Rat | Health Encyclopedia

The keywords of this medical terms: Rat

Aberration

n. (in optics) a defect in the image formed by an optical device (e.g. a lens). In chromatic aberration the image has coloured fringes as a result of the different extent to which light of different colours is refracted. In spherical aberration, the image is blurred because rays from the object come to a focus in slightly different positions: the rays passing through more peripherally are bent more than those passing through centrally. This occurs even with monochromatic light.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Abiraterone Acetate

a drug used in the treatment of metastatic prostate cancer resistant to hormonal treatment. It reduces testosterone production in prostate and adrenal tissues by inhibiting an enzyme, cytochrome P450 17A1, involved in the androgen-producing pathway in these tissues (see anti-androgen). Side-effects include oedema, liver disorders, hypertension, and low potassium levels.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

see adult respiratory distress syndrome.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ards)

Formerly known as adult respiratory distress syndrome. A form of acute respiratory failure in which a variety of di?erent disorders give rise to lung injury by what is thought to be a common pathway. The condition has a high mortality rate (about 70 per cent); it is a complex clinical problem in which a disproportionate immunological response plays a major role. (See IMMUNITY.)

The exact trigger is unknown, but it is thought that, whatever the stimulus, chemical mediators produced by cells of the immune system or elsewhere in the body spread and sustain an in?ammatory reaction. Cascade mechanisms with multiple interactions are provoked. CYTOTOXIC substances (which damage or kill cells) such as oxygen-free radicals and PROTEASE damage the alveolar capillary membranes (see ALVEOLUS). Once this happens, protein-rich ?uid leaks into the alveoli and interstitial spaces. SURFACTANT is also lost. This impairs the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the lungs and gives rise to the clinical and pathological picture of acute respiratory failure.

The typical patient with ARDS has rapidly worsening hypoxaemia (lack of oxygen in the blood), often requiring mechanical ventilation. There are all the signs of respiratory failure (see TACHYPNOEA; TACHYCARDIA; CYANOSIS), although the chest may be clear apart from a few crackles. Radiographs show bilateral, patchy, peripheral shadowing. Blood gases will show a low PaO2 (concentration of oxygen in arterial blood) and usually a high PaCO2 (concentration of carbon dioxide in arterial blood). The lungs are ‘sti?’ – they are less e?ective because of the loss of surfactant and the PULMONARY OEDEMA.

Causes The causes of ARDS may be broadly divided into the following:... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Acute Respiratory Failure

(ARF) a primary disorder of gaseous exchange (as distinct from failure of the mechanical process of breathing). The prototype of ARF is *adult respiratory distress syndrome, but the term sometimes also refers to disruption of any other part of the respiratory system, including the respiratory control centre in the brain with its *efferent and *afferent pathways.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Administrative Costs

Costs which are not attributable to the direct delivery of health services and are not direct clinical care or service costs.... Community Health

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Community Health

Administrative Record

A record concerned with administrative matters, such as length of stay, details of accommodation, or billing.... Community Health

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Community Health

Admission Rate

the number of people from a specified population with a specified disease or condition admitted to hospitals in a given geographical area over a specified time period.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome

(acute respiratory distress syndrome, ARDS) a form of *acute respiratory failure that occurs after a precipitating event, such as trauma, aspiration, or inhalation of a toxic substance; it is particularly associated with septic shock. Lung injury is characterized by reduced oxygen in the arteries, reduced lung volume, and decreased lung compliance, and diffuse infiltrates are seen on a chest X-ray. Treatment is correction of the original cause, volume replacement, diuretics, oxygen, and mechanical ventilation.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Age-related Macular Degeneration

(AMD, ARMD) see macular degeneration.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Ageratum Conyzoides

Linn.

Family: Asteraceae, Compositae.

Habitat: Throughout India, up to an altitude of 1,800 m.

English: Goat Weed, White Weed.

Ayurvedic: Dochunty, Uchunti, Sahadevi (related sp.).

Action: Anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal, styptic.

The leaf is reported to contain stig- masterol (59.9%) and beta-sitosterol (26.7%) as major component of sterol faction. The dried flowering plant contains the pyrrolizidine alkaloids, lycop- samine and echinatine.

An aqueous extract of leaves is reported to show haemostatic activity. The plant extract exhibited muscle relaxant activity experimentally. The ethanolic extract (95%) of roots possesses anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties.

The aqueous extract of leaves exhibits antifungal and crude plant extract antibacterial properties.

... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Alterative

corrects disordered bodily function.... The Encyclopedia of Essential Oils

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The Encyclopedia of Essential Oils

Alterative

Causing a favorable change in the disordered functions of the body or metabolism... Herbal Medical

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Herbal Medical

Alterative

A term applied in naturopathic, Eclectic, and Thomsonian medicine to those plants or procedures that stimulate changes of a defensive or healing nature in metabolism or tissue function when there is chronic or acute diseases. The whole concept of alteratives is based on the premise that in a normally healthy person, disease symptoms are the external signs of activated internal defenses and, as such, should be stimulated and not suppressed. Sambucus (Elder), as an example, acts as an alterative when it is used to stimulate sweating in a fevered state. Without a fever or physical exertion, Sambucus tea will increase intestinal, lung, and kidney secretions. With fever or exercise, the buildup of heat from combustion, and the dilation of peripheral blood supply, it takes the defense response to the next stage of breaking a sweat. You might have sweated eventually anyway, but you may be one of those people who doesn’t perspire easily, and a diaphoretic such as Sambucus will act as an alterative for you by stimulating the next stage of defenses sooner than you would have on your own. The term alterative is sometimes inaccurately used as a synonym for “blood purifier,” particularly by nature-cure neo-Thomsonians such as Jethro Kloss and John Christopher. “Blood purifier” is a term better applied to the liver, spleen, and kidneys, not to some dried plant.... Medicinal Plants Glossary

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Medicinal Plants Glossary

Alteratives

“Medicines that alter the process of nutrition, restoring in some unknown way the normal functions of an organ or system . . . re-establishing healthy nutritive processes” (Blakiston Medical Dictionary)

They are blood cleansers that favourably change the character of the blood and lymph to de-toxify and promote renewal of body tissue. The term has been superseded by the word ‘adaptogen’. See: ADAPTOGEN. However, since the majority of professional phytotherapists still use the term ‘alterative’, the term ‘alterative’ is used through this book to describe the particular action of the group which includes:–

Alfalfa, Bladderwrack, Blue Flag root, Burdock, Chaparral, Chicory, Clivers, Dandelion, Devil’s Claw, Echinacea, Garlic, Ginseng, Goldenseal, Gotu Kola, Marigold, Mountain Grape, Nettles, Poke root, Queen’s Delight, Red Clover, Sarsaparilla, Thuja, Turkey Corn, Wild Indigo, Yellow Dock.

English traditional formula: equal parts, Burdock, Red Clover, Yellow Dock. Place quarter of the mixture in 2 pints water; simmer gently down to 1 pint. Dose: one-third-half cup thrice daily, before meals. Effects are to enhance elimination through skin, kidneys and bowels; to provide hormone precursors, electrolytes and minerals. The above combination may also be taken in liquid extracts, tinctures or powders. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

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Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

Aluminium Chloride Hexahydrate

a powerful antiperspirant used in the treatment of conditions associated with excessive sweating (see hyperhidrosis).... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Alverine Citrate

a bulking agent and *antispasmodic drug used to treat irritable bowel syndrome and diverticular disease. Side-effects include occasional mild distension of the bowel.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Angiokeratoma

n. a localized collection of thin-walled blood vessels covered by a cap of warty material. It is most often seen as angiokeratoma of Fordyce, purple papules on the scrotum or vulva of the elderly, which should not be treated unless they bleed easily. Angiokeratomas can also occur on the hands and feet of children. The condition is not malignant and its cause is unknown. Angiokeratomas may be removed surgically. See also Fabry disease.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Anus, Imperforate

A rare congenital abnormality in which the anal opening is missing or covered over. The severity of the condition varies from complete absence of the anal canal to only a layer of skin covering the anal opening.

Treatment involves surgery.

A colostomy may be needed initially before definitive surgery to construct an anus.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Arcuate Keratotomy

a curved incision made in the periphery of the cornea. It is usually performed in the region of greatest curvature of the cornea in order to flatten it and hence reduce *astigmatism.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Arrate

(Basque) Refers to the Virgin Mary... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Artificial Nutrition And Hydration

the use of enteral feeding tubes or cannulas to administer nutrients and fluids directly into the gastrointestinal tract or bloodstream when the oral route cannot be used owing to disability or disease. When other intensive treatments are judged *futile, artificial nutrition and hydration are considered *extraordinary means of prolonging life in patients who have no prospect of recovery. It is permissible to withdraw such treatment when it is no longer in the patient’s interests and when the primary intention is not to kill the patient, although death is foreseen (see doctrine of double effect). In cases of patients in a *persistent vegetative state in England and Wales, the matter must be referred to the courts following the case of Tony Bland. Where food and water are withdrawn it is still considered important to moisten the patient’s lips and to keep him or her comfortable until death.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Artificial Respiration

(artificial ventilation) an emergency procedure for maintaining a flow of air into and out of a patient’s lungs when the natural breathing reflexes are absent or insufficient. This may occur after drowning, poisoning, etc., or during a surgical operation on the thorax or abdomen when muscle-relaxing drugs are administered. The simplest and most efficient method is *mouth-to-mouth resuscitation. In hospital the breathing cycle is maintained by means of a *ventilator.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Artificial Respiration

See APPENDIX 1: BASIC FIRST AID.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Artificial Respiration

Forced introduction of air into the lungs of someone who has stopped breathing (see respiratory arrest) or whose breathing is inadequate. As an emergency first-aid measure, artificial respiration can be given mouth-to-mouth or mouth-tonose, which can prevent brain damage due to oxygen deprivation; a delay in breathing for more than 6 minutes can cause death. Cardiac compressions may also be necessary if poor respiration has led to cessation of the heartbeat (see cardiopulmonary resuscitation). Artificial respiration can be continued by use of a ventilator (see ventilation).... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Asherat

(Syrian) In mythology, goddess of the sea... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Aspiration

n. the withdrawal of fluid from the body by means of suction using an instrument called an aspirator. There are various types of aspirator: some employ hollow needles for removing fluid from cysts, inflamed joint cavities, etc.; another kind is used to suck debris and water from the patient’s mouth during dental treatment. See also vacuum aspiration.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Aspiration

The withdrawal of fluid or cells from the body by suction. The term also refers to the act of accidentally inhaling a foreign body, usually food or

drink. If consciousness is impaired, for example by a head injury or excess alcohol intake, aspiration of the stomach contents is common.

Aspiration biopsy is the removal of cells or fluid for examination using a needle and syringe. The procedure is commonly used to obtain cells from a fluid-filled cavity (such as a breast lump or breast cyst). It is also used to obtain cells from the bone marrow (see bone marrow biopsy), or from internal organs, when a fine needle is guided into the site of the biopsy by CT scanning or ultrasound scanning.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Aspiration

Aspiration means the withdrawal of ?uid or gases from the natural cavities of the body or from cavities produced by disease. It may be performed for curative purposes; alternatively, a small amount of ?uid may be drawn o? for diagnosis of its nature or origin. An instrument called an aspirator is used to remove blood and ?uid from a surgical-operation site – for example, the abdomen or the mouth (in dentistry).

PLEURISY with e?usion is a condition requiring aspiration, and a litre or more of ?uid may be drawn o? by an aspirator or a large syringe and needle. Chronic abscesses and tuberculous joints may call for its use, the operation being done with a small syringe and hollow needle. PERICARDITIS with e?usion is another condition in which aspiration is sometimes performed. The spinal canal is aspirated by the operation of LUMBAR PUNCTURE. In children the ventricles of the brain are sometimes similarly relieved from excess of ?uid by piercing the fontanelle (soft spot) on the infant’s head. (See HYDROCEPHALUS.)... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Aspiration Cytology

the *aspiration of specimens of cells from tumours or cysts through a hollow needle, using a syringe, and their subsequent examination under the microscope after suitable preparation (by staining, etc.). The technique is now used widely, especially for superficial cysts or tumours, and has become a specialized branch of diagnostic pathology. See also fine-needle aspiration cytology.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Automated Lamellar Keratectomy

(ALK) excision of the outer layers of the cornea using an automated *keratome. It is usually used as part of a surgical procedure, to alter the shape of the cornea to correct errors of refraction.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Balanophora Involucrata

Hook. f.

Family: Balanophoraceae.

Habitat: The Himalayas from Kashmir to Sikkim and Darjeeling at altitudes of 1,800-3,400 m

Ayurvedic: Chavya (tentative synonym).

Action: Astringent. Used in piles, also in rheumatism.

A related species, B.polyandra Griff., found in Nagaland, Manipur, West Bengal, Bihar, Orissa and Andhra Pradesh at 2,000 m, gave a phenolic gly- coside, coniferin. The plant is used as an antiasthmatic.... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Band Keratopathy

the deposition of calcium in the superficial layers of the cornea, usually as a horizontal band starting peripherally and moving centrally. It is associated with chronic eye disease, e.g. chronic *uveitis, particularly juvenile chronic uveitis. It is treated by application of EDTA (see edetate) or with an *excimer laser.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Barbiturate

n. any of a group of drugs, derived from barbituric acid, that depress activity of the central nervous system and were formerly widely used as sedatives and hypnotics. They are classified into three groups according to their duration of action – short, intermediate, and long. Because they produce *tolerance and psychological and physical *dependence, have serious toxic side-effects (see barbiturism), and can be fatal following large overdosage, barbiturates have been largely replaced in clinical use by safer drugs. The main exception is the very short-acting drug *thiopental, which is used to induce anaesthesia. See also amobarbital; butobarbital; phenobarbital.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Barbiturate Drugs

A group of sedative drugs that work by depressing activity within the brain. They include thiopental and phenobarbital. In the past, barbiturates were widely used as antianxiety drugs and sleeping drugs but have been largely replaced by benzodiazepine drugs and other nonbarbiturates. Barbiturates are now strictly controlled because they are habit-forming and widely abused. An overdose can be fatal, particularly in combination with alcohol, which dangerously increases the depressant effect on the brain (including suppression of the respiratory centre). However, phenobarbital is still commonly used as an anticonvulsant drug in the treatment of epilepsy. Thiopental is very short acting and is used to induce anaesthesia (see anaesthesia, general).... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Barbiturates

A group of drugs which depress the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM by inhibiting the transmission of impulses between certain neurons. Thus they cause drowsiness or unconsciousness (depending on dose), reduce the cerebral metabolic rate for oxygen, and depress respiration. Their use as sedatives and hypnotics has largely been superseded by more modern drugs which are safer and more e?ective. Some members of this group of drugs – for instance, phenobarbitone – have selective anticonvulsant properties and are used in the treatment of GRAND MAL convulsions and status epilepticus (see EPILEPSY). The short-acting drugs thiopentone and methohexitone are widely used to induce general ANAESTHESIA. (See also DEPENDENCE.)... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Barron’s Banding Apparatus

an apparatus for treating haemorrhoids in which a tight elastic band is applied across their base to cause ischaemic necrosis leading to sloughing off within a few days.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Bezafibrate

n. a drug that is used to treat hyperlipidaemia that fails to respond to diet (see fibrates). Possible side-effects include skin rashes, nausea and vomiting, and muscle pain.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Bharati

(Hindi) In Hinduism, goddess of sacrifice

Bharatie, Bharaty, Bharatey, Bharatee, Bharatea, Bharateah, Barati, Baratie, Baraty, Baratey, Baratee, Baratea, Barateah... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Billroth’s Operation

A type of partial gastrectomy in which the lower part of the stomach is removed. Once used as a surgical treatment for peptic ulcers, it has now largely been replaced by treatment with antibiotic drugs.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Biostrath A. G.

Company founded by Fred Pestalozzi, Herrliberg on Lake Zurich, Switzerland. Pioneered herbal preparations in a base of candida utilis yeast. Yeast is fed with wild herbs plasmolysed in a fermentation process. Efficacy of products demonstrated by scientific experiment. Under special growing conditions the principles are absorbed by the yeast cells in the process of multiplication or are bound to the cell surface. They are then metabolised, i.e., undergo chemical change.

Candida utilis is a highly active wild yeast able to synthesise its own vitamins. More than 90 selected plant species from 14 countries are used in Biostrath preparations. The Company has pioneered an important advance in the preparation of herbal medicines. Results have in some instances led to completely new discoveries. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

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Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

Biostrath Elixir

Herbal yeast food supplement. Ingredients: herbal yeast plasmolysate (saccharomyces cerevisiae) 85 per cent w/w, malt extract 9 per cent w/w, honey 3 per cent w/w, orange juice 3 per cent w/w. Biostrath Drops are a similar preparation but without malt, honey and orange juice, (Vessen). Builds up resistance, promotes vitality, combats stress, examination fatigue and lack of concentration. Said to protect the body against radiation.

Live yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is cultivated on the herbs: Angelica, Balm, Basil, Caraway, Chamomile, Cinnamon, Elder, Fennel, Horseradish, Hyssop, Lavender, Liquorice, Parsley, Peppermint, Sage and Thyme. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

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Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

Birth Rate

the number of live births occurring in a year per 1000 total population (the crude birth rate). See fertility rate.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Birth Rate

A measurement of the number of births in a year in relation to the population.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Birth Rate

In 2003, 695,500 live births were registered in the United Kingdom; 38 per cent occurred outside marriage. Overall, total fertility is falling slowly. The number of births per 1,000 women aged over 40 years has been rising, and in 1999 was 8.9 per cent. In Great Britain in 2003, 193,817 legal abortions were performed under the Abortion Act 1967.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Body Temperature

the temperature of the body, as measured by a thermometer. Body temperature is accurately controlled by a small area at the base of the brain (the *hypothalamus); in normal individuals it is maintained at about 37°C (98.4°F). Heat production by the body arises as the result of vital activities (e.g. respiration, heartbeat, circulation, secretion) and from the muscular effort of exercise and shivering. A rise in body temperature occurs in fever.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Boswellia Serrata

Roxb.

Family: Burseraceae.

Habitat: The drier parts of Peninsular India.

English: Indian Frankincense, Indian Olibanum.

Ayurvedic: Shallaki, Susravaa, Gajabhakshyaa, Salai. Gum— Kunduru.

Unani: Kundur (gum).

Siddha/Tamil: Parangisambirani, Kungli.

Folk: Salai Guggul.

Action: Gum-resin—antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, antiatheroscle- rotic, emmenagogue, analgesic, sedative, hypotensive. Also used in obesity, diarrhoea, dysentery, piles, urinary disorders, scrofulous affections. Oil—used topically in chronic ulcers, ringworm.

Nonphenolic fraction of gum-resin exhibited marked sedative and analgesic effect in rats. It produced a marked and long-lasting hypotension in anaesthetized dogs.

Many derivatives of 3-keto-methyl- beta-boswellic ester, isolated from the gum-resin., have been prepared; a py- razoline derivative exhibited maximum anti-inflammatory activity. (Gum-resin is used in osteoarthri- tis, juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, soft tissue fibrositis and spondylitis, also for cough, bronchitis, asthma, mouth sores.)

Essential oil from gum-resin—anti- fungal.

Gum-resin contains triterpenes of oleanane, ursane and euphane series. Stem and fruit—hypoglycaemic.

Dosage: Gum-resin—1-3 g (API Vol. IV.)... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Boswellia Serrata, Roxb

Oleo-gum resin.

Action. Aromatic diuretic, laxative, demulcent, diaphoretic, astringent, expectorant, stimulant, digestive. Mild pain killer.

Uses: Urinary disorders, rheumatism.

Preparations: Topical. Ointments for ulcers. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

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Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

Bullous Keratopathy

a pathological condition of the cornea of the eye due to failure in the functioning of its endothelium. It results in corneal oedema, seen as small blisters in the cornea that cause blurring of vision. See Fuchs’ endothelial dystrophy.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Bypass Operation

The transplant of an artery or vein from the leg to bypass a clogged artery in the heart. Vessels may be blocked by a deposit of plaque made up of collagen, fats and cholesterol solidified by calcium and other mineral salts, and which may have been building up for 30-40 years. See: CHELATION.

London’s Middlesex Hospital Intensive Care Unit has found that a 20-minute foot massage using Neroli oil significantly reduces the level of anxiety and pain experienced by post-cardiac surgery patients. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

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Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

Bypass Operation

A technique by which narrowing or blockage of an artery (see ARTERIES), vein (see VEINS) or a section of the gastrointestinal tract is bypassed using surgery. Arterial blockages – usually caused by ATHEROSCLEROSIS – in the carotid, coronary or iliofemoral arteries are bypassed utilising sections of artery or vein taken from elsewhere in the patient. Tumour growths in the intestines are sometimes too large to remove and can be bypassed by linking up those parts of the intestines on each side of the growth.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Bypass Operations

Procedures to bypass the blockage or narrowing of an artery or vein or any part of the digestive system. Arteries can become blocked or narrowed in atherosclerosis. Obstructions can be bypassed using sections of healthy artery or vein from elsewhere in the body or using synthetic tubing. Veins are bypassed most often in patients with diseases of the liver that cause portal hypertension and bleeding oesophageal varices. This kind of bypass is called a shunt. Intestinal bypasses are employed most commonly in patients with cancer in which tumour growth is too extensive to be removed. An obstructed bile duct can be bypassed by constructing a new opening into the digestive tract. (See also coronary artery bypass.)... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Calibration

Demonstrating that a measuring device produces results within the specified limits of those produce by a reference standard device over an appropriate rang of measurements... Medicinal Plants Glossary

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Medicinal Plants Glossary

Calibrator

n. 1. an instrument used for measuring the size of a tube or opening. 2. an instrument used for dilating a tubular part, such as the gullet.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Carbohydrate

n. any one of a large group of compounds, including the *sugars and *starch, that contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen and have the general formula Cx(H2O)y. Carbohydrates are important as a source of energy: they are manufactured by plants and obtained by animals from the diet, being one of the three main constituents of food (see also fat; protein). All carbohydrates are eventually broken down in the body to the simple sugar *glucose, which can then take part in energy-producing metabolic processes. Excess carbohydrate, not immediately required by the body, is stored in the liver and muscles in the form of *glycogen. In plants carbohydrates are important structural materials (e.g. cellulose) and storage products (commonly in the form of starch). See also disaccharide; monosaccharide; polysaccharide.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Carbohydrate

The term applied to an organic substance in which the hydrogen and oxygen are usually in the proportion to form water. Carbohydrates are all, chemically considered, derivatives of simple forms of sugar and are classi?ed as monosaccharides (e.g. glucose), disaccharides

(e.g. cane sugar), polysaccharides (e.g. starch). Many of the cheaper and most important foods are included in this group, which comprises sugars, starches, celluloses and gums. When one of these foods is digested, it is converted into a simple kind of sugar and absorbed in this form. Excess carbohydrates, not immediately needed by the body, are stored as glycogen in the liver and muscles. In DIABETES MELLITUS, the most marked feature consists of an inability on the part of the tissues to assimilate and utilise the carbohydrate material. Each gram of carbohydrate is capable of furnishing slightly over 4 Calories of energy. (See CALORIE; DIET.)... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Carbohydrates

A group of compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, which supply the body with its main source of energy. Carbohydrates are found in fruits, cereals, and root crops and fall into 2 groups. These are available carbohydrates, which are metabolized into glucose for the body’s use, and unavailable carbohydrates, such as cellulose, which cannot be broken down by digestive enzymes and make up the bulk of dietary fibre (see fibre, dietary).

Available carbohydrates are predominantly starches (complex carbohydrates) and sugars (simple carbohydrates). In carbohydrate metabolism, the monosaccharides (simple sugars) glucose (grape sugar), galactose (a milk sugar), and fructose (fruit sugar) are absorbed into the bloodstream unchanged. The disaccharides (double sugars) sucrose, maltose and lactose (a milk sugar) are broken down into simple sugars before they are absorbed. Starches also have to be broken down into simple sugars.

Some glucose is burned up immediately (see metabolism) in order to generate energy for cells, such as brain cells, that need a constant supply. Galactose and fructose have to be converted to glucose in the liver before they can be used by body cells. Surplus glucose is conveyed to the liver, muscles, and fat cells where it is converted into glycogen and fat for storage. When blood glucose levels are high, glucose storage is stimulated by insulin, a hormone that is secreted by the pancreas. When the blood glucose level becomes low, insulin secretion diminishes and glucagon, which is another hormone produced by the pancreas, stimulates the conversion of stored glycogen to glucose for release into the bloodstream. Although fat cannot be converted to glucose, it can be burned as a fuel in order to conserve glucose. In the disorder diabetes mellitus, carbohydrate metabolism is disturbed by a deficiency of insulin.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Case Fatality Rate

The number of fatal cases of specific disease, divided by total number of known cases and it is usually expressed as percent. Case fatality is one index of disease severity and is of more interest in acute than in chronic disease.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

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Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

Case Fatality Rate

the number of fatalities from a specified disease in a given period per 100 diagnosed cases of the disease arising in the same period. Unless deaths occur very rapidly after the onset of the disease (e.g. cholera), they may be the outcome of episodes that started in an earlier period. It is possible for more people to die from a condition than to develop it during the time period under investigation. Different time periods will be appropriate depending on the disease of interest. Comparison of the annual number of admissions and fatalities in a given hospital in respect of a specific disease is known as the hospital fatality rate.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Castration

n. removal of the sex glands (the testes or the ovaries). Castration in childhood causes failure of sexual development but when done in adult life (usually as part of hormonal treatment for cancer) it produces less marked physical changes in both sexes. Castration inevitably causes sterility but it need not cause impotence or loss of sexual desire.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Castration

The removal of the testes (see orchidectomy). The term is sometimes used for removal of the ovaries (see oophorectomy). Castration is performed when organs are diseased or to reduce the level of testosterone or of oestrogen in people who have certain types of cancer that are stimlated by these hormones.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Castration

This is literally de?ned as ‘deprivation of the power of generation’. In practical terms this involves surgical removal of both OVARIES, or both testicles (see TESTICLE). Such an operation is most commonly associated with the treatment of malignant lesions. In women who have reached the menopause, bilateral oophorectomy is routinely performed during HYSTERECTOMY, especially in cases of uterine carcinoma, and is usually performed when removing an ovarian tumour or malignant cyst. It is essential that the surgeon discusses with a woman before an operation when it might prove bene?cial to remove her ovaries in addition to carrying out the main procedure. In men, orchidectomy is routine for testicular tumours, and is sometimes carried out when treating prostatic cancer.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Cat Scratch Fever

A self-limiting crisis seen in children or adults. The New England Journal of Medicine noted that sufferers were nearly 30 times more likely to have been licked, scratched or bitten.

Kittens proved the greatest hazard, particularly those with fleas. Local inflammation with glandular swelling and fever. Organism: usually Pasteurella multocida. Often with great weakness. One of the commonest causes of swollen glands in the USA.

Treatment. Poke root to combat infection of the glandular system. Echinacea to increase powers of resistance.

Alternatives. Tablets/capsules. Poke root. Echinacea. Wild Yam.

Powders. Formula: Echinacea 2; Gum Myrrh half; Goldenseal half. Dose: 500mg (two 00 capsules or one-third teaspoon) every 3 hours.

Tinctures. Formula. Echinacea 2; Poke root 1; Goldenseal half. Mix. One teaspoon in water every 3 hours.

Dosage for children: see – DOSAGE.

Topical. Apply Tea Tree oil diluted. May be diluted many times. Vitamin C. 1g morning and evening.

Calcium ascorbate powder. 1g morning and evening. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

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Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

Cat-scratch Disease

an infectious disease caused by the bacterium *Bartonella henselae, which infects cats and is transmitted to humans by a cat scratch or bite. A papule or pustule develops at the site of the injury followed, a week to two months after infection, by swelling of the lymph nodes (usually those closest to the wound). Fever and malaise are common. The condition usually resolves without treatment but antibiotics may be given to prevent complications.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Cat-scratch Fever

An uncommon disease that develops after a scratch or bite by a cat. Three quarters of cases occur in children. The fever is due to infection with a small bacterium called

ROCHALIMAEA HENDELAE.

The main symptom, appearing after 3–10 days, is a swollen lymph node near the bite or scratch.

The node may become painful and tender, and an infected blister may develop at the site of the injury.

A fever, rash, and headache may occur.

Diagnosis is confirmed by biopsy of the swollen lymph node and a skin test.

Analgesic drugs (painkillers) may be used to relieve the fever and headache.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Cat-scratch Fever

An infection in humans caused by a small gram-negative BACILLUS (Bartonella henselae). The domestic cat is a reservoir for the bacteria, and up to 50 per cent of the cat population may be affected. The disorder manifests itself as a skin lesion 3–10 days after a minor scratch; within two weeks the victim’s lymph glands enlarge and may produce pus. Fever, headache and malaise occur in some patients. Antibiotics do not seem to be e?ective. The skin lesion and lymph-gland enlargement subside spontaneously within 2–5 months.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Categorical Imperative

see imperative.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Cayratia Carnosa

(Wall.) Gagnep.

Synonym: C. trifolia (L.) Domin. Vitis carnosa Wall. V.trifolia Linn.

Family: Vitaceae.

Habitat: Throughout the warmer parts of India, from Jammu and Rajasthan to Assam and up to 300 m.

Ayurvedic: Gandira.

Siddha/Tamil: Tumans.

Action: Leaves, seeds, roots— astringent, applied to ulcers and boils. Leaves—diaphoretic (recommended in high fever). Root- given in anaemic conditions. Aerial parts—CNS active, hypothermic. The stems, leaves and roots contain hydrocyanic acid. Presence of delphinidin and cyanidin is reported in the leaves.... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Cayratia Pedata

(Wall.) Gagnep.

Synonym: Vitispedata VahlexWall.

Family: Vitaceae.

Habitat: Bihar, West Bengal and Assam, up to 900 m.

Ayurvedic: Godhaapadi.

Siddha/Tamil: Kattuppirandai.

Action: Leaves—astringent and refrigerant (used for ulcers, diarrhoea, uterine and other fluxes).

Aerial parts—diuretic, spasmolytic.... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Celsius Temperature

(centigrade temperature) temperature expressed on a scale in which the melting point of ice is assigned a temperature of 0° and the boiling point of water a temperature of 100°. For many medical purposes this scale has superseded the Fahrenheit scale (see Fahrenheit temperature). The formula for converting from Celsius (C) to Fahrenheit (F) is: F = 9/5C + 32. [A. Celsius (1701–44), Swedish astronomer]... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Centigrade Temperature

see Celsius temperature.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Centratherum Anthelminticum

Kuntze.

Synonym: Vernonia anthelmintica Willd.

Family: Asteraceae.

Habitat: Throughout India up to 2,000 m in the Himalayas and Khasi Hills.

English: Purple Flea-bane, Achenes.

Ayurvedic: Aranya-Jiraka, Vanajira- ka, Kaalijiri, Karjiri. Somaraaji (also equated with Psoralea corylifolia Linn., Papilionaceae).

Unani: Kamoon barri.

Siddha/Tamil: Kaattu seerakam.

Action: Anthelmintic (against earthworms and tapeworms), stomachic, diuretic; used in skin diseases.

Delta-7-avenasterol is the main active principle of seeds. Seed oil contains vernasterol. Seeds bitter principle is a demanolide lactone. Centratherin and germacranolide from the leaves and stem have been isolated. Leaves contain abscisic acid. EtOH extract of achenes exhibited good results in giar- diasis. Various plant parts are used in syphilis. Clinical studies on vircarcika eczema validated the use of the drug in skin diseases.

The drug exhibited smooth muscle- relaxant and hypotensive activity in animals.

Dosage: Seed—1-3 g powder. (CCRAS.)

Dosage: Seed—1-3 g powder. (CCRAS.)... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Ceratonia Siliqua

Linn.

Family: Caesalpinaceae.

Habitat: Cultivated in Punjab. English: Locust Bean; St. John's Bread, Carob tree.

Unani: Kharnub Shaami.

Action: Pod and husk from seed— antidiarrhoeal (stools in gastroenteritis and colitis are known to solidify within 48 h).

The pods contain tannin from 0.88 to 4.09%.

Pulp of the pod contains 30-70% sugars, fats, starch, protein, amino acids, gallic acid; leucoanthocyanins and related phenolics. Leaves contain catechols.... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Ceratophyllum Demersum

Linn.

Family: Ceratophyllaceae.

Habitat: All over India from temperate to tropics, in ponds and lakes.

English: Coontail, Hornwort.

Ayurvedic: Shaivaala (also equated with Vallisneria spiralis Linn., Hydrocharitaceae), Jalnili, Jalaja.

Unani: Tuhlub, Pashm Vazg.

Siddha/Tamil: Velampasi.

Folk: Sevaar.

Action: Purgative, antibilious, antibacterial.

The herb is rich in protein, calcium and magnesium; contains ferre- doxin and plastocyanin. EtOH (50%) extract—antimicrobial.

Dosage: Whole plant—10- 20 ml juice; 50-100 ml decoction. (CCRAS.)... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Cerebration

n. 1. the functioning of the brain as a whole. 2. the unconscious activities of the brain.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Cheyne–stokes Respiration

a striking form of breathing in which there is a cyclical variation in the rate, which becomes slower until breathing stops for several seconds before speeding up to a peak and then slowing again. It occurs when the sensitivity of the respiratory centres in the brain is impaired, particularly in states of coma. [J. Cheyne (1777–1836), Scottish physician; W. Stokes (1804–78), Irish physician]... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Cheyne–stokes Respiration

An abnormal pattern of breathing in which the rate and depth of respiration varies. Cheyne–Stokes respiration is characterized by repeated cycles, lasting a few minutes, of deep, rapid breathing that becomes slower and shallower and then stops for 10–20 seconds. The pattern

may be due to malfunction of the part of the brain that controls breathing (as occurs in some cases of stroke and head injury).

It may also occur as a result of heart failure or in healthy people at high altitudes, especially during sleep.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Chloral Hydrate

This drug is now rarely used but chloral betaine (Welldorm) is occasionally used in the elderly and in newborns with ?ts or cerebral irritation after a di?cult delivery.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Chloral Hydrate

a sedative and hypnotic drug formerly widely used (as an oral solution) to induce sleep, mainly in children and the elderly; its derivative cloral betaine (Welldorm) is formulated as an elixir or tablets. Nausea, vomiting, and other gastrointestinal side-effects limit the use of these drugs. Prolonged use may lead to *dependence.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Chlorate Poisoning

The toxic effects of chemicals present in some defoliant weedkillers. Ingesting chlorates can cause kidney and liver damage, corrosion of the intestine, and methaemoglobinaemia (a chemical change in haemoglobin in the blood). Small doses of chlorates can prove fatal. Symptoms of poisoning include ulceration in the mouth, abdominal pain, and diarrhoea.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Ciprofibrate

n. see fibrates.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Clerodendrum Serratum

(Linn.) Moon.

Family: Verbenaceae.

Habitat: A shrub distributed throughout the country, especially common in Assam and Bengal.

English: Blue-flowered Glory tree, Beetle Killer.

Ayurvedic: Bhaargi, Bhaaran- gi, Angaarvalli, Phanji, Braah- manyashtikaa, Kharshaak, Padma, Bhragubhavaa, Brahmayashtikaa.

Siddha/Tamil: Kandoorbarangi (root), cherutekku.

Action: Root—Antiasthmatic, antihistaminic, antispasmodic, antitussive carminative, febrifuge. Leaf—febrifuge.

The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India indicated the use of the dried roots in cough, bronchitis, dyspnoea, chest diseases and sinusitis.

The bark contains triterpenoids— serratagenic, oleanolic and queretaric acids; leaves contain alpha-spinasterol and flavonoids, including luteolin, api- genin, baicalein, scutellarein, phenolic acids—caffeic and ferulic acids.

EtOH (50%) extract of the plant exhibited hypotensive and spasmolytic activity. Polyhydric property on isolated guinea pig ileum. Antiasthmatic effect was also observed pharmacologically.

Dosage: Root—3-6 g powder; 1020 g for decoction. (API Vol. III.)... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Clofibrate

A lipid-lowering drug that reduces levels of cholesterol and triglycerides in the blood and is a treatment for some types of hyperlipidaemia.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Clofibrate

See HYPERLIPIDAEMIA.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Co-registration

(fusion imaging) n. (in diagnostic imaging) the process of taking two images obtained by different techniques and (usually electronically) laying them on top of each other after suitable adjustment, so that the anatomical landmarks coincide. This can give more accurate information as one technique shows the anatomy and the other shows the pathology. Co-registering can thus show which part of the body is involved in the disease process. It is typically used in *PET/CT scanning. CT or MRI scans can also be fused onto real time ultrasound images to target a lesion for biopsy or treatment.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Cochrane Collaboration

A non-pro?t-making international organisation which systematically ?nds, appraises and reviews available evidence, mainly from randomised CLINICAL TRIALS, about the consequences of health care. The aim is to help people make well-informed decisions about health care. The main work is done by around 50 review groups, the members of which share an interest in generating reliable, up-to-date evidence on the prevention, treatment and rehabilitation of particular health problems or groups of problems. The UK Cochrane Centre opened in Oxford in 1992 and the International Collaboration launched a year later. Its origins lay in the work of a UK epidemiologist, Dr Archie Cochrane, who in 1979 published a monograph calling for a systematic collection of randomised controlled trials on the e?ect of health care.

The main output of the Cochrane Collaboration is published electronically as the Cochrane Library, updated quarterly, with free access in many countries. (See CLINICAL TRIALS, EVIDENCE-BASED MEDICINE and Appendix 2.)... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Coelenterates

Animals having no spine. This group originally contained Spongiaria, Cnidaria and Ctenophora. Coelenterata is a term which generally includes the cnidarians and ctenophores. As the phylum Cnidaria does not include the ctenophores, the two terms are not interchangeable.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

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Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

Commando Operation

a major operation performed to remove a malignant tumour from the head and neck. Extensive dissection, often involving the face, is followed by reconstruction to restore function and cosmetic acceptability.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Community Rating

A method for the determination of health insurance premiums that spreads the risk among members of a large community and establishes premiums based on the utilization experience of the whole community. For a set of benefits, the same rate applies to everyone regardless of age, gender, occupation or any other indicator of health risk.... Community Health

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Community Health

Comparative Mortality Figure

see occupational mortality.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Computer-generated Prescriptions

The Royal College of General Practitioners has issued guidelines on the use of computer-generated prescriptions for drugs other than controlled drugs. The guidelines include rules on giving the patient’s name, address and date of birth with the responsible prescribing doctor’s name at the bottom, along with his or her surgery address and telephone number. The prescription has to be signed by the doctor. Several other requirements are included to minimise the risk of prescription-tampering, fraud or the inclusion of identi?able con?dential information. Full details of the guidelines appear in the British National Formulary, published every six months.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Coscinium Fenestratum

Colebr.

Family: Menispermaceae.

Habitat: South India, particularly in Western Ghats.

English: False Calumba.

Ayurvedic: Pitachandana, Pitasaara, Harichandana, Kaaliyaka, Kalam- baka.

Siddha/Tamil: Maramanjal, Man- jalkodi.

Folk: Jharihaldi.

Action: Root—stomachic, diuretic, hypotensive, antidysenteric, antibacterial, antifungal, bitter tonic in dyspepsia and debility.

The stems and roots of Kalambaka contain alkaloids including berberine 3.5-5% and jatorrhizine. Stems contain ceryl palmitic acid and oleic acid.

The plant is also used against fractures; for dressing wounds and ulcers and in cutaneous leishmaniasis.

The stems are used in South India as a substitute for Berberis (Daaruhari- draa); also as an Indian substitute for True Calumba (Jateorhiza palmata Miers).

Dosage: Root—3-5 g powder; decoction—50-100 ml. (CCRAS.)... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Crataegeus Oxyacantha

Linn.

Family: Rosaceae.

Habitat: British and European hedge plant, met with in the temperate Himalayas of Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh at an altitude of 1,800-3,000 m. (The plant does not thrive in the plains of India.)

English: English Hawthorn.

Folk: Ring, Ringo, Pingyat, Phindak, Ban Sanjli (Punjab hills).

Action: Coronary vasodilator (strengthens heart muscle without increasing the beat in coronary arteries), antispasmodic, antihypertensive, sedative to nervous system, diuretic.

Key application: In cases of cardiac insufficiency Stage II as defined by NYHA (New York Heart Association). An improvement of subjective findings as well as an increase in cardiac work tolerance, a decrease in pressure/heart rate product, an increase in the ejection fraction and a rise in the anaerobic threshold have been established in human pharmacological studies. (German Commission E, WHO.)

The active principles include oligo- meric procyanidins and flavonoids.

The drug is official in Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia of India.

Contraindicated in low blood pressure, chest pain, bleeding disorders. The herb may interfere with therapeutic effect of cardiac drugs. (Sharon M. Herr.) Preparations based on hydroal- coholic extracts of Crataegus monogy- na or C. laevigata are used as Hawthorn in the Western herbal.... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Crataegus Crenulata

Roxb.

Family: Rosaceae.

Habitat: The Himalayas from Sutluj to Bhutan at altitudes of 8002,500 m.

Folk: Ghingaaru.

Action: See Cratageus oxyacantha.... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Crataeva Nurvala

Buch.-Ham.

Synonym: C. magna (Lour.) DC.

Family: Capparidaceae.

Habitat: Wild as well as cultivated in gardens all over India.

Ayurvedic: Varuna, Varana, Barnaa, Setu, Ashmarighna, Kumaarak, Tiktashaaka.

Unani: Baranaa.

Siddha/Tamil: Maavilingam.

Action: Bark—diuretic (finds application in urinary disorders, including urolithiasis, prostatic hypertrophy, neurogenic bladder and urinary infections; uterine and gastro-intestinal problems). Juice of the bark is given to women after childbirth. Extract of root bark, mixed with honey, is applied to scrofulous enlargements of glands. Whole plant powder—cholinergic in smooth muscles including urinary bladder.

Key application: As antiurolithiatic. (Indian Herbal Pharmacopoeia.)

The antiurolithic activity of the stem-bark is attributed to the presence of lupeol. Lupeol not only prevented the formation of vesical calculi, but also reduced the size of the preformed stones in the kidneys of calculogenic rats. It also reversed the biochemical parameters in urine, blood and serum towards normal.

The stem bark also exhibit anti- inflammatory activity, and is reported to stimulate bile secretion, appetite and bowel movement.

Dosage: Stem bark—20-30 g for decoction. (API Vol. I.)... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Crude Rate

the total number of events (e.g. cases of lung cancer) expressed as a rate per 1000 population. When factors such as age structure or sex of populations can significantly affect the rates (as in *mortality or *morbidity rates) it is more meaningful to compare age/sex specific rates using one or more age groups of a designated sex (e.g. lung cancer in males aged 55–64 years). More complex calculations, which take account of the age and sex structure of a population as a whole, can produce *standardized rates and *standardized mortality ratios (SMR).... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Curative Care

Medical treatment and care that cures a disease or relieves pain and promotes recovery.... Community Health

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Community Health

Cymbopogon Citratus

(DC.) Stapf.

Synonym: Andropogon citratus DC.

Family: Poaceae.

Habitat: Grown in Punjab, Maharashtra, Gujarat and Karnataka.

English: Lemongrass.

Ayurvedic: Bhuutika, Bhuutikaa.

Action: Leaf—stimulant, sudorific, antiperiodic, anticatarrhal. Essential oil—carminative, anticholerin, depressant, analgesic, antipyretic, antibacterial, antifungal.

The lemongrass contains a volatile oil, with citral (about 70%), citronellal, geraniol and myrcene as its main constituents. Cetral and citronellal exhibit marked sedative activity.

The lemongrass is taken as a tea for digestive problems; it relaxes muscles of the stomach and gut, relieves spasm and flatulence. In catarrhal conditions, it is taken as a febrifuge.

An infusion of fresh leaves on oral administration has been found to produce dose-dependent analgesia in rats. This analgesic acitivity is caused by myrcene present in the leaf.

Geraniol and d-limonene from the essential oil induce activity of glu- tathione S-transferase, a detoxifying enzyme, which is believed to be a major factor for chemical carcinogen detoxification.... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Cystourethrography, Micturating

An X-ray procedure for studying the bladder while urine is passed. Micturating cystourethrography is most commonly used in young children to detect abnormal reflux of urine as the bladder empties.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Cytokeratin

n. a member of a family of proteins – *keratins – found in the cytoplasm of epithelial tissues and the cancers arising in them (*carcinomas). Any given carcinoma has its unique pattern of cytokeratins, which can be identified on histochemical analysis of a specimen and can help in the diagnosis of metastatic carcinoma when the primary site of metastasis is unknown.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Death Rate

See mortality.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Death Rate

The proportion of deaths in a specified population. The death rate is calculated by dividing the number of deaths in a population in a year by the midyear resident population. Death rates are often expressed as the number of deaths per 100 000 persons. The rate may be restricted to deaths in specific age, race, sex, or geographic groups or deaths from specific causes of death (specific rate), or it may be related to the entire population (crude rate).... Community Health

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Community Health

Death Rate

The death (mortality rate) is the number of deaths per 100,000 – or sometimes 10,000 or 1,000 – of the population per year. In 2001 the population of the UK was 59.8 million, of whom 9 million were over 65 and 4.2 million over 75. Females comprised 30.33 million and males 29.47. In 2003 – the latest year for which ?gures are available – the death rate was 7.2 per 1,000 population; in 1980 the ?gure was

11.8. The total mortality comprises individual deaths from di?erent causes: for example, accidents, cancer, coronary artery disease, strokes and suicides. Mortality is often calculated for speci?c groups in epidemiological (see EPIDEMIOLOGY) studies of particular diseases. Infant mortality measures the deaths of babies born alive who die during the ?rst year of life: infant deaths per 1,000 live births were steady at around 5 from 2003–2005.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Decerebrate

adj. denoting a neurological state in which the functions of the higher centres of the brain are eliminated. This is brought about in experimental animals by cutting across the brain below the cerebrum, but certain injuries to the brain in humans may cause the same severe neurological signs as occur in a decerebrate animal.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Decerebrate

The state of being without a functioning cerebrum, the main controlling part of the brain. It occurs if the brainstem is severed, which effectively isolates the cerebrum.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Degeneration

n. the deterioration and loss of specialized function of the cells of a tissue or organ. The changes may be caused by a defective blood supply or by disease. Degeneration may involve the deposition of calcium salts, fat (see fatty degeneration), or fibrous tissue in the affected organ or tissue. See also infiltration.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Degeneration

Physical and/or chemical changes in cells, tissues, or organs that reduce their efficiency. It is a feature of aging and may also be due to a disease process. Other known causes include injury, reduced blood supply, poisoning (by alcohol, for example), or a diet deficient in a specific vitamin. (See also degenerative disorders.)... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Degeneration

A change in structure or in chemical composition of a tissue or organ, by which its vitality is lowered or its function interfered with. Degeneration is of various kinds, the chief being fatty, where cells become invaded by fat globules; calcareous, where calcium is deposited in tissue so that it becomes chalky in consistency; and mucoid, where it becomes semi-lique?ed.

Causes of degeneration are, in many cases, very obscure. In some cases heredity plays a part, with particular organs – for example, the kidneys – tending to show ?broid changes in successive generations. Fatty, ?broid, and calcareous degenerations are part of the natural change in old age; defective nutrition may bring them on prematurely, as may excessive and long-continued strain upon an organ like the heart. Various poisons, such as alcohol, play a special part in producing the changes, and so do the poisons produced by various diseases, particularly SYPHILIS and TUBERCULOSIS.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Degenerative Disorders

A term covering a range of conditions in which there is progressive impairment of the structure and function of part of the body. The definition excludes conditions due to inflammation, infection, altered immune responses, chemical or physical damage, or cancerous change.

The number of specialized cells or structures in the organ affected is usually reduced, and cells are replaced by connective tissue or scar tissue.

Degenerative nervous system disorders include Alzheimer’s disease, motor neuron disease, Huntington’s disease, and Parkinson’s disease. Degenerative disorders of the eye include Leber’s optic atrophy and senile macular degeneration. Degenerative disorders of the joints include osteoarthritis.

Some hardening of the arteries seems to be a feature of aging.

In some people, degenerative changes in the muscle coat of arteries are unusually severe and calcium deposits may be seen on X-rays (as in Monckeberg’s sclerosis, a type of arteriosclerosis).

Several degenerative disorders, such as the muscular dystrophies, are now known to be genetic.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Degenerative Disorders

An umbrella description for a wide variety of conditions in which there is increased deterioration of the structure or function (or both) of the body. Ageing causes a steady degeneration of many tissues and organs – for example, wrinkling of the skin, CATARACT and poor neuromuscular coordination. In degenerative disorders the changes occur earlier in life. The nervous system, muscles, arteries, joints and eyes are all susceptible. Specialised tissues are replaced by CONNECTIVE TISSUE. The commonest example in the nervous system is ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE, which causes dementia; while in HUNTINGTON’S CHOREA, a genetic disorder, dementia is accompanied by incoordination of movements.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Dehydration

A fall in the water content of the body. Sixty per cent of a man’s body weight is water, and 50 per cent of a woman’s; those proportions need to be maintained within quite narrow limits to ensure proper functioning of body tissues. Body ?uids contain a variety of mineral salts (see ELECTROLYTES) and these, too, must remain within narrow concentration bands. Dehydration is often accompanied by loss of salt, one of the most important minerals in the body.

The start of ‘dehydration’ is signalled by a person becoming thirsty. In normal circumstances, the drinking of water will relieve thirst and serious dehydration does not develop. In a temperate climate an adult will lose 1.5 litres or more a day from sweating, urine excretion and loss of ?uid through the lungs. In a hot climate the loss is much higher – up to 10 litres if a person is doing hard physical work. Even in a temperate climate, severe dehydration will occur if a person does not drink for two or three days. Large losses of ?uid occur with certain illnesses – for example, profuse diarrhoea; POLYURIA in diabetes or kidney failure (see KIDNEYS, DISEASES OF); and serious blood loss from, say, injury or a badly bleeding ULCER in the gastrointestinal tract. Severe thirst, dry lips and tongue, TACHYCARDIA, fast breathing, lightheadedness and confusion are indicative of serious dehydration; the individual can lapse into COMA and eventually die if untreated. Dehydration also results in a reduction in output of urine, which becomes dark and concentrated.

Prevention is important, especially in hot climates, where it is essential to drink water even if one is not thirsty. Replacement of salts is also vital, and a diet containing half a teaspoon of table salt to every litre of water drunk is advisable. If someone, particularly a child, suffers from persistent vomiting and diarrhoea, rehydration therapy is required and a salt-andglucose rehydration mixture (obtainable from pharmacists) should be taken. For those with severe dehydration, oral ?uids will be insu?cient and the affected person needs intravenous ?uids and, sometimes, admission to hospital, where ?uid intake and output can be monitored and rehydration measures safely controlled.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Dehydration

n. 1. loss or deficiency of water in body tissues. The condition may result from inadequate water intake and/or from excessive removal of water from the body; for example, by sweating, vomiting, or diarrhoea. Symptoms include great thirst, nausea, and exhaustion. The condition is treated by drinking plenty of water; severe cases require *oral rehydration therapy or intravenous administration of water and salts (which have been lost with the water). 2. the removal of water from tissue during its preparation for microscopical study, by placing it successively in stronger solutions of ethyl alcohol. Dehydration follows *fixation and precedes *clearing.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Dehydration

A condition in which a person’s water content is at a dangerously low level. Water accounts for about 60 per cent of a man’s weight and 50 per cent of a woman’s. The total water (and mineral salts and other substances dissolved in the body’s fluids) content must be kept within fairly narrow limits for healthy functioning of cells and tissues.

Dehydration occurs due to inadequate intake of fluids or excessive fluid loss. The latter may occur with severe or prolonged vomiting or diarrhoea or with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, diabetes insipidus, and some types of kidney failure. Children are especially susceptible to dehydration by diarrhoea.

Severe dehydration causes extreme thirst, dry lips and tongue, an increase in heart rate and breathing rate, dizziness, confusion, lethargy, and eventual coma. The skin looks dry and loses its elasticity. Any urine passed is small in quantity and dark-coloured. If there is also salt depletion, there may also be headaches, cramps, and pallor.

Bottled mineral water can help maintain the intake of salts. For vomiting and diarrhoea, rehydration therapy is needed; salt and glucose rehydration mixtures are available from chemists.

In severe cases of dehydration, fluids are given intravenously.

The water/salt balance is carefully monitored by blood tests and adjusted if necessary.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Dehydration

Loss of natural body fluids when diarrhoea strikes. Loss of water through bowel overaction. Untreated dehydration may result in circulatory collapse in the young and elderly. See: DIARRHOEA.

Re-hydration, after heavy fluid loss: glass water containing 1 teaspoon salt and 2 teaspoons sugar. Check elderly patient’s armpits for moisture – a useful way to rule out dehydration. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

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Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

Deliberate Self-harm

any attempt at self-injury or self-poisoning, as often occurs in the context of acute stress, personality disorder, depression, and alcoholism. It may or may not involve suicidal intent. Treatment begins with a psychosocial assessment, on the basis of which the patient may be offered various forms of *psychotherapy and occasionally *antipsychotic medication, *lithium, or *SSRIs. If the attempt is serious, immediate treatment may be necessary in a medical ward or (more rarely), if suicidal intent persists, in a psychiatric ward. Patients who do not have a mental disorder should be assessed using the criteria set out in the Mental Capacity Act 2005 and, if found to have *capacity, are entitled to consent to or refuse treatment like any other capacitous adult. See also suicide.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Denaturation

n. the changes in the physical and physiological properties of a protein that are brought about by heat, X-rays, or chemicals. These changes include loss of activity (in the case of enzymes) and loss (or alteration) of antigenicity (in the case of *antigens).... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Dependency Ratio

An indicator used in population studies to measure the portion of the population which is economically dependent on active age groups. It is calculated as the sum of the 0-14 year-olds and the over 60 or 65 year-olds, depending on the working age limit considered, divided by the number of people aged between 15 and 59 or 64, respectively.... Community Health

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Community Health

Depurative

helps combat impurity in the blood and organs; detoxifying.... The Encyclopedia of Essential Oils

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The Encyclopedia of Essential Oils

Depurative

An agent that purifies blood... Medicinal Plants Glossary

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Medicinal Plants Glossary

Depurative

Blood purifier. Another term for an alterative. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

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Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

Diethylcarbamazine Citrate

A FILARICIDE derived from PIPERAZINE used to treat FILARIASIS – a group of diseases caused by parasitic worms called nematode ?lariae.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Dilaceration

n. a condition affecting some teeth after traumatic injury, in which the incomplete root continues to form at an abnormal angle to the part already formed. In severe cases it may be necessary to remove the tooth.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Ear Drums, Perforated

Sliced Garlic treatment. Peel corm, leaving transparent epithelial-layer attached. Cut slice and shape it to cover the perforation; push it against the eardrum so that its cut surface hugs the perforation. Pack the external auditory meatus with an alcohol-moistened plug of cotton wool. Water must not enter the ear and forceful nose-blowing avoided. Replace Garlic slice once or twice a week until healing is complete. If middle ear becomes inflamed with excessive exudate, stop treatment and give an anti-inflammatory (such as Echinacea, author). Any exudation usually stops when treatment is discontinued. (Chinese Medical Journal, May 1977) ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

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Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

Eardrum, Perforated

Rupture or erosion of the eardrum. Perforation of the eardrum can cause brief, intense pain. There may be slight bleeding, a discharge from the ear (see ear, discharge from), and some reduction in hearing.

Most commonly, perforation occurs as a result of the build-up of pus in the middle ear due to acute otitis media. Perforation may also be associated with cholesteatoma. Another cause is injury, for example from insertion of an object into the ear, a loud noise, barotrauma, or a fracture to the base of the skull.

Diagnosis is confirmed by examination of the ear (see ear, examination of).

Hearing tests may also be performed.

Analgesic drugs may relieve any pain and antibiotic drugs may be prescribed to treat or prevent infection.

Most perforations heal quickly.

If the perforation has failed to heal after 6 months, myringoplasty may be needed.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Efrat

(Hebrew) My God is bountiful Efrata, Efratia, Efratea... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Elaeocarpus Serratus

Linn.

Synonym: E. cuneatus Wt.

Family: Elaeocarpaceae.

Habitat: Eastern Himalayas and Western Ghats up to 1,000 m. English: Wild Olive tree, Ceylon Olive.

Ayurvedic: Rudraaksha (var.). Siddha/Tamil: Uttraccham, Ulankarei.

Action: Leaf—antirheumatic. Fruit—antidysenteric. Aerial parts—CVS and CNS active.

The leaves gave ellagic acid, myric- itrin, myricetin and mearnsetin. Fruit pulp gave citric acid and D-galactose. It contains pectin (2.57% fresh weight basis).... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Emberatriz

(Spanish) A respected lady Emberatrise, Emberatreece, Emberatreese, Emberatryce, Emberatryse, Emberatrice... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Ephratah

(Hebrew) One who is fruitful Ephrata, Ephratia, Ephratea, Ephrath, Ephratha, Ephrathia, Ephrathea... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Epikeratophakia

n. eye surgery to correct errors of *refraction in which the curvature of the cornea is altered using donor corneal tissue, which has been frozen and shaped using a lathe to produce a tissue lens that is then sutured onto the cornea.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Erato

(Greek) In mythology, the muse of lyric poetry... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Eulophia Pratensis

Lindl.

Synonym: E. ramentaceae Lindl. ex Wt.

Family: Orchidaceae.

Habitat: Pasture lands of Deccan from Konkan southwards.

English: Salep (var.).

Folk: Sataavari (Maharashtra).

Action: Tuber—used for scrofulous glands.... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Euphrates

(Hebrew) From the great river Euphratees, Eufrates, Eufratees... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Eventration

n. 1. protrusion of the intestines or omentum through the abdominal wall. 2. abnormal elevation of part of the diaphragm due to congenital weakness (but without true herniation).... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Evisceration

n. 1. (in surgery) the removal of the viscera. 2. (in ophthalmology) an operation in which the contents of the eyeball are removed, the empty outer envelope (sclera) being left behind. Compare enucleation.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Evisceration

Extrusion of the abdominal VISCERA or internal organs, usually as the result of serious injury. (Usually described as disembowelment when deliberately carried out by one person on another.) In surgery the term refers to part-removal of the viscera, and in OPHTHALMOLOGY it is an operation to remove the contents of the eyeball (see also EYE).... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Exenteration

The surgical removal of all organs and soft tissue in a body cavity, usually to arrest the growth of a cancer. It is sometimes used in ophthalmology when the eye and the contents of the eye orbit are removed.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Exenteration

n. (in ophthalmology) an operation in which all the contents of the eye socket (orbit) are removed, leaving only the bony walls intact. The bone is covered by a skin graft. This operation is sometimes necessary when there is a malignant tumour in the orbit.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Expectoration

The coughing up and spitting out of sputum.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Expectoration

n. the act of spitting out material brought into the mouth by coughing.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Expectoration

Expectoration means either material brought up from the chest by the AIR PASSAGES, or the act by which it is brought up.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Experience Rating

A method of adjusting health plan premiums based on historical utilization data.... Community Health

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Community Health

Expiration

n. 1. the act of breathing out air from the lungs: exhalation. 2. dying.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Expiration

(1) Breathing out air from the lungs.

(2) The act of dying.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Exploration

n. (in surgery) an investigative operation on a wound, tissue, or cavity. It may be undertaken to determine the cause of symptoms. —exploratory adj.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Exploration

A surgical operation to investigate the cause of a patient’s illness.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Exploratory Surgery

Any operation that is carried out to investigate or examine part of the body to discover the extent of known disease or to establish a diagnosis. Advances in imaging techniques, such as MRI, have reduced the need for exploratory surgery.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Eyes – Sight Deterioration

Presbyopia. General deterioration of the eye, usually from long- sightedness. A natural ageing process. Nutritional deficiency is a common cause, promoted by smoking, alcohol and denatured foods. If the eyes are treated nutritionally good sight lasts much longer. Strong emotions such as anger, and infections such as colds may weaken.

Services of a qualified optician should be sought after limits of the Bate’s Method of eyesight training have been reached.

Alternatives. Tablets/capsules. Ginseng. Gotu Kola.

Powders. Mix. Parts: Gentian 2; Dandelion 1; pinch Cayenne. Dose: 500mg, (two 00 capsules or one- third teaspoon) thrice daily. (To build-up good general health)

Cider Vinegar. 2 teaspoons to tumbler water; sips during the day.

Topical. Teas. Any one: Eyebright, Fennel, German Chamomile, Plantain, Rue. 1 teaspoon to each cup boiling water; infuse 15 minutes, strain, half fill eyebath and use as a douche.

Diet. Low salt. High fibre. Bilberries.

Supplements. Daily. Vitamin A, 7500iu. Beta-carotene. B-complex. Vitamin C, 100mg. Vitamin E, 100iu. Zinc.

Supportive. Palming. Bate’s exercises. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

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Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

Eyes  - Macular Degeneration

Zinc and selenium, supported by doses of Vitamin E and amino acid taurine produced dramatic results in some cases; effect said to be due to antioxidant activity mopping up free radicals associated with degenerative diseases (Journal of Nutritional Medicine)

A preliminary therapeutic trial in patients with ageing macular degeneration or diabetic retinopathy showed that supplementation with Beta-carotene, Vitamin C, Vitamin E and Selenium halted the progression of degenerative changes and in some cases even brought some improvement. (Age and Ageing 1991, 20(1) 60-9). Bilberries.

Referral to a consultant ophthalmologist. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

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Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

Fahrenheit Temperature

temperature expressed on a scale in which the melting point of ice is assigned a temperature of 32° and the boiling point of water a temperature of 212°. For most medical purposes the Celsius (centigrade) scale has replaced the Fahrenheit scale. The formula for converting from Fahrenheit (F) to Celsius (C) is: C = 5/9(F – 32). See also Celsius temperature. [G. D. Fahrenheit (1686–1736), German physicist]... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Fatty Degeneration

As a result of ANAEMIA, interference with blood or nerve supply, or because of the action of various poisons, body cells may undergo abnormal changes accompanied by the appearance in their substance of fat droplets.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Fatty Degeneration

deterioration in the health of a tissue due to the deposition of abnormally large amounts of fat in its cells. The accumulation of fat in the liver and heart may seriously impair their functioning. The deposition of fat may be linked with incorrect diet, excessive alcohol consumption, or a shortage of oxygen in the tissues caused by poor circulation or a deficiency of haemoglobin.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Female Restorative

Female corrective. A medicine which restores healthy menstrual function by correcting hormone imbalance. Herbs: Agnus Castus, Cramp bark, Motherwort, Oats (endosperm), Raspberry leaves, True Unicorn root (aletris), Wild Yam.

Tea: Agnus Castus, Motherwort, Oats or Raspberry leaves.

Tablets. Agnus Castus, Cramp bark, Motherwort, Raspberry leaves, Wild Yam.

Formula. Agnus Castus 2; Cramp bark 1; Motherwort 1. Dosage: powders: quarter of a teaspoon. Liquid Extracts: 1 teaspoon. Tinctures: 2 teaspoons. In water or honey thrice daily. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

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Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

Fenestration

A largely obsolete surgical operation to form a new opening in the bony LABYRINTH of the inner ear in the treatment of deafness caused by otosclerosis (see under EAR, DISEASES OF). Nowadays the disorder is usually surgically treated by STAPEDECTOMY.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Fenestration

n. 1. (in dentistry) a ‘window’ of bone loss on the facial or lingual aspect of a tooth that places the exposed root surface directly in contact with the gum or the alveolar mucosa. 2. a surgical operation in which a new opening is formed in the bony *labyrinth of the inner ear as part of the treatment of deafness due to *otosclerosis. It is rarely performed today, having been superseded by *stapedectomy.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Fenofibrate

n. see fibrates.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Ferrous Fumarate

A form of iron given in the form of an oral preparation to treat iron-deficiency anaemia. Ferrous fumarate can cause diarrhoea, constipation, and abdominal pain.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Fertility Rate

The number of live births that occur in a year for every 1,000 women of childbearing age (this is usually taken as 15–44 years of age). The fertility rate in the UK (all ages) was 54.9 in 2002 (UK Health Statistics, 2001 edition, The Stationery O?ce).... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Fertility Rate

the number of live births occurring in a year per 1000 women of child-bearing age (usually 15 to 44 years). A less reliable measure of fertility can be obtained from the live birth rate (the number of live births per 1000 of the population) or the natural increase (the excess of live births over deaths). More rarely quoted are the gross reproduction rate (the rate at which the child-bearing female population is reproducing itself) and the net reproduction rate, which takes into account female mortality before the age of reproduction.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Fibrates

A group of lipid-lowering drugs used to treat high blood levels of triglycerides or cholesterol.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Fibrates

pl. n. a class of drugs, chemically related to fibric acid, that are capable of reducing concentrations of triglycerides in the blood (see hypertriglyceridaemia); they may also reduce plasma *low-density lipoproteins and they tend to raise the levels of the beneficial *high-density lipoproteins. Fibrates are used for treating hyperlipidaemia; they include *bezafibrate, ciprofibrate, fenofibrate, and *gemfibrozil. Fibrates can have adverse effects on muscle (see myositis).... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Fine-needle Aspiration Cytology

(FNA cytology) a technique in which a thin hollow needle is inserted into a mass to extract a tissue sample for microscopic examination. It is useful for detecting the presence of malignant cells, particularly in lumps of the breast and thyroid. See also aspiration cytology.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Food And Drug Administration

(FDA) in the USA, the federal agency within the *Department of Health and Human Services responsible for ensuring that foods are safely edible; that medications (for humans and animals), biological products, and medical devices are safe and effective; and that cosmetics and electronic products that emit radiation are safe. The FDA is also responsible for ensuring the accuracy of the advertisements and labelling related to these products.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Forced Expiratory Volume

(FEV) the volume of air exhaled in a given period (usually limited to 1 second in tests of vital capacity). FEV is reduced in patients with obstructive airways disease and diminished lung volume.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Fraternal Twins

see twins.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Frustration

A deep feeling of discontent and tension because of unresolved problems, unfulfilled needs, or because the path to a goal is blocked. In some people, frustration may lead to regression, aggression, or depression.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Fulguration

(electrodesiccation) n. the destruction with a *diathermy instrument of warts, growths, or unwanted areas of tissue, particularly inside the bladder. This latter operation is performed via the urethra and viewed through a cystoscope.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Generation Effect

Variations in health status that arise from the different causal factors to which each birth cohort in the population is exposed as the environment and society change. Each consecutive birth cohort is exposed to a unique environment that coincides with its life span.... Community Health

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Community Health

Gingivitis, Acute Ulcerative

Painful infection and ulceration of the gums due to abnormal growth of bacteria that usually exist harmlessly in small numbers in gum crevices. Predisposing factors include poor oral hygiene, smoking, throat infections, and emotional stress. In many cases the disorder is preceded by gingivitis or periodontitis. The condition is uncommon, primarily affecting people aged 15–35.

The gums become sore and bleed at the slightest pressure. Crater-like ulcers develop on the gum tips between teeth, and there may be a foul taste in the mouth, bad breath, and swollen lymph nodes. Sometimes, the infection spreads to the lips and cheek lining (see noma).

A hydrogen peroxide mouthwash can relieve the inflammation.

Scaling is then performed to remove plaque.

In severe cases, the antibacterial drug metronidazole may be given to control infection.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Glomerular Filtration Rate

(GFR) the rate at which substances are filtered from the blood of the glomeruli into the Bowman’s capsules of the *nephrons. It is calculated by measuring the *clearance of specific substances (e.g. creatinine) and is an index of renal function. See eGFR.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Glomerular Filtration Rate (gfr)

Each of the two KIDNEYS ?lters a large volume of blood – 25 per cent of cardiac output, or around 1,300 ml – through its two million glomeruli (see GLOMERULUS) every minute. The glomeruli ?lter out cell, protein, and fat-free ?uid which, after reabsorption of certain chemicals, is excreted as urine. The rate of this ultra?ltration process, which in health is remarkably constant, is called the glomerular ?ltration rate (GFR). Each day nearly 180 litres of water plus some small molecular-weight constituents of blood are ?ltrated. The GFR is thus an indicator of kidney function. The most widely used measurement is CREATININE clearance and this is assessed by measuring the amount of creatinine in a 24-hour sample of urine and the amount of creatinine in the plasma; a formula is applied that gives the GFR.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Glyceryl Trinitrate

Also known as trinitrin and nitroglycerin, this is a drug used in the treatment of ANGINA PECTORIS and left ventricular failure of the heart. It is normally given as a sublingual tablet or spray, though percutaneous preparations may be useful in the prophylaxis of angina – particularly for patients who suffer attacks at rest, and especially at night. Sublingually it provides rapid symptomatic relief of angina, but is only e?ective for 20–30 minutes. It is a potent vasodilator, and this may lead to unwanted side-effects such as ?ushing, headache, and postural HYPOTENSION. Its antispasmodic effects are also valuable in the treatment of ASTHMA, biliary and renal colic, and certain cases of VOMITING. (See also COLIC.)... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Glyceryl Trinitrate

A vasodilator drug used to treat and prevent symptoms of angina pectoris.

High doses may cause a headache, flushing, and dizziness.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Glyceryl Trinitrate

(nitroglycerin) a drug that dilates blood vessels and is used mainly to prevent and treat angina (see vasodilator). Side effects may include flushing, headache, and fainting. Glyceryl trinitrate is also applied topically in the treatment of anal fissures.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Golgi Apparatus

a collection of vesicles and folded membranes in a cell, usually connected to the *endoplasmic reticulum. It stores and later transports the proteins manufactured in the endoplasmic reticulum. The Golgi apparatus is well developed in cells that produce secretions, e.g. pancreatic cells producing digestive enzymes. [C. Golgi (1844–1926), Italian histologist]... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Grattage

n. the process of brushing or scraping the surface of a slowly healing ulcer or wound to remove *granulation tissue, which – though a stage in the healing process – sometimes overgrows or becomes infected and therefore delays healing. Grattage is used in the treatment of *trachoma.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Gray Or Grey Literature

Research reports that are not found in traditional peer-reviewed publications, such as government agency monographs, symposium proceedings and unpublished reports.... Community Health

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Community Health

Gynocardia Odorata

R.Br.

Synonym: Hydnocarpus odorata Landl.

Family: Flacourtiaceae.

Habitat: Eastern Himalayas, Khasi Hills and Sikkim.

Ayurvedic: Chaalmograa (substitute). Tuvaraka (var.) (Controversial synonyms.)

Unani: Tukhm-e-Biranj Mograa.

Folk: Chaaval-mungari.

Action: Oil from seed used in psoriasis, eczema, scrofula, gout, rheumatic affections.

A triterpenoid ketolactone, odolac- tone, has been isolated from the plant. The fruit pulp is used as piscic. The seeds of G. odorata were formerly, erroneously, thought to be the source Chaalmograa oil of commerce obtained from the seeds of Hydnocar- pus kurzii, used in leprosy. Gynocardia oil does not contain chaulmoogric or hydnocarpic acid.... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Gyrate Atrophy

a rare hereditary condition causing night blindness and constricted visual fields, usually developing in the first decade of life. Clinically it is characterized by a progressive atrophy of the choroid and retina.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Haemoconcentration

n. an increase in the proportion of red blood cells relative to the plasma, brought about by a decrease in the volume of plasma or an increase in the concentration of red blood cells in the circulating blood (see polycythaemia). Haemoconcentration may occur in any condition in which there is a severe loss of water from the body. Compare haemodilution.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Haemodiafiltration

n. a form of renal replacement therapy that removes toxins by a combination of diffusion (as in conventional *haemodialysis) and convection (as in *haemofiltration), and is more efficient than either in the process.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Haemofiltration

A technique similar to HAEMODIALYSIS. Blood is dialysed using ultra?ltration through a membrane permeable to water and small molecules (molecular weight <12,000). Physiological saline solution is simultaneously reinfused.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Haemofiltration

n. the use of a transmembrane hydrostatic pressure to induce filtration of plasma water across the membrane of a haemofilter. Solutes dissolved in the plasma water accompany their solvent to a greater or lesser extent dependent on molecular weight and the characteristics of the filter membrane (pore size).... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Hand–arm Vibration Syndrome

Pain and numbness in the hand and arm due to prolonged use of vibrating tools. Symptoms often also include blue or white coloration of the fingers and a tingling sensation in affected areas. Hand–arm vibration syndrome tends to develop slowly over years and is the result of repeated damage to blood vessels and nerves. Exposure to cold tends to aggravate the condition. There is no specific treatment, but avoiding vibrating tools is essential to prevent the disease progressing. In some cases, calcium channel blockers may help relieve some symptoms.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Hartmann’s Operation

a method of reconstruction after surgical removal of the distal colon and proximal rectum, in which the rectal stump is closed off and the divided end of the colon is brought out as a *colostomy. The technique allows for a second operation to join up the bowel ends and obviates the need for a stoma. It is often used temporarily where primary anastomosis is unsafe (e.g. in cases of perforated *diverticular disease) or permanently as a palliative procedure (e.g. for unresectable colonic cancer). [H. Hartmann (1860–1952), French surgeon]... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Health Communication Strategy

A communication strategy to inform the public or communities about health issues with the objective of reducing health risks and improving health status.... Community Health

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Community Health

Heart Rate

see pulse.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Heart – Degeneration, In The Elderly

May take the form of degeneration of healthy cardiac tissue replaced by broken fatty patches. As cardiac muscle wastes fibrous tissue takes its place.

While cure is not possible, atheroma may be arrested by a cup of herbal tea: Hawthorn blossoms, Motherwort, Horsetail: single or in combination. 1-2 teaspoons to each cup boiling water; infuse 5-15 minutes; 1-2 cups daily.

Formula. Hawthorn 2; Ginkgo 2; Horsetail 1; Ginger quarter. Dose. Powders: 500mg (two 00 capsules or one-third teaspoon). Liquid extracts: 1 teaspoon. Tinctures: 2 teaspoons. Twice daily: morning and evening in water or honey.

Diet. See: DIET – HEART AND CIRCULATION. Few grains of Cayenne pepper as seasoning on food once daily.

Stop smoking. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

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Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

Heart – Fatty Degeneration

A deposit and infiltration of fat on the heart in the obese and heavy consumers of alcohol. Distinct from true degeneration in which there is no destruction of tissue. Symptoms. Breathlessness and palpitation on slight exertion. Anginal pain: see ANGINA. Mental dullness. May follow enlargement of the heart and acute infections such as influenza.

Alternatives. Teas. Alfalfa, Clivers, Yarrow, Motherwort.

Tablets/capsules. Poke root, Kelp, Motherwort.

Formula. Equal parts: Bladderwrack, Motherwort, Aniseed, Dandelion. Dose. Powders: 500mg (two 00 capsules or one-third teaspoon). Liquid extracts: 1 teaspoon. Tinctures: 2 teaspoons in water thrice daily. Black Cohosh. Introduced into the medical world in 1831 when members of the North American Eclectic School of physicians effectively treated cases of fatty heart.

Diet. Vegetarian protein foods, high-fibre, whole grains, seed sprouts, lecithin, soya products, low-fat yoghurt, plenty of raw fruit and vegetables, unrefined carbohydrates. Oily fish: see entry. Dandelion coffee. Reject: alcohol, coffee, salt, sugar, fried foods, all dairy products except yoghurt.

Supplements. Daily. Broad-spectrum multivitamin including Vitamins A, B-complex, B3, B6, C (with bioflavonoids), E, Selenium. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

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Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

Heart – Fibrous Degeneration

Distinct from fatty degeneration. Due to thickening of walls by atheroma. Heart muscle (myocardium) fibres waste away due to lack of nourishment and are replaced by fibrous tissue. The condition usually runs with kidney weakness. Incurable. Partial relief of symptoms – treatment as for arteriosclerosis.

Every cardiac prescription for this condition should include a gentle diuretic to assist kidney function. The kidneys should be borne in mind, the most appropriate diuretic being Dandelion which would also make good any potassium loss. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

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Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

Heller’s Operation

see achalasia. [E. Heller (1877–1964), Austrian pathologist]... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Hepatolenticular Degeneration

See WILSON’S DISEASE.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Hepolenticular Degeneration

See WILSON’S DISEASE.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Hibiscus Surattensis

Linn.

Family: Malvaceae.

Habitat: Throughout the warmer parts of India.

Ayurvedic: Ran Bhindi.

Folk: Kishli-Keerai (Tamil Nadu).

Action: Flower—emollient, pectoral. Stem and leaf—used in urethritis and venereal diseases.

Petals (yellow part) gave gossypitrin and gossypetin; the purple part gave cyanidin, delphinidin and pelargoni-... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Hidradenitis Suppurativa

Inflammation of the sweat glands in the armpits and groin due to a bacterial infection.

Abscesses develop beneath the skin, which becomes reddened and painful and may ooze pus.

The condition tends to be recurrent and can eventually cause scarring in the affected areas.

Antibiotic drugs may help to reduce the severity of an outbreak.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Hidradenitis Suppurativa

an unpleasant condition characterized by deep abscesses in the armpits, groin, and anogenital regions leading to sinuses and bridge scarring. It is regarded as part of the *follicular occlusion tetrad. It is three times more common in women and may be under androgen control. Treatment is by weight loss, smoking cessation, long-term antibiotics, anti-androgens, or occasionally surgery. The condition is difficult to treat but often resolves spontaneously after many years.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Hip Replacement Operation

Athroplasty. Success rate: high. Commonest indication: osteo- arthritis of hip. A lesser risk of sepsis occurs in first operation than in subsequent ones. Infection is suspected when acetabular loosening is present in conjunction with femoral loosening. Echinacea is the key remedy for combatting infection and for enhancing the patient’s resistance. Comfrey root promotes healing of bone tissue. St John’s Wort gives partial relief in post-operative pain. Horsetail is a source of readily absorbable iron and calcium. For slow healing, a liver agent (Fringe Tree) may be indicated. Alternatives. Teas. Comfrey leaves, Calendula, St John’s Wort, Gotu Kola, Plantain.

Tablets/capsules. St John’s Wort.

Formula. Comfrey root 2; St John’s Wort 1; Echinacea 2; trace of Cayenne (Capsicum). Dose – Powders: 750mg (three 00 capsules or half a teaspoon). Liquid Extracts: 1-2 teaspoons. Tinctures: 1-3 teaspoons. Effect is enhanced when doses are taken in cup of Comfrey herb tea. Other agents to promote renewal of tissue. Slippery Elm bark, Fenugreek seeds, Wild Yam, Carragheen Moss.

Discomfort from a scar. Aloe Vera gel, Calendula, Comfrey or Chickweed cream or ointment. See: CASTOR OIL PACK.

Diet. High protein, oily fish or fish oils.

Supplements. Vitamin C: 3-6g daily. Calcium ascorbate, Zinc. Magnesium. Cod Liver oil for Vitamins A and D; 2 teaspoons daily.

Note: Where titanium alloy implants are used for this operation serum levels of the metal are likely to show up higher than normal. Raised serum titanium has been linked with lung cancer, osteoporosis, and platelet suppression. A New Zealand study has found deaths from cancer were significantly higher in patients having had a metal hip replacement. See: CHELATION.

Comfrey. Potential benefit far outweighs possible risk. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

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Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

Hippocrates

Greek physician. 460-circa 377 BC. The first to lead medical thinking from superstition to science. He related the working of the human body to the action of healing substances. The father of medicine, who practised on the Isle of Cos chosen because of its ecologically-pure atmosphere. He used as his healing agents all the natural edible vegetables and fruits, seeds, beans, peas and herbs as a means of restoring health.

He said: “Ill health is a disharmony between man and his environment” and “Let medicine be your food, and food your medicine”. The long list of herbs used in his practice are still popular among herbalists today. He taught that diseases were disturbances in the balance of the four humours. For centuries he was regarded as a model for doctors and it is claimed he ‘gave medicine a soul’. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

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Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

Hippocrates

A famous Greek physician who lived from

c.460 to 377 BC and who taught students at the medical school in Cos. Often called the ‘father of medicine’, he is renowned for drawing up the HIPPOCRATIC OATH, some of which may have been derived from the ancient oath of the Aesclepiads. Apart from his oath, Hippocrates has about 60 other medical works attributed to him, forming a corpus which was collected around 250 BC in the famous library of Alexandria in Egypt. Hippocratic medicine appealed ‘to reason rather than to rules or to supernatural forces’ is how the late Roy Porter, the English social historian, summed up its ethos in his medical history, The Greatest Bene?t to Mankind (Harper Collins, 1997). Porter also commended Hippocrates as being patient-centred rather than disease-orientated in his practice of medicine.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Hippocrates – Oath Of

“I Swear . . . To my master in the healing art I shall pay the same respect as to my parents, and I shall share my life with him and pay all my debts to him. I shall regard his sons as my brothers, and I shall teach them the healing art if they desire to learn it, without fee or contract. I shall hand-on precepts, lectures and all other learning to my sons, to my master’s sons and to those pupils who are duly apprenticed and sworn, and to no others.

I will use my power to help the sick to the best of my ability and judgement. I will abstain from harming or wronging any man.

I will not give a fatal draught to anyone, even if it is demanded of me, nor will I suggest the giving of the draught. I will give no woman the means of procuring an abortion.

I will be chaste and holy in my life and actions. I will not cut, even for the stone, but I will leave all cutting to the practitioners of the craft.

Whenever I enter a house, I shall help the sick, and never shall I do any harm or injury. I will not indulge in sexual union with the bodies of women or men, whether free or slaves.

Whatever I see or hear, either in my profession or in private, I shall never divulge. All secrets shall be safe with me. If therefore I observe this Oath, may prosperity come to me and may I earn good repute among men through all the ages. If I break the Oath, may I receive the punishment given to all transgressors.” ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

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Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

Hippocratic Oath

A set of ethical principles derived from the writings of the Greek physician Hippocrates that is concerned with a doctor’s duty to work for the good of the patient.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Hippocratic Oath

An oath once (but no longer) taken by doctors on quali?cation, setting out the moral precepts of their profession and binding them to a code of behaviour and practice aimed at protecting the interests of their patients. The oath is named after HIPPOCRATES (460–377 BC), the Greek ‘father of medicine’. Almost half of British medical students and 98 per cent of American ones make a ceremonial commitment to assume the responsibilities and obligations of the medical profession, but not by reciting this oath.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Hippocratic Oath

an oath that is often assumed to be taken but is actually rarely sworn by doctors. It is a code of behaviour and practice commonly attributed to the Greek physician Hippocrates (460–370 bc), known as the ‘Father of Medicine’, and taken by the students of the medical school in Cos where he taught, but both the authorship and application of the oath to Hippocrates’ students has been disputed. The ideas promulgated by the original oath are now seriously out of date (for instance there is no discussion of *truth-telling), and some medical schools have created modern alternatives for their own use. See also beneficence; medical ethics.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Horatia

(English) Feminine form of Horace; the keeper of time Horacia, Horacya, Horatya, Horatiah, Hora, Horada, Horae... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Horizontal Integration

Merging of two or more firms at the same level of production in some formal, legal relationship. In hospital networks, this may refer to the grouping of several hospitals, the grouping of outpatient clinics with the hospital, or a geographic network of various health care services. Integrated systems seek to integrate both vertically with some organizations and horizontally with others. See “vertical integration”.... Community Health

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Community Health

Hospital Fatality Rate

see case fatality rate.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Hydradenitis Suppurativa

A chronic in?ammatory disease of the apocrine sweat glands (see PERSPIRATION). It is more common in women – in whom it usually occurs in the armpit – than in men, in whom it is most common in the perineum of the drivers of lorries and taxis. It occurs in the form of painful, tender lumps underneath the skin, which burst often in a week or so. Treatment consists of removal by operation.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Hypericum Perforatum

Linn.

Family: Hypericaceae.

Habitat: Temperate Western Himalayas from Kashmir to Shimla at 2,000-3,000 m.

English: Common St. John's wort.

Unani: Heufaariqoon, Bassant, Balsaan.

Action: Antidepressant, sedative, relaxing nervine, anti-inflammatory. Used in anxiety, stress, depression, menopausal nervousness, menstrual cramps, neuralgia and rheumatism.

Key application: Psychovegetative disturbances, depressive moods, anxiety and or nervous unrest. Externally, oil preparation for treatment and post-therapy of acute and contused injuries, myalgia and first degree burns. (German Commission E, ESCOP, British Herbal Pharmocopoeia.)

The herb contains hypericin and pseudohypericin (0.0095 to 0.466% in the leaves and as much as 0.24% in the flowers), rutin, quercetin, hyperoside, methylhesperidin, caffeic, chloro- genic, p-coumaric, ferulic, p-hydroxy- benzoic and vanillic acids.

Plant's standardized extract (0.3% hypericin) shows antidepressant activity by inhibiting MAO.

A biflavonoid, amentoflavone, isolated from the plant, exhibited anti- inflammatory and antiulcerogenic activity.

Alcoholic extract of the plant shows in vivo hepatoprotective activity in rodents.

The oily extract of the flowers have been found effective in wound-healing due to the antibiotically active acyl- phlorogucinol, hyperforin.

The aerial parts show significant antibacterial activity against several Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.

A lyophilized infusion from the aerial parts exhibited antiviral activity and inhibited reproduction of different strains of influenza virus types A and B both in vivo and in vitro.

The whole herb is effective against many viral infections.... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Hyperkeratosis

Thickening of the skin’s outer layer due to an increased amount of keratin.

The most common forms of hyperkeratosis affect small, localized areas of skin and include corns, calluses and warts.

A rare, inherited form affects the whole of the soles and palms.

The term hyperkeratosis may also be used to describe thickening of the nails.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Hyperkeratosis

n. thickening of the outer horny layer of the skin. It may occur as an inherited disorder, affecting the palms and soles. —hyperkeratotic adj.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Hyperkeratosis

Thickening of the horny (outer) layer of skin, affecting the palms of the hands and soles of the feet. The disorder may be inherited.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Hyperparathyroidism

Disorder of the parathyroid gland with excessive secretion of parathormone. Leads to high level of calcium in the blood and a leeching of calcium from the bones. Symptoms: thirst, voiding of large quantities of urine, lack of appetite, physical weakness, constipation, nausea, high blood pressure. An association with pancreatitis and peptic ulcer.

Most common cause is a tumour on one of the glands or swelling of all four. Bone fragility leads to fractures and deformity.

Alternatives. Formula. Equal parts: Gotu Kola, Red Clover, Goat’s Rue, Bladderwrack.

Tea: 1 heaped teaspoon to each cup boiling water; infuse 15 minutes; dose, 1 cup.

Liquid Extracts: one to two 5ml teaspoons in water.

Tinctures: one to three 5ml teaspoons in water.

Powders: 500mg (two 00 capsules or one-third teaspoon). Thrice daily. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

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Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

Hyperparathyroidism

Overproduction of parathyroid hormone by the parathyroid glands that raises the calcium level in the blood (hypercalcaemia) by removing calcium from bones. This may lead to bone disorders, such as osteoporosis. To try to normalize the high calcium level, the kidneys excrete large amounts of calcium in the urine, which can lead to the formation of kidney stones (see calculus, urinary tract).

Hyperparathyroidism is most often caused by a small noncancerous tumour of 1 or more of the parathyroid glands. It may also occur when the glands become enlarged for no known reason. It usually develops after age 40 and is twice as common in women as in men.

Hyperparathyroidism may cause depression and abdominal pain. However, often the only symptoms are those caused by kidney stones. If hypercalcaemia is severe, there may be nausea, tiredness, excessive urination, confusion, and muscle weakness.

The condition is diagnosed by X-rays of the hands and skull and by blood tests.

Surgical removal of abnormal parathyroid tissue usually cures the condition.

If the remaining tissue is unable to produce enough parathyroid hormone, treatment for hypoparathyroidism is required.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Hyperparathyroidism

n. excessive secretion of *parathyroid hormone, usually due to a small tumour in one of the parathyroid glands. It results in *hypercalcaemia. See also von Recklinghausen’s disease.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Hyperparathyroidism

Increased activity of the PARATHYROID gland. Parathyroid hormone increases SERUM calcium. Hyperparathyroidism may be primary (due to an ADENOMA or HYPERPLASIA of the gland), secondary (in response to HYPOCALCAEMIA) or tertiary (when secondary hyperparathyroidism causes the development of an autonomous adenoma).... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Hypoparathyroidism

Underactivity of the parathyroid glands (see under ENDOCRINE GLANDS). Thus there is a lack of parathyroid hormone resulting in HYPOCALCAEMIA. It may be caused by inadvertent removal of the glands when the thyroid gland is surgically removed, or by failure of the glands because of autoimmune disease.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Hypoparathyroidism

Disorder of the parathyroid gland with diminished secretion of parathormone. Part of the gland may be removed in excision of part of the thyroid, or from injury. Symptoms: Low levels of calcium in the blood (hypocalcaemia). See entry. One diagnostic sign is a twitching or spasm of the muscles (tetany).

Alternatives. Teas. Horsetail, Nettles, Plantain, Oats, Comfrey leaves, Silverweed, Scarlet Pimpernel.

Skullcap, Bay.

Tablets/capsules. Iceland Moss, Irish Moss, Skullcap, Kelp.

Powders. Formula. Equal parts: Fenugreek, Horsetail, with pinch of Ginger. Dose: 750mg (three 00 capsules or half a teaspoon) thrice daily.

Liquid Extracts. Formula. Equal parts: German Chamomile, Ginkgo, Horsetail. Dose: 1 teaspoon thrice daily.

Tinctures. As Liquid Extract formula; double dose. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

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Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

Hypoparathyroidism

Insufficient production of parathyroid hormone by the parathyroid glands. A deficiency of this hormone results in low levels of calcium in the blood (hypocalcaemia).

The most common cause of hypoparathyroidism is damage to the parathyroid glands during surgery. Occasionally, the parathyroid glands are absent from birth, or they may cease to function for no apparent reason.

A low blood calcium level may cause tetany. Occasionally, seizures similar to those of an epileptic attack may occur.The condition is diagnosed by blood tests.

To relieve an attack of tetany, calcium may be injected slowly into a vein.

To maintain the blood calcium at a normal level, a lifelong course of calcium and vitamin D tablets is necessary.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Hypoparathyroidism

n. subnormal activity of the parathyroid glands, causing a fall in the blood concentration of calcium and muscular spasms (see tetany).... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Hypothetical Imperative

see imperative.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Imperata Cylindrica

Rausch.

Synonym: I. arundinacea Cyr.

Family: Gramineae; Poaceae.

Habitat: The hotter parts of India, both in plains and hills, ascending up to 2,300 m in the Himalayas.

English: Thatch Grass.

Ayurvedic: Darbha, Suuchyagra, Yagnika, Yagyabhuushana, Bahir.

Siddha/Tamil: Dharba.

Folk: Daabh.

Action: Diuretic, anti-inflammatory.

The rhizomes contain flavonoids, together with lignans, graminone A and B. A sesquiterpenoid, cylindrene, and biphenylether compounds, cylindol A and B, are also reported.

Cylindrene and graminone B show inhibitory activity on the contractions of vascular smooth muscles and aorta of rabbit respectively; while cylin- dol A exhibits 5-lipoxygenase inhibitory activity.

The hot aqueous extract of the rhizomes show moderate GTP activity on primary cultured rat hepatocytes intoxicated with carbon tetrachloride cy- totoxicity.

The leaves and stem contain cyano- chroic constituents. The roots contain antibacterial substances. The root is used in fevers but does not possess antipyretic activity.

Dosage: Root—50-100 ml decoction. (CCRAS.)... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Imperative

n. in ethics, a rule, principle, or law used to direct or guide one’s actions. *Kantian ethics distinguishes between categorical and hypothetical imperatives. Whereas the latter are merely prudent or expedient and will vary with circumstances, the former are binding moral *duties and it is rational that they are applicable to all situations and people. See also deontology.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Imperforate

Without an opening. The term is used to describe a body structure, such as the hymen or anus (see anus, imperforate), in which a normal perforation is lacking.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Imperforate

adj. lacking an opening. Occasionally girls at puberty are found to have an imperforate hymen (a fold of membrane close to the vaginal orifice), which impedes the flow of menstrual blood.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Imperforate

An adjective meaning lack of an opening. For example, occasionally the ANUS fails to develop properly, resulting in partial or complete obstruction of the opening. Sometimes pubertal girls have an imperforate HYMEN which obstructs the opening to the VAGINA and prevents menstrual ?ow of blood draining to the exterior.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Imperforate Anus

(proctatresia) partial or complete obstruction of the anus: a congenital malformation in which the anal canal fails to develop correctly and the rectum ends blindly above the muscles of the perineum. Many types exist, including developmental anal stenosis, persistent anal membrane, and covered anus (due to fused genital folds). Most mild cases of imperforate anus can be treated by a simple operation. If the defect is extensive a temporary opening is made in the colon (see colostomy), with later surgical reconstruction of the rectum and anus.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Incarcerated

adj. confined or constricted so as to be immovable: applied particularly to a type of *hernia.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Incidence Rate

a measure of morbidity based on the number of new episodes of illness arising in a population over a period of time. It can be expressed in terms of affected persons or episodes per 1000 individuals at risk. Compare prevalence.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Incidence Rate

A quotient, with the number of cases of a specified disease diagnosed or reported during a stated period of time as the numerator, and the number of persons in the population in which they occurred as the denominator.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

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Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

Induration

The pathological hardening of a tissue or organ. This may occur when a tissue is infected or when it is invaded by cancer. (See also SCLEROSIS.)... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Induration

n. abnormal hardening of a tissue or organ. See also sclerosis.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Infant Mortality Rate

(IMR) the number of deaths of children under one year of age per 1000 live births in a given year. Included in the IMR are the neonatal mortality rate (calculated from deaths occurring in the first four weeks of life) and postneonatal mortality rate (from deaths occurring from four weeks). Neonatal deaths are further subdivided into early (first week) and late (second, third, and fourth weeks). In prosperous countries neonatal deaths account for about two-thirds of infant mortalities, the majority being in the first week (in the UK the major cause is prematurity and related problems). The IMR is usually regarded more as a measure of social affluence than a measure of the quality of antenatal and/or obstetric care; the latter is more truly reflected in the *perinatal mortality rate.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Infant Mortality Rate (imr)

The number of deaths of infants under one year of age. The IMR in any given year is calculated as the number of deaths in the ?rst year of life in proportion to every 1,000 registered live births in that year. Along with PERINATAL MORTALITY, it is accepted as one of the most important criteria for assessing the health of the community and the standard of the social conditions of a country.

The improvement in the infant mortality rate has occurred mainly in the period from the second month of life. There has been much less improvement in the neonatal mortality rate – that is, the number of infants dying during the ?rst four weeks of life, expressed as a proportion of every 1,000 live births. During the ?rst week of life the main causes of death are asphyxia, prematurity, birth injuries and congenital abnormalities. After the ?rst week the main cause of death is infection.

Social conditions also play an important role in infant mortality. In England and Wales the infant mortality rate in 1930–32 was: Social Class I (professional), 32·7; Social Class III (skilled workers), 57·6; Social Class V (unskilled workers), 77·1. Many factors come into play in producing these social variations, but overcrowding is undoubtedly one of the most important.

1838–9 146 1950–52 30 1851–60 154 1960–62 22 1900–02 142 1970–72 18 1910–12 110 1980–82 12 1920–22 82 1990–92 7 1930–32 67 1996 6·2 1940–42 59 1999 5.8 2000 5.6

It is thus evident that for a reduction of the infant mortality rate to the minimum ?gure, the following conditions must be met. Mothers and potential mothers must be housed adequately in healthy surroundings, particularly with regard to safe water supplies and sewage disposal. The pregnant and nursing mother must be ensured an adequate diet. E?ective antenatal supervision must be available to every mother, as well as skilled supervision during labour (see PREGNANCY AND LABOUR). The newborn infant must be adequately nursed and fed and mothers encouraged to breast feed. Environmental and public-health measures must be taken to ensure adequate housing, a clean milk supply and full availability of medical care including such protective measures as IMMUNISATION against diphtheria, measles, poliomyelitis and whooping-cough. (See also PERINATAL MORTALITY.)... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Infiltrate

Build-up of substances or cells within a tissue that are either not normally found in it or are usually present only in smaller amounts.

Infiltrate may refer to a drug (such as a local anaesthetic) that has been injected into a tissue, or to the build-up of a substance within an organ (for example, fat in the liver caused by excessive alcohol consumption).

Radiologists use the term to refer to the presence of abnormalities, most commonly on a chest X-ray, due to conditions such as infection.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Infiltration

The invasion of tissues or organs by cells or ?uid not normally present – for example, local anaesthetic is in?ltrated into an area of tissue to produce analgesia in a de?ned area.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Infiltration

n. 1. the abnormal entry of a substance (infiltrate) into a cell, tissue, or organ. Examples of infiltrates are blood cells, cancer cells, fat, starch, or calcium and magnesium salts. Infiltration can occur when a vein is damaged and the fluid being infused continues to leak out and accumulate in the surrounding tissue (also known as ‘tissuing’). This can result in inflammation. 2. the injection of a local anaesthetic solution into the tissues to cause local *anaesthesia. Infiltration anaesthesia is routinely used to anaesthetize upper teeth to allow dental procedures to be carried out.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Inspiration

n. see inhalation.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Integrated Care

The methods and strategies for linking and coordinating the various aspects of care delivered by different care systems, such as the work of general practitioners, primary and specialty care, preventive and curative services, and acute and long-term care, as well as physical and mental health services and social care, to meet the multiple needs/problems of an individual client or category of persons with similar needs/problems.... Community Health

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Community Health

Integrated Care Pathway

a multidisciplinary plan for delivering health and social care to patients with a specific condition or set of symptoms. Such plans are often used for the management of common conditions and are intended to improve patient care by reducing unnecessary deviation from best practice. See clinical governance.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Integrated Control

A combination of biological and insecticidal methods of control, e.g. the introduction of predacious fish to breeding places which are also sprayed with insecticides that have minimum effect on the fish.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

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Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

Integrated Delivery System / Integrated Services Network (isn)

A network of organizations, usually including hospitals and medical practitioner groups, that provides or arranges to provide a coordinated continuum of services to a defined population and is held both clinically and financially accountable for the outcomes in the populations served.... Community Health

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Community Health

Integrated Governance

see clinical governance.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Integration

n. the blending together of the *nerve impulses that arrive through the thousands of synapses at a nerve cell body. Impulses from some synapses cause *excitation, and from others *inhibition; the overall pattern decides whether an individual nerve cell is activated to transmit a message or not.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Integration

A coherent set of methods and models, on the funding, administrative, organizational, service delivery and clinical levels, designed to create connectivity, alignment and collaboration within the health sector.... Community Health

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Community Health

Integrative Study

See “synthetic study”.... Community Health

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Community Health

Intergenerational Relations / Contract

Links between generations which often involve exchanges of support.... Community Health

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Community Health

Intervention / Intervention Strategy

An activity or set of activities aimed at modifying a process, course of action or sequence of events in order to change one or several of their characteristics, such as performance or expected outcome. For example, it is used in public health to describe a programme or policy designed to have an impact on an illness or disease.... Community Health

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Community Health

Intrastromal Keratomileusis

an operation to correct severe degrees of myopia (short-sightedness). A disc of corneal tissue (from the *stroma of the cornea) is removed, frozen, and remodelled on a lathe, then replaced into the cornea to alter its curvature and thus reduce the myopia. *Excimer laser treatment, which is easier to perform, has now replaced this (see LASIK).... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Intrathecal

adj. 1. within the *meninges of the spinal cord. An intrathecal injection is made into the meninges. 2. within a sheath, e.g. a nerve sheath.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Intrathecal

Intrathecal means within the membranes or meninges which envelop the SPINAL CORD. The intrathecal space, between the arachnoid and the pia mater, contains the CEREBROSPINAL FLUID (see INTRACRANIAL PRESSURE).... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Intratympanic

adj. within the middle ear cavity (see ear), usually referring to drugs injected through the eardrum to treat conditions of the inner ear. See also transtympanic.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Invertebrate

1. n. an animal without a backbone. The following are invertebrate groups of medical importance: *insects, *ticks, *nematodes, *flukes, and *tapeworms. 2. adj. not possessing a backbone.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Ipratropium

An ANTICHOLINERGIC, BRONCHODILATOR drug, given by aerosol inhalation to treat ASTHMA, BRONCHITIS and RHINITIS.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Ipratropium

n. an *antimuscarinic drug used as a bronchodilator in the treatment of chronic reversible airways obstruction (see bronchospasm) and to relieve rhinorrhoea resulting from *rhinitis. Side-effects include dry mouth and nasal dryness.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Ipratropium Bromide

A bronchodilator drug used to treat breathing difficulties.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Iratze

(Basque) Refers to the Virgin Mary Iratza, Iratzia, Iratzea, Iratzi, Iratzie, Iratzy, Iratzey, Iratzee... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Isosorbide Dinitrate

a drug used for the prevention and treatment of angina; it acts by relaxing the smooth muscle of both arteries and veins, thus causing dilatation (see vasodilator). Side-effects include headache, flushing, dizziness, and hypotension.

Isosorbide dinitrate is converted in the body to the active form of the drug, isosorbide mononitrate, which is available as a preventative oral treatment for angina.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Jagrati

(Indian) Of the awakening Jagratie, Jagraty, Jagratey, Jagratee, Jagratea... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Jakarta Declaration

In July 1997, participants at the Fourth International Conference on Health Promotion presented the Jakarta Declaration on Leading Health Promotion into the 21st Century. The Declaration identifies five priorities: promote social responsibility for health; increase investments for health development; consolidate and expand partnerships for health promotion; increase community capacity and empower the individual; and secure an infrastructure for health promotion.... Community Health

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Community Health

Juxtaglomerular Apparatus

(JGA) a microscopic structure within the kidney that is important in regulating blood pressure, body fluid, and electrolytes. It is situated in each nephron, between the afferent arteriole of the glomerulus and the returning distal convoluted tubule of the same nephron. The JGA consists of specialized cells within the distal tubule (the macula densa), which detect the amount of sodium chloride passing through the tubule and can secrete locally acting vasoconstrictor substances that act on the associated afferent arteriole to induce a reduction in filtration pressure (tubuloglomerular feedback). Modified cells within the afferent arterioles secrete *renin in response to a fall in perfusion pressure or feedback from the macula densa and form a central role in the renin-*angiotensin-aldosterone axis. Mesangial cells support and connect the macula densa and the specialized cells in the afferent arteriole and have sympathetic innervation, facilitating the renin response to sympathetic nervous stimulation.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Keller’s Operation

an operation for *hallux valgus (see also bunion) or *hallux rigidus that involves an excision *arthroplasty of the metatarsophalangeal joint, at the base of the big toe. The toe will be slightly shorter and floppy, but usually this improves alignment and range of movement. [W. L. Keller (1874–1959), US surgeon]... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Kerat

(kerato-) combining form denoting 1. the cornea. Example: keratopathy (disease of). 2. horny tissue, especially of the skin.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Keratalgia

n. pain arising from the cornea.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Keratectasia

n. bulging of the cornea at the site of scar tissue (which is thinner than normal corneal tissue).... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Keratectomy

n. an operation in which a part of the cornea is removed, usually a superficial layer. This procedure is now frequently done by an *excimer laser, either to correct refractive errors (myopia, hypermetropia), by reshaping the surface of the cornea (photorefractive keratectomy; PRK), or to remove diseased corneal tissue (phototherapeutic keratectomy). See also automated lamellar keratectomy.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Keratin

n. one of a family of proteins that are the major constituents of the nails, hair, and the outermost layers of the skin. The cytoplasm of epithelial cells, including *keratinocytes, contains a network of keratin filaments.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Keratin

The substance of which horn and the surface layer of the skin are composed.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Keratin

A fibrous protein that is the main constituent of the tough outermost layer of the skin, nails, and hair.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Keratinisation

Deposition of KERATIN in cells, in particular those in the skin. The cells become horny and ?attened and lose their nuclei, forming hair and nails or hard areas of skin.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Keratinization

(cornification) n. the process by which cells become horny due to the deposition of *keratin within them. It occurs in the *epidermis of the skin and associated structures (hair, nails, etc.), where the cells become flattened, lose their nuclei, and are filled with keratin as they approach the surface.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Keratinocyte

n. a type of cell that makes up 95% of the cells of the epidermis. Keratinocytes migrate from the deeper layers of the epidermis and are finally shed from the surface of the skin.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Keratitis

n. inflammation of the *cornea of the eye. It may be due to physical or chemical agents (abrasions, exposure to dust, chemicals, ultraviolet light, etc.) or result from infection. The eye waters and is very painful, and vision is blurred. In disciform keratitis a disc-shaped patch of oedema and inflammation develops in the cornea, usually as an immune response to viral infection, commonly herpes simplex. Filamentary keratitis is associated with small mucoid deposits of epithelial filaments on the surface of the cornea, which come off to leave small corneal erosions that cause severe pain until they heal.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Keratitis

Inflammation of the cornea.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

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Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

Keratitis

See under EYE, DISORDERS OF.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Keratitis

Inflammation of the cornea. It often takes the form of a corneal ulcer and may result from injury, contact with chemicals, or an infection. Symptoms of keratitis include pain and excessive watering of the eye, blurring of vision, and photophobia. Noninfective keratitis is treated by covering the affected eye. Drugs such as antibiotics may be given to treat infective keratitis.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Keratoacanthoma

n. a firm nodule that appears singly on the skin, grows to 1–2 cm across in about 6 weeks, and usually disappears gradually during the next few months. Men are affected more often than women, commonly between the ages of 50 and 70. Keratoacanthomas occur mainly on the face; the cause is not known. Spontaneous healing may leave an unsightly scar; therefore treatment by curettage and cautery, or excision, may be required. The precise relationship of keratoacanthoma to *squamous cell carcinoma is controversial.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Keratoacanthoma

A type of harmless skin nodule that commonly occurs in elderly people, most often on the face or arm. The cause is unknown, but many years of exposure to strong sunlight or long-term use of immunosuppressant drugs may be factors. Initially, the nodule resembles a small wart, but it grows to 1–2cm across in about 8 weeks. Although the nodule usually disappears gradually after this, surgical removal is often recommended to prevent scarring.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Keratocele

(descemetocele) n. outward bulging of the base of a deep ulcer of the cornea. The deep layer of the cornea (Descemet’s membrane) is elastic and relatively resistant to perforation; it therefore bulges when the overlying cornea has been destroyed.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Keratoconjunctivitis

n. combined inflammation of the cornea and conjunctiva of the eye. Keratoconjunctivitis sicca is dryness of the cornea and conjunctiva due to deficient production of tears. It may be associated with systemic disorders, such as *Sjögren’s syndrome, systemic lupus, systemic sclerosis, and sarcoidosis.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Keratoconjunctivitis

Inflammation of the cornea and the conjunctiva.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

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Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

Keratoconjunctivitis

Inflammation of the cornea associated with conjunctivitis.

The most common form, epidemic keratoconjunctivitis, is caused by a virus and is highly infectious.

The conjunctivitis is often severe and may destroy the surface of the conjunctiva.

Tiny opaque spots develop in the cornea that may interfere with vision and persist for months.

There is no specific treatment, but corneal spots may be minimized by using eyedrops containing corticosteroid drugs.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca

Persistent dryness of the cornea and conjunctiva caused by deficiency in tear production. The condition is associated with autoimmune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis, Sjögren’s syndrome, and systemic lupus erythematosus. Prolonged dryness may lead to blurred vision, itching, grittiness, and, in severe cases, the formation of a corneal ulcer. The most effective treatment is frequent use of artificial tears (see tears, artificial).... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Keratoconus

n. conical cornea: a slowly progressive abnormality in the cornea, which changes from its normal gradual curve to a more conical shape, causing distortion of vision.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Keratoconus

An inherited disorder of the eye in which the cornea becomes gradually thinned and conical. The condition affects both eyes and usually develops around puberty, giving rise to increasing myopia and progressive distortion of vision that cannot be fully corrected by glasses. Hard contact lenses improve vision in the early stages, but when vision has seriously deteriorated and contact lenses are no longer helpful it generally becomes necessary to perform a corneal graft.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Keratocyte

(fibroblast) n. a cell, derived from *mesenchyme, of the corneal *stroma. Such cells are normally quiescent but can readily respond to injury and change into repair types.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Keratoglobus

(megalocornea) n. a congenital disorder of the eye in which the whole cornea bulges forward in a regular curve. Compare keratoconus.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Keratolytic Drugs

Drugs that loosen and remove the tough outer layer of skin.

Keratolytic drugs, which include urea and salicylic acid preparations, are used to treat skin and scalp disorders, such as warts, acne, dandruff, and psoriasis.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Keratomalacia

n. a progressive nutritional disease of the eye due to *vitamin A deficiency. The cornea softens and may even perforate. This condition is very serious and blindness is usually inevitable. See also xerophthalmia.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Keratomalacia

Softening of the cornea due to a severe vitamin A de?ciency (see EYE, DISORDERS OF).... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Keratomalacia

A progressive disease of the eye, caused by severe vitamin A deficiency, in which the cornea becomes opaque and ulcerated.

Perforation of the cornea is common, often leading to loss of the eye through infection.

The condition usually occurs only in severely malnourished children and is a common cause of blindness in developing countries.

In the early stages, the damage can be reversed by treatment with large doses of vitamin A but, if untreated, blindness is usually inevitable.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Keratome

n. any instrument designed for cutting the cornea. The simplest type has a flat triangular blade attached at its base to a handle, the other two sides being very sharp and tapering to a point. Power-driven keratomes have oscillating or rotating blades. An automated keratome is used in *automated lamellar keratectomy. See also microkeratome.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Keratometer

(ophthalmometer) n. an instrument for measuring the radius of curvature of the cornea. Usually the vertical and horizontal curvatures are measured. All keratometers work on the principle that the size of the image of an object reflected from a convex mirror (in this case, the cornea) depends on the curvature of the mirror. The steeper the curve, the smaller the image. The keratometer is used for assessing the degree of curvature of the cornea in different meridians. —keratometry n.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Keratomileusis

n. see intrastromal keratomileusis; LASIK.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Keratopathy

n. any disorder relating to the cornea. See band keratopathy; bullous keratopathy.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Keratopathy

A general term used to describe a variety of disorders of the cornea.

Actinic keratopathy is a painful condition in which the outer layer of the cornea is damaged by ultraviolet light.

Exposure keratopathy is corneal damage due to loss of the protection afforded by the tear film and blink reflex.

It may occur in conditions in which the eyelids inadequately cover the cornea, including severe exophthalmos, facial palsy, and ectropion.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Keratoplasty

(corneal graft) n. an eye operation in which any diseased part of the cornea is replaced by clear corneal tissue from a donor. In penetrating keratoplasty all layers of the cornea are replaced, in lamellar keratoplasty only the superficial layers are replaced, and in Descemet’s stripping endothelial keratoplasty (DSEK) the endothelium only is replaced.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Keratoplasty

See CORNEAL GRAFT.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Keratoplasty

See corneal graft.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Keratoprosthesis

n. an optically clear prosthesis that is implanted into the cornea to replace an area that has become opaque. Due to its poor success rate, it is used only as a last resort in an attempt to restore some sight to patients with severe disease where corneal transplantation (see keratoplasty) is unlikely to succeed.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Keratoscope

(Placido’s disc) n. an instrument for detecting abnormal curvature of the cornea. It consists of a black disc, about 20 cm in diameter, marked with concentric white rings. The examiner looks through a small lens in the centre at the reflection of the rings in the patient’s cornea. A normal cornea will reflect regular concentric images of the rings; a cornea that is abnormally curved (for example in *keratoconus) or scarred reflects distorted rings. Modern keratoscopes can print out a contour map of the corneal surface.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Keratosis

n. a horny overgrowth of the skin. Actinic (or solar) keratoses are red spots with a scaly surface, found in older fair-skinned people who have been chronically overexposed to the sun. They may occasionally become a *squamous cell carcinoma. Seborrhoeic keratoses (also known as seborrhoeic warts) never become malignant. They are superficial yellowish or brown spots, crusty or greasy-looking, occurring especially on the trunk in middle age, that become warty over the years.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Keratosis

Also known as actinic keratosis; a rough, scaly area on exposed skin caused by chronic solar damage from exposure to sun. The face and backs of the hands are most commonly affected. (See also MELANOMA; PHOTODERMATOSES.) CRYOTHERAPY is e?ective, but prevention by appropriate clothing and sun-blocking creams is a better strategy.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Keratosis

A skin growth caused by an overproduction of keratin.

Keratoses occur mainly in elderly people.

Seborrhoeic keratoses are harmless growths that occur mainly on the trunk.

The growths range in appearance from flat, dark-brown patches to small, wart-like protrusions.

They do not need treating unless they are unsightly.

Solar keratoses are small, wart-like, red or flesh-coloured growths that appear on exposed parts of the body as a result of overexposure to the sun over many years.

Rarely, they may develop into skin cancer, usually squamous cell carcinoma, and must be surgically removed.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Keratosis Obturans

an abnormal build-up of *keratin and dead skin cells within the ear canal that can block the canal, cause conductive hearing loss (see deafness), and erode the bone of the ear canal. It is associated with *bronchiectasis and chronic sinusitis.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Keratosis Pilaris

(follicular keratosis, lichen pilaris) a very common autosomal *dominant condition characterized by rough horny plugs in the hair follicles, usually on the skin of the lateral and posterior aspects of the arms. They may be skin-coloured, red, or brown. The condition typically appears during teenage years and persists into adulthood; it is completely harmless.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Keratosis Pilaris

A common condition in which patches of rough skin appear on the upper arms, thighs, and buttocks. The openings of the hair follicles become enlarged by plugs of keratin, and hair growth may be distorted. The condition occurs most commonly in

adolescents and obese people. It is not serious and usually clears up on its own. In severe cases, applying a mixture of salicylic acid and soft paraffin and scrubbing with a loofah may help.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Keratotomy

n. an incision into the cornea. See arcuate keratotomy; radial keratotomy.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Keratotomy, Radial

A now uncommon procedure in which radiating incisions are made in the cornea (up to, but not through, its innermost layer) to reduce myopia.

Radial keratotomy has been largely replaced by laser procedures, such as LASIK, which carry less risk of permanent damage to the eye.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Keratouveitis

n. inflammation involving both the cornea (see keratitis) and the uvea (see uveitis).... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Kirati

(Indian) From the mountain Kiratie, Kiraty, Kiratey, Kiratee, Kiratea... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Laceration

A torn, irregular wound.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Laceration

A wound to the skin or surface of an organ which results in a cut with irregular edges (cf. an incision produced with a knife, which has smooth, regular edges).... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Laceration

n. a tear in the flesh caused by a blunt object producing a wound with irregular edges. A *gunshot wound is an example of a laceration caused by a high-velocity blunt object.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Lacrimal Apparatus

The system that produces and drains tears. The lacrimal apparatus of the eye includes the main and accessory lacrimal glands and the nasolacrimal drainage duct. The main gland lies just within the upper and outer

margin of the eye orbit and drains on to the conjunctiva. It secretes tears during crying and when the eye is irritated. The accessory gland lies within the conjunctiva, and maintains the normal tear film, secreting it directly onto the conjunctiva. Tears drain through the lacrimal puncta, tiny openings towards the inner ends of the upper and lower eyelids. The puncta are connected by narrow tubes to the lacrimal sac, which lies within the lacrimal bone on the side of the nose. Leading from the sac is the nasolacrimal duct, which opens inside the nose.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Lacrimal Apparatus

the structures that produce and drain away fluid from the eye (see illustration). The lacrimal gland secretes *tears, which drain away through small openings (puncta) at the inner corner of the eye into two lacrimal canaliculi. From there the tears pass into the nasal cavity via the lacrimal sac and the *nasolacrimal duct.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Levallorphan Tartrate

An antidote to MORPHINE. It is usually given intravenously.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Likelihood Ratio

the degree to which a test result will change the odds that a patient has a disease. The likelihood ratio for a positive test expresses the degree to which the odds that a patient has a disease increase following a positive test. The likelihood ratio for a negative test expresses the degree to which the odds that a patient has a disease decrease following a negative test. Likelihood ratios depend on the *sensitivity and specificity of the test.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Linear Accelerator

See RADIOTHERAPY.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Linear Accelerator

A device for accelerating subatomic particles, such as electrons, to a speed approaching that of light so that they have extremely high energies.

A linear accelerator can also be used to generate high-energy X-rays.

High-energy electrons or X-rays are used in radiotherapy to treat certain cancers.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Linear Accelerator

(linac) a machine that accelerates particles to produce high-energy radiation, used in the treatment (radiotherapy) of malignant disease.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Lipasis Rostrata

Rehd.

Family: Orchidaceae.

Ayurvedic: Jivaka-Rshabhaka (bulbs of Microstylis wallichi Lindl. and M. musifera, also of other orchids, are sold as Jivaka-Rshabhaka).

Action: Used in age-sustaining and invigorating tonics.... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Literature Review

A summary and interpretation of research findings reported in the literature. It may include unstructured qualitative reviews by single authors as well as various systematic and quantitative procedures, such as meta-analysis.... Community Health

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Community Health

Loratadine

An antihistamine drug.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Loratidine

n. see antihistamine.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Maarath

(Hebrew) From the desolate land Maaratha, Marath, Marathe, Maratha, Maarathe... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Macerate

soak until soft.... The Encyclopedia of Essential Oils

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The Encyclopedia of Essential Oils

Maceration

Partial extraction of the active constituents of a plant by the action of a solvent, usually alcohol. The process takes a few days, usually seven, in a closed vessel at room temperature and frequently shaken. The liquor is strained off, the marc (spent herbs) pressed out and the expressed liquor added. The whole is filtered and sediments removed. All herbs can be macerated, fresh or dry, for the making of tinctures. Glycerine is sometimes used as a solvent. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

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Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

Maceration

n. 1. the softening of a solid by leaving it immersed in a liquid. 2. (in obstetrics) the natural breakdown of a dead fetus within the uterus.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Maceration

Maceration is the softening of a solid by soaking in ?uid.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Macular Degeneration

a group of conditions affecting the *macula lutea of the eye, resulting in a reduction or loss of central vision. Age-related macular degeneration (AMD, ARMD) is the most common cause of poor vision in the elderly. Two types are commonly recognized. Atrophic (or dry) AMD results from chronic choroidal ischaemia: small blood vessels of the choroid, which lies beneath the retina, become constricted, reducing the blood supply to the macula. This gives rise to degenerative changes in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE; see retina), clinically recognized by macular pigmentation and the deposition of *drusen. Wet AMD is associated with the growth of abnormal new blood vessels underneath the retina, derived from the choroid (see neovascularization). These can leak fluid and blood beneath the retina, which further reduces the macular function. Nutritional supplements can delay the progression of AMD in some cases. Laser surgery (see photocoagulation; photodynamic therapy) and anti-VEGF therapy (see vascular endothelial growth factor) can delay progression in cases of wet AMD.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Macular Degeneration

A progressive, painless disorder affecting the macula. The result is a roughly circular area of blindness that increases in size until it is large enough to obscure 2 or 3 words at reading distance. Macular degeneration does not cause total blindness as vision is retained around the edges of the visual fields. This condition is a common disorder in elderly people.

Of the 2 types of macular degeneration that may occur, one type is usually remedied by laser treatment.

There is no treatment for the other form, although the affected person may benefit from aids such as magnifying instruments.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Magpi Operation

meatal advancement and glanuloplasty operation: a simple surgical procedure designed to correct minor to moderate degrees of coronal or subcoronal *hypospadias. This single-stage operation corrects any associated minor degrees of *chordee and transfers the urethral opening to the glans, allowing normal urination.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Manual Vacuum Aspiration

(MVA) see vacuum aspiration.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Maternal Mortality Rate

the number of deaths due to complications of pregnancy, childbirth, and the puerperium per 100,000 live births (see also stillbirth). In 1952 concern about maternal mortality resulted in Britain in the setting up of a triennial *confidential enquiry into every such death to identify any shortfall in resources or care. The first triennial report was published in 1985. Since 2014 reports have been produced annually by MBRRACE-UK (Mothers and Babies: Reducing Risk through Audits and Confidential Enquiries Across the UK). Levels of *maternal deaths are currently low: a report published in 2017 (covering 2013–15) counted 202 obstetric-related deaths (8.76 per 100,000 live births). Thromboembolism was the commonest direct cause of death (30 deaths, 1.13 per 100,000 live births), while heart disease was the commonest indirect cause of death (54 deaths, 2.34 per 100,000 live births).... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Maturation

n. the process of attaining full development. The term is applied particularly to the development of mature germ cells (ova and sperm).... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Mayo Operation

an overlapping repair of an umbilical hernia. [W. J. Mayo (1861–1939), US surgeon]... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Meconium Aspiration

a condition occurring during childbirth in which the baby inhales meconium into the lungs during delivery. This can cause plugs in the airways and the baby may become short of oxygen (hypoxic). Treatment is to assist breathing if necessary, with physiotherapy and antibiotics.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Mentha Piperata

Linn. emend. Huds.

Family: Labiatae; Lamiaceae.

Habitat: Native to Europe; cultivated in Maharashtra, Kashmir and Punjab.

English: Peppermint, Brandy Mint.

Ayurvedic: Vilaayati Pudinaa.

Action: Oil—digestive, carminative, chloretic, antispasmodic, diuretic, antiemetic, mild sedative, diaphoretic, antiseptic, antiviral, used in many mixtures of indigestion and colic and cough and cold remedies.

Key application: Leaf—internally for spastic complaints of the gastrointestinal tract, gallbladder and bile ducts. (German Commission E, ESCOP.) The British Herbal Compendium indicates peppermint leaf for dyspepsia, flatulence, intestinal colic, and biliary disorders.

Key application: Oil—as a carminative. (The British Herbal Pharmacopoeia.) In spastic discomfort fo the upper gastrointestinal tract and bile ducts, irritable colon, the respiratory tract and inflammation of the oral mucosa. Externally, for myalgia and neuralgia. (German Commission E.) ESCOP indicates its use for irritable bowel syndrome, coughs and colds. Externally, for coughs and colds, rheumatic complaints, pruritus, urticaria, and pain in irritable skin conditions. (ESCOP.)

The essential oil has both antibacterial and antifungal properties.

The major constituents of the essential oil are: menthol, menthone, pulegone, menthofuran, 1,8-cineole, men- thyl acetate, isomenthone. The leaves contain flavonoid glycosides, erioc- itrin, luteolin 7-O-rutinoside, hesperi- din, isorhoifolin, diosmin, eriodictyol 7-O-glucoside and narirutin, besides rosmarinic acid, azulenes, cholene, carotenes.

Peppermint oil relaxed carvachol- contracted guinea-pig tenia coli, and inhibited spontaneous activity in guinea-pig colon and rabbit jejunum. It relaxes gastrointestinal smooth muscle by reducing calcium influx. Peppermint oil reduced gastric emptying time in dyspeptics.

The aqueous and ethanolic extracts exhibited antiviral activity against RPV (rinder pest virus), a highly contagious viral disease of cattle.... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Microalbumin:creatinine Ratio

a laboratory measurement used as a screening test for the first signs of kidney damage in *diabetes mellitus. It detects an increase in the very small levels of the protein albumin present in urine, relative to the concentration of creatinine. It is best measured in an early morning urine sample. See microalbuminuria.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Microkeratome

n. a surgical instrument with an oscillating blade designed for creating the corneal flap in laser *refractive surgery.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Micturating Cystourethrogram

(MCU) see urethrography.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Middle East Respiratory Syndrome

(MERS) a viral respiratory infection that was first identified in 2012. Humans seem to be infected most easily by contact with dromedary camels (hence the informal name camel flu), although human-to-human infection also occurs. Symptoms include fever, cough, and shortness of breath. Although the syndrome is often mild, death occurs in about a third of diagnosed cases. Most reported cases have been in the Arabian Peninsula, although there was a major outbreak in South Korea in 2015. At present there is no vaccine or treatment.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Monserrat

(Latin) From the jagged mountain

Montserrat... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Mortality Rate

the incidence of death in the population in a given period. The annual mortality rate is the number of registered deaths in a year, multiplied by 1000 and divided by the population at the middle of the year. See also infant mortality rate; maternal mortality rate.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Mortality Rate

See “death rate”.... Community Health

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Community Health

Mortality Rate

The percentage that die within a specified period of time.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

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Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

Mouth-to-mouth Respiration

See APPENDIX 1: BASIC FIRST AID.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Murata

(African) A beloved friend Muraty, Muratia, Murati, Muratie, Muratee, Muratea... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Myeloproliferative Disorders

(MPD) a group of diseases in which there is excessive production of blood cells in the bone marrow. Myeloproliferative disorders include *polycythaemia vera, essential *thrombocythaemia, idiopathic *myelofibrosis, and chronic *myeloid leukaemia.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Myxopyrum Serratulum

A. W. Hill.

Family: Oleaceae.

Habitat: Western Ghats.

Folk: Chathuravalli, Chathuramulla (Kerala). Hem-maalati.

Action: Leaves—used with clarified butter in cough, asthma, chest diseases; also in nervous complaints and rheumatism. Oil extract of the leaves is used for massage in fever, headache and backaches.... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Naratriptan

n. see 5HT1 agonist.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Narrative Ethics

an approach to ethical problems and practice that involves listening to and interpreting people’s stories rather than applying principles or rules to particular situations. This context-specific empathetic approach to patient and professional life stories is often contrasted with the universalizing rationalist approach of *Kantian ethics. Narrative ethics has an obvious relevance to the doctor–patient relationship and mirrors the clinical context in which moral choices are made.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

National Strategy

Based on national health policy, a set of decisions that includes the broad lines of action required in all sectors involved to give effect to the national health policy and indicates the problems and ways of dealing with them.... Community Health

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Community Health

Needle Aspiration

See biopsy.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Neonatal Mortality Rate

see infant mortality rate.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Nerve Regeneration

the growth of new nerve tissue, which occurs at a very slow rate (1–2 mm per day) after a nerve has been severed and is often partially or totally incomplete. *Microsurgery has improved the results by facilitating primary repair in the immediate aftermath of injury. See also axonotmesis; neurotmesis.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Nerve Restoratives

All degenerative changes in the nervous system arise from breakdown of cell integrity through causes including stress, disease or faulty nutrition. J.M. Thurston classifies the restorative effect of herbs as:

Stomach and intestines: Wild Cherry bark, Black Haw.

Heart: Lily of the Valley, Cactus. Liver: Wild Yam.

Eye: Blue Cohosh, Poke root.

Brain: Oats, Black Cohosh.

Spine: Damiana, Oats, Kola, Unicorn root (Aletris). Hops. Womb: False Unicorn root (Helonias).

General Restoratives: St John’s Wort, Vervain. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

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Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

Nesbit’s Operation

an operation devised to surgically straighten a congenitally curved penis but now more frequently employed to correct the penile curvature caused by *Peyronie’s disease. The procedure can often result in penile shortening. [R. M. Nesbit (20th century), US surgeon]... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Nitrate Drugs

A group of vasodilator drugs used to treat angina pectoris (chest pain as a result of impaired blood supply) and severe heart failure (reduced pumping efficiency of the heart). Two commonly used nitrate drugs are glyceryl trinitrate and isosorbide.

Possible side effects of nitrate drugs include headache, flushing, and dizziness. Tolerance (the need for greater amounts of a drug for it to have the same effect) may develop when the drug is taken regularly.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Nitrates

Chemical compounds that have a valuable role in the treatment of ANGINA PECTORIS. They are very e?ective in dilating the ARTERIES supplying the HEART; their prime bene?t, however, is to reduce the return of venous blood to the heart (via the superior and inferior venae cavae), thus reducing the demands on the left ventricle, which pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs. Undesirable side-effects such as ?ushing, headache and postural HYPOTENSION may restrict the use of nitrates. Among the nitrate drugs used is GLYCERYL TRINITRATE which, taken under the tongue (sublingually), provides quick, symptomatic relief of angina, lasting for up to half an hour. Alternative administration can be via a spray product. Isorbide dinitrate taken sublingually is a more stable preparation, suitable for patients who need nitrates infrequently. The drug’s e?ect may last for 12 hours in modi?ed-release form. Patients taking long-acting nitrates or preparations absorbed through the skin (transdermal) may develop TOLERANCE.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Nitrates

pl. n. a class of drugs used as coronary *vasodilators for the treatment and prevention of angina attacks. They include *glyceryl trinitrate, *isosorbide dinitrate, and isosorbide mononitrate.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Novel Substrate

a nutrient that has an additional pharmacological effect when added to feeds, which may improve clinical outcomes after surgery. Novel substrates include the amino acids glutamine, arginine, and ornithine and possibly some fatty acids.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Numerator

1 The upper portion of a fraction used to calculate a rate or ratio. 2 For a performance measure, the cases in the denominator group that experience events specified in a review criterion. See “denominator”.... Community Health

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Community Health

Obturation

n. obstruction of a bodily passage, usually by impaction of a foreign body, viscid secretions, or hardened faeces.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Obturator

n. 1. see obturator muscle. 2. a wire or rod within a cannula or hollow needle for piercing tissues or fitting aspirating needles. 3. a removable prosthetic device that both closes a defect in the palate and also restores the dentition. The defect may result from removal of a tumour or, less commonly, be congenital, as in a cleft palate.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Obturator Foramen

a large opening in the *hip bone, below and slightly in front of the acetabulum. See also pelvis.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Obturator Muscle

either of two muscles that cover the outer surface of the anterior wall of the pelvis (the obturator externus and obturator internus) and are responsible for lateral rotation of the thigh and movements of the hip.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Occupancy Rate

A measure of the use of facilities, most often inpatient health facility use, determined by dividing the number of patient days by the number of bed days (or places) available, on average, per unit of time, multiplied by 100.... Community Health

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Community Health

Ocimum Gratissimum

Linn.

Family: Labiatae; Lamiaceae.

Habitat: Throughout India.

English: Shrubby Basil.

Ayurvedic: Vriddha Tulasi, Raam- Tulasi, Raan-Tulasi.

Siddha: Elumicha-Tulasi, Peria- Tulasi.

Action: Plant—used in neurological and rheumatic affections, in seminal weakness and in aphthae of children. Seed—used in cephalalgia and neuralgia. Essential oil— antibacterial, antifungal.

In homoeopathy, fresh mature leaves are used in constipation, cough, fever, nasal catarrh; also in gonorrhoea with difficult urination.

A heterotic hybrid 'Clocimum' (po- lycross of gratissimum) has been developed in India which yields 4.55.7% essential oil having a eugenol content up to 95%. Direct production of methyl eugenol and eugenol acetate from 'Clocimum' oil is reported.

Major constituents reported from 'Clocimum' oil are myrcene 8.87, eugenol 68.14, isoeugenol 13.88, methyl- eugenol 1.74%; other constituents are alpha- pinene, limonene, phellandrene, terpene 4-ol, alpha-terpineol, carveol, carvene, geranyl acetate, caryophyl- lone and caryophyllone oxide.

(At Regional Research Laboratory, CSIR, Jammu, a study was conducted Ocimum kilimandscharicum Guerke.

Synonym: O. camphora Guerke.

Family: Labiatae; Lamiaceae.

Habitat: Native of Kenya. Cultivated on a small scale in West Bengal, Assam, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Kerala and Dehr Dun.

English: Camphor Basil.

Ayurvedic: Karpura Tulasi.

Action: Plant—spasmolytic, antibacterial. Decamphorized oil— insecticidal, mosquito repellent.

Essential oil contains camphor, pi- nene, limonene, terpinolene, myrcene, beta-phellandrene, linalool, camphene, p-cymene, borneol and alpha-selinene. The Camphor content varies in different samples from 61 to 80.5%.... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Odds Ratio

1 A measure of association which quantifies the relationship between an exposure and outcome from a comparative study; also known as the cross-product ratio. 2 Comparison of the presence of a risk factor in a sample.... Community Health

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Community Health

Odds Ratio

a measure of the association between an exposure and an outcome, calculated by comparing the odds of the outcome of interest in those who are given and those who are not given exposure with the outcome of interest. It is most commonly used in *case control studies.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Oestradiol Valerate

See OESTROGENS.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Operating Cost

See “cost”.... Community Health

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Community Health

Operating Microscope

a binocular microscope commonly in use for microsurgery. The field of operation is illuminated through the objective lens by a light source within the microscope (see illustration). Many models incorporate a beam splitter and a second set of eyepieces, to enable the surgeon’s assistant to view the operation.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Operating Microscope

A binocular MICROSCOPE used for MICROSURGERY on, for example, the EYE and middle EAR; this microscope is also used for suturing nerves and blood vessels damaged or severed by trauma and for rejoining obstructed FALLOPIAN TUBES in the treatment of INFERTILITY in women.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Operating Theatre

A specialized hospital room in which surgical procedures are performed.

The risk of infection of open wounds during surgery is reduced by a ventilation system that continually provides clean, filtered air, and walls and floors that are easily washable.

Surgeons, assistants, and nurses use sterile brushes and bactericidal soaps to scrub their hands and forearms before putting on sterile gowns, masks, and gloves.

The theatre is equipped with shadowless operating lights; lightboxes for viewing X-ray images; anaesthetic machines (see anaesthesia, general); and a diathermy machine, which controls bleeding.

A heart–lung machine may also be used.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Operation

A surgical procedure using instruments – or sometimes just the hands; for example, when manipulating a joint or setting a simple fracture. Operations range from simple removal of a small skin lesion under local anaesthetic to a major event such as transplanting a heart which takes several hours and involves many doctors, nurses and technical sta?. Increasingly, operations are done on an outpatient or day-bed basis, thus enabling many more patients to be treated than was the case 25 years ago, and permitting them to resume a normal life – often within 24 hours. (See also SURGERY; MINIMALLY INVASIVE SURGERY (MIS).)... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Operation

A surgical procedure, usually carried out with instruments but sometimes using only the hands (as in the manipulation of a simple fracture).... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Operation- Qualification

documented verification that the system or sub system performs as intended throughout all anticipated operating ranges... Medicinal Plants Glossary

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Medicinal Plants Glossary

Oral Administration

Giving a remedy by mouth. Such a route leads to its passage through the mucous membrane lining the intestines and from there into the bloodstream. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

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Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

Oral Rehydration Therapy

See rehydration therapy.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Oral Rehydration Therapy

(ORT) the administration of an isotonic solution of various sodium salts, potassium chloride, glucose, and water to treat acute diarrhoea, particularly in children. In developing countries, it is the mainstay of treatment for cholera. Once the diarrhoea has settled, normal feeding is gradually resumed.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Oral Rehydration Therapy (ort)

This is the essential initial treatment for DIARRHOEA, and is particularly valuable for dehydrated children in developing countries ill with diseases such as CHOLERA. A litre of water containing one teaspoonful of salt and eight of sugar, taken by mouth, is readily absorbed. It replaces salts and water lost because of the diarrhoea and usually no other treatment is required.

In developed countries ORT is useful in treating gastroenteritis. There are a number of proprietary preparations, often dispensed as ?avoured sachets, including Dioralyte® and Rehydrate®.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Orthokeratology

n. the use of contact lenses designed to reshape the cornea in the treatment of refractive errors, such as myopia (short sight).... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Osseointegration

n. the process by which certain materials, such as titanium, may be introduced into living bone without producing a foreign-body reaction. This allows a very tight and strong joint between the two structures. Osseointegration is used, for example, to fix certain types of dental *implants and *bone-anchored hearing aids.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Oxygen Concentrator

An appliance used in oxygen therapy that separates oxygen from the air and mixes it back in at a greater concentration. This oxygenenriched air is delivered through a tube for prolonged inhalation. The appliance is used by people who have persistent hypoxia due to severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (see pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive). (See also hyperbaric oxygen treatment.)... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Paratenic Host

An intermediate host which becomes infected by consuming another intermediate host and in which the parasite does not develop any further than in the first intermediate host. Also called a “transport host”.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

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Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

Paratenon

n. the tissue of a tendon sheath that fills up spaces round the tendon.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Parathion

n. an organic phosphorus compound, used as a pesticide, that causes poisoning when inhaled, ingested, or absorbed through the skin. Like several other organic phosphorus compounds, it attacks the enzyme *cholinesterase and causes excessive stimulation of the parasympathetic nervous system. The symptoms are headache, sweating, salivation, lacrimation, vomiting, diarrhoea, and muscular spasms. Treatment is by administration of *atropine.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Parathion

One of the ORGANOPHOSPHORUS insecticides. It is highly toxic to humans and must therefore be handled with the utmost care.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Parathion

A highly poisonous agricultural organophosphate insecticide.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Parathormone

n. see parathyroid hormone.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Parathyroid

The grouping of four small glands, about 5 mm in diameter, which lie to the side of and behind the THYROID GLAND. These glands regulate the metabolism of calcium and of phosphorus. If for any reason there is a de?ciency of the secretion of the parathyroid glands, the amount of calcium in the blood falls too low and the amount of phosphorus increases. The result is the condition known as TETANY characterised by restlessness and muscle spasms – sometimes severe. The condition is checked by the injection of calcium gluconate, which causes an increase in the amount of calcium in the blood.

The most common cause of this condition (hypoparathyroidism) is accidental injury to or removal of the glands during the operation of thyroidectomy for the treatment of Graves’ disease (see THYROID GLAND, DISEASES OF – Thyrotoxicosis). If there is over-production of the parathyroids, there will be an increase of calcium in the blood: this extra calcium is drawn from the bones, causing cysts to form with resulting bone fragility. This cystic disease of bone is known as OSTEITIS FIBROSA CYSTICA. Tumours of the parathyroid glands result in this overactivity of the parathyroid hormone, and the resulting increase in the amount of calcium in the blood leads to the formation of stones in the kidneys. The only available treatment is surgical removal of the tumour. Increased activity of the parathyroid glands, or hyperparathyroidism, may cause stones in the kidneys. (See KIDNEYS, DISEASES OF.)... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Parathyroid Glands

Glands that control the level of calcium in the blood. The four glands appear, two on each side, implanted in the thyroid gland in the front of the neck.

Disorders are (1) hypoparathyroidism and (2) hyperparathyroidism. See entries. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

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Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

Parathyroid Glands

two pairs of yellowish-brown *endocrine glands that are situated behind, or sometimes embedded within, the *thyroid gland. They are stimulated to produce *parathyroid hormone by a decrease in the amount of calcium in the blood.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Parathyroid Glands

Two pairs of oval, pea-sized glands that lie behind the thyroid gland in the neck. Some people have only 1 parathyroid gland or have extra glands in the neck or chest. The glands produce parathyroid hormone, which helps regulate the level of calcium in the blood; even small variations in calcium level can impair muscle and nerve function. Rarely, the parathyroid

glands may become overactive (in a condition called hyperparathyroidism) or underactive (see hypoparathyroidism). parathyroid tumour A growth within a parathyroid gland. The tumour may cause excess secretion of parathyroid hormone, leading to hyperparathyroidism. Cancers of the parathyroid are very rare; most parathyroid tumours are noncancerous adenomas. An adenoma that causes hyperparathyroidism will be surgically removed (see parathyroidectomy). This usually provides a complete cure. paratyphoid fever An illness identical in most respects to typhoid fever, except that it is caused by SALMONELLA PARATYPHI and is usually less severe. paraumbilical hernia A hernia occurring near the navel. It may occur in obese women who have had several children. parenchyma The functional (as opposed to supporting) tissue of an organ. parenteral A term applied to the administration of drugs or other substances by any route other than via the gastrointestinal tract (for example, by injection into a blood vessel). parenteral nutrition Intravenous feeding (see feeding, artificial).... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Parathyroid Hormone

(parathormone) a hormone, synthesized and released by the parathyroid glands, that controls the distribution of calcium and phosphate in the body. A high level of the hormone causes transfer of calcium from the bones to the blood; a deficiency lowers blood calcium levels, causing *tetany. This condition may be treated by injections of calcium gluconate. Compare calcitonin.

Recombinant parathyroid hormone (Preotact) is given by subcutaneous injection to treat postmenopausal osteoporosis.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Parathyroid Hormone-related Protein

(PTH-RP) a protein that is secreted by certain malignant tumours and is the main cause of malignant *hypercalcaemia. PTH-RP, which has effects similar to *parathyroid hormone, stimulates generalized bone resorption and excessive calcium reabsorption in the kidney tubules. It is most commonly produced by lung tumours, squamous-cell carcinomas of other organs, melanomas, and tumours of the breast, liver, pancreas, bladder, and prostate.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Parathyroidectomy

n. surgical removal of one or more of the *parathyroid glands, usually as part of the treatment of *hyperparathyroidism.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Parathyroids

These are several minute glandular masses embedded in the lower edge of the thyroid gland. They produce Parathyroid Hormone (PTH), part of the calcium-phosphorus control system. Calcium levels in the blood MUST be within a narrow band of safety. If free calcium drops too low, PTH acts on the kidneys and blocks calcium loss in urine, amplifies calcium absorption into the portal blood (from food and from submucosal storage) and stimulates release of calcium from bone storage. When levels are back up, the hormone backs off. Oddly enough, the thyroid gland secretes its virtual antagonist, calcitonin, which, when calcium levels are too high, stimulates the urine excretion, bone retention and digestive resistance to calcium, and when the blood levels drop, recedes. The body finds calcium levels to be so critical that it has in place TWO separate, mutually antagonistic negative feedback systems,,,like a binary star system. (Be thankful I didn’t bring in the calcium maintenance of minerocortical steroid hormones or vasopressin)... Herbal Medical

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Herbal Medical

Paratyphoid

A form of enteric fever caused by bacteria of the Salmonella group. A notifiable disease. Treatment the same as for TYPHOID FEVER. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

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Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

Paratyphoid Fever

an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Salmonella paratyphi A, B, or C. Bacteria are spread in the faeces of patients or carriers, and outbreaks occur as a result of poor sanitation or unhygienic food-handling. After an incubation period of 1–10 days, symptoms, including diarrhoea, mild fever, and a pink rash on the chest, appear and last for about a week. Treatment with chloramphenicol is effective. The *TAB vaccine provides temporary immunity against paratyphoid A and B.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Paratyphoid Fever

See ENTERIC FEVER.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Parous Rate

The proportion of female mosquitoes that have laid eggs at least once. Use for age-grading a mosquito population.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

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Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

Pavonia Odorata

Willd.

Family: Malvaceae.

Habitat: North-West India, Bengal and Konkan.

English: Fragrant Sticky Mallow.

Ayurvedic: Vaalaka, Baalaka, Baala, Barhishtha, Hrivera, Ambu, Jala, Nira, Paya, Toya, Udichya, Vaari, Muurdhaja. Sugandhbaalaa (also equated with Valeriana Jatamansi). In the South, Celus vettiveroides is equated with Baalaka.

Siddha/Tamil: Peraamutti, Kastoori vendai.

Action: Plant—anti-inflammatory and spasmolytic. Used in rheumatic affections. Root—stomachic, astringent, demulcent. Used in dysentery, haemorrhages from intestines; ulcers and bleeding disorders.

The roots gave an essential oil containing isovaleric acid, isovaleralde- hyde, armomadendrene, pavonene, alpha-terpinene, azulene and pavo- nenol.

The plant exhibits antiparasitic activity against Entamoeba histolytica.... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Peak Expiratory Flow Rate

(PEFR) the maximum rate at which a person can forcibly expel air from the lungs at any time, expressed usually in litres per minute (occasionally in litres per second). A low value can help diagnose asthma in the correct clinical context, and differences between the morning and evening values can also be a feature of poor control of asthma. There is a place for PEFR in the monitoring of acute exacerbations of chronic pulmonary obstructive disease (COPD) but not in the diagnosis of COPD.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Pena Operation

a recommended surgical treatment of congenital anal malformation.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Perforation

The perforation of one of the hollow organs of the abdomen or major blood vessels may occur spontaneously in the case of an ulcer or an advanced tumour, or may be secondary to trauma such as a knife wound or penetrating injury from a tra?c or industrial accident. Whatever the cause, perforation is a surgical emergency. The intestinal contents, which contain large numbers of bacteria, pass freely out into the abdominal cavity and cause a severe chemical or bacterial PERITONITIS. This is usually accompanied by severe abdominal pain, collapse or even death. There may also be evidence of free ?uid or gas within the abdominal cavity. Surgical intervention, to repair the leak and wash out the contamination, is often necessary. Perforation or rupture of major blood vessels, whether from disease or injury, is an acute emergency for which urgent surgical repair is usually necessary. Perforation of hollow structures elsewhere than in the abdomen – for example, the heart or oesophagus – may be caused by congenital weaknesses, disease or injury. Treatment is usually surgical but depends on the cause.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Perforation

n. the formation of a hole in a hollow organ. This may occur in the course of a disease (e.g. perforation from a *duodenal ulcer, or stomach cancer), allowing the flow of intestinal contents into the peritoneal cavity, with subsequent inflammation (*peritonitis), severe abdominal pain, and shock. Treatment is usually by surgical repair of the perforation, but conservative treatment with antibiotics may result in spontaneous healing. Perforations may also be caused by instruments – for example a gastroscope may perforate the stomach or a curette may perforate the uterus – or by injury, for example to the eardrum.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Perforation

A hole made in an organ or tissue by disease or injury.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Perinatal Mortality Rate

(PNM) the total number of babies born dead after 24 weeks gestation (*stillbirths) and of live-born babies that die in the first week of life, regardless of gestational age at birth (early neonatal deaths), per 1000 live births and stillbirths. See infant mortality rate. See also confidential enquiries.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Perioperative

adj. denoting the period that extends from the day before to the first few days after surgery, during which drugs (e.g. analgesics, antibiotics, anticoagulants) may need to be administered and *vital signs are monitored.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Perioperative Cell Salvage

A method of autologous blood TRANSFUSION – using a patient’s own blood, salvaged during a surgical operation – instead of conventional blood-bank transfusion.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Perseveration

n. 1. excessive persistence at a task that prevents the individual from turning his or her attention to new situations. It is a symptom of organic disease of the brain and sometimes of obsessive–compulsive disorder. 2. the phenomenon in which an image continues to be perceived briefly in the absence of the object. This is a potentially serious neurological disorder.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Perseveration

Perseveration is the senseless repetition of words or deeds by a person with a disordered mind.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Perspiration

n. *sweat or the process of sweating. Insensible perspiration is sweat that evaporates immediately from the skin and is therefore not visible; sensible perspiration is visible on the skin in the form of drops.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Perspiration

Commonly called sweat, it is an excretion from the SKIN, produced by microscopic sweat-glands, of which there are around 2·5 million, scattered over the surface. There are two di?erent types of sweat-glands, known as eccrine and apocrine. Insensible (that is unnoticed) perspiration takes place constantly by evaporation from the openings of the sweat-glands, well over a litre a day being produced. Sensible perspiration (that is, obvious) – to which the term ‘sweat’ is usually con?ned – occurs with physical exertion and raised body temperature: up to 3 litres an hour may be produced for short periods. Normal sweating maintains the body within its customary temperature range and ensures that the skin is kept adequately hydrated – for example, properly hydrated skin of the palm helps the e?ectiveness of a person’s normal grip.

The chief object of perspiration is to maintain an even body temperature by regulating the heat lost from the body surface. Sweating is therefore increased by internally produced heat, such as muscular activity, or external heat. It is controlled by two types of nerves: vasomotor, which regulate the local blood ?ow, and secretory (part of the sympathetic nervous system) which directly in?uence secretion.

Eccrine sweat is a faintly acid, watery ?uid containing less than 2 per cent of solids. The eccrine sweat-glands in humans are situated in greatest numbers on the soles of the feet and palms of the hands, and with a magnifying glass their minute openings or pores can be seen in rows occupying the summit of each ridge in the skin. Perspiration is most abundant in these regions, although it also occurs all over the body.

Apocrine sweat-glands These start functioning at puberty and are found in the armpits, the eyelids, around the anus in association with the external genitalia, and in the areola and nipple of the breast. (The glands that produce wax in the ear are modi?ed apocrine glands.) The ?ow of apocrine sweat is evoked by emotional stimuli such as fear, anger, or sexual excitement.

Abnormalities of perspiration Decreased sweating may occur in the early stages of fever, in diabetes, and in some forms of glomerulonephritis (see KIDNEYS, DISEASES OF). Some people are unable to sweat copiously, and are prone to HEAT STROKE. EXCESSIVE SWEATING, OR HYPERIDROSIS, may be caused by fever, hyperthyroidism (see THYROID GLAND, DISEASES OF), obesity, diabetes mellitus, or an anxiety state. O?ensive perspiration, or bromidrosis, commonly occurs on the hands and feet or in the armpits, and is due to bacterial decomposition of skin secretions. A few people, however, sweat over their whole body surface. For most of those affected, it is the palmar and/or axillary hyperhidrosis that is the major problem.

Conventional treatment is with an ANTICHOLINERGIC drug. This blocks the action of ACETYLCHOLINE (a neurotransmitter secreted by nerve-cell endings) which relaxes some involuntary muscles and tightens others, controlling the action of sweat-glands. But patients often stop treatment because they get an uncomfortably dry mouth. Aluminium chloride hexahydrate is a topical treatment, but this can cause skin irritation and soreness. Such antiperspirants may help patients with moderate hyperhidrosis, but those severely affected may need either surgery or injections of BOTULINUM TOXIN to destroy the relevant sympathetic nerves to the zones of excessive sweating.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Perspiration

The production and excretion of sweat from the sweat glands. Perspiration is another name for sweat.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Photorefractive Keratectomy

A surgical treatment for astigmatism, myopia, and hypermetropia, in which areas of the cornea are shaved away by laser.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Photorefractive Keratectomy

(PRK) see keratectomy.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Phototherapeutic Keratectomy

see keratectomy.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Pistia Stratiotes

Linn. var. cuneata Engl.

Family: Araceae.

Habitat: Tropical and sub-tropical Asia, Africa and America.

English: Water Lettuce, Tropical Duckweed.

Ayurvedic: Jalakumbhi, Vaariparni, Vaarimuuli.

Siddha/Tamil: Agasatamarai.

Action: Whole plant and root— diuretic, used for dysuria. Leaf—an- titussive, demulcent, antidysenteric, externally applied to haemorrhoids, ulcers, skin diseases. Ash—applied to ringworm of the scalp.

The plant gave 2-di-C-glycosylfla- vones of vicenin and lucenin type, anthocyanin-cyanidin-3-glucoside, lu- teolin-7-glycoside and mono-C-glyco- sylflavones— vitexin and orientin.

Dosage: Plant—10-20 ml juice. (CCRAS.)... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Planning Ratio

Service provision targets established by an authority on a population basis.... Community Health

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Community Health

Polycarpon Prostratum

(Forsk.) Alschers & Schweinf.

Synonym: P. loeflingii Benth. & Hook. f.

Habitat: Throughout the warmer parts of India in fields and waste places.

Folk: Ghima, Suretaa.

Action: Leaves—an infusion of roasted leaves is given for cough following fever, particularly in measles.

Alcoholic extract of the plant exhibits spasmolytic activity. The aerial parts contain tetrahydroxy triterpenes. Presence ofa triterpenoid saponin, and hentriacontane, hentriacontanol, beta- amyrin and its acetate, beta-sitosterol and stigmasterol is also reported.... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Polyunsaturated Fats

Fats (see fats and oils) with with relatively few hydrogen atoms in their chemical structure.

Polyunsaturated fats tend to protect against cardiovascular disease.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Post-operative

The period after an operation, the patient’s condition after operation, or any investigations or treatment during this time.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Postoperative

adj. following surgery: referring to the condition of a patient or to the treatment given at this time.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Potassium Citrate

A substance used to relieve discomfort in mild urinary tract infections by making the urine less acid.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Pratibha

(Hindi) An understanding woman Pratibhah, Pratybha, Pratybhah... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Pratima

(Indian) An image or icon Pratimah, Pratema, Pratyma, Prateema, Prateima, Pratiema, Prateama... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Preoperative

adj. before operation: referring to the condition of a patient or to treatment, such as sedation, given at this time.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Prevalence Rate

quotient using as the numerator, the number of persons sick or portraying a certain condition, in a stated population, at a particular time, regardless of when that illness or condition began, and as the denominator, the number of persons in the population in which they occurred.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

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Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

Preventive Resin Restoration

a hybrid between a *fissure sealant and a conventional *filling that is used to treat early dental caries involving dentine.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Proportional Mortality Rate (pmr)

A measure of the relative contribution to total mortality by a specific cause and these are expressed as number of deaths assigned to the state cause in a calendar year per 1000 total deaths in that year.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

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Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

Pseudohypoparathyroidism

n. a syndrome of learning disability, restricted growth, and bony abnormalities due to a genetic defect that causes lack of response to the hormone secreted by the *parathyroid glands. Treatment with calcium and vitamin D can reverse most of the features. See also Albright’s hereditary osteodystrophy.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Pseudopseudohypoparathyroidism

n. a condition in which all the symptoms of *pseudohypoparathyroidism are present but the patient’s response to parathyroid hormone is normal. It is often found in families affected with pseudohypoparathyroidism.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Public Health Laboratoryservice (phls)

A statutory organisation that is part of the NHS. It comprises ten laboratory groups and two centres in the UK, with central coordination from PHLS headquarters. The service provides diagnostic-testing facilities for cases of suspected infectious disease. The remit of the PHLS (which was set up during World War II and then absorbed into the NHS) is now based on legislation approved in 1977 and 1979. Its overall purpose was to protect the population from infection by maintaining a national capability of high quality for the detection, diagnosis, surveillance, protection and control of infections and communicable diseases. It provided microbiology services to hospitals, family doctors and local authorities as well as providing national reference facilities. In 2001 it was incorporated into the newly established NATIONAL INFECTION CONTROL AND HEALTH PROTECTION AGENCY.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Quadrate Lobe

one of the lobes of the *liver.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Quadratus

n. any of various four-sided muscles. The quadratus femoris is a flat muscle at the head of the femur, responsible for lateral rotation of the thigh.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Radial Keratotomy

an operation for short-sightedness (myopia). Deep cuts into the tissue of the cornea are placed radially around the outer two-thirds of the cornea; this flattens the curvature of the central part of the cornea and reduces the myopia. This procedure is now rarely performed, having been superseded by *excimer laser treatment.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Ramstedt’s Operation

see pyloromyotomy. [W. C. Ramstedt (1867–1963), German surgeon]... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Ranunculus Sceleratus

Linn.

Family: Ranunculaceae.

Habitat: The plains of northern India, and the warm valleys of the Himalayas from Kashmir to Assam.

English: Blister Buttercup, Celery- leaved Crowfoot.

Ayurvedic: Kaandira, Kaandakatu- ka, Naasaa-samvedana, Toyavalli, Sukaandaka.

Folk: Jal-dhaniyaa.

Action: Fresh Plant—highly acrid, rubefacient, vesicant and toxic; causes inflammation of the digestive tract. Used after drying or as a homoeopathic medicine for skin diseases.

The plant contains anemonin, pro- toanemonin, ranunculine, serotonin and other tryptamine derivatives.

Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) is a potent vaso-constrictor. Pro- toanemonin possesses strong antibacterial, antiviral, cytopathogenic and vermicidal properties, and is effective against both Gram-positive and Gramnegative bacteria, similar to penicillic acid. It inhibits the growth of E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida al- bicans. It inactivates in vitro diptheria toxin.

Dosage: Whole plant—1-3 g powder. (CCRAS.)... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Rat-bite Fever

An infectious disease following the bite of a rat. There are two causative organisms – Spirillum minus and Actinobacillus muris – and the incubation period depends upon which is involved. In the case of the former it is 5–30 days; in the case of the latter it is 2–10 days. The disease is characterised by fever, a characteristic skin rash and often muscular or joint pains. It responds well to PENICILLIN.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Rat-bite Fever

(sodokosis) a disease, contracted from the bite of a rat, due to infection by either the bacterium Spirillum minus, which causes ulceration of the skin and recurrent fever, or by the fungus Streptobacillus moniliformis, which causes inflammation of the skin, muscular pains, and vomiting. Both infections respond well to penicillin.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Ratana

(Thai) Resembling a crystal Ratanah, Ratanna, Ratannah, Rathana, Rathanna... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Rate

A measure of the frequency of a phenomenon. In epidemiology, demography and vital statistics, a rate is an expression of the frequency with which an event occurs in a defined population. Rates are usually expressed using a standard denominator such as 1000 or 100 000 persons. Rates may also be expressed as percentages. The use of rates rather than raw numbers is essential for comparison of experience between populations at different times or in different places, or among different classes of persons.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

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Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

Rate

A rate is the frequency with which a health event occurs in a defined population. The components of the rate are the numbers of deaths or cases (the numerator), the population at risk (denominator), and the specified time in which the events occurred. All rates are ratios, calculated by dividing the numerator by the denominator.... Community Health

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Community Health

Rate Review

Review by a government or private agency of a hospital’s or health service’s budget and financial data, performed for the purpose of determining if the rates are reasonable of the rates and evaluating proposed rate increases.... Community Health

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Community Health

Rate Setting

A method of paying health care providers in which the government establishes payment rates for all payers for various categories of health service.... Community Health

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Community Health

Rathke’s Pouch

see craniopharyngioma.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Rati

(Hindi) In Hinduism, goddess of passion and lust

Ratie, Ratea, Ratee, Raty, Ratey... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Ratio

The value obtained by dividing one quantity by another: a general term of which rate, proportion, percentage, etc. are subsets. A ratio is an expression of the relationship between a numerator and a denominator where the two usually are separate and distinct quantities, neither being included in the other.... Community Health

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Community Health

Ratio Scale

See “measurement scale”.... Community Health

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Community Health

Rationalization

n. (in psychology) the explanation of events or behaviour in terms that avoid giving the true reasons. For example, someone may claim to have been too tired to go to a party whereas in fact he or she was afraid of meeting new people.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Rationing

n. the process of allocating health-care resources among a population when demand outstrips supply. Where “first come first served” is not considered an appropriate policy, access to treatment may be rationed on a basis of *need, effectiveness, or *quality of life. See equality; justice; NICE.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Rationing

Limiting the availability of something (e.g. due to a shortage of the item itself or of resources with which to buy it).... Community Health

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Community Health

Ratna

(Indian) As precious as a jewel Ratnah, Ratnia, Ratnea... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Ratri

(Indian) Born in the evening Ratrie, Ratry, Ratrey, Ratree, Ratrea... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Rats, Diseases From

Rats are rodents that live close to human habitation. They damage and contaminate crops and food stores and can spread disease. The organisms responsible for plague and a type of typhus are transmitted to humans by the bites of rat fleas. Leptospirosis is caused by contact with anything contaminated by rat’s urine.

Rat-bite fever is a rare infection transmitted directly by a rat bite. There are 2 types of this infection, caused by different bacteria. The symptoms include inflammation at the site of the bite and in nearby lymph nodes and vessels, bouts of fever, a rash, and, in one type, painful joint inflammation. Treatment for both types is with antibiotic drugs.

Rabies virus can be transmitted by the bites of infected rats. Lassa fever, also a viral disease, may be contracted from the urine of rats in West Africa. Rats also carry the viral infection lymphocytic chorio-meningitis, as well as the bacterial infection tularaemia.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Rattan Palm

Calamus species

Description: The rattan palm is a stout, robust climber. It has hooks on the midrib of its leaves that it uses to remain attached to trees on which it grows. Sometimes, mature stems grow to 90 meters. It has alternate, compound leaves and a whitish flower.

Habitat and Distribution: The rattan palm is found from tropical Africa through Asia to the East Indies and Australia. It grows mainly in rain forests.

Edible Parts: Rattan palms hold a considerable amount of starch in their young stem tips. You can eat them roasted or raw. In other kinds, a gelatinous pulp, either sweet or sour, surrounds the seeds. You can suck out this pulp. The palm heart is also edible raw or cooked.

Other Uses: You can obtain large amounts of potable water by cutting the ends of the long stems (see Chapter 6). The stems can be used to make baskets and fish traps.... Medicinal Plants

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Medicinal Plants

Rattlesnake Root

Protection, Money ...

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Readmission Rate

The proportion of a hospital’s patients (or a subset, such as those with asthma) who are readmitted to the hospital following discharge with the same diagnosis. It is used as a performance measure where a higher rate indicates lower quality of care.... Community Health

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Community Health

Refrigeration

n. lowering the temperature of a part of the body to reduce the metabolic activity of its tissues or to provide a local anaesthetic effect.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Rehydration Therapy

The treatment of dehydration by administering fluids and salts by mouth (oral rehydration) or by intravenous infusion.

The amount of fluid necessary depends on age, weight, and the degree of dehydration.

Mild dehydration can usually be treated with oral solutions, which are available as effervescent tablet or powder to be made up at home.

In severe dehydration, or if the patient cannot take fluids by mouth because of nausea or vomiting, an intravenous infusion of saline and/or glucose solution may be given in hospital.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Rehydration, Oral

See rehydration therapy.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Reproduction Rate

see fertility rate.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Respiration

The process in which air passes into and out of the lungs so that the blood can absorb oxygen and give o? carbon dioxide and water. This occurs 18 times a minute in a healthy adult at rest and is called the respiratory rate. An individual breathes more than 25,000 times a day and during this time inhales around 16 kg of air.

Mechanism of respiration For the structure of the respiratory apparatus, see AIR PASSAGES; CHEST; LUNGS. The air passes rhythmically into and out of the air passages, and mixes with the air already in the lungs, these two movements being known as inspiration and expiration. INSPIRATION is due to a muscular e?ort which enlarges the chest, so that the lungs have to expand in order to ?ll up the vacuum that would otherwise be left, the air entering these organs by the air passages. The increase of the chest in size from above downwards is mainly due to the diaphragm, the muscular ?bres of which contract and reduce its domed shape and cause it to descend, pushing down the abdominal organs beneath it. EXPIRATION is an elastic recoil, the diaphragm rising and the ribs sinking into the position that they naturally occupy, when muscular contraction is ?nished. Occasionally, forced expiration may occur, involving powerful muscles of the abdomen and thorax; this is typically seen in forcible coughing.

Nervous control Respiration is usually either an automatic or a REFLEX ACTION, each expiration sending up sensory impulses to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, from which impulses are sent down various other nerves to the muscles that produce inspiration. Several centres govern the rate and force of the breathing, although all are presided over by a chief respiratory centre in the medulla oblongata (see under BRAIN – Divisions). This in turn is controlled by the higher centres in the cerebral hemispheres, so that breathing can be voluntarily stopped or quickened.

Quantity of air The lungs do not completely empty themselves at each expiration and re?ll at each inspiration. With each breath, less than one-tenth of the total air in the lungs passes out and is replaced by the same quantity of fresh air, which mixes with the stale air in the lungs. This renewal, which in quiet breathing amounts to about 500 millilitres, is known as the tidal air. By a special inspiratory e?ort, an individual can draw in about 3,000 millilitres, this amount being known as complemental air. By a special expiratory e?ort, too, after an ordinary breath one can expel much more than the tidal air from the lungs – this extra amount being known as the supplemental or reserve air, and amounting to about 1,300 millilitres. If an individual takes as deep an inspiration as possible and then makes a forced expiration, the amount expired is known as the vital capacity, and amounts to around 4,000 millilitres in a healthy adult male of average size. Figures for women are about 25 per cent lower. The vital capacity varies with size, sex, age and ethnic origin.

Over and above the vital capacity, the lungs contain air which cannot be expelled; this is known as residual air, and amounts to another 1,500 millilitres.

Tests of respiratory e?ciency are used to assess lung function in health and disease. Pulmonary-function tests, as they are known, include spirometry (see SPIROMETER), PEAK FLOW METER (which measures the rate at which a person can expel air from the lungs, thus testing vital capacity and the extent of BRONCHOSPASM), and measurements of the concentration of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood. (See also LUNG VOLUMES.)

Abnormal forms of respiration Apart from mere changes in rate and force, respiration is modi?ed in several ways, either involuntarily or voluntarily. SNORING, or stertorous breathing, is due to a ?accid state of the soft palate causing it to vibrate as the air passes into the throat, or simply to sleeping with the mouth open, which has a similar e?ect. COUGH is a series of violent expirations, at each of which the larynx is suddenly opened after the pressure of air in the lungs has risen considerably; its object is to expel some irritating substance from the air passages. SNEEZING is a single sudden expiration, which di?ers from coughing in that the sudden rush of air is directed by the soft palate up into the nose in order to expel some source of irritation from this narrow passage. CHEYNE-STOKES BREATHING is a type of breathing found in persons suffering from stroke, heart disease, and some other conditions, in which death is impending; it consists in an alternate dying away and gradual strengthening of the inspirations. Other disorders of breathing are found in CROUP and in ASTHMA.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Respiration

A term for the processes by which oxygen reaches body cells and is utilized by them, and by which carbon dioxide is eliminated.

Air, containing oxygen, is breathed into the lungs and enters the alveoli.

Oxygen diffuses into the blood, which carries it to cells in the body, where it is used to metabolize glucose to provide energy.

Carbon dioxide is produced as a waste product and passes into the blood from the body cells.

It is transported to the lungs to be breathed out (see respiratory system).... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Respiration

n. the process of gaseous exchange between an organism and its environment. This includes both external respiration, which involves *breathing, in which oxygen is taken up by the capillaries of the lung *alveoli and carbon dioxide is released from the blood, and internal respiration, during which oxygen is released to the tissues and carbon dioxide absorbed by the blood. Blood provides the transport medium for the gases between the lungs and tissue cells. In addition, it contains a pigment, *haemoglobin, with special affinity for oxygen. Once inside the cell oxygen is utilized in metabolic processes resulting in the production of energy (see ATP), water, and waste materials (including carbon dioxide). See also lung. —respiratory adj.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Respirator

See ventilator.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Respirator

n. 1. a face mask for administering oxygen or other gas or for filtering harmful fumes, dust, etc. 2. see ventilator.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Respiratory Arrest

Cessation of breathing, often caused by envenomation (or poisoning).... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

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Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

Respiratory Arrest

Sudden stoppage of breathing which results from any process that strongly suppresses the function of the brain’s respiratory centre. It leads to lack of oxygen in the tissues and, if not remedied, to cardiac arrest, brain damage, COMA and death. Treatment is arti?cial respiration (see APPENDIX 1: BASIC FIRST AID) and, if necessary, arti?cial ventilation. Causes of respiratory arrest include cardiac arrest, electrical injury, overdose of narcotic drugs, prolonged seizures (EPILEPSY), serious head injury, STROKE or inhalation of noxious material that causes respiratory failure.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Respiratory Arrest

Sudden cessation of breathing, resulting from any process that severely depresses the function of the respiratory centre in the brain. Causes include prolonged seizures, an overdose of opioid drugs, cardiac arrest, electrical injury, serious head injury, stroke, or respiratory failure. Respiratory arrest leads to anoxia and, if untreated, cardiac arrest, brain damage, coma, and death.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Respiratory Arrest

cessation of breathing, which – without treatment – will very quickly be followed by *cardiac arrest. It may result from airway obstruction, brain or spinal injury, overdose of certain medications (e.g. opioids), disease of the muscles and/or nerves necessary for breathing, or severe lung disease or injury. Treatment must be prompt and include clearance of any blockage in the airway and ventilatory support, for example by mouth-to-mouth resuscitation.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Respiratory Distress

severe difficulty in achieving adequate oxygenation in spite of significant efforts to breathe: it is usually associated with increased *respiratory rate and the use of *accessory muscles in the chest wall. It can occur in both obstructive and nonobstructive lung conditions. See adult respiratory distress syndrome; airway obstruction; dyspnoea; respiratory distress syndrome; stridor.

respiratory distress syndrome (RDS; hyaline membrane disease) the condition of a newborn infant in which the lungs are imperfectly expanded. Initial inflation and normal expansion of the lungs requires the presence of a substance (*surfactant) that reduces the surface tension of the air sacs (alveoli) and prevents collapse of the small airways. Without surfactant the airways collapse, leading to inefficient and ‘stiff’ lungs. The condition is most common and serious among preterm infants, in whom surfactant may be deficient. It lasts 5–10 days, with worsening on days 2–3. Breathing is rapid, laboured, and shallow, and microscopic examinations of lung tissue in fatal cases has revealed the presence of *hyalin material in the collapsed air sacs. The condition is treated by careful nursing, intravenous fluids, and oxygen, with or without positive-pressure ventilation (see noninvasive ventilation). Early surfactant replacement therapy has been shown to reduce the severity of RDS and when given prophylactically it has been demonstrated to improve clinical outcome. See also adult respiratory distress syndrome.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Respiratory Distress Syndrome

This may occur in adults as ACUTE RESPIRATORY DISTRESS SYNDROME (ARDS), or in newborn children, when it is also known as HYALINE MEMBRANE DISEASE. The adult syndrome consists of PULMONARY OEDEMA of non-cardiac origin. The process begins when tissue damage stimulates the autonomic nervous system, releases vasoactive substances, precipitates complement activation, and produces abnormalities of the clotting cascade – the serial process that leads to clotting of the blood (see COAGULATION). The activation of complement causes white cells to lodge in the pulmonary capillaries where they release substances which damage the pulmonary endothelium.

Respiratory distress syndrome is a complication of SHOCK, systemic SEPSIS and viral respiratory infections. It was ?rst described in 1967, and – despite advances with assisted ventilation

– remains a serious disease with a mortality of more than 50 per cent. The maintenance of adequate circulating blood volume, peripheral PERFUSION, acid-base balance and arterial oxygenation is important, and assisted ventilation should be instituted early.

In newborns the mechanism is diferent, being provoked by an inability of the lungs to manufacture SURFACTANT.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Respiratory Distress Syndrome

An acute lung disorder that makes breathing difficult, resulting in a life-threatening deficiency of oxygen in the blood.

There are 2 types of the syndrome.

In premature babies, the lungs are stiff and do not inflate easily due to a lack of surfactant.

In adults, it develops as a result of a severe injury or overwhelming infection.

Treatment is for the underlying cause, and is with artificial ventilation and oxygen; inhaled surfactant is given to babies.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Respiratory Failure

A condition in which there is a buildup of carbon dioxide and a fall in the level of oxygen in the blood (see hypoxia). Causes include lung disorders, such as severe asthma, emphysema, or chronic bronchitis (see pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive), or damage to the respiratory centre in the brain due to, for example, an overdose of opioid drugs, a stroke, or serious head injury.

Treatment is with ventilation and oxygen for the underlying cause.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Respiratory Function Tests

See pulmonary function tests.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Respiratory Quotient

(RQ) the ratio of the volume of carbon dioxide transferred from the blood into the alveoli to the volume of oxygen absorbed into the alveoli. The RQ is usually about 0.8 because more oxygen is taken up than carbon dioxide excreted.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Respiratory Rate

(RR) breathing rate: the number of breaths per minute. Normally between 6 and 12, it increases after exercise and in cases of *respiratory distress and decreases after head injury and opioid overdosage.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Respiratory Syncytial Virus

(RSV) a paramyxovirus (see myxovirus) that causes infections of the nose and throat. It is a major cause of bronchiolitis and pneumonia in young children. In tissue cultures infected with the virus, cells merge together to form a conglomerate (syncytium). RSV is thought to have a role in *sudden infant death syndrome. Vulnerable children can be treated with *ribavirin, but most children just require supportive measures.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Respiratory Syncytial Virus (rsv)

Usually known as RSV, this is one of the MYXOVIRUSES. It is among the major causes of BRONCHIOLITIS and PNEUMONIA among infants aged under 6 months; its incidence has been increasing, possibly due to atmospheric pollution.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Respiratory System

All the organs and tissues associated with the act of RESPIRATION or breathing. The term includes the nasal cavity (see NOSE) and PHARYNX, along with the LARYNX, TRACHEA, bronchi (see BRONCHUS), BRONCHIOLES and LUNGS. The DIAPHRAGM and other muscles, such as those between the RIBS, are also part of the respiratory system which is responsible for oxygenating the blood and removing carbon dioxide from it.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Respiratory System

Asthma (M,V,I):

Asafetida, Canadian balsam, Peru balsam, benzoin, cajeput, clove bud, costus, cypress, elecampane, eucalyptus (blue gum, lemon & peppermint), frankincense, galbanum, immortelle, hops, hyssop, lavender (spike & true), lavandin, lemon, lime, sweet marjoram, melissa, mint (peppermint & spearmint), myrrh, myrtle, niaouli, pine (longleaf & Scotch), rose (cabbage & damask), rosemary, sage (clary & Spanish), hemlock spruce, tea tree, thyme.

Bronchitis (M,V,I):

Angelica, star anise, aniseed, asafetida, Canadian balsam, copaiba balsam, Peru balsam, Tolu balsam, French basil, benzoin, borneol, cajeput, camphor (white), caraway, cascarilla bark, cedarwood (Atlas, Texas & Virginian), clove bud, costus, cubebs, cypress, elecampane, elemi, eucalyptus (blue gum & peppermint), silver fir, frankincense, galbanum, immortelle, hyssop, labdanum, lavandin, lavender (spike & true), lemon, sweet marjoram, mastic, mint (peppermint & spearmint), melissa, myrrh, myrtle, niaouli, orange (bitter & sweet), pine (longleaf & Scotch), rosemary, sandalwood, hemlock spruce, Levant styrax, tea tree, thyme, turpentine, violet.

Catarrh (M,V,I):

Canadian balsam, Tolu balsam, cajeput, cedarwood (Atlas, Texas & Virginian), cubebs, elecampane, elemi, eucalyptus (blue gum & peppermint), frankincense, galbanum, ginger, hyssop, jasmine, lavandin, lavender (spike & true), lemon, lime, mastic, mint (peppermint & spearmint), myrrh, myrtle, niaouli, black pepper, pine (longleaf & Scotch), sandalwood, Levant styrax, tea tree, thyme, turpentine, violet.

Chill (M,B):

Copaiba balsam, benzoin, cabreuva, calamintha, camphor (white), cinnamon leaf, ginger, grapefruit, orange (bitter & sweet), black pepper.

Chronic coughs (M,V,I):

Canadian balsam, costus, cubebs, cypress, elecampane, elemi, frankincense, galbanum, immortelle hops, hyssop, jasmine, melissa, mint (peppermint & spearmint), myrrh, myrtle, sandalwood, Levant styrax.

Coughs (M,V,I):

Angelica, star anise, aniseed, copaiba balsam, Peru balsam, Tolu balsam, French basil, benzoin, borneol, cabreuva, cajeput, mmphor (white), caraway, cascarilla bark, Atlas cedarwood, eucalyptus (blue gum & peppermint), silver fir, ginger, hyssop, labdanum, sweet marjoram, myrrh, niaouli, black pepper, pine (longleaf & Scotch), rose (cabbage & damask), rosemary, sage (clary & Spanish), hemlock spruce, tea tree.

Croup (M,I):

Tolu balsam.

Earache (C):

French basil, chamomile (German & Roman), lavender (spike & true).

Halitosis/offensive breath (S):

Bergamot, cardamon, sweet fennel, lavandin, lavender (spike & true), mint (peppermint & spearmint), myrrh.

Laryngitis/hoarseness (1):

Tolu balsam, benzoin, caraway, cubebs, lemon eucalyptus, frankincense, jasmine, lavandin, lavender (spike & true), myrrh, sage (clary & Spanish), sandalwood, thyme.

Sinusitis (1):

French basil, cajeput, cubebs, eucalyptus blue gum, silver fir, ginger, labdanum, peppermint, niaouli, pine (longleaf & Scotch), tea tree.

Sore throat & throat infections (V,I):

Canadian balsam, bergamot, cajeput, eucalyptus (blue gum, lemon & peppermint), geranium, ginger, hyssop, lavandin, lavender (spike & true), myrrh, myrtle, niaouli, pine (longleaf & Scotch), sage (clary & Spanish), sandalwood, tea tree, thyme, violet.

Tonsillitis (1):

Bergamot, geranium, hyssop, laurel, myrtle, sage (clary & Spanish), thyme.

Whooping cough (M,I):

Asafetida, immortelle, hyssop, true lavender, mastic, niaouli, rosemary, sage (clary & Spanish), tea tree, turpentine.

Digestive System

Colic (M):

Star anise, aniseed, calamintha, caraway, cardamon, carrot seed, chamomile (German & Roman), clove bud, coriander, cumin, dill, sweet fennel, ginger, hyssop, lavandin, lavender (spike & true), sweet marjoram, melissa, mint (peppermint & spearmint), neroli, parsley, black pepper, rosemary, clary sage.

Constipation & sluggish digestion (M,B):

Cinnamon leaf, cubebs, sweet fennel, lovage, sweet marjoram, nutmeg, orange (bitter & sweet), palmarosa, black pepper, tarragon, turmeric, yarrow.

Cramp/gastric spasm (M,C):

Allspice, star anise, aniseed, caraway, cardamon, cinnamon leaf, coriander, costus, cumin, galbanum, ginger, lavandin, lavender (spike & true), lovage, mint (peppermint & spearmint), neroli, orange (bitter & sweet), black pepper, clary sage, tarragon, lemon verbena, yarrow.

Griping pains (M):

Cardamon, dill, sweet fennel, parsley.

Heartburn (M):

Cardamon, black pepper. Indigestion/flatulence (M):

Allspice, angelica, star anise, aniseed, French basil, calamintha, caraway, cardamon, carrot seed, cascarilla bark, celery seed, chamomile (German & Roman), cinnamon leaf, clove bud, coriander, costus, cubebs, cumin, dill, sweet fennel, galbanum, ginger, hops, hyssop, laurel, lavandin, lavender (spike & true), lemongrass, linden, litsea cubeba, lovage, mandarin, sweet marjoram, melissa, mint (peppermint & spearmint), myrrh, neroli, nutmeg, orange (bitter & sweet), parsley, black pepper, petitgrain, rosemary, clary sage, tarragon, thyme, valerian, lemon verbena, yarrow.

Liver congestion (M):

Carrot seed, celery seed, immortelle, linden, rose (cabbage & damask), rosemary, Spanish sage, turmeric, lemon verbena.

Loss of appetite (M):

Bergamot, caraway, cardamon, ginger, laurel, myrrh, black pepper.

Nausea/vomiting (M,V):

Allspice, French basil, cardamon, cascarilla bark, chamomile (German & Roman), clove bud, coriander, sweet fennel, ginger, lavandin, lavender (spike & true), melissa, mint (peppermint & spearmint), nutmeg, black pepper, rose (cabbage & damask), rosewood, sandalwood.... The Encyclopedia of Essential Oils

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The Encyclopedia of Essential Oils

Respiratory System

The organs responsible for carrying oxygen from the air to the blood and expelling carbon dioxide.

The upper part of the

pulmonary vessels for blood transport to and from the heart.

Air is inhaled and exhaled (see breathing) by the action of the dome-shaped diaphragm and of abdominal and chest muscles including the intercostal muscles between the ribs.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Respiratory System

the combination of organs and tissues associated with *breathing. It includes the nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, and lungs and also the diaphragm and other muscles associated with breathing movements.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Respiratory Therapy

The diagnostic evaluation, management and treatment of the care of older persons with deficiencies and abnormalities of the cardiopulmonary (heart lung) system.... Community Health

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Community Health

Respiratory Tract Infection

Infection of the breathing passages, which extend from the nose to the alveoli. This type of infection is divided into upper and lower respiratory tract infections. Upper respiratory tract infections affect the nose, throat, sinuses, and larynx. They include the common cold, pharyngitis, tonsillitis, sinusitis, laryngitis, and croup. Lower respiratory tract infections, which affect the trachea, bronchi, and lungs, include acute bronchitis, acute bronchiolitis, and pneumonia.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Response Rate

The number of completed or returned survey instruments (questionnaires, interviews, etc) divided by the total number of persons who would have been surveyed if all had participated. Usually expressed as a percentage.... Community Health

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Community Health

Restoration

n. (in dentistry) any type of dental *filling or *crown, which is aimed at restoring a tooth to its normal form, function, and appearance. A sealant restoration (or preventive resin restoration) is a combination of a *fissure sealant and a small filling.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Restoration, Dental

The reconstruction of part of a damaged tooth. Restoration also refers to the material or substitute part used to rebuild the tooth. Small repairs are usually made by filling the tooth. For extensive repairs, a dental inlay or a crown may be used. Chipped front teeth may be repaired by bonding (see bonding, dental).... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Restorative

Having the power to restore or renew health ... Medicinal Plants Glossary

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Medicinal Plants Glossary

Restorative

an agent that helps strengthen and revive the body systems.... The Encyclopedia of Essential Oils

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The Encyclopedia of Essential Oils

Restorative Care

Services provided to older people on a short-term basis to restore their physical condition to a level which would allow them to return home with appropriate support. See “rehabilitation”.... Community Health

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Community Health

Risk Rating

Risk rating means that high-risk individuals will pay more than the average premium price.... Community Health

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Community Health

Rivea Hypocrateriformis

Choisy.

Family: Convolvulaceae.

Habitat: Throughout India.

English: Midnapore Creeper.

Ayurvedic: Phanji.

Siddha/Tamil: Budthi-kiray.

Folk: Kalmi-lataa, Phaang.

Action: Root—a tonic after childbirth. Leaves—astringent; used in haemorrhagic diseases, diarrhoea, dysentery.... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Salzmann’s Degeneration

a noninflammatory condition of the cornea resulting in yellow-white nodules under the epithelium in the central area. These may cause symptoms if the epithelium over them breaks down or if they are located along the visual axis. [M. Salzmann (1862–1954), German ophthalmologist]... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Saturated Fats

See fats and oils; nutrition.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Saturated Fatty Acid

a *fatty acid in which all the carbon atoms are linked by single bonds and the molecule is unable to accept additional atoms (i.e. it cannot undergo addition reactions with other molecules). These fats occur mainly in animal and dairy products, and a diet high in these foods may contribute to a high serum cholesterol level, which may increase the risk of *coronary artery disease. Compare unsaturated fatty acid.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Sedimentation Rate

the rate at which solid particles sink in a liquid under the influence of gravity. See also ESR.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Self-rated Health Status / Perceived Health Status

Health status is usually obtained from survey data by asking the respondent if his/her health is excellent, very good, good, fair or poor (or similar questions).... Community Health

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Community Health

Semont Liberatory Manoeuvre

a series of head and body movements used to move microscopic debris from the posterior *semicircular canal in the inner ear. It is used in the treatment of *benign paroxysmal positional vertigo.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Separation Anxiety

The feelings of distress a young child experiences when parted from his or her parents or home. This is a normal aspect of infant behaviour and usually diminishes by age 3 or 4.

In separation anxiety disorder, the reaction to separation is greater than that expected for the child’s level of development.

The anxiety may manifest as physical symptoms.

Separation anxiety disorder may be a feature of depression.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Separation Anxiety

a state of distress and fear at the prospect of leaving familiar people (e.g. parents) and secure surroundings, such as is experienced by some children when they first go to school. It may be caused by insecure *attachment.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Sequestration

A portion of diseased or dead tissue separated from, or joined abnormally to, surrounding healthy tissue.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Sequestration

n. 1. the formation of a fragment of dead bone (see sequestrum) and its separation from the surrounding tissue. 2. (in development) a separated part of an organ; a developmental anomaly.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Serratus

n. any of several muscles arising from or inserted by a series of processes that resemble the teeth of a saw. An example is the serratus anterior, a muscle situated between the ribs and shoulder blade in the upper and lateral parts of the thorax. It is the chief muscle responsible for pushing and punching movements.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Sestamibi Parathyroid Scan

(in *nuclear medicine) a scan that can help to localize the site of a parathyroid adenoma before surgical removal, to treat primary *hyperparathyroidism. The tracer is technetium-99m-labelled sestamibi (a small protein), which is selectively absorbed by overactive parathyroid glands.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Sex Ratio

the proportion of males to females in a population, usually expressed as the number of males per 100 females. The primary sex ratio, at the time of fertilization, is in theory 50% male. The secondary sex ratio, found at birth, usually indicates slightly fewer girls than boys.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Sex Ratio

The ratio of one sex to another. Usually defined as the ratio of males to females.... Community Health

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Community Health

Short Sight, Operations For

See LASIK; photorefractive keratectomy; keratotomy, radial.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Sildenafil Citrate

An oral drug – better known to the public as Viagra® – for treating erectile dysfunction of the PENIS (see also ERECTION; SEXUAL DYSFUNCTION). Sildena?l citrate was originally developed to treat ANGINA PECTORIS; during clinical trials, patients reported that they were having more erections than before taking the drug. Clinical trials were then conducted on 4,000 men, and 70 per cent of them found sildena?l e?ective. The men, of an average age of 55 years, had experienced erectile problems for around ?ve years before taking part in the trials. The medical conditions associated with their problems included high blood pressure, high concentrations of CHOLESTEROL, DIABETES MELLITUS, surgery and psychological disorders. Among side-effects, headache was the most common; others included facial ?ushing, indigestion and a stu?y nose. The drug is a vasodilator so that blood ?ow to the penis is enhanced. It works in response to sexual stimulation and has no properties as an aphrodisiac; nor does it provoke sexual fantasies. Sildena?l must not be taken with drugs containing nitrates such as GLYCERYL TRINITRATE or isosorbide trinitrate as the subject may suffer a sudden fall in blood pressure. Nitrates inhaled for recreational use (poppers) have a similar e?ect. Recent research suggests that the drug may help women with low LIBIDO or who have di?culty in achieving ORGASM.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Silver Nitrate

a salt of silver with *astringent, *caustic, and *disinfectant properties. It is used to destroy warts and umbilical granulomas.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Social Integration

The extent to which individuals are engaged with their families, friends, neighbours and communities.... Community Health

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Community Health

Sonneratia Caseolaris

Engl.

Family: Sonneratiaceae.

Habitat: Tidal creeks and mangrove swamps of India.

Folk: Orchaa (Bengal), Tivar, Chipi (Maharashtra).

Action: Fruit—fermented juice is used for arresting haemorrhage. Juice of unripe fruit is given in cough. Fruit is also used as a poultice in sprains and swellings. Fruit wall—vermifuge.

The stem bark and root bark contain 9-17 and 11.0 to 11.9% tannin of the pyrogallol class.

The fruit yields 11% pectin on dry basis.... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Spinocerebellar Degeneration

any of a group of inherited disorders of the cerebellum and corticospinal tracts in the brain. They are characterized by *spasticity of the limbs and cerebellar *ataxia.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Sporozoite Rate

The proportion of female mosquitoes that have sporozoites in the salivary gland.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

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Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

Standardized Mortality Ratio

(SMR) the ratio of observed mortality rate to expected mortality rate (calculated using indirect standardization), expressed as an integer where 100 represents agreement between observed and expected rates. See standardized rates.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Standardized Rates

rates used to summarize the *morbidity or *mortality experience of a population. Age-specific rates and population structures from a study population and a reference or *standard population are used to produce a weighted average. Standardized rates can be used to compare the health experience of populations with different structures. Direct standardization requires application of age-specific rates from a study population to a reference population structure (e.g. the European standard population) to produce a (directly) standardized rate. Indirect standardization requires application of age-specific rates from a standard population (e.g. England and Wales) to a study population structure to produce an expected morbidity or mortality rate. Compare crude rate.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Strategic Health Authority

(SHA) formerly a statutory organization in England that was responsible for strategic leadership, building capacity, organizational development, and performance management in the local National Health Service. SHAs were abolished by the Health and Social Care Act 2012; their responsibilities passed to *NHS England, *clinical commissioning groups, and *Public Health England.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Stratification

The process or result of separating a sample into sub-samples according to specified criteria, such as age or occupational group.... Community Health

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Community Health

Stratum

n. a layer of tissue or cells, such as any of the layers of the *epidermis of the skin (the stratum corneum is the outermost layer).... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Subacute Combined Degeneration Of The Cord

the neurological disorder complicating a deficiency of *vitamin B12 or folate and often combined with *pernicious anaemia, which causes malabsorption of the vitamin B12 by the production of intrinsic factor antibodies. There is selective damage to the motor and sensory nerve fibres in the spinal cord, resulting in *spasticity of the limbs and a sensory *ataxia. It may also be accompanied by damage to the peripheral nerves and the optic nerve and by dementia. It is treated by giving vitamin B12 injections.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Subacute Combined Degeneration Of The Cord

A degenerative condition of the SPINAL CORD which most commonly occurs as a complication of PERNICIOUS ANAEMIA. The motor and sensory nerves in the cord are damaged, causing spasticity of the limbs and an unsteady gait. Treatment is with vitamin B12 (see APPENDIX 5: VITAMINS).... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Substrate

n. the specific substance or substances on which a given *enzyme acts. For example, starch is the substrate for salivary amylase; RNA is the substrate for ribonuclease.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Substrate

A substance on which an enzyme acts.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Substrate

A compound on which an ENZYME acts: for instance, ribonucleic acid (RNA) is the substrate for ribonuclease (an enzyme that catalyses the breakdown of ribonucleic acid, a cellular compound involved in the synthesis of PROTEIN).... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Suppuration

The process of PUS formation. When pus forms on a raw surface the process is called ulceration, whilst a deep-seated collection of pus is known as an ABSCESS. (See also INFLAMMATION; PHAGOCYTOSIS; ULCER; WOUNDS.)... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Suppuration

n. the formation of pus.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Suppuration

The formation or discharge of pus.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Suppurative

Pus forming... Medicinal Plants Glossary

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Medicinal Plants Glossary

Symphorema Involucratum

Roxb.

Family: Symphoremataceae.

Habitat: Indo-Malayasian region. Found in Deccan Peninsula, ascending to 1,200 m, and in Bihar, Orissa, Madhya Pradesh and Nagaland.

Folk: Surudu, Konatekkali, Gubbadaara (Telugu).

Action: Quercetin, isolated from fresh water flowers, exhibited anti-inflammatory activity experimentally, comparable to that of phenylbutazone.... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Tea For Hydration

Hydration represents the ability of the body to manage water. The optimal hydration is not provided by water only. It should be accompanied by fruit and vegetable consumption. There are some symptoms which come with dehydration: little or no urine or urine that is darker than usual, dry mouth, sleepiness or fatigue, extreme thirst, headache, confusion, feeling dizzy or lightheaded, no tears when crying. How Tea for Hydration works A tea for hydration usually helps the body to keep water within. Efficient Teas for Hydration It has been proved that herbal tea as mint and verbena are efficient for hydration. Mint is a well known plant, due to its ability to soothe the digestive tract. It is appreciated for its flavor and taste, being an important ingredient in the pharmaceutical industry. To prepare Mint tea, infuse 2 tablespoons of dried leaves in a cup of boiling water. After steeping it about 15 minutes, you may enjoy the beverage. As a tea for hydration, Mint tea has been used for centuries all over the planet. It enhances the ability of cells to keep water within for a longer period of time. Verbena is a plant originating from South America (Argentina, Brazil, Peru and Paraguay). It has a lemony scent, being preferred in the perfume industry. In cuisine, verbena could replace oregano, especially in fish and poultry dishes. To prepare Verbena tea , immerse about 2 teaspoons of dried verbena herbs or ¼ teaspoon of fresh leaves and tops into one cup of boiling water. Let the mixture soak and steep for about 5 minutes. Drink it slowly. Honey can be added to enhance flavor. As a tea for hydration, Verbena tea is an adjuvant in keeping water in the human tissues. Tea for Hydration: Side Effects Rarely, teas for hydration may induce diarrhea. In these cases, cease consumption and ask for your doctor’s advice. Teas for hydration are a good choice when the body needs extra hydration and also when the person is on a diet, goes outside on a hot weather or practices sports.... Beneficial Teas

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Beneficial Teas

Tea For Ulcerative Colitis

Colitis is an affection of your larger bowel. When the problem gets worse, blood could appear, turning your problem into ulcerative colitis. This affection causes poor water absorption and it makes it harder for the nutrients and enzymes in both food and drink to be processed. Ulcerative Colitis is an autoimmune disease, but is usually linked to poor dieting and stress (an unbalanced nutrition and diet pills could trigger this disease faster). How a Tea for Ulcerative Colitis Works A Tea for Ulcerative Colitis’ main purpose is to make sure that your body increases the immunoglobulin level and directs all antibodies to the affected areas. In order to function properly, a Tea for Ulcerative Colitis needs to contain an important quantity of nutrients, enzymes, volatile oils and minerals (such as sodium, iron, magnesium and manganese) and be very low on acids (since they could induce irritable bowel and upset stomach). Efficient Tea for Ulcerative Colitis If you don’t know which teas could be effective for your condition, here’s a list to choose from: - Licorice Tea – has important health benefits, being able to treat not just Ulcerative Colitis, but many other disorders, such as upset stomach, irritable bowel syndrome and gastritis. However, this tea is not very safe so you need to talk to your doctor before starting a treatment based on Licorice Tea. Drinking less than 3 cups per day will give you an energy boost and restore your general well-being. - Wormwood Tea – is well known around the world thanks to its ability to treat infections and flush parasites out of your system. Other than ulcerative colitis, this decoction can be useful in case of Candida. Take a sip of this Tea for Ulcerative Colitis at every 5 minutes for about an hour every day (for a short period of time: 3-7 days) and enjoy its great benefits! - Chamomile Tea – has anti-inflammatory and antiseptic problems and it’s good for almost any health problem, from sore throats to colds and flu. Some specialists even say that Chamomile Tea has proven its efficiency in many cancer cases. If that is the case or not, the important thing is that this Tea for Ulcerative Colitis will calm your pain and energize your body. Tea for Ulcerative Colitis Side Effects When taken properly, these teas are generally safe. However, exceeding the number of cups recommended per day can lead to a number of problems, from diarrhea, nausea, vomiting to gastritis and ulcers. If you’ve been taking one of these teas for a while and you’re experiencing some unusual symptoms, ask for medical assistance as soon as possible!Don’t take a Tea for Ulcerative Colitis if you’re pregnant, breastfeeding, on blood thinners or anticoagulants. The same advice if you’re preparing for a surgery. If you have your doctor’s approval and there’s nothing that could interfere with your treatment, choose a Tea for Ulcerative Colitis that fits best your needs and enjoy its great benefits!... Beneficial Teas

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Beneficial Teas

Temperature

The degree of hotness of a body or substance. In the human body, the temperature must be maintained at around 37°C for optimum functioning. Body temperature is maintained by the hypothalamus, which monitors blood temperature and activates mechanisms to compensate for changes. When body temperature falls, shivering creates heat by muscle activity, and constriction of blood vessels in the skin minimizes heat loss. When the body temperature rises, sweating results in cooling, and dilation of blood vessels in the skin increases heat loss.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Temperature

Body temperature is the result of a balance of heat-generating forces, chie?y METABOLISM and muscular activity, and heat-loss, mainly from blood circulation through and evaporation from the skin and lungs. The physiological process of homeostasis – a neurological and hormonal feedback mechanism – maintains the healthy person’s body at the correct temperature. Disturbance of temperature, as in disease, may be caused by impairment of any of these bodily functions, or by malfunction of the controlling centre in the brain.

In humans the ‘normal’ temperature is around 37 °C (98·4 °F). It may rise as high as 43 °C or fall to 32 °C in various conditions, but the risk to life is only serious above 41 °C or below 35 °C.

Fall in temperature may accompany major loss of blood, starvation, and the state of collapse (see SHOCK) which may occur in severe FEVER and other acute conditions. Certain chronic diseases, notably hypothyroidism (see THYROID GLAND, DISEASES OF), are generally accompanied by a subnormal temperature. Increased temperature is a characteristic of many acute diseases, particularly infections; indeed, many diseases have a characteristic pattern that enables a provisional diagnosis to be made or acts as a warning of possible complications. In most cases the temperature gradually abates as the patient recovers, but in others, such as PNEUMONIA and TYPHUS FEVER, the untreated disease ends rapidly by a CRISIS in which the temperature falls, perspiration breaks out, the pulse rate falls, and breathing becomes quieter. This crisis is often preceded by an increase in symptoms, including an epicritical rise in temperature.

Body temperature is usually measured on the Celsius scale, on a thermometer reading from 35 °C to 43·3 °C. Measurement may be taken in the mouth (under the tongue), in the armpit, the external ear canal or (occasionally in infants) in the rectum. (See also THERMOMETER.)

Treatment Abnormally low temperatures may be treated by application of external heat, or reduction of heat loss from the body surface. High temperature may be treated in various ways, apart from the primary treatment of the underlying condition. Treatment of hyperthermia or hypothermia should ensure a gradual return to normal temperature (see ANTIPYRETICS.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Temperature Method

See contraception, natural methods of.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Terat

(terato-) combining form denoting a monster or congenital abnormality.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Teratogen

A physical, chemical, or biological agent, such as radiation, the drug thalidomide, and the rubella virus, that causes abnormalities in a developing embryo or fetus.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Teratogen

n. any substance, agent, or process that induces the formation of developmental abnormalities in a fetus. Known teratogens include such drugs as *thalidomide and alcohol; such infections as German measles and cytomegalovirus; and also irradiation with X-rays and other ionizing radiation. Compare mutagen. —teratogenic adj.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Teratogenesis

The production of physical defects in the FETUS. A drug may interfere with a mechanism that is essential for growth, and result in arrested or distorted development of the fetus – and yet cause no disturbance in adults, in whom these growth processes have ceased. Whether and how the EMBRYO is affected depends on what stage of development it has reached when the drug is given. The age of early di?erentiation – that is, from the beginning of the third week to the end of the tenth week of pregnancy – is the time of greatest susceptibility. After this time the likelihood of CONGENITAL malformation resulting from drug treatment is less, although the death of the fetus can occur at any time as a result of drugs crossing the PLACENTA or as a result of their e?ect on the placental circulation.

Although the risks are nil or very small with most drugs, no medication should be given to a pregnant woman, particularly during the ?rst few months of pregnancy, unless it is absolutely essential for her health or that of her unborn child. Alcohol is regarded as ‘medication’ in this context.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Teratogenesis

n. the process leading to developmental abnormalities in the fetus.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Teratology

n. the study of developmental abnormalities and their causes.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Teratoma

A neoplasm possibly starting in the foetus and having different types of tissues; e.g., ovarian teratoma often have teeth, adenoma, and connective tissue proliferation.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

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Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

Teratoma

A tumour that consists of partially developed embryonic tissues. The most common sites of this tumour are the ovary (see OVARIES) and the TESTICLE.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Teratoma

A primary tumour consisting of cells totally unlike those normally found in that part of the body.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Teratoma

n. a tumour composed of a number of tissues that are not usually found at that site and are derived from all three embryonic *germ layers. Teratomas most frequently occur in the testis and ovary (see dermoid cyst), possibly derived from remnants of embryonic cells that have the ability to differentiate into many types of tissue; in most malignant teratomas, cells from all three *germ layers are present. Malignant teratoma of the testis is found in young men: it is more common in patients with a history of undescended testis. Like *seminoma, it frequently occurs as a painless swelling of one testis (pain is not a good indication that the swelling is benign). Treatment is by *orchidectomy avoiding an incision into the scrotum. The tumour can spread to lymph nodes, lungs, and bone, treatment of which may involve the use of chemotherapy drugs, such as vinblastine, bleomycin, cisplatin, and etoposide, with a high cure rate even in metastatic disease.

Teratomas often produce *alpha-fetoprotein, beta human chorionic gonadotrophin, or both; the presence of these substances (*tumour markers) in the blood is a useful indication of the amount of tumour and the effect of treatment.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Teratospermia

n. see oligospermia.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Titration

A form of chemical analysis by standard solutions of known strength.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Tragia Involucrata

Linn.

Habitat: Outer Himalayan ranges eastwards to Assam; southwards to Travancore, throughout warmer regions of India.

English: Indian Stinging-Nettle.

Ayurvedic: Vrishchhikaali, Vrishchhika-patrikaa. Used in Kerala as Duraalabhaa.

Siddha/Tamil: Chenthatti, Sirrukan- chori.

Action: Root—febrifuge, diaphoretic, alterative, blood purifier. Given in fever when the extremities are cold; also for pain in arms and legs. Used as a blood purifier in venereal diseases; applied externally to skin eruptions. Fruit—paste used in baldness.

Dosage: Whole plant—3-6 g. (API, Vol. IV.)... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Transmigration

n. the act of passing through or across, e.g. the passage of blood cells through the intact walls of capillaries and venules (see diapedesis).... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Transobturator Tape

(TOT) see tension-free vaginal tape.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Trifolium Pratense

Linn.

Family: Papilionaceae; Fabaceae.

Habitat: Kashmir to Garhwal at 1,200-2,400 m, and the Nilgiris.

English: Red Clover.

Unani: Ispast, Berseem, Clover (equated with T. alexandricum Linn.)

Folk: Trepatra (Punjab).

Action: Flower—deobstruent, antispasmodic, expectorant, sedative, anti-inflammatory, antidermatosis.

Used for psoriasis, eczema and other skin diseases; and as an expectorant in coughs and bronchitis. Also used as antineoplastic against tumours and hard swellings.

The plant contains iso-flavonoids— calycosin - 7 - galactoside, calycosin, pseudobaptigenin, fornononetin, di- adzein and medicagol; also hydroxy- pterocarpans.

The flowerheads contain phenolic glycosides, flavonoids, salicylates, coumarins, cyanogenic glycosides, starch and fatty acids. Flavonoids in the flowers and leaves are oestro- genic; provide relief in menopausal complaints.

The British Herbal Pharmacopoeia recognizes anti-inflammatory property of the flower.

Trifolium alexandricum, according to National Formulary of Unani MediMedicine, is used as Ispast. The seeds contain xanthosin.... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Tumour-infiltrating Lymphocyte

(TIL) a lymphoid cell that can infiltrate solid tumours. Such cells can be cultured in vitro, in the presence of *interleukin 2, and have been used as vehicles for *tumour necrosis factor in gene therapy trials for cancer.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Ulceration

The formation or presence of 1 or more ulcers.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Ulcerative Colitis

Chronic inflammation and ulceration of the lining of the colon and rectum, or, especially at the start of the condition, of the rectum alone. The cause of ulcerative colitis is unknown, but the condition is most common in young and middle-aged adults.

The main symptom of ulcerative colitis is bloody diarrhoea; and the faeces may also contain mucus. In severe cases, the diarrhoea and bleeding are extensive, and there may be abdominal pain and tenderness, fever, and general malaise. The incidence of attacks varies considerably. Most commonly, the attacks occur at intervals of a few months. However, in some cases, there may be only a single episode.

Ulcerative colitis may lead to anaemia, caused by blood loss. Other complications include a toxic form of megacolon, which may become life-threatening; rashes; aphthous ulcers; arthritis; conjunctivitis; or uveitis. There is also an increased risk of cancer of the colon developing (see colon, cancer of).

A diagnosis is based on examination of the rectum and lower colon (see sigmoidoscopy) or the entire colon (see colonoscopy), or is made by a barium enema (see barium X-ray examination). During sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy, a biopsy may be performed. Samples of faeces may be taken for laboratory analysis in order to exclude the possibility of infection by bacteria or parasites. Blood tests may also be needed.

Medical treatments of ulcerative colitis include corticosteroid drugs and sulfasalazine and its derivatives. Colectomy may be required for a severe attack that fails to respond to other treatments, or to avoid colonic cancer in those people who are at high risk.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Ulcerative Colitis

Chronic in?ammation of the lining of the COLON and RECTUM. The disease affects around 50 people per 100,000; it is predominantly a disease of young and middle-aged adults.

Symptoms The onset may be sudden or insidious. In the acute form there is severe diarrhoea and the patient may pass up to 20 stools a day. The stools, which may be small in quantity, are ?uid and contain blood, pus and mucus. There is always fever, which runs an irregular course. In other cases the patient ?rst notices some irregularity of the movement of the bowels, with the passage of blood. This becomes gradually more marked. There may be pain but usually a varying amount of abdominal discomfort. The constant diarrhoea leads to emaciation, weakness and ANAEMIA. As a rule the acute phase passes into a chronic stage. The chronic form is liable to run a prolonged course, and most patients suffer relapses for many years. SIGMOIDOSCOPY, BIOPSY and abdominal X-RAYS are essential diagnostic procedures.

Treatment Many patients may be undernourished and need expert dietary assessment and appropriate calorie, protein, vitamin and mineral supplements. This is particularly important in children with the disorder. While speci?c nutritional treatment can initiate improvement in CROHN’S DISEASE, this is not the case with ulcerative colitis. CORTICOSTEROIDS, given by mouth or ENEMA, help to control the diarrhoea. Intravenous nutrition may be required. The anaemia is treated with iron supplements, and with blood infusions if necessary. Blood cultures should be taken, repeatedly if the fever persists. If SEPTICAEMIA is suspected, broad-spectrum antibiotics should be given. Surgery to remove part of the affected colon may be necessary and an ILEOSTOMY is sometimes required. After recovery, the patient should remain on a low-residue diet, with regular follow-up by the physician, Mesalazine and SULFASALAZINE are helpful in the prevention of recurrences.

Patients and their relatives can obtain help and advice from the National Association for Colitis and Crohn’s Disease.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Ulcerative Colitis

inflammation and ulceration of the colon, initially starting in the rectum (see proctitis) but ascending to include a part or the whole of the colon (see colitis). Its cause is unknown. Symptoms include abdominal pain, diarrhoea, and rectal bleeding. Acute severe colitis requires urgent in-patient admission for intravenous steroids. Patients who fail to respond to these should be treated with second-line agents (such as infliximab or ciclosporin) or by surgical colectomy.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Ulcerative Gingivitis

acute painful gingivitis with ulceration, in which the tissues of the gums are rapidly destroyed. Occurring mainly in debilitated patients, it is associated with anaerobic microorganisms (see Fusobacterium; Bacteroides) and is accompanied by an unpleasant odour. Treatment is with *metronidazole and a careful and thorough regime of oral hygiene supplemented with oxidizing mouthwashes. In the past ulcerative gingivitis has been called acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (ANUG), Vincent stomatitis, or Vincent’s angina. A rare complication of severe ulcerative gingivitis is a *noma.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Ultrafiltration

Filtration carried out under pressure. Blood undergoes ultra?ltration in the KIDNEYS to remove the waste products, urea and surplus water that constitute URINE.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Ultrafiltration

n. filtration under pressure. In the kidney, blood is subjected to ultrafiltration to remove the unwanted water, urea, and other waste material that goes to make up urine.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Unsaturated Fats

See fats and oils.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Unsaturated Fatty Acid

a *fatty acid in which one (monounsaturated) or many (polyunsaturated) of the carbon atoms are linked by double bonds that are easily split in chemical reactions so that other substances can connect to them. These fats occur in fish and plant-derived foods, and a diet high in unsaturated fats is associated with low serum cholesterol levels. Compare saturated fatty acid.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Urataemia

n. the presence in the blood of sodium urate and other urates, formed by the reaction of uric acid with bases. In *gout, urataemia leads to deposition of urates in various parts of the body.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Urate

The salts of uric acid, found in the urine, some kidney stones, and (unfortunately) in gouty joints.... Herbal Medical

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Herbal Medical

Urates

See URIC ACID.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Uraturia

n. the presence in the urine of urates (salts of uric acid). Abnormally high concentrations of urates in urine occur in *gout.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Vacuum Aspiration

the removal by suction of the products of conception to terminate a pregnancy or evacuate the uterus following miscarriage. Carried out under local anaesthetic up to the 12th week of pregnancy, it uses a hand-held syringe (manual vacuum aspiration, MVA) or an electric pump (electric vacuum aspiration, EVA) to create suction.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Veratrum Viride

Ait.

Habitat: The temperate regions of northern hemisphere; introduced in Jammu and Kashmir for cultivation.

English: American Hellbore, Green Hellebore.

Action: Rhizomes and roots— cardiac depressant, hypotensive. (Contraindicated in cardiac disease. Large doses cause bradycardia.) Used in the treatment of convulsions, headache, neuralgia, inflammatory affections of respiratory tract; and as sedative. Formerly used for high blood pressure, especially associated with toxemia of pregnancy.

Ceveratrum-type alkaloids, found as esters, are hypotensive and cause vasodilatation (probably by inhibition of vasomotor centre and stimulation of the vagus). Overdoses cause vomiting. Alkaloids are teratogenic.... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Vertical Integration

The organization of production whereby one entity controls or owns all stages of the production and distribution of goods or services. In health care, vertical integration can take many forms, but generally implies that medical practitioners, hospitals and health plans have combined their organizations or processes in some manner to increase efficiencies, increase competitive strength, or improve quality of care. Integrated delivery systems or health care networks are generally vertically integrated. See “horizontal integration”.... Community Health

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Community Health

Vestibular Apparatus

those parts of the inner ear involved with balance. They comprise the *semicircular canals, *saccule and *utricle. See ear; vestibular system.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Vibrator

n. a machine used to generate vibrations of different frequencies, which have a stimulating effect when applied to different parts of the body. A vibrator may also be used to loosen thick mucus in the sinuses or air passages.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Vibrator

(1) An instrument used for vibratory massage to improve the tone of muscles and to relax them. It is of help in speeding the healing process after muscle or ligament strains.

(2) A penis-shaped, battery-driven device used by women to attain sexual stimulation and climax.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Videokeratography

n. see corneal topography.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Viola Odorata

Linn.

Family: Violaceae.

Habitat: Native to Europe; cultivated in Kashmir.

English: Sweet Violet.

Unani: Banafashaa, Banafsaj, Kakosh, Fareer.... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Vitelliform Degeneration

(Best’s disease) degeneration of the *macula of the eye that is inherited as a dominant characteristic and usually starts in childhood. There is widespread abnormality of retinal pigment epithelium (see retina) with the accumulation of a yellowish material, especially in the macular area.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Waist To Hip Ratio

(WHR) the ratio of the circumference of the waist to that of the hips. It is used as a measure of obesity and is a more reliable predictor of obesity-related mortality than *body mass index alone.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Wallerian Degeneration

degeneration of a ruptured nerve fibre that occurs within the nerve sheath distal to the point of severance. [A. V. Waller (1816–70), British physician]... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Whipple’s Operation

A type of pancreatectomy in which the head of the pancreas and the loop of the duodenum are surgically removed.

whipworm infestation Small, cylindrical whip-like worms, 2.5–5 cm long, that live in the human large intestine. Infestation occurs worldwide but is most common in the tropics. Light infestation causes no symptoms; heavy infestation can cause abdominal pain, diarrhoea, and, sometimes, anaemia, since a small amount of the host’s blood is consumed every day.

Diagnosis is through the identification of whipworm eggs in the faeces. Treatment is with anthelmintic drugs, such as mebendazole. A heavy infestation may require more than 1 course of treatment. whitehead A very common type of skin blemish (see milia).... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Whipple’s Operation

see pancreatectomy. [A. O. Whipple (1881–1963), US surgeon]... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

X-linked Lymphoproliferative Syndrome

(XLP syndrome, Duncan’s disease) a hereditary disorder of the immune system caused by a defective *sex-linked gene carried on an *X chromosome. There is uncontrolled proliferation of B-*lymphocytes in response to infection by the Epstein-Barr virus, which can lead to fulminating hepatitis or lymphoma. This condition is due to a defect in a gene, SAP, which encodes a signalling molecule found in the cytoplasm of cells.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary