The meaning of the symbols of dreams/ seen in a dream.


Yellowing of the skin and other tissues caused by the presence of bile pigments... jaundice


Juniperus species

Description: Junipers, sometimes called cedars, are trees or shrubs with very small, scalelike leaves densely crowded around the branches. Each leaf is less than 1.2 centimeters long. All species have a distinct aroma resembling the well-known cedar. The berrylike cones are usually blue and covered with a whitish wax.

Habitat and Distribution: Look for junipers in open, dry, sunny areas throughout North America and northern Europe. Some species are found in southeastern Europe, across Asia to Japan, and in the mountains of North Africa.

Edible Parts: The berries and twigs are edible. Eat the berries raw or roast the seeds to use as a coffee substitute. Use dried and crushed berries as a seasoning for meat. Gather young twigs to make a tea.


Many plants may be called cedars but are not related to junipers and may be harmful. Always look for the berrylike structures, needle leaves, and resinous, fragrant sap to be sure the plant you have is a juniper.... juniper


(Persian) Resembling the climbing plant with fragrant flowers Jaslyn, Jaslynn, Jasmeen, Jasmin, Jasmina, Jasminda, Jasmyn, Jasmyne, Jassamayn, Jazan, Jazmin, Jazmine, Jazmon, Jazmyn, Jazmyne, Jazzmin, Jazzmine, Jazzmon, Jazzmyn, Jazzmynn, Jasmyna, Jessamine, Jessamy, Jessamyn, Jasmeena, Jessimine, Jessimine... jasmine


Part of the small INTESTINE.... jejunum


The unit of energy in the International System of Units. The o?cial abbreviation is J. 4,186·8 J = 1 CALORIE (or kilocalorie). (See also BRITISH THERMAL UNIT (BTU); WEIGHTS AND MEASURES.)... joule


See SLEEP.... dreams


The joint formed by the head of the thigh bone and the deep, cup-shaped hollow on the side of the pelvis which receives it (acetabulum). The joint is of the ball-and-socket variety, is dislocated only by very great violence, and is correspondingly di?cult to reduce to its natural state after dislocation. It is enclosed by a capsule of ?brous tissue, strengthened by several bands, of which the principal is the ilio-femoral or Y-shaped ligament placed in front of the joint. A round ligament also unites the head of the thigh bone to the margin of the acetabulum.

For hip-joint disease, see under JOINTS, DISEASES OF.... hip-joint


A sudden involuntary movement. The term is often used to describe the tendon re?exes.... jerk

Joint Replacement

See ARTHROPLASTY.... joint replacement


Jugular is a general name for any structure in the neck, but is especially applied to three large veins, the anterior, external and internal jugular veins, which convey blood from the head and neck regions to the interior of the chest.... jugular


(English) One who upholds moral rightness and fairness Justyce, Justiss, Justyss, Justis, Justus, Justise... justice

Knee Jerk

See REFLEX ACTION.... knee jerk

Knee-joint Replacement

A surgical operation to replace a diseased – usually osteoarthritic – KNEE with an arti?cial (metal or plastic) implant which covers the worn cartilage. As much of the original joint as possible is retained. The operations, like hip replacements, are usually done on older people (there is some restriction of movement) and about 90 per cent are successful.... knee-joint replacement

Neuromuscular Junction

The area where a motor NERVE ends close to the MUSCLE membrane so can initiate muscle contraction. The motor-nerve ending is separated from the motor end plate by the synaptic cleft which is only 50–70 nm wide. When a nerve impulse arrives at the motor-nerve ending, molecules of ACETYLCHOLINE are released which cross the synaptic cleft and attach to receptors on the motor end plate. This initiates depolarisation of the muscle which in turn initiates the process of contraction. Acetylcholinesterase (an ENZYME) rapidly breaks down the molecules of acetylcholine, thus ending their action and freeing the receptor in preparation for the next impulse.... neuromuscular junction

Sacroiliac Joint

One of a pair of joints between each side of the SACRUM and each ILIUM. Strong ligaments between the ilium and the sacrum stabilise the joint, permitting little movement. Childbirth or strenuous sporting activities may strain the joint, causing pain in the lower part of the back and buttocks. Such strains may take a long time to mend; PHYSIOTHERAPY is the treatment. The joint(s) may become in?amed (see SACROILEITIS).... sacroiliac joint

St John’s Wort

A herbal remedy which has achieved popularity as a treatment for mild depression. It may, however, induce the production of enzymes (see ENZYME) that metabolise drugs, and several important interactions have been identi?ed which may result in unwanted side-effects, even when treatment with St John’s Wort is stopped.... st john’s wort

Ziziphus Jujuba

(Lam.) Gaertn. non-Mill.

Synonym: Z. mauritiana Lam. Rhamnus jujuba L.

Family: Rhamnaceae.

Habitat: Throughout India and in the outer Himalayas up to 1,350 m.

English: Indian Jujube, Common Jujube.

Ayurvedic: Badar, Kola.

Unani: Ber.

Siddha: Handai.

Action: Fruits—wild var.: astringent, anodyne, cooling, stomachic, styptic. Ripe and dry cultivated var.: mild laxative, expectorant. Seeds—antidiarrhoeal. Kernels— antispasmodic, sedative, antiemetic. Leaves—astringent and diaphoretic. Stem bark—astringent, used in diarrhoea. Root bark—juice purgative, externally applied to rheumatic inflammations and gout. Leaves and twigs—paste applied to abscesses, boils and carbuncles and in strangury.

Leaves gave protopine and berberine; exhibited anticholinergic activity. Fruits gave cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP, Sisyphus saponins I, II and III; jujubo- side B and p-coumaroylates of alphi- tolic acid. Seeds gave saponins—juju- bosides A and B; the saponin yields the sapogenin—jujubogenin.

A variety grown in Haryana (Naazu- ka) contains sugars 10.5% and ascorbic acid 205 mg/100 g.

Dosage: Dried fruit pulp, devoid of seed—3-6 g; stem bark—3- 5 g powder, 10-20 g for decoction. (API, Vol. III.)... ziziphus jujuba

Charcot’s Joint

A joint that is repeatedly damaged by injuries that have gone unnoticed because of loss of sensation in the joint (see neuropathic joint).... charcot’s joint

Jejunal Biopsy

A diagnostic test in which a small piece of tissue is removed from the lining of the jejunum for microscopic examination.

It is especially useful in the diagnosis of Crohn’s disease, coeliac disease, lymphoma, and other causes of malabsorption.

The biopsy is taken using an endoscope passed down the throat into the small intestine, via the stomach.... jejunal biopsy


An alternative name for a chigoe or sand flea.... jigger

Jugular Vein

One of 3 veins on each side of the neck that return deoxygenated blood from the head to the heart. The internal jugular, the largest of the 3 (internal, external, and anterior), arises at the base of the skull, travels down the neck alongside the carotid arteries, and passes behind the clavicle, where it joins the subclavian vein (the large vein that drains blood from the arms).... jugular vein

Temporomandibular Joint

The joint between the mandible (lower jaw bone) and the skull.... temporomandibular joint

Temporomandibular Joint Syndrome

Pain and other symptoms affecting the head, jaw, and face, thought to result when the temporomandibular joints and the muscles and ligaments attached to them do not work together correctly. Causes include spasm of the chewing muscles, an incorrect bite (see malocclusion), jaw, head, or neck injuries, or osteoarthritis. Common symptoms include headaches, tenderness of the jaw muscles, and aching facial pain. Treatment involves correction of any underlying abnormality, analgesic drugs, and, in some cases, injection of corticosteroid drugs into the joint.... temporomandibular joint syndrome

Aerva Javanica

(Burm. f.) Juss. ex Schult.

Synonym: A. persica (Burm.f.) Merill

A. tomentosa Frosk

Family: Amaranthaceae.

Habitat: Punjab, Central and Peninsular India.

English: Javanese Wool Plant.

Siddha/Tamil: Perumpoolai.

Folk: Dholphuli, Khul. Paashaanab- heda (southern India).

Action: Anti-inflammatory, diuretic, anticalculus, insecticidal. Wooly seeds are used against rheumatism.

The plant extract contains ascorbic acid, kaempferol, beta-amyrin and beta-sitosterol. The leaves also contain sitosterol and its glucoside.... aerva javanica

Artichoke, Jerusalem


Nutritional Profile Energy value (calories per serving): Low Protein: Moderate Fat: Low Saturated fat: Low Cholesterol: None Carbohydrates: High Fiber: High Sodium: Moderate Major vitamin contribution: Folate, vitamin C Major mineral contribution: Potassium

About the Nutrients in This Food Jerusalem artichokes are the edible roots of a plant related to the American sunflower. They store carbohydrates as inulin, a complex carbohydrate (starch) made of units of fruit sugar (fructose). Right after the Jerusalem artichoke is dug up, it tastes bland and starchy. After it has been stored for a while, the starches turn to sugars, so the artichoke tastes sweet. Jerusalem artichokes are high in fiber with the B vitamin folate, vitamin C, and iron. One-half cup raw sliced Jerusalem artichoke has one gram dietary fiber, 10 mcg folate (2.5 percent of the adult R DA), 3 mcg vitamin C (4 percent of the R DA for a woman, 3 percent of the R DA for a man), and 2.5 mg iron (14 percent of the R DA for a woman, 32 percent of the R DA for a man).

The Most Nutritious Way to Serve This Food Sliced and served raw in salads or cooked as a vegetable side dish.

Diets That May Restrict or Exclude This Food Low-sodium diet

Buying This Food Look for: Firm clean roots with no soft or bruised patches.

Storing This Food Refrigerate Jerusalem artichokes in plastic bags, covered containers or the vegetable crisper to protect their moisture and keep them fresh.

Preparing This Food When you slice a Jerusalem artichoke, you tear cell walls, releasing polyphenoloxidase, an enzyme that converts phenols to brown compounds that darken the flesh. You can slow the reaction (but not stop it completely) by painting the cut surface with a solution of lemon juice or vinegar and water.

What Happens When You Cook This Food In cooking, the starch granules in the Jerusalem artichoke absorb water, swell, and eventu- ally rupture, softening the root and releasing the nutrients inside.

Adverse Effects Associated with This Food Some people are unable to properly digest inulin, the carbohydrate in the Jerusalem arti- choke. For them, eating this tuber raw may cause painful gas. Cooking breaks down inulin and improves digestibility.... artichoke, jerusalem

Artificial Joints

See ARTHROPLASTY.... artificial joints


Colloquial term used by most Australians to refer to Chironex fleckeri, but which actually includes every species of the Class Cubozoa.... box-jellyfish

Brassica Juncea

(Linn.) Czern. & Coss.

Family: Cruciferae; Brassicaceae.

Habitat: Cultivated in Punjab, West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh and Gujarat.

English: Chinese Mustard, Brown Mustard.

Ayurvedic: Raajikaa, Aasuri Raai, Tikshnagandhaa.

Siddha/Tamil: Kadugu.

Folk: Raai

Action: Raai is a substitute for Mustard. Antidysenteric, stomachic, diaphoretic, anthelmintic. Increases pancreatic secretions. A decoction of seeds is given in indigestion, cough. Used externally as a counter-irritant in several complaints of nervous systems.... brassica juncea

Charcot’s Joint

Named after a 19th-century French physician, this condition presents as a painless swelling and disorganisation of the joints resulting from damage to the pain ?bres that occurs in diabetic neuropathy (see DIABETES MELLITUS – Complications), LEPROSY, SYRINGOMYELIA and syphylitic infection of the spinal cord (see SYPHILIS).... charcot’s joint

Daemonorops Jenkinsianus


Synonym: Calamus jenkinsianus Griff.

Family: Palmae; Aracaceae.

Habitat: Assam, Khasi Hills and Sikkim.

Ayurvedic: Vetra (related species of Calamus tenuis Roxb.)

Action: Used as a vegetable for oedema, also in intrinsic haemorrhage.... daemonorops jenkinsianus

Farsetia Jacquemontii

Hook. f. Thoms.

Family: Cruciferae; Brassicaceae.

Habitat: Rajasthan and Northwestern parts of India.

Folk: Farid-booti.

Action: Antirheumatic.... farsetia jacquemontii

Fire Jelly

See Morbakka.... fire jelly

Hair Jellyfish

The Australian colloquial term for Cyanea - also known as Lion’s Mane in many other countries.... hair jellyfish

Ceropegia Juncea


Family: Asclepiadaceae.

Habitat: Peninsular India.

Folk: Kanvel (Maharashtra). Bella- gada (Telugu, Andhra Pradesh). (Soma is a disputed synonym)

Action: The plant extract exhibits tranquilizing, hypotensive, hepa- toprotective, antiulcer, antipyretic, topically anaesthetic activities in experimental animals.

A pyridine alkaloid, cerpegin, together with a triterpene, lupeol has been isolated from the plant from Tiruneveli, Tamil Nadu.... ceropegia juncea

Coix Lacryma-jobi


Synonym: C. lachryma Linn.

Family: Gramineae; Poaceae.

Habitat: Warm and damp areas up to about 2,000 m, both wild and cultivated as an annual grass.

English: Job's Tears.

Ayurvedic: Gavedhukaa.

Siddha/Tamil: Kaatu Kunthumani.

Folk: Garaheduaa, Gargari.

Action: Fruits—a decoction is used for catarrhal affections of the air passage and inflammation of the urinary tract. Seed— diuretic. Root—used in menstrual disorders. Leaves—used as a drink for inducing fertility in women.

The seeds contain trans-ferulyl stig- mastanol and trans-ferulyl campes- tanol, which form part of an ovulation- inducing drug. Seed extract—immu- no-enhancer, used for the prevention of cancer and infections. Seeds exhibit anti-tumour and anticomplimenta- ry activities. Seeds contain coixeno- lides, a mixed ester of palmitoleic and vaccenic acids, which is an anticancer agent.

The bigger var. of the grass is equated with Coix gigantea Koenig ex Roxb., also known as Gavedhukaa and Gar- gari.... coix lacryma-jobi

Common Jujube

Ziziphus jujuba

Description: The common jujube is either a deciduous tree growing to a height of 12 meters or a large shrub, depending upon where it grows and how much water is available for growth. Its branches are usually spiny. Its reddish-brown to yellowish- green fruit is oblong to ovoid, 3 centimeters or less in diameter, smooth, and sweet in flavor, but has rather dry pulp around a comparatively large stone. Its flowers are green.

Habitat and Distribution: The jujube is found in forested areas of temperate regions and in desert scrub and waste areas worldwide. It is common in many of the tropical and subtropical areas of the Old World. In Africa, it is found mainly bordering the Mediterranean. In Asia, it is especially common in the drier parts of India and China. The jujube is also found throughout the East Indies. It can be found bordering some desert areas.

Edible Parts: The pulp, crushed in water, makes a refreshing beverage. If time permits, you can dry the ripe fruit in the sun like dates. Its fruits are high in vitamins A and C.... common jujube

Creutzfeldt-jakob Disease (cjd)

A rapidly progressive, fatal, degenerative disease in humans caused by an abnormal PRION protein. There are three aetiological forms of CJD: sporadic, IATROGENIC, and inherited. Sporadic CJD occurs randomly in all countries and has an annual incidence of one per million. Iatrogenic CJD is caused by accidental exposure to human prions through medical and surgical procedures (and cannibalism in the case of the human prion disease known as kuru that occurs in a tribe in New Guinea, where it is called the trembling disease). Inherited or familial CJD accounts for 15 per cent of human prion disease and is caused by a MUTATION in the prion protein gene. In recent years a new variant of CJD has been identi?ed that is caused by BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY (BSE), called variant CJD. The incubation period for the acquired varieties ranges from four years to 40 years, with an average of 10–15 years. The symptoms of CJD are dementia, seizures, focal signs in the central nervous system, MYOCLONUS, and visual disturbances.

Abnormal prion proteins accumulate in the brain and the spinal cord, damaging neurones (see NEURON(E)) and producing small cavities. Diagnosis can be made by tonsil (see TONSILS) biopsy, although work is under way to develop a diagnostic blood test. Abnormal prion proteins are unusually resistant to inactivation by chemicals, heat, X-RAYS or ULTRAVIOLET RAYS (UVR). They are resistant to cellular degradation and can convert normal prion proteins into abnormal forms. Human prion diseases, along with scrapie in sheep and BSE in cattle, belong to a group of disorders known as transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. Abnormal prion proteins can transfer from one animal species to another, and variant CJD has occurred as a result of consumption of meat from cattle infected with BSE.

From 1995 to 1999, a scienti?c study of tonsils and appendixes removed at operation suggested that the prevalence of prion carriage may be as high as 120 per million. It is not known what percentage of these might go on to develop disease.

One precaution is that, since 2003, all surgical instruments used in brain biopsies have had to be quarantined and disposable instruments are now used in tonsillectomy.

Measures have also been introduced to reduce the risk of transmission of CJD from transfusion of blood products.

In the past, CJD has also been acquired from intramuscular injections of human cadaveric pituitary-derived growth hormone and corneal transplantation.

The most common form of CJD remains the sporadic variety, although the eventual incidence of variant CJD may not be known for many years.... creutzfeldt-jakob disease (cjd)

High John The Conqueror

Money, Love, Success, Happiness ... high john the conqueror


(Finnish) Feminine form of Jukka; God is gracious

Jakkina, Jaakkinah, Jaakina, Jakina, Jakyna, Jakeena, Jadeana... jaakkina

Crotalaria Juncea


Family: Papilionaceae; Fabaceae.

Habitat: Throughout the plains of India, especially in South India.

English: Sun Hemp.

Ayurvedic: Shana, Shanapushpi, Malyapushpa.

Unani: Sunn.

Siddha/Tamil: Sanal, Manji, Sannappu.

Folk: Jhanjhaniaa.

Action: Leaf—demulcent, purgative, emetic, emmenagogue, abortifa- cient, ant-implantation. Given in diarrhoea, dysentery and bleeding disorders. Seeds—used in psoriasis and impetigo.

Seeds—hepatotoxic. Seed oil gave fatty acids—linoleic, linolenic and oleic.

Pyrrolizidine alkaloids—junceine, tricodesmine, riddelline, seneciphyl- line and senecionine were also obtained.

Dosage: Seed—1-3 g powder. (API Vol. III.)... crotalaria juncea

Cymbopogon Jwarancusa

(Jones) Schult.

Synonym: Andropogon jwarancusa Jones.

Family: Poaceae.

Habitat: Himalayas from Kashmir to Assam, ascending up to more than 300 m and in the north-western plains.

Ayurvedic: Bhuutikaa, Laamajja- ka, Laamajja. (Subs. Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash.)

Unani: Izkhar.

Action: Blood purifier, bechic, anticholerin, emmenagogue, febrifuge, antirheumatic (also used in gout). Flower—styptic. Essential oil—antimicrobial.

Major constituent of the essential oil is piperitone (64.7%) others include borneol, cadinene, camphene, camphor, farnesene, geraniol, alpha-and beta-pinene. The antibacterial activity is attributed to piperitone.... cymbopogon jwarancusa

Eriobotrya Japonica


Family Rosaceae.

Habitat: Native to China; now cultivated mainly in Saharanpur, Dehradun, Muzaffarnagar, Meerut, Kanpur, Bareilly districts of Uttar Pradesh, Amritsar, Gurdaspur and Hoshiarpur districts of Punjab.

English: Loquat, Japanese Medlar.

Ayurvedic: Lottaaka (non-classical).

Unani: Lokaat.

Siddha: Ilakotta, Nokkotta (Tamil).

Action: Leaves—used in China and India for the treatment of diabetes mellitus and skin diseases. Fruit— sedative, antiemetic. Flower— expectorant.

The plant contains lipopolysaccha- rides (LPS), which exhibit antirheu- matic activity. LPS is also found useful for treating diabetes mellitus and lowering high cholesterol level. The ethanolic extract of the leaves showed anti-inflammatory activity on carra- geenan-induced oedema in rats and significant hypoglycaemic effect in normal rabbits like the standard drug tolbutamide. The sesquiterpene gly- coside and polyhydroxylated triterpe- noids showed a marked inhibition of glycosuria in genetically diabetic mice; also reduced blood glucose level in nor- moglycaemic rats. The hypoglycaemic effect is mediated through the release of insulin from pancreatic beta cells.

The leaves gave ionone-derived gly- cosides and triterpenes. Maslinic and ursolic acids have also been isolated. Maslinic acid possesses significant anti-inflammatory activity. It also exhibits inhibitory effect on histamine- induced contraction in isolated ileum of guinea pig.

Hot aqueous extract of the leaves showed hepatoprotective activity experimentally.

The leaves yield an essential oil containing nerolidol (61-74%).

The presence of an antifungal compound, eriobofuran, is also reported.

The methanolic extract of the plant exhibits antioxidant and radical scavenging activity.... eriobotrya japonica

Ferula Jaeschkeana


Family: Umbelliferae; Apiaceae.

Habitat: Jammu and Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh from 2,000 to 4,000 m.

Ayurvedic: Hingupatri.

Action: Abortifacient, antiimplantation. Being investigated as a potential contraceptive. A related species, F. silphion, was used in ancient Rome as a contraceptive.

The oil extracted from the leaves possesses mycotoxic property against dermatophytes, Trichophyton sp.

The ethanolic extract of the aerial parts produced dilation and congestion and hypertrophy in liver in rats.

The roots contain sesquiterpenoids. A coumarin, ferujol, isolated from the rhizome, showed abortifacient and anti-implantation activity at a single dose of 0.6 mg/kg in rats by oral administration in a suspension of gum acacia. The essential oil shows antimy- cotic activity.

Action: Resin—less strong than asafoetida; used in the same way as asafoetida and galbanum. Used in Middle East for rheumatic affections and backache.... ferula jaeschkeana


(Hebrew) Resembling a she-goat of the wild Jaalah... jaala


(Hebrew) A gift from heaven Jantje... jaantje


(Hebrew) One who makes goods; a fabricator... jaasau


(Arabic) Woman with a high forehead

Jabmin, Jabman, Jabmon, Jabmun... jabmen

Jabón De Cuaba

Pine tar soap, particularly from the Caribbean pine; used as an external treatment in home remedies.... jabón de cuaba


(Latin) Resembling the tree with purple flowers

Jacarannda, Jacarranda, Jacarandah, Jacarandia, Jacarandea, Jakaranda, Jackaranda... jacaranda


(American) Form of Jacinda, meaning “resembling the hyacinth” Jacee, Jacelyn, Jaci, Jacine, Jacy, Jaicee, Jaycee, Jacie, Jaycey, Jaycie, Jayci, J.C., Jacea, Jaycea... jacey

Flacourtia Jangomas

(Lour.) Raeusch.

Synonym: F. cataphracta Roxb.

Family: Flacourtiaceae.

Habitat: Bengal, Assam, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh and Eastern Ghats.

English: Puneala Plum.

Ayurvedic: Praachinaamalaka, Paaniyaamalaka. (Taalispatri (Hindi), Taalispatra (Gujarati), Taalisam (Malyalaam), Taalispatramu (Tel- ugu) are confusing synonyms of Paaniyaamalaka.)

Unani: Taalisfar, Nabaq Hindi, Zarnab. In National Formulary of Unani Medicine, Zarnab, synonym Telispattar, is equated with F. catapracta, also with Cinnamonum tamala Nees. (Zarnab is also equated with Salix aegyptiaca Sprengel and Taalisfar with Rhododendron anthapogon D. Don or R. lipidotum by Unani scholars.)

Siddha/Tamil: Saralu, Vayangarai.

Folk: Paniyaalaa (Bihar).

Action: Leaves—astringent, antidiarrhoeal, stomachic. Used in chronic bronchitis. Fruit—used in affections of the liver. Bark and fruit—antibilious. Infusion of bark is used as a gargle. Fruits contain (dry basis) protein 3.9%; vitamin C 218, Ca 175, K 158, P 147, Fe 118, Mg 57 mg/100 g. The fruit stem bark and bark yielded a coumarin, ostruthin, and limonoids, jangomolide and limonin.

(Taalisha, Taalisam, Taalisapatri, Taalisapatra—all the synonyms are now equated with Abies spectabilis (D. Don) Spach., synonym A. webbiana Lindl., Pinus webbiana Wall.)... flacourtia jangomas

Gardenia Jasminoides


Synonym: G. florida Linn. G. augusta Merrill.

Family: Rubiaceae.

Habitat: Native to China and Japan; cultivated in Indian gardens.

English: Cape Jasmine.

Ayurvedic: Gandharaaja.

Siddha/Tamil: Karinga.

Action: Plant—cathartic, antispasmodic, anthelmintic, antiperiodic. Root—antidysenteric. Also used in dyspepsia and nervous disorders. Fruits—used in gastric hyperacidity, constipation, cholestasis, internally and externally for inflammation and as a tranquilizer.

The plant contains iridoid glycosides—geniposide 56.03, genipin 1.72, gardenoside 2.16 and geniposidic acid 1.79 mg/g The stem and root contain oleanolic acid, D-mannitol and stig- masterol. The leaves contain an anti- fungal compound, cerbinal.

Geniposide is an important active principle of the fruit. The fruit also contain the carotenoids, crocin and crocetin. Aqueous and methonalic extracts of the fruit exhibited antioxidant activity due to the presence of geniposide and crocin; crocin was more potent than geniposide.

The extract as well as geniposide caused a remarkable decrease in GOT, GPT and ALP activities. They also produced a significant decrease in the level of total cholesterol in the serum of CCl4-induced and D-galactosamine- intoxicated rats. The crude extract as well as geniposide exhibited protective effect against induced hyperbiliru- binemia by effectively lowering serum bilirubin.... gardenia jasminoides

Hydrocotyle Javanica


Family: Umbelliferae; Apiaceae.

Habitat: The Himalayas, Khasi Hills and Western Ghats.

Ayurvedic: Manduukaparni (related species).

Folk: Brahma-manduuki (Sikkim).

Action: Used as a substitute for Centella asiatica, as a blood purifier (in cutaneous diseases); for indigestion, dysentery and nervousness.

The plant is used for treating leuco- derma.

Hydrocotyle rotundifolia Roxb. (throughout India, up to 2,350 m) is also equated with Manduukaparni.... hydrocotyle javanica

Ixora Javanica

(Blume) DC.

Family: Rubiaceae.

Habitat: Gardens of Kerala and West Bengal.

Action: Leaves, flowers—cytotoxic, antitumour.

The ethanolic, extract of leaves showed cytotoxic activity against Dal- ton's lymphoma, Ehrlich ascites carcinoma and Sarcoma 180 tumour cells in vitro. The flowers have been found to contain antitumour principles, active against experimentally induced tumour models.

Jacaranda acutifolia auct. non-Humb. & Bonpl.

Synonym: J. mimosifolia D. Don J. ovalifolia R. Br.

Family: Bignoniaceae.

Habitat: Cultivated in Indian gardens.

Folk: Nili-gulmohar.

Action: Leaves' volatile oil—applied to buboes. Leaves and bark of the plant—used for syphilis and blennorrhagia. An infusion of the bark is employed as a lotion for ulcers.

The leaves contain jacaranone, ver- bascoside and phenylacetic-beta-glu- coside along with a glucose ester, jaca- ranose. Flavonoid scutellarein and its 7-glucuronide, and hydroquinones were also isolated. Fruits contain beta- sitosterol, ursolic acid and hentriacon- tane; stem bark gave lupenone and beta-sitosterol.

The flowers contain an anthocyanin. In Pakistan, the flowers are sold as a substitute for the Unani herb Gul-e- Gaozabaan.

The lyophylized aqueous extract of the stem showed a high and broad antimicrobial activity against human urinary tract bacteria, especially Pseudomonas sp.

The fatty acid, jacarandic acid, isolated from the seed oil, was found to be a strong inhibitor of prostaglandin biosynthesis in sheep.

J. rhombifolia G. F. W. May., syn. J. filicifolia D. Don is grown in Indian gardens. Extracts of the plant show insecticidal properties.

Several species of Jacaranda are used for syphilis in Brazil and other parts of South America under the names carobin, carabinha etc. A crystalline substance, carobin, besides resins, acids and caroba balsam, has been isolated from them.... ixora javanica


(Hebrew) Woman of sorrow; one who mourns

Jachane, Jachana, Jachanne, Jachann, Jachanna... jachan

Hojicha Tea - A Different Japanese Green Tea

Hojicha tea is a type of Japanese green tea which is made from the sun-grown Japanese green tea known as bancha, harvested from the tea plant later in the season.Hojicha tea is roasted in a porcelain pot over charcoal at a high temperature, fact that alters the leaf color from green to reddish-brown. Hojicha tea has been certified as organic by the government of Japan. Brewing Hojicha tea There are many ways of preparing Hojicha tea, depending on each and other person’s taste. For example, shorter infusions of Hojicha tea may produce a fresh flavor, while longer infusions are more developed and have a “nuttier” taste. For starters, heat the the teapot with boiling water. The heat of the water is the one that brings out the aroma of Hojicha tea, so it shouldn’t be boiled at more than 180°F (80 degrees Celsius). The next step is adding the tea inside the teapot, one tablespoon of tea for each serving, when the water has just boiled. Then, depending on the flavor that you want, let it steep between 30 - 90 seconds.  In the end, pour the tea into a cup, making sure to use all the water in the teapot. Hojicha tea is usually served after the evening meal or before bed since it has lower caffeine content than other green teas. Components of Hojicha tea The main components of Hojicha tea are, like most green teas, tannin, caffeine, theanine (which is an amino acid) and Vitamin C.  Hojicha tea is known for the low amounts of caffeine and tannin (less astringency), fact that makes the tea easier to drink in the evening and it is also more suitable for children and elders.  Since it lacks in caffeine, some people even drinkHojicha tea to replace coffee, or before bed for a deep and calm sleep. Hojicha tea benefits Hojicha tea has a lot of health benefits, even though the same process that removes the caffeine also reduces the antioxidants. Due to the fact that Hojicha tea is actually a green tea, it basically presents the same benefits as any other green tea:
  • Hojicha tea helps fighting against diseases caused by viruses or bacteria and strengthens the immune system.
  • Hojicha tea helps protect against cardiovascular diseases, tumors and it’s also an important element when it comes to cancer prevention.
  • Hojicha tea is a strong allied in the process of weight loss.
  • Hojicha tea gives an overall well-being and helps you relax.
 Hojicha tea side effects Hojicha tea, because of the low caffeine, tannin and theanine content doesn’t actually present any particular side effects. However, being a green tea you should be aware of the following side effects that may appear if it is not consumed properly:
  • You should not drinkHojicha tea when you are pregnant or breastfeeding.
  • If you suffer from anemia or iron deficiency. According to some studies, green tea extract reduces the absorption of iron by 25%.
  • It is advised not to drink green tea on an empty stomach since it could cause liver damage.
  • Avoid green tea if you have kidney disorders or stomach ulcers.
All in all, try not to drink more than 6 cups a day of Hojicha green tea. If you are a green tea drinker or if you just want to try a different tea taste, besides the herbal flavor that most green teas have, you should not miss Hojicha tea. The components of Hojicha tea helps improve your immune system and, generally, keeps you healthy. It’s perfect for cold winter days!  ... hojicha tea - a different japanese green tea


(Spanish) Resembling the hyacinth Jacenda, Jacenia, Jacenta, Jacindia, Jacinna, Jacinta, Jacinth, Jacintha, Jacinthe, Jacinthia, Jacynth, Jacyntha, Jacynthe, Jacynthia, Jakinda, Jakinta, Jaikinda, Jaekinda... jacinda

Jacksonian Epilepsy

See EPILEPSY.... jacksonian epilepsy


(Hebrew) Feminine form of Jacob; she who supplants

Jacobetta, Jacobette, Jacobine, Jacobyna, Jakobina, Jakoba, Jakobetta, Jakobette, Jakobine, Jakobyna, Jacobyne, Jackoba, Jackobine, Jackobina, Jackobyne, Jackobyna, Jakobe, Jakobie... jacoba


(French) Feminine form of Jacques; the supplanter Jacalin, Jacalyn, Jacalynn, Jackalin, Jackalinne, Jackelyn, Jacketta, Jackette, Jacki, Jackie, Jacklin, Jacklyn, Jacklynne, Jackqueline, Jacky, Jaclin, Jaclyn, Jacolyn, Jacqi, Jacqlyn, Jacqualine, Jacqualyn, Jacquel, Jacquelean, Jacqueleen, Jacquelin, Jacquelina, Jacquella, Jacquelle, Jacquelyn, Jacquelyne, Jacquelynn, Jacquelynne, Jacquenetta, Jacquenette, Jacquetta, Jacquette, Jacqui, Jacquine, Jaculine, Jakleen, Jaklyn, Jaquelin, Jaqueline, Jaquelyn, Jaquelynn, Jaquith, Jaquenetta, Jaquetta... jacqueline


(Hebrew) One who is well-known Jadduah, Jadua, Jaduah... jaddua


(Spanish) Resembling the green gemstone Jada, Jadeana, Jadee, Jadine, Jadira, Jadrian, Jadrienne, Jady, Jaeda, Jaida, Jaide, Jayda, Jayde, Jaydee, Jadea, Jaydea... jade


(Hebrew / English) One who is thankful to God / form of Jade, meaning “resembling the green gemstone” Jadine, Jadyn, Jadon, Jayden, Jadyne, Jaydyn, Jaydon, Jaydine, Jadin, Jaydin, Jaidyn, Jaedan, Jaeden, Jaedin, Jaedon, Jaedyn, Jaidan, Jaidin, Jaidon, Jaidyn, Jaydan... jaden


(Polish) One who is protected in battle

Jadwyge, Jadwig, Jadwyg, Jadwiga, Jadwyga, Jadriga, Jadryga, Jadreega... jadwige


(Polish) A princess; born into royalty Jadziah, Jadzea, Jadzeah, Jadziya, Jadziyah, Jadzya, Jadzyah... jadzia


(Hebrew) Resembling a mountain goat Jaella, Jaelle, Jayel, Jaela, Jaele, Jayil... jael


(Hebrew) Resembling an ostrich Jaena, Jaenia, Jaenea, Jaenne... jaen


(Hebrew) A beautiful woman Jaffah, Jafit, Jafita... jaffa


(Indian) Mother of nations Jaganmatrie, Jaganmatree, Jaganmata, Jaganmatria, Jaganmatrea... jaganmatri


(Indian) Of the awakening Jagratie, Jagraty, Jagratey, Jagratee, Jagratea... jagrati


Genipap (Genipa americana).

Plant Part Used: Fruit.

Dominican Medicinal Uses: Fruit: juice or cold water extract, for high blood pressure, infection, inflammation, kidney ailments, blood purification, diuretic, headache, vaginal infection, menopausal symptoms, menstrual disorders, prevention of cysts, fibroids and tumors.

Safety: The fruit is widely consumed in tropical regions.

Laboratory & Preclinical Data: Phytochemical: anti-tumor (identified active compounds in leaves and fruit).

* See entry for Jagua in “Part 3: Dominican Medicinal Plant Profiles” of this book for more information, including references.... jagua


(African) One who has dignity Jahah... jaha


(Iranian) Feminine form of Jahan; a woman of the world

Jahane, Jahania, Jahanea, Jahanna, Jahanne... jahana


(Hebrew) Recognizing the importance of a union Jahathe, Jahatha... jahath


(Hebrew) The Lord’s vision Jahaziel, Jahazia, Jahazea, Jahazeah, Jahaziell, Jahazielle... jahaziah


(African) One who is widely known Jahiah, Jahea, Jaheah, Jahiya, Jahiyah... jahia


(Indian) Woman from the river Jahnavie, Janavi, Janavie, Jahnavee, Janavee, Jahnavea, Janavea, Jahnavy, Janavy, Jahnavey, Janavey... jahnavi


(African) One who is blessed with power and wealth Jahzarah, Jazara, Jazarra, Jazarah... jahzara


(Basque) Refers to the Nativity... jaione


(Hebrew) Feminine form of Jairus; she who shines

Jaera, Jayra, Jairia, Jairea... jaira


(American) One who educates others

Jardan, Jayrdan, Jaerdan... jairdan

Jakarta Declaration

In July 1997, participants at the Fourth International Conference on Health Promotion presented the Jakarta Declaration on Leading Health Promotion into the 21st Century. The Declaration identifies five priorities: promote social responsibility for health; increase investments for health development; consolidate and expand partnerships for health promotion; increase community capacity and empower the individual; and secure an infrastructure for health promotion.... jakarta declaration


(Native American) One who is crowned with laurel Jakaela, Jakaila... jakayla


(Hebrew) One who brings others together; the establisher Jakima, Jakimah, Jakime, Jakyma, Jakeema, Jakeima, Jakiema, Jakeama... jakim


(Arabic) Woman of clarity Jalah, Jalla, Jallah... jala


(Persian) Born of the rain... jaleh


(American) One who is calm; a healer Jaelan, Jaelin, Jaelon, Jailin, Jaillen, Jaillin, Jailon, Jalan, Jalin, Jalon, Jayelan, Jaylen, Jayelen, Jaylan, Jaylon, Jaylonn, Jalena, Jalina, Jalona, Jalana, Jailene, Jailyn, Jalene, Jalynn, Jalyn... jalen


(American) A noble woman Jaliah, Jalea, Jaleah... jalia


(Arabic) An important woman; one who is exalted

Jalilah, Jalyla, Jalylah, Jaleela, Jaleelah, Jalil, Jaleala, Jalealah... jalila


(English) A gift of God Jaliya, Jaleeya, Jaleeyah, Jalieya, Jaleyah, Jalieyah, Jaleya, Jaleaya... jaliyah


(American) From the island of springs

Jamaeca, Jamaika, Jemaica, Jamika, Jamieka, Jameika, Jamyka, Jemayka, Jamaeka, Jemaeka... jamaica


(French) A woman warrior Jamarie, Jamary, Jamarey, Jamaree, Jamarea... jamari


(Arabic) A beautiful and elegant lady

Jameela, Jamela, Jamelia, Jamilah, Jamila, Jamilia, Jamilla, Jamille, Jamelia, Jemila, Jemilla, Jemeela, Jemyla, Jameala, Jemeala... jameelah


(Hebrew) Feminine form of James; she who supplants

Jaima, Jaime, Jaimee, Jaimelynn, Jaimey, Jaimi, Jaimie, Jaimy, Jama, Jamee, Jamei, Jamese, Jamey, Jami, Jamia, Jamielee, Jamilyn, Jammie, Jayme, Jaymee, Jaymie, Jaymi, Jamesina, Jameson, Jamison, Jamese, Jaimica, Jame, Jamea, Jaimea... jamie


(Indian) From the sacred river Jamoona, Jamunah, Jamoonah, Jamouna, Jamounah... jamuna


(Hebrew) God has answered our prayers

Janai, Janais, Janay, Janaya, Janaye, Janea, Jannae, Jeanae, Jeanay, Jeanay, Jenae, Jenai, Jenay, Jenee, Jennae, Jennay, Jinae, Jinnea... janae


(Arabic) Of the heart and soul... janan


(Hebrew) Feminine form of John; God is gracious

Jaina, Jaine, Jainee, Janey, Jana, Janae, Janaye, Jandy, Janeczka, Janeen, Janel, Janela, Janelba, Janella, Janelle, Janean, Janeane, Janee, Janene, Janerita, Janessa, Jayney, Jania, Janica, Janie, Janina, Janine, Janique, Janka, Janna, Jannel, Jannelle, Janney, Janny, Jany, Jayna, Jayne, Jaynell, Jayni, Jaynie, Jenda, Jenella, Jenelle, Jenica, Jeniece, Jeni, Jenie, Jensina, Jensine, Jess, Jinna, Jonella, Jonelle, Joni, Jonie, Jeena, Jiana, Jianna, Janecska, Jenina, Jenine, Jensen, Jaen, Jaena... jane


(American) Resembling the juniper Janeevah, Janyva, Janyvah, Janeava, Janeavah, Janeva, Janevah... janeeva


(Scottish) Feminine form of John; God is gracious

Janeta, Janeth, Janett, Janetta, Janette, Janit, Jannet, Janneth, Janetta, Jannette, Janot, Jenetta, Jenette, Jennet, Jennette, Jinnet, Jinnett... janet


(English) Feminine form of John; God is gracious

Janice, Janeece, Janess, Janessa, Janesse, Janessia, Janicia, Janiece, Janique, Janise, Janiss, Jannice, Jannis, Janyce, Jency, Jenice, Jeniece, Jenise, Jennice, Janisa, Janys, Jannys... janis


(Arabic) From the garden of heaven Jannate, Jannata, Jannatia, Jannatea, Jennet, Jenneta, Jennetia, Jennetea... jannat


(Hebrew) A quiet and calm child Janoa, Jonoah, Jonoa, Janowa, Janowah... janoah


(Latin) A winter child; born during the month of January Januarie, Januari, Januarey, Januaree, Januarea... january


(Indian) A lively woman; one who gives life

Janyah, Janiya, Janiyah... janya

Japanese Encephalitis

A flavivirus, related to Murray Valley virus (see Australian Encephalitis). Rice paddybreeding Culicine mosquitoes, Culex tritaeniorhyehus, often transmit the disease. Mosquitoes are largely zoophilic. Occasionally Aedes spp and Anopholines implicated in transmission. Disease consists of prodrome, encephalitis and recovery (or death on average in 7%). Affects mostly children less than five years of age and leaves sequelae. A vaccination is available.... japanese encephalitis


(African) One who gives thanks to God Japerah, Japerra, Japiera, Japeira, Japyra ... japera


(Slavic) Daughter born in spring ... jara


Syrup; typically prepared one of two ways: 1. a strong aqueous decoction or infusion of a plant, reduced to a fraction of its original volume by boiling for an extended period of time and then thickened or sweetened with molasses (melaza), honey (miel de abeja) or sugar (azucar). 2. Jarabe can also be prepared with raw plant ingredients such as raw garlic (ajo), onion (cebolla, cebollín), aloe vera gel (sábila), fresh lemon juice (limón) and/or a sweetener (see above); administered orally by the spoonful.... jarabe


(Hebrew) A sweet and kind woman... jarah


(Spanish / Hebrew) From the garden / form of Jordan; of the down-flowing river

Jardina, Jardenah, Jardinah, Jardeena, Jardyna, Jardeina, Jardiena, Jardeana, Jardeenah, Jardynah, Jardeinah, Jardienah, Jardeanah... jardena


(Greek) One who works the earth; a farmer

Jarine, Jarinah, Jarineh, Jaryne, Jaryna, Jaryn, Jareena, Jareene... jarina


(Indian) A birdlike woman Jaritah, Jareeta, Jareetah, Jaryta, Jarytah, Jarieta, Jarietah, Jareita, Jareitah, Jareata, Jareatah... jarita


(Norse) In mythology, the mother of Magni by Thor

Jarnsax, Jarnsaxe, Jarnsaxia, Jarnsaxea... jarnsaxa


(German) Having great intelligence Jarvinia, Jarviah, Jarvea, Jarveah, Jarviya, Jarvinea, Jarvina... jarvia


(Hebrew) One who is righteous; upright

Jashiere, Jasheria, Jasherea, Jashera, Jashiera... jasher

Jasminum Angustifolium


Family: Oleaceae.

Habitat: South India.

English: Wild Jasmine.

Ayurvedic: Bana-mallikaa, Vana- malli, Kaanan-mallikaa, Aasphotaa.

Siddha/Tamil: Kaatumalli.

Action: Root—used in ringworm. Leaves—juice is given as an emetic in cases of poisoning. Fresh flowers gave indole.... jasminum angustifolium

Jasminum Flexile


Synonym: J. azoricum Linn.

Family: Oleaceae.

Habitat: Assam, Mizoram, Meghalaya and Western Ghats.

Ayurvedic: Maalati (var.).

Siddha/Tamil: Ramabanam mullai.

Folk: Chameli (var.).

Action: See Jasminum officinale.... jasminum flexile

Jasminum Heterophyllum

Roxb. non-Moench.

Family: Oleaceae.

Habitat: Nepal, North Bengal, Assam hills, Khasi hills and Manipur.

Ayurvedic: Svarna-yuuthikaa (var.). Folk: Juuhi (yellow var.).

Action: See Jasminum humile.... jasminum heterophyllum

Jasminum Malabaricum


Family: Oleaceae.

Habitat: Deccan, West Coast, Western Ghats and in the Nilgiris.

Ayurvedic: Mudgara.

Folk: Mogaraa (var.), Ran-mogaraa.

Action: See Jasminum sambac.... jasminum malabaricum

Jasmine Tea - A Famous Chinese Scented Tea

Jasmine tea is a Chinese tea made from jasmine flowers. This tea is one of the most popular teas in China, being a specialty for over 800 years. It is basically used as a green, white or oolong tea having a subtle sweet flavor. How To Make Jasmine Tea Brewing jasmine tea is not such a difficult process. First of all you will need to boil the water. Add 1 tablespoon of jasmine leaves into your teapot or infuser and pour the hot water over it. Cover it and let it steep for about 3 minutes, but no longer than 5 minutes because you may obtain a bitter taste. If you didn’t use an infuser, make sure you use a strainer when you pour the tea into your cup to catch the jasmine blooms. Since it already has a sweet, floral taste it is advised not to put any sweetener, but if you want you can add some sugar or honey. Jasmine Tea Benefits Jasmine tea is full of antioxidants that protect your body against the damage that free radicals can cause to your body cells. Jasmine tea helps you lose weight thanks to the combination between caffeine and antioxidants. Also, this tea reduces fat and encourages cholesterol absorption. Some studies revealed that jasmine tea may help prevent cancer. Jasmine is also used for its calming effects in aromatherapy as an essential oil. Judging by this fact, drinking a cup of jasmine tea also provides you relaxation. Jasmine Tea Side Effects Over consumption may lead to certain side effects. For example, jasmine tea has caffeine content that heightens alertness and reduces sleepiness. Also, caffeine increases secretion of stress hormones, insomnia and dehydration so try not to drink too much jasmine tea. One or two cups of jasmine tea a day! Needless to say, pregnant and breastfeeding woman are advised not to drink jasmine tea, also because of its caffeine content. Enjoy this wonderful scented tea and all its benefits! Do not drink more than 2 cups of jasmine tea per day, this way making sure you won’t experience any of its side effects.... jasmine tea - a famous chinese scented tea

Jasminum Arborescens


Synonym: J. roxburghianum Wall.

Habitat: Sub-Himalayan tract, Bengal, Central and South India.

English: Tree Jasmine.

Ayurvedic: Nava-mallikaa.

Siddha/Tamil: Nagamalli.

Folk: Chameli (var.), Maalati (var.).

Action: Leaves—astringent and stomachic. Juice of the leaves, with pepper, garlic and other stimulants, is used as an emetic in obstruction of the bronchial tubes due to viscid phlegm.... jasminum arborescens

Jasminum Auriculatum


Family: Oleaceae.

Habitat: Cultivated throughout India, especially in Uttar Pradesh and Tamil Nadu. In Uttar Pradesh, cultivated on commercial scale in Ghazipur, Jaunpur, Farrukhabad and Kannauj for its fragrant flowers which yield an essential oil.

Ayurvedic: Yuuthikaa, Yuuthi, Mugdhee.

Siddha/Tamil: Usimalligai.

Folk: Juuhi.

Action: See Jasminum humile.

The leaves gave lupeol, its epimer, hentriacontane and n-tricantanol, a triterpenoid, jasminol; d-mannitol; volatile constituent, jasmone. The pin type pointed flower buds (long styled) on solvent extraction yielded higher concrete content rich in indole and methyl anthranilate, whereas thrum type (short styled) buds yield higher absolute with benzyl acetate as the prominent constituent.... jasminum auriculatum

Jasminum Humile


Synonym: J. humile auct. non L. J. bignoniaceum Wall ex G. Don.

Family: Oleaceae.

Habitat: Sub-tropical Himalayas from Kashmir to Nepal and in the Nilgiris, Palni Hills, Western Ghats and Kerala.

English: Yellow Jasmine, Nepal Jasmine, Italian Jasmine.

Ayurvedic: Svarna-yuuthikaa, Svarnajaati, Hemapushpikaa, Vaasanti.

Siddha/Tamil: Semmalligai.

Folk: Juuhi (yellow var.).

Action: Flower—astringent, cardiac tonic. Root—used in ringworm. The milky juice, exuded from incisions in the bark, is used for treating chronic fistulas. The plant is also used for treating hard lumps.

The leaves gave alpha-amyrin, be- tulin, friedelin, lupeol, betulinic, olea- nolic and ursolic acids; beta-sitosterol, 10-cinnamoyloxyoleoside-7-methyl- ester (jasminoside) and a secoiridoid glycoside.... jasminum humile

Jasminum Rottlerianum

Wall. ex DC.

Family: Oleaceae.

Habitat: Western Peninsula, from Konkan southwards to Kerala.

Ayurvedic: Vana-mallikaa.

Siddha/Tamil: Erumaimullai, Kattumalligei, Uyyakondan.

Action: Leaf—used in eczema.... jasminum rottlerianum


(Arabic) As precious as a jewel Jauherah, Jawahar, Jawahara, Jawaahar, Jawahare, Johari, Johara, Joharra, Joharie, Joharee... jauhera


(American) A brave and courteous woman

Jauni, Jaunee, Jauny, Jauney, Jaunea... jaunie


(Hebrew) Feminine form of Javan; woman from Greece Javane, Javanna, Javanne, Javann... javana

Jasminum Multiflorum

(Burm. f.) Andr.

Synonym: J. pubescens Willd. J. hirsutum Willd. J. bracteatum Roxb.

Family: Oleaceae.

Habitat: Sub-Himalayan tract and in moist forests of Western Ghats.

English: Downy Jasmine.

Ayurvedic: Kunda, Kasturi Mogaraa.

Siddha/Tamil: Magarandam, Malli.

Folk: Kasturi Mogaraa.

Action: Diuretic, emetic. Boiled bark—applied on burns.

Ethanolic extract of fresh leaves and flowers contain the secoiridoid lactones, jasmolactone A, B, C and D; and secoiridoid glycosides. Jas- molactone B and D and the secoiri- doid glycosides (multifloroside and 10-hydroxyoleuropein) exhibited va- sodilatory and cardiotropic activities.... jasminum multiflorum

Jasminum Officinale

Linn. var. grandiflorum (L.) Kobuski.

Synonym: J. grandiflorum Linn.

Family: Oleaceae.

Habitat: North-Western Himalayas and Persia; cultivated in Kumaon, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh; in gardens throughout India.

English: Spanish Jasmine.

Ayurvedic: Jaati, Jaatikaa, Jaatimalli, Pravaaljaati, Saumanasyaayani, Sumanaa, Chetikaa, Hriddgandhaa, Maalati, Chameli.

Unani: Yaasmin.

Siddha/Tamil: Manmadabanam, Mullai, Padar-malligai, Pichi, Malli

Folk: Chameli.

Action: Flowers—calming and sedative, CNS depressant, astringent and mild anaesthetic. A syrup prepared from the flowers is used for coughs, hoarsenesses and other disorders of the chest. Plant—diuretic, anthelmintic, emmenagogue; used for healing chronic ulcers and skin diseases. Oil—externally relaxing.

Indian oil sample gave benzyl acetate 26.3, benzyl benzoate 19.2, phytol 10.6, jasmone 8.5, methyl jasmonate 6.3, linalool 5.4, geranyl linalool 3.5, eugenol 2.9, isophytyl acetate 2.7, and isophytol 2.4%.

The leaves gave ascorbic acid, an- thranilic acid and its glucoside, indole oxygenase, alkaloid jasminine and salicylic acid.

The flowers contain pyridine and nicotinate derivatives; tested positive for indole.

The flowers and leaf juice is used for treating tumours.

Dosage: Dried leaves—10-20 g powder for decoction (API, Vol. III.); Juice—10-20 ml. (CCRAS.).... jasminum officinale

Jasminum Sambac

(Linn.) Ait.

Family: Oleaceae.

Habitat: Cultivated throughout India, especially in Uttar Pradesh, on a large scale in Jaunpur, Kannauj, Ghazipur and Farrukhabad for its fragrant flowers.

English: Arabian Jasmine, Tuscan Jasmine, Double Jasmine.

Ayurvedic: Mallikaa, Madayanti, Madyantikaa, Nava-Mallikaa, Shita-bhiru, Vaarshiki.

Unani: Mograa.

Siddha: Malligai.

Folk: Belaa, Motiaabelaa; Mogaraa (Maharashtra).

Action: Root—emmenagogue, blood purifier. Flowers—lactifuge. Alcoholic extract—hypotensive. Leaves—antibacterial; used against indolent and breast tumours.

The leaves contain the secoiridoid glycosides, jasminin, quercitrin, iso- quercitrin, rutin, quercitrin-3-dirham- noglycoside, kaempferol-3-rhamno- glycoside, mannitol, alpha-amyrin, beta-sitosterol and an iridoid glyco- side, sambacin. The absolute contains several pyridine and nicotinate derivatives.

Dosage: Decoction—50-100 ml. (CCRAS.)... jasminum sambac

Jateorhiza Palmata


Synonym: J. calumba Miers.

Family: Menispermaceae.

Habitat: Indigenous to south-east tropical Africa. Imported into India.

English: Calumba, Colombo.

Ayurvedic: Kalambaka. (Coscinium fenestratum Colebr., known as False calumba, is used as a substitute for J. palmata.)

Siddha/Tamil: Kolumbu.

Action: Root—bitter tonic without astringency, carminative, gastric tonic, antiflatulent, hyptotensive, orexigenic, uterine stimulant, sedative. Used in anorexia, poor digestion, hypochlorhydria, amoebic dysentery and menstrual disorders. Antifungal.

Key application: As appetite stimulant. (The British Herbal Pharmacopoeia.)

The root gave isoquinoline alkaloids 2-3%; palmatine, jaterorrhizine and its dimer bis-jateorrhizine, columbamine; bitters (including chasmanthin and palmanin). Volatile oil contains thymol.

The alkaloid jateorrhizine is sedative, hypotensive. Palmatine is a uterine stimulant.

As calumba contains very little volatile oil and no tannins, it is free from as- tringency which is common with other bitter herbs.

The root alkaloids exhibit narcotic properties and side effects similar to morphine. It is no longer used (in Western herbal) as a digestive aid, and is rarely used as an antidiarrhoeal agent. (Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, 2007.)... jateorhiza palmata


(Spanish) Feminine form of Xavier; owner of a new house; one who is bright Javierah, Javyera, Javyerah, Javeira, Javeirah... javiera


(American) Form of Jacinda, meaning “resembling the hyacinth” Jaxin, Jaxyne, Jaxeen, Jaxyn, Jaxeene, Jax, Jaxi, Jaxie, Jaxee, Jaxea... jaxine


(Hindi) A victorious woman; in Hinduism, one of the names of the wife of Shiva Jayah... jaya

Jatropha Curcas


Family: Euphorbiaceae.

Habitat: Native to tropical America. Now cultivated along with Cromandel Coast and in Travancore.

English: Physic Nut, Purging Nut.

Ayurvedic: Vyaaghrairanda (var.), Sthula-eranda, Kaanan-eranda.

Siddha/Tamil: Kattu Amanaku.

Folk: Bagharenda (var.).

Action: Seed—highly toxic. Nut— purgative. Plant—used for scabies, ringworm, eczema, whitlow, warts, syphilis. Stem bark—applied to wounds of animal bites; root bark to sores.

The protein of the seed contains the toxic albumin curcin (protein 18.0%, curcin 0.005%).

Seed and seed oil—more drastic purgative than castor seed oil and milder than Croton tiglium oil.

An aqueous (10%) infusion of leaves increased cardiac contraction is small doses. EtOH (50%) extract of aerial parts—diuretic and CNS depressant.

The seed contain phorbol derivatives. The plant also contains cur- cosones and lathyrane diterpenes.... jatropha curcas

Jatropha Glandulifera


Family: Euphorbiaceae.

Habitat: South India and Bengal.

Ayurvedic: Vyaaghrairanda.

Siddha/Tamil: Adalai, Eliya- manakku.

Folk: Bagharenda, Jangali-erandi.

Action: Root and oil from seed— purgative. Oil—antirheumatic, antiparalytic. Used externally on ringworm and chronic ulcers. Root—used for glandular swellings.

Latex—applied to warts and tumours.

The plant contain alkannins (iso- hexenylnaphthazarins). The presence of alkannins in this plant (a member of Euphorbiaceae) should be considered as an exception.

The root gave jatropholone A, frax- etin and a coumarinolignan.

Dosage: Seed—50-100 mg powder. (CCRAS.)... jatropha glandulifera

Jatropha Gossypifolia


Family: Euphorbiaceae.

Habitat: Native to Brazil; cultivated as an ornamental.

English: Tua-Tua.

Ayurvedic: Rakta-Vyaaghrairanda.

Siddha/Tamil: Stalai.

Folk: Laal Bagharenda.

Action: Leaf and seed—purgative. Leaf—antidermatosis. Bark— emmenagogue. Seed—emetic. Seed fatty oil—used in paralytic affections, also in skin diseases.

The leaves contain triterpenes, a tri- hydroxy ketone and corresponding diosphenol. The root contains the diterpenes, jatropholone A and jat- rophatrione. A tumour-inhibitor ma- crocyclic diterpene, jatrophone, has been isolated from roots.

The seeds contain phorbol derivatives, jatropholones A and B, hydroxy- jatrophone and hydroxyisojatrophone.

Hot water extract of the plant exhibits antimalarial activity against Plasmodium falciparum.... jatropha gossypifolia

Jatropha Multifida


Family: Euphorbiaceae.

Habitat: Native to South America. Naturalized in various parts of India.

English: Coral plant, Physic Nut.

Ayurvedic: Brihat-Danti (bigger var. of Danti, also equated with Baliospermum montanum).

Folk: Danti (var.).

Action: Seeds—purgative, emetic. Fruits—poisonous. Leaves—used for scabies. Latex—applied to wounds and ulcers.

The latex from the plant showed antibacterial activity against Staphylococ- cus aureus. It contains immunologi- cally active acylphloroglucinols, mul- tifidol, phloroglucinol and multifidol beta-D-glucopyranoside. The latex also contains an immunologically active, cyclic decapeptide, labaditin.

J. panduraefolia Andr. (native to America), widely grown in Indian gardens, is known as Fiddle-leaved Jat- ropha. The latex from the plant shows fungitoxic activity against ringworm fungus, Microsporum gypseum.... jatropha multifida


(Indian) Feminine form of Jayant; a victorious woman

Jayantie, Jayantee, Jayanty, Jayantey, Jayantea... jayanti


(Arabic) Filled with goodness Jaydrah, Jadra, Jadrah, Jaidra, Jaedra... jaydra


(Arabic) One who is charitable Jaylah, Jaila, Jaela... jayla


(American) One who is promised; influenced by the style of music Jazelle, Jazzele, Jazzell, Jazele, Jazell, Jazzlyn, Jazette, Jazlyn, Jazlynn, Jazzalyn, Jazzy, Jazz, Jaslynn... jazzelle


(Hebrew) Feminine form of John; God is gracious

Jeanae, Jeanay, Jeane, Jeanee, Jeanelle, Jeanetta, Jeanette, Jeanice, Jeanie, Jeanna, Jehane, Jeanne, Jeana, Jeanine, Jeannine, Jeanea... jean


(Hebrew) Woman from the woodland

Jearym, Jeareem, Jeaream... jearim


(American) Form of Pearl, meaning “a precious gem of the sea” Jearla, Jearle, Jearlie, Jearly, Jearline, Jearlina, Jearlea, Jearli, Jearley, Jearlee, Jearleigh... jearl


(Hebrew) All things are possible through the Lord

Jecolia, Jecolea, Jecoleah, Jecholia, Jekolia, Jecoliya, Jekoliya, Jekolea... jecoliah


(Hebrew) One who is greatly loved Jedidah, Jedyda, Jedydah, Jedeeda, Jedeedah, Jeddida, Jedieda, Jediedah, Jedeida, Jedeidah, Jedeada, Jedeadah... jedida


(Hebrew) One who praises God Jehalelel, Jahaleleil, Jehaleliel, Jehalelyl, Jehaleleal... jehaleleel


(Arabic) Resembling a beautiful flower; woman of the world Jihan, Jyhan... jehan


(Hebrew) The Lord gives liberally

Jonadab... jehonadab


(Hebrew) An oath of the Lord Jehoshebah, Jehoshyba, Jehosheeba, Jehosheiba, Jehoshieba, Jehosheaba... jehosheba


(Hebrew) An able-bodied woman Jehucale, Jucal, Jehucala... jehucal


(Swahili) Born of the suffering father Jelah, Jella, Jellah... jela


(Russian) Form of Helen, meaning “the shining light”

Jalaina, Jalaine, Jalayna, Jalena, Jelina, Jelka, Jelaena... jelena


See GELATIN.... jelly


(Hebrew) Our little dove; in the Bible, the eldest of Job’s daughters Jemimah, Jamina, Jeminah, Jemmimah, Jemmie, Jemmy, Jem, Jemmi, Jemmey, Jemmee, Jemmea... jemima


(Hebrew) One who is listened to Jeminah, Jemyna, Jemynah, Jemeena, Jemeenah, Jemeina, Jemeinah, Jemiena, Jemienah, Jemeana, Jemeanah... jemina


(English) Form of Gemma, meaning “precious jewel”

Jemmah, Jema, Jemah, Jemmalyn, Jemalyn, Jemmalynn, Jemalynn... jemma


(Arabic) Our little bird Jenah... jena


(English) Form of Genevieve, meaning “of the race of women; the white wave”

Jenevieve, Jennavieve, Jeneva, Jenneva... jenavieve


(Egyptian) One who is thankful Jendayie, Jendayey, Jendayee, Jendaya, Jendayia, Jendayea... jendayi


(Ugandan) An accomplishment of the mother

Jendyosa, Jendyosia, Jendyosea, Jendyosi, Jendyosie... jendyose


(American) A champion Jeneile, Jeneel, Jeneele, Jeneal, Jeneale... jeneil


(Hebrew) Form of Genesis, meaning “of the beginning” Jenesis, Jennis, Jenesys... jenis

Jenner, Edward

Edward Jenner was an English country practitioner (1749–1823). He had noticed that cowpox, which milkmaids caught from cattle, gave these women immunity from the scourge of SMALLPOX. In 1796 he transformed this observation into the medical technique of VACCINATION, innoculating a country boy with matter from the arm of a milkmaid infected with cowpox. Despite hostility from some doctors, Parliament voted him a grant of £10,000 for a society to promote vaccination and the technique spread worldwide, giving bene?t to an immense number of people.... jenner, edward


(Welsh) One who is fair; a beautiful girl

Jenefer, Jeni, Jenifer, Jeniffer, Jenn, Jennee, Jenni, Jennica, Jennie, Jenniver, Jenny, Jen, Jenalee, Jenalynn, Jenarae, Jeneen, Jenene, Jenetta, Jeni, Jenica, Jenice, Jeniece, Jenika, Jenise, Jenita, Jenna, Jennessa, Jenni, Jennie, Jennika, Jennilee, Jennilyn, Jennis, Jennita, Jennyann, Jennylee, Jinni, Jinny, Jenai, Jenae, Jenay, Jenalyn, Jenaya, Jenara, Jenibelle, Jennelle... jennifer


(English) One who comes home Jenskie, Jensky, Jenskey, Jenskee, Jenskea... jenski


(American) Form of Georgia, meaning “one who works the earth; a farmer” Jeorgia, Jeorja, Jorja, Jorjette, Jorgette, Jorjeta, Jorjetta, Jorgete, Jorjete, Jorgeta, Jorgetta... jeorjia


(American) A religious woman Jerah, Jerra, Jerrah... jera


(English) Form of Geraldine, meaning “one who rules with the spear” Jeraldeen, Jeraldene, Jeraldine, Jeralee, Jere, Jeri, Jerilene, Jerrie, Jerrileen, Jerroldeen, Jerry, Jeralyn, Jenralyn, Jerelyn, Jerilynn, Jerilyn, Jerrilyn, Jerrica... jeraldine


(Hebrew) Feminine form of Jeremiah; the Lord is exalted Jeremea, Jerimia, Jerimea, Jeree, Jeremee, Jeremie, Jeremiya... jeremia


(Slavic) One who is peaceful Jerenie, Jereny, Jereney, Jerenee... jereni


(American) One who is strong; a talented ruler

Jerika, Jerrica, Jerrika, Jericka, Jericha, Jerricka, Jerricha... jerica


(Hebrew) God has witnessed Jeriele, Jeriela, Jerielle, Jeriell, Jeriella... jeriel


(French) Woman from Germany Jermainaa, Jermane, Jermayne, Jermina, Jermana, Jermayna, Jermaen, Jermaena... jermaine


(English) From one of the Channel Islands

Jersy, Jersee, Jersi, Jersie, Jerzey, Jerzy, Jerzee, Jerzi, Jerzie, Jersea, Jerzea... jersey


(Hebrew) A faithful wife Jerushah, Jeruscha, Jarusha, Jaruscha... jerusha


(Arabic) As delicate as a flower Jesseniah, Jasenia, Jesenia, Jesenya, Jessenya, Jassenia, Jasenya, Jassenya... jessenia


(Hebrew) The Lord sees all

Jess, Jessa, Jessaca, Jessaka, Jessalin, Jessalyn, Jesse, Jesseca, Jessey, Jessie, Jessika, Jesirae, Jeslyn, Jessika, Jessicka, Jeziree, Jessalynn, Jessamae, Jessana, Jessandra, Jesselyn, Jezeree, Jessi, Jessilyn, Jessina, Jesslyn, Jesslynn, Jessy, Jessye, Jesimae... jessica


(Welsh) Feminine form of Justin; one who is just and upright Jesstina, Jestine, Jestyna, Jesstyna, Jestyne, Jesstyne, Jesteena, Jessteena, Jesteene, Jessteene... jestina


(Spanish) Refers to the Virgin Mary Jesusah, Josune... jesusa


(Hebrew) Feminine form of Jetheth; a princess Jethethia, Jethethea, Jethethiya... jethetha


(Hebrew) Feminine form of Jethro; the Lord’s excellence; one who has plenty; abudance

Jethrah, Jethria, Jethrea, Jethriya, Jeth, Jethe... jethra


(Teutonic) Ruler of the house... jetje


(Danish) Resembling the jet-black lustrous gemstone

Jette, Jett, Jeta, Jete, Jettie, Jetty, Jetti, Jettey, Jettee, Jettea... jetta


(French) One who is playful; resembling a precious gem Jewell, Jewelle, Jewelyn, Jewelene, Jewelisa, Jule, Jewella, Juelline... jewel


(Hebrew) One who is not exalted; in the Bible, the queen of Israel punished by God

Jessabell, Jetzabel, Jezabel, Jezabella, Jezebelle, Jezibel, Jezibelle, Jezybell, Jezabella... jezebel


(Hebrew) The Lord provides Jesreel, Jezreele, Jesreele, Jezreal, Jezreale, Jesreal, Jesreale... jezreel


(Lithuanian) A lively woman Jierah, Jyera, Jyerah, Jierra, Jyerra... jiera


(African) A self-learner Jifunzah, Jifoonza, Jifoonzah, Jifounza, Jifounzah... jifunza


(Indian) One who wants to learn Jigishah, Jigysha, Jigyshah... jigisha


(American) Resembling a young goat Jyles... jiles


(English) Form of Jillian, meaning “one who is youthful”

Jillet, Jil, Jilli, Jillie, Jilly, Jillyan, Jyl, Jyll, Jyllina, Jylina... jill


(English) Form of Gillian, meaning “one who is youthful” Jilian, Jiliana, Jillaine, Jillan, Jillana, Jillane, Jillanne, Jillayne, Jillene, Jillesa, Jilliana, Jilliane, Jilliann, Jillianna, Jillianne, Jillyan, Jillyanna, Jillyanne, Jyllina... jillian


Colloquial term for Carybdea rastoni.... jimble


(Spanish) One who is heard Jimenah, Jymena, Jimeena, Jimyna, Jymeena, Jymyna... jimena


(English) Feminine form of Jimmy; she who supplants

Jimi, Jimmie, Jimie, Jimmy, Jimmey, Jimmee, Jimmea, Jimy, Jimey, Jimee, Jimea... jimmi


(Swahili) The named one Jinah... jina


(Welsh) Form of Genevieve, meaning “of the race of women; the white wave” Jinell, Jinele, Jinel, Jynelle, Jynell, Jynele, Jynel... jinelle


(Latin) One who performs charms or spells

Jynx, Jinxx, Jynxx... jinx


(American) Form of Giselle, meaning “of God’s promise; a hostage” Jisell, Jisele, Jisela, Jizelle, Joselle, Jisella, Jizella, Jozelle, Josella, Jozella... jiselle


(Hindi) In Hinduism, one’s immortal essence

Jivah, Jyva, Jyvah... jiva


(Indian) One who gives life Jivantah, Jevanta, Javanta, Jevantah, Javantah... jivanta


(Hebrew) Feminine form of Joachim; God will judge Joachima, Joaquina, Joaquine, Joaquima... joakima


(Hebrew) Feminine form of John; God is gracious

Joane, Joanie, Joannue, Jone, Jonee, Joni, Jonie, Jo, Joann, Jo-Ann, Joanne, Jo-Anne, Joeanne, Joeann, Joeanna, Joeanne, Johanna, Joanna, Johannah... joan


(Hebrew) One who is persecuted Joby, Jobie, Jobi, Jobee, Jobina, Jobyna, Jobeena, Jobea... jobey

Jobs Tears

Healing, Wishes, Luck... jobs tears


(Greek) In mythology, the queen of Thebes who married her son Jocastah, Jokasta, Jokastah, Jockasta, Joccasta... jocasta


(German / Latin) From the tribe of Gauts / one who is cheerful, happy Jocelin, Jocelina, Jocelinda, Joceline, Jocelyne, Jocelynn, Jocelynne, Josalind, Josaline, Josalyn, Josalynn, Joscelin, Josceline, Joscelyn, Joselina, Joseline, Joselyn, Joselyne, Josiline, Josilyn, Joslin, Josline, Joslyn, Jossline, Josselyn, Josslyn, Jozlyn, Joss... jocelyn


(Hebrew) God is her glory Jochebedaa, Jochebedia, Jochebedea... jochebed


(Latin) One who is gleeful and always joking Jocose, Jocosia, Jocosea... jocosa


(Hebrew) An ancestor of Christ... joda


(English) Form of Judith, meaning “woman from Judea” Jodey, Jodi, Jodie, Jodee, Jodea... jody


(Hebrew) Feminine form of Joel; Jehovah is God; God is willing Joela, Joelin, Joell, Joella, Joellen, Joelliane, Joellin, Joelly, Joellyn, Joely, Joelynn, Joetta, Jowella, Jowelle... joelle


(English) Feminine form of John; God is gracious

Johna, Johnelle, Johnetta, Johnette, Johnna, Johnnie, Johnda, Johyna, Jonalyn, Jonalynn, Jonay, Jonell, Jonetta, Jonette, Jonita, Jonna, Jonni, Jonnah, Jonnie, Jonnelle... johnna


A popular term for a loose body in a joint. It is found especially in the knee. (See JOINTS, DISEASES OF.)... joint-mouse


A joint is the articulation point between di?erent parts of the skeleton, whether bone or cartilage. Joints are divided into those which are ?xed or relatively ?xed (?brous and cartilaginous joints), and those which allow free movement (synovial joints). In the former, exempli?ed by the sutures between the bones of the skull, a layer of cartilage or ?brous tissue lies between the bones, binding them ?rmly together. Amphiarthrodial joints, exempli?ed by the joints between the vertebral bodies (see SPINAL COLUMN), have a thick disc of ?brocartilage between the bones. Although the individual joint is capable of very little movement, a series of these gives to the spinal column, as a whole, a ?exible character.

All movable joints involve four structures: the bones whose junction forms the joint; a layer of cartilage covering the ends of these, making them smooth; a ?brous sheath, the capsule, thickened at various points into bands or ligaments, which hold the bones together; and, ?nally, the synovial membrane, which lines the capsule and produces a synovial ?uid, lubricating the movements of the joint. In addition, the bones are kept in position at the joints by the various muscles passing over them and by atmospheric pressure. Where the ends of the bones do not quite correspond, a subsidiary disc of ?bro-cartilage may help to adapt the ends of the bones more perfectly to each other. Larger cavities may be ?lled by movable pads of fat under the synovial membrane, giving additional protection to the joint.

Varieties After this main division of joints into those which are ?xed and those movable, the movable joints may be further subdivided. In gliding joints, such as the wrist and ankle, the bones have ?at surfaces capable of only a limited amount of movement. In hinge joints, such as the elbow and knee, movement takes place around one axis. Ball-and-socket joints, exempli?ed by the shoulder and hip, allow free movement in any direction. Subsidiary varieties are named according to the shape of the bones which enter the joint.... joints


(Hebrew) Of the down-flowing river; in the Bible, the river where Jesus was baptized

Jardena, Johrdan, Jordain, Jordaine, Jordana, Jordane, Jordanka, Jordann, Jordanna, Jordanne, Jorden, Jordena, Jordenn, Jordie, Jordin, Jordyn, Jordynn, Jorey, Jori, Jorie, Jorrdan, Jorry, Jourdan, Jourdain... jordan


(English) Form of Georgina, meaning “one who works the earth; a farmer” Jorgeanne, Jorgelina, Jorjana, Jorjina, Jorjanna, Jorcina, Jorcyna, Jorceena, Jorciena, Jorceina, Jory... jorgina


(American) Loved by God Jorran, Jorren, Jorron, Jorrun... jorryn


(Norse) One who loves horses... jorunn


(Hebrew) Feminine form of Joseph; God will add Josefa, Josefena, Josefene, Josefina, Josefine, Josepha, Josephe, Josephene, Josephina, Josephyna, Josephyna, Josephyne, Josette, Josetta, Joxepa, Josebe, Jose, Josie, Josee, Jozsa, Josina... josephine


(American) One who likes to travel Journy, Journi, Journie, Journee, Journye, Journea... journey


(Spanish) Feminine form of Jovian; daughter of the sky Jeovana, Jeovanna, Jovanna, Jovena, Jovianne, Jovina, Jovita, Joviana... jovana


(English) One who brings joy to others

Joice, Joyceanne, Joycelyn, Joycelynn, Joyse, Joyceta... joyce


(Hebrew) God has remembered Jozachare, Jozachara, Jozacharia, Jozacharea... jozachar


(Spanish) Feminine form of Juan; God is gracious

Juanita, Janita, Juanetta, Juanisha, Juniata, Junita, Juwaneeta, Juwanita, Juandalynn... juana


(African) Born on a Monday Jubah, Jubba, Jubia, Jubea... juba


(Hebrew) One who rejoices; a ram’s horn

Jubileigh, Jubilie, Jubili, Jubily, Jubiley, Jubalee, Jubaleigh, Jubaley, Jubaly, Jubali, Jubalie, Jubalea, Jubilea... jubilee


(Hebrew) One who is praised Jucika, Jucie, Jucee, Jucye, Jutka, Jucea, Jucey, Jucy... juci


(Arabic) Filled with goodness Judah... juda


(Hebrew) Woman from Judea Judithe, Juditha, Judeena, Judeana, Judyth, Judit, Judytha, Judita, Judite, Jutka, Jucika, Jutta, Judythe... judith


(Hebrew) Form of Judith, meaning “woman from Judea” Judee, Judey, Judi, Judie, Judye, Judea... judy

Jugo De

Means “juice of (plant name)”; look up the plant name which follows this description of the plant preparation used.... jugo de

Joints, Diseases Of

‘Rheumatism’ is the colloquial term for nonspeci?c musculoskeletal symptoms arising in the joints, ligaments, tendons and muscles. ‘Arthritis’ describes a pathological musculoskeletal disorder. Most common are sprains of ligaments, strains of tendons and muscles,

BURSITIS, TENDINITIS and non-speci?c back pain (see BACKACHE).

Osteoarthritis (OA) rarely starts before 40, but by the age of 80 affects 80 per cent of the population. There are structural and functional changes in the articular cartilage, as well as changes in the collagenous matrix of tendons and ligaments. OA is not purely ‘wear and tear’; various sub-groups have a genetic component. Early OA may be precipitated by localised alteration in anatomy, such as a fracture or infection of a joint. Reactive new bone growth typically occurs, causing sclerosis (hardening) beneath the joint, and osteophytes – outgrowths of bone – are characteristic at the margins of the joint. The most common sites are the ?rst metatarsal (great toe), spinal facet joints, the knee, the base of the thumb and the terminal ?nger joints (Heberden’s nodes).

OA has a slow but variable course, with periods of pain and low-grade in?ammation. Acute in?ammation, common in the knee, may result from release of pyrophosphate crystals, causing pseudo-gout.

Urate gout results from crystallisation of URIC ACID in joints, against a background of hyperuricaemia. This high concentration of uric acid in the blood may result from genetic and environmental factors, such as excess dietary purines, alcohol or diuretic drugs.

In?ammatory arthritis is less common than OA, but potentially much more serious. Several types exist, including: SPONDYLARTHRITIS This affects younger men, chie?y involving spinal and leg joints. This may lead to in?ammation and eventual ossi?cation of the enthesis – that is, where the ligaments and tendons are inserted into the bone around joints. This may be associated with disorders in other parts of the body: skin in?ammation (PSORIASIS), bowel and genito-urinary in?ammation, sometimes resulting in infection of the organs (such as dysentery). The syndromes most clearly delineated are ankylosing spondylitis (see SPINE AND SPINAL CORD, DISEASES AND INJURIES OF), psoriatic or colitic spondylitis, and REITER’S SYNDROME. The diagnosis is made clinically and radiologically; no association has been found with autoantibodies (see AUTOANTIBODY). A particularly clear gene locus, HLA B27, has been identi?ed in ankylosing spondylitis. Psoriasis can be associated with a characteristic peripheral arthritis.

Systemic autoimmune rheumatic diseases (see AUTOIMMUNE DISORDERS). RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS (RA) – see also main entry. The most common of these diseases. Acute in?ammation causes lymphoid synovitis, leading to erosion of the cartilage, associated joints and soft tissues. Fibrosis follows, causing deformity. Autoantibodies are common, particularly Rheumatoid Factor. A common complication of RA is Sjögren’s syndrome, when in?ammation of the mucosal glands may result in a dry mouth and eyes. SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS (SLE) and various overlap syndromes occur, such as systemic sclerosis and dermatomyositis. Autoantibodies against nuclear proteins such as DNA lead to deposits of immune complexes and VASCULITIS in various tissues, such as kidney, brain, skin and lungs. This may lead to various symptoms, and sometimes even to organ failure.

Infective arthritis includes: SEPTIC ARTHRITIS An uncommon but potentially fatal disease if not diagnosed and treated early with approriate antibiotics. Common causes are TUBERCLE bacilli and staphylococci (see STAPHYLOCOCCUS). Particularly at risk are the elderly and the immunologically vulnerable, such as those under treatment for cancer, or on CORTICOSTEROIDS or IMMUNOSUPPRESSANT drugs. RHEUMATIC FEVER Now rare in western countries. Resulting from an immunological reaction to a streptococcal infection, it is characterised by migratory arthritis, rash and cardiac involvement.

Other infections which may be associated with arthritis include rubella (German measles), parvovirus and LYME DISEASE.

Treatment Septic arthritis is the only type that can be cured using antibiotics, while the principles of treatment for the others are similar: to reduce risk factors (such as hyperuricaemia); to suppress in?ammation; to improve function with physiotherapy; and, in the event of joint failure, to perform surgical arthroplasty. NON-STEROIDAL ANTI-INFLAMMATORY DRUGS (NSAIDS) include aspirin, paracetamol and many recently developed ones, such as the proprionic acid derivatives IBUPROFEN and naproxen, along with other drugs that have similar properties such as PIROXICAM. They all carry a risk of toxicity, such as renal dysfunction, or gastrointestinal irritation with haemorrhage. Stronger suppression of in?ammation requires corticosteroids and CYTOTOXIC drugs such as azathioprine or cyclophosphamide. Recent research promises more speci?c and less toxic anti-in?ammatory drugs, such as the monoclonal antibodies like in?iximab. An important treatment for some osteoarthritic joints is surgical replacement of the joints.... joints, diseases of


(Hebrew) Blessed by God Jokima, Jokym, Jokyme, Jokeem, Jokimia, Jokimea, Joka, Jokeam, Jokeame... jokim


(Hebrew) From the gathering of people

Jokmime, Jokmym, Jokmeem... jokmeam


(Greek) Resembling a violet flower Jola, Jolaine, Jolande, Jolanne, Jolanta, Jolantha, Jolandi, Jolanka, Jolanna, Jolana... jolan


(English) Feminine form of Joseph; God will add

Joeline, Joeleen, Joeline, Jolaine, Jolean, Joleen, Jolena, Jolina, Joline, Jolleen, Jollene, Jolyn, Jolyna, Jolyne, Jolynn... jolene


(French) A pretty young woman Joly, Joely, Jolee, Joleigh, Joley, Joli, Joliet, Jolietta, Joliette, Jolea... jolie


(English) From the family of John Jonesy, Jonesi, Jonesie, Jonesee, Jonesey, Jonesea... jones


(Israeli) Resembling a little dove Joninah, Jonyna, Jonynah, Joneena, Joneenah, Jonine, Jonyne, Joneene, Jonati, Jonatie, Jonatee, Jonatey, Jonaty, Joneana, Joneanah... jonina


(English) Resembling the flower Jonquill, Jonquille, Jonquile, Jonquila, Jonquilla... jonquil


(Hebrew) Resembling an autumn rose Jora... jorah


(Norse) In mythology, goddess of the earth Jorde... jord

Juglans Regia


Family: Juglandaceae.

Habitat: Native to Iran; now cultivated in Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh., Khasi Hills and the hills of Uttar Pradesh.

Ayurvedic: Akshoda, Akshoda- ka, Akshota, Shailbhava, Pilu, Karparaal, Vrantphala.

Unani: Akhrot.

Siddha/Tamil: Akrottu.

Action: Leaves and bark— alterative, laxative, antiseptic, mild hypoglycaemic, anti-inflammatory, antiscrofula, detergent. An infusion of leaves and bark is used for herpes, eczema and other cutaneous affections; externally to skin eruptions and ulcers. Volatile oil— antifungal, antimicrobial.

Key application (leaf) ? In mild, superficial inflammation of the skin and excessive perspiration of hands and feet. (German Commission E.). When English Walnuts (Juglans regia) are added to low fat diet, total cholesterol may be decreased by 412% and LDL by 8-16%. (Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, 2007.)

Walnut hull preparations are used for skin diseases and abscesses.

Walnut is eaten as a dry fruit. Because of its resemblance to the brain, it was thought, according to the "doctrine of signatures", to be a good brain tonic. Walnuts are also eaten to lower the cholesterol levels.

From the volatile oil of the leaves terpenoid substances (monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, diterpene and triter- pene derivatives) and eugenol have been isolated. Fatty acids, including geranic acid; alpha-and beta-pinene, 1,8,cincole, limonene, beta-eudesmol and juglone are also important constituents of the volatile oil.

The leaves contain napthoquinones, mainly juglone. The root bark gave 3, 3',-bis-juglone and oligomeric ju- glones. Unripe fruit husk also gave napthoquinones.

The kernels of Indian walnuts contain 15.6% protein, 11% carbohydrates, 1.8% mineral matter (sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, copper, phosphorus, sulphur and chorine). Iodine (2.8 mcg/100 g), arsenic, zinc, cobalt and manganese are also reported. Kernels are also rich in vitamins of the B group, vitamin A (30 IU/100 g), and ascorbic acid (3 mg/100 g).

The juice of unripe fruits showed significant thyroid hormone enhancing activity (prolonged use of such extract may cause serious side effect).

White Walnut, Lemon Walnut, Butternut, Oilnut of the USA is equated with Juglans cineraria L. The inner bark gave napthoquinones, including juglone, juglandin, juglandic acid, tannins and an essential oil.

Butternut is used as a dermatologi- cal and antihaemorrhoidal agent. Ju- glone exhibits antimicrobial, antipara- sitic and antineoplastic activities.

Dosage: Dried cotyledons—10-25 g (API, Vol. II.)... juglans regia


(Indian) Resembling a fragrant flower Jui... juhi


(French) Born during the month of June... juin


(African) One who is greatly loved Jujíe, Jujy, Jujey, Juj^ Jujea... juji


(Latin) One who is youthful; daughter of the sky

Jiulia, Joleta, Joletta, Jolette, Julaine, Julayna, Julee, Juleen, Julena, Juley, Juli, Juliaeta, Juliaetta, Juliana, Juliane, Juliann, Julianne, Julie, Julienne, Juliet, Julieta, Julietta, Juliette, Julina, Juline, Julinka, Juliska, Julissa, Julita, Julitta, Julyana, Julyanna, Julyet, Julyetta, Julyette, Julyne, Jooley, Joolie, Julisa, Julisha, Julyssa, Jolyon, Julcsa, Julene, Jules... julia


(Latin) Form of Julia, meaning “one who is youthful; daughter of the sky”; born during the month of July Julye... july


(Arabic) Resembling a silver pearl Jumana, Jumanna, Jumannah... jumanah


(African) A child who is loved by all... jumoke

Jumper’s Knee

See PATELLAR TENDINITIS.... jumper’s knee


(Latin) One who is youthful; born during the month of June Junae, Junel, Junelle, Junette, Junita, Junia... june

Jungian Analysis

A school of ‘analytical psychology’, ?rst described by Carl Gustav Jung in 1913. It introduced the concepts of ‘introvert’ and ‘extrovert’ personalities, and developed the theory of the ‘collective unconscious’ with its archetypes of man’s basic psychic nature. In contrast with Freudian analysis (see FREUDIAN THEORY), in Jungian analysis the relationship between therapist and patient is less one-sided because the therapist is more willing to be active and to reveal information about him or herself. (See also PSYCHOANALYSIS.)... jungian analysis


(Latin) In mythology, queen of the heavens and goddess of marriage and women

Junot, Juneau, Juneaux... juno

Jussiaea Tenella

Burm. f.

Synonym: J. linifolia Vahl. J. fissendocarpa Haines.

Family: Onagraceae.

Habitat: Watery and swampy places in Bihar and Orissa and in some parts of South India.

Ayurvedic: Jala-lavanga (var.).

Action: See J. suffruticosa.

An infusion of the root is given in syphilis. The plant is employed in poultice for pimples.... jussiaea tenella

Justicia Betonica


Family: Acanthaceae.

Habitat: Throughout greater parts of India, in waste lands, hedges and rocky ravines.

Siddha/Tamil: Velimungil.

Folk: Had-paata (Bihar), Prameha- harati, Mokandar. (Madhya Pradesh).

Action: Plant—used in diarrhoea; externally for swellings and boils.... justicia betonica

Juncus Effusus


Synonym: J. communis E. Mey.

Family: Juncaceae.

Habitat: Eastern Himalayas and Khasi Hills.

English: Rush, Matting Rush.

Action: Pith—antilithic, discutient, diuretic, depurative, pectoral. Root—diuretic, especially in strangury.

The leaves gave flavonoids, lutcoline- 7-glucoside, diosmin and hesperidin; aerial parts gave phenolic constituents, effusol and juncusol. Juncusol is antimicrobial. A dihydrodibenzoxepin, isolated from the plant, showed cyto- toxic activity.... juncus effusus

Juniper Tea

Juniper Tea is made from juniper, an evergreen tree that grows mainly in Europe, northern Asia and North America. It grows basically in siliceous soils and their sizes and shapes differ: from tall trees to columnar or low spreading shrubs with long trailing branches. Juniper fruits are purple, blue, violet or brown and are typically harvested in early autumn. They are often used as flavoring agent in food. The main constituents of juniper fruits are alpha and beta-pinene, tannins, vitamin C, diterpenes and flavonoids. How To Make Juniper Tea To brew a perfect cup of juniper tea you will need to add 1 tablespoon of dried juniper berries in one cup of boiled water. Let it steep for about 15-20 minutes than, using a strainer to catch the juniper fruits, pour the tea into your cup and enjoy! Depending on your taste, you can add sugar or honey. Juniper Tea Benefits Juniper tea has been recognized in folk medicine as being a diuretic and a strong allied in kidney and bladder problems. Other benefits that you can experience when drinking this tea are:
  • Juniper Tea helps treating arthritis, rheumatism and gout.
  • Stimulates the appetite.
  • Stimulates menstrual flow.
  • Supports the functions of the stomach.
  • Helps treating colic, indigestion and flatulence.
Juniper Tea Side Effects Like in the case of other herbal teas, pregnant or breastfeeding women shouldn’t drink juniper tea without consulting their doctor first. If applied on open wounds, it may cause irritation and swelling. Also, juniper tea may interfere with diuretic drugs, the absorption of iron and other minerals. Over consumption may lead to:
  • Diarrhea
  • Kidney pain
  • Intestinal pain
  • Blood in the urine
  • High blood pressure
Juniper Tea makes a wonderful tea choice, thanks to its medicinal and healing properties. Just remember not to drink too much of it, though. Over consumption may lead to the side effects listed above! Two cups of juniper tea per day should be just enough!... juniper tea

Juniperus Communis

Linn. var. saxatillis Palias.

Synonym: J. communis auct. non L.

Family: Pinaceae; Cupressaceae.

Habitat: Native to Europe and North America. Distributed in Western Himalayas from Kumaon westwards at 1,700-4,200 m.

English: Common Juniper.

Ayurvedic: Hapushaa, Havushaa, Haauber, Matsyagandha.

Unani: Abahal, Haauber, Hubb-ul- arar, Aarar.

Action: Berries—diuretic, urinary antiseptic, carminative, digestive, sudorific, anti-inflammatory, emmenagogue. Used for acute and chronic cystitis, renal suppression (scanty micturition), catarrh of the bladder, albuminuria, amenorrhoea, leucorrhoea. Aerial parts—abortifacient.

Key application: In dyspepsia. (German Commission E.) Juniper berry may increase glucose levels in diabetics. (ESCOP.) As a diuretic.

(The British Herbal Pharmacopoeia.)

The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India recommends the dried fruit in malabsorption syndrome.

Animal studies have shown an increase in urine excretion as well as a direct effect on sooth muscle contraction. (German Commission E, ESCOP.)Con- traindicated in kidney disease. (Sharon M. Herr.)

(In Kerala, Hapushaa and Mundi are considered to be synonyms; Syphaer- anthus indicus,Asteraceae, is used as Hapushaa.)

The major constituents of the volatile oil are alpha-pinene, sabinene and alpha-terpinene. Methanolic extract of the plant gave several labdane diter- penoids and diterpenes. The leaves contain the biflavones, cupressufla- vone, amentoflavone, hinokiflavone, isocryptomerin and sciadopitysin. The berries also contain condensed tannins. Seeds gave haemagglutinin.

Juniperus recurva Buch-Ham ex D. Don, syn. J. excelsa auct. non-Bieb. (temperate Himalaya from Kashmir to Bhutan) is known as Weeping Blue Juniper. J. macropoda Boiss. (the Himalaya from Nepal onwards) is known as Himalayan Indian Juniper. Both the species are used like J. communis var. saxatillis.

The berries gave a diterpene ketone, sugrol, beta-sitosterol glucoside and 10-nonacosanol.

Plant extract can be used in toothpastes and mouth-rinses to reduce dental plaque and bleeding.

Dosage: Dried fruit—2-6 g powder. (API, Vol. III.)... juniperus communis

Justicia Procumbens


Family: Acanthaceae.

Habitat: Western Ghats, West Coast from Konkan to Kerala; abundant in the rainy season.

Ayurvedic: Parpata (substitute).

Action: The plant contains naphthofuranones, justicidin A, B, C, D, G and H, and diphyllin, which are used for the treatment of osteoporosis. The flowers contain peonidine glucoside. Essential oil— antifungal.... justicia procumbens

Juniperus Virginiana


Family: Pinaceae; Cupressaceae.

Habitat: Native to North America; introduced into India.

English: Pencil Cedar, Red Cedar.

Action: The berries in decoction are diaphoretic and emmenagogue like those of common juniper; leaves are diuretic. Red cedar oil is used in the preparation of insecticides. Small excrescences, called cedar apples, are sometimes found on the branches. These are used as an anthelmintic. (Yellow Cedar is equated with Thuja occidentalles.)

Juniperus procera Hochst. (East African Cedar), J. bermudiana Linn. (Bermuda Cedar) andJ.ChinensisLinn. (Chinese Juniper) have also been introduced into India.... juniperus virginiana

Jurinea Macrocephala


Synonym: J. dolomiacea Boiss.

Family: Compositae; Asteraceae.

Habitat: The Himalayas from Kashmir to Kumaon.

Ayurvedic: Jaatukanda, Gugguluka.

Folk: Guugal, Dhuup.

Action: Roots—used as incense. Stimulant, given in colic, also in fever after child birth. Bruised roots are applied to eruptions.

The alcoholic extract of the root inhibits about 50% growth of NK65 strain of Plasmodium berghei at a dose of 2 g/kg per day in 4 days.... jurinea macrocephala

Jussiaea Suffruticosa


Synonym: Ludwigia octovalvis (Jacq.) Raven. Oenothera octovalis Jacq.

Family: Onagraceae.

Habitat: A native of the New World; found in marshy fields in India.

Ayurvedic: Jala-lavanga, Bhuu- lavanga, Bana-laung.

Siddha/Tamil: Nirkkrambu.

Action: Cooling, diuretic, astringent, mild laxative. Used in catarrhal affections of children; applied externally for burns and scalds. Pulp of the plant, steeped in buttermilk, is used for dysentery. Root—febrifuge.... jussiaea suffruticosa

Justica Tranquebariensis

Linn. f.

Family: Acanthaceae.

Habitat: Deccan, Mysore southwards.

Folk: Sivanarvembu (Tamil Nadu).

Action: Leaves—cooling, aperient; given for smallpox to children, bruised leaves applied to contusions.

The alcoholic extract of the aerial parts yielded several lignans, phy- tosterols, brassicasterol, campesterol, 7,22-ergostadienol, stigmasterol, sitosterol, spinasterol, 28-isofucostil and a sterol glucoside, beta-sitosterol-3-O- glucoside.

Justica vasculosa Wall. (Eastern Himalayas, Assam Khasi Hills) is also used for inflammations.... justica tranquebariensis

Justicia Gendarussa

Burm. f.

Synonym: Gendarussa vulgaris Nees.

Family: Acanthaceae.

Habitat: Throughout the greater part of India and Andaman Islands.

Ayurvedic: Krishna Vaasaa (blue var.), Nila-nirgundi, Krishna- nirgundi, Nila-manjari.

Siddha/Tamil: Karunochhi, Vadaikkuthi.

Action: Febrifuge, diaphoretic, emetic, emmenagogue. Infusion of leaves—given internally in cephalal- gia, hemiplegia and facial paralysis. Fresh leaves—used topically in oedema and rheumatism. Bark— emetic.

The leaves contain beta-sitosterol, an alkaloid, lupeol, friedelin and aromatic amines.... justicia gendarussa


(Latin) Feminine form of Justin; one who is just and upright Justa, Justeen, Justeene, Justene, Justie, Justina, Justinn, Justy, Justyna, Justyne, Justeena, Justyna, Justea... justine


(Latin) In mythology, goddess of fountains and springs Jutorna, Jutourna... juturna


(Latin) In mythology, goddess of youth... juventas


(African) The golden woman Jwahyr, Jwaheer, Jwahear... jwahir


(Indian) Born of the light Jyotika, Jyotis, Jyotie, Jyoty, Jyotey, Jyotee, Jyotea... jyoti


(Indian) Woman of the moonlight... jyotsna


A yellow liquid obtained by squeezing lime-fruit, Citrus limetta. In common with lemon-juice, it is a rich source of vitamin C (16·8–62·5 mg per 100 ml) and contains a large quantity of citric acid. It is used as a refreshing drink and as a preventive of, and remedy for, SCURVY. Lime-juice which has been boiled, or preserved for a prolonged period, loses its anti-scorbutic properties.... lime-juice

Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (jia)

Previously called juvenile rheumatoid arthritis and juvenile chronic arthritis, this is a set of related conditions of unknown cause affecting children. Characteristically, the synovial membrane of a joint or joints becomes in?amed and swollen for at leat six weeks (and often very much longer – even years). About 1 in 10,000 children develop it each year, many of whom have certain HLA genetic markers, thought to be important in determining who gets the illness. In?ammatory CYTOKINES play a big part.

Clinical features There are various types. The oligoarthritic type involves 1–4 joints (usually knee or ankle) which become hot, swollen and painful. One complication is an in?ammation of the eyes – UVEITIS. The condition often ‘burns out’, but may reappear at any time, even years later.

The polyarthritic type is more like RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS in adults, and the child may have persistent symptoms leading to major joint deformity and crippling.

The systemic type, previously called Still’s disease, presents with a high fever and rash, enlarged liver, spleen and lymph nodes, and arthritis – although the latter may be mild. In some children the illness becomes recurrent; in others it dies down only to return as polyarthritis.

Complications These include uveitis, which can lead to loss of vision; a failure to thrive; osteoporosis (see under BONE, DISORDERS OF); joint deformity; and psychosocial diffculties.

Treatment This includes ANTIPYRETICS and ANALGESICS, including NON-STEROIDAL ANTIINFLAMMATORY DRUGS (NSAIDS), intra-articular steroid injections, anti-tumour necrosis factor drugs and steroids.

Physiotherapy is vital, and children may need to wear splints or other orthotic devices to alleviate deformity and pain. Orthopaedic operative procedures may be necessary.... juvenile idiopathic arthritis (jia)

Lonicera Japonica


Family: Caprifoliaceae.

Habitat: Assam (Lushai hills); cultivated in gardens.

English: Japanese Honeysuckle.

Action: The plant is used in China as an antipyretic, stomachic and in dysentery, also as an antidote to consumption of poisonous mushroom. Dried flowers are considered diuretic.

The plant contains tannin and a sa- ponin; lutolin and i-inositol have been isolated from the flowers. The berries are rich in carotenoids of which cryp- toxanthin is the major component. Lonicera angustifolia Wall. ex DC. (the Himalayas from Kashmir to Sikkim at altitudes of 1,800-3,600 m), known as Geaang, Chulu and Mithik in Punjab; and L. glaucea Hook. f. Thoms. (the Himalayas from Kashmir to Ku- maon at altitudes of 3,600-4,800 m), known as Sheaa and Shevaa in Punjab and Kumaon, possess antispasmodic properties.

Lonicera periclymenum Linn., Woodbine Honeysuckle, cultivated in hill stations of India, possesses an- tispasmodic, diuretic and sudorific properties. Flowers are used in the form of syrup in diseases of the respiratory tract. The leaves contain an amorphous glycoside and salicylic acid. Sec- oiridoid and secoxyloganin have been isolated from the plant.

Lonicera quinquelocularis Hardw. is equated with Himalayan Honeysuckle, found in the Himalayas from Kashmir to Bhutan, up to an altitude of 4,000 m.

Honeysuckle, also known as Duch Honeysuckle, Goat's Leaf, is equated with Lonicera caprifolium Linn.... lonicera japonica

Mirabilis Jalapa


Family: Nyctaginaceae.

Habitat: North-West Himalayas, Bengal and Manipur.

English: Four-O'Clock Plant, Marvel of Peru.

Ayurvedic: Trisandhi.

Unani: Gul-abbaas.

Siddha/Tamil: Andhimalligai.

Action: Leaf—used for treating uterine discharge; as poultice for abscesses and boils; fresh juice is applied to body in urticaria, also for inflammations and bruises. Tuber— used as a poultice on carbuncles. Root—mild purgative, spasmolytic.

The tuberous roots were erroneously thought to be the source of jalap.

The plant is used for its antitumour and virus-inhibitory activity.

The plant contains triterpenes, al- pha-amyrin and its acetate. Mirabilis Antiviral Protein (MAP) was isolated from the tuberous roots. MAP also showed antiproliferative effect on tumour cells. (MAP is abortifacient.)

Two Mirabilis jalapa antimicrobial proteins, Mj-AMP-1 and Mj-AMP-2, isolated from seeds, showed broad spectrum antifungal actvity involving a number of pathogenic fungi.

Miraxanthins I, II, III and IV, indi- caxanthin and vulgaxanthin have been isolated from flowers.... mirabilis jalapa

St.johns Wort

Health, Power, Protection, Strength, Love, Divination, Happiness... st.johns wort

Stevens-johnson Syndrome

See ERYTHEMA – Erythema multiforme.... stevens-johnson syndrome

Vernonia Javanica


Synonym: V. arborea Hook. f. non- Buch.-Ham.

Family: Compositae; Asteraceae.

Habitat: West Bengal, Assam, Meghalaya and Western Ghats.

Siddha/Tamil: Shutthi.

Action: Bark—febrifuge. The bark is chewed as a substitute for betel leaves.... vernonia javanica

Nardostachys Jatamansi


Synonym: N. grandiflora DC.

Family: Valerianaceae.

Habitat: Alpine Himalayas, Kumaon, Sikkim and Bhutan.

English: Spikenard, Musk-root.

Ayurvedic: Maansi, Jataamaansi, Bhuutajataa, Tapaswini, Sulo- mashaa, Jatilaa, Naladaa.

Unani: Sumbul-e-Hindi, Sambul-ut- Teeb, Naardeen-e-Hindi, Baalchhar.

Siddha/Tamil: Sadamanchil.

Action: Used as a substitute for Valerian. Tranquilizer, sedative, hypotensive. Used for the treatment of epilepsy, hysteria, convulsive affections, palpitation of heart and in intestinal colic. A decoction of powdered roots is prescribed as a home remedy for high blood pressure. It is used in dysmenorrhoea for pain relief and smooth menstrual flow. It is used in hair oil for arresting hair loss and greying of hair.

The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India recommends dry rhizomes in obstinate skin diseases, erysipelas, disturbed mental state and insomnia.

The rhizome is rich in sesquiter- penoids. The crude drug gave an oil (yield 2.5% v/w), which contains d- nardostachone, valeranone and jata- mansone as the major ketonic sesqui- terpenes. The oil potentiated phenobarbital narcosis in rats, reduced brain serotonin content and decreased the conditioned avoidance performance in cats.

Jatamansone was shown to exert tranquilizing effect in mice and monkeys. In rabbits, jatamansone was found to impair biosynthesis of serotonin in the brain leading to a reduction in brain level of 5-hydroxytrypta- mine. The degradation of serotonin was unaffected. The mode of action of jatamansone was thus in variance with that of reserpine which has direct action on the cell to liberate serotonin.

On the other hand, the alcoholic extract of the roots of Indian Nard caused an overall increase in the levels of central monamines, 5-hydroxy indole acetic acid and the inhibitory amino acids, gamma-aminobutyric acid, norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonin in rat brain.

In a clinical trial on hyperkinetic children, jatamansone showed significant reduction in hyperactivity and improvement in restlessness and aggressiveness, almost at par with D- amphetamine.

The volatile oil was found to be less active than quinidine in several tests. It did not counteract digitalis induced ventricular arrhythmias.

Jatamansone semicarbazone, a sesquiterpene ketone, was found to possess antiestrogenic activity.

N. jatamansi is also used in place of Muraa (Selinum tenuifolium Wall. ex DC.)

Dosage: Root—2-3 g powder; 5-10 g for infusion; 50-100 ml infusion. (API, Vol. I; CCRAS.)... nardostachys jatamansi

Ochna Jabotapita


Synonym: O. squarrosa Linn.

Family: Ochnaceae.

Habitat: Assam, Bihar, Orissa and Deccan Peninsula. Often cultivated in parks and gardens.

Siddha/Tamil: Chilanti, Sherundi.

Folk: Kanaka Champaa. (Bhuin- champaa, Bhuumi-champaka (Ochna pumila).

Action: Bark—digestive tonic. Root—a decoction is used in asthma, tuberculosis and in menstrual disorders. Leaves— boiled and used as emollient cataplasm; used as a poultice in lumbago.

Isoflavones, along with beta-sitos- terol and oleanolic acid, have been isolated from the heartwood.

A related species, Ochna pumila Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don., found in outer Himalayas and sub-Himalayan tract from Kumaon to Assam, is reported to exhibit antitubercular activity. Tetrahydroamentoflavone has been isolated from the leaves. The plant is also used for epilepsy in folk medicine.... ochna jabotapita

Oenanthe Javanica

(Blume) DC.

O. stolinifera Wall. ex

Family: Apiaceae; Umbelliferae.

Habitat: Marshy places and river banks in North India from Kashmir to Assam.

Folk: Jateraa (Meghalaya); Pan- turasi (Bengal).

Action: The plant extract showed strong antimutagenic and antitu- mour activity.

From the herb, beta-sitosteryl gluco- side, stigmasteryl glucoside, isorham- netin and hyperin were isolated. The fruit yield 1.5% of an essential oil, containing phellandrene and myristicin.

Linalool (70.0%) was determined in the flower oil.

Evening Primrose is equated with Oenothera biennis L. (native to North America). The oil from seeds, known as Evening Primrose oil, contains about 70% cis-linolenic acid and about 9% cis-gamma-linolenic acid (GLA). Evening Primrose oil is one of the most widely prescribed plant-derived medicines in the world. Sold under the trade name Epogam, it is recognized by the governments of Great Britain, Germany, Denmark, Ireland, Spain, Greece, South Africa, Australia and New Zealand as a treatment for eczema. A combination, known as Efamol Marine, used for eczema, contains 80% Evening Primrose Oil and 20% fish oil.

Evening Primrose Oil has become a frontline treatment in Great Britain for initial treatment of cyclical breast pain and fibrocystic breast disease.... oenanthe javanica

Xiu Juan

(Chinese) One who is elegant and graceful... xiu juan

Angelica, Japanese

Angelica shkiokiana. Part used: root. Constituents include a coumarin derivative.

Action. Anti-inflammatory, adaptogen, vasodilator, anti-stress, aphrodisiac, tonic. Action resembles Ginseng.

Uses: Diabetes. To reduce concentration of fats in the blood. Inflammation. Allergies: asthma, skin disorders. ... angelica, japanese

Australian Journal Of Medical Herbalism

Quarterly publication of the National Herbalists Association of Australia. Australian medicinal plants, Government reports, case studies, books, plant abstracts. For subscription details and complimentary copy of the Journal contact: NHAA, PO Box 65, Kingsgrove NSW 2208, Australia. Tel: +61(02) 502 2938. Annual subscription (Aus) $40 (overseas applicants include $15 for air mail, otherwise sent by sea mail). ... australian journal of medical herbalism

Senecio Jacquemontianus


Family: Compositae; Asteraceae.

Habitat: The Western Himalayas and Kashmir at elevation of 3,0003,900 m.

Folk: Poshkar, Hatermuula (Kashmir).

Action: Root—nervine tonic. Used as an adulterant of Saussurea lappa.

Whole plant extract gave senecio- nine.

Habitat: The Nilgiris and Uttar Pradesh. Introduced into Indian gardens

English: Groundsel.

Action: Formerly used as a diuretic, diaphoretic and emmenagogue, in dysmenorrhoea and bilious pains. No more recommended for internal use due to high concentration of hepatotoxic alkaloids. Infusion is used as a lotion in chronic mastitis, gout and haemorrhoids. Extracts of the plant are haemostatic.

From the dried plant material alkaloids (0.053-00.095%) have been isolated, including, seneciphylline, sene- cionine and retrorsine. Senecionine and retrorsine have been demonstrated to induce hepatic necrosis in experimental animals. The plant contains 950 mcg/kg of iodine on fresh basis.

A related species used in Western herbal, Senecio aureus Linn. (Golden Groundsel, Squaw Weed) is a uterine relaxant, stimulant to gravid uterus and a soothing drug for nervous and vascular irritability, menopausal symptoms, hot flushes. Alkaloids include senecifo- line, senescine, senecionine and otose- nine—pyrrolizidine alkaloids, in isolation, are highly toxic to liver. The plant is recommended only for external use as a douche for excessive vaginal discharge.... senecio jacquemontianus

Sophora Japonica


Family: Papilionaceae, Fabaceae.

Habitat: Kashmir; also introduced into forest Research Institute, Dehra Dun.

English: Japanese Pagoda tree, Chinese Scholar tree, Umbrella tree.

Action: Flower—bitter, astringent, styptic, antibacterial.

Flower buds are a very rich source of rutin (16.0-23.0% dry weight basis), several times more than that present in Buckwheat which is an important source of the flavonoid.

The plant is used for the treatment of bleeding due to hemorrhoids and ulcerative colitis. The antihaemorrhagic principle, quercetin, has been isolated from aqueous extract of dried buds.

The flower extract has been reported to exhibit hepato-protective activity.... sophora japonica

St. John`s Wort Tea

St. John’s Wort Tea is an herb that makes serotonin (the happiness substance) to remain active in the brain for an extensive period of time. It is used today in the fight against depressions and sleep problems. Description of St. John’s wort tea St. John’s Wort Tea is a perennial plant that grows throughout North America, Europe, India, China and Brazil. It has bright yellow star-shaped flowers. St. John Wort Tea is a renowned herb used as a natural anti-depressant all around the world. The Greeks used to soak the plant into wine before drinking it to cast away evil spirits. Nowadays we see these dangerous spirits in serious headaches and acute depressions. Benefits of St. John’s Wort Tea St. John’s Wort Tea can be used as a treatment in mild to moderate depression according to British Medical Journal. In the herbalist’s pharmacy St. John Wort Tea was considered a very strong herbal sedative and it was used in accordance with the patient’s own suffering.   St John’s Wort tea has minimal or no effects beyond placebo in the treatment of major depression according to National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM). Recently scientists discovered that St. John’s Wort Tea has antiviral and antibacterial properties. Risks of St. John’s Wort Tea St. John’s Wort Tea shouldn’t be mixed with other antidepressants because they cancel each other. If you get an unexpected rash, a headache or even nausea you should call you doctor at once. Side effects of John’s Wort Tea The side effects that St. Jonh’s Wort Tea can have, similar to placebos, are: gastrointestinal symptoms, sedation, tiredness, confusion or dizziness. It can also increase a sensibility to light and to sunburns. Preparation of St. John’e Wort Tea You can find St. John’s Wort Tea in ready made tea bags and loose leaf teas. Put one teaspoon in a cup of boiling water, let it steep for almost 5 minutes, strain and serve preferably hot with honey or sugar. St. John Wort Tea is a great medicine for depressions, it offers you a sense of well being, brings more peace into your life and it relaxes your mind. Drink a cup of St. John wort tea and forget about your nightmares.... st. john`s wort tea

Big Toe Joint, Inflammation

Synovitis. Treat as for gout.

Potato Poultice. 1 part potato juice to 3-4 parts hot water, applied on suitable material. Cover with protective. ... big toe joint, inflammation

British Journal Of Phytotherapy

Published six-monthly by the School of Phytotherapy (Herbal Medicine), edited by Hein Zeylstra. Scientific journal for the professional. Enquiries: School of Phytotherapy, Bucksteep Manor, Bodle Street Green, near Hailsham, East Sussex BN27 4RJ, UK. ... british journal of phytotherapy

European Journal Of Herbal Medicine

Published three times a year by The National Institute of Medical Herbalists, 9 Palace Gate, Exeter, Devon, England EX1 1JA. Material of high quality on all subjects relevant to the practice of herbal medicine, creating a forum for sharing information and opinion about developments in the field, including scientific, professional and political issues of importance to the medical herbalist. ... european journal of herbal medicine

Gerard, John

 1545-1611. Elizabethan physician. Born at Nantwich, Cheshire. Writer of the famous herbal: “Anatomie of Plants” (1597) in which is revealed considerable scientific insight into the medicinal character of plants. Herbalist to James I. Shakespeare must have visited his garden in Holborn, subsidised by the King. Also a surgeon, becoming a Master of Chirurgy. He was one of the first to discover the ‘companionship of plants’, referring to the affinities and antipathies in the plant kingdom.

First to grow potatoes in England. His garden at Holborn, London, and now Fetter Lane, was then a village. ... gerard, john

Stachytarpheta Jamaicensis


Synonym: S. indica C. B. Clarke.

Family: Verbenaceae.

Habitat: Cultivated in gardens.

English: Brazilian Tea, Bastard Vervain, Aaron's Rod.

Ayurvedic: Kariyartharani.

Siddha/Tamil: Simainayuruvi, Simainaivirunji, Naioringi.

Folk: Chirchiti, Marang Chirchiti.

Action: Febrifuge, antiinflammatory. In Brazil, the plant is externally used for purulent ulcers and internally for rheumatic inflammations and fever. An infusion of the bark is used against diarrhoea and dysentery.

The leaves contain friedelin, stig- masterol, ursolic acid, hispidulin, scu- tellarein, choline, phenolic acids, chlo- rogenic acid and flavonoids—6-hy- droxyluteolol-7-glucuronide, luteolol- 7-glucuronide and apigenol-7-glucu- ronide. Stems and leaves gave an iri- doid glycoside, tarphetalin (ipolami- ide). The leaves are reported to be used for colds and cough.... stachytarpheta jamaicensis

Syzygium Jambos

(Linn.) Alston.

Synonym: Eugenia jambos Linn. Jambosa vulgaris DC.

Family: Myrtaceae.

Habitat: Cultivated in many parts of India.

English: Rose Apple.

Ayurvedic: Raaj-Jambu. (Fruits— pale yellow or pinkish white).

Siddha/Tamil: Peru Navel.

Folk: Gulaabjaamun.

Action: Fruit—used in liver complaints. Bark—astringent, antidiarrhoeal, antidysenteric. Leaves—astringent, anti-inflammatory.

The juice of fresh fruit contains alanine, aspartic acid, cystine or cysteine, glutamine, threonine and tyrosine. The essential oil, obtained from leaves, is a good source of dl-alpha-pinene (2684%) and l-limonene (23-84%).

Ethyl acetate and methanolic extract of the leaves are very effective in curing pedal oedema and in acute and chronic swelling; also gave encouraging results in arthritis. Though all extracts (methanolic, hexane, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate) of the leaves exhibit anti-inflammatory activity, a 10% aqueous extract of the leaves is found significantly effective when compared to 80 mg/kg of phenylbutazone.

In Brazil, a decoction of dry leaves is given in diabetes.

Aerial parts exhibit diuretic activity.... syzygium jambos

Java Tea

Orthosiphon stamineus. Indian Bean Tree. Part used: leaves.

Constituents: Flavones, glycosides.

Uses: Kidney disorders. (Traditional)

Preparation. Tea. 1-2 teaspoons leaves to each cup water gently simmered 15 minutes. 1 cup 2-3 times daily. ... java tea

Jelly Fish Sting

Antihistamines indicated: (topical). Plant juices: pulp of leaves of any one – Plantain, Aloe Vera, Houseleek, Garlic, Marigold, Comfrey. Oil Eucalyptus. Witch Hazel water. Neat Cider vinegar.

Internal: Echinacea. Acid tincture of Lobelia (10-20 drops). Wounds may be severe enough to require surgical exploration, herbal antibiotic therapy or tetanus prophylaxis. Pain control is essential (Black Willow, Black Cohosh) as pain may be intense and patient restless from respiratory and cardiac distress. Wash with strong spirit (methylated, whiskey, etc). ... jelly fish sting


As expressed from fresh plants and used within 2-3 days or preserved with equal parts alcohol or glycerine. Use of home juicer suffices. Plantain, Horseradish, Marigold petals, Marshmallow leaves or root. ... juices

Parkinson, John

 1567-1650. Apothecary to two kings; first James I. When Charles I came to the throne he was named Botanicus Regis Primarius. Books: Paradise in Sole Paradisus Terristris (1629). It was a pun on his name: Park-in-suns Earthly Paradise, and referred to as a ‘speaking garden’. Theatre of Plants (1640). Describes 3,800 plants. A herbal in every sense of the word; most comprehensive in the English language. ... parkinson, john

Acromioclavicular Joint

The joint that lies between the outer end of the clavicle (collarbone) and the acromion (the bony prominence at the top of the scapula (shoulderblade).... acromioclavicular joint

Tea For Joints

If you have joint pains it’s best to treat them as soon as possible in order to avoid further complications, such as arthritis. Other than making your life a lot harder, joint pains may trigger other health complications such as bone cancer or even spinal cord issues. Joint problems consist of localized pain in your member and the incapacity to walk or move your hands properly. If that is the case, you better talk to a doctor before shopping for remedies, in order to find out which affection you’re dealing with. How a Tea for Joints Works A Tea for Joints’ main goal is to trigger a positive response from your body and to trick it into directing all reconstructing agents to the affected areas. These teas are well known for their curative properties, which spread from bringing relief in cases of stress, anxiety, headaches, migraines and even generalized pain. Efficient Tea for Joints In order to be efficient, a Tea for Joints needs to be one hundred percent safe (you may want to avoid other health complications) and to have a quick and positive effect on your body. To be able to do that, a Tea for Joints has to contain an elevated level of nutrients, enzymes, volatile oils and minerals (iron, sodium, magnesium and manganese). If you don’t know which teas contain all the necessary constituents, here’s a list to choose from: - Green Tea – can induce a state of calmness to both your articulations and bone system thanks to its substances. Scientists have shown that this Tea for Joints contains all the necessary ingredients that could sustain life, so you must have it in your medicine cabinet. However, if you’re experiencing menstrual or menopausal symptoms, it’s best to avoid it at all costs: it may cause uterine contractions. - Chamomile Tea – has soothing properties and it’s also good for a wide range of health complaints, from headaches to sore throats and even diabetes. It has a pleasant taste and a lovely smell. Not only that, but this tea is also one hundred percent safe, so you can drink as much as you want. - Raspberry Leaf Tea – contains a high level of vitamin C, which will enhance your health and give you an energy boost. You can also use it for female reproductive problems, such as infertility or even menopause. Two cups of Raspberry Leaf Tea per day might work miracles on your health! Tea for Joints Side Effects When taken properly, these teas are generally safe. However, exceeding the number of cups may lead to a number of affections, such as upset stomach, skin rash, diarrhea and nausea. If you’ve been taking one of these teas for a while and you’re experiencing some unusual reactions, ask for medical assistance immediately. Don’t take a Tea for Joints if you’re pregnant, breastfeeding, on blood thinners or anticoagulants. The same advice if you’re preparing for a surgery (some of the active constituents might interfere with your anesthetic). But if you have the green light from your doctor, choose a Tea for Joints that fits best your needs and enjoy its great health benefits!... tea for joints

Arthritis, Juvenile, Chronic

A group of rheumatoid conditions of unknown causation with onset before 16 years. Girls more than boys. Still’s disease being the form presenting with enlargement of spleen and lymph nodes, high temperature with macular rash comes and goes. Children usually ‘grow out of it’ although stiffness may continue. Deformities possible. Tardy bone growth of the mandibles giving the face a birdlike look. May progress to rheumatoid arthritis (girls) or ankylosing spondylitis (boys). So strong is psychosomatic evidence that sociologists believe it to be a sequel to broken families, divorce or bereavement. Few patients appear to come from a balanced environment or happy home.

Treatment. BHP (1983) recommends: Meadowsweet, Balm of Gilead, Poke root, Bogbean, Hart’s Tongue fern, Mountain Grape.

Teas: Singly or in combination (equal parts): Chamomile, Bogbean, Nettles, Yarrow. 1-2 teaspoons to each cup boiling water; infuse 5-10 minutes. 1 cup thrice daily before meals.

Tablets/capsules. Blue Flag root, Dandelion root, Poke root, Prickly Ash bark.

Formula. White Poplar bark 2; Black Cohosh half; Poke root quarter; Valerian quarter; Liquorice quarter. Mix. Dose: Powders: 500mg (two 00 capsules or one-third teaspoon) (children 5-12 years: 250mg – one 00 capsule or one-sixth teaspoon). Liquid extracts: 1 teaspoon: (children 5-12: 3-10 drops). Tinctures: 2 teaspoons: (children 5-12: 5-20 drops).

Evening Primrose oil. Immune enhancer.

Topical. Hot poultice: Slippery Elm, Mullein or Lobelia.

Diet: Lacto vegetarian. Kelp. Comfrey tea. Molasses. Low fat.

General. Adequate rest, good nursing, gentle manipulation but no massage to inflamed joints. Natural lifestyle. Parental emotional support.

Oily fish. See entry. ... arthritis, juvenile, chronic

Facet Joint

A type of joint found in the spine, formed by the bony knob (called a process) of one vertebra fitting into a hollow in the vertebra above. Facet joints allow a degree of movement between individual vertebrae, which gives the spine its flexibility.... facet joint

Finger-joint Replacement

A surgical procedure in which one or more artificial joints made of metal, plastic, or silicone rubber are used to replace finger joints destroyed by disease, usually rheumatoid arthritis or osteoarthritis.

The procedure is usually successful in relieving arthritic pain and enabling the patient to use his or her hands again, but it rarely restores normal movement.... finger-joint replacement

Jealousy, Morbid

Preoccupation with the potential sexual infidelity of one’s partner. The sufferer, most often a man, becomes convinced that his partner is having an affair. Morbid jealousy is usually caused by a personality disorder, depression, or paranoia, but may also occur in those suffering from alcohol dependence or organic brain syndrome (see brain syndrome, organic).... jealousy, morbid

Tea For Lucid Dreams

Having a lucid dream means dreaming while being aware of the fact that you are dreaming. However, many people become lucid in the middle of the dream or, on the contrary, fall lose reality contact after being lucid at first. Although traditional medicine can’t be very helpful in these cases, alternative medicine has a few tricks up its sleeve. How a Tea for Lucid Dreams Works A Tea for Lucid Dreams’ main purpose is to make you recall what you have dreamed by calming your nervous system and improving your memory function. These teas are good for a number of other diseases, such as memory loss, headaches or migraines. However, talk to an herbalist or to your doctor before starting any kind of herbal treatment in order to make sure everything will be alright. Efficient Tea for Lucid Dreams In order to work properly, a Tea for Lucid Dreams needs to be both very efficient and one hundred percent safe (since lucid dreams are not exactly a medical problem, you may want to avoid developing one). A tea that is rich in antioxidants, nutrients, tannins, volatile oils and minerals (sodium, magnesium, iron, manganese) would be very adequate. You may want to avoid teas with a large amount of acid agents (they could cause stomach pain). If you don’t know which teas could be useful for lucid dreams, here’s a list for guidance: - Green Tea – contains all the ingredients necessary to sustain life, so it’s useful for a wide range of ailments, not just lucid dreams. If you’re suffering from infertility, anemia, asthenia, loss of appetite, digestive tract complaints or nervous system failure, this decoction could also be useful. However, you must avoid it at all costs if you’re experiencing some menstrual or menopausal symptoms. The same advice if you’re pregnant (it may cause uterine contractions and therefore miscarriage). - Valerian Tea – was been used as a sleep aid since ancient times, when the Romans and the Greeks took it before going to bed. This Tea for Lucid Dreams, thanks to its active compounds, is a mild sedative and could also work miracles on your nervous system. However, you need to make sure that you don’t exceed the number of cups recommended per day in order to avoid hallucinations, tiredness or even death. - Chamomile Tea – of course, the world’s greatest panacea shouldn’t be left aside. If you’re having trouble remembering your dreams, try a cup of Chamomile Tea before you go to bed! This Tea has a great fragrance and a pleasant smell. Plus, it’s one hundred percent safe so you can drink as much as you want. Tea for Lucid Dreams Side Effects When taken according to specifications, these teas are generally safe. However, exceeding the number of cups recommended per day may lead to a number of health problems, such as diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, upset stomach or even death! If you’ve been taking one of these decoctions for a while and you’re experience a negative response from your body, ask for medical assistance right away! Don’t take a Tea for Lucid Dreams if you’re pregnant, breastfeeding, on blood thinners or anticoagulants. The same advice in case you’re preparing for a surgery. If your doctor says it’s ok to start an herbal treatment, choose a tea that fits best your requirements and enjoy its wonderful benefits!  ... tea for lucid dreams

Bartram, John And William

18th century botanists who opened up the then American wilderness in search of medicinal and ornamental plants. They blazed a trail through hostile Indian territory in early pioneering days, bringing back plants to stock the first botanical garden in America. A knowledge of healing by medicinal plants and barks enabled these simple pious Quakers to render aid to other settlers and to the Indians from whom they learnt the art of healing. It is believed their activities would have been devoted exclusively to healing had they not received a commission from King George III to explore and report on the natural history of the country. The Bartrams’ talent in the practice of natural medicine impressed the Swedish explorer/botanist Peter Kalm who noted formulae in his diary.

The Bartrams’ friends included Benjamin Franklin and Washington who often visited their house, resting in the garden with giant trees planted by the Bartrams. John (1699-1777) was described by Linnaeus as the “greatest contemporary natural botanist”. His son, William, was also an explorer- naturalist and artist whose works are now collector’s pieces. ... bartram, john and william

Jellyfish Stings

Stings from jellyfish, which belong to a group of marine animals called coelenterates or cnidarians.

Stinging capsules discharge when jellyfish tentacles are touched.

Usually, the sting causes only a mildly painful or itchy rash, but some jellyfish and Portuguese men-of-war (other members of the same group) can cause a severe sting.

Rarely, venom may cause vomiting, sweating, breathing difficulties, and collapse.

Dangerous species live mainly in tropical waters.

Antivenoms may be available.... jellyfish stings

Juvenile Arthritis

See juvenile chronic arthritis.... juvenile arthritis

Melanoma, Juvenile

A raised, reddishbrown skin blemish which sometimes appears on the face or legs in early childhood (see naevus). Although they are usually harmless, an unsightly growth,or one suspected of being skin cancer, can be removed surgically.... melanoma, juvenile

Metatarsophalangeal Joint

The joint between each metatarsal bone and its adjoining toe bone (see phalanges). The metatarsophalangeal joint at the base of the big toe is commonly affected by gout and by hallux rigidus.... metatarsophalangeal joint

Petroleum Jelly

A greasy substance obtained from petroleum, also known as petrolatum or soft paraffin. The jelly is commonly used as an ointment base, a protective dressing, and an emollient.... petroleum jelly

Christopher, John R.

Well-known American herbal practitioner and writer. Books: School of Natural Healing (1976) – comprehensive herbal work commended to practitioners. Childhood Diseases (1976) Theory and practice of children’s herbal medicine. Dr Christopher had many spectacular results hit the headlines, including one of his ‘Walnut cures’. One of the worst cases of eczema reported in the United States Army was that of a soldier whose head was an eruptive mass. Known treatments were of no avail. Obtaining permission from the doctor concerned, he prepared his ‘Walnut Tincture’ by steeping Walnut shells in brandy for 3 weeks. Making a gauze cap to fit the man’s head, he gave instructions for it to be kept moist with the Tincture 24 hours a day. Much to the amazement of the Army doctors concerned, the soldier was completely cured within one week. ... christopher, john r.

Examinations Jitters

Excessive nervousness. Overwhelmed by cumulative effects of prolonged worry, chronic fatigue, feeling of unwellness, loss of appetite, stomach upsets, poor concentration. To relax nerves, aid digestion and healthful sleep:

Alternatives: tablets, capsules, tinctures, extracts etc. Alfalfa, Primrose flowers, Ginseng, Vervain, Skullcap, Valerian, Passiflora, Ginkgo, Siberian Ginseng, Hops.

Powders, Liquid Extracts, Tinctures. Formula. Equal parts: Skullcap, Valerian, Mistletoe. Doses. Powders: 500mg (two 00 capsules or one-third teaspoon). Liquid Extracts: 1 teaspoon. Tinctures: 2 teaspoons. In water thrice daily.

On retiring. Cup Passion flower tea. (1-2 teaspoons to cup boiling water) ... examinations jitters

Jamaica Dogwood

Fish poison bark. Piscidia Erythrina L. German: Kornelbaum. French: Cornouiller. Spanish: Corniro. Italian: Corniola. Part used: root bark.

Constituents: piscidin, calcium oxalate, isoflavones, organic acids.

Action: sedative, antispasmodic, nerve relaxant, mild analgesic, hypnotic, antitussive, anti-inflammatory. Synergy: action resembles Wild Yam, Black Haw, Pulsatilla, Bryonia, Black Cohosh and Gelsemium regarding nerve symptoms.

Uses: Infantile hyperactivity, brain excitability, nervous instability, neuralgia, insomnia from excess coffee or mental activity, toothache, spasm of the womb, migraine.

Combines well with Valerian and Hops for over-excitability and sleeplessness. Preparations. Thrice daily.

Dried root bark. 2-4g or in decoction.

Liquid extract BPC 1934. (1:1 60 per cent alcohol). Dose: 2-8ml.

Tincture. 1 part to 5 parts alcohol (45 per cent). Dose: 5-15ml.

Tablets/capsules. The remedy is frequently combined with Valerian, Skullcap, Black Cohosh and Cayenne for nerve weakness and tension.

Not given in pregnancy or weak heart. ... jamaica dogwood


Eugenia jambolana. Syzygium cumini L. German: Jambosenbaum. French: Jambosier. Italian: Mela rosa. Indian: Jamuna. Seeds.

Keynote: anti-diabetic.

Constituents: jambosine (alkaloid), phenols.

Action: astringent diuretic, carminative, reputed hypoglycaemic (not specific).

Uses: Diabetes. (India – traditional) To reduce sugar in the urine. Colic, with severe griping pain. Preparations. 0.3 to 2 grams. Thrice daily.

Decoction: half-1 teaspoon to each cup water gently simmered 5 minutes. Dose: one-third to half a cup. Liquid Extract BHP (1983) 1:1 in 25 per cent alochol; dose 2-4ml in water.

Tincture: from powdered fruit stones: 1 part to 5 parts alcohol. Macerate 8 days; shaking daily.

Dose: 30-60 drops.

Powdered seeds: 0.3 to 2 grams. ... jambul

Jaundice, Catarrhal

 Now usually termed VIRAL HEPATITIS. Swelling of liver cells obstructs drainage. Plugged mucus in the bile duct; often caused by gluten foods. Aftermath of chills and colds or from excess milky or starchy foods. Congestion may be dispersed by speeding elimination of waste products of metabolism via the bowel (Blue Flag), the kidneys (Dandelion), and the skin (Devil’s Claw). Anti-catarrhals with special reference to the liver: Gotu Kola, Plantain, Goldenseal, Mountain Grape, Barberry.

Alternatives. Teas. Agrimony, Boldo, Balmony, Dandelion, Plantain, Gotu Kola.

Cold infusion. 2 teaspoons Barberry bark to each cup cold water; steep overnight. Half-1 cup every 3 hours.

Tablets/capsules. Goldenseal, Dandelion, Blue Flag, Devil’s Claw.

Formula. Equal parts: Dandelion, Devil’s Claw, Barberry. Dose – Powders: 500mg (two 00 capsules or one-third teaspoon). Liquid Extracts: one 5ml teaspoon. Tinctures: two 5ml teaspoons. Every 3 hours. ... jaundice, catarrhal

Peutz–jeghers Syndrome

A very rare, inherited condition in which polyps occur in the gastrointestinal tract and small, flat, brown spots appear on the lips and in the mouth. Occasionally the polyps bleed, or cause abdominal pain or intussusception. Tests include barium X-ray examination and endoscopy. Bleeding polyps may be removed.... peutz–jeghers syndrome

Stevens–johnson Syndrome

A rare, life-threatening form of erythema multiforme characterized by severe blisters and bleeding in the mucous membranes of the eyes, mouth, nose, and genitals.... stevens–johnson syndrome

John’s Wort

A herbal remedy derived from the plant HYPERICUM PERFORTUM. Capsules or infusions taken orally are effective in treating mild depression. St. John’s wort is also used in creams for burns, wounds, and joint problems. However, St John’s wort interacts with a wide variety of other medications. People should not take a St John’s wort preparation without first consulting a doctor or pharmacist.... john’s wort

Jaundice, Haemolytic

 Caused by disease toxins that kill off red blood cells, or autoimmune disease.

Treatment: emphasis is on new red cell production. Dosage would be according to individual tolerance. Alternatives. Tea. Mix equal parts: Agrimony, Clivers, Red Clover flowers. 2 teaspoons to each cup boiling water; infuse 5-15 minutes; one cup every 3 hours.

Decoction. Equal parts: Fringe Tree, Gentian, Milk Thistle. 2 teaspoons to each cup water gently simmered 20 minutes. Half-1 cup every 3 hours, or as much as tolerated.

Tablets/capsules. Red Clover, Ginseng.

Formula. Equal parts: Fringe Tree, Yellow Dock root, Dandelion. Dose – Powders: 500mg (two 00 capsules or one-third teaspoon). Liquid Extracts: one 5ml teaspoon. Tinctures: two 5ml teaspoons. Every 3 hours in water or honey. ... jaundice, haemolytic

Jaundice, Infective

 Caused by toxins produced by infections: influenza, malaria, etc.

Indicated: anti-bacterials, anti-microbials that activate the body’s immune system to inhibit growth of bacteria and germs. The following have special reference to the liver.

Alternatives. Teas. From any of the following: Holy Thistle, Thyme.

Tablets/capsules. Echinacea. Goldenseal. Blue Flag.

Formula. Echinacea 2; Milk Thistle 1; Blue Flag root 1. Dose – Powders: 500mg (two 00 capsules or one-third teaspoon). Liquid Extracts: one 5ml teaspoon. Tinctures: two 5ml teaspoons. Every 3 hours. Tincture Myrrh BPC (1973) 20-30 drops in water every 3 hours.

See: NOTIFIABLE DISEASES. ... jaundice, infective

Jaundice, Obstructive

 May be due to hold-up in flow of bile from the liver down the bile duct. Bile enters the blood and is borne round the body by the circulation. Obstruction may be due to a gall stone lodged in the gall duct, or to a swelling of the liver or pancreas.

Symptoms: skin has a yellow tinge especially whites of the eyes. Motions become clay-coloured due to absence of bile in the intestines. Bitter herbs keep the bile fluid and flowing.

Alternatives. Teas. Agrimony, Bogbean, Clivers, Hyssop. Mix. One heaped teaspoon to each cup boiling water; infuse 15 minutes. 1 cup freely.

Decoction. 2 teaspoons shredded Gentian root to each cup cold water. Allow to stand overnight. Half cup every two hours.

Tablets/capsules. Dandelion, Goldenseal, Prickly Ash.

Formula. Milk Thistle 2; Blue Flag root 1; Valerian half. Dose – Powders: 500mg (two 00 capsules or one-third teaspoon). Liquid Extracts: one 5ml teaspoon. Tinctures: two 5ml teaspoons. Every 3 hours. Frank Roberts MNIMH. Liquid extracts: Celandine (greater), Butternut, Fringe Tree, Dandelion; 2 drachms (8ml) of each. Purified or spring water to 12oz. Dose: tablespoon every 2 hours. ... jaundice, obstructive


Peanut of the desert. Simmondsia chinensis. Part used: nut-bean. An animal fat (wax) substitute. Contains myristic acid. Once an important medicinal fruit among Southern Arizona Indians. Action: anti-oxidant, emollient, digestant, anti-inflammatory, detergent, anti-foaming agent, vulnerary for cuts and injuries, appetite-depressant, helps restore pH balance, tuberculostatic. The oil is not readily broken-down by the digestive juices, thus it more directly benefits the intestines.

Uses: Used by the native population for indigestion from a ‘cold’ stomach, for wounds that refuse to heal, and by the squaws for painless delivery. Internally, said to inhibit the spread of tuberculosis.

External: Mexican men still apply the oil to their eye-brows and hair for growth while their women use it to dress their braids and tresses. To the scalp the oil removes excess sebum, moistens dry skin and expels dandruff. Used for minor skin disorders, acne, sunburn, minor burns, chapped skin, nappy-rash, soft fingernails and facial blemishes.

Preparations: Nuts – eaten freely by Mexicans, their children and farm animals. Roasted to make coffee. Meal left over after oil extraction contains no less than 17 amino acids. With its 35 per cent protein Jojoba is a valuable nutrient. Oil is obtained from Mexican beans by cold pressing to ensure that properties provided by nature are not destroyed by chemical processing. It has now replaced some animal oils, especially whale oil (spermaceti) as a base for ointments, creams, bath oils, suntan lotions, and other cosmetic preparations. So successful it is as a substitute for whale oil that the sperm whale now has a new lease of life. It is both non-toxic and non-allergenic. May substitute Olive oil in salads. ... jojoba

Wiring Of The Jaws

Immobilization of the jaws by means of metal wires to allow a fracture of the jaw to heal or as part of a treatment for obesity.

When a fracture is being treated, the jaws are kept wired in a fixed position for about 6 weeks. For promoting weight loss, the jaws are wired for as long as a year. In both cases, the person is unable to chew and can take only a liquid or semi-liquid diet. This form of diet treatment often fails because the person resumes previous eating habits following removal of the wires.... wiring of the jaws

Ankle Jerk

a deep tendon reflex elicited when the Achilles tendon is stretched and then struck with a tendon hammer. The normal response is reflex contraction of the calf muscles and plantar flexion of the ankle. The ankle jerk may be increased if the spinal cord is compressed above the level of the first sacral spinal nerve (which arises at the level of the second lumbar vertebra). If the nerve itself is cut or compressed the reflex is reduced or absent.... ankle jerk

Arthrodic Joint

(gliding joint) a form of *diarthrosis (freely movable joint) in which the bony surfaces slide over each other without angular or rotational movement. Examples are the joints of the carpus and tarsus.... arthrodic joint

Ball-and-socket Joint

see enarthrosis.... ball-and-socket joint

Bence-jones Protein

a protein of low molecular weight found in the urine of patients with multiple *myeloma and rarely in patients with *lymphoma, *leukaemia, and *Hodgkin’s disease. [H. Bence-Jones (1814–73), British physician]... bence-jones protein

Juniper Berries

Juniperus communis L. German: Wacholder. French: Genie?vre. Spanish: Junipero. Italian: Ginepro. Chinese: Kuli. Iranian: Abhala. Arabian: Habul hurer. Indian: Hanbera. Dried ripe berries. Keynotes: kidney and bladder.

Constituents: volatile oil, resin, grape sugar, diterpene acids, tannins, Vitamin C.

Action: urinary antiseptic, stimulating diuretic, digestive tonic, emmenagogue, parasiticide (externally), carminative, sudorific. The action of gin as a diuretic is due to oil expressed from the berries. Anti- diabetic (unconfirmed).

Uses: Cystitis, renal suppression (scanty micturition), catarrh of the bladder, proteinuria (albuminuria). Digestive weakness caused by poor secretion of gastric juices, flatulence. Aching muscles due to excess lactic acid. Amenorrhoea.

External. Aromatherapy for gout: lotion for joints. As an ingredient of massage oils for rheumatism and arthritis. Cirrhosis of the liver: upper abdominal massage.

Combination: Parsley Piert enhances action in bladder disorders. Combines well with Wild Carrot and Hydrangea for stone.

Preparations: Thrice daily, or as prescribed.

Tea: half-1 teaspoon crushed berries to each cup boiling water; infuse 30 minutes. Half-1 cup.

Tablets/capsules. 250mg. 1-2.

Tincture BHP (1983): 1 part to 5 parts 45 per cent alcohol. 1-2ml.

Basis of Martini and gin (gin and tonic).

Oil: 5-6 drops in honey after meals.

Aromatherapy. 3-6 drops in two teaspoons Almond oil or other base oil, for massage. Precaution. Not used internally without a break for every two weeks. Contra-indicated: pregnancy, Bright’s disease. ... juniper berries

New Jersey Tea

Red root. Wild snowball. Ceanothus americana L. German: Sa?ckelblume. French: Ce?anothe. Italian: Ceanoto. Leaves. Leaves were used as a substitute for tea during the American War of Independence. Keynote: spleen.

Action: alterative, febrifuge, astringent, stimulating tonic, expectorant.

Uses: Enlargement of the spleen from infection or toxic self-poisoning. Deep-seated pain in the left hypochondrium. Cannot lie down for pain on left side.

“It is a curious fact that many dropsical patients can be cured by spleen remedies.” (Dr Rademacher, 1879)

Combines well with Fringe Tree bark.

Preparations: Thrice daily.

Tea. 1 teaspoon to each cup boiling water. Dose: quarter to half a cup.

Liquid extract. 5-30 drops.

Injection for gonorrhoea, leucorrhoea or chronic vaginal discharge: 2oz herb to 2 pints water; bring to boil, simmer for 1 minute; strain when warm. Inject. Use confined to practitioner. ... new jersey tea

Creutzfeldt–jakob Disease

A rare, rapidly progressive degenerative condition of the brain. Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (CJD) is thought to be due to an infection with a prion (slow virus). This is similar to the agent that causes scrapie in sheep and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in cattle. One main variant of CJD largely affects middleaged or elderly people and has no obvious cause. A second main variant, occurring in younger people, is associated with contamination during brain surgery or transplants from infected people, or treatment with human growth hormone or gonadotrophin hormones. Recently, a 3rd variant, called new variant (nv) CJD, that attacks people in their teens and 20s has been identified. NvCJD causes pathological changes in the brain similar to those seen in BSEinfected cattle. It is thought to be acquired by eating infected beef.

Symptoms are similar for all variants. Progressive dementia and myoclonus (sudden muscular contractions) occur; muscular coordination diminishes; the intellect and personality deteriorate; and blindness may develop. As the disease progresses, speech is lost and the body becomes rigid. There is no treatment and death usually occurs within 2–3 years.... creutzfeldt–jakob disease

Dislocation, Joint

Complete displacement of the 2 bones in a joint so that they are no longer in contact, usually as a result of injury. (Displacement that leaves the bones in partial contact is called subluxation.) It is usually accompanied by tearing of the joint ligaments and damage to the membrane that encases the joint. Injury severe enough to cause dislocation often also causes bone to fracture. Dislocation restricts or prevents the movement of the joint; it is usually very painful. The joint looks misshapen and swells. In some cases, dislocation is followed by complications, for example, paralysis.A dislocated joint should only be manipulated by medical personnel. First- aid treatment consists of applying a splint or, in the case of a dislocated shoulder, a sling. Sometimes, an operation is necessary to reset the bones.... dislocation, joint

Biceps Jerk

a deep tendon reflex mediated by the fifth cervical *spinal nerve (C5). The examiner’s thumb or index finger is placed over the patient’s biceps tendon in the elbow crease and struck sharply with a tendon hammer; the normal response is a reflex contraction of the biceps and flexion of the elbow. The jerk is exaggerated in upper *motor neuron lesions, such as a stroke, and reduced or absent in lower motor neuron lesions, such as a disc herniation, peripheral nerve injury, or peripheral neuropathy (e.g. diabetes, alcoholism).... biceps jerk

Breast-milk Jaundice

prolonged jaundice lasting several weeks after birth in breast-fed babies for which no other cause can be found. It improves with time and is not an indication to stop breast-feeding.... breast-milk jaundice

Clutton’s Joint

a painless joint effusion in a child, usually in the knee, caused by inflammation of the synovial membranes due to congenital syphilis. [H. H. Clutton (1850–1909), British surgeon]... clutton’s joint

Delusional Jealousy

a *delusional belief that one’s partner is unfaithful when there is no reasonable evidence for this. It often occurs in the context of *alcoholism.... delusional jealousy

Gastric Juice

the liquid secreted by the *gastric glands of the stomach. Its main digestive constituents are hydrochloric acid, mucin, *rennin, and pepsinogen. The acid acts on pepsinogen to produce *pepsin, which functions best in an acid medium. The acidity of the stomach contents also kills unwanted bacteria and other organisms that have been ingested with the food. Gastric juice also contains *intrinsic factor, which is necessary for the absorption of vitamin B12.... gastric juice

Effusion, Joint

The accumulation of fluid in a joint space, causing swelling, limitation of movement, and usually pain and tenderness. A joint is enclosed by a capsule lined with a membrane called the synovium. The synovium normally secretes small amounts of fluid to lubricate the joint, but if it is damaged or inflamed (for example, by arthritis) it produces excessive fluid.

Pain and inflammation may be relieved by analgesic drugs, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and injections of corticosteroid drugs.

Swelling usually reduces with rest, firm bandaging, icepacks, and keeping the affected joint raised.

In some cases, the fluid is drawn out with a needle and syringe.... effusion, joint

Jaundice, Neonatal

Yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes in newborn babies, due to accumulation of bilirubin in the blood. It usually results from the liver being immature and unable to excrete bilirubin efficiently. This form of jaundice is usually harmless and disappears within a week. Rarely, severe or persistent neonatal jaundice is caused by haemolytic disease of the newborn, G6PD deficiency, hepatitis, hypothyroidism, biliary atresia, or infection.

Jaundiced babies usually require extra fluids and may be treated with phototherapy.

Exchange transfusion (see blood transfusion) may be needed in severe cases.

If severe neonatal jaundice is not treated promptly, kernicterus may occur.... jaundice, neonatal

Jogger’s Nipple

Soreness of the nipple caused by clothing rubbing against it, usually during sports such as jogging or long-distance running. Both men and women can be affected. Prevention is by applying petroleum jelly to the nipple before prolonged running.

joint The junction between 2 or more bones. Many joints are highly mobile, while others are fixed or allow only a small amount of movement.

Joints in the skull are fixed joints firmly secured by fibrous tissue. The bone surfaces of mobile joints are coated with smooth cartilage to reduce friction. The joint is sealed within a tough fibrous capsule lined with synovial membrane (see synovium), which produces a lubricating fluid. Each joint is surrounded by strong ligaments that support it and prevent excessive movement. Movement is controlled by muscles that are attached to bone by tendons on either side of the joint. Most mobile joints have at least one bursa nearby, which cushions a pressure point.

There are several types of mobile joint. The hinge joint is the simplest, allowing bending and straightening, as in the fingers. The knee and elbow joints are modified hinge joints that allow some rotation as well. Pivot joints, such as the joint between the 1st and 2nd vertebrae (see vertebra), allow rotation only. Ellipsoidal joints, such as the wrist, allow all types of movement except pivotal. Ball-and-socket joints include the hip and shoulder joints. These allow the widest range of movement (backwards or forwards, sideways, and rotation).

Common joint injuries include sprains, damage to the cartilage, torn ligaments, and tearing of the joint capsule.

Joint dislocation is usually caused by injury but is occasionally congenital.

A less severe injury may cause subluxation (partial dislocation).

Rarely, the bone ends are fractured, which may cause bleeding into the joint (haemarthrosis) or effusion (build-up of fluid in a joint) due to synovitis (inflammation of the joint lining).

Joints are commonly affected by arthritis.

Bursitis may occur as a result of local irritation or strain.... jogger’s nipple

Jungian Theory

Ideas put forward by the Swiss psychiatrist Carl Gustav Jung (1875–1961). Jung theorized that certain ideas (called archetypes) inherited from experiences in a person’s distant past were present in his or her unconscious and controlled the way he or she viewed the world. Jung called these shared ideas the “collective unconscious”. He believed that each individual also had a “personal unconscious”, containing experiences from his or her life, but he regarded the collective unconscious as superior. Therapy was aimed at putting people in touch with this source of ideas, particularly through dream interpretation. Jung’s approach was also based on his theory of personality, which postulated 2 basic types: the extrovert and the introvert. One of these types dominates a person’s consciousness and the other must be brought into consciousness and reconciled with its opposite for the person to become a whole individual.... jungian theory

Gliding Joint

see arthrodic joint.... gliding joint

Glomus Jugulare

a collection of *paraganglion cells in close relation to the internal jugular vein at its origin at the base of the skull. It is a site of origin for *glomus tumours (see also paraganglioma).... glomus jugulare

Hinge Joint

see ginglymus.... hinge joint

Intestinal Juice

see succus entericus.... intestinal juice

 jacksonian March

see epilepsy. [J. H. Jackson (1835–1911), British neurologist]...  jacksonian march

Jacquemier’s Sign

a bluish or purplish coloration of the vagina: a possible indication of pregnancy. [J. M. Jacquemier (1806–79), French obstetrician]... jacquemier’s sign


n. restless tossing and turning of a person suffering from a severe disease, frequently one with a high fever.... jactitation

Jaeger Test Types

a card with text printed in type of different sizes, used for testing acuity of near vision. [E. R. Jaeger von Jastthal (1818–84), Austrian ophthalmologist]... jaeger test types

Jamais Vu

one of the manifestations of temporal lobe *epilepsy, in which there is a sudden feeling of unfamiliarity with everyday surroundings.... jamais vu

Juvenile Chronic Arthritis

A rare form of arthritis affecting children. Juvenile chronic arthritis occurs more often in girls, and usually develops between 2 and 4 years of age or around puberty. There are 3 main types. Still’s disease (systemic onset juvenile arthritis) starts with fever, rash, enlarged lymph nodes, abdominal pain, and weight loss. These symptoms last for a period of several weeks. Joint pain, swelling, and stiffness may develop after several months. Polyarticular juvenile arthritis causes pain, swelling, and stiffness in many joints. Pauciarticular juvenile arthritis affects 4 joints or fewer.

Possible complications include short stature, anaemia, pleurisy, pericarditis, and enlargement of the liver and spleen. Uveitis may develop, which, if untreated, may damage vision. Rarely, amyloidosis may occur or kidney failure may develop. Diagnosis is based on the symptoms, together with the results of X-rays and blood tests, and is only made if the condition lasts for longer than 3 months.

Treatment may include antirheumatic drugs, corticosteroid drugs, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, or aspirin. Splints may be worn to rest inflamed joints and to reduce the risk of deformities. Physiotherapy reduces the risk of muscle wasting and deformities.

The arthritis usually clears up after several years. However, in some children, the condition remains active into adult life.

– kala-azar A form of leishmaniasis that is spread by insects. Kala-azar occurs in parts of Africa, India, the Mediterranean, and South America.... juvenile chronic arthritis

Neuropathic Joint

A joint that has been damaged by inflammation and a series of injuries, which pass unnoticed due to loss of sensation in the joint resulting from neuropathy (nerve damage caused by disease). Neuropathic joints develop in a number of conditions, including diabetes mellitus and untreated syphilis.

When sensation to pain is lost, abnormal stress and strain on a joint do not stimulate the protective reflex spasm of the surrounding muscles; this failure of the protective reflex allows exaggerated movement that can damage the joint. Osteoarthritis, swelling, and deformity are features of a neuropathic joint.An orthopaedic brace or caliper splint may be necessary to restrict any abnormal movement of the joint.

Occasionally, an arthrodesis (a surgical operation to fuse a joint) is performed.

The nerve damage is irreversible.... neuropathic joint

Osteochondritis Juvenilis

Inflammation of an epiphysis (growing end of bone) in children and adolescents, causing pain, tenderness, and restricted movement if the epiphysis forms part of a joint. The inflammation leads to softening of the bone, which may result in deformity. The condition may be due to disruption of the bone’s blood supply. There are several types: Perthes’ disease; Scheuermann’s disease, which affects several adjoining vertebrae; and other types that affect certain bones in the foot and wrist.

The affected bone may be immobilized in an orthopaedic brace or plaster cast. In Perthes’ disease, surgery may be required to prevent more deformity. The bone usually regenerates within 3 years and rehardens, but deformity may be permanent and increases the risk of osteoarthritis in later life.... osteochondritis juvenilis

Creutzfeldt–jakob Disease

(CJD) a rapidly progressive rare neurological disease, a form of human *spongiform encephalopathy in which dementia progresses to death after a period of 3–12 months. There is no effective treatment. The causative agent is an abnormal *prion protein that accumulates in the brain and causes widespread destruction of tissue. CJD typically affects middle-aged to elderly people. Some 15% of cases are due to a form of the disease that is inherited as an autosomal *dominant trait but most cases are sporadic, susceptibility being genetically determined. A few cases of CJD are acquired: the agent is known to have been transmitted by tissue and organ transplantation and by human growth hormone injections, but the disease may take years to manifest itself. Variant Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (vCJD) is the human form of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), which is most likely acquired by the ingestion of infected beef products. Patients are younger than those affected with sporadic CJD and present with psychiatric symptoms (e.g. depression, anxiety) and hypersensitivity to touch, which are followed after months by myoclonic jerks (see myoclonus) and dementia. [H. G. Creutzfeldt (1885–1964) and A. M. Jakob (1884–1931), German psychiatrists]... creutzfeldt–jakob disease

Janeway Lesions

red spots on the palm of the hands caused by a bacterial infection of the heart (see endocarditis). [E. G. Janeway (1841–1911), US physician]... janeway lesions

Jarisch–herxheimer Reaction

(Herxheimer reaction) exacerbation of the symptoms of syphilis that may occur on starting antibiotic therapy for the disease. The effect is transient and requires no treatment. [A. Jarisch (1850–1902), Austrian dermatologist; K. Herxheimer (1861–1944), German dermatologist]... jarisch–herxheimer reaction

Jaw-jerk Reflex

an abnormal reflex elicited by lightly placing the index finger across the chin of the patient and tapping it with a tendon hammer while the jaw hangs loosely open. A brisk upward movement of the jaw indicates an upper *motor neuron disorder above the brainstem.... jaw-jerk reflex

Jehovah’s Witnesses

a religious movement important in medicine because of its biblical prohibition on using blood or blood products, even to save a life. Individual witnesses who undergo transfusion (even against their will or unknowingly) risk being seen by their community as defiled and damned for eternity. Physicians therefore may have to respond in critical circumstances to a competent adult’s decision to refuse treatment: there may be alternative nonbiological methods of treatment. An accident and emergency department should have a discussed and agreed policy, with senior staff available to help and counsel junior staff.... jehovah’s witnesses


(jejuno-) combining form denoting the jejunum.... jejun

Jejunal Ulcer

see peptic ulcer; Zollinger-Ellison syndrome.... jejunal ulcer


n. surgical removal of part or the entirety of the jejunum.... jejunectomy


n. an operation in which part of the jejunum is joined to the distal ileum following the removal or bypass of diseased segments of small bowel. It was formerly used for the treatment of obesity but has been abandoned because of deleterious side-effects.... jejunoileostomy


n. a surgical operation in which the jejunum is brought through the abdominal wall as a *stoma. It may enable the insertion of a jejunal catheter for short-term infusion of nutrients or other substances. A feeding jejunostomy is a tube inserted into the jejunum using endoscopic or surgical techniques to allow the introduction of nutrients. This may be required when disease, previous surgery, or refractory vomiting prevents the placement of a *gastrostomy (PEG) tube. A percutaneous endoscopic gastrojejunostomy (PEG-J) is a jejunal extension that is applied to an existing PEG tube.... jejunostomy


n. surgical incision of the jejunum.... jejunotomy


n. the point at which two or more bones are connected. The opposing surfaces of the two bones are lined with cartilaginous, fibrous, or soft (synovial) tissue. The three main classes of joint are *diarthrosis (freely movable), *amphiarthrosis (slightly movable), and *synarthrosis (immovable).... joint


n. the opinion of a clinician in the context of medical care. In spite of technical advances, few decisions in medicine are automatic. This is particularly true where there are critical differences of data interpretation, potential conflicts between individuals or family members, or moral and procedural dilemmas.... judgment

Jugular Venous Pressure

(JVP) the pressure in the internal jugular vein, which is an indirect measurement of *central venous pressure (CVP) in the right atrium. In clinical practice the JVP is estimated by visual inspection at the bedside with the patient reclining at 45 degrees.... jugular venous pressure


n. (in anatomy) a ridge or furrow that connects two parts of a bone.... jugum

Jumper’s Knee

(patellar tendinitis) a form of *tendinitis that is common in athletes and dancers. Repeated sudden contracture of the quadriceps muscle at take-off causes inflammation of the attachment of the patellar tendon to the lower end of the patella. Treatment includes rest, physiotherapy, and anti-inflammatory medication.... jumper’s knee


n. (in anatomy) the point at which two different tissues or structures are in contact. See also neuromuscular junction.... junction

Junctional Epithelium

(JE) (in dentistry) the stratified squamous *epithelium that is directly attached to the surface of a tooth; it has a protective function against periodontal diseases.... junctional epithelium

Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

(JIA, Still’s disease) any one of a group of conditions characterized by inflammation of the joints lasting longer than 6 weeks and occurring before the age of 16. The causes are unknown but immunological and infective mechanisms are suspected. JIA can affect either four or fewer joints (pauciarticular JIA) or more than four (polyarticular JIA). There are two recognized types of pauciarticular JIA: type 1, which generally affects girls below the age of four; and type 2 (juvenile-onset spondylarthropathy), which generally affects boys over the age of nine. There are also two types of polyarticular JIA, depending on the presence or absence of a particular antibody in the blood. There is a great range of severity of these diseases. Treatment consists of pain management and prevention of subsequent deformity or limitation of movement (e.g. contractures). Long-term joint damage is prevented by use of medications similar to those used in rheumatoid arthritis.... juvenile idiopathic arthritis

Juvenile-onset Spondylarthropathy

see juvenile idiopathic arthritis.... juvenile-onset spondylarthropathy

Juvenile Plantar Dermatosis

see dermatosis.... juvenile plantar dermatosis

Juvenile Polyp

see polyp.... juvenile polyp


combining form denoting proximity to. Example: juxta-articular (near a joint).... juxta

Medical Jurisprudence

the study or practice of the legal aspects of medicine. See forensic medicine.... medical jurisprudence

Myoneural Junction

see neuromuscular junction.... myoneural junction

Organ Of Jacobson

(vomeronasal organ) a small blind sac in the wall of the nasal cavity. In humans it never develops properly and has no function, but in lower animals (e.g. snakes) it is one of the major organs of olfaction. [L. L. Jacobson (1783–1843), Danish anatomist]... organ of jacobson

Juxtaglomerular Apparatus

(JGA) a microscopic structure within the kidney that is important in regulating blood pressure, body fluid, and electrolytes. It is situated in each nephron, between the afferent arteriole of the glomerulus and the returning distal convoluted tubule of the same nephron. The JGA consists of specialized cells within the distal tubule (the macula densa), which detect the amount of sodium chloride passing through the tubule and can secrete locally acting vasoconstrictor substances that act on the associated afferent arteriole to induce a reduction in filtration pressure (tubuloglomerular feedback). Modified cells within the afferent arterioles secrete *renin in response to a fall in perfusion pressure or feedback from the macula densa and form a central role in the renin-*angiotensin-aldosterone axis. Mesangial cells support and connect the macula densa and the specialized cells in the afferent arteriole and have sympathetic innervation, facilitating the renin response to sympathetic nervous stimulation.... juxtaglomerular apparatus

Pancreatic Juice

the digestive juice secreted by the *pancreas. Its production is stimulated by hormones secreted by the duodenum, which in turn is stimulated by contact with food from the stomach. If the duodenum produces the hormone *secretin the pancreatic juice contains a large amount of sodium bicarbonate, which neutralizes the acidity of the stomach contents. Another hormone (see cholecystokinin) stimulates the production of a juice rich in digestive enzymes, including trypsinogen and chymotrypsinogen (which are converted to *trypsin and *chymotrypsin in the duodenum), *amylase, *lipase, and *maltase.... pancreatic juice

Peutz–jeghers Syndrome

a hereditary disorder in which the presence of multiple *polyps in the lining of the small intestine (intestinal *polyposis) is associated with pigmented areas (similar to freckles) around the lips, on the inside of the mouth, and on the palms and soles. The polyps can also occur in the colon and stomach. They may bleed, resulting in anaemia, or may cause obstruction of the bowel. Half of the patients develop malignant tumours (not necessarily of the bowel). [J. L. A. Peutz (1886–1957), Dutch physician; H. J. Jeghers (1904–90), US physician]... peutz–jeghers syndrome

Pivot Joint

see trochoid joint.... pivot joint

Saddle Joint

a form of *diarthrosis (freely movable joint) in which the articulating surfaces of the bones are reciprocally saddle-shaped. It occurs at the carpometacarpal joint of the thumb.... saddle joint

Sayre’s Jacket

a plaster of Paris cast shaped to fit around and support the backbone. It is used in cases where the vertebrae have been severely damaged by disease, such as tuberculosis. [L. A. Sayre (1820–1900), US surgeon]... sayre’s jacket

Sister Mary Joseph Nodule

a metastatic tumour nodule in the umbilicus that originates from a tumour in the pelvis or abdomen, particularly ovarian and stomach cancer. [Sister Mary Joseph Dempsey (1856–1939), US nurse]... sister mary joseph nodule

Substituted Judgment

a decision made by someone on behalf of a patient lacking capacity that is judged to reflect what the patient would have wanted had he or she had the mental capacity to decide for him- or herself. This judgment is best made by someone close to the patient who has a good knowledge of the patient’s beliefs, opinions, and character, provided that there are no potentially conflicting and partial interests at play. See also power of attorney; proxy decision.... substituted judgment

Synovial Joint

see diarthrosis.... synovial joint

Triceps Jerk

a tendon reflex that acts at the level of the seventh cervical spinal nerve. With the elbow flexed and relaxed, the triceps tendon is struck just above the elbow, causing contraction of the triceps and extension of the elbow. This reflex is increased in upper *motor neuron lesions and absent in lower motor neuron lesions.... triceps jerk

Trochoid Joint

(pivot joint) a form of *diarthrosis (freely movable joint) in which a bone moves round a central axis, allowing rotational movement. An example is the joint between the atlas and axis vertebrae.... trochoid joint

Value Judgment

a judgment of the worth, desirability, acceptability, or merit of something, as distinct from a claim about fact or neutral description.... value judgment

Variant Creutzfeldt–jakob Disease

(vCJD) see Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease.... variant creutzfeldt–jakob disease

Wharton’s Jelly

the mesoderm tissue of the umbilical cord, which becomes converted to a loose jelly-like *mesenchyme surrounding the umbilical blood vessels.... wharton’s jelly


Pilocarpus jaborandi

FAMILY: Rutaceae

SYNONYMS: Pernambuco jaborandi, P. pennatifolius, iaborandi, jamborandi, arrudo do mato, arruda brava, jamguaraddi, juarandi.

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: A woody shrub up to 2 metres high with a smooth, greyish bark, large brownish-green leathery leaves containing big oil glands and reddish-purple flowers.

DISTRIBUTION: Native to Brazil; other species are found in Paraguay, Cuba, the West Indies and Central America.

OTHER SPECIES: There are many members of the Rutaceae and Piperaceae family known simply as jaborandi, such as Piper jaborandi. Others include maranham jaborandi (P. microphyllus), ceara jaborandi (P. trachylophus) and aracti jaborandi (P. spicatus).There is consequently some confusion about the exact botanical source of the oil.

HERBAL/FOLK TRADITION: Jaborandi induces salivation and most gland secretions; it was also used at one time to promote hair growth. ‘Useful in psoriasis, prurigo, deafness ... chronic catarrh, tonsillitis and particularly dropsy.’ .

ACTIONS: Antiseptic, diaphoretic, emmenagogue, galactagogue, stimulant (nerve).

EXTRACTION: Essential oil by steam distillation from the dried leaflets.

CHARACTERISTICS: An orange or yellow liquid with a sweet-herbaceous fruity odour.

PRINCIPAL CONSTITUENTS: Pilocarpine is the main active constituent; also isopilocarpine, pilocarpidine, methyl nonyl ketone, dipentene and other hydrocarbons.

SAFETY DATA: Oral toxin, skin irritant, abortifacient.


OTHER USES: Various hypodermic solutions are prepared from pilocarpine: the crude oil is rarely used. Little used in perfumery or flavour work due to toxicity.... jaborandi

Circulation, Muscles And Joints:

Accumulation of toxins (M,S,B):

Angelica, white birch, carrot seed, celery seed, coriander, cumin, sweet fennel, grapefruit, juniper, lovage, parsley.

Aches and pains (M,C,B):

Ambrette, star anise, aniseed, French basil, West Indian bay, cajeput, calamintha, camphor (white), chamomile (German & Roman), coriander, eucalyptus (blue gum & peppermint), silver fir, galbanum, ginger, immortelle, lavandin, lavender (spike & true), lemongrass, sweet marjoram, mastic, mint (peppermint & spearmint), niaouli, nutmeg, black pepper, pine (longleaf & Scotch), rosemary, sage (clary & Spanish), hemlock spruce, thyme, turmeric, turpentine, vetiver.

Arthritis (M,S,C,B):

Allspice, angelica, benzoin, white birch, cajeput, camphor (white), carrot seed, cedarwood (Atlas, Texas & Virginian), celery seed, chamomile (German & Roman), clove bud, coriander, eucalyptus (blue gum & peppermint), silver fir, ginger, guaiacwood, juniper, lemon, sweet marjoram, mastic, myrrh, nutmeg, parsley, black pepper, pine (longleaf & Scotch), rosemary, Spanish sage, thyme, tumeric, turpentine, vetiver, yarrow.

Cellulitis (M,S,B):

White birch, cypress, sweet fennel, geranium, grapefruit, juniper, lemon, parsley, rosemary, thyme.

Debility/poor muscle tone (M,S,B):

Allspice, ambrette, borneol, ginger, grapefruit, sweet marjoram, black pepper, pine (longleaf & Scotch), rosemary, Spanish sage.

Gout (M,S,B):

Angelica, French basil, benzoin, carrot seed, celery seed, coriander, guaiacwood, juniper, lovage, mastic, pine (longleaf & Scotch), rosemary, thyme, turpentine.

High blood pressure & hypertension (M,B,V):

cananga, garlic, true lavender, lemon, sweet marjoram, melissa, clary sage, yarrow, ylang ylang.

Muscular cramp & stiffness (M,C,B):

Allspice, ambrette, coriander, cypress, grapefruit, jasmine, lavandin, lavender (spike & true), sweet marjoram, black pepper, pine (longleaf & Scotch), rosemary, thyme, vetiver.

Obesity (M,B):

White birch, sweet fennel, juniper, lemon, mandarin, orange (bitter & sweet).

Oedema & water retention (M,B):

Angelica, white birch, carrot seed, cypress, sweet fennel, geranium, grapefruit, juniper, lavage, mandarin, orange (bitter & sweet), rosemary, Spanish sage.

Palpitations (M):

Neroli, orange (bitter & sweet), rose (cabbage & damask), ylang ylang.

Poor circulation & low blood pressure (M,B):

Ambrette, Peru balsam, West Indian bay, benzoin, white birch, borneol, cinnamon leaf, coriander, cumin, cypress, eucalyptus blue gum, galbanum, geranium, ginger, lemon, lemongrass, lovage, neroli, niaouli, nutmeg, black pepper, pine (longleaf & Scotch), rose (cabbage & damask), rosemary, Spanish sage, hemlock spruce, thyme, violet.

Rheumatism (M,C,B):

Allspice, angelica, star anise, aniseed, Peru balsam, French basil, West Indian bay, benzoin, white birch, borneol, cajeput, calamintha, camphor (white), carrot seed, cedarwood (Atlas, Texas & Virginian), celery seed, chamomile (German & Roman), cinnamon leaf, clove bud, coriander, cypress, eucalyptus (blue gum & peppermint), sweet fennel, silver fir, galbanum, ginger, immortelle, juniper, lavandin, lavender (spike & true), lemon, lovage, sweet marjoram, mastic, niaouli, nutmeg, parsley, black pepper, pine (longleaf & Scotch), rosemary, Spanish sage, hemlock spruce, thyme, turmeric, turpentine, vetiver, violet, yarrow.

Sprains & strains (C):

West Indian bay, borneol, camphor (white), chamomile (German & Roman), clove bud, eucalyptus (blue gum & peppermint), ginger, immortelle, jasmine, lavandin, lavender (spike & true), sweet marjoram, black pepper, pine (longleaf & Scotch), rosemary, thyme, turmeric, vetiver.... circulation, muscles and joints:

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