Uses | Health Encyclopedia

The keywords of this medical terms: Uses

Adenoviruses

Viruses (see VIRUS) containing double-stranded DNA; these cause around 5 per cent of clinically recognised respiratory illnesses. Of the 40 or so known types, only a few have been properly studied to establish how they produce disease. Adenoviruses cause fever and in?ammation of the respiratory tract and mucous membranes of the eyes – symptoms resembling those of the common cold. They also cause ENTERITIS, haemorrhagic CYSTITIS and life-threatening infections in newborn babies. Infections are generally benign and self-limiting, and treatment is symptomatic and supportive, although the elderly and people with chronic chest conditions may develop secondary infections which require antibiotic treatment.... Medical Dictionary

Read More...

Medical Dictionary

Arboviruses

A heterogenous group of around 500 viruses, which are transmitted to humans by ARTHROPODS. Grouped in four families, they include the viruses of DENGUE and YELLOW FEVER which are transmitted by mosquitoes.... Medical Dictionary

Read More...

Medical Dictionary

Arenaviruses

A group of viruses, so-called because under the electron microscope they have a sand-sprinkled (Latin, arenosus) appearance. Among the diseases in humans for which they are responsible are LASSA FEVER in West Africa, Argentinian haemorrhagic fever (mortality rate 3–15 per cent), a similar disease in Bolivia (mortality rate 18 per cent), and lymphocytic choriomeningitis, in which deaths are uncommon.... Medical Dictionary

Read More...

Medical Dictionary

Astroviruses

Small round viruses (see VIRUS) with no distinctive features, which have been isolated from the stools of infants with gastroenteritis (see DIARRHOEA). Most adults have antibodies against these viruses; this suggests that infection is common. There is no treatment.... Medical Dictionary

Read More...

Medical Dictionary

Coronaviruses

Coronaviruses – so-called because in electron micrographs the spikes projecting from the virus resemble a crown – are a group of viruses which have been isolated from people with common colds (see COLD, COMMON) and have also been shown to produce common colds under experimental conditions. Their precise signi?cance in the causation of the common cold is still undetermined.... Medical Dictionary

Read More...

Medical Dictionary

Coxsackie Viruses

A group of viruses so-called because they were ?rst isolated from two patients with a disease resembling paralytic POLIOMYELITIS, in the village of Coxsackie in New York State. Thirty distinct types have now been identi?ed. They constitute one of the three groups of viruses included in the family of ENTEROVIRUSES, and are divided into two groups: A and B. Despite the large number of types of group A virus (24) in existence, evidence of their role in causing human disease is limited. Some, however, cause aseptic MENINGITIS, non-specicifc upper respiratory infection and MYOCARDITIS, and others cause a condition known as HERPANGINA. HAND, FOOT AND MOUTH DISEASE is another disease caused by the A group. All six types of group B virus have been associated with outbreaks of aseptic meningitis, and they are also the cause of BORNHOLM DISEASE. Epidemics of type B2 infections tend to occur in alternate years. (See VIRUS.)... Medical Dictionary

Read More...

Medical Dictionary

Death, Causes Of

The ?nal cause of death is usually the failure of the vital centres in the brain that control the beating of the heart and the act of breathing. The important practical question, however, is what disease, injury or other agent has led to this failure. Sometimes the cause may be obvious – for example, pneumonia, coronary thrombosis, or brain damage in a road accident. Often, however, the cause can be uncertain, in which case a POST-MORTEM EXAMINATION is necessary.

The two most common causes of death in the UK are diseases of the circulatory system (including strokes and heart disease) and cancer.

Overall annual death rates among women in the UK at the start of the 21st century were

7.98 per 1,000 population, and among men,

5.58 per 1,000. Comparable ?gures at the start of the 20th century were 16.3 for women and

18.4 for men. The death rates in 1900 among infants up to the age of four were 47.9 per 1,000 females and 57 per 1,000 males. By 2003 these numbers had fallen to 5.0 and 5.8 respectively. All these ?gures give a crude indication of how the health of Britain’s population has improved in the past century.

Death rates and ?gures on the causes of deaths are essential statistics in the study of EPIDEMIOLOGY which, along with information on the incidence of illnesses and injuries, provides a temporal and geographical map of changing health patterns in communities. Such information is valuable in planning preventive health measures (see PUBLIC HEALTH) and in identifying the natural history of diseases – knowledge that often contributes to the development of preventive measures and treatments for those diseases.... Medical Dictionary

Read More...

Medical Dictionary

Echoviruses

Echoviruses, of which there are more than 30 known types, occur in all parts of the world. Their full name is Enteric Cytopathogenic Human Orphan (ECHO – hence the acronym). They are more common in children than in adults, and have been responsible for outbreaks of MENINGITIS, common-cold-like illnesses, gastrointestinal infections, and infections of the respiratory tract. They are particularly dangerous when they infect premature infants, and there have been several outbreaks of such infection in neonatal units, in which premature infants and other seriously ill small babies are nursed. The virus is introduced to such units by mothers, sta? and visitors who are unaware that they are carriers of the virus.... Medical Dictionary

Read More...

Medical Dictionary

Enteroviruses

A family of VIRUSES which include the POLIOMYELITIS, COXSACKIE and ECHO (see ECHOVIRUSES) groups of viruses. Their importance lies in their tendency to invade the central nervous system. They receive their name from the fact that their mode of entry into the body is through the gut.... Medical Dictionary

Read More...

Medical Dictionary

Functions The Chief Uses Of The Tongue Are:

to push the food between the teeth for mastication, and then mould it into a bolus preparatory to swallowing;

as the organ of the sense of taste, and as an organ provided with a delicate sense of touch; and

to play a part in the production of speech. (See VOICE AND SPEECH.) It is usual to classify any taste as: sweet, bitter,

salt and acid, since ?ner distinctions are largely dependent upon the sense of smell. The loss of keenness in taste brought about by a cold in the head, or even by holding the nose while swallowing, is well known. Sweet tastes seem to be best appreciated by the tip of the tongue, acids on its edges, and bitters at the back. There are probably di?erent nerve-?bres and end-organs for the di?erent varieties of taste. Many tastes depend upon the ordinary sensations of the tongue.

Like other sensations, taste can be very highly educated for a time, as in tea-tasters and wine-tasters, but this special adaptation is lost after some years.... Medical Dictionary

Read More...

Medical Dictionary

Hepatitis Viruses

The most common causes of viral hepatitis are those caused by the Hepatitis A, B, C, D, E and G viruses. Hepatitis F virus has been described but is a doubtful entity. Other viruses which can cause hepatitis include the Epstein-Barr Virus, cytomegalovirus, and the Yellow Fever virus.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

Read More...

Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

Herpes Viruses

One member of a group of viruses containing DNA which cause latent infections in animals and humans. Viruses from this group cause HERPES SIMPLEX, HERPES ZOSTER (shingles) and CHICKENPOX, and include CYTOMEGALOVIRUS (CCMV) and EPSTEIN-BARR VIRUS.... Medical Dictionary

Read More...

Medical Dictionary

Myxoviruses

These include the INFLUENZA viruses A, B and C; and the PARAINFLUENZA VIRUSES, types 1 to

3. Myxoviruses, which are one of a group of RNA-containing viruses, have an a?nity for protein receptors in red blood cells.... Medical Dictionary

Read More...

Medical Dictionary

Papova Viruses

These include the human papilloma viruses (HPV), of which nearly a hundred strains have been identi?ed. HPV cause verrucae (see WARTS) on skin and, less often, on the mucous membranes of mouth, larynx, genitalia and the cervix. Some strains may predispose to eventual cancer.... Medical Dictionary

Read More...

Medical Dictionary

Parainfluenza Viruses

These are included in the paramyxoviruses (see MYXOVIRUSES) and divided into four types, all of which cause infection of the respiratory system (see RESPIRATION). Infection with type 3 begins in May, reaches a maximum in July or August and returns to base-line level in October. Types 1 and 2 are predominantly winter viruses. Children are commonly affected and the manifestations include CROUP, fever, and a rash.... Medical Dictionary

Read More...

Medical Dictionary

Parainfluenza Viruses

a group of large RNA-containing viruses that cause infections of the respiratory tract producing mild influenza-like symptoms. They are included in the paramyxovirus group (see myxovirus).... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Read More...

Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Paranasal Sinuses

the air-filled spaces, lined with mucous membrane, within some of the bones of the skull. They open into the nasal cavity, via the meatuses, and are named according to the bone in which they are situated. They comprise the frontal sinuses and the maxillary sinuses (one pair of each), the ethmoid sinuses (consisting of many spaces inside the ethmoid bone), and the two sphenoid sinuses. See illustration.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Read More...

Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Parvoviruses

(from parvus, Latin for small) is a group of viruses responsible for outbreaks of WINTER VOMITING DISEASE. One strain is the cause of ERYTHEMA infectiosum (slapped-cheek syndrome).... Medical Dictionary

Read More...

Medical Dictionary

Picorna Viruses

These infectious agents derive their name from pico (small) and from RNA (because they contain ribonuleic acid). They are a group of viruses which includes the ENTEROVIRUSES and the RHINOVIRUSES.... Medical Dictionary

Read More...

Medical Dictionary

Rhabdoviruses

A group of viruses which includes the RABIES virus.... Medical Dictionary

Read More...

Medical Dictionary

Rhinoviruses

A large group of viruses; to date around 80 distinct rhinoviruses have been identi?ed. Their practical importance is that some of them are responsible for around one-quarter of the cases of the COMMON COLD.... Medical Dictionary

Read More...

Medical Dictionary

Rotaviruses

A group of viruses (so-called because of their wheel-like structure: rota is Latin for wheel) which are a common cause of GASTROENTERITIS in infants (see also DIARRHOEA). They cause from 25 to 80 per cent of childhood diarrhoea in di?erent parts of the world, and in the United Kingdom they are responsible for 60– 65 per cent of cases. They infect only the cells lining the small intestine. In the UK, death from rotavirus is rare.... Medical Dictionary

Read More...

Medical Dictionary

Viruses

The smallest known types of infectious agent. It is debatable whether viruses are truly living organisms or just collections of molecules capable of selfreplication under specific conditions. Their sole activity is to invade the cells of other organisms, which they then take over to make copies of themselves. Outside living cells, viruses are inert.

A single virus particle (virion) consists of an inner core of nucleic acid, which may be either DNA or RNA, surrounded

by 1 or 2 protective protein shells (capsids). Surrounding the outer capsid may be another layer, the viral envelope, which consists mainly of protein. The nucleic acid consists of a string of genes that contain coded instructions for making copies of the virus.

Common viral diseases include the common cold, influenza, and chickenpox (caused by the varicella–zoster virus). AIDS is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).... BMA Medical Dictionary

Read More...

BMA Medical Dictionary

What Causes Ear Tinnitus And How To Treat It

Tinnitus in the ear can occur due to ear infections, various infections, perforation of the eardrum, and many other effects. This is a condition that one should especially take seriously. At the same time, tinnitus can also occur in the formation of brain tumors and as a result of an impact on the person. After experiencing these conditions, it is necessary to consult a physician in order to avoid ringing of the ear which has started to occur. If your tinnitus does not seem to be a symptom of a serious illness, and if it is coming up in a short period of time, you can apply the recommendation we will give you. What do you need to do to treat and prevent tinnitus? - regular exercise every day - As far as possible you should stay away from bike and horse riding sports. - Eating a bottle of mineral water every day is a good night to tinnitus. - Avoiding loud surroundings will protect you from the tinnitus problem. - Coffee cigarettes Alcohol and caffeine containing foods should be avoided. - If you have a drug that you use all the time, you should investigate whether the drugs you use trigger the tinnitus. If you think your tinnitus is caused by medications you are using, you can ask your doctor to change the medications. - Consuming one pineapple every day will greatly reduce your tinnitus... Daily Health Problems

Read More...

Daily Health Problems