The meaning of the symbols of dream, sources/herbal, medical seen in a dream.

Herbal Medicine

The use of herbs as medicines is probably as old as mankind; every culture has its own traditions. Herbalism was formally established in England by an Act of Parliament during Henry VIII’s reign. Di?erent parts of a variety of plants are used to treat symptoms and to restore functions.... herbal medicine

Medical Audit

A detailed review and evaluation of selected clinical records by qualified professional personnel for the purpose of evaluating the quality of medical care.... medical audit

Medical Record

A file kept for each patient, maintained by the hospital (medical practitioners also maintain medical records in their own practices), which documents the patient’s problems, diagnostic procedures, treatment and outcome. Related documents, such as written consent for surgery and other procedures, are also included in the record. In addition to facts about a patient’s illness, medical records nearly always contain other information such as clinical, demographic, sociocultural, sociological, economic, administrative and behavioural data. The record may be on paper or computerized.... medical record

Medical Negligence

Under the strict legal de?nition, negligence must involve proving a clearly established duty of care which has been breached in a way that has resulted in injury or harm to the recipient of care. There does not need to be any malicious intention. Whether or not a particular injury can be attributed to medical negligence, or must simply be accepted as a reasonable risk of the particular treatment, depends upon an assessment of whether the doctor has fallen below the standard expected of practitioners in the particular specialty. A defence to such a claim is that a respected body of practitioners would have acted in the same way (even though the majority might not) and in doing so would have acted logically.... medical negligence

Medical Research Council

A statutory body in the United Kingdom that promotes the balanced development of medical and related biological research and aims to advance knowledge that will lead to improved health care. It employs its own research sta? in more than 40 research establishments. These include the National Institute for Medical Research, the Laboratory of Molecular Biology, and the Clinical Sciences Centre. Grants are provided so that individual scientists can do research which complements the research activities of hospitals and universities. There are several medical charities and foundations – for example, the Imperial Cancer Research Fund, the British Heart Foundation, the Nu?eld Laboratories and the Wellcome Trust which fund and foster medical research.... medical research council

Advance Statements About Medical Treatment

See LIVING WILL.... advance statements about medical treatment

Alternative Medical System

A complete system of theory and practices that has evolved independently of, and often prior to, the conventional biological approach. Many are traditional systems of medicine that are practised by individual cultures throughout the world. Traditional Oriental medicine and Ayurveda, India’s traditional system of medicine, are two examples.... alternative medical system

British Medical Association (bma)


British National Formulary (BNF)

A pocket-book for those concerned with the prescribing, dispensing and administration of medicines in Britain. It is produced jointly by the Royal Pharmaceutical Society and the British Medical Association, is revised twice yearly and is distributed to NHS doctors by the Health Departments. The BNF is also available in electronic form.... british medical association (bma)

Futile Medical Treatment

Treatment that is usually considered unable to produce the desired benefit either because it cannot achieve its physiological aim or because the burdens of the treatment are considered to outweigh the benefits for the particular individual. There are necessary value judgements involved in coming to an assessment of futility. These judgements must consider the individual’s, or proxy’s, assessment of worthwhile outcome. They should also take into account the medical practitioner or other provider’s perception of intent in treatment. They may also take into account community and institutional standards, which in turn may have used physiological or functional outcome measures.... futile medical treatment

General Medical Council (gmc)

A statutory body of elected and appointed medical practitioners and appointed lay members with the responsibility of protecting patients and guiding doctors in their professional practice. Set up by parliament in 1858 – at the request of the medical profession, which was concerned by the large numbers of untrained people practising as doctors – the GMC is responsible for setting educational and professional standards; maintaining a register of quali?ed practitioners; and disciplining doctors who fail to maintain appropriate professional standards, cautioning them or temporarily or permanently removing them from the Medical Register if they are judged un?t to practise.

The Council is funded by doctors’ annual fees and is responsible to the Privy Council. Substantial reforms of the GMC’s structure and functions have been and are still being undertaken to ensure that it operates e?ectively in today’s rapidly evolving medical and social environment. In particular, the Council has strengthened its supervisory and disciplinary functions, and among many changes has proposed the regular revalidation of doctors’ professional abilities on a periodic basis. The Medical Register, maintained by the GMC, is intended to enable the public to identify whom it is safe to approach to obtain medical services. Entry on the Register shows that the doctor holds a recognised primary medical quali?cation and is committed to upholding the profession’s values. Under revalidation requirements being ?nalised, in addition to holding an initial quali?cation, doctors wishing to stay on the Register will have to show their continuing ?tness to practise according to the professional attributes laid down by the GMC.

Once revalidation is fully established, there will be four categories of doctor:

Those on the Register who successfully show their ?tness to practise on a regular basis.

Those whose registration is limited, suspended or removed as a result of the Council’s disciplinary procedures.

Those who do not wish to stay on the Register or retain any links with the GMC.

Those, placed on a supplementary list, who do not wish to stay on the main Register but who want to retain a formal link with the medical profession through the Council. Such doctors will not be able to practise or prescribe.... general medical council (gmc)

Good Medical Practice

Guidelines for doctors on the provision of good medical care laid down by the GENERAL MEDICAL COUNCIL (GMC).... good medical practice

Herbal Manual

Herbal Manual

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... herbal manual

Herbal Medical

Herbal Medical

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... herbal medical

Home Medical Equipment

Equipment, such as hospital beds, wheelchairs and prosthetics, provided by an agency and used at home.... home medical equipment

Medical Devices Agency

An executive agency of the Department of Health in the UK. Set up in 1994, it is responsible for regulating and advising on the sale or use of any product, other than a medicine, used in the health-care environment for the diagnosis, prevention, monitoring or treatment of illness or disease. Equipment ranges from pacemakers (see CARDIAC PACEMAKER) to prostheses (see PROSTHESIS), and from syringes to magnetic resonance imaging (see (MRI).... medical devices agency

Medical Dictionary

Medical Dictionary

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... medical dictionary

Medical Error

An error or omission in the medical care provided to an individual. Medical errors can occur in diagnosis, treatment, preventive monitoring or in the failure of a piece of medical equipment or another component of the medical system. Often, but not always, medical errors result in adverse events such as injury or death. See also “malpractice”; and “incidence monitoring and reporting”.... medical error

Hibiscus Tea - A Popular Herbal Tea

Hibiscus tea is one of the most famous herbal tea drinks around the world. It is made from the red hibiscus flower, which is dried and steeped. Hibiscus tea can be drank either hot or cold and it is recognized for being a strong allied in the weight loss process. Hibiscus tea contains organic acids such as citric acid, malic acid and tartaric acid. This tea can be taken as a traditional supplement or as a natural medicine since it produces Vitamin C and minerals. How to make Hibiscus tea To prepare a perfect cup of hibiscus tea, first of all you will need to boil the water into a kettle. Then measure 2 teaspoons of hibiscus flowers or more if you want a stronger flavor. After the water is boiled, place the hibiscus flowers into the kettle and let it steep for about 10 minutes. Then pour the tea into a cup using a strainer to catch the hibiscus flowers. To enhance the flavor, you can always add lemon juice, sugar or even cinnamon. Hibiscus Tea benefits
  • Lowers cholesterol
  • Some studies revealed that people who suffer from type 2 diabetes may benefits from drinking this tea.
  • In Eastern medicine, hibiscus tea is used to treat liver problems
  • Due to the fact that hibiscus tea stops the body from absorbing too many carbohydrates, it is a string allied in the weight loss process.
  • Since it contains Vitamin C, hibiscus tea helps preventing colds, flu and also, strengthens your immune system.
Hibiscus tea side effects
  • Pregnant and breastfeeding women should avoid drinking hibiscus tea.
  • People with low blood pressure are not advised to drink hibiscus tea.
  • You should be careful if you want to drink hibiscus tea for the first time since it can (rarely) produce hallucinogenic effects or even cause a sensations similar to intoxication.
  • If you are taking any type of anti-inflammatories and want to drink hibiscus tea, drink it two hours after taking the medicine.
Hibiscus tea makes a wonderful drink either on cold winter days or on hot summer days, since it can be consumed either hot or cold. Enjoy its benefits and try not to experience any of its side effects!... hibiscus tea - a popular herbal tea

Lemongrass Tea - A Healthy Herbal Tea

Lemongrass tea is one of the most popular teas from South Asia. The lemongrass plant grows in India and tropical Asia being commonly used in teas, soups and curries. This plant has been used in medicinal purposes since ancient times due to its wonderful health benefits. How To Make Lemongrass Tea Lemongrass tea has a mild lemon taste with a hint of ginger and a tropical flower scent. You can easily brew your own herbal lemongrass tea by following some few easy steps: First of all you will need a pair of gloves to protect your hands from the leaves of the lemongrass plant because they can cut your skin when you pull them from the parent plant. To cut easier, use a sharp knife. Peel the outer layers of the lemongrass leaves (the dark green leaves surrounding the stalk inside) because they will give the tea a bitter taste if they are used. Then cut the remaining lemongrass plant into slices, about 3 inches long. For each cup you will need 1 tablespoon of lemongrass. Put the slices into the teapot, pour in the hot water and let it steep for about 5 minutes. Then strain the tea into your cup and sweeten it with honey or sugar. Optionally, you can add milk. Lemongrass Tea Benefits If you suffer from insomnia, a cup of lemongrass tea before bed provides you relaxation and a restful sleep. Lemongrass tea is a good aid in digestion, so drinking a cup of tea after a meal removes that full feeling and also, helps remove unhealthy food additives, chemicals and excess fats. Since it acts like a natural diuretic, lemongrass tea helps keep the kidneys and bladder working properly. Also, its powerful antioxidants keep the liver and pancreas healthy. A university study revealed that lemongrass tea may have a cholesterol-lowering effect in people. Another benefit is that lemongrass tea reduces the symptoms of anxiety and nervousness and it has been used in Brazil for centuries to treat nervous disorders. You can also use this tea on a wet rag to heal wounds or other skin problems, since lemongrass tea is known for its anti-bacterial and anti-fungal properties. Lemongrass Tea Side Effects Despite the fact that it has a lot of health benefits, lemongrass tea also has a few side effects. Make sure you will not drink lemongrass tea if you experience allergy symptoms after consuming lemongrass. It is not indicated for pregnant or breastfeeding women to drink lemongrass tea since it may have different effects on their child. In conclusion, lemongrass tea has a lot of benefits, from its calming effects to skin healing properties. Served hot or iced, this tea makes a wonderful drink during meals or before bed to have calm all night sleep.... lemongrass tea - a healthy herbal tea

Medical Informatics


Medical Oncology

See ONCOLOGY.... medical oncology

Medically Indigent

Persons who cannot afford needed health care because of insufficient income and/or lack of adequate health insurance.... medically indigent

Medically Necessary

A treatment or service that is appropriate and consistent with a person’s diagnosis and which, in accordance with locally accepted standards of practice, cannot be omitted without adversely affecting the person’s condition or the quality of care.... medically necessary

Withholding / Withdrawing Medical Treatment

See “futile medical treatment”; “advanced directive”.... withholding / withdrawing medical treatment

Medical Defence Organisations

These are UK bodies that provide doctors with advice and, where appropriate, ?nancial support in defending claims for medical negligence in their clinical practice. They also advise doctors on all legal aspects of their work, including patients’ complaints, and provide representation for members called to account by the GENERAL MEDICAL COUNCIL (GMC) or other regulatory body. The sharp rise in claims for medical negligence in the NHS in the 1980s persuaded the UK Health Departments to introduce a risk-pooling system called the Clinical Negligence Scheme for Trusts, and the defence societies liaise with this scheme when advising their doctor members on responding to claims of negligence (see MEDICAL LITIGATION; MEDICAL NEGLIGENCE).... medical defence organisations

Medical Litigation

Legal action taken by an individual or group of individuals, usually patients, against hospitals, health-service providers or health professionals in respect of alleged inadequacies in the provision of health care.

In the hospital service, claims for clinical negligence have risen enormously since the 1970s. In 1975 the NHS spent about £1m a year on legal claims; by 2004 the NHS faced over £2 billion in outstanding claims. In 1995 a risk-pooling Clinical Negligence Scheme for Trusts (CNST) was set up in England, and is administered by the NHS Litigation Authority. NHS trusts are expected to follow a set of risk-management standards, the ?rst being that each trust should have a written risk-management strategy with an explicit commitment to managing clinical risk (see RISK MANAGEMENT).... medical litigation

British Herbal Compendium

1990 provides data complementary to each monograph in the British Herbal Pharmacopoeia 1990. Sections on constituents and regulatory status, therapeutic action and indications for use. A valuable text for the practitioner, manufacturer and all involved in herbal medicine. Therapeutic Section records observations and clinical experience of senior practitioners (members of the National Institute of Medical Herbalists). Compiled by the British Herbal Medicine Association Pharmacopoeia Commission which includes scientists, university pharmacognosists, pharmacologists, botanists, consulting medical herbalists, and medical practitioners in an advisory capacity. See abbreviation BHC under preparations. ... british herbal compendium

British Herbal Medicine Association

Before the Medicine’s Bill proceeded to the Statute book to become the Medicine’s Act 1968, so great was the threat to the practice of herbal medicine and sale of herbal preparations, that the profession and trade were galvanised into mobilising opposition. Thus, the British Herbal Medicine Association was formed in 1964. In the ensuing struggle, important concessions were won that ensured survival.

The BHMA is recognised by the Medicines Control Agency as the official representative of the profession and the trade. Its objects are (a) to defend the right of the public to choose herbal remedies and be able to obtain them; (b) to foster research in herbal medicine and establish standards of safety which are a safeguard to the user; (c) to encourage the dissemination of knowledge about herbal remedies, and (d) do everything possible to advance the science and practice of herbal medicine, and to further recognition at all levels.

Membership is open to all interested in the future of herbal medicine, including herbal practitioners, herbal retailers, health food stores, wholesalers, importers, manufacturers, pharmacists, doctors and research workers.

The BHMA produces the British Herbal Pharmacopoeia. Its Scientific Committee is made up of senior herbal practitioners, university pharmacologists and pharmacognosists. Other publications include: BHMA Advertising Code (1978), Medicines Act Advertising guidelines (1979), the Herbal Practitioner’s Guide to the Medicine’s Act (F. Fletcher Hyde), and miscellaneous leaflets on ‘Herbs and Their Uses’.

The BHMA does not train students for examination but works in close co-operation with the National Institute of Medical Herbalists, and with the European Scientific Co-operative on Phytotherapy.

Chairmen since its inception: Frank Power, 1964-1969; Fred Fletcher-Hyde, 1969-1977; Hugh Mitchell 1977-1986; James Chappelle 1986-1990; Victor Perfitt 1990-.

During the years the association has secured important advantages for its membership, particularly continuity of sale of herbal medicines in health food shops. It continues to maintain vigilance in matterss British and European as they affect manufacturing, wholesaling, retailing, prescribing and dispensing.

See: BRITISH HERBAL PHARMACOPOEIA and BRITISH HERBAL COMPENDIUM. ... british herbal medicine association

British Herbal Pharmacopoeia

World-accepted work. New edition published: 1990, fully revised and updated. Over 80 monographs. Official publication of the British Herbal Medicine Association to set and maintain standards of herbal medicine. Does not contain Therapeutic Section and index that appear in the 1983 edition, but describes macroscopical and microscopical characteristics. Quantitative standards, methods of identification, commercial form and source and description of the powdered form. BHP 1990 vol 1 is available from BHMA Publications, PO Box 304, Bournemouth, Dorset, England BH7 6JZ (£35). Abbreviation: BHP. ... british herbal pharmacopoeia

Medical Education

This term is used to de?ne the process of learning and knowledge-acquisition in the study of medicine. It also encompasses the expertise required to develop education and training for students and learners in all aspects of medical health care. Studies for undergraduate students, postgraduate students and individual health-care practitioners, from the initial stages to the ongoing development of a career in medicine or associated health ?elds, are also included in medical education. The word ‘pedagogy’ is sometimes applied to this process.

A range of research investigations has developed within medical education. These apply to course monitoring, audit, development and validation, assessment methodologies and the application of educationally appropriate principles at undergraduate and postgraduate levels. Research is undertaken by medical educationalists whose backgrounds include teaching, social sciences and medicine and related health-care specialties, and who will hold a medical or general educational diploma, degree or other appropriate postgraduate quali?cation.

Development and validation for all courses are an important part of continuing accreditation processes. The relatively conservative courses at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels, including diplomas and postgraduate quali?cations awarded by the specialist medical royal colleges (responsible for standards of specialist education) and universities, have undergone a range of reassessment and rede?nition driven by the changing needs of the individual practitioner in the last decade. The stimuli to change aspects of medical training have come from the government through the former Chief Medical O?cer, Sir Kenneth Calman, and the introduction of new approaches to specialist training (the Calman programme), from the GENERAL MEDICAL COUNCIL (GMC) and its document Tomorrow’s Doctors, as well as from the profession itself through the activities of the British Medical Association and the medical royal colleges. The evolving expectations of the public in their perception of the requirements of a doctor, and changes in education of other groups of health professionals, have also led to pressures for changes.

Consequently, many new departments and units devoted to medical education within university medical schools, royal colleges and elsewhere within higher education have been established. These developments have built upon practice developed elsewhere in the world, particularly in North America, Australia and some European countries. Undergraduate education has seen application of new educational methods, including Problem-Based Learning (PBL) in Liverpool, Glasgow and Manchester; clinical and communications skills teaching; early patient contact; and the extensive adoption of Internet (World Wide Web) support and Computer-Aided Learning (CAL). In postgraduate education – driven by European directives and practices, changes in specialist training and the needs of community medicine – new courses have developed around the membership and fellowship examinations for the royal colleges. Examples of these changes driven by medical education expertise include the STEP course for the Royal College of Surgeons of England, and distance-learning courses for diplomas in primary care and rheumatology, as well as examples of good practice as adopted by the Royal College of General Practitioners.

Continuing Professional Development (CPD) and Continuing Medical Education (CME) are also important aspects of medical education now being developed in the United Kingdom, and are evolving to meet the needs of individuals at all stages of their careers.

Bodies closely involved in medical educational developments and their review include the General Medical Council, SCOPME (the Standing Committee on Postgraduate Medical Education), all the medical royal colleges and medical schools, and the British Medical Association through its Board of Medical Education. The National Health Service (NHS) is also involved in education and is a key to facilitation of CPD/CME as the major employer of doctors within the United Kingdom.

Several learned societies embrace medical education at all levels. These include ASME (the Association for the Study of Medical Education), MADEN (the Medical and Dental Education Network) and AMEE (the Association for Medical Education in Europe). Specialist journals are devoted to research reports relating to medical educational developments

(e.g. Academic Medicine, Health Care Education, Medical Education). The more general medical journals (e.g. British Medical Journal, New England Journal of Medicine, The Lancet, Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons) also carry articles on educational matters. Finally, the World Wide Web (WWW) is a valuable source of information relating to courses and course development and other aspects of modern medical education.

The UK government, which controls the number of students entering medical training, has recently increased the quota to take account of increasing demands for trained sta? from the NHS. More than 5,700 students – 3,300 women and 2,400 men – are now entering UK medical schools annually with nearly 28,600 at medical school in any one year, and an attrition rate of about 8–10 per cent. This loss may in part be due to the changes in university-funding arrangements. Students now pay all or part of their tuition fees, and this can result in medical graduates owing several thousand pounds when they qualify at the end of their ?ve-year basic quali?cation course. Doctors wishing to specialise need to do up to ?ve years (sometimes more) of salaried ‘hands-on’ training in house or registrar (intern) posts.

Though it may be a commonly held belief that most students enter medicine for humanitarian reasons rather than for the ?nancial rewards of a successful medical career, in developed nations the prospect of status and rewards is probably one incentive. However, the cost to students of medical education along with the widespread publicity in Britain about an under-resourced, seriously overstretched health service, with sta? working long hours and dealing with a rising number of disgruntled patients, may be affecting recruitment, since the number of applicants for medical school has dropped in the past year or so. Although there is still competition for places, planners need to bear this falling trend in mind.

Another factor to be considered for the future is the nature of the medical curriculum. In Britain and western Europe, the age structure of a probably declining population will become top-heavy with senior citizens. In the ?nancial interests of the countries affected, and in the personal interests of an ageing population, it would seem sensible to raise the pro?le of preventive medicine – traditionally rather a Cinderella subject – in medical education, thus enabling people to live healthier as well as longer lives. While learning about treatments is essential, the increasing specialisation and subspecialisation of medicine in order to provide expensive, high-technology care to a population, many of whom are suffering from preventable illnesses originating in part from self-indulgent lifestyles, seems insupportable economically, unsatisfactory for patients awaiting treatment, and not necessarily professionally ful?lling for health-care sta?. To change the mix of medical education would be a di?cult long-term task but should be worthwhile for providers and recipients of medical care.... medical education

Mugwort Tea - An Herbal Tea With Many Benefits

Mugwort tea is one of the many herbal teas that have many health benefits. Despite its bitter, tangy taste, it’s worth a try to drink some mugwort tea, as it’s good for your body. Find out more about the tea’s health benefits in this article. About Mugwort Tea Mugwort tea is a type of herbal tea made from mugwort dried leaves. The mugwort is an herbaceous perennial plant with a woody root; it can grow up to 2 meters tall. The stem is reddish in color, with dark green, pinnate leaves that are 5-20 cm long, and radially symmetrical small flowers which have many yellow or dark red petals. It grows in Europe, Asia, northern Africa, Alaska and North America; it is often considered an invasive weed. It is sometimes referred to by the following names: felon herb, chrysanthemum weed, wild wormwood, old Uncle Henry, sailor’s tobacco, or St. John’s plant (be careful not to confuse it with St. John’s wort). The leaves and buds of the plant are best picked right before the flowers of the plant bloom, between July and September. They can be used with season fat, meat and fish, to give them a bitter flavor. Native American legends say that mugwort leaves were rubbed all over one’s body in order to keep ghosts away, as well as to prevent one from dreaming about the dead. Nowadays, it is mixed with other herbs (chamomile, peppermint) to make the so-called “dream tea”, which helps you improve dream recall, and increases the number of dreams you have per night. Components of Mugwort Tea Mugwort, which is the main ingredient of the mugwort tea, has plenty of components that are good for our health. Some of them are essential oils (such as cineole/wormwood oil, and thujone), flavonoids, triterpenes, coumarin derivatives, tannins, and linalool. Thujone consumed in large amounts can be toxic. In many countries, the amount of thujone which can be added in food or drink products is regulated. The amount of thujone oil found in the plant is considered safe. How to make Mugwort Tea In order to enjoy a cup of mugwort tea, add one teaspoon of the dried mugwort herb to a cup of boiling water. Let it steep for about 10 minutes before removing the dried plants. It is recommended that you drink the mugwort tea in mouthful doses throughout the whole day. If the mugwort tea is too bitter for your taste, you can add honey or sugar to sweeten it. Mugwort Tea Benefits Thanks to the many components of mugwort, the mugwort tea is full of health benefits. Mugwort tea is useful when it comes to having a good digestion. It stimulates the secretion of gastric juices, relieves flatulence and bloating, and helps in the treatment for intestinal worms. It also improves your appetite, and helps with indigestion, colic, and travel sickness. This tea might help in the treatment of various brain diseases. It is also a useful remedy when it comes to nervousness, exhaustion, depression, and insomnia. Mugwort tea is also useful during child birth. It has a calming effect when you are during labor, and it also lessens contraction pains. It is also useful when you get menstrual cramps, and stimulates irregular or suppressed menstruation. Considering the diuretic properties of mugwort, it is believed that mugwort tea can help with liver, spleen, and kidney problems. It is also recommended that you drink this type of tea if you’ve got a cold, a fever, or if you’re suffering from asthma or bronchitis. Mugwort Tea side effects Although mugwort tea contains little amount of thujone oil, it is recommended that you don’t drink if you’re pregnant. It might cause miscarriages. Consumed in large quantities, the thujone oil found in the composition of this tea may lead to side effects such as anxiety and sleeplessness. When drinking mugwort tea, be careful not to have an allergic reaction. You might be allergic to mugwort if you know you’re allergic to plants from the Asteraceae or Compositae family. These include ragweed, chrysanthemums, marigolds, daisies, chamomile, and many other plants. Also, avoid drinking this tea if you know you’re allergic to birch, celery, wild carrot, honey, royal jelly, cabbage, hazelnut, olive pollen, kiwi, peach, mango, apple, mustard, and sunflower. Don’t drink more than six cups of mugwort tea - or any other type of tea - a day. If you drink too much, it’ll end up doing more harm. The symptoms you might experience are headaches, loss of appetite, vomiting, diarrhea, insomnia, dizziness, and irregular heartbeats.   Despite its bitter taste, mugwort tea is definitely good for your body. It has lots of health benefits, but first make sure you’re not affected by any of its side effects. Once you’re sure it’s safe, you can enjoy a cup of this  delicious tea.... mugwort tea - an herbal tea with many benefits

World Medical Association

See ETHICS.... world medical association

Australian Journal Of Medical Herbalism

Quarterly publication of the National Herbalists Association of Australia. Australian medicinal plants, Government reports, case studies, books, plant abstracts. For subscription details and complimentary copy of the Journal contact: NHAA, PO Box 65, Kingsgrove NSW 2208, Australia. Tel: +61(02) 502 2938. Annual subscription (Aus) $40 (overseas applicants include $15 for air mail, otherwise sent by sea mail). ... australian journal of medical herbalism

Box’s Herbal Ointment

Ingredients: Slippery Elm 10.5 per cent; Marshmallow 10.5 per cent; soft yellow paraffin to 100 per cent. General purposes. Now obsolete. ... box’s herbal ointment

European Journal Of Herbal Medicine

Published three times a year by The National Institute of Medical Herbalists, 9 Palace Gate, Exeter, Devon, England EX1 1JA. Material of high quality on all subjects relevant to the practice of herbal medicine, creating a forum for sharing information and opinion about developments in the field, including scientific, professional and political issues of importance to the medical herbalist. ... european journal of herbal medicine

Glentona Herbal Blood Purifier

Popular blood tonic of the 1930s, 1940s and 1950s. Ingredients: Liquid Extract Liquorice 5 per cent, Infusion Gentian Co Conc 10 per cent, Infusion Senna Conc 5 per cent. And 25 per cent alcoholic extractive from Burdock 5 per cent, Red Clover 5 per cent, Queen’s root 2.5 per cent, Yellow Dock root 1.25 per cent, Poke root 2.5 per cent, Sarsaparilla 2.5 per cent. (Carter Bros) ... glentona herbal blood purifier

Neem Tea - An Indian Herbal Tea

Neem tea is a refreshing herbal tea, with origins in South Asia. Despite its bitter taste, it is often recommended as a beverage thanks to its many health benefits. Read this article to find out more about neem tea! About Neem Tea Neem tea is made from the leaves of the Neem tree. The tree can be found in India, Bangladesh and Pakistan. It is an evergreen tree which can grow up to twenty feet in just three years, and it starts bearing fruit after 3-5 years. However, during periods of severe drought, it may shed most or even all of its leaves. The green leaves are 20-40cm long, with medium to dark green leaflets about 3-8cm long; the terminal leaflet is usually missing. The tree’s flowers are small, white and fragrant, arranged axillary. The fruit has an olive-like form, with a thin skin and a yellow-white, fibrous and bittersweet pulp. How to prepare Neem Tea To brew a cup of neem tea, you have to follow a few simple steps. First, boil the necessary amount of water. Then, pour it over a cup with includes a few neem leaves. Let it steep for about 5 minutes. Lastly, remove the leaves and, if you think it is needed, flavor it with honey and/or lemon. You can make your own stack of neem leaves for neem tea. If you’ve got neem trees around, gather leaves and leave them to dry. You can use fresh neem leaves, as well. In both cases though, you have to wash the leaves well before you use them. Once you’ve got the leaves ready, whether dry or fresh, just follow the earlier-mentioned steps. You can also make a cup of neem tea by using powdered neem leaf. Neem Tea Benefits Neem leaves have many antibacterial and antiviral properties. Thanks to this, neem tea is full of health benefits. Indians chew on neem twigs to have a good oral hygiene. However, a cup of neem tea can also help you maintain a good oral hygiene. It is useful in treating bad breath and gum disease, and it fights against cavities. Neem tea is also useful in treating fungal infections, such as yeast infections, jock itch, thrush, and ringworm. Neem tea can help you treat both indigestion and constipation. It is also useful when it comes to reducing swelling of the stomach and intestinal tract, and it can be used to counter ulcers and gout. Neem tea, when combined with neem cream, has anti-viral uses. It can help speed up the healing time and pain associated with herpes simplex 1, herpes zoster and warts. Neem tea is also used in the treatment of malaria and other similar diseases. It helps purify and cleanse the blood, as well; therefore, it increases liver function. Other important benefits that are related to consumption of neem tea are: treating pneumonia, treating diabetes, treating hypertension and heart diseases. Also, neem tea doesn’t have to be used only as a beverage. Because of its anti-parasitic use, you can bathe in it. This way, the tea acts as an antiseptic, killing the parasites. Neem Tea Side Effects While we can say that neem tea has plenty of important health benefits, don’t forget that there are a few side effects, as well. First of all, neem oil can be incredibly toxic for infants. Even a small amount of neem oil can cause death. Check to see if the neem tea you drink has neem oil among its ingredients. Or, just to be on the safe side, don’t give infants neem tea to drink. You shouldn’t drink neem tea if you have a history of stomach, liver or kidney problems. Some of its active ingredients can cause you harm in this case. Although rare, neem tea can also lead to allergic reactions. Symptoms in this case include difficulty in breathing, rashes, itching, or swelling of the throat or mouth. If you get any of these, stop drinking neem teaand contact your doctor. Drinking neem tea is a big no if you’re trying to conceive, or you’re already pregnant. In the first case, neem tea can work as a contraceptive, therefore lessening the chances of you getting pregnant. In the second case, consumption of neem tea can lead to miscarriages. Also, don’t drink more than six cups of neem teaa day - or any other type of tea. It won’t do you well, despite its many health benefits. Some of the symptoms you might get are: headaches, dizziness, insomnia, irregular heartbeats, vomiting, diarrhea and loss of appetite. If you get any of these symptoms, reduce the amount of neem tea you drink. As a herbal tea, neem tea is definitely good for your health. Still, despite its many health benefits, there are a few side effects as well. Keep them both in mind when drinking neem tea.... neem tea - an indian herbal tea

British Herbal Medicine Association, Scientific Committee, 1995

Peter R. Bradley MSc CChem FRSC (Chairman). Whitehall Laboratories.

Sheila E. Drew BPharm PhD MRPharms. Deputy Head of Technical Services, William Ransom & Son plc.

Fred Fletcher-Hyde BSc FNIMH. President Emeritus, British Herbal Medicine Association. President Emeritus, National Institute of Medical Herbalists.

Simon Y. Mills MA FNIMH. Director, Centre for Complementary Health Studies, University of Exeter. Hugh W. Mitchell MNIMH (Hon). President, British Herbal Medicine Association. Managing Director, Mitchfield Botanics Ltd.

Edward J. Shellard BPharm PhD DSc(Hon) (Warsaw Medical Academy) FRPharmS CChem FRSC FLS. Emeritus Professor of Pharmacognosy, University of London.

Arnold Webster CChem MRSC. Technical Director, English Grains Ltd.

Peter Wetton BSc LRSC. G.R. Lane Health Products Ltd.

Hein Zeylstra FNIMH. Principal. School of Phytotherapy, Sussex. ... british herbal medicine association, scientific committee, 1995

Labelling Of Herbal Products By A Practitioner

Labelling regulations require every dispensed product, i.e. a container of medicine, lotion, tablets, ointment, etc, to be labelled with the following particulars:–

1. Name of the patient.

2. Name and address of the herbal practitioner.

3. Directions for use of the remedy.

4. Liquid preparations for local or topical use to be clearly marked: For external use only.

Statutory Instruments: Medicine (Labelling) Regulations 1976 No. 1726. Medicines (Labelling) Regulations 1977 No. 996. ... labelling of herbal products by a practitioner

Licensing Of Herbal Remedies

See: PRODUCT LICENCE. ... licensing of herbal remedies

Medical Accidents

Legal guidance sought by the sufferer when making claims against a doctor or health authority is available from: Action for Victims of Medical Accidents (AVMA), Bank Chambers, 1 London Road, Forest Hill, London SE23 3TP. ... medical accidents

Herbal Practitioner

WHAT THE LAW REQUIRES. The consulting herbalist is covered by Part III of The Supply of Herbal Remedies Order, 1977, which lists remedies that may be used in his surgery on his patients. He enjoys special exemptions under the Medicines Act (Sections 12 (1) and 56 (2)). Conditions laid down for practitioners include:

(a) The practitioner must supply remedies from premises (apart from a shop) in private practice ‘so as to exclude the public’. He is not permitted to exceed the maximum permitted dose for certain remedies, or to prescribe POM medicines.

(b) The practitioner must exercise his judgement in the presence of the patient, in person, before prescribing treatment for that person alone.

(c) For internal treatment, remedies are subject to a maximum dose restriction. All labels on internal medicines must show clearly the date, correct dosage or daily dosage, and other instructions for use. Medicines should not be within the reach of children.

(d) He may not supply any remedies appearing in Schedule 1. Neither shall he supply any on Schedule 2 (which may not be supplied on demand by retail).

He may supply all remedies included in the General Sales List (Order 2129).

(e) He must observe requirements of Schedule III as regards remedies for internal and external use.

(f) He must notify the Enforcement Authority that he intends to supply from a fixed address (not a shop) remedies listed in Schedule III.

(g) Proper clinical records should be kept, together with records of remedies he uses under Schedule III. The latter shall be available for inspection at any time by the Enforcement Authority.

The practitioner usually makes his own tinctures from ethanol for which registration with the Customs and Excise office is required. Duty is paid, but which may later be reclaimed. Accurate records of its consumption must be kept for official inspection.

Under the Medicines Act 1968 it is unlawful to manufacture or assemble (dispense) medicinal products without an appropriate licence or exemption. The Act provides that any person committing such an offence shall be liable to prosecution.

Herbal treatments differ from person to person. A prescription will be ‘tailored’ according to the clinical needs of the individual, taking into account race as well as age. Physical examination may be necessary to obtain an accurate diagnosis. The herbalist (phytotherapist) will be concerned not only in relieving symptoms but with treating the whole person.

If a person is receiving treatment from a member of the medical profession and who is also taking herbal medicine, he/she should discuss the matter with the doctor, he being responsible for the clinical management of the case.

The practitioner can provide incapacity certificates for illness continuing in excess of four days for those who are employed. It is usual for Form CCAM 1 5/87 to be used as issued on the authority of the Council for Complementary and Alternative medicine.

General practitioners operating under the UK National Health Service may use any alternative or complementary therapy they choose to treat their patients, cost refunded by the NHS. They may either administer herbal or other treatment themselves or, if not trained in medical herbalism can call upon the services of a qualified herbalist. The herbal practitioner must accept that the GP remains in charge of the patient’s clinical management.


Labelling Of Herbal Products

The law requires labels to carry a full description of all ingredients. No label should bear the name of a specific disease or promote treatment for any serious disease or condition requiring consultation with a registered medical practitioner. Labels must not contravene The Medicines (Labelling and Advertising to the Public), SI 41, Regulations, 1978.

Misleading claims and the use of such words as “organic”, “wholesome”, “natural” or “biological” cannot be accepted on product labels. The Licensing Authority treats herbal manufacturers no differently than manufacturers of allopathic products for serious conditions.

The Advertising Standards Authority does not allow quotation of any medicinal claims, except where a Product Licence (PL) has been authorised by the Licensing Authority.

All labels must include: Name of product (as on Product Licence), description of pharmaceutical form (tablet, mixture etc), Product Licence No., Batch No., quantity of each active ingredient in each unit dose in metric terms; dose and directions for use; quantity in container (in metric terms); “Keep out of reach of children” or similar warning; Name and address of Product Licence Holder; expiry date (if applicable); and any other special warnings. Also to appear: excipients, method/route of administration, special storage instructions, and precautions for disposal, if any.

Where licences are granted, the following words should appear on the label of a product: “A herbal product traditionally used for the symptomatic relief of . . .”. “If symptoms persist see your doctor.” “Not to be used in pregnancy” (where applicable). “If you think you have . . . consult a registered medical practitioner before taking this product.” “If you are already receiving medical treatment, tell your doctor that you are taking this product.” These warnings are especially necessary should symptoms persist and be the start of something more serious than a self-limiting condition.

Herbal preparations should be labelled with the additives and colourings they contain, if any. This helps practitioners avoid prescribing medicines containing them to certain patients on whom they may have an adverse reaction.

Labels of medicinal products shall comply with the Medicines (Labelling) Regulations 1976 (SI 1976 No. 1726) as amended by the Medicines (Labelling) Amendment Regulations 1977 (SI 1977 No. 996), the Medicines (Labelling) Amendment Regulations 1981 (SI 1981 No. 1791) and the Medicines (Labelling) Amendment Regulations 1985 (SI 1985 No. 1558).

Leaflets issued with proprietory medicinal products shall comply with the requirements of the Medicines (Leaflets) Regulations 1977 (SI 1977 No. 1055).


Statistics, Medical

The collection and analysis of numerical data relating to medicine.

Information on the incidence and prevalence of various conditions is an important aspect of medical statistics.... statistics, medical

American Medical Association

(AMA) a professional organization for US physicians. Its purposes include dissemination of scientific information through journals, a weekly newspaper, and a website; representation of the profession to Congress and state legislatures; keeping members informed of pending health and medical legislation; evaluating prescription and non-prescription drugs; and cooperating with other organizations in setting standards for hospitals and medical schools. The AMA maintains a comprehensive directory of licensed physicians in the US.... american medical association

Licencing Of Herbal Remedies – Exemptions From

There are remedies that may be manufactured or assembled by any person carrying on a business or practice provided he or she is occupier of the premises which are closed to exclude the general public. The person (i.e. practitioner) supplies or sells the remedy to a particular person (i.e. patient) having been requested by or on behalf of that person and in that person’s presence to use his/her own judgement as to treatment.

Anyone may administer a herbal product to a human being, except by injection. Under Section 12 of the Medicines Act 1968, any remedy may be sold or supplied which only specifies the plant and the process. The remedy shall be called by no other name. This applies to the process producing the remedy consisting only of drying, crushing and comminuting. It must be sold without any written recommendation for use.

Those who have a manufacturer’s licence, or who notify the Enforcement Authority (the Secretary of State and the Pharmaceutical Society) can sell dried, crushed or comminuted herbs which have also been subjected to certain other limited processes (tablet-making, etc) but not those herbs contained in the Schedule to the Medicines (Retail Sale or Supply of Herbal Remedies) Order 1977 (SI 1977 No.2130).

This Schedule has three parts.

Part 1 contains substances that may only be sold by retail at registered pharmacies under the supervision of a pharmacist.

Part 2 refers to remedies that can be sold only in a registered pharmacy. There is, however, an important exception, as follows.

Part 3 contains a list of considered toxic herbs. A practitioner can prescribe all remedies that a shopkeeper can sell. He may also prescribe and sell remedies on Part 3 of the Schedule which a shopkeeper cannot. Such supply must be in premises closed to the public and subject to a clear and accurate indication of maximum dosage and strength. These remedies are as follows:... licencing of herbal remedies – exemptions from

National Institute Of Medical Herbalists

Est. 1864. The oldest and only body of professional medical herbalists, now known as phytotherapists, in Europe. Membership by examination after completion of course of training. A stipulated period of clinical practice must be completed before the final examination is taken.

Members are directly involved with patient-care, carrying full responsibility for their recommendations, prescribing medication suitable to the individual biological requirements of each patient. Their role includes patient-counselling, health education and research.

Official recognition of the Institute, indicating its growing importance in the field of medicine came with the historic Grant of Arms by Her Majesty’s College of Heralds. Members regard this as evidence that the Royal Charter of King Henry VIII still stands and that there is no monopoly in healing the sick. See: HENRY VIII, HERBALISTS’ CHARTER.

The Institute played a major role in winning vital concessions for the survival of the herbalist in the passage through Parliament of the Medicine’s Bill. See: MEDICINE’S ACT, 1968.

In connection with the NIMH degree courses in herbal medicine are available at a London University, and Exeter University.

The Institute provides professional indemnity cover for its members, and is engaged in a series of clinical trials to evaluate traditional remedies.

All members are required to adhere to a strict professional Code of Ethics and are entitled to carry after their names the letters of qualification: MNIMH or FNIMH.

Members have a key role in preventative medicine and health promotion in their contribution to improvement of the nation’s health.

Address: 56 Longbrook Street, Exeter EX4 6AH, from which a list of members is obtainable. ... national institute of medical herbalists

Tests, Medical

Tests may be performed to investigate the cause of symptoms and establish a diagnosis, to monitor the course of a disease, or to assess response to treatment. A medical testing programme carried out on apparently healthy people to find disease at an early stage is known as screening.

The accuracy of a test is based on its sensitivity (ability to correctly identify diseased subjects), specificity (ability to correctly identify healthy subjects), and predictive value.

The predictive value is determined by a mathematical formula that involves the number of accurate test results and the total number of tests performed.

The best tests have both high specificity and high sensitivity, and therefore high predictive value.... tests, medical

British Medical Association

(BMA) a professional body for doctors and also an independent trade union dedicated to protecting individual members and the collective interests of doctors. It has a complex structure that allows representation both by geographical area of work and through various committees, including the General Practice Committee (GPC), Central Consultants and Specialists Committee, Junior Doctors Committee, and the Medical Students Committee.... british medical association

Chief Medical Officer

(CMO) the most senior medical adviser to the UK government, who is responsible for providing expert advice on health issues (including health-related emergencies). The CMO is responsible to the Secretary of State for Health and acts as leader of profession for Directors of Public Health. There are separate CMOs appointed to advise the devolved governments in Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland.... chief medical officer

Clinical Medical Officer

see community health.... clinical medical officer

Helicopter-based Emergency Medical Services

see HEMS.... helicopter-based emergency medical services

Local Medical Committee

(LMC) a group of representatives of the general practitioners working in a defined geographical area. There are separate LMCs for each area, and the members speak on behalf of the local practitioners by whom they are elected. Similar arrangements and responsibilities apply for dentists, pharmacists, and optometrists practising in the NHS outside hospitals.... local medical committee


adj. 1. of or relating to medicine, the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of disease. 2. of or relating to conditions that require the attention of a physician rather than a surgeon. For example, a medical ward of a hospital accommodates patients with such conditions.... medical

General Medical Council

(GMC) the regulatory body of the medical profession in the UK, which was established in 1858 by the Medical Act and has statutory powers. It licenses doctors to practise medicine and has the power to revoke licences or place restrictions on practice. The governing body of the GMC, its Council, comprises 12 members, 6 of which are medically qualified and 6 of which are not. Its purpose is to protect, promote, and maintain the health and safety of the public by ensuring proper standards in the practice of medicine and medical education and training. Following various high-profile cases involving malpractice, there has been a shift in the role of the GMC from one of simple registration to that of *revalidation of doctors.

GMC website: includes the Council’s guide to Good Medical Practice... general medical council

Medical Assistant

1. a health service worker who is not a registered medical practitioner (often in the armed forces) working in association with a doctor to undertake minor treatments and preliminary assessments. In poorer countries, particularly in rural areas where qualified resources are short (e.g. China), agricultural workers receive limited training in health care and continue in a dual role as barefoot doctors; elsewhere, limited training concentrates more on environmental issues: the workers so trained are known as sanitarians. 2. in the USA, a person – licensed or unlicensed, certified or uncertified – who provides administrative and/or clinical assistance in a physician’s office or other health-care facility. Administrative duties typically include filling out insurance forms, billing, and bookkeeping, while clinical duties may include taking medical histories, preparing patients to be examined, and preparing blood and urine specimens.... medical assistant

Medical Certificate

a certificate stating a doctor’s diagnosis of a patient’s medical condition, disability, or fitness to work (see statement of fitness for work). It is known informally as a ‘fit note’ (formerly a ‘sick note’). See Appendix 8.... medical certificate

Medical Committee

see local medical committee.... medical committee

Medical Emergency Team

(MET) a team, usually consisting of a group of physicians, anaesthetists, and senior nurses, that can be summoned urgently to attend to patients with deteriorating medical conditions. The aim is to prevent further deterioration and to decide if enhanced levels of care are appropriate (e.g. on the high-dependency or intensive care units). The team will also assume the role of the *cardiac-arrest team.... medical emergency team

Medical Ethics

the standards of conduct required of medical professionals and also the academic study of ethical issues arising from the practice of medicine. From the *Hippocratic oath onwards, standards are designed to reassure that professionals subscribing to them will act in the *best interests of, and will avoid harming, their patients. Today they lay greater emphasis on patient *autonomy, while the contemporary study of medical ethics is concerned with a great variety of complex societal and social issues related to medical practice and research. Medical ethics is now taught in all medical schools in the UK as an essential part of a professional training, and the wider field of *bioethics is becoming a recognized academic specialty. See also clinical ethics; feminist ethics; public health ethics; publication ethics; virtue ethics.

Guidance on good medical practice from the website of the General Medical Council... medical ethics

Medical Jurisprudence

the study or practice of the legal aspects of medicine. See forensic medicine.... medical jurisprudence

Medically Indigent Patients

see charity patients.... medically indigent patients

Medical Tourism

travelling internationally to undergo surgery or otherwise be treated for an illness or condition. This may be done to save money, to avoid having to wait for treatment, or to receive a treatment not available in the home country.... medical tourism

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