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Aconitum Chasmanthum

Stapf ex Holmes.

Family: Ranunculaceae.

Habitat: The western Himalayas from Hazara to Kashmir and Chamba in Himachal Pradesh, between altitudes of 2,100 m and 3,600 m.

English: Indian Napellus.

Ayurvedic: Visha, Shringika-Visha, Vatsanaabha (related sp.).

Folk: Mohri, Meethaa Zahar.

Action: Sedative, antirheumatic, analgesic, antitussive, antidiar- rhoeal. Ayurvedic Formulary of India, Part I and Part II, equated A. chasmanthum with Vatsanaabha. (See A.ferox.) It has the same uses as A. ferox. The alkaloid content of the root ranges from 2.98 to 3.11%; includes chasmaconitine and chasmanthinine.

Napellus, equated with Aconitum napellus Linn., is indigenous to Central Europe (named after the Black sea port Aconis and known as Wolfsbane, Monkshood). Aconitum of homoeopathic medicine is an alkaloid obtained from the roots and stems of A. nepellus. Used as an analgesic and sedative. It contains terpenoids up to 1.2%, including aconitine and aconine.

Toxic constituents of A. napellus are aconitine, mesaconitine, hypaconi- tine, 3-acetylacoitine, lappaconitine (diterpenoid-ester alkaloids), benza- conine, benzoylaconine.

Aconitine, mesaconitine and hyp- aconitine exert widespread effects on cardiac, neural and muscle tissue by activitating sodium channels. (Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, 2007.)

Aconitine is absorbed through mucus membranes and the skin. (Francis Brinker.) It is a cardiotoxin and interacts with antiarrhythmics, antihypertensives, Digoxin/cardiac glycosides. (Sharon M. Herr.)

Dosage: Root—10-15 mg powder. (CCRAS.)... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Allemanda Cathartica

Linn.

Family: Apocynaceae.

Habitat: Native to Central America and Brazil. Grown in Indian gardens.

English: Golden Trumpet.

Folk: Zahari Sontakkaa. (Maharashtra).

Action: Leaves—cathartic (in moderate doses; emetic in large doses). Bark—hydragogue, in ascites.

The purgative property of the aqueous extract of leaves was confirmed pharmacologically in rats. The extract also showed antifungal activity against ringworm causing fungi. Flower extract inhibits fungal growth.

EtOH extract of roots showed in- vivo activity against P-388 leukaemia in mouse and in vitro against human carcinoma cells of nasopharynx (KB). The root contains antileukaemic iri- doid lactone, allamandin and two other iridoids, allamandicin and allamdin.

The stems and leaves contain beta- amyrin, beta-sitosterol and ursolic acid. Petals gave flavonoids—kaem- pferol and quercetin.... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Aman

(African) A trustworthy woman Amana... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Amanda

(Latin) One who is much loved Amandi, Amandah, Amandea, Amandee, Amandey, Amande, Amandie, Amandy, Amandya, Amandalee, Amandalyn, Amandia, Amandina, Amandine... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Amandeep

(Indian) Emanating the light of peace

Amanpreet, Amanjot... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Amandla

(African) A powerful woman... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Amani

(African / Arabic) One who is peaceful / one with wishes and dreams Amanie, Amany, Amaney, Amanee, Amanye, Amanea, Amaneah... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Amanita

n. a genus of fungi that contains several species of poisonous toadstools, including A. phalloides (death cap), A. pantherina (panther cap), and A. muscaria (fly agaric). They produce toxins that cause abdominal pain, violent vomiting, and continuous diarrhoea. In the absence of treatment death occurs in approximately 50% of cases, due to severe liver damage.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Amanita Muscaria

Linn.

Family: Agaricaceae; Amanitaceae.

English: Fly Agaric (mushroom), Aga, Soma.

Ayurvedic: Identified as Soma of Rigveda (controversial). (Sushruta described 24 varieties of Soma and 18 other drugs as its substitutes.) Intensely poisonous; used for intoxication.

The fungus has been used in Russia for preparing an intoxicating drink.

Toxic principles arecholine, mus- carine and mycetoatropine (muscari- dine). Muscarine stimulates postgan- glionic, cholinergic and neuroeffector junctions. The isoxazole constituents are psychoactive.

2-4 Fly Agaric (more than 10 g fresh) are toxic; 20 (more than 100 g fresh) are lethal. (Francis Brinker.)

A. pantherina is used in Japan for intoxication.

Aga is not a true hallucinogen. The illusions are a misinterpretation of sensory stimuli due to isoxazole, ibotenic acid, muscimol, muscazone and traces of muscarine. (Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, 2007.)... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Amantadine

A drug used to treat certain virus infections which is also of value in the prevention of some forms of in?uenza. It is also used to treat PARKINSONISM.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Amantadine

n. an antiviral drug that increases the activity of *dopamine in the brain and is used mainly to treat Parkinson’s disease. Common side-effects include nervousness, loss of muscular coordination, and insomnia.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Amantadine

An antiviral drug used in the prevention and treatment of influenza A and to help relieve symptoms of Parkinson’s disease.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Ammannia Baccifera

Linn.

Family: Lythraceae.

Habitat: Marshy areas throughout India, as a weed.

English: Blistering Ammannia.

Ayurvedic: Agnipatri.

Folk: Daadmaari. (Also known as Paashaanabheda.)

Action: Stomachic, laxative, antirheumatic, febrifuge. Leaves— used externally for ringworm, herpic eruptions and other skin diseases; rubefacient.

Leaves contain lawsone. Plant extract—antibacterial. Extracts of stem, leaf and inflorescence are more effective as compared with the seed and root extract.... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Angelman Syndrome

a neurogenetic disorder characterized by severe developmental delay, absence of speech, seizures, a jerky puppet-like gait (see ataxia), and paroxysmal laughter (giving it the alternative name happy puppet syndrome). Affected children commonly have cranial and facial abnormalities, such as a small or flattened head. Angelman syndrome is a prototype of genomic *imprinting: a deletion on maternal chromosome 15 is the cause in a majority of cases. [H. Angelman (1915–96), British paediatrician]... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Anxiety Management

a *behaviour therapy designed to allow patients who suffer from anxiety disorders to reduce their symptoms by learning how to achieve states of relaxation and deal with excessive *rumination about anxiety-provoking thoughts.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Armanda

(Spanish) Feminine form of Armando; battlemaiden... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Armani

(Persian) One who is desired; a goal Armanee, Armanii, Armahni, Arman, Armanie, Armany, Armaney, Armanea, Armaneah... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Asherman Syndrome

a condition in which *amenorrhoea and infertility follow a major haemorrhage in pregnancy. It may result from overvigorous curettage of the uterus in an attempt to control the bleeding. This removes the lining, the walls adhere, and the cavity is obliterated to a greater or lesser degree. Some 50% of such patients are subsequently infertile, and of those who become pregnant, only a minority achieve an uncomplicated delivery. Compare Sheehan’s syndrome. [J. G. Asherman (20th century), Czechoslovakian gynaecologist]... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Barefoot Doctor’s Manual

Published 1970 by the Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine of Hunan Province, China, to supply its barefoot doctors with a basic guide in their work of serving the rural population (“. . . because they worked in the paddy fields like any other commune member, barefooted and with trouser legs rolled up, they were given the name ‘barefoot doctors’ ” (Pekin Review, 1977)). ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

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Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

Barlow Manoeuvre

a test for *congenital dislocation of the hip that detects whether or not a hip can be readily dislocated. With the baby lying supine and the pelvis steadied with one hand, the hip being tested is gently adducted and backward pressure is applied to the head of the femur. If the hip is dislocatable, a clunk will be felt and sometimes heard (Von Rosen’s sign). If the hip is gently abducted, it will usually relocate. [T. Barlow (1845–1945), British physician]... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Bimanual

adj. using two hands to perform an activity, such as a gynaecological examination.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Bites, Human

Wounds caused by one person biting another. Human bites rarely cause serious tissue damage or blood loss, but infection is likely, particularly if the bite is deep. There is a risk of tetanus infection. Transmission of hepatitis B, herpes simplex, and AIDS by a bite is a theoretical hazard.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Bowman’s Capsule

the cup-shaped end of a *nephron, which encloses a knot of blood capillaries (glomerulus). It is the site of primary filtration of the blood into the kidney tubule. [Sir W. P. Bowman (1816–92), British physician]... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Brodmann Areas

the numbered areas (1–47) into which a map of the *cerebral cortex may conveniently be divided for descriptive purposes, based upon the arrangement of neurons seen in stained sections under the microscope. On the map area 4, for example, corresponds to primary motor cortex, while the primary visual cortex comes into area 17. [K. Brodmann (1868–1918), German neurologist]... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Brugmansia Suaveolens

Bercht. & Presl.

Synonym Datura suaveolens Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.

Habitat: Native to Mexico; grown in Indian gardens.

English: Angel's Trumpet.

Action: Leaf and flower—used to treat asthma; to induce hallucinations. Can cause severe toxicity.

All parts of the plant contain tropane alkaloids (concentration highest in the foliage and seeds), particularly atropine, hyoscyamine and hyoscine (scopolamine.)... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Burns–marshall Manoeuvre

a manoeuvre used during an assisted *breech presentation. The baby’s legs and trunk should be allowed to hang until the nape of the neck is visible at the mother’s perineum so that its weight exerts gentle downwards and backwards traction to promote flexion of the head. The fetal trunk is then swept in a wide arc over the maternal abdomen by grasping both the feet and maintaining gentle traction; the aftercoming head is slowly born in this process.

burr n. see bur.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Care Management

See “case management”.... Community Health

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Community Health

Cartimandua

(Anglo-Saxon) A powerful queen... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Case Management

A continuous process of planning, arranging and coordinating multiple health care services across time, place and discipline for persons with high-risk conditions or complex needs in order to ensure appropriate care and optimum quality, as well as to contain costs.... Community Health

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Community Health

Cayman

(English) From the islands Cayeman, Caman, Caiman, Caeman, Caymanne, Caimanne, Caemanne, Camanne... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Chamania

(Hebrew) Resembling a sunflower

Chamaniah, Chamanea, Chamaneah, Chamaniya, Chamaniyah, Chamaran, Chamarann, Chamarana, Chamaranna... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Chamomile Flowers (german)

Wild Chamomile. Matricaria recutita L. German: Hundskamille. French: Camomille. Italian: Camomilla. Spanish: Camomile. Part used: flowerheads. Contains chamazulene which is active against staphylococcus aureus.

Constituents: volatile oil, flavonoids, tannic acid.

Action. Anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiseptic (mild), anti-peptic ulcer, anodyne (mild), antispasmodic, bitter, carminative, vulnerary. Mild nerve sedative but tonic to the alimentary canal.

Uses: Internal use. Nervous excitability, convulsions, restlessness, hyperactivity in children, insomnia, early stages of fever, measles (warm tea), travel sickness, pin and thread worms, peptic ulcer, gastro- intestinal spasm – calms down digestive system, pre-menstrual tension, hysteria from womb irritation, Candida albicans, inflammation of respiratory and gastro-intestinal tracts, sore throat and mouth. Psychosomatic illness: see CHAMOMILE ROMAN. May be used in pregnancy.

External use. “Inflammation and irritation of skin and mucosa, including the oral cavity and gums, respiratory tract and anal and genital area.” (EM) Conjunctivitis (cold tea). Gangrene (poultice with few drops Tincture Myrrh).

Combinations. With Valerian, Passion flower and Hops (equal parts) for nervous excitability. With Liquorice 1 and Chamomile 4 for gastric ulcer and chronic dyspepsia. Chamomile works well with Peppermint and Balm; equal parts.

Preparations: One teaspoon to each cup boiling water; infuse 5-10 minutes; one cup freely. Powder. Quarter to half a teaspoon; tablets/capsules.

Liquid extract BHC Vol 1. 1:1 in 45 per cent ethanol. Dose: 1-4ml (15-60 drops). Tincture. 1 part to 5 parts 45 per cent alcohol. Dose: 5-10ml (1-2 teaspoons).

Oil of Chamomile. Prepare as for OILS – IMPREGNATED.

Essential oil (Aromatherapy). Externally for neuralgia.

Compress: See: CHAMOMILE FLOWERS, ROMAN. Rinses. Gargles.

Chamomile bath. Add strong infusion to bath water for irritable skin rash, eczema.

Chamomile enema. 1 tablespoon flowers in 2 litres (3 and a half pints) boiling water; infuse, strain and inject warm.

Side-effects: rare contact skin allergy. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

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Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

Chamomile Flowers (roman)

Anthemis Nobilis. Chamaemelum nobile L. German: Romisch Kamille. French: Chamomille romaine. Italian: Camomilla odorosa. Spanish: Manzanilla.

Constituents: sesquiterpene lactones, flavonoids.

Action: antispasmodic, analgesic (mild), anti-inflammatory (simple acute), bitter, carminative, de- sensitiser (skin), tranquilliser (mild), anti-convulsant, anti-emetic, sedative (mild). One of the chief medicinal plants used by the phytotherapist.

Uses: Children’s convulsions, physical stress, hyperactive children. Indigestion in excitable females. Nausea and indigestion from emotional upset. Facial neuralgia. Insomnia. Meniere’s syndrome. Gastro- intestinal irritation with diarrhoea. Travel sickness (cup hot tea). Wind. Vomiting of pregnancy. Loss of appetite. Sore mouth, nasal catarrh. Infertility (sometimes successful). The oil is active against staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. Skin disorders (steam face with hot tea). Autonomic imbalance. Hot tired feet (strong tea used as a footbath). Hair loss: strong tea, externally. Inflammation of the skin. Psychosomatic:– keynote: irritability. “Cannot bear it”; temper, everything seems intolerable, uncivil, impatient in sickness.

Preparations: As necessary. 4-6 flowerheads to each cup boiling water infuse 15 minutes; half-1 cup. Tincture BHC Vol 1. 1:5, 45 per cent ethanol. Dose: 3-5ml.

Oil of Chamomile. Prepare as for OILS, IMPREGNATED. For cracked lips, dry hands and feet, massage or deodorant.

Essential oil (Aromatherapy): widely used as an inhalant.

Compress. Half-1oz flowers to small muslin or linen bag; immerse in half a pint boiling water; wring out and apply bag over affected area. Repeatedly moisten bag when dry.

Large doses emetic. Not used in pregnancy. Enema. See: GERMAN CHAMOMILE.

Chamomile ointment. Nappy rash, dry skin, irritation. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

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Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

Chamomile, German

Matricaria recutica

FAMILY: Asteraceae (Compositae)

SYNONYMS: M. chamomilla, camomile, blue chamomile, matricaria, Hungarian chamomile, sweet false chamomile, single chamomile, chamomile blue (oil).

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: An annual, strongly aromatic herb, up to 60 cms tall with a hairless, erect, branching stem. It has delicate feathery leaves and simple daisy-like white flowers on single stems. In appearance it is very similar to the corn chamomile (Anthemis arvensis) but can be distinguished from it because the latter is scentless.

DISTRIBUTION: Native to Europe and north and west Asia; naturalized in North America and Australia. It is cultivated extensively, especially in Hungary and eastern Europe, where the oil is produced. It is no longer grown in Germany, despite the herbal name.

OTHER SPECIES: There are many varieties of chamomile, such as the pineapple weed (Chamaemelium suaveolens) and the Roman chamomile (C. nobile), both of which are used to produce an essential oil.

HERBAL/FOLK TRADITION: This herb has a long-standing medicinal tradition, especially in Europe for ‘all states of tension and the visceral symptoms that can arise therefrom, such as nervous dyspepsia and nervous bowel, tension headaches, and sleeplessness; especially useful for all children’s conditions, calming without depressing …’.

An excellent skin care remedy, it has many of the same qualities as Roman chamomile, except that its anti-inflammatory properties are greater due to the higher percentage of azulene.

ACTIONS: Analgesic, anti-allergenic, anti inflammatory, antiphlogistic, antispasmodic, bactericidal, carlminative, cicatrisant, cholagogue, digestive, emmenagogue, febrifuge, fungicidal, hepatic, nerve sedative, stimulant of leucocyte production, stomachic, sudorific, vermifuge, vulnerary.

EXTRACTION: Essential oil by steam distillation from the flower heads (up to 1.9 per cent yield). An absolute is also produced in small quantities, which is a deeper blue colour and has greater tenacity and fixative properties.

CHARACTERISTICS: An inky-blue viscous liquid with a strong, sweetish warm-herbaceous odour. It blends well with geranium, lavender, patchouli, rose, benzoin, neroli, bergamot, marjoram, lemon, ylang ylang, jasmine, clary sage and labdanum.

PRINCIPAL CONSTITUENTS: Chamazulene, farnesene, bisabolol oxide, en-yndicycloether, among others. (NB The chamazulene is not present in the fresh flower but is only produced during the process of distillation.)

SAFETY DATA: Non-toxic, non-irritant; causes dermatitis in some individuals.

AROMATHERAPY/HOME: USE

Skin Care: Acne, allergies, boils, burns, cuts, chilblains, dermatitis, earache, eczema, hair care, inflammations, insect bites, rashes, sensitive skin, teething pain, toothache, wounds.

Circulation Muscles And Joints: Arthritis, inflamed joints, muscular pain, neuralgia, rheumatism, sprains.

Digestive System: Dyspepsia, colic, indigestion, nausea.

Genito-Urinary System: Dysmenorrhoea, menopausal problems, menorrhagia.

Nervous System: Headache, insomnia, nervous tension, migraine and stress-related complaints.

OTHER USES: Used in pharmaceutical antiseptic ointments and in carminative, antispasmodic and tonic preparations. Extensively used in cosmetics, soaps, detergents, high-class perfumes and hair and bath products. Used as a flavour ingredient in most major food categories, including alcoholic and soft drinks.... The Encyclopedia of Essential Oils

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The Encyclopedia of Essential Oils

Chamomile, Roman

Chamaemelum nobile

FAMILY: Asteraceae (Compositae)

SYNONYMS: Anthemis nobilis, camomile, English chamomile, garden chamomile, sweet chamomile, true chamomile.

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: A small, stocky, perennial herb, up to 25 cms high, with a much branched hairy stem, half spreading or creeping. It has feathery pinnate leaves, daisy-like white flowers which are larger than those of the German chamomile. The whole plant has an applelike scent.

DISTRIBUTION: Native to southern and western Europe; naturalized in North America. Cultivated in England, Belgium, Hungary, United States, Italy and France.

OTHER SPECIES: There are a great many varieties of chamomile found throughout the world, four of which are native to the British Isles, but the only one of these used therapeutically is the Roman chamomile (C. nobile).

HERBAL/FOLK TRADITION: This herb has had a medical reputation in Europe and especially in the Mediterranean region for over 2000 years, and it is still in widespread use. It was employed by the ancient Egyptians and the Moors, and it was one of the Saxons’ nine sacred herbs, which they called ‘maythen’. It was also held to be the ‘plant’s physician’, since it promoted the health of plants nearby.

It is current in the British Herbal Pharmacopoeia for the treatment of dyspepsia, nausea, anorexia, vomiting in pregnancy, dysmenorrhoea and specifically flatulent dyspepsia associated with mental stress.

ACTIONS: Analgesic, anti-anaemic, antineuralgic, antiphlogistic, antiseptic, antispasmodic, bactericidal, carminative, cholagogue, cicatrisant, digestive, emmenagogue, febrifuge, hepatic, hypnotic, nerve sedative, stomachic, sudorific, tonic, vermifuge, vulnerary.

EXTRACTION: Essential oil by steam distillation of the flower heads.

CHARACTERISTICS: A pale blue liquid (turning yellow on keeping) with a warm, sweet, fruity-herbaceous scent. It blends well with bergamot, clary sage, oakmoss, jasmine, labdanum, neroli, rose, geranium and lavender.

PRINCIPAL CONSTITUENTS: Mainly esters of angelic and tiglic acids (approx. 85 per cent), with pinene, farnesol, nerolidol, chamazulene, pinocarvone, cineol, among others.

SAFETY DATA: Non-toxic, non-irritant; can cause dermatitis in some individuals.

AROMATHERAPY/HOME: USE See German chamomile.

OTHER USES: See German chamomile.... The Encyclopedia of Essential Oils

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The Encyclopedia of Essential Oils

Children’s Auditory Performance Scale

(CHAPS) a questionnaire designed to assess children’s hearing abilities in certain situations. It is used in the diagnosis of *auditory processing disorder.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Chiropsalmus Quadrumanus

A multi-tentacled box-jellyfish present on the eastern coastline of tropical America. It has caused at least one documented death in Texas, U.S.A.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

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Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

Chumana

(Native American) Covered with dew

Chumanah, Chumanna, Chumannah... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Chumani

(Native American) Resembling a dewdrop

Chumanie, Chumany, Chumaney, Chumanee, Chumanea, Chumaneah... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Clergyman’s Knee

Inflammation of the bursa that cushions the pressure point over the tibial tubercle (the bony prominence just below the knee) caused by prolonged kneeling (see bursitis).... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Clinical Performance Measure

An instrument that estimates the extent to which a health care provider delivers clinical services that are appropriate for each patient’s condition; provides them safely, competently and in an appropriate time-frame; and achieves desired outcomes in terms of those aspects of patient health and patient satisfaction that can be affected by clinical services.... Community Health

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Community Health

Clinical Risk Management

Initially driven by anxiety about the possibility of medical negligence cases, clinical risk management has evolved into the study of IATROGENIC DISEASE. The ?rst priority of risk managers is to ensure that all therapies in medicine are as safe as possible. Allied to this is a recognition that errors may occur even when error-prevention strategies are in place. Lastly, any accidents that occur are analysed, allowing a broader understanding of their cause. Risk management is generally centred on single adverse events. The threat of litigation is taken as an opportunity to expose unsafe conditions of practice and to put pressure on those with the authority to implement change. These might include senior clinicians, hospital management, the purchasing authorities, and even the Secretary of State for Health. Attention is focused on organisational factors rather than on the individuals involved in a speci?c case.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Codman’s Triangle

a triangular area of new bone seen on X-ray at the edge of a malignant bone tumour resulting from elevation of the *periosteum by malignant tissue. It is most often seen in *osteosarcomas. [E. A. Codman (1869–1940), US surgeon]... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Colemand

(American) An adventurer Colmand, Colemyan, Colemyand, Colmyan, Colmyand... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Commando Operation

a major operation performed to remove a malignant tumour from the head and neck. Extensive dissection, often involving the face, is followed by reconstruction to restore function and cosmetic acceptability.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Continence Management

The practice of promoting and maintaining continence and the assessment, evaluation and action taken to support this.... Community Health

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Community Health

Curschmann’s Spirals

elongated *casts of the smaller bronchi, which are coughed up in bronchial asthma. They unroll to a length of 2 cm or more and have a central core ensheathed in mucus and cell debris. [H. Curschmann (1846–1910), German physician]... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

A spectrum of skin disease caused by protozoan Leishmania spp, with a lifecycle and vectors identical to that of Leishmania donovani (see visceral leishmaniasis). The spectrum of disease ranges from a single, dry cutaneous lesion (L. tropica) through to destructive mucocutaneous lesions (L. braziliensis braziliensis).... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

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Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

Damani

(American) Of a bright tomorrow Damanie, Damany, Damaney, Damanee, Damanea, Damaneah... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Demand (for Health Services)

Willingness and/or ability to seek, use and, in some settings, pay for services. Sometimes further subdivided into expressed demand (equated with use) and potential demand or need.... Community Health

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Community Health

Department Of Health And Human Services

(HHS) the major US government agency providing health care. The department was created in 1953 and assumed its current name in 1980. HHS administers more than 300 health and health-related programmes and services, including *Medicare and *Medicaid. Other activities include research, immunization services, and providing financial assistance for low-income families. Almost a quarter of federal spending occurs through HHS.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Dermanyssus

n. a genus of widespread parasitic mites. The red poultry mite, D. gallinae, is a common parasite of wild birds in temperate regions but can also infest poultry. It occasionally attacks and takes a blood meal from humans, causing itching and mild dermatitis.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Diamanta

(French) Woman of high value; resembling a diamond Diamanda, Diamonda, Diamantina, Diamantia, Diamantea, Diamante, Diamond, Diamonde, Diamonique, Diamontina... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Dipsomania

A morbid and insatiable craving for ALCOHOL.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Dipsomania

n. morbid and insatiable craving for alcohol, occurring in paroxysms. A small proportion of alcoholics show this symptom (see alcoholism). The term (meaning ‘compulsive thirst’) has occasionally been used in relation to individuals with schizophrenia, who drink water or juices excessively.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Dipsomania

A form of alcohol dependence in which periods of excessive

drinking and craving for drink alternate with periods of relative sobriety.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Disease Management

The process of identifying and delivering, within selected populations (e.g. people with asthma or diabetes), the most efficient, effective combination of resources, interventions or pharmaceuticals for the treatment or prevention of a disease. Disease management could include team-based care, where medical practitioners and/or other health professionals participate in the delivery and management of care. It also includes the appropriate use of pharmaceuticals.... Community Health

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Community Health

Emmanuela

(Hebrew) Feminine form of Emmanuel; God is with us Emmanuella, Emmanuele, Emmanuelle, Emunah, Emanuela, Emanuele, Emanuelle, Emanuella, Eman, Emman, Emmuna, Emann... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Environmental Manipulation

Making temporary changes to the environment with the objective of reducing vector abundance.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

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Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

Epley Particle Repositioning Manoeuvre

a series of head and body movements used to move microscopic debris from the posterior *semicircular canal in the inner ear. It is used in the treatment of *benign paroxysmal positional vertigo.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Equality And Human Rights Commission

a nondepartmental public body set up in 2007 to promote human rights and equality in regard to age, disability, gender, race, religion and belief, pregnancy and maternity, marriage and civil partnership, sexual orientation, and human rights. It replaced the Commission for Racial Equality, the Disability Rights Commission, and the Equal Opportunities Commission.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Eramana

(German) An honorable woman Eramanna, Eramanah, Eramane, Eramann, Eramanne... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Erotomania

See: SATYRIASIS. NYMPHOMANIA.

ERUPTION. A lesion on the skin, red and raised above the surface. See appropriate skin disease. ERUCTATION. See: REFLUX. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

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Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

Erotomania

(de Clérambault syndrome) n. a delusion that the individual is loved by some person, often a person of importance. It can be a symptom of a *monodelusional disorder or part of a mental illness, such as dementia or schizophrenia.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Fisherman’s Friend Throat And Chest Lozenges

Contain Eucalyptus oil 0.153 per cent, Cubeb oil 0.305 per cent, Tincture Capsicum 0.02 per cent, Liquorice extract 7.317 per cent, Menthol 0.9 per cent. Specially formulated for Fleetwood Deep Sea fishermen working in Icelandic frost and fog conditions to relieve bronchial congestion, and ease breathing. (Lofthouse) ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

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Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

Garcinia Mangostana

Linn.

Family: Guttiferae; Clusiaceae.

Habitat: Native to Malaysia. Now cultivated mainly on lower slopes of the Nilgiris.

English: Mangosteen, Dodol.

Siddha/Tamil: Sulambuli, Mangusta.

Folk: Mangustaan.

Action: Fruit—antileucorrhoeic, astringent, antifungal, antibacterial; used in cystitis, diseases of the genitourinary tract, diarrhoea, tropical dysentery and fevers. Pericarp—used externally for eczema and other skin diseases. Leaves—anti-inflammatory, anti- immunosuppressive, antiprotozoal, antimicrobial.

The plant contains anthocyanin gly- cosides, a benzophenone, maclurin and several prenylated and related xan- thones. The leaves contain terpenoids, xanthones and long chain hydrocarbons.

The pericarp (fruit hull) contains the xanthone derivatives, mangostin, nor- mangostin, beta-mangostin, gamma- mangostin, isomangostin as major constituents.

Mangostin, isolated from the rind of fruit, inhibited primary and secondary responses to adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats. Mangostin, isoman- gostin and mangostin triacetate exhibited pronounced anti-inflammatory activity in rats both by i.p. and oral routes.

Mangostin also produced antiulcer activity in rats.

Mangostin and some of its derivatives produced CNS depression, characterized by ptosis, sedation and decreased motor activity.

Gamma-mangostin showed more potent radical scavenging and antioxi- dant activity than BHA.... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Gelidium Amansii

Kutz.

Family: Gelidaceae, Rhodophyceae.

Habitat: Indigenous to Japan.

English: Agar Agar, Japanese Isinglass. (Dried mucilaginous extract.)

Folk: Agar-Agar.

Action: Bulk-laxative. Agar-Agar does not increase peristaltic action. Its action is similar to that of cellulose of vegetable foods which aids the regularity of the bowel movement. (Often made into an emulsion with liquid paraffin for use in constipation.)

Most agars consist of two major polygalactoses, the neutral agarose and the sulphonated polysaccharide agaropectin, with traces of amino acids and free sugars.

Agar contains a large amount of pectin which may precipitate when exposed to alcohol. (Sharon M Herr.)... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Genome, Human

The complete set of human genetic material. The human genome consists of 23 chromosomes, which, together, contain about 30,000 genes. All body cells contain 2 sets of the 23 chromosomes, one set inherited from the father and the other from the mother. An international research programme, the Human Genome Project, was launched in 1990 with the aim of identifying all the human genes. The first rough draft of the project was published in 2000.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

German Measles

The common name for the viral infection rubella.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

German Measles

a mild highly contagious virus infection, mainly of childhood, causing enlargement of lymph nodes in the neck and a widespread pink rash. The disease is spread by close contact with a patient. After an incubation period of 2–3 weeks a headache, sore throat, and slight fever develop, followed by swelling and soreness of the neck and the eruption of a rash of minute pink spots, spreading from the face and neck to the rest of the body. The spots disappear within 7 days but the patient remains infectious for a further 3–4 days. An infection usually confers immunity. As German measles can cause fetal malformations during early pregnancy, girls should be immunized against the disease before puberty. Most children now receive immunization via the *MMR vaccine as part of the routine childhood vaccination schedule. Medical name: rubella. Compare scarlet fever.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

German Measles

Rubella. An infectious virus disease spread by droplet transmission. Incubation: between 2-3 weeks. A notifiable disease.

Symptoms. Mild fever, temperature rising to 101°F (38°C), headache, drowsiness, runny nose, sore throat, swelling of glands side of neck and behind ears; itchy rash of small pink spots spreads from face downwards to whole of the body, lasting 3 days.

Complication: inflammation of the brain (rare).

If patient is pregnant professional care is necessary as congenital defects, stillbirth or abortion may follow in early pregnancy. There is evidence of a link between the virus and juvenile joint disease and arthritis later in life.

Treatment. Bedrest. Plenty of fluids (herb teas, fruit juices). Should not be suppressed by drugs. Alternatives:– Teas. Any one. Balm, Chamomile flowers, Elderflowers and Peppermint, Hyssop, Wild Thyme, Marigold. Sage, Peppermint. Combination: equal parts, Marigold flowers, Elderflowers, Yarrow. Prepare: 2 teaspoons to each cup boiling water; infuse 15 minutes. Half-1 cup freely.

Tablets/capsules. Echinacea.

Tinctures. Echinacea: 5-30 drops in water every 2 hours. OR: Combine, equal parts Echinacea and Wild Indigo with few drops Tincture Capsicum; 5-30 drops every 2 hours.

Absence of urine: add 1 part Pleurisy root.

For swollen glands: add 1 part Clivers.

For nervousness: add 1 part Skullcap.

For sore throat: Cinnamon.

Diet. Commence 3-day fast with no solid food. Abundant Vitamin C drinks, fruit juices, etc.

To be treated by or in liaison with a qualified medical practitioner. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

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Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

German Measles

See RUBELLA.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Germander

Teucrium chamaedrys L. Herb, in flower.

Constituents: iridoid glycosides, tannins, volatile oil.

Action: anti-diarrhoea, anti-inflammatory, anti-rheumatism, antimicrobial, antiseptic (mild), stomach bitter, diaphoretic, brain tonic, antispasmodic. Has been associated with cases of liver disease and is not now used internally.

Uses: Summer diarrhoea in children, irritable bowel, acute dyspepsia, lack of appetite, chronic bronchitis, skin disorders, pyorrhoea and inflammation of the gums (tea used as a mouth wash). To induce weight loss in slimming diets. Travel sickness, cellulitis, flatulence. Gout.

Preparations: Average dose: 2-4g. Thrice daily. Tea. 1 teaspoon to each cup boiling water; infuse 15 minutes. Dose half a cup.

Liquid extract. Half-1 teaspoon in water.

Powder, capsules: 250mg. Dose: 2 capsules between meals.

Note: Given to facilitate weight loss it has been known to be hepatotoxic. Of historic interest only. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

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Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

Germanium

Rare white metal. Symbol: Ge. Atomic No 32. Plays an important role in all biochemical life. Found in traces in soil and Lourdes water. Present in certain foods and helps eliminate toxic metals from the body. Neutralises free radicals. Restores the body’s pH balance disturbed by highly ‘acid’ foods: meat, dairy products, refined foods and alcohol. Immune enhancer, mild analgesic and energy modulator.

The metal is claimed to have a beneficial effect on asthma, high blood pressure, Raynaud’s disease, heart and circulatory disorders. Believed to be a challenge to cancer cells and metastasis.

Source plants: Aloe Vera, Comfrey (Symphytum pereginum), Chlorella, Bandai udo (Aralia cordata) and Bandai Moss; Pearl Barley.

Ginseng becomes defenceless against viruses and bacteria where there exists a deficiency of Germanium in the soil. (Dr Kazuhike Asai, Tokyo, Japan)

Garlic is rich in this trace element. (Dr Uta Sandra Goodman) ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

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Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

Gerstmann’s Syndrome

a group of symptoms that represent a partial disintegration of the patient’s recognition of his or her *body image. It consists of an inability to name the individual fingers, misidentification of the right and left sides of the body, and inability to write or make mathematical calculations (see acalculia; agraphia). It is caused by disease in the association area of the dominant (usually left) parietal lobe of the brain. [J. G. Gerstmann (1887–1969), Austrian neurologist]... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Gerstmann–straussler–scheinker Syndrome

an autosomal *dominant condition that is caused by a mutation in the *prion protein gene and resembles *Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). Patients present with cerebellar dysfunction (*ataxia and *dysarthria) and later develop dementia. They continue to deteriorate over several years, in contrast with patients with CJD, who deteriorate rapidly over periods of less than 12 months. [J. G. Gerstmann]... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Gethsemane

(Hebrew) Worker of the oil press

Gethsemanie, Gethsemana, Gethsemani, Gethsemaney, Gethsemany, Gethsemanee, Gethsemanea... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Glomangioma

n. See glomus tumour. See also glomus.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Goldmann Applanation Tonometer

see tonometer. [H. Goldmann (1899–1991), Swiss ophthalmologist]... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Gonadotrophin, Human Chorionic

A hormone produced by the placenta in early pregnancy. Human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) stimulates the ovaries to produce oestrogen and progesterone, which are needed for a healthy pregnancy. HCG is excreted in the urine, and its presence in urine is the basis of pregnancy tests on urine samples. ... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Haemangioblastoma

(Lindau’s tumour) n. a tumour of the brain or spinal cord arising in the blood vessels of the meninges or brain. It is often associated with *phaeochromocytoma and *syringomyelia. See also von Hippel-Lindau disease.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Haemangioblastoma

A rare type of brain tumour consisting of blood-vessel cells. Haemangioblastomas develop slowly as cysts, often in the cerebellum, and are mostly noncancerous. Symptoms include headache, vomiting, nystagmus and, if the tumour is in the cerebellum, ataxia. Most can be removed surgically.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Haemangioma

These can be acquired or congenital. The acquired type presents as a red PAPULE which bleeds easily; treatment is normally by cautery. A ‘strawberry NAEVUS’ is a ‘capillarycavernous’ haemangioma appearing at or soon after birth, which may grow to a large size. Treatment is not usually required, as most of them fade – although this may take a few years. Where a haemangioma is dis?guring or interfering with vision or breathing, treatment is necessary: this may be by laser, by using CORTICOSTEROIDS or INTERFERON treatment, or by surgery.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Haemangioma

n. a benign tumour of blood vessels. It often appears on the skin as a type of birthmark; the strawberry *naevus is an example. See also angioma.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Haemangioma

A birthmark caused by abnormal distribution of blood vessels. Types of haemangioma include portwine stains, stork marks, and strawberry naevi. They generally disappear without leaving a scar by 5–7 years.

Haemangiomas do not usually require treatment. However, a haemangioma that bleeds persistently or that looks unsightly may need to be removed, by laser treatment, cryosurgery, radiotherapy, embolization, or plastic surgery.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Hahnemann

Dr SAMUEL (1755-1843). Born: Meissen, Germany. Discovered a science of healing which he called Homoeopathy, based on the immutable law of similia similibus curentur (like cures like). It brings to the treatment of human and animal sickness a universal law, which in the field of medicine ranks with Newton’s Law of Gravity in physics.

Far in advance of his time in preventive medicine, he denounced the hazardous treatments of his day thus arousing the animosity of his contemporaries. His major work, “The Organon” is the homoeopathist’s bible to this day. “Cinchona bark was to Hahnemann what the falling apple was to Newton and the swinging lamp to Galileo.” See: HOMOEOPATHY. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

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Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

Hamman’s Sign

a crunching sound synchronous with the heartbeat heard with a stethoscope in 45–50% of patients with *pneumomediastinum. [L. V. Hamman (1877–1946), US physician]... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Harimanna

(German) A warrior maiden Harimanne, Harimana, Harimane... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Harimanti

(Indian) Born during the spring Harimantie, Harymanti, Harimanty, Harymanty, Harymantie, Harimantea, Harymantea... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Hartmann’s Operation

a method of reconstruction after surgical removal of the distal colon and proximal rectum, in which the rectal stump is closed off and the divided end of the colon is brought out as a *colostomy. The technique allows for a second operation to join up the bowel ends and obviates the need for a stoma. It is often used temporarily where primary anastomosis is unsafe (e.g. in cases of perforated *diverticular disease) or permanently as a palliative procedure (e.g. for unresectable colonic cancer). [H. Hartmann (1860–1952), French surgeon]... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Hartmann’s Pouch

a saclike dilatation of the gall-bladder wall near its outlet; it is a common site for finding *gallstones. [R. Hartmann (1831–93), German anatomist]... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Hartmann’s Solution

a *physiological solution used for infusion into the circulation. In addition to essential ions, it also contains glucose. [A. F. Hartmann (1898–1964), US paediatrician]... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Hartmann’s Solution

A solution commonly used as a means of ?uid replacement in dehydrated patients (see also DEHYDRATION). Each litre contains 3·1 grams of sodium lactate, 6 grams of sodium chloride, 0·4 grams of potassium chloride, and 0·7 grams of calcium chloride.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Health Service Manager

an administrator with special training and skills in management who is concerned with the planning and provision of health services and with managing performance. Some managers enter the profession via the NHS Graduate Management Training Scheme; for others the basic training is in disciplines other than health; however, doctors, nurses, and others may fill such posts, sometimes combining them with professional appointments. See also National Health Service.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Health-service Management

The administrative machinery for planning, delivering and monitoring health care provided by health professionals and their supporting sta?. This may range from running a small primary-care centre to organising a large hospital or being responsible for meeting the health needs of a region or a nation. Whether the overall structure for proving care is state-funded, insurance-based, private-practice or a mixture of these, health-service management is essential in an era of rapidly evolving and expensive scienti?c medicine. Health-service managers are administrators with special training and skills in managing health care; sometimes they are doctors, nurses or other health professionals, but many have been trained in management in commercial, civil service or industrial environments.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Heimlich Manoeuvre

A first-aid treatment for choking. The sole aim of the Heimlich manoeuvre is to dislodge the material that is causing the blockage by placing one fist, covered by the other, just below the victim’s rib cage, and pulling sharply inwards and upwards to give an abdominal thrust.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Heimlich Manoeuvre

see abdominal thrusts. [H. J. Heimlich (1920–2016), US physician]... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Hemangini

(Indian) The golden child; one who shines

Hemangi, Hemangie, Hema, Hemlata, Hem... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Hemanti

(Indian) Born during the early winter

Hemantie, Hemanty, Hemantey, Hemantee, Hemantea... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Herbal Manual

Herbal Manual

[catlist id=8 numberposts=100 pagination=yes instance=2 orderby=title order=asc]

... Herbal Manual

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Herbal Manual

Hermandina

(Greek) A wellborn woman Hermandine, Hermandyna, Hermandeena, Hermandena, Hermandyne, Hermandeene, Hermandeane, Hermandeana... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Hickman Catheter

A flexible plastic tube, also known as a skin-tunnelled catheter, that is passed through the chest and inserted into the subclavian vein, which leads to the heart. It is often used in people who have leukaemia or other cancers and need regular chemotherapy and blood tests. The catheter allows drugs to be injected directly into the bloodstream and blood samples to be obtained easily. The catheter is inserted, under local anaesthesia. It can remain in position for months; the external end is plugged when not in use.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Hickman Catheter

a fine plastic cannula usually inserted into the subclavian vein in the neck to allow administration of drugs and repeated blood samples. The catheter is tunnelled for several centimetres beneath the skin to prevent infection entering the bloodstream. It is used most frequently in patients receiving long-term chemotherapy, particularly infusion regimes (e.g. fluorouracil).... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Hiv (human Immunodeficiency Virus)

The name of the causative agent of AIDS.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

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Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

Hoffmann’s Sign

(finger-flexion reflex) an abnormal reflex elicited by flicking the distal phalanx of the patient’s middle finger sharply downwards. Hoffmann’s sign is positive when there is a brisk flexion response in the index finger and thumb. It indicates an upper *motor neuron response due to a disorder at or above the cervical (neck) level of the spinal cord. [J. Hoffmann (1857–1919), German neurologist]... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Homans’ Sign

a test for deep vein thrombosis of the calf. With the patient lying supine, the examiner squeezes the calf firmly and dorsiflexes the foot; the test is positive if deep-seated pain is felt in the calf. [J. Homans (1877–1954), US physician]... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

House–brackmann Facial Nerve Grading System

(House–Brackmann score, House–Brackmann scale, House–Brackmann facial weakness scale) a six-point grading system for patients with *Bell’s palsy or other forms of facial nerve palsy. Grade I is normal function; grade VI is a total palsy. [J. W. House and D. E. Brackmann (21st century), US otorhinolarygologists]... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Human Capital

Human skills and capabilities generated by investments in education and health.... Community Health

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Community Health

Human Chorionic Gonadotrophin

(hCG) a hormone, similar to the pituitary *gonadotrophins, that is produced by the placenta during pregnancy. hCG maintains the secretion of *progesterone by the corpus luteum of the ovary, the secretion of pituitary gonadotrophins being blocked during pregnancy. Large amounts are excreted in the urine, and this is used as the basis for most *pregnancy tests. Serum hCG monitoring is used for tracking early pregnancy and detecting *ectopic pregnancies (in which the level will not double over a 48-hour period, as it does with normal pregnancies). The level of hCG in the serum is also one of the indicators used in *prenatal screening tests: levels are higher in pregnancies affected by Down’s syndrome in comparison with normal pregnancies (see also papp-a; triple test). Levels of hCG are very high in *gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. Some malignant tumours (e.g. malignant teratoma, choriocarcinoma, endodermal sinus tumour) secrete hCG, which can be used as a *tumour marker. A preparation of hCG is given by injection to treat fertility problems due to ovulation disorders and to induce *superovulation in in vitro fertilization.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Human Chorionic Gonadotrophin

A glycoprotein hormone secreted by the PLACENTA in early pregnancy, and stimulating the CORPUS LUTEUM within the ovary (see OVARIES) to secrete OESTROGENS, PROGESTERONE, and relaxin. The hormone is essential for the maintenance of pregnancy up to about 6–8 weeks of gestation. A RADIOIMMUNOASSAY can be used to detect its presence, and pregnancy can be diagnosed as early as six days after conception by testing for it in the urine. Some tumours also secrete human chorionic gonadotrophin, particularly HYDATIDIFORM MOLE, which produces large amounts.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Human Chorionic Gonadotrophin

See gonadotrophin, human chorionic.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Human Chorionic Somatomammotrophin

see human placental lactogen.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Human Development Index (hdi)

A composite index that measures the overall achievements in a country in three basic dimensions of human development— longevity, knowledge and a decent standard of living. It is measured by life expectancy, educational attainment and adjusted income per capita in purchasing power parity (PPP) US dollars. The HDI is a summary, not a comprehensive measure of human development.... Community Health

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Community Health

Human Fertilisation And Embryology Acts

Acts of the UK parliament in 1990 and 2008, establishing and amending principles for the legal supervision, by the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority, of the creation, use, and storage of human embryos outside the body and of their use in treatment and research. The 2008 amendments included a ban on sex selection for social reasons, recognition of same-sex couples as potential legal parents, and regulations related to developing areas of research using embryos. The 1990 Act had also reduced the legal time limit for most abortions from 28 weeks gestation (as in the 1967 Abortion Act) to 24 weeks. Interpretation and regulation of principles and practice in this rapidly developing area of research and practice continue and are often controversial.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Human Genome

In simple terms, this is the genetic recipe for making a human being. GENOME is a combination of the words gene and chromosome, and a genome is de?ned as all the genetic material – known as deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA – in a cell. Most genes encode sequences of AMINO ACIDS, the constituents of proteins, thus initiating and controlling the replication of an organism. The identi?cation and characterisation of the human genetic puzzle have been a key bioscience research target. The Human Genome Project was launched in 1990 (and completed in 2003) to produce a full sequence of the three million base pairs that make up the human genome.

Carried out as two separate exercises – one by a privately funded American team; another by an international joint venture between tax-funded American laboratories, a charitably funded British one and several other smaller research teams from around the world – the ?rst results were announced on 26 June 2000. In February 2001 the privately funded American group, known as Celera Genomics, announced that it had identi?ed 26,558 genes. At the same time the Human Genome Project consortium reported that it had identi?ed 31,000. Allowing for margins of error, this gives a ?gure much lower than the 100,000 or more human genes previously forecast by scientists. Interestingly, genes were found to make up only 3 per cent of the human genome. The remaining 97 per cent of the genome comprises non-coding DNA which, though not involved in producing the protein-initiating genetic activity, does have signi?cant roles in the structure, function and evolution of the genome.

One surprise from the Project so far is that the genetic di?erences between humans and other species seem much smaller than previously expected. For example, the Celera team found that people have only 300 genes that mice do not have; yet, the common ancestor of mice and men probably lived 100 million years or more in the past. Mice and humans, however, have around twice as many genes as the humble fruit ?y.

Cells die out when they become redundant during embryonic development: genes also die out during evolution, according to evidence from the Genome Project – a ?nding that supports the constant evolutionary changes apparent in living things; the Darwinian concept of survival of the ?ttest.

Apart from expanding our scienti?c knowledge, the new information – and promise of much more as the Genome Project continues – should enhance and expand the use of genetic engineering in the prevention and cure of disease. Studies are in progress on the gene for a receptor protein in the brain which will shed light on how the important neurotransmitter SEROTONIN in the brain works, and this, for example, should help the development of better drugs for the treatment of DEPRESSION. Another gene has been found that is relevant to the development of ASTHMA and yet another that is involved in the production of amyloid, a complex protein which is deposited in excessive amounts in both DOWN’S (DOWN) SYNDROME and ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Human Genome

See genome, human.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Human Genome Project

a massive international research project to isolate all the genes in human DNA and determine the sequence of genes on human chromosomes. The project began in 1988 and the full draft sequence was published in 2001; the high-quality sequence was completed in 2003. The human genome comprises some 3 × 109 nucleotide base pairs (see DNA) forming 22,000–25,000 genes, distributed among 23 pairs of chromosomes. Knowledge of the entire human genome has already resulted in the identification of the genes associated with many hereditary disorders and revealed the existence of a genetic basis or component for many other diseases not previously known to have one. Theoretically, this would enable the development of targeted drugs and the large-scale genetic screening of populations. See pharmacogenomics; targeted agent.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Human Immunodeficiency Virus

see HIV.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Human Leucocyte Antigen System

see HLA system.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Human Leukocyte Antigen

(HLA) A type of protein belonging to the group known as histocompatibility antigens, which play a role in the immune system.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Human Menopausal Gonadotrophins

commercially available preparations of *follicle-stimulating hormone and *luteinizing hormone. They are used mainly to treat infertility in women with gonadotrophin deficiency due to hypopituitarism and to stimulate superovulation in women undergoing in vitro fertilization.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Human Organs Transplants Act

UK legislation that lays down the framework and rules governing organ transplantation. The UK Transplant Support Service Authority (UKTSSA), a special health authority set up in 1991, is responsible for administering the NHS Organ Donor Registry and the Act (see APPENDIX 7: STATUTORY ORGANISATIONS).... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Human Papillomavirus

(HPV) a virus – a member of the *papovavirus group – that causes warts, including genital warts. There are over 100 strains of HPV: certain strains are considered to be causative factors in the development of anal and genital cancers, especially cervical cancer, but additional factors are necessary before the cells become malignant. HPV has also been implicated in oral dysplasia and some squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck. It is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections. In women the presence of HPV may be detected on colposcopic examination, although techniques using DNA amplification (see polymerase chain reaction) give more accurate results and suggest that up to 40% of a normal, apparently healthy, female population may harbour these viruses. In women with an abnormal cervical smear, the DNA test is found to be positive in a much higher percentage and is therefore a useful indicator of a high risk of developing cancer of the cervix. The HPV vaccine provides protection against strains of HPV associated with cervical cancer and other precancerous conditions (Ceravix, Gardasil) and against genital warts (Gardasil).... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Human Papillomavirus

A type of virus that is responsible for warts and genital warts.

There are over 50 strains of human papillomavirus.

Infection with some of these strains is thought to be a causative factor in cervical cancer and anal cancer.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Human Placental Lactogen

(human chorionic somatomammotrophin) a protein hormone of 190 amino acids produced by the placenta during most but not all pregnancies. Despite its name it does not appear to have a role in lactation and its exact function remains obscure. It does, however, seem to contribute to the development of diabetes in some pregnancies.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Human Rights

a legal framework adopted by the United Nations following World War II that sought to define and promote fundamental entitlements, conditions, and freedoms to be afforded to all human beings. In the UK the Human Rights Act 1998 enacts the provisions of the 1950 European Convention on Human Rights, which sets out, via fourteen articles, an individual’s rights, entitlements, and freedoms.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Human Tissue Authority

the UK government agency, established by the Human Tissue Act 2004, that regulates the removal, use, and storage of human organs and tissue from both the living and the deceased for certain purposes as defined by the statute. These purposes include clinical research, clinical audit, and medical education. Anyone handling such material for those purposes should have a licence issued by the authority. Membership of the authority comprises clinical, scientific, academic, and lay representatives.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Human-factor Research

The study of the interrelationships between humans, the tools they use, and the environment in which they live and work.... Community Health

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Community Health

Humanity

n. 1. the state or quality of being human. In most ethical traditions, membership of the human species is seen as conferring a unique moral status, so that human life is considered inherently and particularly valuable and worthy of protection (see sanctity of life). Humanity may be defined in terms of a unique capacity to feel, reason, evoke emotional responses, or form relationships (see personhood). 2. compassion or benevolence.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Hypomania

A mild degree of mania.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Hypomania

n. a mild degree of *mania. Elated mood leads to faulty judgment; behaviour lacks the usual social restraints and the sexual drive is increased; there is a reduced need for sleep; speech is rapid and pressured; the individual is energetic but not persistent and tends to be irritable or possibly aggressive. The abnormality is not as great as in mania (see elation; euphoria). Treatment follows the same principles as for mania, and it may be difficult to prevent an individual from damaging his or her own interests with extravagant behaviour; hospitalization would indicate that the severity of mania had been reached. —hypomanic adj.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Hypomania

Hypomania is a modest manifestation of mania (see under MENTAL ILLNESS). The individual is elated to an extent that he or she may make unwise decisions, and social behaviour may become animated and uninhibited. To the casual observer individuals may, however, seem normal. Treatment is advisable to prevent them from harming their own or their family’s interests. Treatment is as for mania.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Iman

(Arabic) Having great faith Imani, Imanie, Imania, Imaan, Imany, Imaney, Imanee, Imanea, Imain, Imaine, Imaen, Imaene, Imayn, Imayne... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Imanuela

(Spanish) A faithful woman Imanuella, Imanuel, Imanuele, Imanuell... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Information Management

Decision processes oriented towards the creation or acquisition of information and knowledge, the design of information storage and flow, and the allocation and utilization of information in organizational work processes. See also “health information system”.... Community Health

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Community Health

Iris Germanica

Linn.

English: Orris, Iridis Rhizome, German Iris.

Ayurvedic: Paarseeka Vachaa, Haimavati, Shveta Vachaa (also considered as Pushkarmuula), Baal-bach.

Action: Demulcent, antidiarrhoeal, expectorant. Extract of the leaf is used for the treatment of frozen feet.

Key application: In irritable bowel, summer diarrhoea in children, in stubborn cases of respiratory congestion. (Folk medicine.) (Claims negatively evaluated by German Commission E: "blood-purifying," "stomach-strengthening" and "gland-stimulating.")

The rhizomes gave triterpenes, beta- sitosterol, alpha-and beta-amyrin and isoflavonoids; an essential oil, about 0.1-2%, known as "Orris butter," consisting of about 85% myristic acid, with irone, ionone, methyl myris- tate. Isoflavonoids include irisolidone, irigenin and iridin. In volatile oil, chief constituents are cis-alpha and cis-gamma-irones. Triterpenes include iridal and irigermanal. Rhizomes also gave xanthones C. glucosylxanthones (Orris root is the root of Iris germanica. In homoeopathy, Iris versicolor is used.)

Related species ? I. florentina Linn.; I. pallida Lam.

Habitat: The Himalayas from Garhwal to Arunachal Pradesh at 2,400-3,600 m.

Folk: Karkar, Tezma (Punjab).

Action: Diuretic, spasmolytic, febrifuge; antidote for opium addiction.

The rhizomes contain isoflavones— iridin, iriskumaonin and its methyl ether, irisflorentin, junipegenin A and irigenin.... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Jumanah

(Arabic) Resembling a silver pearl Jumana, Jumanna, Jumannah... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Kallmann’s Syndrome

a familial condition that is the most common form of isolated *gonadotrophin deficiency; it is combined with underdevelopment of the olfactory lobes, causing *anosmia. The syndrome is caused by a gene *deletion on the short arm of the X chromosome. Patients often present with delayed puberty. There is an association with *ichthyosis, learning disabilities, obesity, renal and skeletal abnormalities, and undescended testes, but these features are very variable. [F. J. Kallmann (1897–1965), US geneticist]... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Kamana

(Indian) One who is desired Kamanah, Kammana, Kamanna, Kamna... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Key Informant

A person chosen to answer a survey on the grounds of a better knowledge and understanding of the issues under consideration.... Community Health

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Community Health

Kimana

(American) Girl from the meadow Kimanah, Kimanna, Kimannah, Kymana, Kymanah, Kymanna, Kymannah... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Kleptomania

n. a pathologically strong impulse to steal, often in the absence of any desire for the stolen object(s).... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Kleptomania

A recurring inability to resist impulses to steal, often without any desire for the stolen objects.

The condition is usually a sign of an immature personality.

It is sometimes associated with depression, and may also result from dementia or some forms of brain damage.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Kleptomania

A psychological disorder in which the person a?icted has an irresistible compulsion to steal things, without necessarily having any need for the object stolen.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Kocher Manoeuvre

a method for *reduction of an anteriorly dislocated shoulder by manipulation. Longitudinal traction is applied to the elbow, pulling down the shoulder, then the forearm, bent at the elbow, is externally rotated to 90°. [E. T. Kocher (1841–1917), Swiss surgeon]... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Kostmann’s Syndrome

(severe congenital neutropenia) a hereditary (autosomal *recessive) disorder characterized by severe *neutropenia. This results in frequent bacterial infections, and death often occurs before the age of six months.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Kumani

(African) Fulfilling one’s destiny Kumanie, Kumany, Kumaney, Kumanee, Kumanea... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Labiomancy

n. lip-reading.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Ladies' Mantle

Alchemilla vulgaris. N.O. Rosaceae.

Synonym: Lion's Foot.

Habitat: Hedgerows and waysides.

Features ? Whole plant covered with silky hairs. Leaves rounded, about two inches across, nine blunt, serrate lobes, on long stalks. Greenish flowers, without petals, bloom in small clusters from forked stem. Astringent, saliva-drying taste.

Part used ? Herb.

Action: Astringent, nervine, antispasmodic.

In excessive menstruation and flooding, as well as spasmodic nervous complaints. Decoction of 1 ounce to 1 1/2 pints water simmered to 1 pint is used as an injection in the menstrual disorders. The 1 ounce to 1 pint infusion may be taken internally in teacupful doses as required.... Herbal Manual

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Herbal Manual

Lady`s Mantle Tea

Lady’s Mantle Tea is a popular tea known especially for its astringent properties. Lady’s Mantle, also known as alchemilla vulgaris, is a perennial herb that grows in North America, Europe and Asia. It has pleated leaves that look like the cloak ladies used to wear during the medieval era. The constituents of lady’s mantle herb are tannins and various flavonoids such as quercetin. How to Make Lady’s Mantle Tea To make Lady’s Mantle Tea you have to infuse 3-4 grams of dried lady’s mantle stems, leaves and flowers, in about 5 ounces of boiling water. Reduce the heat and let the mix stand for 10 minutes. After that, strain and pour the tea into your cup. Lady’s Mantle Tea Benefits
  • Relieves menstrual cramps and discomfort during menopause.
  • When applied on skin, it can heal wounds, cuts, burns or other skin conditions.
  • Helps relieving nausea.
  • Effective in treating diarrhea and gastroenteritis.
  • May heal bleeding gums.
Lady’s Mantle Side Effects
  • Do not drink Lady’s Mantle Tea if you are pregnant or breastfeeding.
  • Stop drinking Lady’s Mantle tea if you experience weakness or fatigue.
  • It may interact with the effects of some medications, so always consult your doctor before drinking any herbal tea, including Lady’s Mantle Tea.
Lady’s Mantle Tea is a wonderful tea with many benefits for your body and general well-being. Just try not to drink too much of this tea in order to not experience any of its side effects.... Beneficial Teas

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Beneficial Teas

Lady’s Mantle

Lion’s foot. Alchemilla vulgaris L. Dried herb (oral), root (topical). Keynote: bleeding.

Constituents: tannins.

Action: powerful styptic and astringent because of its high tannin content. Haemostatic. Alterative. Drying and binding. Menstrual regulator.

Uses: Excessive menstruation. Non-menstrual bleeding of the womb between periods. Children’s summer diarrhoea, colitis with bleeding. Gastric and duodenal ulcer. Children’s convulsions. (Swedish traditional)

Not used in pregnancy.

Combinations. (1) with Avens for gastritis and mucous colitis. (2) with Agnus Castus for menstrual disorders.

Preparations: Average dose: 2-4g. Thrice daily. Tea: 1-2 teaspoons to each cup boiling water; infuse 15 minutes. One cup.

Liquid extract BHP (1983) 1:1 in 25 per cent alcohol. Dose: 2-4ml.

Powdered root. Dose, 2-4g.

Vaginal douche: 2oz to 2 pints (60g to 1 litre) boiling water. Infuse 30 minutes. Inject warm for leucorrhoea, Candida, inflammation; or as a lotion for pruritus.

Decoction (roots) offer a powerful deterrant to passive bleeding. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

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Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

Lallemantia Royleana

Roxb.

Family: Labiatae.

Habitat: Plain and hills of Kumaon and Punjab, extending westwards to Afghanistan. Imported into India from Persia.

Unani: Baalango, Tukhm-e- Baalango.

Folk: Tuut-malangaa.

Action: Seed—cooling, diuretic, sedative; given internally as a soothing agent during urinary troubles, also for cough. A poultice of seeds is applied to abscesses, boils and inflammations. (Seeds are not to be used as a substitute for Plantago sp.)

Seeds contain linoleic, oleic, palmitic and stearic acids; beta-sitosterol. Gum contains L-arabinose, D-galac- tose, L-rhamnose, pentosans, protein, uronic anhydride. Amino acids are also found in the plant.... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Lannea Coromandelica

(Houtt.) Merrill.

Synonym: L. grandis (Dennst.) Engl.; Odina wodier Roxb.

Family: Anacardiaceae.

Habitat: Throughout India, ascending to 1,500 m in the Himalayas.

Ayurvedic: Jingini, Jhingan, Gudamanjari.

Siddha/Tamil: Kalasan, Anaikkarai, Odiyan.

Action: Bark—stimulant and astringent; used in gout; decoction for aphthae of the mouth and for toothache. Leaves— boiled and applied to sprains, bruises, local swellings, elephantiasis. Gum— given in asthma; as a cordial to women during lactation.

The roots contain cluytyl ferulate; heartwood gave lanosterol; bark, dl- epi-catechin and (+)-leucocyanidin; flowers and leaves, ellagic acid, querce- tin and quercetin-3-arabinoside. Flowers also contain iso-quercetin and morin. Leaves in addition contain beta-sitosterol, leucocyanidin and leu- codelphinidin.... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Leishman-donovan Bodies

(LD Bodies) Amastigote stages of protozoa of the genus Leishmania. These stages in a skin biopsy, bone marrow or spleen aspirate are diagnostic of Leishmaniasis.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

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Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

Leishmania

n. a genus of parasitic flagellate protozoans, several species of which cause disease in humans (see leishmaniasis). The parasite assumes a different form in each of its two hosts. In humans, especially in *kala-azar patients, it is a small rounded structure, with no flagellum, called a Leishman–Donovan body, which is found within the cells of the lymphatic system, spleen, and bone marrow. In the insect carrier it is long and flagellated.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Leishmaniasis

n. a disease, common in the tropics and subtropics, caused by parasitic protozoans of the genus *Leishmania, which are transmitted by the bite of sandflies. There are two principal forms of the disease: visceral leishmaniasis, in which the cells of various internal organs are affected (see kala-azar); and cutaneous leishmaniasis, which affects the tissues of the skin. Cutaneous leishmaniasis itself has several different forms, depending on the region in which it occurs and the species of Leishmania involved. In Asia it is common in the form of *oriental sore. In America there are several forms of leishmaniasis (see chiclero’s ulcer; espundia). Leishmaniasis is treated with drugs containing antimony.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Leishmaniasis

Any of a variety of diseases caused by single-celled parasites called leishmania. These parasites are harboured by dogs and rodents and are transmitted by the bites of sandflies. The most serious form of leishmaniasis is called kala-azar or visceral leishmaniasis. This disease is prevalent in some parts of Asia, Africa, and South America, and also occurs in some Mediterranean countries. In addition, there are several types of cutaneous leishmaniasis, some of which are prevalent in the Middle East, North Africa, and in the Mediterranean. Kala-azar causes persistent fever, enlargement of the spleen, anaemia, and, later, darkening of the skin. The illness may develop any time up to 2 years after infection, and, if untreated, may be fatal. The cutaneous forms have the appearance of a persistent ulcer at the site of the sandfly bite.

All varieties of leishmaniasis can be treated with drugs, such as sodium stibogluconate, given by intramuscular or intravenous injection.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Leishmaniasis

A group of infections caused by parasites transmitted to humans by sand?ies.

Visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar) A systemic infection caused by Leishmania donovani which occurs in tropical and subtropical Africa, Asia, the Mediterranean littoral (and some islands), and in tropical South America. Onset is frequently insidious; incubation period is 2–6 months. Enlargement of spleen and liver may be gross; fever, anaemia, and generalised lymphadenopathy are usually present. Diagnosis is usually made from a bone-marrow specimen, splenic-aspirate, or liver-biopsy specimen; amastigotes (Leishman-Donovan bodies) of L. donovani can be visualised. Several serological tests are of value in diagnosis.

Untreated, the infection is fatal within two years, in approximately 70 per cent of patients. Treatment traditionally involved sodium stibogluconate, but other chemotherapeutic agents (including allupurinol, ketoconazole, and immunotherapy) are now in use, the most recently used being liposomal amphotericin B. Although immunointact persons usually respond satisfactorily, they are likely to relapse if they have HIV infection (see AIDS/HIV).

Cutaneous leishmaniasis This form is caused by infection with L. tropica, L. major,

L. aethiopica, and other species. The disease is widely distributed in the Mediterranean region, Middle East, Asia, Africa, Central and South America, and the former Soviet Union. It is characterised by localised cutaneous ulcers

– usually situated on exposed areas of the body. Diagnosis is by demonstration of the causative organism in a skin biopsy-specimen; the leishmanin skin test is of value. Most patients respond to sodium stibogluconate (see above); local heat therapy is also used. Paromomycin cream has been successfully applied locally.

Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis This form is caused by L. braziliensis and rarely L. mexicana. It is present in Central and South America, particularly the Amazon basin, and characterised by highly destructive, ulcerative, granulomatous lesions of the skin and mucous membranes, especially involving the mucocutaneous junctions of the mouth, nasopharynx, genitalia, and rectum. Infection is usually via a super?cial skin lesion at the site of a sand?y bite. However, spread is by haematogenous routes (usually after several years) to a mucocutaneous location. Diagnosis and treatment are the same as for cutaneous leishmaniasis.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Leishmaniasis

Dum-dum fever. Kala-Azar. Delhi-boil. Oriental sore; a tropical infectious disease caused by protozoan parasites (usually caused by sandflies) manifesting as influenza with (1) internal visceral disturbance, or (2) skin eruptions with ulcerated nose and throat. Often a disease of Mediterranean infants. The case should be seen by a tropical diseases specialist. Until he arrives: decoction Barberry (Berberis vul); half an ounce to 1 pint warm water; steep 20 minutes. 1 cup or more every 2 hours.

Alternatives. Powders. Formula. Echinacea 2; Blue Flag 1; Senna leaf 1. Dose: 500mg (two 00 capsules or one-third teaspoon), every 3 hours.

Liquid Extracts. Formula. Echinacea 2; Burdock 1; Senna leaf 1. Dose: 30-60 drops in water or honey every 3 hours.

Tinctures. Formula. Echinacea 2; Myrrh 1; Goldenseal 1. Dose: one 5ml teaspoon every 3 hours.

Topical. Cleanse skin with washes or lotions of Aloe Vera, Comfrey, Marshmallow, Plantain, Witch Hazel, etc. Treat bite immediately. Do not walk in the bush at dusk. Always take insect repellent and antiseptic cream. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

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Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

Leishman–donovan Body

see Leishmania. [Sir W. B. Leishman (1865–1926), British surgeon; C. Donovan (1863–1951), Irish physician]... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Lenmana

(Native American) Talented with the flute

Lenmanna, Linmana, Linmanna, Lynmana, Lynmanna... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Lion’s Mane

A colloquial term for Cyanea - used in many countries other than Australia.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

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Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

Litzmann’s Obliquity

see asynclitism. [K. C. T. Litzmann (1815–90), German obstetrician]... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Løvset’s Manoeuvre

rotation of the trunk of the fetus during a breech birth to facilitate delivery of the arms and the shoulders. This procedure is used when the fetal arms are extended due to previous inappropriate traction. [J. Løvset (20th century), Norwegian obstetrician]... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Mad-cow Disease, Human

Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. See: BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

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Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

Malta Alemana

German malt beverage; strong, bitter taste; used as a remedy by itself or combined with other ingredients; often added to botellas or bebedizos.... Medicinal Plants

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Medicinal Plants

Mamani

(Incan) Resembling a falcon Mamanie, Mamanee, Mamaney, Mamany, Mamanea... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Mana

(Polynesian) A charismatic and prestigious woman Manah... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Managed Care

A health care delivery system which entails interventions to control the price, volume, delivery site and intensity of health services provided, the goal of which is to maximize the value of health benefits and the coordination of health care management for a covered population.... Community Health

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Community Health

Managed Care

a US system that integrates the financing and delivery of medical care by means of contracts with physicians and with hospitals. The goal is to cut costs through economic incentives, cost sharing, controlling the length of inpatient admissions, and careful management of high-cost cases. Providers of managed care take several different forms, including health maintenance organizations and preferred provider organizations.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Managed Care Plan

A health plan that uses managed care arrangements and has a defined system of selected providers who contract with the plan. Those enrolled have a financial incentive to use participating providers who agree to furnish a broad range of services to them. Providers may be paid on a pre-negotiated basis.... Community Health

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Community Health

Managed Health Care

This process aims to reduce the costs of health care while maintaining its quality. The concept originated in the United States but has attracted interest in the United Kingdom and Europe, where the spiralling costs of health care have been causing widespread concern. Managed care works through changing clinical practice, but it is not a discrete entity: the American I. J. Iglehart has de?ned it as ‘a variety of methods of ?nancing and organising the delivery of comprehensive health care in which an attempt is made to control costs by controlling the provision of services’. Managed care has three facets: health policy; how that policy is managed; and how individuals needing health care are dealt with. The process and its applications are still evolving and it is likely that di?erent health-care systems will adapt it to suit their own particular circumstances.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Management

The sum of the measures taken to plan, organize, operate and evaluate all the many interrelated elements of a system. Such measures are required to translate policies into strategies and strategies into plans of action for determining the action required to define and operate health programmes and ensure that the health system infrastructure is built up to deliver them efficiently and effectively.... Community Health

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Community Health

Management Information System

A system of databases designed to process and exchange information to support decision-making as well as implementation, monitoring and evaluation of programmes, activities and projects. See also “health information system”.... Community Health

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Community Health

Manager’s Stress

All in charge of other people are subject to a wide range of environmental stress, working conditions, conflict with superiors. Some are more predisposed to stress than others. Alternatives. Ginseng, Valerian, Skullcap, Oats, Gotu Kola.

Tea. Skullcap 1; Oats 2; Valerian half. Mix. 1 teaspoon to each cup boiling water. 1 cup as desired.

Life Drops. Few drops in tea.

Lime flower tea, at night.

Ginkgo. For brain fatigue.

Diet. Avoid strong tea, coffee, alcohol. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

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Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

Manal

(Arabic) An accomplished woman Manala, Manall, Manalle, Manalla, Manali... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Manami

(Japanese) Having a love of the ocean

Manamie, Manamy, Manamey, Manamee, Manamea... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Manar

(Arabic) Woman of the light Manara, Manaria, Manarr, Manarre, Manarra, Manari, Manarri, Mannara, Mannarra... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Manasa

(Indian) Having great strength of mind

Maanasa, Manassa, Manasah... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Mancinism

n. the condition of being left-handed.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Mandana

(Persian) Beauty everlasting Mandanah, Mandanna, Mandannah... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Mandarin

Citrus reticulata

FAMILY: Rutaceae

SYNONYMS: C. nobilis, C. madurensis, C. unshiu, C. deliciosa, European mandarin, true mandarin, tangerine, satsuma.

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: A small evergreen tree up to 6 metres high with glossy leaves, fragrant flowers and bearing fleshy fruit. The tangerine is larger than the mandarin and rounder, with a yellower skin, more like the original Chinese type.

DISTRIBUTION: Native to southern China and the Far East. Brought to Europe in 1805 and to America forty years later, where it was renamed the tangerine. The mandarin is produced mainly in Italy, Spain, Algeria, Cyprus, Greece, the Middle East and Brazil; the tangerine in Texas, Florida, California and Guinea.

OTHER SPECIES: There are many cultivars within this species: the terms tangerine (C. reticulata) and mandarin are used somewhat interchangeably, as is the word satsuma. They could be said to represent different chemotypes since the oils are quite different; see the Botanical Classification section.

HERBAL/FOLK TRADITION: The name comes from the fruit which was a traditional gift to the Mandarins of China. In France it is regarded as a safe children’s remedy for indigestion, hiccoughs, etc, and also for the elderly since it helps strengthen the digestive function and liver.

EXTRACTION: Essential oil by cold expression from the outer peel. A mandarin petitgrain oil is also produced in small quantities by steam distillation from the leaves and twigs.

CHARACTERISTICS: Mandarin oil is a yellowy-orange mobile liquid with a blue-violet hint, having an intensely sweet, almost floral citrus scent. It blends well with other citrus oils, especially neroli, and spice oils such as nutmeg, cinnamon and clove. Tangerine oil is an orange mobile liquid with a fresh, sweet, orangelike aroma. It has less body than mandarin and is little used in perfumery work.

PRINCIPAL CONSTITUENTS: Limonene, methyl methylanthranilate, geraniol, citral, citronella!, among others.

SAFETY DATA: Non-toxic, non-irritant, nonsensitizing. Possibly phototoxic, although it has not been demonstrated decisively.

AROMATHERAPY/HOME: USE

Skin care: Acne, congested and oily skin, scars, spots, stretch marks, toner.

Circulation muscles and joints: Fluid retention, obesity.

Digestive system: Digestive problems, dyspepsia, hiccoughs, intestinal problems.

Nervous system: Insomnia, nervous tension, restlessness. It is often used for children and pregnant women and is recommended in synergistic combinations with other citrus oils.

OTHER USES: Mandarin oil is used in soaps, cosmetics and perfumes, especially colognes. It is employed as a flavouring agent especially in sweets, soft drinks and liqueurs.... The Encyclopedia of Essential Oils

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The Encyclopedia of Essential Oils

Mandatory Reporting

A system under which medical practitioners or other health professionals are required by law to inform health authorities when a specified event occurs (i.e. a medical error or the diagnosis of a certain disease). See also “incidence monitoring and reporting”.... Community Health

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Community Health

Mandeep

(Indian) Having a bright mind Mandeepe, Mandyp, Mandype, Mandeepa, Mandypa... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Mandelic Acid

Also known as mandelamine, a non-toxic keto-acid used in the treatment of infections of the urinary tract, especially those due to the Escherichia coli and the Streptococcus faecalis or Enterococcus. It is administered in doses of 3 grams several times daily. As it is only e?ective in an acid urine, ammonium chloride must be taken at the same time.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Mandible

The bone of the lower JAW.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Mandible

The lower jaw.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Mandible

n. the lower jawbone. It consists of a horseshoe-shaped body, the upper surface of which bears the lower teeth (see alveolus), and two vertical parts (rami). Each ramus divides into a condyle and a *coronoid process. The condyle articulates with the temporal bone of the cranium to form the temporomandibular joint (a hinge joint). See also maxilla; skull. —mandibular adj.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Mandibular Advancement Splint

(MAS) an orthodontic device used to advance the mandible to improve the airway in the pharynx during sleep in the treatment of *obstructive sleep apnoea.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Mandisa

(African) A sweet woman Mandisah, Mandysa, Mandysah... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Mandragora Autumnalis

Spreng.

Synonym: M. microcarpa Bertol. M. officinarum Linn.

Family: Solanaceae.

Habitat: Mediterranean region.

English: Mandrake.

Ayurvedic: Wrongly equated with Lakshmanaa, a fertility promoting herb. (In Indian medicine, Panax quinquefolium Linn. and Panax schinseng Nees have been equated with Lakshmanaa.)

Action: Anaesthetic, narcotic, poisonous. Alkaloid pattern similar to Atropa belladona. A sample of roots from Morocco contained atropine (0.2% at flowering stage).

In India, Panax sp. are perceived as fertility and vitality promoting herbs, which have been attributed to Laksh- manaa. Mandrake exhibits anticholinergic effects.

English Mandrake and American Mandrake are equated with Bryonia alba and Podophyllum hexandrum respectively.... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Mandrake

Protection, Love, Money, Fertility, Health...

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Mandrake, American

 May apple. Podophyllum peltatum L. Dried root or rhizome. For practitioner use only.

Constituents: flavonoids, lignans, gums, resin.

Action: slow-acting purgative, hepatic, hydragogue, cholagogue, alterative, emetic, “vegetable mercury”. Internal use has been superceded by less violent purgatives. Continues in use as an anti-neoplastic.

Uses: “a cure-rate of 76 per cent was achieved in 68 patients with carcinoma by treatment, twice daily for 14 days with an ointment consisting of Podophyllum resin 20 per cent, and Linseed oil 20 per cent in lanolin, followed by antibiotic treatment . . . In 14 patients treated with Podophyllotoxin 5 per cent in a Linseed oil/lanolin base, the cure rate was 80 per cent. There was no evidence of systemic toxicity.” (F.R. Bettley, Br.J. Derm. 1971. 84,74)

One-time treatment as a paint for soft venereal and other warts. Preparations. Liquid Extract: 0.3ml in water, twice daily. Tincture Podophyllum BPC 1934: dose, 0.3 to 4ml.

Powder. Dusting powder for malignant ulceration.

Paint of Podophyllin Compound, BPC. Contains 14.6 per cent of Podophyllum resin in compound Benzoin tincture. For external use. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

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Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

Mandrake, American

Podophyllum peltatum. N.O. Berberidaceae.

Synonym: May Apple, Racoonberry, Wild Lemon.

Habitat: A common plant in the United States and Canada, the root is imported into this country in large quantities for medicinal purposes.

Features ? The rhizome (as the part used should more strictly be termed) is reddish- brown in colour, fairly smooth, and has knotty joints at distances of about two inches. The fracture shows whitish and mealy.

American Mandrake is an entirely different plant from White Bryony or English Mandrake, dealt with elsewhere. Preparations of the rhizome of the American Mandrake are found in practice to be much more effective than those of the resin. This is one of the many confirmations of one of the basic postulates of herbal medicine—the nearer we can get to natural conditions the better the results. Therapeutic principles are never the same when taken from their proper environment.

Podophyllum is a very valuable hepatic, and a thorough but slow-acting purgative. Correctly compounded with other herbs it is wonderfully effective in congested conditions of the liver, and has a salutary influence on other parts of the system, the glands in particular being helped to normal functioning. Although apparently unrecognised in Coffin's day, the modern natural healer highly appreciates the virtues of this medicine and has many uses for it.

As American Mandrake is so powerful in certain of its actions, and needs such skillful combination with other herbs, it should not be used by the public without the advice of one experienced in prescribing it to

individual needs.... Herbal Manual

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Herbal Manual

Mandraya

(Sanskrit) An honorable woman Mandray, Mandrayia, Mandraye... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Mandy

(English) Form of Amanda, meaning “one who is much loved” Mandi, Mandie, Mandee, Mandey, Manda, Mandalyn, Mandalynn, Mandelina, Mandeline, Mandalyna, Mandea... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Manganese

Trace element. RDA 2.5mg.

Deficiency. Bone diseases.

Body effects. Bone health.

Sources. Tea. Wholegrains, oatmeal, avocados, nuts, seeds, pulses, bananas, beans, beets, kale, lettuce, oatmeal, peas, prunes, brown rice, spinach, calves liver. Note. Excess may cause injury to the brain. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

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Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

Manganese

A metal, oxides of which are found abundantly in nature. Permanganate of potassium is a well-known disinfectant. The body requires small amounts of the metal for normal growth and development. (See also TRACE ELEMENTS.)... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Manganese

n. a greyish metallic element, the oxide of which, when inhaled by miners in underventilated mines, causes brain damage and symptoms very similar to those of *parkinsonism. Minute quantities of the element are required by the body (see trace element). Symbol: Mn.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Mangena

(Hebrew) As sweet as a melody Mangenah, Mangenna, Mangennah... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Mangifera Indica

Linn.

Family: Anacardiaceae.

Habitat: Uttar Pradesh., Punjab, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, West Bengal and Tamil Nadu.

English: Mango.

Ayurvedic: Aamra, Amb, Rasaal, Sa- hakaar, Pikavallabha, Madhudoot, Atisaurabha, Maakanda.

Unani: Aam, Ambaj.

Siddha/Tamil: Manga, Mau, Mamaram (bark), Mangottai Paruppu (seed).

Action: Unripe fruit—astringent, antiscorbutic. Ripe fruit—invigorating and refrigerant in heat apoplexy. Leaves—anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, chloretic, diuretic. Used in diabetes, externally in burns and scalds. Kernel—astringent, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal, anthelmintic, antispas- modic, antiscorbutic; given in diarrhoea, diabetes and menstrual disorders. Stem bark—astringent; used for haemorrhages, diarrhoea, rheumatism.

The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia ofIn- dia recommends the dried seed in diarrhoea and dysentery; and the dried stem bark in genitourinary disorders.

Ripe mango contains sugars (9.518.6%), citric acid (0.12-0.34%), ascorbic acid (10.8-225.0 mg/100 g), carote- noids as beta-carotene (2,00017,000 mcg/100 g). The fruit gave phenolic compounds (m-digallic acid, gal- lotannin, phloroglucinol, protocate- chuic acid); flavonoids (1,2,3,4-tetrahy- droxy benzene, kaempferol and myri- cetin).

The seed kernel contains alpha-and beta-amyrins, gallotannin, glucogallin and several sterols.

The leaves contain a pentacyclic tri- terpene alcohol, indicol, besides tarax- one, taraxerol, friedelin, lupeol and beta-sitosterol. Leaves contain several sugars, free malic and citric acids and amino acids. Some esters of ben- zophenone C-glucosides and kinic and shikmic acids have also been reported. Mangiferin is present predominantly in the leaves and twigs.

The bark contains phenolic compounds (gallocatechin, protocatechuic acid), xanthones (homomangiferin), several triterpenoids and sterols.

All parts gave phenolic acids (el- lagic acid, gallic acid, ethyl gallate); flavonoids (catechin), and xanthones (mangiferin).

Dosage: Dried seed—1-2 g powder (API, Vol. I); stem bark—3-6 g powder, 25-50 g for decoction. (API, Vol. III.)... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Mango

Mangifera indica

Description: This tree may reach 30 meters in height. It has alternate, simple, shiny, dark green leaves. Its flowers are small and inconspicuous. Its fruits have a large single seed. There are many cultivated varieties of mango. Some have red flesh, others yellow or orange, often with many fibers and a kerosene taste.

Habitat and Distribution: This tree grows in warm, moist regions. It is native to northern India, Burma, and western Malaysia. It is now grown throughout the tropics.

Edible Parts: The fruits area nutritious food source. The unripe fruit can be peeled and its flesh eaten by shredding it and eating it like a salad. The ripe fruit can be peeled and eaten raw. Roasted seed kernels are edible.

CAUTION

If you are sensitive to poison ivy, avoid eating mangoes, as they cause a severe reaction in sensitive individuals.... Medicinal Plants

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Medicinal Plants

Mango Leaves

Part used: leaves. Contains Mangiferin. Action: anti-viral.

Uses: Herpes simplex virus (HSV-1). ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

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Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

Mango Tea And Its Healthy Freshness

Mango tea is a complex type of tea, due to its ingredients: green tea, black tea and mango pieces. It is considered to be ideal both for tea consumers and fruit lovers worldwide. About Mango Tea Mango, originally coming fromsouth Asia, was brought to the United States in 1880. It symbolizes love and apparently, its leaves are a good choice to be gifted at weddings. It is a delicious and juicy fruit, that can be eaten fresh or cooked, sliced, pureed or, as part of several beverages. Mango tea is a type of tea resulting from mixing green tea, black tea and whole mango pieces. It gathers the freshness of mangoes and the strong flavor of the two teas mentioned above. How to make Mango Tea?
  • infuse 1 tablespoon per cup
  • use boiling water
  • infuse it for 3 minutes
Mango tea can be also consumed cold. In this case, ice is recommended to be added. To boost its freshness, connoisseurs indicate the use of fresh mint leaves use. Mango Tea benefits Owing to the high quantity of contained antioxidants, Mango tea is effectively used in treating cancer and helping cells to recover from this disease. This type of tea has proven its efficiency in dealing with:
  •  Anemia
  •  Stress
  • Muscle cramps
  • Digestion
  • Weight Control
  • Bone Growth
  • Immune Functions
  • Vision
  • Wound Healing
  • Protein Synthesis
  • Dehydration
Mango Tea side effects Mango tea side effects are generallyassociated to overconsumption or, citrus intolerance. It is indicated that individuals suffering from cardiac problems or hypertension to consume it moderately. Pregnant and breast-feeding women are advised to reduce the amount of Mango tea consumed (less than 2 cups per day), in order not to cause agitation to the baby. Mango teacould be successfully introduced in a daily diet, providing energy and enhancing mood for consumers of all ages and thus, carefully strengthening the immune system.... Beneficial Teas

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Beneficial Teas

Manhattan

(English) From the whiskey town

Manhatton, Manhatan, Manhaton... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Mania

A form of mental disorder characterised by great excitement. (See MENTAL ILLNESS.)... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Mania

(Greek) In mythology, the personification of insanity Maniah, Mainia, Maynia, Maniya... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Mania

A mental disorder characterized by episodes of overactivity, elation, or irritability. Mania usually occurs as part of a manic–depressive illness.

Symptoms may include extravagant spending, repeatedly starting new tasks; sleeping less; increased appetite for food, alcohol, sex, and exercise; outbursts of inappropriate anger, laughter, or sudden socializing; and delusions of grandeur. If symptoms are mild, the condition is called hypomania.

Severe mania usually needs treatment in hospital with antipsychotic drugs. Relapses may be prevented by taking lithium or carbamazepine.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Mania

n. a state of mind characterized by excessive cheerfulness and increased activity. The mood is euphoric and can change rapidly to irritability. Thought and speech are pressured and rapid to the point of incoherence and the connections between ideas may be impossible to follow to the point of *loosening of associations. Behaviour is overactive, extravagant, overbearing, and sometimes aggressive. Excessive drug and alcohol use can complicate the picture. Judgment is impaired, with disinhibited behaviour, and therefore the patient may damage his or her own interests. There may be grandiose delusions. *Mixed affective states (such as low mood with pressured speech and irritability) are common. Treatment is usually with medication, such as lithium, *benzodiazepines, or *antipsychotics, and hospital admission is frequently necessary. See also bipolar affective disorder. —manic adj.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Mania

combining form denoting obsession, compulsion, or exaggerated feeling for. Example: pyromania (for starting fires).... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Manic Depression

Manic depression, or CYCLOTHYMIA, is a form of MENTAL ILLNESS characterised by alternate attacks of mania and depression.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Manic Depression

a former (but still quite commonly used) name for *bipolar affective disorder.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Manic–depressive Illness

A mental disorder that is characterized by a disturbance of mood. The disturbance may be unipolar (consisting of either depression or mania) or bipolar (swinging between the two). In a severe form that is sometimes referred to as manic– depressive psychosis, there may also be grandiose ideas or negative delusions.

Abnormalities in brain biochemistry, or in the structure and/or function of certain nerve pathways within the brain, could underlie manic–depressive illness. An inherited tendency is also an established causative factor.Severe manic–depressive illness often needs hospital treatment. Antidepressant drugs and/or ECT are used to treat depression, and antipsychotic drugs are given to control manic symptoms. Carbamazepine or lithium may be used to prevent relapse.

Group therapy, family therapy, and individual psychotherapy may be useful in treatment. Cognitive–behavioural therapy may also be helpful. With treatment, more than 80 per cent of patients improve or remain stable. Even those with severe illness may be restored to near normal health with lithium.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Manihot Esculenta

Crantz.

Family: Euphorbiaceae.

Habitat: Native to Brazil. Major crop in Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh.

English: Manioc, Tapioca, Cassava.

Siddha/Tamil: Maravalli kizhangu, Ezhalai kizhangu.

Folk: Tapioca.

Action: Staple food for poorer section of the population in many tropical countries. The starch is used for the manufacture of dextose, liquid glucose. The bitter variety is used for treating scabies and weeping skin.

The tuber is a good source of provitamin A carotenoids. It contains 0.1-3.0 mg/kg (fresh weight) of beta- carotene and 0.05-00.6 mg/kg (fresh weight) of lutein. The bitterness of the tuber is related to the cyanoglu- coside content which ranges from 320 to 1,100 mcg cyanide/g in very bitter tubers and from 27.5 to 77.5 mcg is non-bitter tubers. Boiling, crushing and sun-drying reduce bitterness and also cyanoglucoside content. The tannin equivalent content in the clones varies from 0.31 to 0.34% and saponin equivalent varies from 0.18 to 0.29%.

Feeding tapioca significantly reduced the plasma cholesterol profile experimentally in cats and rats.... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Manika

(Sanskrit) Her mind is a jewel Maanika, Manicka, Manyka, Manycka, Manicca, Manica, Maniya, Manikya, Maneka... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Manikin

n. see homunculus.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Manilkara Kauki

(L.) Dubard.

Synonym: Minusops Kauki L.

Family: Sapotaceae.

Habitat: A native of Malaya; occasionally grown in gardens, especially in North India, Andhra Pradesh and Kerala.

English: Kauki.

Ayurvedic: Khirni.

Siddha: Palai.

Action: Root and bark—astringent. Given in infantile diarrhoea. Seed— febrifuge, anthelmintic, antileprotic. Leaf—used as poultice for tumours.

Seeds contain about 16% of fatty oil and 1% saponin.

Manilkara hexandra (Roxb.) Du- bard, synonym Mimusops hexandra Roxb., found in central India and Dec- can Peninsula, and cultivated throughout the greater part of India, is also equated with Khirni.

All parts gave taraxerol, a triterpene ketone, alpha-and beta-amyrin, cin- namates, alpha-sipnasterol, beta-sitos- terol, its beta-D-glucoside, quercitol, quercetin and its dihydroderivatives, ursolic acid.

The bark contains 10% tannin.... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Manina

(Polish) A warring woman Maninah, Maneena, Maneina, Manyna, Maneana, Maniena... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Manioc

Manihot utillissima

Description: Manioc is a perennial shrubby plant, 1 to 3 meters tall, with jointed stems and deep green, fingerlike leaves. It has large, fleshy rootstocks.

Habitat and Distribution: Manioc is widespread in all tropical climates, particularly in moist areas. Although cultivated extensively, it maybe found in abandoned gardens and growing wild in many areas.

Edible Parts: The rootstocks are full of starch and high in food value. Two kinds of manioc are known: bitter and sweet. Both are edible. The bitter type contains poisonous hydrocyanic acid. To prepare manioc, first grind the fresh manioc root into a pulp, then cook it for at least 1 hour to remove the bitter poison from the roots. Then flatten the pulp into cakes and bake as bread. Manioc cakes or flour will keep almost indefinitely if protected against insects and dampness. Wrap them in banana leaves for protection.

CAUTION

For safety, always cook the roots of either type.... Medicinal Plants

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Medicinal Plants

Manipulation

n. the use of the hands to produce a desired movement or therapeutic effect in part of the body. Both physiotherapists and osteopaths use manipulation to restore normal working to stiff joints.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Manipulation

The passive movement (frequently forceful) of bones, joints, or soft tissues, carried out by orthopaedic surgeons, physiotherapists (see PHYSIOTHERAPY), osteopaths (see OSTEOPATHY) and chiropractors (see CHIROPRACTOR) as an important part of treatment – often highly e?ective. It may be used for three chief reasons: correction of deformity (mainly the reduction of fractures and dislocations, or to overcome deformities such as congenital club-foot – see TALIPES); treatment of joint sti?ness (particularly after an acute limb injury, or FROZEN SHOULDER); and relief of chronic pain (particularly when due to chronic strain, notably of the spinal joints – see PROLAPSED INTERVERTEBRAL DISC). Depending on the particular injury or deformity being treated, and the estimated force required, manipulation may be used with or without ANAESTHESIA. Careful clinical and radiological examination, together with other appropriate investigations, should always be carried out before starting treatment, to reduce the risk of harm, or disasters such as fractures or the massive displacement of an intervertebral disc.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Manipulation

A therapeutic technique involving the skilful use of the hands to move a part of the body, joint, or muscle to treat certain disorders. Manipulation is important in orthopaedics, physiotherapy, osteopathy, and chiropractic.

Manipulation may be used to treat deformity and stiffness caused by bone and joint disorders, to realign bones in a displaced fracture, to reposition a joint after a dislocation, or to stretch a contracture.

Occasionally, manipulation is used to help treat frozen shoulder.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Manisa

(Native American) One who travels on foot

Manisah, Manysa, Manysah... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Manisha

(Indian) Having great intelligence; a genius

Maneesha, Manishah, Manysha, Maniesha, Maneisha, Maneasha... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Manjari

(Indian) Of the sacred blossom Manjarie, Manjary, Manjarey, Manjaree, Manjarea... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Manjula

(Indian) A sweet young woman Manjulah, Manjulia, Manjulie, Manjule, Manjuli... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Manjusha

(Sanskrit) As treasured as a box of gems

Manjushah, Manjushia, Manjousha, Manjoushia... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Manna

“Bread of Heaven” Tamarix mannifera, ehr. Believed to be the food of the Old-Testament Israelites during their 40 years wanderings through the wilderness. “Even to this day a “manna” falls like dew or hoar frost and lands like beads on grass, stones and twigs. It is sweet like honey and sticks to the teeth. A secretion exuded from the tamarisk trees and bushes when pierced by a certain kind of plant-louse or small insect which lives off the tree indigenous to Sinai. They exude a kind of resinous exudation the shape and size of a coriander seed. When it falls to the ground it is white in colour but later becomes a yellowish browny. When left a long time it solidifies, tastes like honey, and is an exportable commodity. Carefully preserved it is the perfect ‘iron ration’ keeping indefinitely as discovered by the Arabs since biblical times.” (Dr Werner Keller, “The Bible as History”, Pub: Hodder and Stoughton) ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

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Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

Manning

(English) Daughter of Man Maning, Mannyng, Manyng... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Mannitol

n. an osmotic *diuretic administered mainly to reduce intracranial pressure in brain injuries and also in the emergency treatment of glaucoma. Side-effects include fever and chills. Mannitol powder is inhaled to treat cystic fibrosis.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Mannitol

An osmotic diuretic (see DIURETICS) given by a slow intravenous infusion to reduce OEDEMA of the BRAIN or raised intraocular pressure in GLAUCOMA.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Mannitol

An osmotic diuretic drug used to treat oedema of the brain and glaucoma.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Mannosidosis

n. a progressive autosomal *recessive disorder causing deficiency of the enzyme mannosidase; this results in errors of carbohydrate metabolism and lysosomal function, leading to a spectrum of learning difficulties and muscle weakness.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Mann–whitney U Test

see significance.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Manometer

n. a device for measuring pressure in a liquid or gas. A manometer often consists of a U-tube containing mercury, water, or other liquid, open at one end and exposed to the fluid under pressure at the other end. The pressure can be read directly from a graduated scale. See also sphygmomanometer.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Manometer

An instrument for measuring the pressure or tension of liquids or gases. (See BLOOD PRESSURE.)... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Manometry

n. measurement of pressures within organs of the body. The technique is used to record changes within fluid-filled chambers (e.g. cerebral ventricles) or to indicate muscular activity in motile tubes, such as the oesophagus, rectum, or bile duct.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Manometry

The measuring of pressure (of either a liquid or a gas) by means of an instrument called a manometer. Manometry is used to measure blood pressure using an instrument called a sphygmomanometer.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Manoush

(Persian) Born under the sweet sun Manoushe, Manousha, Manoushai, Manoushia, Manoushea... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Mansa

(African) The third-born child Mansah, Mansia... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Mansi

(Native American) Resembling a picked flower

Mansie, Mansy, Mansey, Mansee, Mansea, Mausi, Mausie, Mausee, Mausy, Mausey, Mausea... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Manslaughter

n. in law, the unlawful killing of a person that does not amount to murder owing to the absence of malicious intent. It comprehends both voluntary manslaughter, where the killing was a deliberate act but is held to have arisen from diminished responsibility (i.e. from an abnormality of mind that does not amount to *insanity), and involuntary manslaughter, where the killing was an accident arising from recklessness or gross *negligence. In rare cases, medical professionals have been convicted of the involuntary manslaughter of their patients.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Mansonella

A genus of filarial nematode worms which can infect humans in Africa and South America. Transmitted by biting midges belonging to the genus Culicoides. Important species infecting humans include M. ozzardi, M. perstans and M. streptocerca.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

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Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

Mansonia

A genus of mosquitoes, some species of which can be involved in the transmission of human filariasis due to Brugia malayi and Wuchereria bancrofti.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

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Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

Manteca

Butter; can be butter from cow’s milk or the semi-solid fat of certain animals, such as snake butter (manteca de culebra) or iguana butter (manteca de iguana).... Medicinal Plants

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Medicinal Plants

Mantle

adj. (in radiotherapy) see treatment field.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Manto

(Greek) A prophetess; in mythology, mother of Mopsus

Mantia, Mantika, Manteia, Mantea, Mantai, Mantae... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Mantoux Test

see tuberculin. [C. Mantoux (1877–1947), French physician]... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Mantoux Test

A test for TUBERCULOSIS. It consists in injecting into the super?cial layers of the skin (i.e. intradermally) a very small quantity of old TUBERCULIN which contains a protein ANTIGEN to TB. A positive reaction of the skin – swelling and redness – shows that the person so reacting has been infected at some time in the past with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, it does not mean that such a person is suffering from active tuberculosis.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Mantoux Test

A skin test for tuberculosis (see tuberculin tests).... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Mantrana

(Sanskrit) One who counsels others

Mantrini, Mantrania, Mantranna, Mantrani, Mantrinie, Mantranie... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Mantreh

(Persian) One who is pure; chaste Mantre... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Manual Lymphatic Drainage

a series of therapeutic movements, using massage, developed to enhance lymph drainage, alleviate swelling, and improve wound healing.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Manual Vacuum Aspiration

(MVA) see vacuum aspiration.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Manubrium

n. (pl. manubria) 1. the upper section of the breastbone (see sternum). It articulates with the clavicles and the first costal cartilage; the second costal cartilage articulates at the junction between the manubrium and body of the sternum. 2. the handle-like part of the *malleus (an ear ossicle), attached to the eardrum. —manubrial adj.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Manubrium

The tube between the stomach and the mouth of a jellyfish - equivalent to the oesophagus in humans.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Manubrium

The uppermost part of the STERNUM or breastbone.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

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Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

Manubrium

The uppermost part of the sternum (breastbone).... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Manuela

(Spanish) Feminine form of Emmanuel; God is with us Manuella, Manuelita, Manuelyta, Manueleeta, Manoela, Manuel, Manuelle, Manuele... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Manufacturing

Criteria for manufacture of herbal preparations are efficacy, safety and purity. To ensure Government requirement, manufacturers test all incoming crude material by first placing it in quarantine, an area specially set aside for quality control. Material is inspected against standard samples by sight, taste, touch and microscopic analysis. Samples are taken for chemical reaction in a laboratory equipped for this purpose.

Herbal preparations are required to meet the same high pharmaceutical standards as conventional medicine.

Today’s exacting standards ensure an absence of sugar, yeast, gluten, milk derivatives, cornstarch, wheat, artificial colours, flavours, and preservatives.

The Department of Health expects manufacturers to standardise active constituents where possible and to ensure purity by eliminating from crude material pesticide residues, aflatoxins and heavy metal contaminants. Chromotography, in one of its forms (thin-layer, gas or high-pressure liquid) are used to assess purity, potency, accurate identity and contamination by lead, cadmium, etc. A Geiger-counter reveals the presence or absence of radio-activity. Each plant has its own signature or ‘fingerprint’ showing density and other important characteristics.

Failure to meet Government requirements empowers a purchaser to return the whole consignment to the supplier. Thus, a high standard of manufacturing practice is maintained.

See: Medicines Act leaflet 39, Revised Guidelines DHSS Nov 1985 ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

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Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

Manuka

Leptospermum scoparium

FAMILY: Myrtaceae

SYNONYMS: New Zealand tea tree, kahikatoa, red manuka, manex.

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: The Manuka plant is an elegant, bushy evergreen shrub with deep green small spiky leaves that bears small flowers of white to pink in colour. The blossom is produced from September to February and most profusely in the later months. Its size ranges from a creeping plant to a small tree – trees can reach heights of up to 8 metres, especially when found within dense woodland. The leaves and flowers are strongly aromatic.

DISTRIBUTION: Manuka is the only Leptospermum species native to New Zealand, where it is widely distributed in various climatic and altitudinal zones. The physical characteristics, such as flower and leaf colour, leaf size and shape, branching habit, and foliage density vary considerably among populations. The plant can now be found in Australia where it seems to acclimatize well to varied terrain from marshland to dry mountain slopes. The essential oil is generally harvested from wild plants, as little farming of Manuka is currently undertaken.

OTHER SPECIES: The family Myrtaceae yields many valuable essential oils including eucalyptus, myrtle and tea tree. Another native tree of New Zealand called kanuka (Kunzea ericoides), sometimes called white or tree manuka, although superficially similar to L. scoparium in that both are collectively known as ‘tea trees’, is actually genetically a very distinct species. Kanuka in its typical form can grow into a tree up to 30 metres tall. It is also used to produce an essential oil.

HERBAL/FOLK TRADITION: For centuries, New Zealand Maori have used manuka to treat a wide range of complaints. Early New Zealand records indicate that the plant’s bark, leaves, sap and seed capsules were used in beverages and medicinal preparations. A decoction of the leaves was drunk for urinary complaints and as a febrifuge. The steam from leaves boiled in water was inhaled for head colds. A decoction was prepared from the leaves and bark and the warm liquid was rubbed on stiff muscles and aching joints. The emollient white gum, called ‘pai manuka’, was given to nursing babies and also used to treat scalds and burns. Chewing the bark is said to have a relaxing effect and enhance sleep. It is said that Captain James Cook used the leaves of the plant as a tea to combat scurvy during long explorations of the southern hemisphere; later, early European settlers of New Zealand adopted Captain Cook’s use of the plant as a tea.

Recently, scientists have confirmed that manuka oil is up to 33 times stronger than tea tree essential oil for protecting against specific strains of bacteria; it is also effective against the MRSA (Methicillin-Resistant Staph. Aureus) bacteria, which is resistant to normal antibiotics.

ACTIONS: Analgesic, antibacterial, antibiotic, antifungal, antihistamine, anti-inflammatory, anti-infectious, antimicrobial, antiseptic, astringent, deodorant, digestive, expectorant, immune stimulant, insecticide, sedative, vulnerary.

EXTRACTION: Steam distilled from the leaves, twigs and branches.

CHARACTERISTICS: A mobile liquid with a distinctive fresh, spicy, herbaceous aroma with a honey-like sweetness. It blends well with bay leaf, bergamot, black pepper, cajuput, cedarwood atlas, cinnamon, clove bud, elemi, ginger, juniper, lavender, nutmeg, peppermint, rose, rosemary, sandalwood, thyme, vetiver and ylang ylang.

PRINCIPAL CONSTITUENTS: The main active constituents of manuka oil are isoleptospermone, ?-pinene, ?-pinene, myrcene, ?-cymene, 1,8-cineole, linalol, methylcinnamate, ?-farnesine, isoleptospermone, leptospermone, sesquiterpenes such as cadina-3, 5-diene and ?-amorphene, and triketones. However, within the species of manuka there are at least nine different chemotypes: oil which contains high levels of triketones, found in the East Cape area of North Island in New Zealand appears to possess the greatest antimicrobial potential. Other chemotypes however are thought to reveal greater anti-inflammatory and analgesic tendencies. It is important to be aware of these various chemotypes when selecting an oil for therapeutic purposes.

SAFETY DATA: Generally it is thought to be non-sensitizing, non-toxic, and non-irritant. It can in some individuals, produce mild irritation but has a low irritancy compared to Australian tea tree oil. Avoid use during pregnancy because of spasmolytic activity.

AROMATHERAPY/HOME: USE

Skin care: Acne, abscesses, athlete’s foot skin, bed sores, blisters, boils, burns, carbuncles, cold sores, cracked skin, dandruff, dermatitis, eczema, fungal infections, insect bites and stings, lice, nail infections, oily skin, pimples, ringworm, sores, sunburn, tinea and ulcers.

Circulation, muscles and joints: Aches and pains, muscular tension, sprains and stiffness in joints, rheumatism.

Respiratory system: Coughs, cold, ’flu congestion, as well as asthma and hayfever.

Immune system: Tonic

Nervous system: Nervous debility.

OTHER USES: The essential oil is much used in phyto-cosmetic and pharmaceutical preparations mainly for its potent antimicrobial properties. Commercial development of the essential oil has led to a range of products for the topical treatment of various conditions including joint pain, eczema and psoriasis. The oil is also used in perfumes and soaps. The scented flowers of the shrub attract bees, which are used for making the popular manuka honey.... The Encyclopedia of Essential Oils

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The Encyclopedia of Essential Oils

Manuka Honey

a honey, produced in Australia and New Zealand from nectar of the manuka (or tea) tree, that is reported to have antibacterial and antioxidant properties and is used to promote wound healing. The thickness of the honey acts as a moist protective barrier.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Manulani

(Hawaiian) Resembling a bird in the heavens

Manulanie, Manulane, Manulaney, Manulanee, Manulanea... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Manyara

(African) A humble woman Manyarah... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Manzana

Apple (Malus pumila).

Plant Part Used: Leaf, root, flower, fruit, bulb, bark, whole plant.

Dominican Medicinal Uses: Fruit: raw, ingested, for treatment or prevention of high blood pressure, high cholesterol, heart disease and nutrition; tea, orally, for common cold, flu-like symptoms, menopausal hot flashes and relaxation.

Safety: Fruit is widely consumed and generally considered safe.

Clinical Data: Human clinical trials: alleviation of gastro-intestinal enteritis (fruit).

Laboratory & Preclinical Data: In vivo: anti-inflammatory, antirheumatic (ethanol extract).

In vitro: antioxidant (phenols).

* See entry for Manzana in “Part 3: Dominican Medicinal Plant Profiles” of this book for more information, including references.... Medicinal Plants

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Medicinal Plants

Manzanilla

Chamomile (Matricaria recutita & Chamaemelum nobile).

Plant Part Used: Flower.

Dominican Medicinal Uses: Flowers: decoction/infusion, orally, for anxiety, nervousness, stress, insomnia (adults and children), menstrual cramps, post-partum recovery, childbirth and regulating blood pressure.

Safety: Considered safe for internal use; slight potential for hypersensitivity, especially in patients with a history of allergic reaction to Aster species.

Contraindications: Pregnancy: oral administration of whole plant extract at high doses may have emmenagogue effects; however, flower extracts have not shown this effect.

Clinical Data: Clinical case report: mouthwash for oral mucositis (plant extract).

Laboratory & Preclinical Data: In vivo: antipruritic, antiulcerogenic (plant extract); anxiolytic (constituents); hypoglycemic (aerial parts of Chamaemelum nobile).

In vitro: antifungal (plant extracts).

* See entry for Manzanilla in “Part 3: Dominican Medicinal Plant Profiles” of this book for more information, including references.... Medicinal Plants

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Medicinal Plants

Mauriceau–smellie–viet Manoeuvre

(MSV manoeuvre) a technique used in breech delivery to promote flexion of, and safely deliver, the fetal head.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Mcrobert’s Manoeuvre

a manoeuvre that overcomes most cases of *shoulder dystocia when the fetal shoulders are unable to pass through the mother’s pelvis. The maternal hips are sharply flexed against her abdomen: this rotates the maternal pelvis to encourage delivery.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Megalomania

An exaggerated sense of one’s own importance or ability that often occurs in mania. Megalomania may take the form of a delusion of grandeur, or of a desire to organize activities that are expensive, large in scale, and involve many people.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Megalomania

n. an obsolete word for delusions of grandeur, such as being God, royalty, etc. It may be a feature of a schizophrenic or manic illness.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Megalomania

A delusion of grandeur or an insane belief in a person’s own extreme greatness, goodness, or power.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Mehuman

(Hebrew) One who is faithful Mehumann, Mehumane, Mehumana, Mehumanna... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Memantine Hydrochloride

an *NMDA-receptor antagonist drug indicated for treatment of moderate to severe Alzheimer’s-type dementia. Its most common side-effects are dizziness, headache, and constipation.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Michaelis–gutmann Bodies

see malakoplakia.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Micromanipulation

n. the manipulation of extremely small structures under the microscope, as in *microdissection, or *microsurgery.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Money Management

Activities that support a person in keeping control over bank accounts, finances, etc.... Community Health

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Community Health

Monomania

Monomania is a form of MENTAL ILLNESS, in which the affected person has delusion (see DELUSIONS) upon one subject, although he or she can converse rationally and is a responsible individual upon other matters.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Msv Manoeuvre

see Mauriceau–Smellie–Viet manoeuvre.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Mugwort Tea - An Herbal Tea With Many Benefits

Mugwort tea is one of the many herbal teas that have many health benefits. Despite its bitter, tangy taste, it’s worth a try to drink some mugwort tea, as it’s good for your body. Find out more about the tea’s health benefits in this article. About Mugwort Tea Mugwort tea is a type of herbal tea made from mugwort dried leaves. The mugwort is an herbaceous perennial plant with a woody root; it can grow up to 2 meters tall. The stem is reddish in color, with dark green, pinnate leaves that are 5-20 cm long, and radially symmetrical small flowers which have many yellow or dark red petals. It grows in Europe, Asia, northern Africa, Alaska and North America; it is often considered an invasive weed. It is sometimes referred to by the following names: felon herb, chrysanthemum weed, wild wormwood, old Uncle Henry, sailor’s tobacco, or St. John’s plant (be careful not to confuse it with St. John’s wort). The leaves and buds of the plant are best picked right before the flowers of the plant bloom, between July and September. They can be used with season fat, meat and fish, to give them a bitter flavor. Native American legends say that mugwort leaves were rubbed all over one’s body in order to keep ghosts away, as well as to prevent one from dreaming about the dead. Nowadays, it is mixed with other herbs (chamomile, peppermint) to make the so-called “dream tea”, which helps you improve dream recall, and increases the number of dreams you have per night. Components of Mugwort Tea Mugwort, which is the main ingredient of the mugwort tea, has plenty of components that are good for our health. Some of them are essential oils (such as cineole/wormwood oil, and thujone), flavonoids, triterpenes, coumarin derivatives, tannins, and linalool. Thujone consumed in large amounts can be toxic. In many countries, the amount of thujone which can be added in food or drink products is regulated. The amount of thujone oil found in the plant is considered safe. How to make Mugwort Tea In order to enjoy a cup of mugwort tea, add one teaspoon of the dried mugwort herb to a cup of boiling water. Let it steep for about 10 minutes before removing the dried plants. It is recommended that you drink the mugwort tea in mouthful doses throughout the whole day. If the mugwort tea is too bitter for your taste, you can add honey or sugar to sweeten it. Mugwort Tea Benefits Thanks to the many components of mugwort, the mugwort tea is full of health benefits. Mugwort tea is useful when it comes to having a good digestion. It stimulates the secretion of gastric juices, relieves flatulence and bloating, and helps in the treatment for intestinal worms. It also improves your appetite, and helps with indigestion, colic, and travel sickness. This tea might help in the treatment of various brain diseases. It is also a useful remedy when it comes to nervousness, exhaustion, depression, and insomnia. Mugwort tea is also useful during child birth. It has a calming effect when you are during labor, and it also lessens contraction pains. It is also useful when you get menstrual cramps, and stimulates irregular or suppressed menstruation. Considering the diuretic properties of mugwort, it is believed that mugwort tea can help with liver, spleen, and kidney problems. It is also recommended that you drink this type of tea if you’ve got a cold, a fever, or if you’re suffering from asthma or bronchitis. Mugwort Tea side effects Although mugwort tea contains little amount of thujone oil, it is recommended that you don’t drink if you’re pregnant. It might cause miscarriages. Consumed in large quantities, the thujone oil found in the composition of this tea may lead to side effects such as anxiety and sleeplessness. When drinking mugwort tea, be careful not to have an allergic reaction. You might be allergic to mugwort if you know you’re allergic to plants from the Asteraceae or Compositae family. These include ragweed, chrysanthemums, marigolds, daisies, chamomile, and many other plants. Also, avoid drinking this tea if you know you’re allergic to birch, celery, wild carrot, honey, royal jelly, cabbage, hazelnut, olive pollen, kiwi, peach, mango, apple, mustard, and sunflower. Don’t drink more than six cups of mugwort tea - or any other type of tea - a day. If you drink too much, it’ll end up doing more harm. The symptoms you might experience are headaches, loss of appetite, vomiting, diarrhea, insomnia, dizziness, and irregular heartbeats.   Despite its bitter taste, mugwort tea is definitely good for your body. It has lots of health benefits, but first make sure you’re not affected by any of its side effects. Once you’re sure it’s safe, you can enjoy a cup of this  delicious tea.... Beneficial Teas

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Beneficial Teas

Nardostachys Jatamansi

DC.

Synonym: N. grandiflora DC.

Family: Valerianaceae.

Habitat: Alpine Himalayas, Kumaon, Sikkim and Bhutan.

English: Spikenard, Musk-root.

Ayurvedic: Maansi, Jataamaansi, Bhuutajataa, Tapaswini, Sulo- mashaa, Jatilaa, Naladaa.

Unani: Sumbul-e-Hindi, Sambul-ut- Teeb, Naardeen-e-Hindi, Baalchhar.

Siddha/Tamil: Sadamanchil.

Action: Used as a substitute for Valerian. Tranquilizer, sedative, hypotensive. Used for the treatment of epilepsy, hysteria, convulsive affections, palpitation of heart and in intestinal colic. A decoction of powdered roots is prescribed as a home remedy for high blood pressure. It is used in dysmenorrhoea for pain relief and smooth menstrual flow. It is used in hair oil for arresting hair loss and greying of hair.

The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India recommends dry rhizomes in obstinate skin diseases, erysipelas, disturbed mental state and insomnia.

The rhizome is rich in sesquiter- penoids. The crude drug gave an oil (yield 2.5% v/w), which contains d- nardostachone, valeranone and jata- mansone as the major ketonic sesqui- terpenes. The oil potentiated phenobarbital narcosis in rats, reduced brain serotonin content and decreased the conditioned avoidance performance in cats.

Jatamansone was shown to exert tranquilizing effect in mice and monkeys. In rabbits, jatamansone was found to impair biosynthesis of serotonin in the brain leading to a reduction in brain level of 5-hydroxytrypta- mine. The degradation of serotonin was unaffected. The mode of action of jatamansone was thus in variance with that of reserpine which has direct action on the cell to liberate serotonin.

On the other hand, the alcoholic extract of the roots of Indian Nard caused an overall increase in the levels of central monamines, 5-hydroxy indole acetic acid and the inhibitory amino acids, gamma-aminobutyric acid, norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonin in rat brain.

In a clinical trial on hyperkinetic children, jatamansone showed significant reduction in hyperactivity and improvement in restlessness and aggressiveness, almost at par with D- amphetamine.

The volatile oil was found to be less active than quinidine in several tests. It did not counteract digitalis induced ventricular arrhythmias.

Jatamansone semicarbazone, a sesquiterpene ketone, was found to possess antiestrogenic activity.

N. jatamansi is also used in place of Muraa (Selinum tenuifolium Wall. ex DC.)

Dosage: Root—2-3 g powder; 5-10 g for infusion; 50-100 ml infusion. (API, Vol. I; CCRAS.)... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Niemann–pick Disease

an inherited (autosomal *recessive) disorder of lipid metabolism due to a defect in the enzyme sphingomyelinase and resulting in accumulation of sphingomyelin (a sphingolipid) and other phospholipids in the bone marrow, brain, liver, and spleen. Patients present with neurological problems, learning disabilities, and enlargement of the liver and spleen at a young age. There are four known types of the disease. [A. Niemann (1880–1921), German paediatrician; L. Pick (1868–1944), German pathologist]... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Normandie

(French) Woman from Normandy

Normandi, Normandee, Normandy, Normandey, Normandea... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Nymphomania

An outdated term for a condition in which a woman is dominated by an insatiable appetite for sexual activity with numerous partners.

The equivalent behaviour in men is called satyriasis or Don Juanism. It was said to be caused by intense narcissism and feelings of inferiority.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Nymphomania

Insatiable desire for sex in women.

Indicated: Agnus Castus, Hops, Black Willow, Ladyslipper, (Albert Priest) Sweet Marjoram. Traditional: White Pond Lily (emblem of purity).

Chinese Barefoot medicine – Sage tea.

Teas. Agnus Castus, Hops, Sweet Marjoram.

Decoction. Black Willow bark.

Tablets/capsules. Agnus Castus, Black Willow.

Formula. Equal parts: Black Willow, Agnus Castus, Wild Lettuce. Dose: Liquid extracts: 2 teaspoons. Tinctures: 2-3 teaspoons. Powders: 750mg (three 00 capsules or half a teaspoon). Thrice daily.

Oregano (origanum vulgare). Spanish traditional. 5-20 drops tincture or 1 drop oil in honey between meals, thrice daily.

Home-tincture: handful Oregano steeped in bottle of white wine. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

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Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

Omana

(Indian) A lovely woman Omanah, Omanna, Omannah... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Omanie

(American) An exuberant woman Omani, Omany, Omaney, Omanee, Omanea... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Ombudsman

A person who investigates complaints and mediates fair settlements, especially between aggrieved parties, such as consumers, and an institution or organization.... Community Health

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Community Health

Ormanda

(German) Woman of the sea Ormandy, Ormandey, Ormadee, Ormandi, Ormandie, Ormandea... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Ortolani Manoeuvre

a test for *congenital dislocation of the hip in which, with the baby lying supine and the pelvis steadied with one hand, the examiner attempts to relocate a dislocated hip by gently abducting the hip while simultaneously pushing upwards on the greater trochanter. If the hip is dislocated, it will relocate with a detectable and sometimes audible clunk. [M. Ortolani (20th century), Italian orthopaedic surgeon]

os1 n. (pl. ossa) a bone.

os2 n. (pl. ora) the mouth or a mouthlike part.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Osmanthus

Osmanthus fragrans

FAMILY: Oleaceae

SYNONYMS: Sweet osmanthus, sweet olive, tea olive, fragrant olive, silang, holly osmanthus, holly olive, kwai hwa.

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: An evergreen shrub or small tree growing up to 12 metres tall, with broad leaves and bearing purple-black fruits containing a single hard-shelled seed. The small flowers, which appear in clusters late in the season, can be white, pale yellow, gold, orange or reddish in colour, with a strong sweet fragrance much like fresh apricots or peaches.

DISTRIBUTION: This plant is native to Asia from the Himalayas through southern China to Taiwan and southern Japan. It is the ‘city flower’ of the cities of Hangzhou, Suzhou and Guilin in China. Today it is cultivated as an ornamental plant in gardens in Asia, Europe, North America, and elsewhere in the world, mainly for its deliciously fragrant flowers.

OTHER SPECIES: Osmanthus is a genus of about 30 species belonging to the olive family, which are mainly found growing in warm climates. While the flowers of O. fragrans range in colour from silver-white (O. fragrans Lour. var. latifolius) to gold-orange (O. fragrans Lour. var. thunbergii) to reddish (O. fragrans Lour. var. aurantiacus), the absolute is usually prepared from the gold-orange flowered species. A number of cultivars of this species have also been selected for garden use, with specific names: for example, in Japan, the white and orange-blossoming subspecies are distinguished as silver osmanthus and gold osmanthus respectively.

HERBAL/FOLK TRADITION: The exotic flowers from this plant have traditionally been cherished in the East for a range of purposes. Due to the time of its blossoming, sweet osmanthus is closely associated with the Chinese mid-autumn festival when osmanthus-flavoured wine and tea are traditionally served. The flowers are also used to produce a special osmanthus-scented jam, called guì huà jiàng. The tree is known as tea olive because in ancient times the Chinese used it to make a natural ‘de-tox’ herbal tea to flush out excessive nitric oxide from the system; the tisane was also recommended for menstrual irregularities. In some regions of North India, especially in the state of Uttarakhand, the flowers of sweet osmanthus are still used to protect clothes from insects.

Traditional Chinese medical literature describes the usefulness of the flowers of Osmanthus fragrans in the treatment of phlegm reduction, dysentery with blood in the bowel, indigestion and diarrhoea. The Chinese also used the flowers as a natural medicine to improve the complexion of the skin and today the absolute is still employed in cosmetic preparations. However, modern evidence regarding the therapeutic efficacy of the flowers has shown them to be somewhat limited, although studies have indicated they do have anti-oxidant properties, valuable for skincare. Findings also confirmed the ability of the O. fragrans flowers to reduce phlegm and suggest that they may be useful as an anti-allergic agent. Although little used in aromatherapy, since the aroma is relaxing and soothing, helping bring relief from mental stress and depression, it can make a valuable addition to floral-based blends.

ACTIONS: Anti-oxidant, anti-allergic, expectorant, depurative, insecticide, nervine, regulating, sedative.

EXTRACTION: A concrete and absolute by solvent extraction from the fresh flowers. Since the yield of absolute from concrete is only about one kilo per 3,000 kilos of flowers, the enfleurage method or the infusion process have also been applied to these flowers.

CHARACTERISTICS: A green to brown viscous liquid with a very strong sweet-honey, floral, fruity perfume with notes of peach and apricot. It blends well with lime, orange, sandalwood, rose, benzoin, violet, jasmine, mimosa and ylang ylang.

PRINCIPAL CONSTITUENTS: Main constituents include beta ionone, gamma-decanolid, palmitic acid, linoleic acid, linalool oxide, dihydro-beta-Ionone, trans-beta-Ionone and cis-jasmone.

SAFETY DATA: No recorded contraindications for external application: best avoided during pregnancy.

AROMATHERAPY/HOME: USE

Skin care: Dry or mature skin and general skin care.

Nervous system: Anxiety, depression, nervous debility and tension, mood swings, stress.

OTHER USES: Osmanthus absolute (although often adulterated) is used in high-class perfumes for its exquisite aroma, which is very pleasing to the senses. It is also used as a cosmetic ingredient.... The Encyclopedia of Essential Oils

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The Encyclopedia of Essential Oils

Osmanthus Fragrans

Lour.

Family: Obleaceae.

Habitat: Native to China and Japan. Found in Kumaon, Garhwal and Sikkim.

Ayurvedic: Vasuka (Also equated with Brihat Bakula.)

Folk: Silang, Silingi, Bagahul, Buuk.

Action: Diuretic, genitourinary tract disinfectant.

Flowers—antiseptic, insecticidal. Used for protecting clothes from insects.

The flowers yield an oil containing oleanolic and urosolic acids, beta- sitosterol, glycosides and a wax (0.04%) composed mainly of triacontane. The leaves are reported to contain a philly- rin-like glycoside.

Osmanthus suavis King, known as Silingi in Nepal and Chashing in Bhutan, is found in eastern Himalayas at altitudes of 2,700-3,000 m and in Aka hills in Assam. It is used as a var. of Vasuka.

Dosage: Flower—500 mg to 1 g powder. (CCRAS.)... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Osteitis Deformans

An alternative term for Paget’s disease.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Osteitis Deformans

See PAGET’S DISEASE OF BONE.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Pacific Man-o’war

The colloquial term for the multi-tentacled hydrozoan colony Physalia physalis, recentlydescribed on the eastern coast of Australia.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

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Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

Pain Management Programme

A set of strategies to address an individual’s pain management requirements and supportive of the individual’s pain control.... Community Health

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Community Health

Parliamentary And Health Service Ombudsman

(in England) an official responsible to Parliament and appointed to protect the interests of patients in relation to administration of and provision of health care by the *National Health Service. He or she can investigate complaints about the NHS when they cannot be resolved locally. In Scotland, and in Wales, this role is undertaken by a Public Services Ombudsman.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Pediculus Humanus Var. Corporis

(body louse) di?ers from the head and crab louse in that it lives in clothing and only goes on to the body to feed. Infestation is found in vagabonds, armies in the ?eld, or prisoners in conditions where even minimal hygiene is impossible. The lice are found in the seams of clothing together with multiple eggs. Typically excoriation and pigmentation are seen on the back of the infested person. Replacement of clothing or autoclaving or hot ironing of the clothes is curative.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Pegvisomant

n. see growth hormone.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Performance

The level of attainment of a goal in comparison to a given effort.... Community Health

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Community Health

Performance Criteria

Criteria to be used to measure/assess performance.... Community Health

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Community Health

Performance Measure Or Indicator

Methods or instruments to estimate or monitor the extent to which the actions of an individual practitioner or whole programme conform to practice standards of quality or allow comparisons between services.... Community Health

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Community Health

Performance Status

a scoring system used to quantify a patient’s activity level and general wellbeing in order to assess the patient’s suitability for chemotherapy or for taking part in a clinical trial. Commonly used systems include the WHO performance scale, scoring from 0 (fully active, feeling well) to 4 or 5 (very ill or near to death), and the Karnofsky scale, scoring from 0 (very ill) to 100 (feeling well).... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Performance- Qualification

Documented verification of the appropriateness of critical process parameters, operating ranges and system reproducibility over an appropriate time period... Medicinal Plants Glossary

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Medicinal Plants Glossary

Permanent Teeth

The 2nd teeth, which usually start to replace the primary teeth at about the age of 6. There are 32 permanent teeth: 16 in each jaw. Each set of 16 consists of 4 incisors, 2 canines, 4 premolars and 6 molars. (See also eruption of teeth.)... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Policeman’s Heel

see plantar fasciitis.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Pomada De Manteca

Butter pomade; a slightly solidified nut butter used externally as an ointment or salve; for example, made from peanuts (maní) or sesame seeds (ajonjolí).... Medicinal Plants

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Medicinal Plants

Portuguese Man-o’-war

The colloquial term used for the multi-tentacled hydrozoan colony of Physalia physalis common in the north Atlantic Ocean.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

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Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

Potassium Permanganate

a salt of potassium having antiseptic and astringent properties. Potassium permanganate solution is applied to the skin to treat weeping eczema. It irritates mucous membranes and is poisonous if taken into the body.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Potassium Permanganate

A drug that has an antiseptic and astringent effect; and is useful in the treatment of dermatitis.

It can occasionally cause irritation and can stain skin and clothing.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Potassium Permanganate

A salt of the metallic element POTASSIUM. It is used as a skin antiseptic (see ANTISEPTICS) and for cleaning wounds; its astringent e?ect is useful in the treatment of DERMATITIS. It should not be taken internally because the compound is poisonous.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Practice Manager

the person responsible for running a doctor’s surgery, whose role involves managing staff, accounts, and medical records as well as developing the practice’s business strategy. Practice managers also liaise with external bodies, such as local NHS trusts and social service departments, to ensure efficient communication between the various organizations.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Practitioner Performance Advice

part of *NHS Resolution that provides advice and support to NHS trusts and health authorities in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland regarding concerns about the performance of individual doctors, dentists, and pharmacists. The emphasis of the service is on local resolution. It was formerly known as the National Clinical Assessment Service (NCAS).

Information from the NHS Resolution website... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Programme Management

A system of management which involves the integration of planning, resourcing and evaluation processes to achieve stated outcomes.... Community Health

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Community Health

Public Services Ombudsman

see Parliamentary and Health Service Ombudsman.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Pyromania

A persistent impulse to start fires. The disorder is more often diagnosed in males, and may be associated with a low , alcohol abuse, and a psychosexual disorder.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Pyromania

A powerful urge in a person to set things on ?re. A?ected individuals, more commonly males, are called pyromaniacs. They usually have a history of fascination with ?re since childhood and obtain pleasure or relief of tension from causing ?res. Treatment is di?cult and pyromaniacs commonly end up in the courts.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Quality Assessment And Performance Improvement Programme (qapi)

QAPI establishes strategies for promoting high quality health care. First, each organization must meet certain required levels of performance when providing specific health care and related services. Second, organizations must conduct performance improvement projects that are outcome-oriented and that achieve demonstrable and sustained improvement in care and services. It is expected that an organization will continuously monitor its own performance on a variety of dimensions of care and services, identify its own areas for potential improvement, carry out individual projects to undertake system interventions to improve care, and monitor the effectiveness of those interventions.... Community Health

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Community Health

Resource Management

The process of trying to attain the most rational use of manpower, knowledge, facilities and funds to achieve the intended purposes with the greatest effect with the least outlay.... Community Health

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Community Health

Resuscitation Mannikin

a life-size model of a person for practising all aspects of basic and advanced life support, including endotracheal *intubation and *defibrillation.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Risk Management

a framework are applied to clinical and nonclinical aspects of health care to increase patient safety by identifying potential hazards, assessing the degree of risk, and reducing the risk or determining an acceptable balance between risk and benefit. Risk management should include systems for learning from untoward, significant, or critical incidents and near misses. It is a feature of *clinical governance.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Risk Management

The function of identifying and assessing problems that could occur and bring about losses legally, clinically or financially.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Risk Management

A predictive technique for identifying potential untoward occurrences. It has been in use in certain industries (such as nuclear power generation) for many years and was introduced to the NHS in 1991 when self-governing trusts were ?rst set up. The reasons were, ?rstly, that Crown immunity had been removed from the health service in 1988, so that ceased to be immune from prosecution for non-compliance with health and safety legislation; secondly, because trusts were responsible for their own liabilities and any consequential costs. Risk management starts with three simple questions:

what can go wrong?

how likely is it to happen?

how bad would it be if it happened?

The combined answers allow an estimate to be made of the risk. Given the scope for clinical mishaps in the NHS – let alone sta? and corporate risks – the need for a credible, operational risk strategy is substantial.... Community Health

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Community Health

Romana’s Sign

Oedema of the eyelid in early Chagas’ Disease (South American trypanosomiasis) due to the infected faeces of the vector assassin (triatomid) bug causing swelling of the mucosa of the eye.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

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Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

Romaña’s Sign

an early clinical sign of *Chagas’ disease, appearing some three weeks after infection. There is considerable swelling of the eyelids of one or both eyes. This may be due to the presence of the parasites causing the disease but it may also be an allergic reaction to the repeated bites of their insect carriers. [C. Romaña (20th century), Brazilian physician]... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Romanowsky Stains

a group of stains used for microscopical examination of blood cells, consisting of variable mixtures of thiazine dyes, such as azure B, with eosin. Romanowsky stains give characteristic staining patterns, on the basis of which blood cells are classified. The group includes the stains of Leishmann, Wright, May-Grünwald, Giemsa, etc. [D. L. Romanowsky (1861–1921), Russian physician]... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Salamanca

(Spanish) A woman from a city in western Spain... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Salzmann’s Degeneration

a noninflammatory condition of the cornea resulting in yellow-white nodules under the epithelium in the central area. These may cause symptoms if the epithelium over them breaks down or if they are located along the visual axis. [M. Salzmann (1862–1954), German ophthalmologist]... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Samanfa

(Hebrew) Form of Samantha, meaning “one who listens well” Samanffa, Sammanfa, Sammanffa, Semenfa, Semenfah, Samenffa, Semenffah... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Samantha

(Aramaic) One who listens well Samanthah, Samanthia, Samanthea, Samantheya, Samanath, Samanatha, Samana, Samanitha, Samanithia, Samanth, Samanthe, Samanthi, Samanthiah, Semantha, Sementha, Simantha, Smantha, Samantah, Smanta, Samanta, Sammatha, Samatha, Samea, Samee, Samey, Samie, Samy, Samye, Sami, Sammanth, Sammanthia, Sammanthiah, Sammanthya, Sammanthyah, Sammantha, Sammi, Sammie, Sammy, Samm, Samma, Sammah, Sammee, Sammey, Sammijo, Sammyjo... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Scheuermann’s Disease

(adolescent kyphosis) a disorder of spinal growth in which a sequence of three or more vertebrae become slightly wedge-shaped. It arises in adolescence and usually occurs in the thoracic spine, causing poor posture, backache, fatigue, and exaggerated *kyphosis. X-ray findings include *Schmorl’s nodes. [H. W. Scheuermann (1877–1960), Danish surgeon]... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Self-reliance / Self-sufficiency / Self-management

The capacity of individuals, communities or national authorities to take the initiative in assuming responsibility for their own health development and adopting adequate measures to maintain health that are understood by them and acceptable to them, knowing their own strengths and resources and how to use them and knowing when, and for what purpose, to turn to others for support and cooperation.... Community Health

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Community Health

Semont Liberatory Manoeuvre

a series of head and body movements used to move microscopic debris from the posterior *semicircular canal in the inner ear. It is used in the treatment of *benign paroxysmal positional vertigo.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Sharmane

(English) Form of Charmaine, meaning “charming and delightful woman” Sharman, Sharmaine, Sharmain, Sharmayne, Sharmayn, Sharmaen, Sharmaene... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Shuman

(Native American) One who charms rattlesnakes

Shumane, Shumaine, Shumayne, Shumanne, Shumanna, Shumaene... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Sphygmomanometer

n. an instrument for measuring *blood pressure in the arteries. It consists of an inflatable cuff connected to a graduated scale gauge calibrated in millimetres of mercury (mmHg). The cuff is applied to a limb (usually the arm) and inflated to exert pressure on a large artery until the blood flow stops. The pressure is then slowly released and, with the aid of a stethoscope to listen to the pulse, it is possible to determine both the systolic and diastolic pressures (which can be read on the scale). Automated electronic devices are increasingly used.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Sphygmomanometer

An instrument used for measuring blood pressure. A cuff attached to the device is wrapped around the person’s arm and inflated until it compresses the main artery in the arm. The cuff is deflated while the doctor listens to the blood flow through a stethoscope. The sphygmomanometer records the pressure on a mercury-filled glass column or a digital display.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Sphygmomanometer

The traditional device for measuring blood pressure in clinical practice, devised by Riva-Rocci and Korotko? about a century ago. Measurement depends on accurate transmission and interpretation of the pulse wave to an artery. The sphygmomanometer is of two types, mercury and aneroid. The former is more accurate. Both have some features in common – an in?ation-de?ation system, an occluding bladder encased in a cu?, and the use of AUSCULTATION with a STETHOSCOPE. The mercury sphygmomanometer consists of a pneumatic armlet which is connected via a rubber tube with an air-pressure pump and a measuring gauge comprising a glass column containing mercury. The armlet is bound around the upper arm and pumped up su?ciently to obliterate the pulse felt at the wrist or heard by auscultation of the artery at the bend of the elbow. The pressure, measured in millimetres of mercury (mm Hg), registered at this point on the gauge is regarded as the pressure of the blood at each heartbeat (ventricular contraction). This is called the systolic pressure. The cu? is then slowly de?ated by releasing the valve on the air pump and the pressure at which the sound heard in the artery suddenly changes its character marks the diastolic pressure. Aneroid sphygmomanometers register pressure through an intricate bellows and lever system which is more susceptible than the mercury type to the bumps and jolts of everyday use which reduce its inaccuracy.

While mercury sphygmomanometers are simple, accurate and easily serviced, there is concern about possible mercury toxicity for users, those servicing the devices and the environment. Use of them has already been banned in some European hospitals. Although it may be a few years before they are widely replaced, automated blood-pressure-measuring devices will increasingly be in routine use. A wide variety of ambulatory blood-pressuremeasuring devices are already available and may be ?tted in general practice or hospital settings, where the patient is advised on the technique. Blood-pressure readings can be taken half-hourly – or more often, if required – with little disturbance of the patient’s daily activities or sleep. (See also BLOOD PRESSURE; HYPERTENSION.)... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Strassman Procedure

an operation to correct a double uterus (see uterus didelphys). It has now largely been replaced by hysteroscopic techniques. [P. F. Strassman (1866–1938), German obstetrician and gynaecologist]... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Submandibular Gland

(submaxillary gland) one of a pair of *salivary glands situated below the parotid glands. Their ducts (Wharton’s ducts) open in two papillae under the tongue, on either side of the frenulum.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Sumana

(Indian) A good-natured woman Sumanah, Sumanna, Sumane, Sumanne, Sumann... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Tamanna

(Indian) One who is desired Tamannah, Tamana, Tamanah, Tammana, Tammanna... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Temporomandibular Joint

The joint between the mandible (lower jaw bone) and the skull.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Temporomandibular Joint

the articulation between the *mandible and the *temporal bone: a hinge joint (see ginglymus).... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Temporomandibular Joint Syndrome

Pain and other symptoms affecting the head, jaw, and face, thought to result when the temporomandibular joints and the muscles and ligaments attached to them do not work together correctly. Causes include spasm of the chewing muscles, an incorrect bite (see malocclusion), jaw, head, or neck injuries, or osteoarthritis. Common symptoms include headaches, tenderness of the jaw muscles, and aching facial pain. Treatment involves correction of any underlying abnormality, analgesic drugs, and, in some cases, injection of corticosteroid drugs into the joint.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Temporomandibular Joint Syndrome

a condition in which the patient has painful temporomandibular joints, tenderness in the muscles that move the jaw, clicking of the joints, and limitation of jaw movement. Stress, resulting in clenching the jaws and grinding the teeth, is often a causal factor but *occlusion, trauma, and systemic factors may also need to be considered. Treatment is normally conservative.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Torus Mandibularis

a benign bony growth that develops on the mandible on the side closest to the tongue. It is predominantly a bilateral condition.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Total Quality Management (tqm)

TQM is synonymous with continuous quality improvement (CQI). It is an integrative management concept of continuously improving the quality of delivered goods and services through the participation of all level and functions of the organization to meet the needs and expectations of the customer.... Community Health

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Community Health

Trichotillomania

The habit of constantly pulling out one’s hair. It can be associated with severe mental handicap or with a psychotic illness. It may also occur in psychologically disturbed children. The sufferer typically pulls, twists, and breaks off chunks of hair from the scalp, leaving bald patches; occasionally, pubic hair is pulled out. Children sometimes eat the removed hair, which may form a hairball in the stomach, known medically as a trichobezoar (see bezoar). Treatment depends on the cause, and may consist of psychotherapy or antipsychotic drugs.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Trichotillomania

n. a pathologically strong impulse that causes a person to persistently rub or pull out his or her hair, causing conspicuous hair loss. This is a disorder of impulse control.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Trichotillomania

An obsessional impulse to pull out one’s own hair.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Typha Laxmanni

Lepech.

Family: Typhaceae.

Habitat: Kashmir (Gilgit), at 2,700 m. English: Scented Flag. Ayurvedic: Airakaa. Folk: Pizh (Kashmir).

Action: Stamens—astringent and styptic. Used externally.... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Valsalva Manoeuvre

an attempt by a person to exhale forcibly with a closed glottis while pinching the nose and keeping the mouth closed, so that no air exits through the mouth or nose, as when straining during a bowel movement or lifting a heavy weight. The resulting increased pressure transplants air through the Eustachian tube, thus equalizing the negative pressure in the middle ear. This manoeuvre can often relieve the ear pain associated with flying, which is usually associated with changes in pressure particularly occurring during takeoff and landing. [A. M. Valsalva (1666–1723), Italian anatomist]... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Valsalva’s Manoeuvre

A forcible attempt to breathe out when the airway is closed.

The manoeuvre occurs naturally when an attempt is made to breathe out while holding the vocal cords tightly together.

This happens, for example, at the beginning of a sneeze.

When performed deliberately by pinching the nose and holding the mouth closed, the manoeuvre can prevent pressure damage to the eardrums (see barotrauma).... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Valsalva’s Manoeuvre

This is carried out by closing the mouth, holding the nose and attempting to blow hard. The manoeuvre raises pressure in the chest – and, indirectly, the abdomen – and forces air from the back of the nose down the EUSTACHIAN TUBES to the middle ear. This latter e?ect can be used to clear the tube during descent in an aircraft, when it sometimes becomes blocked or partially blocked, producing di?erential pressures on the two sides of each eardrum, usually accompanied by temporary pain and deafness.

Valsalva’s manoeuvre is involuntarily performed when a person strains to open his or her bowels: in these circumstances the passage of air to the lungs is blocked by instinctive closure of the vocal cords in the LARYNX. The resultant raised abdominal pressure helps to expel the bowel contents. The manoeuvre is also used in the study of cardiovascular physiology because the rise in pressure in the chest restricts the return of venous blood to the right atrium of the HEART. Pressure in the peripheral VEINS is raised and the amount of blood entering and leaving the heart falls. This drop in cardiac output may cause the subject to faint because the supply of oxygenated blood to the brain is reduced.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Vanillylmandelic Acid

(VMA) a metabolite of *catecholamines excreted in abnormal amounts in the urine in conditions of excess catecholamine production, such as *phaeochromocytoma. The measurement of VMA levels in a 24-hour urine sample was formerly used as a screening test for this condition, but in the UK it has been largely superseded by the urinary metanephrine test (see metanephrine and normetanephrine).... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Visceral Leishmaniasis (kala Azar)

A protozoan disease caused by Leishmania donovani, found around parts of the Mediterranean basin, tropical Africa, South America, and central and eastern Asia. The disease is transmitted byfemale sandflies of the genus, Phlebotomus in the Old World and Lutzomyia in the New World. Full-blown disease is often fatal, if untreated. Growth nodules of the disease or leishmanioma form initially and, if spontaneous recoverydoes not occur, proliferating parasites burst out of the nodules, disseminating throughout the body.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

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Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

Volkmann’s Contracture

fibrosis and shortening of muscles due to inadequate blood supply, which may arise from arterial injuries or *compartment syndrome. Sites most commonly involved are the forearm, hand, leg, and foot and the condition may result in clawing of the fingers or toes. It may be a complication of fractures, vascular surgery, or using a tight bandage or plaster cast. [R. von Volkmann (1830–89), German surgeon]... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Volkmann’s Contracture

A disorder in which the wrist and fingers become permanently fixed in a bent position. It occurs because of an inadequate blood supply to the forearm muscles that control the wrist and fingers as a result of an injury. Initially, the fingers become cold, numb, and white or blue. Finger movements are weak and painful, and there is no pulse at the wrist. Unless treatment is started within a few hours, wrist and finger deformity develops.

Treatment is by manipulation back into position of any displaced bones, followed, if necessary, by surgical restoration of blood flow in the forearm.

If there is permanent deformity, physiotherapy may help to restore function.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Volkmann’s Contracture

A rare condition in which, as a result of too great a pressure from splint or bandage in the treatment of a broken arm, the ?exor muscles of the forearm contract and thus obstruct free ?ow of blood in the veins; the muscles then swell and ultimately become ?brosed.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Wassermann Reaction

A test introduced for the diagnosis of SYPHILIS by examination of the blood. It has now been largely supplanted by other, more speci?c tests.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Wassermann Reaction

formerly, the most commonly used test for the diagnosis of *syphilis. A sample of the patient’s blood is examined, using a *complement-fixation reaction, for the presence of antibodies to the organism Treponema pallidum. A positive reaction (WR+) indicates the presence of antibodies and therefore infection with syphilis. [A. P. von Wassermann (1866–1925), German bacteriologist]... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Werdnig–hoffmann Disease

A very rare inherited disorder of the nervous system that affects infants. Also known as infantile spinal muscular atrophy, Werdnig–Hoffmann disease is a type of motor neuron disease, affecting the nerve cells in the spinal cord that control muscle movement.

Marked floppiness and paralysis occur during the first few months, and affected children rarely survive beyond age 3.

There is no cure for the disease. Treatment aims to keep the affected infant as comfortable as possible.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Werdnig–hoffmann Disease

a hereditary disorder – a severe form of *spinal muscular atrophy – in which the cells of the spinal cord begin to die between birth and the age of six months, causing a symmetrical muscle weakness. Affected infants become floppy and progressively weaker; respiratory and facial muscles become affected. Children usually die by the age of 20 months from respiratory failure and there is no treatment. *Genetic counselling is required for parents of an affected child as each of their subsequent children has a one in four chance of being affected. [G. Werdnig (1844–1919), Austrian neurologist; J. Hoffmann (1857–1919), German neurologist]... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Woods’ Screw Manoeuvre

an internal rotational manoeuvre to facilitate delivery in cases of *shoulder dystocia that have not responded to other measures. Using the fingertips of both hands, pressure is applied from behind the anterior shoulder and in front of the posterior shoulder. [C. E. Woods (20th century), US obstetrician]... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Zintka Mani

(Native American) Resembling a bird that walks... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary