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computerized axial tomography, now referred to as *computerized tomography (CT).
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Habitat: Drier regions of India, particularly Punjab, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa and Rajasthan.English: Cutch tree, Catechu.Ayurvedic: Khadira, Kadara, Somavalka, Gaayatri, Dantdhaavan, Kantaki, Raktasaara (heartwood extract).Unani: Khair, Kaat, Katthaa (heartwood extract).Siddha/Tamil: Karunkaali (bark), Kalippakku, Kadiram. Katthakkaambu, Kaasukkatti (heartwood extract).
Action: Cutch from wood— powerful astringent (in urinary and vaginal discharge), antidiarrhoeal, haemostatic; used for treating excessive mucous discharges, haemorrhages, relaxed conditions of gums, throat and mouth, stomatitis, irritable bowel; also used as an antileprotic drug.Along with other therapeutic applications, The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India indicates the use of dried pieces of heartwood in inflammations, skin diseases and urinary disorders, recommends its use as a blood purifier, in diseases caused by lipid disorders.Cutch (the concentrated extract) contains tannins 2-20%, catechin 2533%, phlobatannins including cate- chutannic acid 20-50%; flavonoids including quercetin, quercitrin, fisetin; gums, resins, pigments. The gum from A. catechu is a good substitute for Gum arabic.Seed extract—hypoglycaemic to normal albino rats, but not effective in diabetic rats. The saline extract of seeds shows leuco-agglutinating activity against leukaemic cells. It agglutinates white cells from patients with different types of leukaemia. The activity is inhibited by simple sugars. Root extract shows antibacterial and fungi- cidal activity.The heartwood contains a hepato- protective principle—cyanidanol.Astringent and antibacterial properties of catechu result from its high tannin content.Gambrine in pale catechu shows hy- potensive effects.Fisetin in black catechu and (+)- catechin in black and pale catechu may protect against liver damage; (+)- catechin is also thought to protect against experimentally induced ulcers in animals; (+)-catechin (cianidanol) is associated with fatal anaemia. Methyl- catechin, one of the major metabolites of (+)-catechin, inhibits the binding of monocytes to vascular endothelial cells; thus, the catechin found in catechu may reduce atherosclerosis. (Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, 2007.)Dosage: Heartwood—20-30 g for decoction. (API Vol. I.)... Indian Medicinal Plants
Habitat: Native to Central America and Brazil. Grown in Indian gardens.English: Golden Trumpet.Folk: Zahari Sontakkaa. (Maharashtra).
Action: Leaves—cathartic (in moderate doses; emetic in large doses). Bark—hydragogue, in ascites.The purgative property of the aqueous extract of leaves was confirmed pharmacologically in rats. The extract also showed antifungal activity against ringworm causing fungi. Flower extract inhibits fungal growth.EtOH extract of roots showed in- vivo activity against P-388 leukaemia in mouse and in vitro against human carcinoma cells of nasopharynx (KB). The root contains antileukaemic iri- doid lactone, allamandin and two other iridoids, allamandicin and allamdin.The stems and leaves contain beta- amyrin, beta-sitosterol and ursolic acid. Petals gave flavonoids—kaem- pferol and quercetin.... Indian Medicinal Plants
Habitat: Native to Malaysia; now grown along the coasts of Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal, Assam and Maharashtra.English: Arecanut, Betel Nut.Ayurvedic: Puuga, Puugi, Kramuka, Ghontaa, Guwaak, Ghorant.Unani: Fufal, Chhaalia, Supaari.Siddha/Tamil: Kottai Paakku, Kamugu.
Action: Taeniacide (confined to veterinary medicine), astringent, stimulant.Along with other therapeutic application, The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India indicates the use of dried ripe seed in leucorrhoea and vaginal laxity.Arecanut contains several alkaloids belonging to pyridine group, the most important being arecoline (0.1-0.5%). Arecaidine, guvacine and isoguvacine are also present. Arecoline is an- thelmintic (in animals, not in humans). Arecaidine has no parasympa- thomimetic effects, but only stimulating properties; sedative in higher doses. Isoguvacine produces hypotension.Contraindicated in asthma due to bronchoconstrictive effects of the alkaloid arecoline (human case reports). (Francis Brinker.)Arecanut tannins (8.0-18.0%) are predominantly catechol tannins which closely resemble Mimosa bark tannins. Powdered nuts are prescribed in diarrhoea and urinary disorders. In combination with other astringent and styptic herbs, arecanut is used as a major constituent in confections of Indian medicine for gynaecological disorders.Aqueous extract of the nut exhibits direct vasoconstriction and adrenaline potentiation in rats. Antimicrobial activity is due to polyphenolic fraction. Tannins potentiated the action of acetylcholine in ileum and uterus of rat and noradrenaline on seminal vesicle at low concentration.Due to increased incidence of oral cancer associated with betel chewing, the use of arecanut as a masticatory is being discouraged.Seeds are toxic at 8-10 g, fluid extract at 3.7 ml; and arecoline hydrobromide at 4.3-6.5 mg. (Francis Brinker.)Dosage: Dried ripe fruit—1-2 g powder. (API Vol. I.)... Indian Medicinal Plants
One type is used to drain urine from the bladder (see catheterization, urinary).
Balloon catheters are sometimes used to expand narrowed arteries (balloon angioplasty).
They may also be used to control bleeding oesophageal varices before surgery.... BMA Medical Dictionary
Action: antibacterial, antiseptic, haemostatic, powerful astringent to stomach and intestines.
Uses: Irritable bowel, dysentery, mucous colitis, chronic catarrh, haemorrhage, mouth ulcer, spongy and bleeding gums (mouth wash), sore throat (gargle). A wash for varicose ulcer. Nosebleed. “Indigestion in children.” (Chinese Traditional)
Reported use in cancer (J.L. Hartwell, Lloydia, 33, 97, 1970)
Preparations: Thrice daily.
Powder: 0.3 to 1 gram in honey or banana mash.
Tincture BHP (1983) 1:5 in 45 per cent alcohol. Dose half-1 teaspoon (2.5-5ml) in water. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine
Action: Intestinal astringent.
Uses: similar to Black Catechu.
Preparations: Twice daily.
Powder: 0.3 to 1 gram (quarter of a teaspoon) in honey or banana mash.
Tincture Catechu BP. 1:5, with Cinnamon 1:20, in 45 per cent alcohol. Dose: 2.5 to 5ml. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine
Habitat: Commonly grown in Indian gardens.English: Madagascar Periwinkle (Vinca major L. Pich. and Vinca minor Linn. are known as Greater Periwinkle and Lesser Periwinkle respectively).Folk: Sadaabahaar, Nayantaaraa, Nityakalyaani.
Action: The cytotoxic dimeric alkaloids, present in Madagascar Periwinkle, Catharanthus roseus L. Don, Vincea rosea L., and used for the treatment of certain type of cancer, have not been found in V. major.Catharanthus roseus (Madagascar Periwinkle) : cytostatic, anti-neoplas- tic, slows down growth of cells by su- pressing immune response. Vinblas- tine and Vincristine are said to prolong remission of leukaemia to more than five years. These chemotherapeutic agents are toxic to the nervous system. Vinblastine is also used for breast cancer and Hodgkin's disease.Vinca major L. Pich. (Greater Periwinkle): astringent, anti-haemorrha- gic; used for menorrhagia and leu- corrhoea. Contains indole alkaloids including reserpinine and serpentine; tannins.Vinca minor Linn. (Lesser Periwinkle): astringent; circulatory stimulant. Leaves—stomachic and bitter. Root— hypotensive. Used for gastric catarrh, chronic dyspepsia, flatulence; also for headache, dizziness, behaviours disorders. A homoeopathic tincture is given for internal haemorrhages.... Indian Medicinal Plants
Catharsis is used to refer to the process of cleaning out the bowels.
Sigmund Freud used the term in psychoanalytic theory to describe the expression of repressed feelings and memories.... BMA Medical Dictionary
Cardiac catheters are introduced through a vein in the arm and passed into the heart in order to diagnose some of the more obscure forms of congenital heart disease, and often as a preliminary to operating on the heart.... Medical Dictionary
Action: anti-diarrhoeal, antispasmodic, emmenagogue, diaphoretic, carminative, gentle nerve relaxant for release of tension. To reduce temperature in simple fevers by inducing a free perspiration thus sweating- out toxins via the skin.
Keynote: crises of childhood.
Uses: Children: colic, restlessness, hyperactivity, convulsions, early stages of fever, hysteria with crying and violent twisting of the trunk, middle ear infection, sinuses. Colds, influenza, congestion of respiratory organs. Physical results of emotional disturbance.
Preparations: Two-hourly in acute cases, otherwise thrice daily.
Tea: (popular method) One heaped teaspoon to each cup boiling water; infuse 10 minutes. Half-1 cup. In its absence use Chamomile.
Liquid Extract: 30 drops to 1 teaspoon in water.
Enema: 2oz to 2 pints boiling water; for elimination of toxic wastes from colon.
Beloved by cats, making them frolicsome, amorous and full of fun. Not given in pregnancy. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine
Habitat: Hedgerows.Features ? Square, grey, hairy stem, up to two feet high. Leaves stalked, cordate-ovate, serrate, whitish down beneath. Flowers white, crimson dots, two-lipped, in short, dense spikes. Characteristic mint-like scent.Part used ? Herbs, leaves.
Action: Carminative, tonic, diaphoretic, anti-spasmodic.Especially used for flatulence and digestive pains in children, and for production of perspiration in both children and adults. For diaphoreticpurposes in adults, 2-tablespoonful doses of the 1 ounce to 1 pint infusion thrice daily, with a cupful at bedtime; proportionate doses in children's complaints.American physio-medical practice recommends blood-warm bowel injections of the infusion for babies with intestinal flatulence.... Herbal Manual
Infection, usually from contact with cat’s faeces, is not generally serious but has serious consequences if a woman is infected during pregnancy.
Cat faeces may also carry eggs of the cat roundworm, a possible cause of toxocariasis.
Rarely, a larva from an ingested roundworm egg migrates to and lodges in an eye, causing deterioration of vision or even blindness.
Children who have been playing in sand or soil contaminated by cat faeces are most commonly affected.
Other cat-related disorders in humans include tinea (ringworm), fungal infections of the skin, bites from cat fleas, and allergic reactions to dander that may cause asthma or urticaria.
Diseases from cats can be avoided by good hygiene, veterinary care for animals that are ill, and regular worming and flea treatment of cats.... BMA Medical Dictionary
Action: brain and nerve stimulant, aphrodisiac for men and women.
Uses: Sexual weakness, male impotence, nervous debility and exhaustion.
Preparation. Ground bark: half-1 teaspoon to each cup boiling water; infuse 15 minutes. Half-1 cup freely. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine
Eustachian catheters are small catheters that are passed along the ?oor of the nose into the Eustachian tube in order to in?ate the ear.
Nasal catheters are tubes passed through the nose into the stomach to feed a patient who cannot swallow – so-called nasal feeding.
Rectal catheters are passed into the RECTUM in order to introduce ?uid into the rectum.
Suprapubic catheters are passed into the bladder through an incision in the lower abdominal wall just above the pubis, either to allow urine to drain away from the bladder, or to wash out an infected bladder.
Ureteric catheters are small catheters that are passed up the ureter into the pelvis of the kidney, usually to determine the state of the kidney, either by obtaining a sample of urine direct from the kidney or to inject a radio-opaque substance preliminary to X-raying the kidney. (See PYELOGRAPHY.)
Urethral catheters are catheters that are passed along the urethra into the bladder, either to draw o? urine or to wash out the bladder.
It is these last three types of catheters that are most extensively used.... Medical Dictionary
– usually the result of neurological disorder affecting the bladder (neuropathic bladder). (See URINARY BLADDER, DISEASES OF.)... Medical Dictionary
Alternatives. Teas. Agrimony, Boldo, Balmony, Dandelion, Plantain, Gotu Kola.
Cold infusion. 2 teaspoons Barberry bark to each cup cold water; steep overnight. Half-1 cup every 3 hours.
Tablets/capsules. Goldenseal, Dandelion, Blue Flag, Devil’s Claw.
Formula. Equal parts: Dandelion, Devil’s Claw, Barberry. Dose – Powders: 500mg (two 00 capsules or one-third teaspoon). Liquid Extracts: one 5ml teaspoon. Tinctures: two 5ml teaspoons. Every 3 hours. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine
Habitat: Cultivated in Britain and the USA. Occurs in Himalayas from Kashmir to Nepal at 2,000-3,300 m.English: Catnip, Catnep, Catmint.
Action: Leaves and flowers— gentle nerve relaxant and sedative, carminative, antispasmodic, an- tidiarrhoeal, diaphoretic, febrifuge. Used in restlessness, convulsions, nervous headache, colic, early stages of fever, colds and influenza. The herb is to be infused (not boiled).Catnip contains iridoids, tannins and volatile oil, major components being alpha- and beta-nepetalactone (up to 42%), citronellol and geraniol.The catnip response in the domestic cat is being attributed to iridoid lac- tones, nepetalactone, dihydronepeta- lactone, iso-dihydronepetalactone and neonepetalactone. Its reputation as a hallucinogen has been disputed, but a few studies have shown behavioural effects, although weak, in young chicks, rodents and cats. (Potter's New Cyclopaedia.)Neptalactone is structurally related to valepotriates found in valerian. (Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, 2007.)... Indian Medicinal Plants
Habitat: Cultivated throughout hotter parts of India, also in the Andamans.English: Indian Almond, Tropical Almond.Siddha/Tamil: Natuvadom.Folk: Jangali Baadaam, Desi Baadaam.
Action: Bark—astringent, an- tidysenteric, mild diuretic. Leaf— antiseptic, anti-inflammatory. Oil from kernel—substitute for almond oil; contains oleic, linoleic, palmitic and stearic acids. Fresh kernels resemble almonds; contain fat 52.02, protein 25.42, sugars as glucose 5.98%. Leaf—sudorific; applied to rheumatic joints. Ointment made from juice—used in scabies and other cutaneous affections.The husk and endocarp contain tannins and pentosans. The heartwood and stembark contain beta-sitosterol and its palmitate. The heartwood, in addition, contain terminolic acid and triterpenic methyl esters.... Indian Medicinal Plants