kanthyah... kantha


(Native American) One who sings beautifully Kantie, Kanty, Kantey, Kantee, Kantea ... kanti


(Thai) A young girl; a virgin... kanya


Kaolinosis is a form of PNEUMOCONIOSIS caused by the inhaling of clay dust.... kaolinosis


(Japanese) A fragrant girl Kaori... kaoru


(English) Form of Caprice, meaning “one who is impulsive and unpredictable” Kapricia, Kaprisha, Kapryce, Kaprycia, Kaprysha, Kapri, Kaprie, Kapry, Kaprey, Kapree, Kaprea, Kaprise, Kapryse, Kaprece, Kaprese, Kapreese, Kapreece, Kapreace, Kaprease... kaprice


(African) The firstborn daughter Kapukie, Kapuky, Kapukey, Kapukee, Kapukea... kapuki


(Greek / Italian / Gaelic) One who is pure / dearly loved / a good friend Karah, Karalee, Karalie, Karalyn, Karalynn, Karrah, Karra, Khara, Kahra... kara


(African) Full of wisdom and life Karasie, Karasy, Karasey, Karasee, Karasea... karasi


(American) An energetic woman Karbi, Karby, Karbey, Karbee, Karbea... karbie


(French) A joyful singer Karcsie, Karcsy, Karcsey, Karcsee, Karcsea... karcsi


(Greek) Form of Katherine, meaning “one who is pure; virginal” Karan, Karena, Kariana, Kariann, Karianna, Karianne, Karin, Karina, Karine, Karon, Karren, Karrin, Karyn, Karna, Keran, Keren, Keryn, Kerin, Kerryn, Kerrin... karen


(Arabic) A virgin; an untouched woman

Karidah, Karyda, Kareeda, Kareyda, Karieda, Kareada... karida


(Arabic) Feminine form of Karim; one who is generous and noble Karimah, Kareema, Karyma, Kareama... karima


(Scandinavian, Russian) One who is dear and pure

Karinah, Kareena, Karyna, Kareana, Kariena, Kareina... karina


(English) Form of Charisma, meaning “blessed with charm” Kharisma, Karizma, Kharizma... karisma


(Greek) Filled with grace and kindess; very dear

Karisa, Karyssa, Karysa, Karessa, Karesa, Karis, Karise... karissa


(German) Feminine form of Karl; a small, strong woman

Karly, Karli, Karlie, Karleigh, Karlee, Karley, Karlin, Karlyn, Karlina, Karline, Karleen, Karlen, Karlene, Karlesha, Karlysha, Karlea... karla


(Indian) One’s actions determine one’s destiny Karmah... karma


(Latin) Form of Carmel, meaning “of the fruitful orchard” Karmelle, Karmell, Karmele, Karmela, Karmella... karmel


(Hebrew) Of God’s vineyard Karmelita, Kannelite, Karmelitah, Karmelyte, Karmelyta, Karmelite, Karmit... karmelit


(Latin) Form of Carmen, meaning “a beautiful song” Karman, Karmin, Karmon, Karmine, Karmia, Karmina, Karmita, Karmyn... karmen


(Native American) From the trees Karmitie, Karmity, Karmitey, Karmitee, Karmyty, Karmyti, Karmytie, Karmytee, Karmitea, Karmytea... karmiti


(American) A feisty woman Karneshah, Karnisha, Karnishah, Karnysha, Karnyshah... karnesha


(English) Form of Carol, meaning “a joyous song; a small, strong woman” Karola, Karole, Karolle, Karolla, Karoly, Karoli, Karolie, Karolee, Karoleigh, Karel, Karal, Karil... karol


(English) Form of Caroline, meaning “a joyous song; a small, strong woman” Karolina, Karolinah, Karolyne, Karrie, Karie, Karri, Kari, Karry, Kary, Karlotta, Karee, Karielle... karoline


(English) One who is admired Karington, Karryngton, Karyngton... karrington


(American) Feminine form of Carson; from the swamp Karson, Karsin, Karsan, Karsyn... karsen


(Greek) The anointed one Karstin, Karstine, Karstyn, Karston, Karstan, Kiersten, Keirsten... karsten


(Indian) A compassionate woman Karunah, Karoona, Karoonah, Karouna, Karounah... karuna


(Armenian) The dark one... karyan


(Scandinavian) One who is pure; chaste Kasin, Kasyn, Kasan, Kason, Kasienka... kasen


(Irish) Form of Casey, meaning “a vigilant woman”

Kacie, Kaci, Kacy, KC, Kacee, Kacey, Kasie, Kasi, Kasy, Kasee, Kacia, Kacea, Kayce, Kayci, Kaycie, Kaycee, Kaesha, Kasia, Kasea, Kaycea... kasey


(American) One who enjoys debate

Kashawn, Kaseana, Kasean, Kashaun, Kashauna, Kashona, Kashonna... kashawna


(Sanskrit) From the state in India Kashmira, Kasha, Kashmeer, Kazmir, Kazmira, Kazmeer, Kazhmir... kashmir


(American) A dramatic woman Kashondah, Kashaunda, Kashaundah, Kashawnda, Kashawndah, Kashanda, Kashandah... kashonda


(American) A bright woman Kashawndra, Kaseandra, Kashaundra, Kashandra, Kashondre, Kachaundra, Kachondra... kashondra


(Indian) From the holy city; shining... kasi


(African) Daughter born to a family with twins

Kasindah, Kasynda, Kasenda... kasinda


(Slavice) A peacemaker Kasmirah, Kasmeera, Kasmeerah, Kasmyra, Kasmyrah, Kazmira, Kazmirah, Kazmyrah, Kazmyra, Kazmeera, Kazmeerah... kasmira


(English) Form of Cassandra, meaning “an unheeded prophetess” Kassandrah, Kasandra, Kasaundra, Kassondra, Kassi, Kassia, Kassie, Kassy... kassandra


(English) Form of Cassidy, meaning “curly-haired girl” Kassidey, Kassidi, Kassidie, Kassidee, Kasidy, Kasidey, Kasidi, Kasidie, Kasidee, Kassidea, Kasidea... kassidy


(Japanese) From the mist Kasumie, Kasume, Kasumy, Kasumey, Kasumee, Kasumea... kasumi


(Hebrew) A young girl Kataniyah, Katanya, Katanyah... kataniya

Katayama Syndrome

A syndrome characterised by allergic symptoms and involving the respiratory tract (i.e. fever, cough, rash and marked eosinophilia) sometimes seen in patients who have had exposure to a large number of schistosome cercariae, especially Schistosoma japonicum, sometimes S. mansoni, rarely S. haematobium. Sydrome occurs during the invasive stage of schistosomiasis from the time of cercarial penetration of the skin to the time of early egg laying in the veins.... katayama syndrome


(American) A sassy woman Katchie, Katchy, Katchey, Katchee, Katchea... katchi


(American) One who celebrates Katerah, Katerra, Katerrah, Katura, Katurah, Katurra, Katurrah... katera


(Greek) Form of Catherine, meaning “one who is pure; virginal” Katharine, Katharyn, Kathy, Kathleen, Katheryn, Kathie, Kathrine, Kathryn, Kathryne, Kaythrynn, Kady, Kadie, Kaethe, Kaira, Kaisa, Kaska, Kat, Katherina, Kata, Katakin, Katanyna, Katarina, Katarin, Katarzyna, Katchen, Kate, Katen, Katerina, Kath, Kathe, Kathelyn, Kathleena, Kathlene, Kathlynn, Kathrina, Kati, Katia, Katica, Katie, Katine, Katinka, Katiya, Katja, Katle, Katina, Katoka, Katri, Katria, Katriane, Katriana, Katrien, Katrikki, Katrin, Katrina, Katrine, Katrya, Katy, Katya, Katyenka, Katyuska, Kayiyn, Kaysa, Kolina, Koline, Kolena, Kolene, Koleyna, Kethryn, Kiska, Kitlyn... katherine


(American) A stylish woman... kathlaya


(American) A daughter with power Katimah, Kateema, Katyma, Katiema, Kateima, Kateama... katima


(American) A graceful woman Katryce, Katriece, Katreice, Katreace, Katrise, Katryse, Katriese, Katreise, Katrease... katrice


(Hebrew) Crowned by God Katriele, Katrielle, Katriell, Katriela, Katriella... katriel


(Egyptian) In mythology, an ancient goddess Keket... kauket


(Polynesian) Child of the heavens... kaula


(Hawaiian) A well-known young woman

Kaulanah, Kaulanna, Kaulannah, Kaulanne, Kaulane... kaulana


Visions, Protection, Luck... kava-kave


(Indian) From the sacred river Kaverie, Kauveri, Kauverie, Kavery, Kaverey, Kaveree, Kaverea, Kauvery, Kauverey, Kauveree, Kauverea... kaveri


(Indian) A great poetess Kavita, Kavindra, Kavie, Kavy, Kavey, Kavee, Kavea... kavi


(American) One who is eager Kavinlie, Kavinly, Kavinley, Kavinlee, Kavinlea, Kavinleigh... kavinli


(Arabic) From the river in paradise Kawthare, Kawthara, Kawtharr... kawthar


(African) A long-awaited daughter Kayen, Kayan, Kayon... kayin


(Arabic / Hebrew) Form of Kaila, meaning “crowned with laurel” Kaylah, Kalan, Kalen, Kalin, Kalyn, Kalynn, Kaylan, Kaylana, Kaylin, Kaylen, Kaylynn, Kaylyn, Kayle... kayla


(American) Form of Kaila, meaning ® “crowned with laurel”

Kaleigh, Kaley, Kalie, Kaelee, Kaeleigh, Kaeley, Kaelene, Kaeli, Kaelie, Kailee, Kailey, Kaili, Kalee, Kahli, Kalei, Kalia, Kaleah, Kayleah, Kaylea, Kayleigh, Kayley, Kayli, Kaylie, Kayleen, Kaylei... kaylee


(Hawaiian) A fiery woman Keahie, Keahy, Keahey, Keahee, Keahea... keahi


(Irish) Feminine form of Keane; of an ancient family

Keanna, Kiana, Kianna, Kyana, Kyanna, Keene, Keen, Kean, Keena, Keenat, Keiana, Keana, Kinnat... keana


(Hawaiian) Resembling a cool mountain breeze... keanu


(Irish) The winner Kearny, Kearni, Kearnie, Kearnee, Kearnea... kearney


(English) From a shed town Keatan, Keatyn, Keatin, Keatun... keaton


(Irish) A lovely and graceful girl Keavey, Keavi, Keavie, Keavee, Keavea... keavy


(Hebrew) Woman of the East... kedma

Kedrostis Foetidissima

(Jacq.) Cogn.

Synonym: K. rostrata (Rottl.) Cogn. Bryonia rostrata Rottl. Rhynghocarpa foetida Clarke

Family: Cucurbitacease.

Habitat: Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu.

Folk: Appakovay (Tamil Nadu). Kukumadona, Nagadonda (Andhra Pradesh) Nurakvel (Maharashtra).

Action: Root and fruit—demulcent; used in asthma and piles.... kedrostis foetidissima


(Gaelic) Small and fiery woman Keygan, Keigan, Kiegan, Kegan, Keagan... keegan


(Native American) One who is chaste; a virgin... keegsquaw


(Irish) A slender and beautiful woman Keylan, Keilan, Kielan, Kelan, Kealan, Keelia... keelan

Keemun Tea - The Black Tea With An Orchid Fragrance

Keemun tea is a popular Chinese black tea produced in Qimen County in the Anhui Province of China. It is classified as being a top quality black tea around the globe, especially in the British market whereKeemun tea is considered a delicacy. The tea gained popularity very quickly in England where it has become an important ingredient in English Breakfast tea blends. Keemun tea comes from a sub-variety of the Chinese tea plant Camellia Sinensis, named Zhu-ye-zhing which grows in a mountainous area covered by forest in Anhui Province. In that area, the lack of sun, high humidity and low temperature allow the growth of perfect thin black tea leaves which are withered, rubbed, twirled and then baked dry. There are many Keemun tea varieties such as:
  • Keemun Gongfu or Congou which has thin, dark and tight shaped leaves.
  • Keemun Mao Feng which has slightly twisted leaf buds and a smoother flavor. For a proper taste, it is recommended to brew a smaller quantity of this type of tea and let it steep for 7 minutes.
  • Keemun Xin Ya - a type of tea with a less bitter taste.
  • Keemun Hao Ya
Keemun Tea brewing If it is properly brewed, you will obtain a clear red color cup of Keemun tea with a fruity, exotic and floral (but not as floral as Darjeeling tea ) aroma. To get a perfect cup of tea, add 1-2 teaspoons of tea leaves per 8 oz cup into the teapot. Boil the water, pour it over the tea leaves and let it steep between 2 - 3 minutes. In China, people drink Keemun tea without any kind of sweetener or milk. Keemun tea benefits Keemun tea has many benefits even though it does not contain as many antioxidants as green or white tea. The caffeine in the Keemun tea helps enhancing your memory and gives you energy during the day. Since this tea is a type of black tea, it has many benefits for the human body:
  • Accelerates your metabolism and allows you to burn fat much easier and faster. With a balanced diet and regular exercise,Keemun tea is a strong allied in the process of weight loss.
  • Keemun tea can be a good alternative for coffee. The caffeine in the black tea will give you the energy that you need in the morning and will make you feel full of energy all day long.
  • Improves your digestion by dissolving the excess acidity.
  • Inhibits the growth of cancer cells and the development of rheumatoid arthritis.
Keemun tea side effects Being a black tea, Keemun tea has a significant amount of caffeine which can cause anxiety, insomnia or irritability if you drink it before bed. Pregnant women are not advised to drink black tea during the pregnancy since it has been related to spontaneous abortions and birth defects. Also, if you are breastfeeding you should consider reducing the amount of black tea. People who suffer from anemia are strongly recommended not to drink Keemun tea since it can cause dizziness, blurred vision or headaches. It is often said that Keemun tea has an orchid fragrance that leaves a lasting impression in people`s memory.  It has a reputation for being a truly exquisite tea with its fruity and wine-like flavor that, combined with the wonderful health benefits, make the tea drinking a delightful experience.... keemun tea - the black tea with an orchid fragrance


(Irish) A small woman Keanan, Keynan, Keinan, Kienan... keenan


(African) Resembling a flower Keeyah, Kieya, Keiya, Keyya... keeya


(Hebrew) Resembling a young lioness Kefirah, Kefiera, Kefeira, Kefeera, Kefyra, Kephira, Kepheera, Kepheira, Kephiera, Kephyra, Kepheara, Kefeara... kefira


(African) The second-born of twins Kehindeh, Kehynde, Kehyndeh... kehinde


(American) One who is alert; aware Keidrah, Kiedra, Kiedrah, Keadra, Keadrah, Keydra, Keydrah, Keedra, Keedrah... keidra


(Hawaiian) A precious baby; resembling an orchid

Kiki, Kyki, Keeki, Keki, Keyki, Kaki, Kaeki, Kayki, Kaiki... keiki


(Japanese) A respectful and well- behaved child

Kiko, Kyko, Keeko, Kako, Kayko, Kaeko, Kaiko... keiko


(American) The favorite child; form of Kezia, meaning “of the spice tree” Keishla, Keishah, Kecia, Kesha, Keysha, Keesha, Kiesha, Keshia, Keishia, Keasha, Keashia... keisha


(Scottish) Feminine form of Keith; woman of the wood

Keetha, Keytha, Kietha, Keita, Kieta, Keeltie, Keelti, Keeltey, Keeltee, Keelty, Keeltea... keitha


(Hawaiian) The second-born child... kekona


(Gaelic) From the waters Kelbey, Kelbi, Kelbie, Kelbee, Kelda, Keldah, Kelbea... kelby


(Hebrew) A victorious woman Kelila, Kelula, Kelulah, Kelyla, Kelylah... kelilah


(American) A beautiful and talented woman

Keliss, Kelisse, Kelys, Kelyss, Kelysse... kelis


(Gaelic) A slender, beautiful, and powerful woman

Kellan, Kellyn, Kellin, Kellon, Kellun... kellen


(Irish) One who is daring Kellers, Kellar, Kellir, Kellyr... keller


(Irish) A lively and bright-headed woman

Kelley, Kelli, Kellie, Kellee, Kelleigh, Kellye, Keely, Keelie, Keeley, Keelyn, Keilah, Keila, Keelia, Keelin, Keelyn, Kellyanne, Kella, Keelea, Keeleigh, Keelee, Kellea... kelly


(English) From the island of ships; of the ship’s victory

Kelsie, Kelcey, Kelcie, Kelcy, Kellsie, Kelsa, Kelsea, Kelsee, Kelsi, Kelsy, Kellsey, Kelcea, Kelcee... kelsey


(American) A fun-loving woman... kember


(American) One who is self- assured

Kemela, Kemell, Kemele, Kemel, Kemelle... kemella


(Spanish) Having great strength Kemina, Kemeena, Kemyna... kemena


(English) From the meadow Kemply, Kempli, Kemplie, Kemplee, Kempleigh, Kemplea, Kempleah... kempley


(Irish) A good-looking woman Kenai, Kenay, Kenaye, Kennae, Kennai, Kennay, Kennaye... kenae


(Welsh) From the royal valley Kendal, Kendyl, Kendahl, Kindall, Kyndal, Kyndall, Kenda... kendall


(African) One who is dearly loved Kendie, Kendee, Kendy, Kendey, Kendea... kendi


(American) A pure woman; one who is chaste

Kendiss, Kendisse, Kendys, Kendyss, Kendysse... kendis


(English) Feminine form of Kendrick; having royal power; from the high hill

Kendrah, Kendria, Kendrea, Kindra, Kindria... kendra


(English) From the royal meadow Kenlie, Kenli, Kenly, Kenlee, Kenleigh, Kenlea... kenley


(Celtic) Feminine form of Kenneth; a beauty; born of fire... kenna


(Gaelic) A helmeted chief Kennedi, Kennedie, Kennedey, Kennedee, Kenadia, Kenadie, Kenadi, Kenady, Kenadey, Kenadee, Kennedea, Kenadea... kennedy


(English) A beautiful and gracious woman

Kennis, Kenice, Keniss, Kenys, Kennita, Kenita, Kenneece, Keneece, Kenyce, Kenneeta, Keneeta, Kennocha, Kenisha, Keniesha, Keneesha, Kenysha, Keneisha... kennice


(English) A brash lady Kensyngton, Kensingtyn, Kinsington, Kinsyngton, Kinsingtyn... kensington


(Native American) From the land of tomorrow; from the state of Kentucky Kentucki, Kentuckie, Kentuckey, Kentuckee, Kentuckea... kentucky


(Arabic) Resembling a water lily... kenwei


(African) An innocent; from the country of Kenya Kenyatta, Kenia, Keniya, Kennya... kenya


(Ugandan) Resembling the white egret

Kenyangie, Kenyangy, Kenyangey, Kenyangee, Kenyangea... kenyangi


(English) Form of Mackenzie, meaning “daughter of a wise leader; a fiery woman; one who is fair” Kenzi, Kenzy, Kenzey, Kenzee, Kenzea... kenzie


(American) One who is clever Keoshawna, Keosean, Keoseana, Keoshaun, Keoshauna... keoshawn


(Basque) As solid as a stone Kepah, Keppa, Keppah... kepa


Deposition of KERATIN in cells, in particular those in the skin. The cells become horny and ?attened and lose their nuclei, forming hair and nails or hard areas of skin.... keratinisation


(American) One who is loquacious

Kerdonnah, Kerdona, Kerdonah, Kerdonia, Kerdoniah, Kerdonea, Kerdoneah, Kirdonna, Kirdona, Kyrdonna, Kyrdona... kerdonna


(Cornish) One who loves and is loved

Kerinsa, Keransa, Kerensia, Kerensea, Kerensya, Kerenz, Kerenza, Keranz, Keranza... kerensa


(Greek) In mythology, vengeful spirits of death and doom... keres


(English) A gilded woman Kermilda, Kermilla, Kermillie... kermeilde

Kernig’s Sign

This is found in MENINGITIS. A healthy person’s thigh can be bent to a right-angle with the body when the knee is straight; in cases of meningitis the knee cannot be straightened when the thigh is bent this way – not without causing the patient intense pain.... kernig’s sign


(Scottish) From the marshland... kerr


(English) Form of Kiera, meaning “little dark-haired one” Kerri, Kerrie, Kerrey, Kerree, Keri, Kerie, Kery, Keree, Keriana, Kerianna, Keriane, Kerianne, Kerilyn, Keriam, Kerilynne, Kern, Kerrianne, Kerrea, Kerea... kerry


(Teutonic) A brave woman warrior Kertta, Kertu, Kerttu... kerta


(American) A giving woman Kerthiah, Kerthea, Kertheah, Kerthiya, Kerthiyah, Kerthie, Kerthi, Kerthee, Kerthea, Kerthy, Kerthey... kerthia


(English) A girl with a beautiful head of hair

Kesare, Kesarah, Kesarra, Kesarre, Kesaria, Kesarea, Kesava, Kesave, Kesavia, Kesavea... kesara


(American) Filled with happiness Keyshon, Keshawn, Keyshawn, Kesean, Keysean, Keshaun, Keyshaun, Keshonna, Keyshonna, Keshawna, Keyshawna, Keseana, Keyseana, Keshauna, Keyshauna... keshon


(American) Form of Keshon, meaning “filled with happiness” Keshondrah, Keshawndra, Keshawndrah, Keshaundra, Keshaundrah, Keshondriah, Keshondria, Keshondrea, Keshondreah... keshondra


(Indian) The golden daughter Ketakie, Ketaky, Ketakey, Ketakee, Ketakea... ketaki


(Arabic) A flourishing woman; flowering

Ketifah, Ketyfa, Keteefa, Ketipha, Keteepha, Ketypha, Keteafa, Keteapha... ketifa


A non-opioid analgesic (see ANALGESICS) used in the short-term management of moderate to severe acute post-operative pain. It may be given orally or by intramuscular or intravenous injection. Gastrointestinal side-effects are common in elderly people, and there are a range of side-effects from ANAPHYLAXIS to HYPERTENSION, prolonged bleeding time and liver function changes. Contraindications include hypersensitivity to ASPIRIN, ASTHMA, renal impairment and pregnancy (including during labour and delivery).... ketorolac


(Hebrew) Resembling incense Keturah, Keturra... ketura


(Gaelic) Feminine form of Kevin; a beautiful and beloved child Kevinah, Keva, Kevia, Kevinne, Kevyn, Kevynn, Kevynne, Keveena, Keveene, Kevinna, Kevine, Kevlyn, Kevlynne, Kevan, Kevay, Keveana, Keveane... kevina


(American) A knowledgeable woman Keydey, Keydi, Keydie, Keydee, Keydea... keydy


(English) A wise daughter... keyla


(American) An energetic woman Keyonnah, Keyona, Keyonah... keyonna


(Hebrew) Of the spice tree Keziah, Kesia, Kesiah, Kesi, Kessie, Ketzia... kezia


(Arabic / African) The prophet Muhammad’s first wife; a perfect woman / a child born prematurely Khadeeja, Khadijah, Khadyja, Kadija, Kadijah, Kadeeja, Kadyja, Khadeaja, Kadeaja... khadija


(American) Unlike the others; unusual Khae, Khay, Khaye... khai


(American) Full of personality Khakie, Khaky, Khakey, Khakee, Khakea... khaki


(American) A lively woman Khalie, Khaly, Khaley, Khalee, Khaleigh, Khalea... khali


(Arabic) Feminine form of Khalid; an immortal woman Khalidah, Khaleeda, Khalyda, Khaalida, Khulud, Khulood, Khaleada... khalida


(Arabic) Feminine form of Khalil; a beloved friend

Khalila, Khalyla, Khalylah, Kahlilia, Khaleela, Khaleala... khalilah


(Arabic) Feminine form of Khaliq; a creator; one who is well-behaved Khaliqah, Khalyqa, Khaleeqa, Kaliqua, Kaleequa, Kalyqua, Khaleaqa, Kaleaqua... khaliqa


(Vietnamese) Resembling a precious stone

Khann, Khan... khanh


(Arabic) Of an ancient people Khasah, Khassa, Kahsa, Kahsah... khasa


(Arabic) Feminine form of Khatib; one who leads the prayers; an orator Khateeba, Khatyba, Khateba, Khatibah, Khateaba... khatiba


(African) A petite woman Khatitie, Khatyty, Katiti, Katitie, Khatitee, Khatitey, Khatitea, Katitee, Katitea, Katity, Katitey... khatiti


(Arabic) A daughter born to nobility; a lady

Khatune, Khatoon, Khaatoon, Khanom, Kanom, Khanam, Khaanam, Khatoun, Khatoune... khatun


(Arabic) A dancing servant girl Khawalah, Khawalla, Kawala, Kawalah... khawala

Khaya Senegalensis

A. Juss.

Synonym: Melia dubia Cav.

Family: Meliaceae.

Habitat: Native to South Africa. Planted in forest nurseries and plantation at Pune and Vada (Maharashtra).

English: African Mahogany.

Action: Anti-inflammatory, cardiogenic.

Methanolic extract of the stem bark showed cardiovascular (cardiogenic) effect in rodents by increasing blood pressure and vasoconstriction of the arota partly due to the stimulation of beta-receptors and alpha-adreno- ceptors.

Alcoholic extract of the stem bark showed anti-inflammatory activity... khaya senegalensis


(Arabic) A charitable woman Khayriyah, Khariyyah, Khariya, Khareeya... khayriyyah


(Egyptian) Born of the morning sun Kheprie, Kepri, Keprie, Khepry, Kepry, Khepree, Kepree, Kheprea, Keprea, Kheprey, Keprey... khepri


(American) One who is different Khianna, Khiane, Khianne, Khian, Khyana, Khyanna, Kheana, Kheanna... khiana


(Greek) A flourishing woman; blooming... khloe


(Vietnamese) An advisor... khuyen


(Hawaiian / Irish) Of the mountains / feminine form of Kian; of an ancient family Kianna, Kiahna, Keanna, Keiana, Keona, Keonna, Kia, Kiah, Kiahna, Kiani, Kianni, Kiauna, Kiona, Kionah, Kioni, Kionna, Kiandra, Keyanna, Keyah, Keya... kiana


(African) Of the sunshine Kyanga, Keanga... kianga


(Japanese) Having great fortune... kiaria


(African) The little lady Kibibe, Kibebe... kibibi


(Japanese) The fortunate one Kichie, Kichy, Kichey, Kichee, Kichea... kichi


(African) Daughter born after sons... kiden

Kidney, Artificial

See DIALYSIS.... kidney, artificial


These are a pair of glands located in the upper abdomen close to the spine and embedded in fat and loose connective tissue.... kidneys

Kidneys, Diseases Of

Diseases affecting the kidneys can be broadly classi?ed into congenital and genetic disorders; autoimmune disorders; malfunctions caused by impaired blood supply; infections; metabolic disorders; and tumours of the kidney. Outside factors may cause functional disturbances – for example, obstruction in the urinary tract preventing normal urinary ?ow may result in hydronephrosis (see below), and the CRUSH SYNDROME, which releases proteins into the blood as a result of seriously damaged muscles (rhabdomyolosis), can result in impaired kidney function. Another outside factor, medicinal drugs, can also be hazardous to the kidney. Large quantities of ANALGESICS taken over a long time damage the kidneys and acute tubular NECROSIS can result from certain antibiotics.


Diagram of glomerulus (Malpighian corpuscle).

Fortunately the body has two kidneys and, as most people can survive on one, there is a good ‘functional reserve’ of kidney tissue.

Symptoms Many patients with kidney disorders do not have any symptoms, even when the condition is quite advanced. However,

others experience loin pain associated with obstruction (renal colic) or due to infection; fevers; swelling (oedema), usually of the legs but occasionally including the face and arms; blood in the urine (haematuria); and excess quantities of urine (polyuria), including at night (nocturia), due to failure of normal mechanisms in the kidney for concentrating urine. Patients with chronic renal failure often have very di?use symptoms including nausea and vomiting, tiredness due to ANAEMIA, shortness of breath, skin irritation, pins and needles (paraesthesia) due to damage of the peripheral nerves (peripheral neuropathy), and eventually (rarely seen nowadays) clouding of consciousness and death.

Signs of kidney disease include loin tenderness, enlarged kidneys, signs of ?uid retention, high blood pressure and, in patients with end-stage renal failure, pallor, pigmentation and a variety of neurological signs including absent re?exes, reduced sensation, and a coarse ?apping tremor (asterixis) due to severe disturbance of the body’s normal metabolism.

Renal failure Serious kidney disease may lead to impairment or failure of the kidney’s ability to ?lter waste products from the blood and excrete them in the urine – a process that controls the body’s water and salt balance and helps to maintain a stable blood pressure. Failure of this process causes URAEMIA – an increase in urea and other metabolic waste products – as well as other metabolic upsets in the blood and tissues, all of which produce varying symptoms. Failure can be sudden or develop more slowly (chronic). In the former, function usually returns to normal once the underlying cause has been treated. Chronic failure, however, usually irreparably reduces or stops normal function.

Acute failure commonly results from physiological shock following a bad injury or major illness. Serious bleeding or burns can reduce blood volume and pressure to the point where blood-supply to the kidney is greatly reduced. Acute myocardial infarction (see HEART, DISEASES OF) or pancreatitis (see PANCREAS, DISORDERS OF) may produce a similar result. A mismatched blood transfusion can produce acute failure. Obstruction to the urine-?ow by a stone (calculus) in the urinary tract, a bladder tumour or an enlarged prostate can also cause acute renal failure, as can glomerulonephritis (see below) and the haemolytic-uraemia syndrome.

HYPERTENSION, DIABETES MELLITUS, polycystic kidney disease (see below) or AMYLOIDOSIS are among conditions that cause chronic renal failure. Others include stone, tumour, prostatic enlargement and overuse of analgesic drugs. Chronic failure may eventually lead to end-stage renal failure, a life-threatening situation that will need DIALYSIS or a renal transplant (see TRANSPLANTATION).

Familial renal disorders include autosomal dominant inherited polycystic kidney disease and sex-linked familial nephropathy. Polycystic kidney disease is an important cause of renal failure in the UK. Patients, usually aged 30–50, present with HAEMATURIA, loin or abdominal discomfort or, rarely, urinary-tract infection, hypertension and enlarged kidneys. Diagnosis is based on ultrasound examination of the abdomen. Complications include renal failure, hepatic cysts and, rarely, SUBARACHNOID HAEMORRHAGE. No speci?c treatment is available. Familial nephropathy occurs more often in boys than in girls and commonly presents as Alport’s syndrome (familial nephritis with nerve DEAFNESS) with PROTEINURIA, haematuria, progressing to renal failure and deafness. The cause of the disease lies in an absence of a speci?c ANTIGEN in a part of the glomerulus. The treatment is conservative, with most patients eventually requiring dialysis or transplantation.

Acute glomerulonephritis is an immune-complex disorder due to entrapment within glomerular capillaries of ANTIGEN (usually derived from B haemolytic streptococci – see STREPTOCOCCUS) antibody complexes initiating an acute in?ammatory response (see IMMUNITY). The disease affects children and young adults, and classically presents with a sore throat followed two weeks later by a fall in urine output (oliguria), haematuria, hypertension and mildly abnormal renal function. The disease is self-limiting with 90 per cent of patients spontaneously recovering. Treatment consists of control of blood pressure, reduced ?uid and salt intake, and occasional DIURETICS and ANTIBIOTICS.

Chronic glomerulonephritis is also due to immunological renal problems and is also classi?ed by taking a renal biopsy. It may be subdivided into various histological varieties as determined by renal biospy. Proteinuria of various degrees is present in all these conditions but the clinical presentations vary, as do their treatments. Some resolve spontaneously; others are treated with steroids or even the cytotoxic drug CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE or the immunosuppressant cyclosporin. Prognoses are generally satisfactory but some patients may require renal dialysis or kidney transplantation – an operation with a good success rate.

Hydronephrosis A chronic disease in which the kidney becomes greatly distended with ?uid. It is caused by obstruction to the ?ow of urine at the pelvi-ureteric junction (see KIDNEYS – Structure). If the ureter is obstructed, the ureter proximal to the obstruction will dilate and pressure will be transmitted back to the kidney to cause hydronephrosis. Obstruction may occur at the bladder neck or in the urethra itself. Enlargement of the prostate is a common cause of bladder-neck obstruction; this would give rise to hypertrophy of the bladder muscle and both dilatation of the ureter and hydronephrosis. If the obstruction is not relieved, progressive destruction of renal tissue will occur. As a result of the stagnation of the urine, infection is probable and CYSTITIS and PYELONEPHRITIS may occur.

Impaired blood supply may be the outcome of diabetes mellitus and physiological shock, which lowers the blood pressure, also affecting the blood supply. The result can be acute tubular necrosis. POLYARTERITIS NODOSA and SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS (SLE) may damage the large blood vessels in the kidney. Treatment is of the underlying condition.

Infection of the kidney is called pyelonephritis, a key predisposing factor being obstruction of urine ?ow through the urinary tract. This causes stagnation and provides a fertile ground for bacterial growth. Acute pyelonephritis is more common in women, especially during pregnancy when bladder infection (CYSTITIS) spreads up the ureters to the kidney. Symptoms are fever, malaise and backache. Antibiotics and high ?uid intake are the most e?ective treatment. Chronic pyelonephritis may start in childhood as a result of congenital deformities that permit urine to ?ow up from the bladder to the kidney (re?ux). Persistent re?ux leads to recurrent infections causing permanent damage to the kidney. Specialist investigations are usually required as possible complications include hypertension and kidney failure.

Tumours of the kidney are fortunately rare. Non-malignant ones commonly do not cause symptoms, and even malignant tumours (renal cell carcinoma) may be asymptomatic for many years. As soon as symptoms appear – haematuria, back pain, nausea, malaise, sometimes secondary growths in the lungs, bones or liver, and weight loss – urgent treatment including surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy is necessary. This cancer occurs mostly in adults over 40 and has a hereditary element. The prognosis is not good unless diagnosed early. In young children a rare cancer called nephroblastoma (Wilm’s tumour) can occur; treatment is with surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. It may grow to a substantial size before being diagnosed.

Cystinuria is an inherited metabolic defect in the renal tubular reabsorption of cystine, ornithine, lysine and arginine. Cystine precipitates in an alkaline urine to form cystine stones. Triple phosphate stones are associated with infection and may develop into a very large branching calculi (staghorn calculi). Stones present as renal or ureteric pain, or as an infection. Treatment has undergone considerable change with the introduction of MINIMALLY INVASIVE SURGERY (MIS) and the destruction of stone by sound waves (LITHOTRIPSY).... kidneys, diseases of


(American) A loyal woman Kidrea, Kidreah, Kidria, Kidriah, Kidri, Kidrie, Kidry, Kidrey, Kidree... kidre


(Hawaiian) Resembling the gardenia Kielle, Kiel, Kiell, Kiela, Kiella... kiele


(American) Surrounded by light Kienall, Kienale, Kienalla, Kienala, Kienal... kienalle


(American) A brash woman Kiennah, Kiena, Kienah, Kyenna, Kyennah, Kyena, Kyenah, Kienne, Kyenne... kienna


(Irish) Feminine form of Kieran; little dark-haired one

Kierra, Kyera, Kyerra, Keaira, Keira, Kieranne, Kierane, Kierana, Kiara, Keara, Keeran, Keera, Keir, Kyra, Kyria, Kyrie, Kyrene, Kira, Kiarra, Kera, Kerra, Kiora, Kiri, Kirra, Kiriana, Kiran... kiera


(Vietnamese) One who is beloved... kieu

Kigelia Pinnata

(Jacq.) DC.

Synonym: K. africana (Lam.) Benth.

Family: Bignoniaceae.

Habitat: Native to West Africa, cultivated as a roadside tree.

English: Common Sausage tree.

Folk: Jhaar Phaanuus.

Action: Bark—antidysenteric, antirheumatic, diuretic. Used in venereal diseases. Fruits— purgative.

The root bark contains monoter- penoids, pinnatal, isopinnatal and iso- kigelinol napthoquinones.

The fruit gave a cytostatic compound.

In Africa, the root bark is used in the treatment of venereal diseases, haemorrhoids and rheumatism; also as a vermifuge.... kigelia pinnata


(African) From the fog... kiho


(African) A youthful woman Kijanna, Kijann, Kijan, Kijane, Kijanne... kijana


(German) The mistress of all Kika, Kykka, Kyka... kikka


(Japanese) Resembling a mum... kiku


(Native American) Resembling the coughing fish

Kilenyah, Kileniya, Kileniyah... kilenya


(Irish) A warrior woman; of the church

Kilian, Killiane, Killiana, Kiliane, Kiliana... killian


(Native American) Resembling a butterfly Kimimela... kimama


(American) Girl from the meadow Kimanah, Kimanna, Kimannah, Kymana, Kymanah, Kymanna, Kymannah... kimana


(Indian) A seductive woman... kimatra


(English) Chief of the warriors; possessing royal boldness Kimbal, Kimbell, Kimbel, Kymball, Kymbal... kimball


(English) Of the royal fortress Kimberley, Kimberli, Kimberlee, Kimberleigh, Kimberlin, Kimberlyn, Kymberlie, Kymberly, Kymberlee, Kim, Kimmy, Kimmie, Kimmi, Kym, Kimber, Kymber, Kimberlie, Kimbra, Kimbro, Kimbrough, Kinborough, Kimberlea, Kimberleah, Kymberlea, Kymberleah... kimberly


(American) One who smiles a lot Kimbrelle, Kimbrel, Kimbrele, Kimbrella, Kimbrela, Kymbrell, Kymbrelle, Kymbrel, Kymbrele, Kymbrella, Kymbrela... kimbrell


(American) Filled with happiness Kimeyo... kimeo


(American) Filled with joy Kimethah, Kymetha, Kymethah, Kimethia, Kymethia, Kimethea, Kymethea... kimetha


(Japanese) A noble child; without equal... kimiko


(American) A darling daughter Kymone... kimone


(Hawaiian) Woman of China... kina

Kinaesthetic Sensations

A term used to describe those sensations which underlie muscle tension and position of joint and muscle. These sensations send impulses along nerves to the brain, and thus inform it of the position of the limb in space and of the relative position to each other of individual muscles and muscle-groups and of joints.... kinaesthetic sensations


(American) To set fire; to arouse Kindel, Kyndle, Kyndel... kindle


(Native American) Resembling a rosebud... kineks


(Greek) One who is active; full of energy Kinetikos... kineta


Small highly staining body at the base of the flagellum of flagellate protozoa.... kinetoplast


The highest taxonomic level. See Taxonomy.... kingdom

Kingiodendron Pinnatum

(Roxb. ex DC.) Harms.

Synonym: Hardwickia pinnata Roxb. ex DC.

Family: Caesalpiniaceae.

Habitat: Hills of Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Kerala.

English: Piney.

Ayurvedic: Samparni.

Siddha/Tamil: Kodapalai, Ma- dayansambrani.

Action: Oleo-gum-resin—used in catarrhal conditions of the genitourinary and respiratory tracts; also for treating sores.

The oleo-gum-resin contains mono- terpenes and diterpenes—hardwickiic, kolavic, kolavenic acids and kolavenol.... kingiodendron pinnatum


Substances present in the body which are powerful VASODILATORS. They also induce pain and are probably involved in the production of the headache of MIGRAINE. In addition, they play a part in the production of ALLERGY and ANAPHYLAXIS.... kinins


(Hawaiian) One who is fair; white wave... kinipela


(English) The king’s victory Kinnsee, Kinnsey, Kinnsie, Kinsee, Kinsie, Kinzee, Kinzie, Kinzey, Kinnsea, Kinsea... kinsey


(English) From the king’s meadow Kinsly, Kinslee, Kinsleigh, Kinslea, Kinsli, Kinslie, Kingsley, Kingsly, Kingslee, Kingsleigh, Kingslea, Kingsli, Kingslie... kinsley


(American) A joyous woman Kintrah, Kentra, Kentrah, Kintria, Kentria, Kintrea, Kentrea, Kintrey, Kintry, Kintri, Kintrie, Kintree, Kintrea... kintra


(American) A kinswoman Kinzah, Kynza, Kynzah... kinza


(Japanese) A daughter born with happiness... kioko


(English) From the small pointed hill Kip, Kipling, Kippling, Kypp, Kyp... kipp


(African) A gift from God... kirabo


(Indian) From the mountain Kiratie, Kiraty, Kiratey, Kiratee, Kiratea... kirati


(English) From the church town Kirbey, Kirbi, Kirbie, Kirbee, Kirbea, Kirbeah... kirby

Kirganelia Reticulata

(Poir) Baill.

Synonym: Phyllanthus reticulatus Poir.

Family: Euphorbiaceae.

Habitat: All over India; also grown as a hedge plant.

Ayurvedic: Kaamboji.

Folk: Panjuli.

Action: Plant—spasmolytic, hypotensive, antiviral. Fruit— astringent, used in inflammations. Leaves—astringent, antidiarrhoeal, diuretic. Root bark—astringent, attenuant, diuretic.

The leaves contain beta-sitosterol, friedelin and its derivatives, glochi- donol and betulinic acid. Betulin, glochidonol, friedelin, octacosanol, taraxeryl acetate, taraxerone and beta- sitosterol are obtained from the root.... kirganelia reticulata


(Indian) Resembling the amaranth flower Kirie, Kiry, Kirey, Kiree, Kirea... kiri


(Eskimo) From the hill Kirimah, Kiryma, Kirymah, Kirema, Kiremah, Kireema, Kireemah, Kireama, Kireamah... kirima


(Indian) One who is crowned Kitra... kirit


(Russian) A genius Kishah, Kysha, Kyshah... kisha


(African) From the hills Kishie, Kishy, Kishey, Kishee, Kishea... kishi


(English) One’s destiny; fate Kizmet... kismet


(American) A caring and compassionate woman

Kyss, Kissi, Kyssi, Kissie, Kyssie, Kissy, Kyssy, Kissey, Kyssey, Kissee, Kyssee, Kissea, Kyssea... kiss


(African) Daughter born after twins Kissah, Kyssa, Kyssah... kissa


(Japanese) Woman from the north... kita


(African) A beautiful woman... kitoko


(English) Resembling a young cat; form of Katherine, meaning “one who is pure; virginal”

Kitti, Kittie, Kity, Kiti, Kitie, Kitee, Kittee, Kittea, Kitea... kitty


(Hebrew) Protected by God Kivah, Kivi, Kiba... kiva


(African) A lively woman Kiwah, Kywa, Kywah, Kiewa, Kiewah, Keiwa, Keiwah, Keewa, Keewah, Keawa, Keawah... kiwa


(Native American) Woman of the wind... kiwidinok


(Australian) Form of Kylie, meaning “from the narrow channel” Kiyah, Kya, Kyah... kiya


(Japanese) A quiet child; one who is pure

Kiyoshie, Kiyoshy, Kiyoshey, Kiyoshee, Kiyoshea... kiyoshi


(African) An energetic woman Kizzey, Kizzi, Kizzie, Kizzee, Kizzea... kizzy


(Scandinavian) Form of Clara, meaning “famously bright” Klarah, Klaire, Klariss, Klarissa, Klari, Klarika, Kalara, Kalate, Klarisza, Klarysa... klara


(Polish) A beautiful woman Klarybel, Klaribell, Klarybell, Klaribelle, Klarybelle, Klaribela, Klarybela, Klaribella, Klarybella... klaribel


(English) Form of Claudia, meaning “one who is lame” Klaudiah, Klaudine, Klaudeene, Klaudyne, Klaudette, Klaudett, Klaudete, Klaudeta, Klaudina, Klaudeena, Klaudyna, Klaudelle, Klaudele, Klaudell, Klauda, Klavdia... klaudia

Kleinhovia Hospita


Family: Sterculiaceae.

Habitat: Grown in Indian gardens and as an avenue tree.

Folk: Panuitteku (Tamil Nadu). Bol (Bengal).

Action: Bark and leaves—used in the treatment of cough and tuberculosis.

The roots contain kaempferol, quer- cetin and rutin.... kleinhovia hospita


(Polish) Form of Clementine, meaning “one who is merciful” Klem, Klemence, Klemency, Klementia, Klementina, Klementya, Klementyna, Klementyn, Klemmie, Klemmy, Klementyne... klementine


(English) Form of Cleopatra, meaning “a father’s glory; of the royal family”

Klea, Kleo, Kleona, Kleone, Kleonie, Kleora, Kleta, Kleoni, Kleopetra, Kleonie, Kleony, Kleoney, Kleonee, Kleonea, Kleoneah... kleopatra

Klinefelter’s Syndrome

The original syndrome described by Klinefelter consisted of GYNAECOMASTIA, testicular ATROPHY and INFERTILITY. Intelligence was unimpaired. Patients have been described who have associated mental defects and striking tallness of stature, but the only constant feature of the syndrome is testicular atrophy with resulting azoospermia and infertility.

The atrophy of the testis is the result of ?brosis, which begins to appear in childhood and progresses until all the seminiferous tubules are replaced by ?brous tissue. Gynaecomastia, mental retardation and eunuchoidism (see EUNUCH; loss of male secondary sexual characteristics – small penis, loss of body hair and a high-pitched voice) may be present. Most patients with Klinefelter’s syndrome have 47 chromosomes instead of the normal 46. The extra chromosome is an X chromosome, so that the sex chromosome constitution is XXY instead of XY. Klinefelter’s syndrome is one of the most common chromosome abnormalities and occurs in 1 in 300 of the male population. Patients with this syndrome show that the Y chromosome is strongly sex-determining: thus, a patient who has an XXY chromosome constitution may have the appearance of a normal male, with infertility the only incapacity, while the loss of a Y chromosome leads to the development of a bodily form which is essentially feminine (see TURNER’S SYNDROME).... klinefelter’s syndrome


(Hungarian) A well-known lady Klotilde, Klotilda, Klothild, Klothilde, Klothilda... klotild

Klumpke’s Paralysis

Injury as a result of the stretching of a baby’s brachial plexus during its birth may cause partial paralysis of the arm with atrophy of the muscles of the forearm and hand.... klumpke’s paralysis

Knema Angustifolia

(Roxb.) Warb.

Synonym: Myristica gibbosa Hook. f.

Family: Myristicaceae.

Habitat: Sikkim Himalayas, Assam.

Folk: Motaa-pasuti (Assam), Ramguwaa (Nepal).

Action: Kino—astringent; used for dysentery; topically applied to mouth sores.

Kino contains 33.6% tannin and resembles kino from Pterocarpus mar- supium is appearance.... knema angustifolia


Binding, Health... knotweed


Centaurea nigra. N.O. Compositae.

Synonym: Hard-head, Hard-hack, Ironweed (these due to its resistance to the mower's scythe), Black Ray Thistle, Star Thistle.

Habitat: Pastures and meadows.

Features ? Stem grows from one to two feet, angular, tough, very much branched on alternate sides. Leaves dull green, hard appearance, downy underneath, irregularly notched edges, upper sessile, lower stalked. Flowers thistle-shaped ; reddish-purple, hair-like petals grow from nearly black, scaly knob. Fruit without pappus, surrounded by bristles. Taste, slightly salty.

Part used ? Herb.

Action: Tonic, diaphoretic, diuretic.

As a general tonic for most of the purposes for which Gentian is used. Knapweed is held in some quarters to equal Gentian in all-round efficacy, but the latter is much more frequently prescribed. The ounce to pint infusion is taken in wineglass doses.... knapweed


Knowledge may be regarded as the distillation of information that has been collected, classified, organized, integrated, abstracted and value added. Knowledge is at a level of abstraction higher than the data and information on which it is based and can be used to deduce new information and new knowledge. When considering knowledge, it is usually within the context of human expertise used in solving problems.... knowledge


(American) Woman from California Kobie, Koby, Kobee, Kobey, Kobea... kobi

Koch’s Bacillus

The original name for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which causes TUBERCULOSIS. It stems from the name of the German doctor who ?rst identi?ed the bacillus.... koch’s bacillus


(Hebrew) Resembling a star... kochava

Kochia Indica


Family: Chenopodiaceae.

Habitat: North-western and Peninsular India.

Folk: Bui-chholi (Punjab). Kauraro.

Action: Cardiac stimulant.

Resinous alkaloid, isolated from alcoholic extract of the plant, showed nicotinic action on autonomic ganglion and neuromuscular junction of voluntary muscles.

Fruits and leaves of a related sp., K. scoparia Schrad are used as a cardiac tonic and diuretic.

Petroleum ether extract of aerial parts contain n-alkanes, free alcohols and a mixture of sterols (mainly sitos- terol, 70.9%).

The plant exhibits antibacterial activity which is attributed to hydrocarbons and sterols present in it. The plant is also used as an ingredient of a medicinal powder used for dermatitis.... kochia indica


(English) Form of Cody, meaning “one who is helpful; a wealthy woman / acting as a cushion”

Kody, Kodie, Kodee, Kodey, Kodea, Kodia... kodi


(Japanese) Having a small smile Koemie, Koemy, Koemey, Koemee, Koemea... koemi


(African) Born on a Friday Koffie, Koffee, Kofea, Kofy, Kofey, Kofe... koffi


(English) A self-assured woman Kogann, Kogen, Kogon, Kogin, Kogie, Kogi, Kogy, Kogey, Kogee, Kogea... kogan


(Japanese) Resembling a fragile flower

Kohanah, Kohanna, Kohannah... kohana


(Japanese) The stork has come... koko

Kola Nut

Kola vera contains xanthines that are helpful for relieving fatigue and enabling your body to naturally replenish and rejuvenate itself to its normal levels. This helps boost your overall sexual energy as well.... kola nut

Kola Nut Tea

Kola Nut Tea has been known for being effective in treating hunger pangs and boosting energy. The kola nut (cola) is native to the rainforests of Africa. The trees can reach up to 60 feet having 30 centimeters long leaves and star shaped fruits. The kola nut contains a huge amount of caffeine and it is used in many West African cultures to suppress hunger pangs. The kola nut is also used as a religious object being offered during prayers, weddings or funerals. It is used to flavor popular cola drinks such as Coca-Cola and Pepsi. The main constituents of kola nut are antioxidants, calcium, potassium, iron, beta-carotene, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, sugar and vitamin C. How To Make Kola Nut tea To brew Kola Nut Tea, place 1-2 teaspoons of kola nut in 8 ounces of water. Boil the mix and then let it steep for about 3-5 minutes. When the time is up, pour the tea into your cup using a strainer to catch the kola nut herbs. Kola Nut Tea Benefits
  • Boosts your mood.
  • Fights depression.
  • Improves male potency.
  • Suppresses food appetite.
  • Helps in the treatment of congestion problems such as asthma and whooping cough.
Kola Nut Tea Side Effects
  • Because of its caffeine content, pregnant and breastfeeding women shouldn’t drink Kola Nut Tea.
  • People with hypertension and heart disease should also avoid Kola Nut Tea.
  • Do not drink Kola Nut Tea before bed, since its caffeine content may stop you from having a restful sleep.
Enjoy Kola Nut Tea and all its wonderful benefits. Just keep in mind that kola nut tea contains caffeine and try to avoid over consumption, in order to not experience its side effects!... kola nut tea


(English) Form of Colby, meaning “from the coal town” Kolbey, Kolbi, Kolbie, Kolbee, Kolbea... kolby


(Teutonic) A renowned warrior Koldobike... koldobika


(English) Form of Colette, meaning “of the victorious people” Kolete, Kolett, Koleta, Koletta, Kolet... kolette


(Danish) Born to the victors Kolinka, Koleenka, Kolynka, Kolenka... kolinka


(Indian) A delicate and tender woman

Komalah, Komalla, Komal, Komali, Komalie, Komalee, Komaleigh, Komalea... komala


(Hawaiian) A girly woman Konah, Konia, Koniah, Konea, Koneah, Koni, Konie, Koney, Kony, Konee... kona


(Hawaiian) Daughter of the moonlight... konane


(English) Form of Constanza, meaning “one who is constant; steadfast” Konstanze, Konstanzia, Konstanzea... konstanza

Koplik’s Spots

Bluish-white spots appearing on the mucous membrane of the mouth in cases of MEASLES about the third day, and forming the ?rst part of the rash in this disease.... koplik’s spots


(Greek) A maiden; in mythology, another name for the goddess Persephone Korah, Korra, Kore, Koren, Kori, Korie, Koree, Kory, Korey... kora


(American) Form of Coral, meaning “resembling the semiprecious sea growth” Korale, Korall, Koralle... koral


(English) Form of Cordelle, meaning “a good-hearted woman; a woman of honesty”

Kordel, Kordelle, Kordele, Kordela, Kordella... kordell


(Latin) Form of Corina, meaning “a spear-wielding woman” Korinna, Koreen, Koreene, Koren, Korena, Korine, Korreen, Korreena, Korrin, Korrina, Korrine, Korenne, Korin, Korinda, Korinn, Korinne, Korrena, Korrianne, Korrienne, Korrinda, Korrinn, Korrinna, Korryn, Koryn, Korynn, Korynne, Korrenda, Korynna, Koreana, Korreana... korina


(Polish) Form of Cornelia, meaning “referring to a horn” Korneliah, Kornelie, Korneli, Kornela, Kornella, Kornelea, Korneliya, Korneleah... kornelia

Korsakoff’s Syndrome

A form of mental disturbance occurring in chronic alcoholism and other toxic states, such as URAEMIA, lead poisoning and cerebral SYPHILIS. Its special features are talkativeness with delusions in regard to time and place – the patient, although clear in other matters, imagining that he or she has recently made journeys.... korsakoff’s syndrome


(Native American) One who is diligent

Koshata, Koshatte, Koshate, Koshat, Koushatta, Koushata, Koushatte, Koushate, Koushat... koshatta


(Greek) A universal woman Kosma, Kosmah, Kozmo, Kozma, Kasma, Kasmah, Kasmo, Kazma, Kazmo... kosmo


(Latin) A steadfast woman Kostia, Kostiah, Kostya, Kostya, Kostea, Kosteah, Kostusha... kosta


(Slavic) One who is faithful... kostya


(Japanese) A harp player... koto


(American) Form of Courtney, meaning “a courteous woman; courtly” Kourtny, Kordney, Kortney, Kortni, Kourtenay, Kourtneigh, Kourtni, Kourtnee, Kourtnie, Kortnie, Kortnea, Kourtnea... kourtney


(Japanese) Of the trees Kozu, Kozoo, Kozou... kozue


Sea kraits (Genus Laticauda) are similar to, and can be regarded as sea snakes, although they are more heavily-built and their nostrils are not situated on the upper surface of the snout. Laticauda colubrina (the banded sea snake) and Laticauda laticaudata (the black-banded sea snake) are the most common in Australia.... kraits

Krameria Triandra

Ruiz & Pav.

Family: Krameriaceae.

Habitat: Peru, Bolivia. Reported to be imported into India.

English: Peruvian Rhatany, Krameria.

Action: Astringent, styptic, antidiarrhoeal, vulnerary. Used for menorrhagia; topically for wounds, haemorrhoids and chilblains; as a lozenge, gargle or mouthwash for gingivitis and pharyngitis.

Key application: For topical treatment of mild inflammations of oral and pharyngeal mucosa. (German Commission E.)

The astringency of the drug is due to condensed tannins composed of pro- cyanidins and propelargondins.

In India, the roots of Hemidesmus indicus are sometimes used as a substitute for Rhatany.... krameria triandra


(Slavic) A beautiful daughter Krasava... krasna


(American) A charming and kind girl Kreelie, Krieli, Krielie, Kryli, Krylie, Kreely, Kriely, Kryly, Kreelee, Krielee, Krylee, Kreelea, Krielea, Krylea... kreeli


(American) A capable woman Kreni, Kreny, Kreney, Krenee, Krenea... krenie


(Norse) In mythology, the wife of Siegfried

Kriemhilda, Kriemhilde... kriemhild


(American) A talkative woman Kryshen, Krishon, Kryshon, Krishan, Kryshan, Krishin, Kryshin... krishen


(American) One who is friendly Krissey, Krissi, Krissie, Krissee, Krissea... krissy


(English) Form of Christina, meaning “follower of Christ” Kristena, Kristine, Kristyne, Kristyna, Krystina, Krystine, Kristjana, Krisalyn, Kris, Kristy, Kristi, Kristie, Kriszta, Krisztina, Karasi, Kristin, Kristen, Kristyn, Krysten, Krystin, Krystyn, Kristian, Kristiana, Kristiane, Kristianna, Kristianne, Kristel, Kristell, Kristeena, Kristeene, Krista, Krysta, Krystka, Kriska, Krystianna, Krystiana, Krystynka, Krystyna, Krysia, Khristeen, Khristen, Khristin, Khristina, Khristine, Khristyana, Khristyna, Khrystina, Khrystyn, Khrystyna, Khrystyne, Khrustina, Kerstin, Kirsten, Kirstie, Kirstin, Kirsty, Kirstyn, Kirsi... kristina


(Indian) An exquisite work of art Kritie, Krity, Kritey, Kritee, Kryti, Kryty, Krytie, Krytee, Kritea, Krytea... kriti


(Indian) A forgiving woman Krupalie, Krupaly, Krupaley, Krupalee, Krupaleigh, Krupalea, Krupaleah, Krupalia... krupali


(English) Form of Crystal, meaning “resembling clear, sparkling, brilliant glass” Kristal, Krystle, Krystalyn, Krystalynn, Krystalynne, Kristabelle, Krystabelle, Kristalena, Kristalyn, Khrystalline... krystal


(Russian) Praise be to God Ksanochka, Ksena, Ksanna, Ksann, Ksane, Ksanne... ksana


(Arabic) A wise elder Kubrea, Kubriah, Kubriya, Kubreah, Kubriyah... kubria


(Japanese) Resembling a bear Kumah, Kooma, Koomah... kuma


(African) Fulfilling one’s destiny Kumanie, Kumany, Kumaney, Kumanee, Kumanea... kumani


(Indian) Feminine form of Kumar; a princess; another name for the goddess Durga

Kumarie, Kumaria, Kumara, Kumary, Kumarey, Kumaree, Kumarea... kumari


(Japanese) An everlasting beauty Kumie, Kumy, Kumey, Kumee, Kumea... kumi


(Japanese) A child who is forever beautiful Kumeeko, Kumyko... kumiko


(Indian) Resembling a flower Kumud, Kumudia, Kumudea... kumuda


(Indian) A woman among lotuses... kumudavati


(German) Brave during time of war

Kundegunde, Kunigunda, Kundegunda, Kunegunda, Kunegunde, Kunegundy, Kunigundy, Kundegundy... kunigunde


(Japanese) From the country estate Kuneeko, Kunyko... kuniko


(Hindi) In Hinduism, the mother of the Pandavas

Kuntie, Kunty, Kuntey, Kuntea, Koonti, Koontie, Koonty, Koontey, Koontee, Koontea... kunti

Kuntscher Nail

A surgical nail inserted into the medulla of a fractured bone to ?xate it. First introduced by a 20th-century German surgeon.... kuntscher nail


(German) One who provides bold counsel... kuonrada


(Turkish) Of the river Kurah... kura


(African) One who gives thanks... kuron


(Scandinavian) Form of Kirsten, meaning “follower of Christ” Kursten, Kurrstin, Kurstin, Kursti, Kurstie, Kursty, Kurstee, Kurstea... kurrsten


(Native American) God is gracious Kwanitah, Kwaneeta, Kwanyta, Kwaneata... kwanita


(African) Born on a Saturday

Kwesie, Kwesy, Kwesey, Kwesee, Kwesea... kwesi

Kydia Calycina


Family: Malvaceae.

Habitat: Common in sub- Himalayan tract.

Folk: Pola, Pulu, Pula, Polao. Vendi (Tamil Nadu). Potri, Konda Potari, Pandiki, Pachabotuka (Andhra Pradesh). Velukku, Venta, Nedunar (Kerala).

Action: Plant—mucilaginous, antiinflammatory, febrifuge. Leaf and root—antirheumatic. The leaves stimulate saliva. A paste of leaves is applied in body pains, used in poultices for skin diseases.... kydia calycina


(English) Feminine form of Kyle; from the narrow channel

Kylah, Kylar, Kyle, Kylia, Kylianne, Kylin, Kya, Kylea... kyla


(Australian) A boomerang

Kylee, Kyleigh, Kyley, Kyli, Kyleen, Kyleen, Kyler, Kiley, Kily,Kileigh, Kilee, Kilie, Kili, Kilea, Kylea... kylie

Kyllinga Triceps


Synonym: K. tenuifolia Stend. Cyperus triceps (Rottb.) Endl.

Family: Cyperaceae.

Habitat: Northwestern India, Gujarat, Rajasthan and South India.

Ayurvedic: Nirvishaa (var.) Mustaka (var.), Apivisha.

Folk: Mustu (Maharashtra).

Action: Root—febrifuge and antidermatosis. Also used for diabetes.

Kyllinga monocephala Rottb., synonym Cyperus kyllinga Endl., common throughout India, is also known as Nirvishaa, Nirbishi and Mustaa (var.). The root is used as diuretic (in polyuria), demulcent, refrigerant and antipyretic. It is prescribed for fistula, pustules, tumours, measles, diarrhoea and other intestinal affections.

Traces of hydrocyanic acid are reported to be present in the root, stems and nutlets.... kyllinga triceps


(Greek) In mythology, another name for the moon goddess Kynthiah, Kynthea, Kinthia, Kinthea, Kynthiya, Kinthiya... kynthia


(Japanese) One who sees her true image... kyoko


(French) A poetess Kyriell, Kyriele, Kyriel, Kyriella, Kyriela... kyrielle

Polycystic Disease Of The Kidney

An inherited disease in which the KIDNEYS contain many cysts. These grow in size until normal kidney tissue is largely destroyed. Cysts may also occur in other organs such as the liver. In adults, the disease will cause HYPERTENSION and kidney failure. There is also a juvenile form. There is no e?ective treatment, although symptoms can be alleviated by DIALYSIS and sometimes kidney transplant (see TRANSPLANTATION).... polycystic disease of the kidney

Sarcostigma Kleinii

W. & A.

Family: Icacinaceae.

Habitat: The Western Ghats, from Konkan southwards.

Ayurvedic: Ingudi. (Balanites aegyptiaca is also equated with Ingudi.)

Siddha: Odal (Tamil).

Action: Seed oil—used externally in rheumatism. Powdered bark— given in rheumatism, neurological disorders and skin diseases.... sarcostigma kleinii

Taraktogenos Kurzii


Synonym: Hydnocarpus Kurzii (King.)Warb. H. heterophyllus Kurx.

Habitat: Throughout upper Assam and Tripura in evergreen forests.

Folk: Chaalmogra.

Action: Kernel yields the true Chaal- moogra Oil (Oleum Chaulmoograe), used externally in leprosy.

Bark—astringent, rich in tannins, also used as a febrifuge.... taraktogenos kurzii

Manilkara Kauki

(L.) Dubard.

Synonym: Minusops Kauki L.

Family: Sapotaceae.

Habitat: A native of Malaya; occasionally grown in gardens, especially in North India, Andhra Pradesh and Kerala.

English: Kauki.

Ayurvedic: Khirni.

Siddha: Palai.

Action: Root and bark—astringent. Given in infantile diarrhoea. Seed— febrifuge, anthelmintic, antileprotic. Leaf—used as poultice for tumours.

Seeds contain about 16% of fatty oil and 1% saponin.

Manilkara hexandra (Roxb.) Du- bard, synonym Mimusops hexandra Roxb., found in central India and Dec- can Peninsula, and cultivated throughout the greater part of India, is also equated with Khirni.

All parts gave taraxerol, a triterpene ketone, alpha-and beta-amyrin, cin- namates, alpha-sipnasterol, beta-sitos- terol, its beta-D-glucoside, quercitol, quercetin and its dihydroderivatives, ursolic acid.

The bark contains 10% tannin.... manilkara kauki

Murraya Koenigii

(Linn.) Spreng.

Habitat: Cultivated in Tamil Nadu; Maharashtra and North India.

English: Curry-Leaf tree.

Ayurvedic: Surabhini-nimba.

Unani: Karipattaa.

Siddha/Tamil: Karuveppilei, Karivempu, Kattuveppilei.

Folk: Mithaa Neem, Kathneem, Gandhela, Barsanga.

Action: Leaf—stomachic, antiprotozoal, spasmolytic; promotes appetite and digestion, destroys pathogenic organism, antidysen- teric. Externally, used against skin eruptions.

All parts of the plant, especially the leaves, are rich in carbazole alkaloids (several carbazole bases have been isolated). The leaves also gave a coumarin glucoside, scopolin.

The beta-carotene content of curry leaves was found decreased on cooking; deep frying resulted in maximum loss.

Inclusion of curry leaves in the diet of diabetic patients reduced the blood glucose level appreciably (it did not produce any insulin response).

The steam distillate of the leaves is reported to exhibit antifungal and in- secticidal activities.

The ethanolic extract of the stem bark showed anti-inflammatory effect in carrageenan-induced inflammation in rats.... murraya koenigii

Phragmites Karka

Trin. ex Steud.

Synonym: P. roxburghii (Kunth) Steud.

P. maxima Blatter & McCann in Part.

Family: Gramineae; Poaceae.

Habitat: Throughout India, in marshy places.

English: Common Reed-grass.

Ayurvedic: Nala. (Arundo donax Linn. is also equated with Nala.)

Siddha/Tamil: Perunanal.

Folk: Narakul.

Action: Stem and rhizome— diuretic, diaphoretic. Used topically to relieve insect bite.

P. karka is not discriminated from P communis for medicinal uses in Indian medicine.... phragmites karka

Pinus Khasya


Synonym: P. insularis Endl.

Family: Pinaceae.

Habitat: Assam; introduced into hills of North Bengal.

English: Khasi Pine.

Ayurvedic: Sarala var.

Folk: Digsaa (Khasia).

Action: Spasmolytic, antimicrobial. Oleo-resin—considered superior to that of P. roxburghii for turpentine. The bark contains 7-10% of tannin.

The essential oil from oleoresin contains chiefly alpha-pinene. Other constituents are beta-pinene, longifoline and sesquiterpenes. Abetic acid from rosin possesses weak cardiac and spasmolytic activities.... pinus khasya

Visceral Leishmaniasis (kala Azar)

A protozoan disease caused by Leishmania donovani, found around parts of the Mediterranean basin, tropical Africa, South America, and central and eastern Asia. The disease is transmitted byfemale sandflies of the genus, Phlebotomus in the Old World and Lutzomyia in the New World. Full-blown disease is often fatal, if untreated. Growth nodules of the disease or leishmanioma form initially and, if spontaneous recoverydoes not occur, proliferating parasites burst out of the nodules, disseminating throughout the body.... visceral leishmaniasis (kala azar)

Zintkala Kinyan

(Native American) Resembling a flying bird Zintkalah Kinyan, Zintkalla Kinyan, Zintkallah Kinyan, Zyntkala Kinyan, Zyntkalah Kinyan, Zyntkallah Kinyan, Zyntkalla Kinyan... zintkala kinyan

Bisr Khil

The Khil plant is native to the Nile Valley. Seeds have a long traditional reputation as a kidney-stone breaker. Half an ounce seeds to 1 pint water; bring to boil and simmer for 5 minutes. All is drunk over the course of the day. Continue until positive response, allowing one week’s rest after each three weeks. ... bisr khil


Formula. Each tablet contains: Hops 45mg; Extract Valeriana officinalis 33.75mg; Extract Gentiana lutea 4:1 22.50mg. To relieve periods of worry and irritability. Two tablets thrice daily after meals. Non-habit-forming, with no known side-effects. Not suitable for children, pregnancy or lactation. (Lane’s UK) ... kalms


Balsam pear. Bitter gourd. Momordica charantia. Traditional Asian remedy for diabetes. Part used: vegetable juice.

Uses: Improves diabetic condition without extra pancreatic activity to secrete more insulin.

Diet: Karela sometimes appears in Eastern pickles and curries. Eaten as a vegetable it assists the body in utilising glucose and is helpful for diabetics not on insulin. ... karela

Salsola Kali


Family: Chenopodiaceae.

Habitat: North-West Himalayas and Kashmir.

English: Glass-Wort, Russian Thistle, Prickly-Saltwort.

Ayurvedic: Sarjikaa, Katol, Laanaa- buuti, Sajji-buuti.

Unani: Ushnaan, Ghaajuraan.

Folk: Barilla.

Action: Plant—cathartic. Juice of fresh plant and seed-vessels—a potent diuretic. Ash of the plant is used in Unani medicine.

Alcoholic extract of the plant showed antimicrobial activity against Salmonella paratyphi and Serratia marcescens.... salsola kali

Scirpus Kysoor


Synonym: S. grossus Linn. f.

Family: Cyperaceae.

Habitat: Distributed throughout India, especially in swamps, up to an altitude of 700 m.

Ayurvedic: Kasheru, Kasheruka.

Siddha/Tamil: Karundan, Gundati- gagaddi (rhizome).

Folk: Kaseru.

Action: Tuber—nutritious, astringent, antidiarrhoeal, antiemetic, galactagogue, hypoglycaemic, diuretic, urinary antiseptic. Used in prescriptions for dysuria, diabetes, genitourinary affections, dyscrasia and as a spermopoietic and liver tonic.

The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia ofln- dia recommends the powder of the rhizome for promoting spermatogen- sis and development of breast.

The tuber gave progesterone, sugars, tannins, starch and saponins. The fruit contains amylase.

The tuber of Scirpus lacustris L. (Kashmir, Ladakh, Kumaon), known as Great Bulrush or Clubrush, is also used as astringent, diuretic and antimicrobial. The aromatic compounds isolated from the rhizomes include derivatives of benzaldehyde, hydrox- ybenzoic and cinnamic acids.

Dosage: Rhizome—5-10 g powder. (API, Vol. I.)... scirpus kysoor

Strophanthus Kombe


Family: Apocynaceae.

Habitat: Native to tropical East Africa; runs wild at some places in West Bengal.

English: Strophanthus.

Action: Dry ripe seeds—cardiac glycosides (the mixture is known as Strophanthin-K) act like digitalis but are poorly absorbed from the digestive tract, are given by injection.

Strophanthus wightianus Wall. ex Wight, known as Nerivalli (Tamil) and Kambetti (Malyalam), is found along with western coast of Kerala.

The plant yields 2.1% of glycosides. The glycosides are known as caulo- side and divaricoside, the corresponding genins are caudogenin and sarmen- togenin; the latter a precursor of cortisone. Studies have indicated that the tinctures prepared from the seeds compare favourably with those from the seeds of S. kombe.... strophanthus kombe

The Amazing Benefits Of Kudzu Tea

Kudzu Tea has been used for many years in traditional Chinese medicine for treating various health conditions. Kudzu herb grows in different regions of Japan, China, parts of Asia and southeastern parts of the United States. These regions are typically mountains, roadsides, fields or thin forests. The constituents of kudzu are responsible for improving blood circulation along the coronary arteries. These are mainly isoflavones such as daidzin, daidzein, glycosides and puerarin. How To Make Kudzu Tea You can make Kudzu Tea either from the leaves or roots of kudzu. To make Kudzu Tea from leaves you will need to boil Kudzu Tea leaves in water for about 15 minutes. Then let the mix steep for about 5 minutes and, using a strainer to catch the kudzu leaves, pour the tea into your cup. If you want you can sweeten it with sugar or honey. However, in traditional Chinese medicine it is used more often Kudzu Tea made with kudzu roots. To make it, you will need to brew black or oolong tea and after that, add a handful of kudzu roots. Let the whole mix steep for about 10 minutes and then enjoy! Kudzu Tea Benefits The most common and popular benefit of Kudzu Tea is suppressing the craving for alcohol. For people who find themselves consuming alcohol and drink also Kudzu Tea, they may not suffer from hangovers as bad as they normally do. But Kudzu Tea has many other health benefits:
  • Kudzu Tea helps enhancing the blood flow to the brain for those who suffer from atherosclerosis.
  • Alleviates muscle pain especially in the neck and back areas.
  • Alleviates some menopausal symptoms.
  • Improves cardiovascular health.
  • Helps treating headaches and dizziness.
Kudzu Tea Side Effects
  • Pregnant and breastfeeding women should not drink Kudzu Tea or any other herbal tea without consulting their doctor first.
  • Kudzu might slow blood clotting and may interfere with cardiovascular treatments.
  • Kudzu Tea may affect blood sugar levels in people with diabetes.
In conclusion, you can say that Kudzu Tea has more heath benefits than side effects. Just remember not to drink too much kudzu tea since overconsumption can lead to the side effects listed above!... the amazing benefits of kudzu tea



Herbalist and hydrotherapist who re-discovered the healing properties of a number of simple plants for the treatment of major diseases of the day (gout, arthritis, etc) when 19th century German pharmacy was beginning to extract and use concentrated alkaloids, glycosides (Foxglove) of plants. He insisted on use of the whole plant. Clinical experience of this tireless investigator led to the belief that Horsetail (Equisetum) arrests the growth of tumours, and where conditions are favourable may dissolve them. See: WHOLE PLANT. ... kneipp

Structure Each Kidney Is About 10 Cm Long,

6.5 cm wide, 5 cm thick, and weighs around 140 grams.

Adult kidneys have a smooth exterior, enveloped by a tough ?brous coat that is bound to the kidney only by loose ?brous tissue and by a few blood vessels that pass between it and the kidney. The outer margin of the kidney is convex; the inner is concave with a deep depression, known as the hilum, where the vessels enter. The URETER, which conveys URINE to the URINARY BLADDER, is also joined at this point. The ureter is spread out into an expanded, funnel-like end, known as the pelvis, which further divides up into little funnels known as the calyces. A vertical section through a kidney (see diagram) shows two distinct layers: an outer one, about 4 mm thick, known as the cortex; and an inner one, the medulla, lying closer to the hilum. The medulla consists of around a dozen pyramids arranged side by side, with their base on the cortex and their apex projecting into the calyces of the ureter. The apex of each pyramid is studded with tiny holes, which are the openings of the microscopic uriniferous tubes.

In e?ect, each pyramid, taken together with the portion of cortex lying along its base, is an independent mini-kidney. About 20 small tubes are on the surface of each pyramid; these, if traced up into its substance, repeatedly subdivide so as to form bundles of convoluted tubules, known as medullary rays, passing up towards the cortex. One of these may be traced further back, ending, after a tortuous course, in a small rounded body: the Malpighian corpuscle or glomerulus (see diagram). Each glomerulus and its convoluted tubule is known as a nephron, which constitutes the functional unit of the kidney. Each kidney contains around a million nephrons.

After entering the kidney, the renal artery divides into branches, forming arches where the cortex and medulla join. Small vessels come o? these arches and run up through the cortex, giving o? small branches in each direction. These end in a tuft of capillaries, enclosed in Bowman’s capsule, which forms the end of the uriniferous tubules just described; capillaries with capsule constitute a glomerulus.

After circulating in the glomerulus, the blood leaves by a small vein, which again divides into capillaries on the walls of the uriniferous tubules. From these it is ?nally collected into the renal veins and then leaves the kidney. This double circulation (?rst through the glomerulus and then around the tubule) allows a large volume of ?uid to be removed from the blood in the glomerulus, the concentrated blood passing on to the uriniferous tubule for removal of parts of its solid contents. Other arteries come straight from the arches and supply the medulla direct; the blood from these passes through another set of capillaries and ?nally into the renal veins. This circulation is con?ned purely to the kidney, although small connections by both arteries and veins exist which pass through the capsule and, joining the lumbar vessels, communicate directly with the aorta.

Function The kidneys work to separate ?uid and certain solids from the blood. The glomeruli ?lter from the blood the non-protein portion of the plasma – around 150–200 litres in 24 hours, 99 per cent of which is reabsorbed on passing through the convoluted tubules.

Three main groups of substances are classi?ed according to their extent of uptake by the tubules:

(1) SUBSTANCES ACTIVELY REABSORBED These include amino acids, glucose, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium and chlorine (for more information, see under separate entries).

(2) SUBSTANCES DIFFUSING THROUGH THE TUBULAR EPITHELIUM when their concentration in the ?ltrate exceeds that in the PLASMA, such as UREA, URIC ACID and phosphates.

(3) SUBSTANCES NOT RETURNED TO THE BLOOD from the tubular ?uid, such as CREATINE, accumulate in kidney failure, resulting in general ‘poisoning’ known as URAEMIA.... structure each kidney is about 10 cm long,

Cancer – Kidney

Cancer of the kidney may appear in the renal pelvis, the area where urine is collected, or as a hypernephroma in the kidney itself. Not common. Symptoms include blood in the urine but with little pain. Herbal anti-neoplastics may enable the body to tolerate and reduce the toxicity of chemotherapy, the following being subordinate to conventional treatment.

Formula. Corn Silk 3; Plantain (Plantago major L) 2; Golden Rod 1; Hydrangea 1; Valerian half. Dosage: thrice daily before meals. Liquid Extracts: 1 teaspoon. Tinctures: 2 teaspoons. Powders: two 00 capsules or one-third teaspoon. This may be used as a basic combination to be adapted to a changing clinical picture.

Treatment by a general medical practitioner or oncologist. ... cancer – kidney

Kola Nuts

See: COLA. ... kola nuts

Krameria Root

Rhatany root. Krameria triandra. Dried root.

Action: anti-tubercle, haemostatic, powerful astringent, anti-microbial.

Uses: Basis of treatment for tuberculosis with Umckaloabo in the 1920s. See: UMCKALOABO. Spongy bleeding gums, bleeding piles, nasal polyps (powder used as snuff), haemoptysis, incontinence of urine. Preparations. Average dose, half-2g. Thrice daily.

Decoction. Half-l teaspoon to each large cup water gently simmered 20 minutes. Dose: one-third to half a cup.

Tincture Krameria BPC (1949). Dose 30-60 drops (2-4ml).

Liquid extract BPC 1923. Dose: 2-4ml. ... krameria root

Artificial Kidney

The common name for the machine used in dialysis.... artificial kidney

Clergyman’s Knee

Inflammation of the bursa that cushions the pressure point over the tibial tubercle (the bony prominence just below the knee) caused by prolonged kneeling (see bursitis).... clergyman’s knee

Tea For Kidney

Consumption of tea can lead to many health benefits, as it is a natural beverage. There are various types of tea which help with kidney problems, as well. Find out more about teas for kidney! Why drink tea for kidney Damage of kidney (nephropathy) can lead to various problems. Some of the more common ones include kidney failure (also known as renal failure), kidney tumors (Wilms tumor or renal cell carcinoma), and kidney stones. Consumption of tea can help treat these problems, prevent them or slow down their progress. They also help maintain the kidneys in a healthy condition, which leads to other health benefits, such as regulating the blood pressure. Teas for kidney There are several types of tea which help with kidney problems. Most of them are herbal teas. Club moss tea, elderberry tea, saw palmetto tea, and cleavers tea have a cleansing effect, helping with the detoxification process. In the case of kidney failures, you can add centaury tea and Ceylon tea to your treatment. For other kidney problems, as well as the ones mentioned before, drink fenugreek tea, burdock tea, sassafras tea, banaba tea, sage tea, juniper tea, privet tea, orris tea, or milk thistle tea. Also, in order to have a pair of healthy kidneys, you can drink cranberry tea, goji tea, rehmannia tea, dandelion tea, lemongrass tea, or kukicha tea. Tea for kidney stones Kidney stones are some of the most common kidney problems. They are solid concretions or crystal aggregations which are formed in the kidneys and eliminated through urine. Black tea is one type of tea that can help with kidney stones. Other teas, herbal ones this time, are butterbur tea, corn silk tea, uva ursi tea, stone root tea, triphala tea, marshmallow tea, alfalfa tea, pipsissewa tea, and abuta tea. Tea for kidney side effects Side effects vary from one tea to another. Generally, it is recommended to speak to your doctor first, before consuming one of these teas, if you are pregnant or breastfeeding. Also, you have to be careful with black tea, which has a pretty high caffeine content. If your body can’t take caffeine, it might lead to unwanted side effects: headaches, nervousness, sleep problems, vomiting, diarrhea, irritability, irregular heartbeats, tremors, dizziness, or ringing in the ears. Teas you shouldn’t drink If you’ve got kidney problems, there are a few types of tea you should not drink. The list includes oolong tea, horse chestnut tea, lovage tea, wu yi tea, lemon verbena tea, rue tea, and periwinkle tea. Also, you might get kidney problems (even kidney stones) if you drink a high amount of boneset tea, yohimbe tea, yerba mate tea, essiac tea, parsley tea, osha tea, and meadowsweet tea. However, juniper tea and horsetail tea are part of a special class. They both help with kidney problems, but they have to be consumed properly. Over consumption can lead to kidney pains in the case of juniper tea, or kidney stones in the case of horsetail tea. You can protect your kidney, as well as treat various kidney problems, by drinking tea. Besides this, you’ll discover that, based on the type of tea you drink, you’ll get plenty of health benefits, as well. Have a cup of tea for kidney!... tea for kidney

Ginseng - King Plant

Panax schinseng, Nees. Panax ginseng. German: Gensang. French: Panax. Italian: Ginseng. Chinese: Huang shen. C.A. Meyer. Roots. More suited to men than women. Used as a medicine in the Far East for over 4,000 years. Source of natural steroids (oestrogens), raising natural immunity. All Ginsengs enhance the natural resistance and recuperative power of the body. Produces opposite effects; i.e. it is both sedative and stimulant; in some it raises, in others it lowers blood pressure. Raises some cholesterol factors while reducing the overall amount in the blood. Hypoglycaemic. Aphrodisiac. Heart tonic. Old age re-vitaliser. Adaptogen. Used by the People’s Republic of China for a wide range of disorders. Source of the element Germanium.

Constituents: gum, resin, starch, saponin glycosides, volatile oil.

Uses: Physical weakness, neurasthenia, recovery after surgery. Promotes physical and intellectual efficiency. A mood-raiser. Induces a feeling of well being and stability. Depression, sexual debility, sleeplessness. The sportsman’s remedy, improving running ability and endurance. Retards build-up of lactic acid which normally occurs during hard exercise and causes fatigue. Increases resistance to excess cold or heat exposure and to a working environment with a noisy background. Lessens side-effects of insulin in diabetes. To help the body adapt to a changed environment (jet lag). Enhances mental performance in students. Promotes biosynthesis of DNA and RNA.

Preparations: Miscellaneous products available. Single morning dose.

Decoction. Half-1 teaspoon to each cup water gently simmered 10 minutes, or added to a cup of domestic tea.

Powder. Half-1g daily.

Contra-indications: hyperactivity in children, pregnancy, high blood pressure, menopause. Not taken continuously but for periods from 1 week to 1 month. Should not be taken with coffee. ... ginseng - king plant

Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca

Persistent dryness of the cornea and conjunctiva caused by deficiency in tear production. The condition is associated with autoimmune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis, Sjögren’s syndrome, and systemic lupus erythematosus. Prolonged dryness may lead to blurred vision, itching, grittiness, and, in severe cases, the formation of a corneal ulcer. The most effective treatment is frequent use of artificial tears (see tears, artificial).... keratoconjunctivitis sicca

Keratolytic Drugs

Drugs that loosen and remove the tough outer layer of skin.

Keratolytic drugs, which include urea and salicylic acid preparations, are used to treat skin and scalp disorders, such as warts, acne, dandruff, and psoriasis.... keratolytic drugs

Tea For Kidney Problems

If you’re experiencing abdominal pain and you’re sure it’s not a digestive tract ailment, it’s very possible that you’re suffering from a kidney disorder. The same if the pain is localized in the back or on one side of your body. Usually, kidney problems appear when there’s something wrong with your urinary tract and not only. Overexposing your body to low temperatures may cause urinary infections, impurity accumulations lead to kidney stones. Also, kidney problems can be caused by other health complaints, such as pulmonary edema and cancers. However, it’s best to schedule an appointment with your doctor in order to find out what’s actually going on with your body. How a Tea for Kidney Problems Works A Tea for Kidney Problems’ main goal is to purify your body by triggering a positive response from it. Once the main substances of these teas reach the affected areas, your organism produces enough endorphins (which are cells specialized in making you feel a lot better by bringing relief to your wounds) and antibodies to reconstruct the damaged tissue. Efficient Tea for Kidney Problems In order to work properly, a Tea for Kidney Problems needs to be both efficient and one hundred percent safe. Also, it must contain the right amount of nutrients, natural enzymes, volatile oils, antioxidants and minerals (sodium, magnesium, iron and manganese). This way, that tea will make your body eliminate the unwanted impurities and improve your kidney function. If you don’t know which teas would be appropriate for your condition, here’s a list to choose from: - Dandelion Tea – can be prepared from dandelion roots and it’s also a great adjuvant in diarrhea and urinary infection cases. This Tea for Kidney Problems has a bitter taste, but you can add ginger, lemon, mint or honey in order to make it more adequate for you. Avoid it at all costs if you’re pregnant or breastfeeding: due to its strong purgative and diuretic properties, Dandelion Tea can cause uterine contractions which may lead to miscarriages. - Marshmallow Root Tea – this lovely tea with a hint of Christmas is useful for a large variety of problems, from infertility to gastrointestinal and digestive complaints. Take a sip at every 5 minutes for an hour and enjoy the wonderful health benefits! - Buchu Tea – contains antioxidants and antibacterial agents, being a great help in cases of cystitis, urethritis and kidney failure. This Tea for Kidney acts like a natural diuretic and should not be taken by pregnant women. - Green Tea – as the scientists have proved, this decoction contains all the ingredients necessary to sustain life, so it’s useful for many problems, not just kidney disorders. However, don’t take it if you’re experiencing menstrual and menopausal symptoms (it can cause uterine contractions and stomach acidity). Tea for Kidney Problems Side Effects When taken properly, these teas are generally safe. However, exceeding the number of cups recommended per day might lead to a number of health problems such as miscarriages, hallucinations, headaches and skin rash. If you’ve been taking one of these teas and something doesn’t feel quite right, talk to your doctor as soon as possible. Don’t take a Tea for Kidney Problems if you’re pregnant, breastfeeding, on blood thinners or anticoagulants. The same advice if you’re preparing for a surgery. If you have the medical approval and there’s nothing that could interfere with your treatment, choose a Tea for Kidney problems that fits best your needs and give it a try today!  ... tea for kidney problems

Kava Kava

Ava Pepper. Piper methysticum, Forster. German: Kawa pfeffer. French: Kawa. Spanish: Kava kava. Italian: Pepe kava. Parts used: rhizome and root.

Constituents: Pipermethysticine (alkaloid), Pyrone derivative.

Action: antimicrobial with special reference to STDs with mucopurulent discharge, including gonorrhoea. Also effective against Bacillus Coli. Antiseptic stimulant, mild analgesic for painful spasm, antispasmodic, nerve relaxant, diuretic, stimulant, tonic.

Uses: Genito-urinary infections, orchitis, vaginitis, urethritis, Candida, violent itching, ichthyosis, metritis, inflammation of the Fallopian tubes, incontinence in the aged with bladder weakness, infection of kidney, bladder and prostate gland, conditions arising from excess of uric acid, joint pains of rheumatism following STD infection, bed-wetting. A powerful soporific for chronic insomnia, ensuring dreamless sleep with no known ill-effects on rising.

Combinations: with Sarsaparilla for STDs. With Black Cohosh for rheumatism following STDs. Preparations. Average dose: 2-4g. Thrice daily.

Decoction. 1oz to 1 pint (30g to 500ml) water, simmer in gentle heat down to three-quarters volume. Dose: half-1 cup.

Liquid Extract. Half-1 teaspoon in water.

Powder: 2-4g.

Lotion. 1oz powdered root to 8oz glycerine, macerate 8 days, shake daily. External: for pruritus and most forms of intolerable itching. Add 10 drops Oil Eucalyptus for chronic cases. ... kava kava

Tea For Lucid Dreams

Having a lucid dream means dreaming while being aware of the fact that you are dreaming. However, many people become lucid in the middle of the dream or, on the contrary, fall lose reality contact after being lucid at first. Although traditional medicine can’t be very helpful in these cases, alternative medicine has a few tricks up its sleeve. How a Tea for Lucid Dreams Works A Tea for Lucid Dreams’ main purpose is to make you recall what you have dreamed by calming your nervous system and improving your memory function. These teas are good for a number of other diseases, such as memory loss, headaches or migraines. However, talk to an herbalist or to your doctor before starting any kind of herbal treatment in order to make sure everything will be alright. Efficient Tea for Lucid Dreams In order to work properly, a Tea for Lucid Dreams needs to be both very efficient and one hundred percent safe (since lucid dreams are not exactly a medical problem, you may want to avoid developing one). A tea that is rich in antioxidants, nutrients, tannins, volatile oils and minerals (sodium, magnesium, iron, manganese) would be very adequate. You may want to avoid teas with a large amount of acid agents (they could cause stomach pain). If you don’t know which teas could be useful for lucid dreams, here’s a list for guidance: - Green Tea – contains all the ingredients necessary to sustain life, so it’s useful for a wide range of ailments, not just lucid dreams. If you’re suffering from infertility, anemia, asthenia, loss of appetite, digestive tract complaints or nervous system failure, this decoction could also be useful. However, you must avoid it at all costs if you’re experiencing some menstrual or menopausal symptoms. The same advice if you’re pregnant (it may cause uterine contractions and therefore miscarriage). - Valerian Tea – was been used as a sleep aid since ancient times, when the Romans and the Greeks took it before going to bed. This Tea for Lucid Dreams, thanks to its active compounds, is a mild sedative and could also work miracles on your nervous system. However, you need to make sure that you don’t exceed the number of cups recommended per day in order to avoid hallucinations, tiredness or even death. - Chamomile Tea – of course, the world’s greatest panacea shouldn’t be left aside. If you’re having trouble remembering your dreams, try a cup of Chamomile Tea before you go to bed! This Tea has a great fragrance and a pleasant smell. Plus, it’s one hundred percent safe so you can drink as much as you want. Tea for Lucid Dreams Side Effects When taken according to specifications, these teas are generally safe. However, exceeding the number of cups recommended per day may lead to a number of health problems, such as diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, upset stomach or even death! If you’ve been taking one of these decoctions for a while and you’re experience a negative response from your body, ask for medical assistance right away! Don’t take a Tea for Lucid Dreams if you’re pregnant, breastfeeding, on blood thinners or anticoagulants. The same advice in case you’re preparing for a surgery. If your doctor says it’s ok to start an herbal treatment, choose a tea that fits best your requirements and enjoy its wonderful benefits!  ... tea for lucid dreams


Amni visnaga. Known to early Egyptian medicine.

Action. Antispasmodic to respiratory and cardiovascular system. Alternative to use of steroids in children.

“A potent coronary vasodilator. Has been employed in the treatment of angina pectoris and bronchial asthma; a decoction is made for whooping cough.” (Hakim Mohammed Said: Hamdard Foundation, Pakistan)

Uses: Has a long reputation in Arabian medicine for asthma. On record for the treatment of diseases of the coronary vessels, gall bladder, kidney, bladder. To relieve painful spasm of stone in kidney or bladder. Myocardial infarction. Allergies.

Vitiligo, psoriasis. (Abdel-Fattah et al 1982/1983)

Seeds yield sodium cromoglycate, a preparation which is inhaled from a nebuliser or aerosol. ... khella


“Hundred jointed.” Polygonum aviculare L. German: Vogelkno?terich. French: Centinode. Spanish: Centinodia. Indian: Kuwar. Arabian: Anjuhar. Chinese: Liao. Part used: herb. Constituents: gallic and tannic acids, silicic acid, polyphenolic acids, mucilage.

Action: astringent, haemostatic.

Uses: Bleeding from bowel, lungs, nose, throat, stomach. Bleeding piles, excessive menstruation. Children’s summer diarrhoea, mucous colitis.

Preparations: Decoction: 1-2 teaspoons leaves, roots, stalks, to each large cup water gently simmered 15 minutes. Dose: one-third to half a cup thrice daily.

Tincture: 1 part to 5 parts 45 per cent alcohol; macerate 8 days, shake daily, filter. Dose: 1 teaspoon thrice daily. ... knotgrass

Keratotomy, Radial

A now uncommon procedure in which radiating incisions are made in the cornea (up to, but not through, its innermost layer) to reduce myopia.

Radial keratotomy has been largely replaced by laser procedures, such as LASIK, which carry less risk of permanent damage to the eye.... keratotomy, radial

Kidney Biopsy

A procedure in which a small sample of kidney tissue is removed and examined under a microscope.

Kidney biopsy is performed to investigate and diagnose serious kidney disorders, such as glomerulonephritis, proteinuria, nephrotic syndrome, and acute kidney failure, or to assess the kidneys’ response to treatment.

There are 2 basic techniques: percutaneous needle biopsy, in which a hollow needle is passed through the skin into the kidney under local anaesthesia; and open surgery under general anaesthesia.... kidney biopsy

Kidney Cyst

A fluid-filled sac in the kidney. Most kidney cysts are noncancerous. Cysts commonly develop in people over 50 and may occur singly or multiply in 1 or both kidneys. Most cysts occur for no known reason and do not usually produce symptoms unless they become large enough to cause pain in the lower back due to pressure. However, large numbers of cysts in the kidneys may be associated with polycystic kidney disease (see kidney, polycystic), which often leads to kidney failure. Treatment of simple cysts is not usually necessary, but aspiration (withdrawal of fluid) or surgical removal may be carried out if a cyst is painful or recurs.... kidney cyst

Kidney Cancer

A cancerous tumour of the kidney. Most kidney cancers originate in the kidney itself, but in rare cases cancer spreads to the kidney from another organ. There are 3 main types of kidney cancer. The most common, renal cell carcinoma, usually occurs in people over 40. Nephroblastoma (also called Wilms’ tumour) is a fast-growing tumour that mainly affects children under 5. Transitional cell carcinoma arises from cells lining the renal pelvis; it is more common in smokers or those who have taken analgesic drugs for a long time.Symptoms of kidney cancer vary. It is often symptomless in the early stages, although later there may be blood in the urine. All types require surgical removal of the kidney and sometimes also of the ureter. For nephroblastoma, surgery is followed by treatment with anticancer drugs. Kidney cancer is likely to be fatal if it has spread to other organs before treatment is started.... kidney cancer

Kidney Function Tests

Tests performed to investigate kidney disorders.

Urinalysis is a simple test in which a urine sample is examined under a microscope for blood cells, pus cells, and casts (cells and mucous material that accumulate in the tubules of the kidneys and pass into the urine).

Urine may be tested for substances, such as proteins, that leak into the urine when the kidneys are damaged.

Kidney function can be assessed by measuring the concentration in the blood of substances, such as urea and creatinine, that the kidneys normally excrete.

Kidney function may also be assessed by kidney imaging techniques.... kidney function tests


The unit of energy equal to 1,000 joules, abbreviated to kJ. One kcal (see kilocalorie) equals 4.2 kJ.... kilojoule

Kidney Imaging

Techniques for visualizing the kidneys, usually performed for diagnosis. Ultrasound scanning can be used to identify kidney enlargement, a cyst or tumour, and the site of any blockage. Conventional X-rays show the outline of the kidneys and most kidney stones. Intravenous urography shows the internal anatomy of the kidney and ureters. Angiography is used to image blood circulation through the kidneys. CT scanning and MRI provide detailed cross-sectional images and can show abscesses or tumours. Two types of radionuclide scanning are used for the kidney: DMSA and DTPA scanning. DMSA is a substance given by intravenous injection that binds to cells in the kidney tubule, giving a single, static picture of the kidneys. DTPA, also given intravenously, is filtered in the kidneys and passes out in the urine. Pictures taken at intervals record its passage through the urinary tract and show kidney function. ... kidney imaging

Kidney, Polycystic

An inherited disorder in which both kidneys are affected by numerous cysts that gradually enlarge until most of the normal kidney tissue is destroyed.

Polycystic kidney disease is distinguished from multiple simple kidney cysts, which occur commonly with age.

There are 2 types of polycystic disease.

The most common usually becomes apparent in middle age, producing abdominal swelling, pain, and blood in the urine.

As the disease progresses, hypertension and kidney failure may result.

The rare type causes enlargement of the kidneys and kidney failure in infants and young children.

There is no effective treatment for preserving kidney function in either type, but symptoms of kidney failure can be treated by dialysis and kidney transplant.... kidney, polycystic


See patella.... kneecap


The name for a finger joint.... knuckle

Korsakoff’s Psychosis

See Wernicke– Korsakoff syndrome.... korsakoff’s psychosis

Kraurosis Vulvae

See vulvitis.... kraurosis vulvae

Locked Knee

A temporary inability to move the knee joint. A locked knee may be caused by a torn cartilage or by loose bodies in the joint.... locked knee

Polycystic Kidney

See kidney, polycystic.... polycystic kidney

Water On The Knee

A popular term for accumulation of fluid within or around the knee joint. The most common cause is bursitis. (See also effusion, joint).... water on the knee

Wernicke–korsakoff Syndrome

An uncommon brain disorder almost always related to malnutrition occurring in chronic alcohol dependence, but occasionally due to that which occurs in other conditions, such as cancer. Wernicke–Korsakoff syndrome is caused by deficiency of thiamine (see vitamin B complex), which affects the brain and nervous system.The disease consists of 2 stages: Wernicke’s encephalopathy and Korsakoff’s psychosis. Wernicke’s encephalopathy usually develops suddenly and produces nystagmus (abnormal, jerky eye movements), ataxia (difficulty in coordinating body movements), slowness, and confusion. Sufferers usually have signs of neuropathy, such as loss of sensation, pins-and-needles, or impaired reflexes. The level of consciousness falls progressively and may lead to coma and death unless treated. The condition is a medical emergency. Treatment with high doses of intravenous thiamine often reverses most of the symptoms, sometimes within a few hours.

Korsakoff’s psychosis may follow Wernicke’s encephalopathy if treatment is not begun promptly enough. Symptoms consist of severe amnesia, apathy, and disorientation. Korsakoff’s psychosis is usually irreversible.... wernicke–korsakoff syndrome

Acute Kidney Injury

see AKI.... acute kidney injury

Arcuate Keratotomy

a curved incision made in the periphery of the cornea. It is usually performed in the region of greatest curvature of the cornea in order to flatten it and hence reduce *astigmatism.... arcuate keratotomy

Automated Lamellar Keratectomy

(ALK) excision of the outer layers of the cornea using an automated *keratome. It is usually used as part of a surgical procedure, to alter the shape of the cornea to correct errors of refraction.... automated lamellar keratectomy

Band Keratopathy

the deposition of calcium in the superficial layers of the cornea, usually as a horizontal band starting peripherally and moving centrally. It is associated with chronic eye disease, e.g. chronic *uveitis, particularly juvenile chronic uveitis. It is treated by application of EDTA (see edetate) or with an *excimer laser.... band keratopathy

Bullous Keratopathy

a pathological condition of the cornea of the eye due to failure in the functioning of its endothelium. It results in corneal oedema, seen as small blisters in the cornea that cause blurring of vision. See Fuchs’ endothelial dystrophy.... bullous keratopathy

Clasp-knife Rigidity

see spasticity.... clasp-knife rigidity

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

(DKA) a metabolic state resulting from a profound lack of insulin, usually found only in type 1 *diabetes mellitus but sometimes arising in people of Afro-Caribbean ethnicity with type 2 diabetes. Inability to inhibit glucose production from the liver results in *hyperglycaemia, which can be extreme and lead to severe dehydration. The concurrent failure to suppress fatty-acid production from adipose tissue results in the excess conversion of fatty acids to ketones in the liver (*ketosis) and the development of a metabolic *acidosis, which can be severe. Patients often present with vomiting (from the ketosis), which contributes to the dehydration. The condition is treated as a medical emergency with intravenous fluid and insulin; patients should be monitored in high-dependency units.... diabetic ketoacidosis

Dysplastic Kidneys

any developmental abnormalities resulting from anomalous metanephric differentiation (see metanephros). Most dysplastic kidneys are associated either with an abnormally located ureteral orifice or with urinary tract anomalies that are expected to produce unilateral, bilateral, or segmental urinary obstruction.... dysplastic kidneys

Gamma Knife

a device that allows high doses of radiation in the form of gamma rays to be accurately focused on pathological tissue, with less risk of damaging adjacent normal tissue compared with conventional radiotherapy. Multiple cobalt-60 sources deliver the gamma irradiation. The device is used in the treatment of vestibular schwannomas, certain brain tumours, vascular lesions of the brain, trigeminal neuralgia, and some forms of epilepsy.... gamma knife

Housemaid’s Knee

(prepatellar bursitis) inflammation and resultant swelling of the bursa in front of the kneecap, usually due to repetitive friction and pressure over the kneecap, as from frequent episodes of prolonged kneeling. Treatment includes pressure bandaging, *NSAIDs, and avoidance of kneeling. See bursitis.... housemaid’s knee

Intrastromal Keratomileusis

an operation to correct severe degrees of myopia (short-sightedness). A disc of corneal tissue (from the *stroma of the cornea) is removed, frozen, and remodelled on a lathe, then replaced into the cornea to alter its curvature and thus reduce the myopia. *Excimer laser treatment, which is easier to perform, has now replaced this (see LASIK).... intrastromal keratomileusis

Jumper’s Knee

(patellar tendinitis) a form of *tendinitis that is common in athletes and dancers. Repeated sudden contracture of the quadriceps muscle at take-off causes inflammation of the attachment of the patellar tendon to the lower end of the patella. Treatment includes rest, physiotherapy, and anti-inflammatory medication.... jumper’s knee

 kahn Reaction

a test for syphilis, in which antibodies specific to the disease are detected in a sample of the patient’s blood by means of a *precipitin reaction. This test is not as reliable as some. [R. L. Kahn (20th century), US bacteriologist]...  kahn reaction


n. a naturally occurring polypeptide consisting of ten amino acids. Kallidin is a powerful vasodilator and causes contraction of smooth muscle; it is formed in the blood under certain conditions. See kinin.... kallidin


n. one of a group of enzymes found in the blood and body fluids that act on certain plasma globulins to produce bradykinin and kallidin. See kinin.... kallikrein

Kallmann’s Syndrome

a familial condition that is the most common form of isolated *gonadotrophin deficiency; it is combined with underdevelopment of the olfactory lobes, causing *anosmia. The syndrome is caused by a gene *deletion on the short arm of the X chromosome. Patients often present with delayed puberty. There is an association with *ichthyosis, learning disabilities, obesity, renal and skeletal abnormalities, and undescended testes, but these features are very variable. [F. J. Kallmann (1897–1965), US geneticist]... kallmann’s syndrome

Kantian Ethics

approaches to moral questions based on the thought of the German philosopher Immanuel Kant (1724–1804). These seek to discover what is morally right by asking what basic rules all rational people (see autonomy) could adopt for themselves and then act on as an *imperative matter of *duty, regardless of their personal desires or of the possible consequences (see deontology; consequentialism). The Kantian tradition has been influential in medical ethics, especially in its insistence that every human life must be treated as an end in itself and not simply as a means.... kantian ethics

Kartagener’s Syndrome

a hereditary condition in which the heart and other internal organs lie on the opposite side of the body to the norm (i.e. the heart lies on the right; see dextrocardia); it is associated with chronic sinusitis and bronchiectasis. [M. Kartagener (1897–1975), German physician]... kartagener’s syndrome


(karyo-) combining form denoting a cell nucleus.... kary


n. division of the nucleus of a cell, which occurs during cell division before division of the cytoplasm (cytokinesis). See mitosis.... karyokinesis


n. the breakdown of a cell nucleus, which occurs during cell *necrosis and is preceded by fragmentation of the nucleus (karyorrhexis).... karyolysis


n. see nucleoplasm.... karyoplasm


n. the dense mass of *chromatin found in the cell nucleus, which is composed mainly of chromosomes.... karyosome


n. a thermometer used to measure the cooling power of the air surrounding it, having its bulb covered with water-moistened material. The instrument is brought to a steady temperature of 100°F and then exposed to the air. The time taken for the temperature recorded by the thermometer to fall to 95°F gives an index of the air’s cooling power.... katathermometer

Kayser–fleischer Ring

a brownish-yellow ring in the outer rim of the cornea of the eye. It is a deposit of copper granules and is diagnostic of *Wilson’s disease. When well developed it can be seen by unaided observation, but faint Kayser-Fleischer rings may only be detected by specialized *slit-lamp ophthalmological examination. [B. Kayser (1869–1954), German ophthalmologist; B. Fleischer (1848–1904), German physician]... kayser–fleischer ring

Kegel Exercises

(pelvic-floor muscle training, pelvic-floor exelrcises) active rehabilitation of the pelvic-floor muscles by conscious contractions, which leads to a cure in 50–80% of patients with stress incontinence. [A. H. Kegel (20th century), US gynaecologist]... kegel exercises

Kehr’s Sign

pain in the left shoulder caused by irritation of the undersurface of the diaphragm by blood leaking from a ruptured spleen. The pain impulses are referred along the *phrenic nerve. [H. Kehr (1862–1913), German surgeon]... kehr’s sign

Kell Antigens

a group of antigens that may or may not be present on the surface of red blood cells, forming the basis of a *blood group. This group is important in blood transfusion reactions. [Mrs Kell (20th century), patient in whom they were first demonstrated]... kell antigens

Keller’s Operation

an operation for *hallux valgus (see also bunion) or *hallux rigidus that involves an excision *arthroplasty of the metatarsophalangeal joint, at the base of the big toe. The toe will be slightly shorter and floppy, but usually this improves alignment and range of movement. [W. L. Keller (1874–1959), US surgeon]... keller’s operation


n. the *SI unit of temperature, formally defined as the fraction 1/273.16 of the temperature of the triple point of water. A temperature in kelvins is equal to a Celsius temperature plus 273.15°C. Symbol: K.... kelvin

Kemp Echoes

see otoacoustic emissions.... kemp echoes


(kerato-) combining form denoting 1. the cornea. Example: keratopathy (disease of). 2. horny tissue, especially of the skin.... kerat


n. pain arising from the cornea.... keratalgia


n. bulging of the cornea at the site of scar tissue (which is thinner than normal corneal tissue).... keratectasia


n. an operation in which a part of the cornea is removed, usually a superficial layer. This procedure is now frequently done by an *excimer laser, either to correct refractive errors (myopia, hypermetropia), by reshaping the surface of the cornea (photorefractive keratectomy; PRK), or to remove diseased corneal tissue (phototherapeutic keratectomy). See also automated lamellar keratectomy.... keratectomy


(cornification) n. the process by which cells become horny due to the deposition of *keratin within them. It occurs in the *epidermis of the skin and associated structures (hair, nails, etc.), where the cells become flattened, lose their nuclei, and are filled with keratin as they approach the surface.... keratinization


n. a type of cell that makes up 95% of the cells of the epidermis. Keratinocytes migrate from the deeper layers of the epidermis and are finally shed from the surface of the skin.... keratinocyte


(descemetocele) n. outward bulging of the base of a deep ulcer of the cornea. The deep layer of the cornea (Descemet’s membrane) is elastic and relatively resistant to perforation; it therefore bulges when the overlying cornea has been destroyed.... keratocele


(fibroblast) n. a cell, derived from *mesenchyme, of the corneal *stroma. Such cells are normally quiescent but can readily respond to injury and change into repair types.... keratocyte


(megalocornea) n. a congenital disorder of the eye in which the whole cornea bulges forward in a regular curve. Compare keratoconus.... keratoglobus


n. any instrument designed for cutting the cornea. The simplest type has a flat triangular blade attached at its base to a handle, the other two sides being very sharp and tapering to a point. Power-driven keratomes have oscillating or rotating blades. An automated keratome is used in *automated lamellar keratectomy. See also microkeratome.... keratome


(ophthalmometer) n. an instrument for measuring the radius of curvature of the cornea. Usually the vertical and horizontal curvatures are measured. All keratometers work on the principle that the size of the image of an object reflected from a convex mirror (in this case, the cornea) depends on the curvature of the mirror. The steeper the curve, the smaller the image. The keratometer is used for assessing the degree of curvature of the cornea in different meridians. —keratometry n.... keratometer


n. see intrastromal keratomileusis; LASIK.... keratomileusis


n. an optically clear prosthesis that is implanted into the cornea to replace an area that has become opaque. Due to its poor success rate, it is used only as a last resort in an attempt to restore some sight to patients with severe disease where corneal transplantation (see keratoplasty) is unlikely to succeed.... keratoprosthesis


(Placido’s disc) n. an instrument for detecting abnormal curvature of the cornea. It consists of a black disc, about 20 cm in diameter, marked with concentric white rings. The examiner looks through a small lens in the centre at the reflection of the rings in the patient’s cornea. A normal cornea will reflect regular concentric images of the rings; a cornea that is abnormally curved (for example in *keratoconus) or scarred reflects distorted rings. Modern keratoscopes can print out a contour map of the corneal surface.... keratoscope

Keratosis Obturans

an abnormal build-up of *keratin and dead skin cells within the ear canal that can block the canal, cause conductive hearing loss (see deafness), and erode the bone of the ear canal. It is associated with *bronchiectasis and chronic sinusitis.... keratosis obturans


n. an incision into the cornea. See arcuate keratotomy; radial keratotomy.... keratotomy


n. inflammation involving both the cornea (see keratitis) and the uvea (see uveitis).... keratouveitis

Kerley B Lines

fine horizontal lines seen in the angle between the diaphragm and the chest wall on a chest X-ray. It is a sign of pulmonary *oedema and therefore heart failure. [P. J. Kerley (20th century), British radiologist]... kerley b lines

Kernig’s Sign

a symptom of *meningitis in which the hamstring muscles in the legs are so stiff that the patient is unable to extend his legs at the knee when the thighs are held at a right angle to the body. [V. Kernig (1840–1917), Russian physician]... kernig’s sign

Kernohan’s Phenomenon

(Kernohan’s syndrome) *hemiplegia that is *ipsilateral to the brain lesion that caused it, due to pressure of the lesion (which is often a haematoma) on surrounding structures in the brain. It is unusual because normally a lesion of the brain causes dysfunction in the *contralateral limbs. [J. W. K. Kernohan (20th century), US pathologist]... kernohan’s phenomenon


n. the presence in the blood of *ketone bodies.... ketonaemia


(acetonuria) n. the presence in the urine of *ketone (acetone) bodies. This may occur in diabetes mellitus, starvation, or after persistent vomiting and results from the partial oxidation of fats. Ketone bodies may be detected by adding a few drops of 5% sodium nitroprusside solution and a solution of ammonia to the urine; the gradual development of a purplish-red colour indicates their presence.... ketonuria


n. a simple sugar that terminates with a keto group (?C=O); for example, *fructose.... ketose

Kielland’s Forceps

obstetric forceps used to rotate a baby whose head is presenting in the occipitoposterior or occipitotransverse position (see occiput). Potentially dangerous, when carefully used under regional anaesthesia they can achieve a controlled atraumatic delivery. [C. Kielland (20th century), Norwegian obstetrician]... kielland’s forceps

Kienböck’s Disease

necrosis of the *lunate bone of the wrist caused by interruption of its blood supply (see osteochondritis; osteonecrosis). It usually follows chronic stress or injury to the wrist and presents with pain and stiffness, with reduced grip strength. Initially, X-rays may show no abnormality; if the disease is suspected, a bone scan or MRI is indicated. Treatment is with rest, splintage, and *NSAIDs, but some cases require surgical shortening of the radius or *arthrodesis of the wrist. [R. Kienböck (1871–1953), Austrian radiologist]... kienböck’s disease

Kiesselbach’s Plexus

a collection of capillaries in the mucosa at the anterior part of the nasal septum. Nosebleeds frequently have their origin from this plexus. See epistaxis; Little’s area. [W. Kiesselbach (1839–1902), German laryngologist]... kiesselbach’s plexus


prefix denoting a thousand.... kilo


n. the *SI unit of mass equal to 1000 grams and previously defined in terms of the international prototype kept at Sèvres, near Paris; from 20 May 2019 it is defined in terms of the Planck constant. Symbol: kg.... kilogram


n. one thousand *volts (symbol: kV). In radiography, the kilovoltage of the X-ray machine determines the maximum energy of the X-rays produced. The setting is important in controlling the exposure of the film and is generally higher when more penetration is required, depending on the thickness of the body part being imaged. See also milliamp.... kilovolt

Kimmelstiel–wilson Lesion

n. a nodular form of glomerulosclerosis associated with diabetic nephropathy. See also diabetic glomerulosclerosis. [P. Kimmelstiel and C. Wilson (20th century), US physicians]... kimmelstiel–wilson lesion


n. the sense that enables the brain to be constantly aware of the position and movement of muscles in different parts of the body. This is achieved by means of *proprioceptors, which send impulses from muscles, joints, and tendons. Without this sense, coordinated movement would be impossible with the eyes closed.... kinaesthesia


n. an instrument for measuring a patient’s awareness of the muscular and joint movements of his own body: used during the investigation of nervous and muscular disorders and certain forms of brain damage.... kinaesthesiometer


n. inability to sense the positions and movements of parts of the body, with consequent disordered physical activity.... kinanaesthesia


n. 1. an agent that can convert the inactive form of an enzyme (see proenzyme) to the active form. 2. an enzyme that catalyses the transfer of phosphate groups. An example is *phosphofructokinase.... kinase


n. the study of motion and the forces required to produce it. This includes the different forces at work during the movement of a single part of the body, and more complex movements such as running and climbing.... kinematics


n. a method of amputation in which the muscles and tendons of the affected limb are arranged so that they can be integrated with a specially made artificial replacement. This enables direct movement of the artificial hand or limb by the muscles.

kinesis combining form denoting movement.... kineplasty


n. see centromere.... kinetochore

King–kopetzky Syndrome

see obscure auditory dysfunction.... king–kopetzky syndrome


n. one of a group of naturally occurring polypeptides that are powerful *vasodilators, which lower blood pressure, and cause contraction of smooth muscle. The kinins bradykinin and kallidin are formed in the blood by the action of proteolytic enzymes (kallikreins) on certain plasma globulins (kininogens). Kinins are not normally present in the blood, but are formed under certain conditions; for example when tissue is damaged or when there are changes in the pH and temperature of the blood. They are thought to play a role in inflammatory response.... kinin


killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors, which are present on the surface of *natural killer cells.... kirs


n. a protein that appears to have an important role in initiating secretion of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) at puberty.... kisspeptin

Klatskin Tumour

see cholangiocarcinoma. [G. Klatskin (20th century), US physician]... klatskin tumour

Klebs–loeffler Bacillus

see Corynebacterium. [T. Klebs (1834–1913) and F. A. J. Loeffler (1852–1915), German bacteriologists]... klebs–loeffler bacillus

Kleihauer–betke Test

a test to detect and measure fetal red blood cells in the maternal circulation of Rh-negative women who have *antepartum haemorrhage or have previously had a Rh-positive baby. It is used to calculate the correct dose of *anti-D immunoglobulin that will prevent *haemolytic disease of the newborn.... kleihauer–betke test

Kleine–levin Syndrome

a rare episodic disorder characterized by periods (usually of a few days or weeks), in which sufferers eat enormously, sleep for most of the day and night, and may become more dependent or aggressive than normal. Between episodes they are usually quite unaffected. The disorder almost always resolves spontaneously. [W. Kleine (20th century), German neuropsychiatrist; M. Levin (20th century), US neurologist]... kleine–levin syndrome


combining form denoting stealing.... klepto


n. see petrissage.... kneading

Knee-elbow Position

the buttocks-up position assumed by patients undergoing anorectal examinations, now commonly performed in the left lateral position. It is useful for helping patients dispel excess flatus following colonoscopy.... knee-elbow position

Knight’s-move Thinking

a form of *formal thought disorder, common in psychosis, in which connections between sentences or parts of sentences are without a coherent train of thought.... knight’s-move thinking

Kobberling–dunnigan Syndrome

see lipodystrophy.... kobberling–dunnigan syndrome

Kocher Manoeuvre

a method for *reduction of an anteriorly dislocated shoulder by manipulation. Longitudinal traction is applied to the elbow, pulling down the shoulder, then the forearm, bent at the elbow, is externally rotated to 90°. [E. T. Kocher (1841–1917), Swiss surgeon]... kocher manoeuvre

Kocher’s Incision

an oblique *incision made in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen just below and parallel to the costal margin. It is classically used for open *cholecystectomy. [E. T. Kocher]... kocher’s incision

Koch’s Bacillus

see Mycobacterium. [R. Koch (1843–1910), German bacteriologist]... koch’s bacillus

Koebner Phenomenon

(isomorphic response) a phenomenon that occurs in skin diseases, especially psoriasis and lichen planus, in which the characteristic lesions of the disease appear in linear form in response to such trauma as cuts, burns, or scratches. [H. Koebner (1834–1904), German dermatologist]... koebner phenomenon

Koeppe Nodule

a type of nodule occurring in the iris at the pupil margin in both granulomatous and nongranulomatous *uveitis. [L. Koeppe (20th century), German ophthalmologist]... koeppe nodule

Köhler’s Disease

osteonecrosis of the *navicular bone of the foot (see osteochondritis). It occurs in children aged 3–7 years, causing pain and limping, and is treated by strapping the foot, rest, and anti-inflammatory drugs. [A. Köhler (1874–1947), German physician]... köhler’s disease


n. a state of acute anxiety, seen especially in certain cultures (such as that of the Chinese of SE Asia), characterized by a sudden belief that the penis is shrinking into the abdomen and will disappear: the sufferer is often convinced that disappearance of the penis means death. Occasionally women have a similar belief that their breasts are disappearing into their body. It is usually treated with tranquillizing drugs and reassurance.... koro

Korsakoff’s Syndrome

an organic disorder affecting the brain that results in a memory defect in which new information fails to be learnt although events from the past are still recalled; *disorientation in time and place; and a tendency to unintentionally invent material to fill memory blanks (see confabulation). The commonest cause of the condition is untreated *Wernicke’s encephalopathy in the context of alcoholism. Large doses of thiamine are given as treatment. The condition often becomes chronic. [S. S. Korsakoff (1854–1900), Russian neurologist]... korsakoff’s syndrome

Kostmann’s Syndrome

(severe congenital neutropenia) a hereditary (autosomal *recessive) disorder characterized by severe *neutropenia. This results in frequent bacterial infections, and death often occurs before the age of six months.... kostmann’s syndrome


n. an important *oncogene for the causation of human lung and colorectal cancer.... kras


n. shrinking of a body part, usually the vulva in elderly women (kraurosis vulvae).... kraurosis

Krukenberg’s Spindle

a vertical linear deposit of brown pigment on the inner surface of the cornea (corneal endothelium), appearing in cases of pigment dispersion syndrome. [F. E. Krukenberg (1871–1946), German pathologist]... krukenberg’s spindle

Krukenberg Tumour

a rapidly developing malignant growth in one or (more often) both ovaries. It is caused by the *transcoelomic spread of a primary growth in the stomach or intestine, typically an adenocarcinoma. [F. E. Krukenberg]... krukenberg tumour


n. a radioactive gas that is the shortest-lived isotope in medical use (half-life 13 seconds). It can be used to investigate the *ventilation of the lungs. The patient breathes a small quantity of the gas, the arrival of which in different parts of the lungs is recorded by means of a *gamma camera. This is often performed as part of *ventilation-perfusion scanning to look for pulmonary emboli (clots in the lungs). See also rubidium-81.... krypton-81m

Kugelberg–wellander Disease

(juvenile spinal muscular atrophy) see spinal muscular atrophy. [E. Kugelberg and L. Wellander (20th century), Swedish neurologists]... kugelberg–wellander disease

Küntscher Nail

(K-nail) a metal rod that is inserted down the middle of the femur (thigh bone) to stabilize a transverse fracture of the shaft. [G. Küntscher (1902–72), German orthopaedic surgeon]... küntscher nail

Kussmaul Breathing

the slow deep respiration associated with acidosis. [A. Kussmaul (1822–1902), German physician]

kV symbol for *kilovolt.... kussmaul breathing

Kyasanur Forest Disease

a tropical disease, common in southern India, caused by a virus transmitted to humans through the bite of the forest-dwelling tick Haemaphysalis spinigera. Symptoms include fever, headache, muscular pains, vomiting, conjunctivitis, exhaustion, bleeding of nose and gums and, subsequently, internal bleeding and the *necrosis of various tissues. General therapy, in the absence of specific treatment, involves relief of dehydration and loss of blood; analgesics are given to alleviate pain.... kyasanur forest disease


n. an instrument for recording the flow and varying pressure of the blood within the blood vessels. —kymography n.... kymograph


combining form denoting a hump.... kypho


n. (in interventional radiology) a technique in which a collapsed high-tensile balloon is inserted into a fractured vertebra (a compression fracture) through a large-bore needle and inflated to restore the height of the vertebra. The balloon is then removed and the space is filled with bone cement.... kyphoplasty


n. a sharp posterior angulation of the spine due to localized collapse or wedging of one or more vertebrae. It results in the appearance of a hump on the back (a hunchback deformity). The cause may be a congenital defect, a fracture (which may or may not be pathological), or spinal tuberculosis.... kyphos

Mayer–rokitansky–küster–hauser Syndrome

(Rokitansky–Küster–Hauser syndrome, Müllerian agenesis) congenital absence of the uterus and upper part of the vagina due to failure of development of the *Müllerian duct. It may be associated with skeletal, renal, and auditory abnormalities, but usually presents with amenorrhoea in a patient with otherwise normal secondary sexual characteristics. There is a multidisciplinary approach to treatment, with psychological support, counselling, discussion of creation of a ‘neovagina’ with gradual use of vaginal dilators, and/or surgical vaginal reconstruction. Surrogacy is the only option for childbearing, although oocyte donation from the mother to a surrogate can be discussed. [K. W. Mayer (1795–1868), German gynaecologist; K. von Rokitansky (1804–78), Austrian pathologist; H. Küster and G. A. Hauser (20th century), German gynaecologists]... mayer–rokitansky–küster–hauser syndrome

Menkes Kinky-hair Disease

a genetic disorder characterized by severe learning disabilities, seizures, poor vision, colourless fragile hair, and chubby red cheeks. It is inherited as an X-linked (see sex-linked) recessive characteristic. There is no treatment and affected infants usually die before the age of three. [J. H. Menkes (1928–2008), US neurologist]... menkes kinky-hair disease

Myeloma Kidney

see cast nephropathy.... myeloma kidney

Natural Killer Cell

(NK cell) a type of *lymphocyte that is able to kill virus-infected cells and cancerous cells and mediates rejection of bone-marrow grafts. NK cells are a part of natural (or innate) *immunity. Their function is regulated by a balance between activating receptors, which recognize proteins on cancerous or virus-infected cells, and inhibitory receptors specific for certain molecules encoded by the *HLA system.... natural killer cell

Phototherapeutic Keratectomy

see keratectomy.... phototherapeutic keratectomy

Protein Kinase

an enzyme that catalyses the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to a specific amino acid residue of an intracellular protein (usually serine, threonine, or tyrosine), thereby affecting the biological activity of the protein. Protein kinase inhibitors are drugs that block the action of protein kinases in tumour cells and are used in the treatment of cancer. They include *sorafenib, *sunitinib, and *temsirolimus. See also tyrosine kinase inhibitor.... protein kinase

Radial Keratotomy

an operation for short-sightedness (myopia). Deep cuts into the tissue of the cornea are placed radially around the outer two-thirds of the cornea; this flattens the curvature of the central part of the cornea and reduces the myopia. This procedure is now rarely performed, having been superseded by *excimer laser treatment.... radial keratotomy

Rokitansky–küster–hauser Syndrome

see Mayer–Rokitansky–Küster–Hauser syndrome.... rokitansky–küster–hauser syndrome

Polycystic Disease Of The Kidneys

either of two inherited disorders in which renal cysts are a common feature. Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD) occurs in about 1 in 20,000 live births. It is due to a single mutation on chromosome 6 for the gene encoding the protein fibrocystin. The majority of cases are diagnosed before or at birth. The most severely affected fetuses have enlarged kidneys and *oligohydramnios due to poor fetal renal output. These fetuses develop the ‘Potter’ phenotype with characteristic facies, pulmonary hypoplasia, and deformities of the spine and limbs. Those surviving the neonatal period (50–70%) develop varying degrees of renal impairment but this may not proceed to end-stage until early adulthood.

Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) affects between 1 in 400 and 1 in 1000 individuals and is one of the most common hereditary diseases. Two types have been defined. ADPKD 1 is the commonest and responsible for about 85% of cases. It is due to a mutation in the PKD1 gene on chromosome 16, which encodes polycystin 1, an *ion-channel-regulating protein. ADPKD2 is due to a mutation in the PKD2 gene on chromosome 4, which encodes the protein polycystin 2, a calcium-release channel. ADPKD2 tends to be a milder disease with later presentation.

ADPKD is a multisystem disorder that is also associated with cyst formation in other organs (particularly the liver), cardiovascular disorders, and colonic diverticular disease. Renal disease presents in early adult life with haematuria, loin pain, urinary tract infection, hypertension, renal stone disease, or the finding of a mass in the abdomen. Other cases are identified by family contact tracing; the findings of a few cysts on renal ultrasonography in a young adult with a family history of ADPKD is highly suggestive of the disease. Renal disease is progressive and about 50% of patients will have reached end-stage by the time they enter their seventh decade. The progress of the renal failure can be slowed by good blood pressure control. In the UK, patients with ADPKD are responsible for 5–10% of the total on renal replacement therapy.

There are a number of separate rare autosomal dominant conditions other than ADPKD1 and ADPKD 2 that can present with polycystic kidneys. These include *von Hippel-Lindau disease and *tuberous sclerosis.... polycystic disease of the kidneys

Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor

any one of a class of drugs that interfere with cell growth in a variety of different ways by inhibiting the action of tyrosine kinases. This family of enzymes, which occur both within cells and as components of cell-membrane receptor sites, have an important role in cell division and cell growth. Many tumour cells have been shown to have both intracellular enzymes and extracellular receptor sites, and a variety of anticancer agents have been developed to inhibit enzyme activity at these sites. Among these drugs are *imatinib, dasatinib, and nilotinib, used for treating chronic myeloid leukaemia; *sunitinib, for treating renal cell carcinoma; and erlotinib, for treating pancreatic cancer and non-small-cell lung cancer. See also epidermal growth factor receptor.... tyrosine kinase inhibitor

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