Rain | Health Encyclopedia

The keywords of this medical terms: Rain

Abdominal Migraine

a condition characterized by intermittent central abdominal pain that may be associated with nausea, and often vomiting. It usually occurs in children between the ages of three and ten years and is more common in those with a family history of migraine headaches. Typically these children develop migraine headaches when they are older.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Acid Rain Sickness

Acid rain air pollution is responsible for increased hospital admissions with respiratory illness when it hangs in a haze over a polluted area. The main components of acid rain are sulphates, salts of sulphur, known to cause breathing difficulties.

Alternatives. Teas: Alfalfa, Angelica leaves, Boneset, Catnep, Chamomile, Coltsfoot, Comfrey leaves, Dandelion leaves, Hyssop, Lemon Balm, Lime flowers, Milk Thistle, Mullein, White Horehound, Red Clover flowers, Sage, Violet leaves, Umeboshi tea.

Tablets/capsules. Chamomile, Echinacea, Iceland Moss, Irish Moss, Liquorice, Lobelia.

Powders. Formula. Equal parts: Echinacea, Barberry bark, Elecampane root. Dose: 500mg (two 00 capsules or one-third teaspoon) thrice daily.

Formula. Tinctures. Echinacea 2; Sarsaparilla 1; Fringe Tree half; Liquorice quarter. Mix. 1-2 teaspoons thrice daily. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

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Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Drainage

a congenital abnormality in which the pulmonary veins enter the right atrium or vena cava instead of draining into the left atrium. The clinical features are those of an *atrial septal defect.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Auditory Brainstem Implant

a device similar to a *cochlear implant except that the electrode stimulates the auditory parts of the *brainstem rather than the cochlea. It is used to restore hearing of profoundly deaf people who have had damage to both auditory nerves and are hence unsuitable for cochlear implantation. It consists of an electrode that is permanently implanted on the surface of the brainstem. An external device with a microphone and an electronic processing unit pass information to the electrode using radio-frequency waves. The implant is powered by batteries in the external part of the device. It is most commonly used in patients with *neurofibromatosis type II who have had bilateral *vestibular schwannomas.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Auditory Brainstem Response Audiometry

(ABR audiometry, brainstem evoked response audiometry, BSER) an objective test of hearing that measures the electrical activity in the auditory nerve and *brainstem following sound stimulation using repeated clicks or brief tones.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Auditory Skills Training

a method of teaching people to use their hearing to its best potential, undertaken in the treatment of *auditory processing disorder.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

B Nosed. The Test For Brain-stem Death Are:

Fixed dilated pupils of the eyes

Absent CORNEAL REFLEX

Absent VESTIBULO-OCULAR REFLEX

No cranial motor response to somatic (physical) stimulation

Absent gag and cough re?exes

No respiratory e?ort in response to APNOEA despite adequate concentrations of CARBON DIOXIDE in the arterial blood.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Biofeedback Training

A technique in which a person uses information about a normally unconscious body function to gain conscious control over that function. Biofeedback training may help in the treatment of stress-related conditions, including certain types of hypertension, anxiety, and migraine.

The patient is connected to a recording instrument that measures one of the unconscious body activities, such as blood pressure, heart-rate, or the quantity of sweat on the skin. The patient receives information (feedback) on the changing levels of these activities from changes in the instrument’s signals. Using relaxation techniques, the patient learns to change the signals by conscious control of the body function. Once acquired, this control can be exercised without the instrument.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Blood Brain Barrier

A functional, semi-permeable membrane separating the brain and cerebrospinal ?uid from the blood. It allows small and lipid-soluble molecules to pass freely but is impermeable to large or ionised molecules and cells.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Blood-brain Barrier

the mechanism that controls the passage of molecules from the blood into the cerebrospinal fluid and the tissue spaces surrounding the cells of the brain. The endothelial cells lining the walls of the brain capillaries are more tightly joined together at their edges than those lining capillaries supplying other parts of the body. This allows the passage of solutions and fat-soluble compounds but excludes particles and large molecules. The importance of the blood-brain barrier is that it protects the brain from the effect of many substances harmful to it. A disadvantage, however, is that many useful drugs pass only in small amounts into the brain, and much larger doses may have to be given than normal. Brain cancer, for example, is relatively insensitive to chemotherapy, although drugs such as diazepam, alcohol, and fat-soluble general anaesthetics pass readily and quickly to the brain cells.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Brahmi Tea Or Food For The Brain

Brahmi Tea isbest known in Indian Ayurvedic medicine for its role against motor and nerve disorders. It possesses a pungent and bitter flavor, being a tonic, a mild sedative and a diuretic. Brahmi Tea description Brahmi is a perennial creeping herb, commonly found in India, Nepal, Sri Lanka, China, Vietnam and in the southern parts of the United States. It grows on wetlands and muddy shores. Brahmi is medicinally and culinary used. It is known as “food for the brain”, brahmi being used since the 6th century in Ayurvedic medicine as a cognitive enhancer. In India, the herb is still used by students and schoolchildren to help their brain functions. Brahmi tea is the resulting beverage from brewing the abovementioned plant. Brahmi Tea brewing Brahmi tea can be made by immersing ½ teaspoon of dried brahmi herbs into one cup of boiling water. Let it soak and steep it for about 5 minutes. Drink it slowly. Brahmi Tea benefits Brahmi tea has proven its efficiency in:
  • improving the memory and enhancing mental functions, agility and alertness (It is helpful in retention of new information)
  • calming the mind and promoting relaxation
  • improving motor learning ability
  • promoting greater concentration and focus
  • treating asthma
  • treating epilepsy
  • treating indigestion
Brahmi Tea side effects High doses of Brahmi tea may causeheadaches, nausea, dizziness and extreme drowsiness. Pregnant and nursing women should not intake this beverage. Brahmi tea is a medicinal beverage successfully used to enhance the memory processes and to promote relaxation. It is also efficient in dealing with indigestion, but not only.... Beneficial Teas

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Beneficial Teas

Brain

The brain and spinal cord together form the central nervous sytem (CNS). Twelve cranial nerves leave each side of the brain (see NERVES, below) and 31 spinal nerves from each side of the cord: together these nerves form the peripheral nervous system. Complex chains of nerves lying within the chest and abdomen, and acting largely independently of the peripheral system, though linked with it, comprise the AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM and govern the activities of the VISCERA.

The control centre of the whole nervous system is the brain, which is located in the skull or cranium. As well as controlling the nervous system it is the organ of thought, speech and emotion. The central nervous system controls the body’s essential functions such as breathing, body temperature (see HOMEOSTASIS) and the heartbeat. The body’s various sensations, including sight, hearing, touch, pain, positioning and taste, are communicated to the CNS by nerves distributed throughout the relevant tissues. The information is then sorted and interpreted by specialised areas in the brain. In response these initiate and coordinate the motor output, triggering such ‘voluntary’ activities as movement, speech, eating and swallowing. Other activities – for example, breathing, digestion, heart contractions, maintenance of BLOOD PRESSURE, and ?ltration of waste products from blood passing through the kidneys – are subject to involuntary control via the autonomic system. There is, however, some overlap between voluntary and involuntary controls.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Brain

n. the enlarged and highly developed mass of nervous tissue that forms the upper end of the *central nervous system (see illustration). The average adult human brain weighs about 1400 g (approximately 2% of total body weight) and is continuous below with the spinal cord. It is invested by three connective tissue membranes, the *meninges, and floats in *cerebrospinal fluid within the rigid casing formed by the bones of the skull. The brain is divided into the hindbrain (rhombencephalon), consisting of the *medulla oblongata, *pons, and *cerebellum; the *midbrain (mesencephalon); and the forebrain (prosencephalon), subdivided into the *cerebrum and the *diencephalon (including the *thalamus and *hypothalamus). The brain is usually considered to be the site of the working of the mind, but to what extent the concepts of ‘brain’ and ‘mind’ are interchangeable is a matter of debate and of concern to anyone facing brain surgery. Anatomical name: encephalon.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Brain

The major organ of the nervous system, located in the cranium (skull). The brain receives, sorts, and interprets sensations from the nerves that extend from the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) to the rest of the body; it initiates and coordinates nerve signals involved in activities such as speech, movement, thought, and emotion.

An adult brain weighs about 1.4 kg and has 3 main structures: the largest part, the cerebrum, consisting of left and right hemispheres; the brainstem; and the cerebellum. Each hemisphere in the

cerebrum has an outer layer called the cortex, consisting of grey matter, which is rich in nerve-cell bodies and is the main region for conscious thought, sensation, and movement. Beneath the cortex are tracts of nerve fibres called white matter, and, deeper within the hemispheres, the basal ganglia. The surface of each hemisphere is divided by fissures (sulci) and folds (gyri) into distinct lobes (occipital, frontal, parietal, and temporal lobes), named after the skull bones that overlie them. A thick band of nerve fibres called the corpus callosum connects the hemispheres.

The cerebrum encloses a central group of structures that includes the thalami and the hypothalamus, which has close connections with the pituitary gland. Encircling the thalami is a complex of nerve centres called the limbic system. These structures act as links between parts of the cerebrum and the brainstem lying beneath the thalami.

The brainstem is concerned mainly with the control of vital functions such as breathing and blood pressure. The cerebellum at the back of the brain controls balance, posture, and muscular coordination. Both of these regions operate at a subconscious level.

The brain and spinal cord are encased in 3 layers of membranes, known as meninges.

Cerebrospinal fluid circulates between the layers and within the 4 main brain cavities called ventricles.

This fluid helps to nourish and cushion the brain.

The brain receives about 20 per cent of the blood from the heart’s output.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Brain Abscess

A collection of pus, surrounded by inflamed tissues, within the brain or on its surface. The most common sites are the frontal and temporal lobes of the cerebrum in the forebrain.

Brain abscesses may occur after a head injury, but most cases result from the spread of infection from elsewhere in the body, such as the middle ear or sinuses.

Another cause is an infection following a penetrating brain injury.

Multiple brain abscesses may occur as a result of blood-borne infection, most commonly in patients with a heart-valve infection (see endocarditis).

Symptoms include headache, drowsiness, vomiting, visual disturbances, fever, seizures, and symptoms, such as speech disturbances, that are due to local pressure.

Treatment is with antibiotic drugs and surgery.

A craniotomy may be needed to open and drain the abscess.

Untreated, brain abscesses can cause permanent damage or can be fatal.

Despite treatment, scarring can cause epilepsy in some cases.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Brain Damage

Degeneration or death of nerve cells and tracts within the brain that may be localized to a particular area of the brain or diffuse. Diffuse damage most commonly results from prolonged cerebral hypoxia (which may occur in a baby during a difficult birth), cardiac arrest, respiratory arrest, or causes such as poisoning or status epilepticus (prolonged convulsions). The damage may also occur gradually due to environmental pollutants such as lead or mercury compounds (see Minamata disease) or if nerve-cell poisons build up in the brain, as in untreated phenylketonuria. Other possible causes include brain infections such as encephalitis.

Localized brain damage may occur as a result of a head injury, stroke, brain tumour, or brain abscess. At birth, a raised blood level of bilirubin (in haemolytic disease of the newborn) causes local damage to the basal ganglia deep within the brain. This leads to a condition called kernicterus. Brain damage that occurs before, during, or after birth may result in cerebral palsy.

Damage to the brain may result in disabilities such as learning difficulties or disturbances of movement or speech.

Nerve cells and tracts in the brain and spinal cord cannot repair themselves once they have been damaged, but some return of function may be possible.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Brain Death

see death.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Brain Death

The irreversible cessation of all functions of the brain, including the brainstem. (See also death.)... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Brain Disorders

Usually associated with some loss of sensation and power in another part of the body. Taste, smell, hearing, sight and movement may be affected. The following are some of the disorders that may affect the brain. Each has a separate entry in this book.

Abscess, Alzheimer’s Disease, anoxia (oxygen starvation), coma, concussion, haemorrhage, Down’s syndrome, epilepsy, tumour, hydrocephalus (water on the brain), meningitis, multiple sclerosis, stroke (rupture of blood vessel), spina bifida, syphilis (general paralysis of the insane), sleepy sickness.

Poor circulation through the brain due to hardening of the arteries: Ginkgo, Ginseng. Ginseng stimulates the hypothalmic/pituitary axis of the brain and favourably influences its relationship with the adrenal glands.

Congestion of the brain – Cowslip (Boerwicke). Irritability of brain and spine – Hops. Oats. Inflammation of the brain (encephalitis) as in viral infection, poliomyelitis, rabies, sleepy sickness, etc: Echinacea, Passion flower, Skullcap and Lobelia. Gelsemium acts as a powerful relaxant in the hands of a practitioner: Tincture BPC (1973): dose 0.3ml.

Brain storm from hysteria, locomotor ataxia, etc – Liquid Extract Lobelia: 5ml teaspoon in water when necessary (Dr Jentzsch, 1915, Ellingwood) Supplement with Zinc, Vitamins C and E.

Blood clot, thrombosis: Yarrow. Neurasthenia: Oats, Basil, Hops.

Brain fag and jet-lag: Chamomile, Skullcap, Oats, Ginseng, Ginkgo.

Tumour may be present years before manifesting: Goldenseal.

Mental state: depression, anxiety, schizophrenia.

Tea. Formula. Skullcap, Gotu Kola and German Chamomile; equal parts. 1 heaped teaspoon to each cup water gently simmered 10 minutes. Strain. 1 cup thrice daily.

Unspecified tensive state. Formula. Tinctures. Hops 1; Passion flower 2; Valerian 2. Dose: 2 teaspoons thrice daily until diagnosis is concluded.

Unspecified torpor. Formula. Tinctures. Ginseng 1; Kola 1; Capsicum quarter. 2 teaspoons in water thrice daily until diagnosis is concluded.

Brain weakness in the elderly: Ginkgo. See: ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE.

Fluid on the brain: see HYDROCEPHALUS.

Abscess of the brain: see ABSCESS.

Brain restoratives. Black Haw, True Unicorn root, Galangal, Oats, Oatstraw, False Unicorn root, Kola, Hops. Vitamin B6. Magnesium.

Cerebral thrombosis. See entry.

Note: Cold water may help victims to survive: rapid loss of body heat protects the brain. (Child Health Department, University of Wales)

Treatment by or in liaison with general medical practitioner or hospital specialist. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

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Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

Brain Failure

See brain syndrome, organic.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Brain Fever

Cerebral hyperemia. See Poe, Edgar Allen... Herbal Medical

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Herbal Medical

Brain Haemorrhage

Bleeding within or around the brain that is caused either by injury or by spontaneous rupture of a blood vessel. There are 4 possible types of brain haemorrhage: subdural, extradural, subarachnoid, and intracerebral. Extradural and subdural haemorrhages are usually the result of a blow to the head (see head injury). Subarachnoid and intracerebral haemorrhages usually occur spontaneously due to rupture of aneurysms or small blood vessels in the brain.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Brain Imaging

Techniques that provide pictures of the brain; they are used to detect injury or disease and include X-rays, angiography, CT scanning, MRI, PET (positron emission tomography) scanning, and SPECT (single photon emission ). X-ray films can show changes in the skull caused by a fracture or, rarely, by a brain tumour or aneurysm. Angiography shows up the blood vessels in the brain, and is used to investigate subarachnoid haemorrhage, aneurysms, abnormalities of the blood vessels, and other circulatory disorders.

scanning gives images of the brain substance; it gives clear pictures of the ventricles (fluid-filled cavities) and can reveal tumours, blood clots, strokes, aneurysms, and abscesses. is especially helpful in showing tumours of the posterior fossa (back of the skull). and scanning are specialized forms of radionuclide scanning that use small amounts of radioactive material to give information about brain function as well as structure. They enable

blood flow and metabolic activity in the brain to be measured.

Ultrasound scanning is used only in premature or very young babies since ultrasound waves cannot penetrate the bones of a mature skull.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Brain Injuries

Most blows to the head cause no loss of consciousness and no brain injury. If someone is knocked out for a minute or two, there has been a brief disturbance of the brain cells (concussion); usually there are no after-effects. Most patients so affected leave hospital within 1–3 days, have no organic signs, and recover and return quickly to work without further complaints.

Severe head injuries cause unconsciousness for hours or many days, followed by loss of memory before and after that period of unconsciousness. The skull may be fractured; there may be ?ts in the ?rst week; and there may develop a blood clot in the brain (intracerebral haematoma) or within the membranes covering the brain (extradural and subdural haematomata). These clots compress the brain, and the pressure inside the skull – intracranial pressure – rises with urgent, life-threatening consequences. They are identi?ed by neurologists and neurosurgeons, con?rmed by brain scans (see COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY; MRI), and require urgent surgical removal. Recovery may be complete, or in very severe cases can be marred by physical disabilities, EPILEPSY, and by changes in intelligence, rational judgement and behaviour. Symptoms generally improve in the ?rst two years.

A minority of those with minor head injuries have complaints and disabilities which seem disproportionate to the injury sustained. Referred to as the post-traumatic syndrome, this is not a diagnostic entity. The complaints are headaches, forgetfulness, irritability, slowness, poor concentration, fatigue, dizziness (usually not vertigo), intolerance of alcohol, light and noise, loss of interests and initiative, DEPRESSION, anxiety, and impaired LIBIDO. Reassurance and return to light work help these symptoms to disappear, in most cases within three months. Psychological illness and unresolved compensation-claims feature in many with implacable complaints.

People who have had brain injuries, and their relatives, can obtain help and advice from Headwat and from www.neuro.pmr.vcu.edu and www.biausa.org... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Brain Natriuretic Peptide

(BNP) see natriuretic peptide.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Brain Syndrome, Organic

Disorder of consciousness, intellect, or mental functioning that is of organic (physical), as opposed to psychiatric, origin. Causes include degenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease; infections; certain drugs; or the effects of injury, stroke, or tumour. Symptoms range from mild confusion to stupor or coma. They may also include disorientation, memory loss, hallucinations, and delusions (see delirium). In the chronic form, there is a progressive decline in intellect, memory, and behaviour (see dementia). Treatment is more likely to be successful with the acute form. In chronic cases, irreversible brain damage may already have occurred. (See also psychosis.)... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Brain Tumour

see cerebral tumour.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Brain Tumour

An abnormal growth in or on the brain. Tumours may be primary growths arising directly from tissues within the skull or metastases (secondary growths) that have spread from tumours elsewhere in the body. The cause of primary brain tumours is not known. About 60 per cent are gliomas (frequently cancerous), which arise from the brain tissue. Other primary tumours include meningiomas, acoustic neuromas, and pituitary tumours. Most of these tumours are noncancerous, but their size can cause local damage. Certain types of primary brain tumour mainly affect children. These include 2 types of glioma called medulloblastoma and cerebellar astrocytoma. Primary brain tumours virtually never spread (metastasize) outside the central nervous system.

Symptoms include muscle weakness, loss of vision, or other sensory disturbances, speech difficulties, and epileptic seizures. Increased pressure within the skull can cause headache, visual disturbances, vomiting, and impaired mental functioning. Hydrocephalus may occur.

When possible, primary tumours are removed by surgery after opening the skull (see craniotomy).

In cases where a tumour cannot be completely removed, as much as possible of it will be cut away to relieve pressure.

For primary and secondary tumours, radiotherapy or anticancer drugs may also be given.

Corticosteroid drugs are often prescribed temporarily to reduce the size of a tumour and associated brain swelling.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Brain, Diseases Of

These consist either of expanding masses (lumps or tumours), or of areas of shrinkage (atrophy) due to degeneration, or to loss of blood supply, usually from blockage of an artery.

Tumours All masses cause varying combinations of headache and vomiting – symptoms of raised pressure within the inexpansible bony box formed by the skull; general or localised epileptic ?ts; weakness of limbs or disordered speech; and varied mental changes. Tumours may be primary, arising in the brain, or secondary deposits from tumours arising in the lung, breast or other organs. Some brain tumours are benign and curable by surgery: examples include meningiomas and pituitary tumours. The symptoms depend on the size and situation of the mass. Abscesses or blood clots (see HAEMATOMA) on the surface or within the brain may resemble tumours; some are removable. Gliomas ( see GLIOMA) are primary malignant tumours arising in the glial tissue (see GLIA) which despite surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy usually have a bad prognosis, though some astrocytomas and oligodendronogliomas are of low-grade malignancy. A promising line of research in the US (in the animal-testing stage in 2000) suggests that the ability of stem cells from normal brain tissue to ‘home in’ on gliomal cells can be turned to advantage. The stem cells were chemically manipulated to carry a poisonous compound (5-?uorouracil) to the gliomal cells and kill them, without damaging normal cells. Around 80 per cent of the cancerous cells in the experiments were destroyed in this way.

Clinical examination and brain scanning (CT, or COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY; magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and functional MRI) are safe, accurate methods of demonstrating the tumour, its size, position and treatability.

Strokes When a blood vessel, usually an artery, is blocked by a clot, thrombus or embolism, the local area of the brain fed by that artery is damaged (see STROKE). The resulting infarct (softening) causes a stroke. The cells die and a patch of brain tissue shrinks. The obstruction in the blood vessel may be in a small artery in the brain, or in a larger artery in the neck. Aspirin and other anti-clotting drugs reduce recurrent attacks, and a small number of people bene?t if a narrowed neck artery is cleaned out by an operation – endarterectomy. Similar symptoms develop abruptly if a blood vessel bursts, causing a cerebral haemorrhage. The symptoms of a stroke are sudden weakness or paralysis of the arm and leg of the opposite side to the damaged area of brain (HEMIPARESIS), and sometimes loss of half of the ?eld of vision to one side (HEMIANOPIA). The speech area is in the left side of the brain controlling language in right-handed people. In 60 per cent of lefthanders the speech area is on the left side, and in 40 per cent on the right side. If the speech area is damaged, diffculties both in understanding words, and in saying them, develops (see DYSPHASIA).

Degenerations (atrophy) For reasons often unknown, various groups of nerve cells degenerate prematurely. The illness resulting is determined by which groups of nerve cells are affected. If those in the deep basal ganglia are affected, a movement disorder occurs, such as Parkinson’s disease, hereditary Huntington’s chorea, or, in children with birth defects of the brain, athetosis and dystonias. Modern drugs, such as DOPAMINE drugs in PARKINSONISM, and other treatments can improve the symptoms and reduce the disabilities of some of these diseases.

Drugs and injury Alcohol in excess, the abuse of many sedative drugs and arti?cial brain stimulants – such as cocaine, LSD and heroin (see DEPENDENCE) – can damage the brain; the effects can be reversible in early cases. Severe head injury can cause localised or di?use brain damage (see HEAD INJURY).

Cerebral palsy Damage to the brain in children can occur in the uterus during pregnancy, or can result from rare hereditary and genetic diseases, or can occur during labour and delivery. Severe neurological illness in the early months of life can also cause this condition in which sti? spastic limbs, movement disorders and speech defects are common. Some of these children are learning-disabled.

Dementias In older people a di?use loss of cells, mainly at the front of the brain, causes ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE – the main feature being loss of memory, attention and reasoned judgement (dementia). This affects about 5 per cent of the over-80s, but is not simply due to ageing processes. Most patients require routine tests and brain scanning to indicate other, treatable causes of dementia.

Response to current treatments is poor, but promising lines of treatment are under development. Like Parkinsonism, Alzheimer’s disease progresses slowly over many years. It is uncommon for these diseases to run in families. Multiple strokes can cause dementia, as can some organic disorders such as cirrhosis of the liver.

Infections in the brain are uncommon. Viruses such as measles, mumps, herpes, human immunode?ciency virus and enteroviruses may cause ENCEPHALITIS – a di?use in?ammation (see also AIDS/HIV).

Bacteria or viruses may infect the membrane covering the brain, causing MENINGITIS. Viral meningitis is normally a mild, self-limiting infection lasting only a few days; however, bacterial meningitis – caused by meningococcal groups B and C, pneumococcus, and (now rarely) haemophilus – is a life-threatening condition. Antibiotics have allowed a cure or good control of symptoms in most cases of meningitis, but early diagnosis is essential. Severe headaches, fever, vomiting and increasing sleepiness are the principal symptoms which demand urgent advice from the doctor, and usually admission to hospital. Group B meningococcus is the commonest of the bacterial infections, but Group C causes more deaths. A vaccine against the latter has been developed and has reduced the incidence of cases by 75 per cent.

If infection spreads from an unusually serious sinusitis or from a chronically infected middle ear, or from a penetrating injury of the skull, an abscess may slowly develop. Brain abscesses cause insidious drowsiness, headaches, and at a late stage, weakness of the limbs or loss of speech; a high temperature is seldom present. Early diagnosis, con?rmed by brain scanning, is followed by antibiotics and surgery in hospital, but the outcome is good in only half of affected patients.

Cerebral oedema Swelling of the brain can occur after injury, due to engorgement of blood vessels or an increase in the volume of the extravascular brain tissue due to abnormal uptake of water by the damaged grey (neurons) matter and white (nerve ?bres) matter. This latter phenomenon is called cerebral oedema and can seriously affect the functioning of the brain. It is a particularly dangerous complication following injury because sometimes an unconscious person whose brain is damaged may seem to be recovering after a few hours, only to have a major relapse. This may be the result of a slow haemorrhage from damaged blood vessels raising intracranial pressure, or because of oedema of the brain tissue in the area surrounding the injury. Such a development is potentially lethal and requires urgent specialist treatment to alleviate the rising intracranial pressure: osmotic agents (see OSMOSIS) such as mannitol or frusemide are given intravenously to remove the excess water from the brain and to lower intracranial pressure, buying time for de?nitive investigation of the cranial damage.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Brain, Disorders Of

Defects and disorders of the brain, which may have one of numerous causes including infection, injury, brain tumour, or a lack of blood or oxygen (hypoxia). Because the brain is encased in the skull, any space-occupying tumour, brain abscess, or haematoma creates raised pressure, which impairs the function of the whole brain. Brain disorders that are localized in a small region may affect a specific function such as speech (see aphasia). More often, damage is more diffuse and the symptoms can be varied and numerous. Some brain disorders are congenital due to genetic or chromosomal disorders, as in Down’s syndrome. Structural defects that arise during the development of the fetus in the womb include hydrocephalus and anencephaly.

Reduced oxygen supply may occur at birth, causing cerebral palsy. Later in life, cerebral hypoxia can result from choking or from arrest of breathing and heartbeat. From middle age onwards, cerebrovascular disease is the most important cause of brain disorder. If an artery within the brain becomes blocked or ruptures, leading to haemorrhage, the result is a stroke. The brain may also be damaged by a blow to the head see head injury).

Infection within the brain (encephalitis) may be due to viral infection. Infection of the membranes surrounding the brain (meningitis) is generally due to bacterial infection. Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease is a rare, fatal brain disease associated with an infective agent called a prion which, in some cases, has been linked with (bovine spongiform encephalopathy), a disease in cattle.

Multiple sclerosis is a progressive disease of the brain and spinal cord. Degenerative brain diseases include Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease. Emotional or behavioural disorders are generally described as psychiatric illnesses; but the distinction between neurological and psychiatric disorders is now much less clear.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Brain-stem Death

Brain damage, resulting in the irreversible loss of brain function, renders the individual incapable of life without the aid of a VENTILATOR. Criteria have been developed to recognise that ‘death’ has occurred and to allow ventilation to be stopped: in the UK, these criteria require the patient to be irreversibly unconscious and unable to regain the capacity to breathe spontaneously. (See also GLASGOW COMA SCALE and PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE (PVS).)

All reversible pharmacological, metabolic, endocrine and physiological causes must be excluded, and there should be no doubt that irreversible brain damage has occurred. Two senior doctors carry out diagnostic tests to con?rm that brain-stem re?exes are absent. These tests must be repeated after a suitable interval before death can be declared. Imaging techniques are not required for death to be diag-... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Brainstem

n. the enlarged extension upwards within the skull of the spinal cord, consisting of the medulla oblongata, the pons, and the midbrain. The pons and medulla are together known as the bulb, or bulbar area. Attached to the midbrain are the two cerebral hemispheres. See brain.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Brainstem

A stalk of nerve tissue that forms the lowest part of the brain and links with the spinal cord. The brainstem acts partly as a highway for messages travelling between other parts of the brain and spinal cord. It also connects with 10 of the 12 pairs of cranial nerves (which emerge directly from the underside of the brain) and controls basic functions such as breathing, vomiting, and eye reflexes. Brainstem activities are below the level of consciousness, and they operate mainly on an automatic basis.

The brainstem is composed of 3 main parts: the midbrain, pons, and medulla. The midbrain contains the nuclei (nervecell centres) of the 3rd and 4th cranial nerves. It also contains cell groups involved in smooth coordination of limb movements. The pons contains nerve fibres that connect with the cerebellum. It also houses the nuclei for the 5th–8th cranial nerves. The medulla contains the nuclei of the 9th–12th cranial nerves. It also contains the “vital centres” (groups of nerve cells that regulate the heartbeat, breathing, blood pressure, and digestion (information on which is relayed via the 10th cranial nerve (see vagus nerve). Nerve-cell groups in the brainstem, known collectively as the reticular formation, alert the higher brain centres to sensory stimuli that may require a conscious response. Our sleep/wake cycle is controlled by the reticular formation.

The brainstem is susceptible to the same disorders that afflict the rest of the central nervous system (see brain, disorders of). Damage to the medulla’s vital centres is rapidly fatal; damage to the reticular formation may cause coma. Damage to specific cranial nerve nuclei can sometimes lead to specific effects. For example, damage to the 7th cranial nerve (the facial nerve) leads to facial palsy. Degeneration of the substantia nigra in the midbrain is thought to be a cause of Parkinson’s disease.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Brainstem Evoked Response Audiometry

see auditory brainstem response audiometry.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Concussion Of The Brain

See BRAIN INJURIES.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Contraindication

A clinical symptom, circumstance, condition indicating that the use of an otherwise advisable intervention would be inappropriate. A contraindication may be absolute or relative. An absolute contraindication is a situation which makes a particular treatment or procedure absolutely inadvisable. A relative contraindication is a condition which makes a particular treatment or procedure somewhat inadvisable, but does not rule it out (for example, X-rays in pregnancy).... Community Health

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Community Health

Contraindication

n. any factor in a patient’s condition that makes it unwise to pursue a certain line of treatment. For example, an attack of pneumonia in a patient would be a strong contraindication against the use of a general anaesthetic.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Contraindication

Factors in a patient’s condition that would make it unwise to pursue a certain line of treatment.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Deep Brain Stimulation

(DBS) a surgical treatment involving the implantation of a medical device that sends electrical impulses to specific parts of the brain. DBS in selected brain regions can provide benefits for treatment-resistant movement disorders, such as Parkinson’s disease, tremor, and *dystonia.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Descurainia Sophia

(Linn.) Webb ex Prantl.

Synonym: Sisymbrium sophia L.

Family: Brassicaceae.

Habitat: Temperate Himalaya from Kashmir to Kumaon at 2,200-4,100, also in eastern Himalaya.

English: Flix Weed, Flax Weed.

Action: Leaf and flower—astringent, antiscorbutic. Seed—expectorant, anti-inflammatory, febrifuge, antidysenteric. Aerial parts— antiviral, hypoglycaemic.

The plants has been used externally for ulcers, seeds are used as substitute or adulterant of the seeds of Sisymbrium iro Linn. (The source of Khaakasi, Khubb, Tukhm-e-Shahuh, Khuubkalaan of Unani medicine, known as Hedge Mustard or London Rocket.)... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Drain

1. n. a device, usually a tube or wick, used to draw fluid from an internal body cavity to the surface. A drain is sometimes inserted during an operation to ensure that any fluid formed immediately passes to the surface, so preventing an accumulation that may become infected or cause pressure in the operation site. Negative pressure (suction) can be applied through a tube drain to increase its effectiveness. Chest drains can be used in the treatment of chest trauma to drain blood (haemothorax) or air (pneumothorax) that accumulates in the pleural space. 2. vb. see drainage.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Drain, Surgical

An appliance inserted into a body cavity or wound to release air or to permit drainage.

Drains range from simple soft rubber tubes that pass from a body cavity into a dressing to wide-bore tubes that connect to a collection bag or bottle.

Suction drains are thin tubes with many small holes to help collect fluid or air, which is drawn into a vacuum bottle.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Drainage

n. the drawing off of fluid from a cavity in the body, usually fluid that has accumulated abnormally. For example, serous fluid may be drained from a swollen joint, pus removed from an internal abscess, or urine from an overdistended bladder. See also drain.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Eye-strain

A common term for aching or discomfort in or around the eye. This is usually due to a headache caused by fatigue, tiredness of muscles around the eye, sinusitis, blepharitis (inflammation of the eyelids), or conjunctivitis.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Eyestrain

n. a sense of fatigue brought on by use of the eyes for prolonged close work or in persons who have an uncorrected error of *refraction or an imbalance of the muscles that move the eyes. Symptoms are usually aching or burning of the eyes, accompanied by headache and even general fatigue if the eyes are not rested. Medical name: asthenopia.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Flexible Training

A term applied to the system of postgraduate medical training that allows young doctors to integrate their domestic commitments with the training requirements necessary to become a fully quali?ed specialist, usually by working part-time.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Forebrain

n. the furthest forward division of the *brain, consisting of the *diencephalon and the two cerebral hemispheres.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Foundation Training

(dental foundation training, DFT) a period of supervised training for dentists in general practice before they are allowed to work independently in the NHS. Foundation training is undertaken after graduation from dental school and lasts 1–2 years. In Scotland it is known as vocational training.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Grain

n. a unit of mass equal to 1/7000 of a pound (avoirdupois). 1 grain = 0.0648 gram.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Grain

Protection...

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Grainne

(Irish) One who loves and is loved Graine, Grainnia, Grania, Graynne, Grayne, Graynia, Graenne, Graene, Graenia... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Grains Of Paradise

Lust, Luck, Love, Money, Wishes ...

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Groin Strain

Pain and tenderness in the groin as a result of overstretching of a muscle, typically while running or playing sports. The muscles commonly affected are the adductors and the rectus femoris. Groin strain is usually treated with physiotherapy, but recovery may be slow.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Heart - Over-strained

See: ATHLETE’S HEART. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

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Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

Hindbrain

That part of the BRAIN comprising the cerebellum, pons and medulla oblongata.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Hindbrain

(rhombencephalon) n. the part of the *brain comprising the cerebellum, pons, and medulla oblongata. The pons and medulla contain the nuclei of many of the cranial nerves, which issue from their surfaces, and the reticular formation. The fluid-filled cavity in the midline is the fourth *ventricle.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Igraine

(English) In Arthurian legend, Arthur’s mother

Igrayne, Igrain, Igerne, Igrayn, Igraen, Igraene... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Local Education And Training Board

(LETB) a statutory committee of *Health Education England responsible for identifying the education and training needs in the health-care and public health workforce and for commissioning postgraduate medical and dental training to meet these needs. There are four local education and training boards in England.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Lorraine

(French) From the kingdom of Lothair

Laraine, Larayne, Laurraine, Leraine, Lerayne, Lorain, Loraina, Loraine, Lorayne, Lorraina, Lorrayne, Laraene, Larayne, Lareine, Larina, Larine, Larraine, Lorenza, Lourine... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Manual Lymphatic Drainage

a series of therapeutic movements, using massage, developed to enhance lymph drainage, alleviate swelling, and improve wound healing.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Midbrain

The top part of the brainstem, situated above the pons.

The midbrain is also called the mesencephalon.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Midbrain

(mesencephalon) n. the small portion of the *brainstem, excluding the pons and the medulla, that joins the hindbrain to the forebrain.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Migraine

Recurring headache commencing with constriction of blood vessels of the brain, followed by expansion which allows engorgement of vessels. Single or double-sided. With nausea, vomiting, speech difficulties, visual disturbances, emotional stress, tension.

“Half of all migraine patients suffer from anxiety, and one in five experiences depression,” according to a study carried out at Manchester University. (Dr Jennifer Devlen)

Causes: many and varied. Alcohol, excess coffee and caffeine stimulants, gluten food allergies, dairy products, chocolate, citrus fruits. Related to carbohydrate metabolism. May be associated with menstruation or emotional disturbance, nervous or physical fatigue; liver, stomach or kidney disturbance, or The Pill.

Symptoms: temporary blindness, or sight may be only half the visual field. Flashing lights, throbbing headache, loud noises worsen, nausea, vomiting, depression.

Treatment. In the initial (constrictive) stage any of the following simple teas may resolve: German Chamomile, Betony, Skullcap, Wild Thyme, Valerian.

Where the condition has progressed to vasodilation (engorgement of cerebral blood vessels) give any of the following alternatives. Whilst the requirements of each individual case is observed, inclusion of a remedy for stomach and liver may enhance efficacy. Sometimes a timely diuretic to reduce volume of the blood aborts an attack.

Associated with menstrual disorders: Agnus Castus, Evening Primrose oil.

Tea: Formula. (1) Equal parts: Betony, Valerian, Dandelion root. (2) Alfalfa 1; Valerian half; Hops quarter. One heaped teaspoon to each cup boiling water; infuse 15 minutes. Half-1 cup 2-3 times daily. Formula. Skullcap 2; Mistletoe 1; Hops half. Dose: Liquid Extracts: 1-2 teaspoons. Tinctures: 1-3 teaspoons. Powders: 750mg (three 00 capsules or half a teaspoon) 2-3 times daily.

Valerian. German traditional.

Feverfew. 2-3 fresh leaves on bread. Tincture (or essence) 5-10 drops.

Practitioner: Tincture Gelsemium, BPC (1963) 5 drops.

Diet: Fruit juice fast. Oily fish. Hay diet. Salt-free.

Vitamins. A. B-complex, B6, B12, C (up to 1000mg). E, Niacin.

Minerals. Manganese, Calcium, Magnesium, Zinc.

Rose-tinted glasses. Ophthalmology Department, Birmingham University.

Information. British Migraine Association, 178A High Road, West Byfleet, Surrey KT14 7ED. Send SAE. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

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Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

Migraine

A severe headache, typically lasting 4–72 hours, accompanied by visual disturbances and/or nausea and vomiting. Migraine attacks may be isolated or may recur at varying intervals.

There is no single cause of migraine, although it tends to run in families. Stress-related, food-related, or sensoryrelated factors may trigger an attack. Menstruation and oral contraceptives may also trigger migraine.

There are 2 types: migraine with aura (an impression of flashing lights and/or numbness and tingling), and migraine without aura. In migraine without aura, there is a slowly worsening headache, often on one side of the head, with nausea and sometimes vomiting.

In migraine with aura, there may be visual disturbances for up to an hour, followed by a severe one-sided headache, nausea, vomiting and light-sensitivity. Other temporary neurological symptoms, such as weakness in one half of the body, may occur.

Diagnosis is usually made from the history and a physical examination. Treatment for an attack is an analgesic drug such as aspirin or paracetamol, plus an antiemetic drug, if needed. If this is not effective, treatment with serotonin agonists such as sumatriptan may be prescribed. Ergotamine may prevent an attack if taken before the headache begins, but is now rarely used. Sleeping in a darkened room may hasten recovery. For frequent attacks, preventive treatment may be needed. Keeping a diary can help pinpoint trigger factors, and prophylactic drugs may be prescribed.(See also cluster headaches.) ... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Migraine

n. a neurovascular disorder in a genetically predisposed individual. There is an instability within the brainstem that is triggered by a variety of stimuli (e.g. foods, light, stress) and results in a recurrent throbbing headache that characteristically affects one side of the head. The patient sometimes has forewarning of an attack (an aura) consisting of visual disturbance or tingling and/or weakness of the limbs, which clear up as the headache develops. It is often accompanied by prostration, nausea and vomiting, and *photophobia. Effective preventive medication (e.g. beta blockers and some antiepileptic drugs) is available for patients with frequent migraine attacks, and *5HT1 agonists may be used to treat acute attacks. See also cluster headache.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Migraine

The word migraine derives from HEMICRANIA, the Greek for half a skull, and is a common condition characterised by recurring intense headaches. It is much more usual in women than in men and affects around 10 per cent of the population. It has been de?ned as ‘episodic headache accompanied by visual or gastrointestinal disturbances, or both, attacks lasting hours with total freedom between episodes’.

It usually begins at puberty – although young children can be affected – and tends to stop in middle age: in women, for example, attacks often cease after MENOPAUSE. It frequently disappears during pregnancy. The disorder tends to run in families. In susceptible individuals, attacks may be provoked by a wide variety of causes including: anxiety, emotion, depression, shock, and excitement; physical and mental fatigue; prolonged focusing on computer, television or cinema screens; noise, especially loud and high-pitched sounds; certain foods – such as chocolate, cheese, citrus fruits, pastry; alcohol; prolonged lack of food; irregular meals; menstruation and the pre-menstrual period.

Anything that can provoke a headache in the ordinary individual can probably precipitate an attack in a migrainous subject. It seems as if there is an inherited predispostion that triggers a mechanism whereby in the migrainous subject, the headache and the associated sickness persist for hours, a whole day or even longer.

The precise cause is not known, but the generally accepted view is that in susceptible individuals, one or other of these causes produces spasm or constriction of the blood vessels of the brain. This in turn is followed by dilatation of these blood vessels which also become more permeable and so allow ?uid to pass out into the surrounding tissues. This combination of dilatation and outpouring of ?uid is held to be responsible for the headache.

Two types of migraine have been recognised: classical and common. The former is relatively rare and the headache is preceded by a slowly extending area of blindness in one or both eyes, usually accompanied by intermittent ‘lights’. The phenomenon lasts for up to 30 minutes and is followed by a bad, often unilateral headache with nausea, sometimes vomiting and sensitivity to light. Occasionally, passing neurological symptoms such as weakness in a limb may accompany the attack. The common variety has similar but less severe symptoms. It consists of an intense headache, usually situated over one or other eye. The headache is usually preceded by a feeling of sickness and disturbance of sight. In 15–20 per cent of cases this disturbance of sight takes the form of bright lights: the so-called AURA of migraine. The majority of attacks are accompanied by vomiting. The duration of the headache varies, but in the more severe cases the victim is usually con?ned to bed for 24 hours.

Treatment consists, in the ?rst place, of trying to avoid any precipitating factor. Patients must ?nd out which drug, or drugs, give them most relief, and they must always carry these about with them wherever they go. This is because it is a not uncommon experience to be aware of an attack coming on and to ?nd that there is a critical quarter of an hour or so during which the tablets are e?ective. If not taken within this period, they may be ine?ective and the unfortunate victim ?nds him or herself prostrate with headache and vomiting. In addition, sufferers should immediately lie down; at this stage a few hours’ rest may prevent the development of a full attack.

When an attack is fully developed, rest in bed in a quiet, darkened room is essential; any loud noise or bright light intensi?es the headache or sickness. The less food that is taken during an attack the better, provided that the individual drinks as much ?uid as he or she wants. Group therapy, in which groups of around ten migrainous subjects learn how to relax, is often of help in more severe cases, whilst in others the injection of a local anaesthetic into tender spots in the scalp reduces the number of attacks. Drug treatment can be e?ective and those a?icted by migraine may ?nd a particular drug or combination of drugs more suitable than others. ANALGESICS such as PARACETAMOL, aspirin and CODEINE phosphate sometimes help. A combination of buclizine hydrochloride and analgesics, taken when the visual aura occurs, prevents or diminishes the severity of an attack in some people. A commonly used remedy for the condition is ergotamine tartrate, which causes the dilated blood vessels to contract, but this must only be taken under medical supervision. In many cases METOCLOPRAMIDE (an antiemetic), followed ten minutes later by three tablets of either aspirin or paracetamol, is e?ective if taken early in an attack. In milder attacks, aspirin, with or without codeine and paracetamol, may be of value. SUMATRIPTAN (5-hydroxytryptamine [5HT1] AGONIST – also known as a SEROTONIN agonist) is of value for acute attacks. It is used orally or by subcutaneous injection, but should not be used for patients with ischaemic heart disease. Naratriptan is another 5HT1 agonist that is an e?ective treatment for acute attacks; others are almotriptan, rizariptan and zolmitriptan. Some patients ?nd beta blockers such as propranolol a valuable prophylactic.

People with migraine and their relatives can obtain help and guidance from the Migraine Action Association.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Minimal Brain Dysfunction

A hypothetical condition thought to account for behavioural and other problems in children for which no physical cause is found. It may be a cause of some learning difficulties, difficulty in concentrating, impulsiveness, and hyperactivity.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Nerves Twelve Nerves Come Off The Brain:

I. Olfactory, to the nose (smell).

II. Optic, to the eye (sight).

III. Oculomotor

Trochlear, to eye-muscles.

Abducent

VI. Trigeminal, to skin of face.

VII. Facial, to muscles of face.

VIII. Vestibulocochlear, to ear (hearing and balancing).

IX. Glossopharyngeal, to tongue (taste).

X. Vagus, to heart, larynx, lungs, and stomach.

XI. Spinal accessory, to muscles in neck.

XII. Hypoglossal, to muscles of tongue.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Organic Brain Syndrome

See brain syndrome, organic.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Parainfluenza Viruses

These are included in the paramyxoviruses (see MYXOVIRUSES) and divided into four types, all of which cause infection of the respiratory system (see RESPIRATION). Infection with type 3 begins in May, reaches a maximum in July or August and returns to base-line level in October. Types 1 and 2 are predominantly winter viruses. Children are commonly affected and the manifestations include CROUP, fever, and a rash.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Parainfluenza Viruses

a group of large RNA-containing viruses that cause infections of the respiratory tract producing mild influenza-like symptoms. They are included in the paramyxovirus group (see myxovirus).... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Pelvic-floor Muscle Training

see Kegel exercises.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Petitgrain

Citrus aurantium var. amara

FAMILY: Rutaceae

SYNONYMS: C. bigaradia, petitgrain bigarade (oil), petitgrain Paraguay (oil). See also bitter orange.

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: The oil of petitgrain is produced from the leaves and twigs of the same tree that produces bitter orange oil and neroli oil: see bitter orange and neroli.

DISTRIBUTION: Native to southern China and north east India. The best quality petitgrain oil comes from France but a good-quality oil is also produced in North Africa, Paraguay and Haiti from semi-wild trees.

OTHER SPECIES: A type of petitgrain is also produced in small quantities from the leaves, twigs and small unripe fruit of the lemon, sweet orange, mandarin and bergamot trees.

HERBAL/FOLK TRADITION: At one time the oil used to be extracted from the green unripe oranges when they were still the size of a cherry – hence the name petitgrains or ‘little grains’. One of the classic ingredients of eau-de-cologne.

ACTIONS: Antiseptic, antispasmodic, deodorant, digestive, nervine, stimulant (digestive, nervous), stomachic, tonic.

EXTRACTION: Essential oil by steam distillation from the leaves and twigs. An orange ‘leaf and flower’ water absolute is also produced, known as petitgrain sur fleurs.

CHARACTERISTICS: A pale yellow to amber liquid with a fresh-floral citrus scent and a woody-herbaceous undertone. It blends well with rosemary, lavender, geranium, bergamot, bitter orange, labdanum, neroli, oakmoss, clary sage, jasmine, benzoin, palmarosa, clove and balsams.

PRINCIPAL CONSTITUENTS: 40–80 per cent esters: mainly linalyl acetate and geranyl acetate, as well as linalol, nerol, terpineol, geraniol, nerolidol, farnesol, limonene, among others.

SAFETY DATA: Non-toxic, non-irritant, nonsensitizing, non-phototoxic.

AROMATHERAPY/HOME: USE

Skin care: Acne, excessive perspiration, greasy skin and hair, toning.

Digestive system: Dyspepsia, flatulence.

Nervous system: Convalescence, insomnia, nervous exhaustion and stress-related conditions.

OTHER USES: Extensively used as a fragrance component in soaps, detergents, cosmetics and perfumes, especially colognes (sometimes used to replace neroli). Employed as a flavour component in many foods, especially confectionery, as well as alcoholic and soft drinks.... The Encyclopedia of Essential Oils

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The Encyclopedia of Essential Oils

Postural Drainage

A technique that enables sputum (phlegm) or other secretions to drain from a person’s lungs in order to clear them.

The person lies in a way that allows the secretions to drain by gravity into the trachea, from where they are coughed up.

Tapping the person’s chest with cupped hands can help to loosen sticky secretions.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Postural Drainage

Facilitation of the drainage of secretions from dilated bronchi of the LUNGS. The patient lies on an inclined plane, head downwards, and is encouraged to cough up as much secretion from the lungs as possible. The precise position depends on which part of the lungs is affected. It may need to be carried out for up to three hours daily in divided periods. It is of particular value in BRONCHIECTASIS and lung abscess (see LUNGS, DISEASES OF).... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Raina

(Polish) Form of Regina, meaning “a queenly woman”

Raenah, Raene, Rainah, Raine, Rainee, Rainey, Rainelle, Rainy, Reina, Reinella, Reinelle, Reinette, Reyna, Reynalda, Reynelle, Reyney, Reine, Ranee, Reia... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Rainbow

(American) As colorful as the rainbow; symbolizing promise Rainbowe, Raynbow, Raynebow, Raynebowe, Reinbow, Reinbowe... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Repetitive Strain Injury

(RSI) An overuse injury that affects keyboard workers and musicians, causing weakness and pain in the wrists and fingers.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Repetitive Strain Injury

(RSI) pain in an upper limb associated with frequent repetition of a particular movement, usually related to keyboard usage. Symptoms often occur in the absence of clear signs, such as *tenosynovitis or *tendovaginitis, which presents difficulties both in treatment and in claiming compensation from an employer (if an industrial cause can be identified).... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Repetitive Strain Injury (rsi)

See UPPER LIMB DISORDERS.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Restraint

Any method used to restrict the movement of a resident or part of the resident ‘s body in order to protect the resident or others from injury.... Community Health

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Community Health

Social Skills Training

A form of behaviour modification in which individuals are encouraged to improve their ability to communicate.

This is an important part of rehabilitation for people with mental handicap or those with chronic psychological disorders, such as schizophrenia.

Role-playing is a commonly used technique in which various social situations are simulated in order to improve the individual’s confidence and performance.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Sprain

Tearing or stretching of the ligaments that hold together the bone ends in a joint, caused by a sudden pull. The ankle is the most commonly sprained joint. A sprain causes painful swelling of the joint, which cannot be moved without increasing the pain. There may also be spasm of surrounding muscles.

Treatment consists of applying an icepack, wrapping the joint in a bandage, resting it in a raised position, and taking analgesic drugs.

In severe cases, surgical repair may be necessary.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Sprain

n. injury to a ligament, caused by sudden overstretching. As the ligament is not severed it gradually heals, but this may take several months. Sprains should be treated by cold compresses (ice-packs) at the time of injury, and later by restriction of activity.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Sprains

Injuries in the neighbourhood of joints, consisting usually in tearing of a ligament with e?usion of blood. (See JOINTS, DISEASES OF.)... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Strain

Stretching or tearing of muscle ?bres caused by subjecting them to sudden pulling. Bleeding into the muscle causes pain and swelling and sometimes muscle spasm. Application of ice packs and strapping, coupled with a day or two’s rest and analgesics, are usually su?cient to remedy most strains. Sometimes antiin?ammatory drugs or physiotherapy may be required.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Strain

Tearing or stretching of muscle fibres as a result of suddenly pulling them too far. There is bleeding into the damaged area of muscle, causing pain, swelling, muscle spasm, and bruising.

Treatment may include applying an icepack, resting the affected part, taking analgesic drugs, and physiotherapy.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Strain

1. n. excessive stretching or working of a muscle, resulting in pain and swelling of the muscle. Compare sprain. 2. n. a group of organisms, such as bacteria, obtained from a particular source or having special properties distinguishing them from other members of the same species. 3. vb. to damage a muscle by overstretching.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Strain Gauge

a sensitive instrument for measuring tension and alterations in pressure. It is extensively used in medical instruments.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Teas For Migraines

Migraines are described as strong headaches associated with a certain discomfort of the nervous system. Although practitioners around the world tried to find the ultimate cure for this ailment, they are still far from finding the miraculous cure. Since ancient times, herbalists used a wide range of alternative remedies to induce a state of relaxation and bring relief to those suffering from migraines. However, modern medicine found new ways to treat this condition, even if no definitive cure has been provided yet. Drink Teas for Migraines Alternative medicine, however, gives you a hand. There are a lot of teas for migraines and headaches which can successfully be used in order to treat the affected areas and calm the localized pain. If you are suffering from this condition, you may want to try one of the following teas: - Black Tea - when it comes to Teas for Migraines, Black Tea turns out to be quite a helper. Thanks to its anti-oxidant and alkaline properties, this natural remedy can calm your pain and release the necessary amount of active constituents. - Catnip Tea - another name on the Teas for Migraines list is Catnip Tea, a powerful treatment with anesthetic, sedative and relaxing properties which can be found in almost any teashop. Just make sure that you’re buying the product from a trusted provider in order to avoid unnecessary complications. - Chamomile Tea - used in both the cosmetic and the pharmaceutical industries, Chamomile Tea is probably one of the world’s greatest panaceas. When choosing Teas for Migraines, you need to make sure that the herb you’re about to use has no side effects and that its action is rapid and very effective. If that is the case, Chamomile Tea, with its calming and nourishing properties may be a good alternative to traditional medication. Also, if you suffer from sleeping disorders, Chamomile Tea might bring relief and a good night sleep. - Lavender Tea - used mostly for its memorable scent, Lavender is used by both the cosmetic industry and the cleaning products factories. However, when choosing Teas for Migraines, Lavender Tea may be just as important as the other too teas mentioned above. Thanks to a good level of tannis and volatile oils, Lavender Tea makes migraines go away within minutes. Other Effective Teas for Migraines - Tansy Tea - although it is yet unknown to the European public, Tansy Tea is one of the most efficient Teas for Migraines in the alternative medicine. Tansy Tea contains tanacetin, volatile oil, tannic acid, parthenolides, which are toxic for your body in high dosages. Although its action is very quickly, you need to be careful when taking a treatment based on Tansy Tea. Exceeding the recommended dosage may lead to death! - Thyme Tea – known mostly for its ability to treat menstrual pain, Thyme Tea is also one of the Teas for Migraines we strongly recommend. Its active ingredient is a substance called thymol, which is responsible for the calming effect that this tea has on you and your health. Also, applied topically, Thyme Tea is a good remedy for cuts and opened wounds. - White Peony Root Tea – used especially for its anti-inflammatory properties, White Peony Root Tea is probably the most effective and also the rarest of these Teas for Migraines. It contains a substance called paeoniflorin, which has a high anti-spastic action, so it can calm not only your migraines, but almost any type of localized pain. The other ingredients, flavonoids, proanthocyanidins, tannins and polysaccharides make this particular herbal treatment work more efficient. By its own, paeniflorin is not as effective as used in combination with these other substances. - Yucca Tea – familiar to the South American populations and almost unknown for the Europeans, Yucca Tea is one of the teas that could probably treat almost any kind of affection. When you look in the Teas for Migraines section, you’ll notice that Yucca Tea has its own place. Thanks to a series of curative properties generated by the amount of saponins contained, Yucca Tea can treat other conditions of your body as well. If you suffer from arthritis or you just want a natural remedy for your hair, Yucca Tea is the answer! - Yerba Mate Tea – drank from special reservoirs, Yerba Mate Tea is commonly known as “the Argentine coffee”. Although it might be a little difficult to find it if you live in Europe, in case you’re looking for Teas for Migraines and you run into a teashop specialized in Yerba Mate products, hold on to it! It is said that this miraculous tea has all the ingredients necessary to sustain life. Specialists even call it “the new green tea”, thanks to its many curative properties. If you suffer from severe migraines, there’s no point in spending a lot of money on traditional pain killers. Just give one of these teas a try and enjoy its wonderful benefits!... Beneficial Teas

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Beneficial Teas

Tinnitus Retraining Therapy

(TRT) a method of treating *tinnitus that embraces a range of techniques, including explanation, counselling, relaxation techniques, meditation, and sound therapy.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Toilet-training

The process of teaching a young child to acquire complete bowel and bladder control.

A child is unlikely to be completely toilet-trained before age 3 and may normally take much longer to remain dry at night (see enuresis).... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Training

See DIET; EXERCISE.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Training

A programme of exercises that is undertaken to prepare for a particular sport.

Training may be concentrated on improving skills or on improving physical fitness.

Fitness training should include both aerobic and anaerobic exercises, which together build up strength, flexibility, and endurance.

Interval training is a type of fitness programme in which a particular exercise is repeated several times with a rest period between.

Circuit training consists of performing a set number of different exercises.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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Traumatic Brain Injury

(TBI) injury to the brain due to external force, such as occurs following falls, road traffic accidents, and violence. It is a major cause of death and chronic disability worldwide, especially in young males.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Vocational Training

see foundation training.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Water On The Brain

A nonmedical term for hydrocephalus.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Ygraine

(English) Form of Igraine, the mother of Arthur in Arthurian legend Ygrane, Ygrayne, Ygrain, Ygrayn, Ygraen, Ygraene... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary