Alternatives. Teas: Alfalfa, Angelica leaves, Boneset, Catnep, Chamomile, Coltsfoot, Comfrey leaves, Dandelion leaves, Hyssop, Lemon Balm, Lime flowers, Milk Thistle, Mullein, White Horehound, Red Clover flowers, Sage, Violet leaves, Umeboshi tea.
Tablets/capsules. Chamomile, Echinacea, Iceland Moss, Irish Moss, Liquorice, Lobelia.
Powders. Formula. Equal parts: Echinacea, Barberry bark, Elecampane root. Dose: 500mg (two 00 capsules or one-third teaspoon) thrice daily.
Formula. Tinctures. Echinacea 2; Sarsaparilla 1; Fringe Tree half; Liquorice quarter. Mix. 1-2 teaspoons thrice daily. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine
Absent CORNEAL REFLEX
Absent VESTIBULO-OCULAR REFLEX
No cranial motor response to somatic (physical) stimulation
Absent gag and cough re?exes
No respiratory e?ort in response to APNOEA despite adequate concentrations of CARBON DIOXIDE in the arterial blood.... Medical Dictionary
The patient is connected to a recording instrument that measures one of the unconscious body activities, such as blood pressure, heart-rate, or the quantity of sweat on the skin. The patient receives information (feedback) on the changing levels of these activities from changes in the instrument’s signals. Using relaxation techniques, the patient learns to change the signals by conscious control of the body function. Once acquired, this control can be exercised without the instrument.... BMA Medical Dictionary
The control centre of the whole nervous system is the brain, which is located in the skull or cranium. As well as controlling the nervous system it is the organ of thought, speech and emotion. The central nervous system controls the body’s essential functions such as breathing, body temperature (see HOMEOSTASIS) and the heartbeat. The body’s various sensations, including sight, hearing, touch, pain, positioning and taste, are communicated to the CNS by nerves distributed throughout the relevant tissues. The information is then sorted and interpreted by specialised areas in the brain. In response these initiate and coordinate the motor output, triggering such ‘voluntary’ activities as movement, speech, eating and swallowing. Other activities – for example, breathing, digestion, heart contractions, maintenance of BLOOD PRESSURE, and ?ltration of waste products from blood passing through the kidneys – are subject to involuntary control via the autonomic system. There is, however, some overlap between voluntary and involuntary controls.... Medical Dictionary
An adult brain weighs about 1.4 kg and has 3 main structures: the largest part, the cerebrum, consisting of left and right hemispheres; the brainstem; and the cerebellum. Each hemisphere in the
cerebrum has an outer layer called the cortex, consisting of grey matter, which is rich in nerve-cell bodies and is the main region for conscious thought, sensation, and movement. Beneath the cortex are tracts of nerve fibres called white matter, and, deeper within the hemispheres, the basal ganglia. The surface of each hemisphere is divided by fissures (sulci) and folds (gyri) into distinct lobes (occipital, frontal, parietal, and temporal lobes), named after the skull bones that overlie them. A thick band of nerve fibres called the corpus callosum connects the hemispheres.
The cerebrum encloses a central group of structures that includes the thalami and the hypothalamus, which has close connections with the pituitary gland. Encircling the thalami is a complex of nerve centres called the limbic system. These structures act as links between parts of the cerebrum and the brainstem lying beneath the thalami.
The brainstem is concerned mainly with the control of vital functions such as breathing and blood pressure. The cerebellum at the back of the brain controls balance, posture, and muscular coordination. Both of these regions operate at a subconscious level.
The brain and spinal cord are encased in 3 layers of membranes, known as meninges.
Cerebrospinal fluid circulates between the layers and within the 4 main brain cavities called ventricles.
This fluid helps to nourish and cushion the brain.
The brain receives about 20 per cent of the blood from the heart’s output.... BMA Medical Dictionary
Brain abscesses may occur after a head injury, but most cases result from the spread of infection from elsewhere in the body, such as the middle ear or sinuses.
Another cause is an infection following a penetrating brain injury.
Multiple brain abscesses may occur as a result of blood-borne infection, most commonly in patients with a heart-valve infection (see endocarditis).
Symptoms include headache, drowsiness, vomiting, visual disturbances, fever, seizures, and symptoms, such as speech disturbances, that are due to local pressure.
Treatment is with antibiotic drugs and surgery.
A craniotomy may be needed to open and drain the abscess.
Untreated, brain abscesses can cause permanent damage or can be fatal.
Despite treatment, scarring can cause epilepsy in some cases.... BMA Medical Dictionary
Localized brain damage may occur as a result of a head injury, stroke, brain tumour, or brain abscess. At birth, a raised blood level of bilirubin (in haemolytic disease of the newborn) causes local damage to the basal ganglia deep within the brain. This leads to a condition called kernicterus. Brain damage that occurs before, during, or after birth may result in cerebral palsy.
Damage to the brain may result in disabilities such as learning difficulties or disturbances of movement or speech.
Nerve cells and tracts in the brain and spinal cord cannot repair themselves once they have been damaged, but some return of function may be possible.... BMA Medical Dictionary
Abscess, Alzheimer’s Disease, anoxia (oxygen starvation), coma, concussion, haemorrhage, Down’s syndrome, epilepsy, tumour, hydrocephalus (water on the brain), meningitis, multiple sclerosis, stroke (rupture of blood vessel), spina bifida, syphilis (general paralysis of the insane), sleepy sickness.
Poor circulation through the brain due to hardening of the arteries: Ginkgo, Ginseng. Ginseng stimulates the hypothalmic/pituitary axis of the brain and favourably influences its relationship with the adrenal glands.
Congestion of the brain – Cowslip (Boerwicke). Irritability of brain and spine – Hops. Oats. Inflammation of the brain (encephalitis) as in viral infection, poliomyelitis, rabies, sleepy sickness, etc: Echinacea, Passion flower, Skullcap and Lobelia. Gelsemium acts as a powerful relaxant in the hands of a practitioner: Tincture BPC (1973): dose 0.3ml.
Brain storm from hysteria, locomotor ataxia, etc – Liquid Extract Lobelia: 5ml teaspoon in water when necessary (Dr Jentzsch, 1915, Ellingwood) Supplement with Zinc, Vitamins C and E.
Blood clot, thrombosis: Yarrow. Neurasthenia: Oats, Basil, Hops.
Brain fag and jet-lag: Chamomile, Skullcap, Oats, Ginseng, Ginkgo.
Tumour may be present years before manifesting: Goldenseal.
Mental state: depression, anxiety, schizophrenia.
Tea. Formula. Skullcap, Gotu Kola and German Chamomile; equal parts. 1 heaped teaspoon to each cup water gently simmered 10 minutes. Strain. 1 cup thrice daily.
Unspecified tensive state. Formula. Tinctures. Hops 1; Passion flower 2; Valerian 2. Dose: 2 teaspoons thrice daily until diagnosis is concluded.
Unspecified torpor. Formula. Tinctures. Ginseng 1; Kola 1; Capsicum quarter. 2 teaspoons in water thrice daily until diagnosis is concluded.
Brain weakness in the elderly: Ginkgo. See: ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE.
Fluid on the brain: see HYDROCEPHALUS.
Abscess of the brain: see ABSCESS.
Brain restoratives. Black Haw, True Unicorn root, Galangal, Oats, Oatstraw, False Unicorn root, Kola, Hops. Vitamin B6. Magnesium.
Cerebral thrombosis. See entry.
Note: Cold water may help victims to survive: rapid loss of body heat protects the brain. (Child Health Department, University of Wales)
Treatment by or in liaison with general medical practitioner or hospital specialist. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine
scanning gives images of the brain substance; it gives clear pictures of the ventricles (fluid-filled cavities) and can reveal tumours, blood clots, strokes, aneurysms, and abscesses. is especially helpful in showing tumours of the posterior fossa (back of the skull). and scanning are specialized forms of radionuclide scanning that use small amounts of radioactive material to give information about brain function as well as structure. They enable
blood flow and metabolic activity in the brain to be measured.
Ultrasound scanning is used only in premature or very young babies since ultrasound waves cannot penetrate the bones of a mature skull.... BMA Medical Dictionary
Severe head injuries cause unconsciousness for hours or many days, followed by loss of memory before and after that period of unconsciousness. The skull may be fractured; there may be ?ts in the ?rst week; and there may develop a blood clot in the brain (intracerebral haematoma) or within the membranes covering the brain (extradural and subdural haematomata). These clots compress the brain, and the pressure inside the skull – intracranial pressure – rises with urgent, life-threatening consequences. They are identi?ed by neurologists and neurosurgeons, con?rmed by brain scans (see COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY; MRI), and require urgent surgical removal. Recovery may be complete, or in very severe cases can be marred by physical disabilities, EPILEPSY, and by changes in intelligence, rational judgement and behaviour. Symptoms generally improve in the ?rst two years.
A minority of those with minor head injuries have complaints and disabilities which seem disproportionate to the injury sustained. Referred to as the post-traumatic syndrome, this is not a diagnostic entity. The complaints are headaches, forgetfulness, irritability, slowness, poor concentration, fatigue, dizziness (usually not vertigo), intolerance of alcohol, light and noise, loss of interests and initiative, DEPRESSION, anxiety, and impaired LIBIDO. Reassurance and return to light work help these symptoms to disappear, in most cases within three months. Psychological illness and unresolved compensation-claims feature in many with implacable complaints.
People who have had brain injuries, and their relatives, can obtain help and advice from Headwat and from www.neuro.pmr.vcu.edu and www.biausa.org... Medical Dictionary
Symptoms include muscle weakness, loss of vision, or other sensory disturbances, speech difficulties, and epileptic seizures. Increased pressure within the skull can cause headache, visual disturbances, vomiting, and impaired mental functioning. Hydrocephalus may occur.
When possible, primary tumours are removed by surgery after opening the skull (see craniotomy).
In cases where a tumour cannot be completely removed, as much as possible of it will be cut away to relieve pressure.
For primary and secondary tumours, radiotherapy or anticancer drugs may also be given.
Corticosteroid drugs are often prescribed temporarily to reduce the size of a tumour and associated brain swelling.... BMA Medical Dictionary
Tumours All masses cause varying combinations of headache and vomiting – symptoms of raised pressure within the inexpansible bony box formed by the skull; general or localised epileptic ?ts; weakness of limbs or disordered speech; and varied mental changes. Tumours may be primary, arising in the brain, or secondary deposits from tumours arising in the lung, breast or other organs. Some brain tumours are benign and curable by surgery: examples include meningiomas and pituitary tumours. The symptoms depend on the size and situation of the mass. Abscesses or blood clots (see HAEMATOMA) on the surface or within the brain may resemble tumours; some are removable. Gliomas ( see GLIOMA) are primary malignant tumours arising in the glial tissue (see GLIA) which despite surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy usually have a bad prognosis, though some astrocytomas and oligodendronogliomas are of low-grade malignancy. A promising line of research in the US (in the animal-testing stage in 2000) suggests that the ability of stem cells from normal brain tissue to ‘home in’ on gliomal cells can be turned to advantage. The stem cells were chemically manipulated to carry a poisonous compound (5-?uorouracil) to the gliomal cells and kill them, without damaging normal cells. Around 80 per cent of the cancerous cells in the experiments were destroyed in this way.
Clinical examination and brain scanning (CT, or COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY; magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and functional MRI) are safe, accurate methods of demonstrating the tumour, its size, position and treatability.
Strokes When a blood vessel, usually an artery, is blocked by a clot, thrombus or embolism, the local area of the brain fed by that artery is damaged (see STROKE). The resulting infarct (softening) causes a stroke. The cells die and a patch of brain tissue shrinks. The obstruction in the blood vessel may be in a small artery in the brain, or in a larger artery in the neck. Aspirin and other anti-clotting drugs reduce recurrent attacks, and a small number of people bene?t if a narrowed neck artery is cleaned out by an operation – endarterectomy. Similar symptoms develop abruptly if a blood vessel bursts, causing a cerebral haemorrhage. The symptoms of a stroke are sudden weakness or paralysis of the arm and leg of the opposite side to the damaged area of brain (HEMIPARESIS), and sometimes loss of half of the ?eld of vision to one side (HEMIANOPIA). The speech area is in the left side of the brain controlling language in right-handed people. In 60 per cent of lefthanders the speech area is on the left side, and in 40 per cent on the right side. If the speech area is damaged, diffculties both in understanding words, and in saying them, develops (see DYSPHASIA).
Degenerations (atrophy) For reasons often unknown, various groups of nerve cells degenerate prematurely. The illness resulting is determined by which groups of nerve cells are affected. If those in the deep basal ganglia are affected, a movement disorder occurs, such as Parkinson’s disease, hereditary Huntington’s chorea, or, in children with birth defects of the brain, athetosis and dystonias. Modern drugs, such as DOPAMINE drugs in PARKINSONISM, and other treatments can improve the symptoms and reduce the disabilities of some of these diseases.
Drugs and injury Alcohol in excess, the abuse of many sedative drugs and arti?cial brain stimulants – such as cocaine, LSD and heroin (see DEPENDENCE) – can damage the brain; the effects can be reversible in early cases. Severe head injury can cause localised or di?use brain damage (see HEAD INJURY).
Cerebral palsy Damage to the brain in children can occur in the uterus during pregnancy, or can result from rare hereditary and genetic diseases, or can occur during labour and delivery. Severe neurological illness in the early months of life can also cause this condition in which sti? spastic limbs, movement disorders and speech defects are common. Some of these children are learning-disabled.
Dementias In older people a di?use loss of cells, mainly at the front of the brain, causes ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE – the main feature being loss of memory, attention and reasoned judgement (dementia). This affects about 5 per cent of the over-80s, but is not simply due to ageing processes. Most patients require routine tests and brain scanning to indicate other, treatable causes of dementia.
Response to current treatments is poor, but promising lines of treatment are under development. Like Parkinsonism, Alzheimer’s disease progresses slowly over many years. It is uncommon for these diseases to run in families. Multiple strokes can cause dementia, as can some organic disorders such as cirrhosis of the liver.
Infections in the brain are uncommon. Viruses such as measles, mumps, herpes, human immunode?ciency virus and enteroviruses may cause ENCEPHALITIS – a di?use in?ammation (see also AIDS/HIV).
Bacteria or viruses may infect the membrane covering the brain, causing MENINGITIS. Viral meningitis is normally a mild, self-limiting infection lasting only a few days; however, bacterial meningitis – caused by meningococcal groups B and C, pneumococcus, and (now rarely) haemophilus – is a life-threatening condition. Antibiotics have allowed a cure or good control of symptoms in most cases of meningitis, but early diagnosis is essential. Severe headaches, fever, vomiting and increasing sleepiness are the principal symptoms which demand urgent advice from the doctor, and usually admission to hospital. Group B meningococcus is the commonest of the bacterial infections, but Group C causes more deaths. A vaccine against the latter has been developed and has reduced the incidence of cases by 75 per cent.
If infection spreads from an unusually serious sinusitis or from a chronically infected middle ear, or from a penetrating injury of the skull, an abscess may slowly develop. Brain abscesses cause insidious drowsiness, headaches, and at a late stage, weakness of the limbs or loss of speech; a high temperature is seldom present. Early diagnosis, con?rmed by brain scanning, is followed by antibiotics and surgery in hospital, but the outcome is good in only half of affected patients.
Cerebral oedema Swelling of the brain can occur after injury, due to engorgement of blood vessels or an increase in the volume of the extravascular brain tissue due to abnormal uptake of water by the damaged grey (neurons) matter and white (nerve ?bres) matter. This latter phenomenon is called cerebral oedema and can seriously affect the functioning of the brain. It is a particularly dangerous complication following injury because sometimes an unconscious person whose brain is damaged may seem to be recovering after a few hours, only to have a major relapse. This may be the result of a slow haemorrhage from damaged blood vessels raising intracranial pressure, or because of oedema of the brain tissue in the area surrounding the injury. Such a development is potentially lethal and requires urgent specialist treatment to alleviate the rising intracranial pressure: osmotic agents (see OSMOSIS) such as mannitol or frusemide are given intravenously to remove the excess water from the brain and to lower intracranial pressure, buying time for de?nitive investigation of the cranial damage.... Medical Dictionary
Reduced oxygen supply may occur at birth, causing cerebral palsy. Later in life, cerebral hypoxia can result from choking or from arrest of breathing and heartbeat. From middle age onwards, cerebrovascular disease is the most important cause of brain disorder. If an artery within the brain becomes blocked or ruptures, leading to haemorrhage, the result is a stroke. The brain may also be damaged by a blow to the head see head injury).
Infection within the brain (encephalitis) may be due to viral infection. Infection of the membranes surrounding the brain (meningitis) is generally due to bacterial infection. Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease is a rare, fatal brain disease associated with an infective agent called a prion which, in some cases, has been linked with (bovine spongiform encephalopathy), a disease in cattle.
Multiple sclerosis is a progressive disease of the brain and spinal cord. Degenerative brain diseases include Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease. Emotional or behavioural disorders are generally described as psychiatric illnesses; but the distinction between neurological and psychiatric disorders is now much less clear.... BMA Medical Dictionary
All reversible pharmacological, metabolic, endocrine and physiological causes must be excluded, and there should be no doubt that irreversible brain damage has occurred. Two senior doctors carry out diagnostic tests to con?rm that brain-stem re?exes are absent. These tests must be repeated after a suitable interval before death can be declared. Imaging techniques are not required for death to be diag-... Medical Dictionary
The brainstem is composed of 3 main parts: the midbrain, pons, and medulla. The midbrain contains the nuclei (nervecell centres) of the 3rd and 4th cranial nerves. It also contains cell groups involved in smooth coordination of limb movements. The pons contains nerve fibres that connect with the cerebellum. It also houses the nuclei for the 5th–8th cranial nerves. The medulla contains the nuclei of the 9th–12th cranial nerves. It also contains the “vital centres” (groups of nerve cells that regulate the heartbeat, breathing, blood pressure, and digestion (information on which is relayed via the 10th cranial nerve (see vagus nerve). Nerve-cell groups in the brainstem, known collectively as the reticular formation, alert the higher brain centres to sensory stimuli that may require a conscious response. Our sleep/wake cycle is controlled by the reticular formation.
The brainstem is susceptible to the same disorders that afflict the rest of the central nervous system (see brain, disorders of). Damage to the medulla’s vital centres is rapidly fatal; damage to the reticular formation may cause coma. Damage to specific cranial nerve nuclei can sometimes lead to specific effects. For example, damage to the 7th cranial nerve (the facial nerve) leads to facial palsy. Degeneration of the substantia nigra in the midbrain is thought to be a cause of Parkinson’s disease.... BMA Medical Dictionary
Habitat: Temperate Himalaya from Kashmir to Kumaon at 2,200-4,100, also in eastern Himalaya.English: Flix Weed, Flax Weed.
Action: Leaf and flower—astringent, antiscorbutic. Seed—expectorant, anti-inflammatory, febrifuge, antidysenteric. Aerial parts— antiviral, hypoglycaemic.The plants has been used externally for ulcers, seeds are used as substitute or adulterant of the seeds of Sisymbrium iro Linn. (The source of Khaakasi, Khubb, Tukhm-e-Shahuh, Khuubkalaan of Unani medicine, known as Hedge Mustard or London Rocket.)... Indian Medicinal Plants
Drains range from simple soft rubber tubes that pass from a body cavity into a dressing to wide-bore tubes that connect to a collection bag or bottle.
Suction drains are thin tubes with many small holes to help collect fluid or air, which is drawn into a vacuum bottle.... BMA Medical Dictionary
Igrayne, Igrain, Igerne, Igrayn, Igraen, Igraene... Medical Dictionary
Laraine, Larayne, Laurraine, Leraine, Lerayne, Lorain, Loraina, Loraine, Lorayne, Lorraina, Lorrayne, Laraene, Larayne, Lareine, Larina, Larine, Larraine, Lorenza, Lourine... Medical Dictionary
The midbrain is also called the mesencephalon.... BMA Medical Dictionary
“Half of all migraine patients suffer from anxiety, and one in five experiences depression,” according to a study carried out at Manchester University. (Dr Jennifer Devlen)
Causes: many and varied. Alcohol, excess coffee and caffeine stimulants, gluten food allergies, dairy products, chocolate, citrus fruits. Related to carbohydrate metabolism. May be associated with menstruation or emotional disturbance, nervous or physical fatigue; liver, stomach or kidney disturbance, or The Pill.
Symptoms: temporary blindness, or sight may be only half the visual field. Flashing lights, throbbing headache, loud noises worsen, nausea, vomiting, depression.
Treatment. In the initial (constrictive) stage any of the following simple teas may resolve: German Chamomile, Betony, Skullcap, Wild Thyme, Valerian.
Where the condition has progressed to vasodilation (engorgement of cerebral blood vessels) give any of the following alternatives. Whilst the requirements of each individual case is observed, inclusion of a remedy for stomach and liver may enhance efficacy. Sometimes a timely diuretic to reduce volume of the blood aborts an attack.
Associated with menstrual disorders: Agnus Castus, Evening Primrose oil.
Tea: Formula. (1) Equal parts: Betony, Valerian, Dandelion root. (2) Alfalfa 1; Valerian half; Hops quarter. One heaped teaspoon to each cup boiling water; infuse 15 minutes. Half-1 cup 2-3 times daily. Formula. Skullcap 2; Mistletoe 1; Hops half. Dose: Liquid Extracts: 1-2 teaspoons. Tinctures: 1-3 teaspoons. Powders: 750mg (three 00 capsules or half a teaspoon) 2-3 times daily.
Valerian. German traditional.
Feverfew. 2-3 fresh leaves on bread. Tincture (or essence) 5-10 drops.
Practitioner: Tincture Gelsemium, BPC (1963) 5 drops.
Diet: Fruit juice fast. Oily fish. Hay diet. Salt-free.
Vitamins. A. B-complex, B6, B12, C (up to 1000mg). E, Niacin.
Minerals. Manganese, Calcium, Magnesium, Zinc.
Rose-tinted glasses. Ophthalmology Department, Birmingham University.
Information. British Migraine Association, 178A High Road, West Byfleet, Surrey KT14 7ED. Send SAE. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine
There is no single cause of migraine, although it tends to run in families. Stress-related, food-related, or sensoryrelated factors may trigger an attack. Menstruation and oral contraceptives may also trigger migraine.
There are 2 types: migraine with aura (an impression of flashing lights and/or numbness and tingling), and migraine without aura. In migraine without aura, there is a slowly worsening headache, often on one side of the head, with nausea and sometimes vomiting.
In migraine with aura, there may be visual disturbances for up to an hour, followed by a severe one-sided headache, nausea, vomiting and light-sensitivity. Other temporary neurological symptoms, such as weakness in one half of the body, may occur.
Diagnosis is usually made from the history and a physical examination. Treatment for an attack is an analgesic drug such as aspirin or paracetamol, plus an antiemetic drug, if needed. If this is not effective, treatment with serotonin agonists such as sumatriptan may be prescribed. Ergotamine may prevent an attack if taken before the headache begins, but is now rarely used. Sleeping in a darkened room may hasten recovery. For frequent attacks, preventive treatment may be needed. Keeping a diary can help pinpoint trigger factors, and prophylactic drugs may be prescribed.(See also cluster headaches.) ... BMA Medical Dictionary
It usually begins at puberty – although young children can be affected – and tends to stop in middle age: in women, for example, attacks often cease after MENOPAUSE. It frequently disappears during pregnancy. The disorder tends to run in families. In susceptible individuals, attacks may be provoked by a wide variety of causes including: anxiety, emotion, depression, shock, and excitement; physical and mental fatigue; prolonged focusing on computer, television or cinema screens; noise, especially loud and high-pitched sounds; certain foods – such as chocolate, cheese, citrus fruits, pastry; alcohol; prolonged lack of food; irregular meals; menstruation and the pre-menstrual period.
Anything that can provoke a headache in the ordinary individual can probably precipitate an attack in a migrainous subject. It seems as if there is an inherited predispostion that triggers a mechanism whereby in the migrainous subject, the headache and the associated sickness persist for hours, a whole day or even longer.
The precise cause is not known, but the generally accepted view is that in susceptible individuals, one or other of these causes produces spasm or constriction of the blood vessels of the brain. This in turn is followed by dilatation of these blood vessels which also become more permeable and so allow ?uid to pass out into the surrounding tissues. This combination of dilatation and outpouring of ?uid is held to be responsible for the headache.
Two types of migraine have been recognised: classical and common. The former is relatively rare and the headache is preceded by a slowly extending area of blindness in one or both eyes, usually accompanied by intermittent ‘lights’. The phenomenon lasts for up to 30 minutes and is followed by a bad, often unilateral headache with nausea, sometimes vomiting and sensitivity to light. Occasionally, passing neurological symptoms such as weakness in a limb may accompany the attack. The common variety has similar but less severe symptoms. It consists of an intense headache, usually situated over one or other eye. The headache is usually preceded by a feeling of sickness and disturbance of sight. In 15–20 per cent of cases this disturbance of sight takes the form of bright lights: the so-called AURA of migraine. The majority of attacks are accompanied by vomiting. The duration of the headache varies, but in the more severe cases the victim is usually con?ned to bed for 24 hours.
Treatment consists, in the ?rst place, of trying to avoid any precipitating factor. Patients must ?nd out which drug, or drugs, give them most relief, and they must always carry these about with them wherever they go. This is because it is a not uncommon experience to be aware of an attack coming on and to ?nd that there is a critical quarter of an hour or so during which the tablets are e?ective. If not taken within this period, they may be ine?ective and the unfortunate victim ?nds him or herself prostrate with headache and vomiting. In addition, sufferers should immediately lie down; at this stage a few hours’ rest may prevent the development of a full attack.
When an attack is fully developed, rest in bed in a quiet, darkened room is essential; any loud noise or bright light intensi?es the headache or sickness. The less food that is taken during an attack the better, provided that the individual drinks as much ?uid as he or she wants. Group therapy, in which groups of around ten migrainous subjects learn how to relax, is often of help in more severe cases, whilst in others the injection of a local anaesthetic into tender spots in the scalp reduces the number of attacks. Drug treatment can be e?ective and those a?icted by migraine may ?nd a particular drug or combination of drugs more suitable than others. ANALGESICS such as PARACETAMOL, aspirin and CODEINE phosphate sometimes help. A combination of buclizine hydrochloride and analgesics, taken when the visual aura occurs, prevents or diminishes the severity of an attack in some people. A commonly used remedy for the condition is ergotamine tartrate, which causes the dilated blood vessels to contract, but this must only be taken under medical supervision. In many cases METOCLOPRAMIDE (an antiemetic), followed ten minutes later by three tablets of either aspirin or paracetamol, is e?ective if taken early in an attack. In milder attacks, aspirin, with or without codeine and paracetamol, may be of value. SUMATRIPTAN (5-hydroxytryptamine [5HT1] AGONIST – also known as a SEROTONIN agonist) is of value for acute attacks. It is used orally or by subcutaneous injection, but should not be used for patients with ischaemic heart disease. Naratriptan is another 5HT1 agonist that is an e?ective treatment for acute attacks; others are almotriptan, rizariptan and zolmitriptan. Some patients ?nd beta blockers such as propranolol a valuable prophylactic.
People with migraine and their relatives can obtain help and guidance from the Migraine Action Association.... Medical Dictionary
II. Optic, to the eye (sight).
Trochlear, to eye-muscles.
VI. Trigeminal, to skin of face.
VII. Facial, to muscles of face.
VIII. Vestibulocochlear, to ear (hearing and balancing).
IX. Glossopharyngeal, to tongue (taste).
X. Vagus, to heart, larynx, lungs, and stomach.
XI. Spinal accessory, to muscles in neck.
XII. Hypoglossal, to muscles of tongue.... Medical Dictionary
SYNONYMS: C. bigaradia, petitgrain bigarade (oil), petitgrain Paraguay (oil). See also bitter orange.
GENERAL DESCRIPTION: The oil of petitgrain is produced from the leaves and twigs of the same tree that produces bitter orange oil and neroli oil: see bitter orange and neroli.
DISTRIBUTION: Native to southern China and north east India. The best quality petitgrain oil comes from France but a good-quality oil is also produced in North Africa, Paraguay and Haiti from semi-wild trees.
OTHER SPECIES: A type of petitgrain is also produced in small quantities from the leaves, twigs and small unripe fruit of the lemon, sweet orange, mandarin and bergamot trees.
HERBAL/FOLK TRADITION: At one time the oil used to be extracted from the green unripe oranges when they were still the size of a cherry – hence the name petitgrains or ‘little grains’. One of the classic ingredients of eau-de-cologne.
ACTIONS: Antiseptic, antispasmodic, deodorant, digestive, nervine, stimulant (digestive, nervous), stomachic, tonic.
EXTRACTION: Essential oil by steam distillation from the leaves and twigs. An orange ‘leaf and flower’ water absolute is also produced, known as petitgrain sur fleurs.
CHARACTERISTICS: A pale yellow to amber liquid with a fresh-floral citrus scent and a woody-herbaceous undertone. It blends well with rosemary, lavender, geranium, bergamot, bitter orange, labdanum, neroli, oakmoss, clary sage, jasmine, benzoin, palmarosa, clove and balsams.
PRINCIPAL CONSTITUENTS: 40–80 per cent esters: mainly linalyl acetate and geranyl acetate, as well as linalol, nerol, terpineol, geraniol, nerolidol, farnesol, limonene, among others.
SAFETY DATA: Non-toxic, non-irritant, nonsensitizing, non-phototoxic.
Skin care: Acne, excessive perspiration, greasy skin and hair, toning.
Digestive system: Dyspepsia, flatulence.
Nervous system: Convalescence, insomnia, nervous exhaustion and stress-related conditions.
OTHER USES: Extensively used as a fragrance component in soaps, detergents, cosmetics and perfumes, especially colognes (sometimes used to replace neroli). Employed as a flavour component in many foods, especially confectionery, as well as alcoholic and soft drinks.... The Encyclopedia of Essential Oils
The person lies in a way that allows the secretions to drain by gravity into the trachea, from where they are coughed up.
Tapping the person’s chest with cupped hands can help to loosen sticky secretions.... BMA Medical Dictionary
Raenah, Raene, Rainah, Raine, Rainee, Rainey, Rainelle, Rainy, Reina, Reinella, Reinelle, Reinette, Reyna, Reynalda, Reynelle, Reyney, Reine, Ranee, Reia... Medical Dictionary
This is an important part of rehabilitation for people with mental handicap or those with chronic psychological disorders, such as schizophrenia.
Role-playing is a commonly used technique in which various social situations are simulated in order to improve the individual’s confidence and performance.... BMA Medical Dictionary
Treatment consists of applying an icepack, wrapping the joint in a bandage, resting it in a raised position, and taking analgesic drugs.
In severe cases, surgical repair may be necessary.... BMA Medical Dictionary
Treatment may include applying an icepack, resting the affected part, taking analgesic drugs, and physiotherapy.... BMA Medical Dictionary
A child is unlikely to be completely toilet-trained before age 3 and may normally take much longer to remain dry at night (see enuresis).... BMA Medical Dictionary
Training may be concentrated on improving skills or on improving physical fitness.
Fitness training should include both aerobic and anaerobic exercises, which together build up strength, flexibility, and endurance.
Interval training is a type of fitness programme in which a particular exercise is repeated several times with a rest period between.
Circuit training consists of performing a set number of different exercises.... BMA Medical Dictionary