Habitat: Native to Mediterranean region; found in Kashmir, Assam and the Nilgiris, also grown in hedges.English: Great Reed, Spanish- Bamboo-Reed, Giant-Bamboo- Reed.Ayurvedic: Nala, Potgala, Shuunya- madhya, Dhamana.Siddha/Tamil: Korukkai.
Action: Rhizome—sudorific, emollient, diuretic, antilactant, antidropsical; uterine stimulant (stimulates menstrual discharge), hypotensive.The rhizome yields indole-3-alkyl- amine bases, including bufotenidine and dehydro-bufontenine. The leaves yield sterols and triterpenoids.Bufotenidine possesses antiacetyl- choline properties, histamine release activity and is a uterine stimulant. Alkaloids from the flowers produced cu- rarimetic effect of the non-polarizing type.Dosage: Root—50-100 ml decoction. (CCRAS.) 4.5%) with methyl eugenol (an important constituent of A. europaeum), and also aristolochic acid. (Aristolochic acid is carcinogenic and nephrotoxic.) Asarum sp. are not used as a substitute for ginger.... arundo donax
Habitat: Indigenous to the northern parts of southern Europe, Central and East-Central Europe; cultivated in the United States. A related sp., Asarum himalaicum, synonym A. canadense, is reported from the eastern Himalayas.English: Asarbacca, Hazelwort, Wild Nard.Unani: Asaaroon, Subul-e-Barri, Naardeen-Barri.Folk: Tagar Ganthodaa.
Action: Brain and nervine tonic, diuretic, deobstructant and anti- inflammatory; used in bronchial spasm and in preparations of cephalic snuffs.The volatile oil (0.7-4%) consists of asarone up to 50%, asaraldehyde 2-3%, methyleugenol 15-20%, with bornyl acetate, terpenes and sesquiterpenes. Asarone and its beta-isomer is found to be carcinogenic in animals. The rhizome, in addition, contains caffeic acid derivatives and flavonoids.A related sp., Asarum canadense L., indigenous to North America and China, contains a volatile oil (3.5-Family: Asclepiadaceae.
Habitat: Naturalized in many parts of India as an ornamental.English: Curassavian Swallow- Wort, West Indian Ipecacuanha, Blood-Flower.Ayurvedic: Kaakanaasikaa (substitute).Folk: Kaakatundi (Kashmir).
Action: Spasmogenic, cardiotonic, cytotoxic, antihaemorrhagic, styptic, antibacterial. Various plant parts, as also plant latex, are used against warts and cancer. Root—used as an astringent in piles. Leaves—juice, antidysenteric, also used against haemorrhages. Flowers—juice, styptic. Alcoholic extract of the plant—cardiotonic.An alcoholic extract of the Indian plant has been reported to contain a number of cardenolides, including calactin, calotropin, calotropagenin, coroglaucigenin, uzarigenin, asclepin, its glucosides and uzarin. Asclepin, the chief active principle, is spasmogenic and a cardiac tonic, having longer duration of action than digoxin (96 h in cat, as opposed to the 72 h of digoxin). Calotropin exhibits cytotoxic activity.Pleurisy root of the U.S. is equated with Asclepias tuberosa. It is used for cold, flu and bronchitis in Western herbal medicine.Toxic principles of the herb include galitoxin and similar resins, and glu- cofrugoside (cardenolide). Toxicity is reduced by drying.... asclepias curassavica
Habitat: Woods and shady places in North America.Features ? Imported rhizome, slender, about four inches long by one-eighth inch thick, quadrangular, greyish to purplish brown, wrinkled ; fracture short; rootlets whitish. Pungent, bitter taste.Part used ? Rhizome.
Action: Stimulant, carminative, expectorant, diaphoretic.As a carminative in digestive and intestinal pains, and as a stimulant in colds and amenorrhea resulting therefrom. An infusion of 1/2 ounce of the powdered rhizome to 1 pint boiling water is taken hot for stimulative purposes, and blood warm as a carminative. Dose of the dry powder, 20 to 30 grains.Practitioners of the American Physio-Medical School hold that this root exerts a direct influence upon the uterus, and prescribe it as a parturient when nervous fatigue is observed.... ginger, wild
Habitat: Western Himalayas, Kashmir at Sonamarg at 2,4002,700 m.English: Common Valerian.
Action: Rhizome and roots— sedative, hypotensive, cardiotonic; depressant on CNS, antispasmodic; used for hysteria, neurosis, nervousness, hypochondriasis.The roots and rhizomes yielded alkaloids—dipyridylmethylketone, ac- tinidine, iso-valeramide and valerian- ine; sesquiterpene ketone-valeranone. Bornyl acetate is the major constituent of the root oil, 31.5%, whereas it is only 6.6% in leaf oil. Bornyl isovalerate is reported from the root oil.Baalaka is a confusing synonym of Tagara. It should be equated with Pavo- nia odorata Willd. (Malvaceae).Baalaka (syns: Ambu, Baala, Barhi- shtha, Hrivera, Jala, Kacha, Muurd- haja, Udichi, Udichya) is known as Sugandhabaalaa in Northern markets. In South India Coleus vettiveroides K. C. Jacob (Labiateae) is preferred as Baalaka. Delphinium brunonianum Royle (Ranunculaceae), with synonyms Kutila, Nata, Vakra, is also used as Tagara.Valeriana leschenaultii DC. var. brunoniana C. B. Clarke.Family: Valerianaceae.
Habitat: The temperate Himalayas from Kashmir to Bhutan at altitudes of 1,200-3,60 m and in the Khasi and Jaintia hills between 1,500 and 1,800 m.Folk: Sugandhabaalaa, Tagger, Taggar-ganthodaa. Asaarun (Ku- maon).
Action: Used as V. jatamansi and V officinalis.Valeriana hardwickii is known as Taggar-ganthodaa in Mumbai and Asaarun in Kumaon. In Unani medicine, Asaarun is equated with Asarum europaeum Linn. (Aristolochiaceae). It is known as Subul-e-barri, Naardin- barri and Persian Tagar; Wild Nard, Hazel Wort and Asarabacca in English. Though sedative and brain tonic, Asaarun should not be equated with Tagara.Family: Valerianaceae.
Habitat: Karnakata and the Nilgiris.Ayurvedic: Tagara (related species).Folk: Sugandhabaalaa, Taggar, Baalaka.
Action: Used as a substitute for valerian.... valeriana dubia
SYNONYMS: Wild ginger, Indian ginger.
GENERAL DESCRIPTION: An inconspicuous but fragrant little plant not more than 35 cms high with a hairy stem, two glossy, kidney-shaped leaves and a creeping rootstock. The solitary bell-shaped flower is brownish purple, and creamy white inside.
DISTRIBUTION: Native to North America, especially North Carolina, Kansas and Canada. The oil is produced in the USA mainly from wild-growing plants.
OTHER SPECIES: It should not be confused with ‘serpentaria oil’ from the Virginian snakeroot (Aristolochia serpentaria) which belongs to the same botanical family but contains asarone and is considered toxic.
HERBAL/FOLK TRADITION: This plant has been employed for centuries in folk medicine but is now little prescribed. It used to be used for chronic chest complaints, dropsy, rheumatism and painful bowel and stomach spasms. It was also considered a ‘valuable stimulant in cases of amenorrhoea and colds’ and for ‘promoting a copious perspiration’. .
The name (of the Virginian variety at least) derives from its use in aiding the body to combat nettle rash, poison ivy and some snake bites.
ACTIONS: Anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, carminative, diuretic, diaphoretic, emmenagogue, expectorant, febrifuge, stimulant, stomachic.
EXTRACTION: Essential oil by steam distillation from the dried rhizomes and crushed roots.
CHARACTERISTICS: A brownish-yellow or amber liquid with a warm, woody-spicy, rich, gingerlike odour. It blends well with bergamot, costus, oakmoss, patchouli, pine needle, clary sage, mimosa, cassie and other florals.
PRINCIPAL CONSTITUENTS: Pinene, linalol, borneol, terpineol, geraniol, eugenol and methyl eugenol, among others.
SAFETY DATA: Non-toxic, non-irritant, nonsensitizing. Avoid during pregnancy.
AROMATHERAPY/HOME: USE May possibly be used for its antispasmodic qualities, for example for period pains or indigestion.
OTHER USES: Occasionally used in perfumery work. Mainly used as a flavouring agent with other spicy materials, especially in confectionery.... snakeroot