This medical term were found from 1 different sources | Health Encyclopedia


computerized axial tomography, now referred to as *computerized tomography (CT).

Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary | Jonathan Law, Elizabeth Martin


Cat | Health Encyclopedia

The keywords of this medical terms: Cat

Abrus Precatorius

Linn.

Family: Papilionaceae; Fabaceae.

Habitat: Throughout the country, ascending to an altitude of about 1,050 m in the outer Himalayas.

English: Indian Wild Liquorice, Jequirity, Crab's Eye, Precatory Bean.

Ayurvedic: Gunjaa, Gunjaka, Chirihintikaa, Raktikaa, Chirmi- ti, Kakanti, Kabjaka, Tiktikaa, Kaakananti, Kaakchinchi. (Not to be used as a substitute for liquorice.)

Unani: Ghunghchi, Ghamchi.

Siddha/Tamil: Kunri.

Folk: Chirmiti, Ratti.

Action: Uterine stimulant, abortifa- cient, toxic. Seeds—teratogenic. A paste of seeds is applied on vitiligo patches.

Along with other therapeutic applications, The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India has indicated the use of seeds in baldness.

Seeds contain abrin, a toxalbumin, indole derivatives, anthocyanins, ste- rols, terpenes. Abrin causes agglutination of erythrocytes, haemolysis and enlargement of lymph glands. A non- toxic dose of abrin (1.25 mcg/kg body weight), isolated from the seeds of red var., exhibited a noticeable increase in antibody-forming cells, bone marrow cellularity and alpha-esterase-positive bone marrow cells.

Oral administration of agglutinins, isolated from the seeds, is useful in the treatment of hepatitis and AIDS.

The seed extract exhibited antischis- tosomal activity in male hamsters.

The methanolic extract of seeds inhibited the motility of human spermatozoa.

The roots contain precol, abrol, gly- cyrrhizin (1.5%) and alkaloids—abra- sine and precasine. The roots also contain triterpenoids—abruslactone A, methyl abrusgenate and abrusgenic acid.

Alkaloids/bases present in the roots are also present in leaves and stems.

A. fruticulosus Wall. Ex Wight and Arn. synonym A. pulchellus Wall., A. laevigatus E. May. (Shveta Gunjaa) is also used for the same medicinal purposes as A. precatorius.

Dosage: Detoxified seed—1-3 g powder. Root powder—3-6 g. (API Vols. I, II.)... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Acacia Catechu

(Linn. f.) Willd.

Family: Mimosaceae.

Habitat: Drier regions of India, particularly Punjab, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa and Rajasthan.

English: Cutch tree, Catechu.

Ayurvedic: Khadira, Kadara, Somavalka, Gaayatri, Dantdhaavan, Kantaki, Raktasaara (heartwood extract).

Unani: Khair, Kaat, Katthaa (heartwood extract).

Siddha/Tamil: Karunkaali (bark), Kalippakku, Kadiram. Katthakkaambu, Kaasukkatti (heartwood extract).

Action: Cutch from wood— powerful astringent (in urinary and vaginal discharge), antidiarrhoeal, haemostatic; used for treating excessive mucous discharges, haemorrhages, relaxed conditions of gums, throat and mouth, stomatitis, irritable bowel; also used as an antileprotic drug.

Along with other therapeutic applications, The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India indicates the use of dried pieces of heartwood in inflammations, skin diseases and urinary disorders, recommends its use as a blood purifier, in diseases caused by lipid disorders.

Cutch (the concentrated extract) contains tannins 2-20%, catechin 2533%, phlobatannins including cate- chutannic acid 20-50%; flavonoids including quercetin, quercitrin, fisetin; gums, resins, pigments. The gum from A. catechu is a good substitute for Gum arabic.

Seed extract—hypoglycaemic to normal albino rats, but not effective in diabetic rats. The saline extract of seeds shows leuco-agglutinating activity against leukaemic cells. It agglutinates white cells from patients with different types of leukaemia. The activity is inhibited by simple sugars. Root extract shows antibacterial and fungi- cidal activity.

The heartwood contains a hepato- protective principle—cyanidanol.

Astringent and antibacterial properties of catechu result from its high tannin content.

Gambrine in pale catechu shows hy- potensive effects.

Fisetin in black catechu and (+)- catechin in black and pale catechu may protect against liver damage; (+)- catechin is also thought to protect against experimentally induced ulcers in animals; (+)-catechin (cianidanol) is associated with fatal anaemia. Methyl- catechin, one of the major metabolites of (+)-catechin, inhibits the binding of monocytes to vascular endothelial cells; thus, the catechin found in catechu may reduce atherosclerosis. (Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, 2007.)

Dosage: Heartwood—20-30 g for decoction. (API Vol. I.)... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Acatalasia

n. a rare inborn lack of the enzyme *catalase, leading to recurrent infections of the gums (gingivitis) and mouth. There are two variants: Japanese (Takahara disease) and Swiss (asymptomatic).... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Aconitum Spicatum

Stapf.

Family: Ranunculaceae.

Habitat: The alpine zone of the Himalayas of Sikkim and Chumbi. Principal source of Bikh or Bish of Kolkata market. English: Nepal Aconite. Ayurvedic: Vatsanaabha (related sp.).

Action: Antipyretic, analgesic.

The roots yield 1.75% of alkaloids which contain mainly pseudoaconitine and bikhaconitine.... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Actaea Spicata

Linn.

Synonym: A. acuminata Wall. ex Royle

Family: Ranunculaceae.

Habitat: Native to Europe; grows in temperate Himalayas from Hazara to Bhutan.

English: Baneberry Grapewort.

Folk: Visha-phale (Kannada).

Action: Root—antirheumatic, anti-inflammatory, nerve sedative, emetic, purgative; used in the treatment of rheumatic fever, lumbago, scrofula, nervous disorders, chorea.

The plant is reported to contain trans-aconitic acid, which shows a strong cytostatic action. Its Me ether is active against Ehrlich's ascites tumours.

In folk medicine, roots are used in cases of ovarian neuralgia, uterine tenderness and sub-involution. They are adulterant of the roots of Helleborus niger. Berries are poisonous; used topically for skin diseases. The toxic constituent is protoanemonin (lactone). It is irritant to mucous membrane.... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Advanced Glycation End-products

damaged proteins that result from the *glycation of a large number of body proteins, which can accumulate and cause permanent damage to tissues. This damage is more prevalent in diabetics due to chronic exposure to blood with high concentrations of glucose. It is believed to be partly responsible for the damage to the kidneys, eyes, and blood vessels that characterizes long-standing diabetes.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Advocate

1 A person who acts on behalf of another, usually for a cause or plea. 2 To support or suggest an idea, development or way of doing something.... Community Health

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Community Health

Aguacate

Avocado (Persea americana).

Plant Part Used: Leaves, seed, fruit.

Dominican Medicinal Uses: The leaves are traditionally prepared as an infusion and taken orally for diabetes, diarrhea, inducing abortion, intestinal worms, menstrual cramps, parasites and vaginal infections, and the seed decoction is taken for contraception. The fruit is typically used for nutritional and culinary purposes.

Safety: No data on the safety of the leaf or the seed in humans has been identified in the available literature; animal toxicity studies have shown equivocal results. The fruit is commonly consumed as food and generally regarded as safe.

Contraindications: Oral use of the leaves is contraindicated during pregnancy (due to emmenagogue and uterine muscle stimulating effects) and lactation (due to potential for harmful effects based on case reports in goats). No information on the safety of the leaves in children has been identified in the available literature.

Drug Interactions: Warfarin: fruit may inhibit anticoagulant effect. Monoamine-oxidase inhibitors (MAOI): one case of hypertension crisis has been reported due to concomitant ingestion of the fruit and MAOI.

Clinical Data: The following effects of this plant have been investigated in human clinical trials: fruit: cholesterol and lipid-lowering, treatment of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus and triglyceride-lowering; avocado/soybean unsaponifiables: treatment of osteoarthritis; and oil: treatment of plaque psoriasis.

Laboratory & Preclinical Data: The following biological activities of this plant have been investigated in laboratory and preclinical studies (in vitro or animal models): analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antihemorrhage, hepatoprotective, immuno-modulating, uterine muscle stimulant, trypanocidal, uterine stimulant and vasorelaxant.

* See entry for Aguacate in “Part 3: Dominican Medicinal Plant Profiles” of this book for more information, including references.... Medicinal Plants

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Medicinal Plants

Alcohol Intoxication

The condition that results from consuming an excessive amount of alcohol, often over a relatively short period. The effects of a large alcohol intake depend on many factors, including physical and mental state, body size, social situation, and acquired tolerance. The important factor, however, is the blood alcohol level. Mild intoxication promotes relaxation and increases social confidence. Alcohol causes acute poisoning if taken in sufficiently large amounts, however. It depresses the activity of the central nervous system, leading to loss of normal mental and physical control. In extreme cases, intoxication may lead to loss of consciousness and even death.

In most cases, recovery from alcohol intoxication takes place naturally as the alcohol is gradually broken down in the liver. Medical attention is required if the intoxication has resulted in coma. For the chronic mental, physical, and social effects of long-term heavy drinking, see alcohol dependence and alcohol-related disorders.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Allemanda Cathartica

Linn.

Family: Apocynaceae.

Habitat: Native to Central America and Brazil. Grown in Indian gardens.

English: Golden Trumpet.

Folk: Zahari Sontakkaa. (Maharashtra).

Action: Leaves—cathartic (in moderate doses; emetic in large doses). Bark—hydragogue, in ascites.

The purgative property of the aqueous extract of leaves was confirmed pharmacologically in rats. The extract also showed antifungal activity against ringworm causing fungi. Flower extract inhibits fungal growth.

EtOH extract of roots showed in- vivo activity against P-388 leukaemia in mouse and in vitro against human carcinoma cells of nasopharynx (KB). The root contains antileukaemic iri- doid lactone, allamandin and two other iridoids, allamandicin and allamdin.

The stems and leaves contain beta- amyrin, beta-sitosterol and ursolic acid. Petals gave flavonoids—kaem- pferol and quercetin.... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Allocative Tool

A means by which resources are allocated, which may be used in a number of ways. For example, an allocative tool may be a health policy in which there is a direct provision of income, services, or goods to groups of individuals who usually reap benefits in receiving them.... Community Health

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Community Health

Amberboa Divaricata

Kuntze

Synonym: Volutarella divaricata Benth. and Hook. F.

Family: Compositae; Asteraceae.

Habitat: Distributed in the Mediterranean region, extending to Central Asia and India.

Ayurvedic: Brahmadandi (Tri- cholepis glaberrima DC. of the same family is also equated with Brahmadandi.)

Unani: Baadaavard.

Action: Deobstruent, aperient, febrifuge, nervine (used in debility), antiseptic (used in leucoderma).... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Andropogon Muricatus

Retz.

Synonym: Vetiveria zizanioides (Linn.) Nash.

Family: Poaceae.

Habitat: All over India.

English: Vetiver, Cuscus.

Ayurvedic: Ushira.

Unani: Khas.

Siddha: Vettiveru.

Action: Roots—refrigerant, febrifuge, diaphoretic, stimulant, stomachic and emmenagogue; used in strangury, colic, flatulence, obstinate vomiting; paste used as a cooling application in fevers.

Major constituents of the essential oil are vetiselinenol and khusimol. Several sesquiterpenoids, including vetid- iol, are also present. The two types of oils, laevorotatory and dextrorotatory, from northern India and southern India, respectively, are biochemically different.

Andropogon sp.: see Cymbopogon sp.... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Anti-catarrhals

Agents that reduce the production of mucus. Angelica, Avens, Bayberry, Bistort, Blood root, Cayenne, Chamomile (German), Coltsfoot, Comfrey, Elderflowers, Elecampane, Eyebright, Fenugreek, Garlic, Ginger, Goldenseal, Gotu Kola, Ground Ivy, Hyssop, Iceland Moss, Irish Moss, Juniper, Liquorice, Marsh Cudweed, Marshmallow, Mountain Grape, Mouse Ear, Mullein, Myrrh, Parsley, Plantain, Poke root, Senega, Skunk Cabbage, White Horehound, Wild Cherry bark, Wild Indigo, Witch Hazel, Yarrow. Successful treatment of catarrh is often dependent upon efficient kidney, skin and bowel function which may require also, diuretics, alteratives and laxatives. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

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Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

Anticatarrhal

an agent which helps remove excess catarrh from the body.... The Encyclopedia of Essential Oils

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The Encyclopedia of Essential Oils

Apexification

n. a method of inducing a hard-tissue barrier at the apex of an immature tooth following traumatic injury that has caused the pulp to die.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Applicator

n. any device used to apply medication or treatment to a particular part of the body.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Areca Catechu

Linn.

Family: Palmae; Arecaceae.

Habitat: Native to Malaysia; now grown along the coasts of Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal, Assam and Maharashtra.

English: Arecanut, Betel Nut.

Ayurvedic: Puuga, Puugi, Kramuka, Ghontaa, Guwaak, Ghorant.

Unani: Fufal, Chhaalia, Supaari.

Siddha/Tamil: Kottai Paakku, Kamugu.

Action: Taeniacide (confined to veterinary medicine), astringent, stimulant.

Along with other therapeutic application, The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India indicates the use of dried ripe seed in leucorrhoea and vaginal laxity.

Arecanut contains several alkaloids belonging to pyridine group, the most important being arecoline (0.1-0.5%). Arecaidine, guvacine and isoguvacine are also present. Arecoline is an- thelmintic (in animals, not in humans). Arecaidine has no parasympa- thomimetic effects, but only stimulating properties; sedative in higher doses. Isoguvacine produces hypotension.

Contraindicated in asthma due to bronchoconstrictive effects of the alkaloid arecoline (human case reports). (Francis Brinker.)

Arecanut tannins (8.0-18.0%) are predominantly catechol tannins which closely resemble Mimosa bark tannins. Powdered nuts are prescribed in diarrhoea and urinary disorders. In combination with other astringent and styptic herbs, arecanut is used as a major constituent in confections of Indian medicine for gynaecological disorders.

Aqueous extract of the nut exhibits direct vasoconstriction and adrenaline potentiation in rats. Antimicrobial activity is due to polyphenolic fraction. Tannins potentiated the action of acetylcholine in ileum and uterus of rat and noradrenaline on seminal vesicle at low concentration.

Due to increased incidence of oral cancer associated with betel chewing, the use of arecanut as a masticatory is being discouraged.

Seeds are toxic at 8-10 g, fluid extract at 3.7 ml; and arecoline hydrobromide at 4.3-6.5 mg. (Francis Brinker.)

Dosage: Dried ripe fruit—1-2 g powder. (API Vol. I.)... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Asa Classification

a widely used classification for grading patients’ fitness for surgery prior to the operation. It was developed by the American Society of Anesthesia (ASA), but is now used worldwide. Patients are assigned grades between 1 and 6.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Atrioventricular Reciprocating Tachycardia

(AVRT) *re-entry tachycardia arising from the presence of an abnormal electrical connection between atria and ventricles situated outside the *atrioventricular node. See accessory pathway.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Autointoxication

Literally means ‘self-poisoning’. Any condition of poisoning brought about by substances formed in or by the body.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Autointoxication

n. poisoning by a toxin formed within the body.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Balloon Catheter

A flexible tube with a balloon at its tip, which, when inflated, keeps the tube in place or applies pressure to an organ or vessel.

One type is used to drain urine from the bladder (see catheterization, urinary).

Balloon catheters are sometimes used to expand narrowed arteries (balloon angioplasty).

They may also be used to control bleeding oesophageal varices before surgery.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Behaviour Modification

the use of the methods of behaviourist psychology (see behaviourism) – especially operant *conditioning – to alter people’s behaviour. Behaviour modification has wider applications than *behaviour therapy, since it is also used in situations in which the client is not ill; for example, in education. See also chaining; prompting.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Bifurcation

The point at which a structure (for example, a blood vessel) divides into two branches.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Bifurcation

n. (in anatomy) the point at which division into two branches occurs; for example in blood vessels or in the trachea.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Biocatalyst

A herb that initiates a change in the metabolism of the body. It exercises a specific chemical action relating to vitamins, hormones, enzymes and minerals. Parsley is one of the most important. Others – Watercress, Alfalfa, Fenugreek seeds, Lettuce, Marshmallow, Carrots. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

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Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

Bosniak Classification

a system for classifying renal cysts seen on CT imaging to aid in determining their degree of malignancy.

Type I: a benign cyst with smooth margins and no calcification or septa that does not enhance with contrast material.

Type II: a benign cyst with a few hairline septa and/or minimal calcification that does not enhance with contrast.

Type IIF: a cyst with more septa and increased calcification but no contrast enhancement.

Type III: a complicated cyst with irregular margins, moderate calcification, thick septa, and contrast enhancement.

Type IV: a malignant cyst with irregular margins and solid enhancing elements.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Calcification

The deposition of calcium salts in body tissues that is part of the normal process of bone and teeth formation and the healing of fractures.

Calcification also occurs in injured muscles, in arteries affected by atherosclerosis, and when blood calcium levels are raised by disorders of the parathyroid glands.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Calcification

The deposition of CALCIUM salts in body tissues, normally BONE and TEETH, though abnormal deposits can occur in damaged muscles or the walls of arteries.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Calcification

n. the deposition of calcium salts in tissue. This occurs as part of the normal process of bone formation (see ossification). Compare dystrophic calcification; metastatic calcification.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Calcification, Dental

The deposition of calcium salts in developing teeth. Primary teeth begin to calcify in a fetus at between 3 and 6 months gestation; calcification of permanent teeth (other than the wisdom teeth) begins between birth and 4 years. Abnormal calcification occurs in amelogenesis imperfecta, an inherited disorder of the enamel (see hypoplasia, enamel), and can also result from the absorption of high levels of fluoride (see fluorosis).... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Cardiac Catheterisation

A diagnostic procedure in which a tube is inserted into a blood vessel under local anaesthetic and threaded through to the chambers of the heart to monitor blood ?ow, blood pressure, blood chemistry and the output of the heart, and to take a sample of heart tissue. The technique is used to diagnose congenital heart disease and coronary artery disease. Another application is in the diagnosis and treatment of valvular disease in the heart.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Cat Scanning

An abbreviation for computerized axial tomographic scanning, commonly known as CT scanning.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Cat Scratch Fever

A self-limiting crisis seen in children or adults. The New England Journal of Medicine noted that sufferers were nearly 30 times more likely to have been licked, scratched or bitten.

Kittens proved the greatest hazard, particularly those with fleas. Local inflammation with glandular swelling and fever. Organism: usually Pasteurella multocida. Often with great weakness. One of the commonest causes of swollen glands in the USA.

Treatment. Poke root to combat infection of the glandular system. Echinacea to increase powers of resistance.

Alternatives. Tablets/capsules. Poke root. Echinacea. Wild Yam.

Powders. Formula: Echinacea 2; Gum Myrrh half; Goldenseal half. Dose: 500mg (two 00 capsules or one-third teaspoon) every 3 hours.

Tinctures. Formula. Echinacea 2; Poke root 1; Goldenseal half. Mix. One teaspoon in water every 3 hours.

Dosage for children: see – DOSAGE.

Topical. Apply Tea Tree oil diluted. May be diluted many times. Vitamin C. 1g morning and evening.

Calcium ascorbate powder. 1g morning and evening. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

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Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

Cat-scratch Disease

an infectious disease caused by the bacterium *Bartonella henselae, which infects cats and is transmitted to humans by a cat scratch or bite. A papule or pustule develops at the site of the injury followed, a week to two months after infection, by swelling of the lymph nodes (usually those closest to the wound). Fever and malaise are common. The condition usually resolves without treatment but antibiotics may be given to prevent complications.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Cat-scratch Fever

An uncommon disease that develops after a scratch or bite by a cat. Three quarters of cases occur in children. The fever is due to infection with a small bacterium called

ROCHALIMAEA HENDELAE.

The main symptom, appearing after 3–10 days, is a swollen lymph node near the bite or scratch.

The node may become painful and tender, and an infected blister may develop at the site of the injury.

A fever, rash, and headache may occur.

Diagnosis is confirmed by biopsy of the swollen lymph node and a skin test.

Analgesic drugs (painkillers) may be used to relieve the fever and headache.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Cat-scratch Fever

An infection in humans caused by a small gram-negative BACILLUS (Bartonella henselae). The domestic cat is a reservoir for the bacteria, and up to 50 per cent of the cat population may be affected. The disorder manifests itself as a skin lesion 3–10 days after a minor scratch; within two weeks the victim’s lymph glands enlarge and may produce pus. Fever, headache and malaise occur in some patients. Antibiotics do not seem to be e?ective. The skin lesion and lymph-gland enlargement subside spontaneously within 2–5 months.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Cata

prefix denoting downward or against.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Catabolic

The part of metabolism that deals with destruction or simplification of more complex compounds. Catabolism mostly results in the release of energy. Examples: the release of glucose by the liver, the combustion of glucose by cells.... Herbal Medical

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Herbal Medical

Catabolism

n. the chemical decomposition of complex substances by the body to form simpler ones, accompanied by the release of energy. The substances broken down include nutrients in food (carbohydrates, proteins, etc.) as well as the body’s storage products (such as glycogen). See also metabolism. —catabolic adj.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Catabolism

A chemical process by which constituents of food stored in the body (for example, fats) are broken down, releasing energy into body cells (see biochemistry; metabolism).... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Catabolism

The breakdown by the body of complex substances to form simpler ones, a process that is accompanied by the release of energy. Among the substances catabolised are nutrients, such as CARBOHYDRATE and PROTEIN in food, and in storage in the body – for example, GLYCOGEN.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Catagen

n. see anagen.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Catalase

n. an enzyme, present in many cells (including red blood cells and liver cells), that catalyses the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Catalepsy

n. the abnormal maintenance of postures, occurring in *catatonia. These may have arisen spontaneously or they may be induced by the examiner.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Catalepsy

A physical state in which the muscles of the face, body, and limbs are maintained in a semi-rigid, statue-like position for minutes, hours, or even days.

Catalepsy occurs in people with schizophrenia or epilepsy, but may also be caused by brain disease or some drugs.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Catalepsy

A physical condition in which part or all of the body becomes rigid. It is characterised by the adoption of strange – often statue-like – poses (CATATONIA), which may pass o? within a few minutes or may last for several hours (rarely, days). Typically brought on by a sudden mental trauma, catalepsy may occur with prolonged depression or some other serious MENTAL ILLNESS, and occasionally with EPILEPSY. Successful treatment must depend upon due recognition of all precipitating factors and circumstances.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Catalepsy

A medical curiosity occurring in some neurotic people who lose consciousness followed by muscular rigidity. Although rare, it may follow excessive stress. Suspension of heart beat, breathing. Other vital functions simulate death and are a cause for alarm. Rigidity may cause the body to assume a statue-like appearance. The subject should be carefully watched.

Treatment. Antispasmodics.

As swallowing is not possible, the gums should be rubbed with a little dilute Tincture or Liquid

Extract Lobelia, Eucalyptus, Thyme, Valerian or Wild Lettuce. When swallowing is possible, a cup of Chamomile, Lime blossom or Ephedra tea assists.

Practitioner: Ephedrine, 8-60mg by mouth, thrice daily. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

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Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

Catalyst

n. a substance that alters the rate of a chemical reaction but is itself unchanged at the end of the reaction. The catalysts of biochemical reactions are the *enzymes.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Cataphoresis

n. the introduction into the tissues of positively charged ionized substances (cations) by the use of a direct electric current. See iontophoresis.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Cataplasia

n. degeneration of tissues to an earlier developmental form.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Cataplasma

Poultice; an external application of herbs (either mashed up fresh or boiled and then cooled before applying to the affected area); often used for skin conditions or muscle pain.... Medicinal Plants

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Medicinal Plants

Cataplexy

n. a sudden onset of muscle weakness that may be precipitated by excitement or emotion. There may be total loss of muscle tone, resulting in collapse, or simply jaw dropping or head nodding. It occurs in 60–90% of patients with *narcolepsy.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Cataplexy

A sudden loss of muscle tone, causing an involuntary collapse without loss of consciousness. Cataplexy is triggered by intense emotion, particularly laughter, and occurs almost exclusively in those suffering from narcolepsy and other sleep disorders.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Cataplexy

A condition marked by abrupt attacks of muscular weakness... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Cataplexy

Cataplexy is a condition in which the patient has a sudden attack of muscular weakness affecting the whole body. (See also NARCOLEPSY.)... Medicinal Plants Glossary

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Medicinal Plants Glossary

Cataract

n. an opacity in the lens of the eye that may result in blurred vision. Minor degrees of cataract do not necessarily impair vision seriously. Cataracts may be congenital or acquired. The latter are most commonly a result of age (senile cataract); metabolic disease (such as diabetes), injury to the eye, or exposure of the eye to infrared rays (e.g. glass-blowers’ cataract) or ionizing radiation can also cause a cataract. A type commonly related to ageing is nuclear sclerotic cataract, which results from increasing density and yellowing of the centre of the lens. A posterior subcapsular cataract (at the rear surface of the lens within the lens capsule) is also related to ageing but may occur with prolonged use of steroids and chronic ocular inflammation. Brunescent cataracts are dark brown and very dense, and a cortical cataract is one in which the opacity occurs in the soft outer part (cortex) of the lens. A Morgagnian cataract is a longstanding very opaque cataract in which the cortex has started to shrink and liquefy, leaving a central shrunken nucleus.

Cataract is treated by removal of the affected lens (see cataract extraction; phacoemulsification); patients may wear appropriate spectacles or a contact lens to compensate for the missing lens but in modern practice a synthetic intraocular lens implant is routinely placed inside the eye as a part of the surgical procedure.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Cataract

Loss of transparency of the crystalline lens of the eye, due to changes in its delicate protein fibres. At an advanced stage, the front part of the lens becomes densely opaque, but the cataract never causes total blindness.

Almost everyone over 65 has some degree of cataract. Regular exposure to ultraviolet light increases the risk. Other causes include injury to the eye, particularly if a foreign body enters the lens. Cataract is common in people who have diabetes mellitus. Long-term use of corticosteroid drugs may contribute to cataract development. Congenital cataract may be due to an infection of the mother in early pregnancy, especially with rubella, to the toxic effects of certain drugs in pregnancy, or be associated with Down’s syndrome or galactosaemia.

Onset of symptoms is almost imperceptible, although night driving may be affected early on.

There is slow, progressive loss of visual acuity.

The person may become shortsighted and notice disturbances in colour perception.

When vision has become seriously impaired, cataract surgery is performed to remove the lens.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Cataract

Opacity in the crystalline lens of the eye which may be partial or complete... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Cataract

An opacity of the lens su?cient to cause visual impairment (see EYE, DISORDERS OF).... Medicinal Plants Glossary

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Medicinal Plants Glossary

Cataract

Gradual loss of sight following chemical disturbance in the lens protein of the eye resulting in degeneration and loss of transparency. Greyish white pupil which in normality is jet black. Occurs chiefly in the elderly due to injury of the lens capsule, glaucoma, the use of microwave or diet-mineral deficiency (calcium). In the ageing process there is a lack of antioxidant protection of the lens usually due to low Vitamin C, the major antioxidant in lens physiology. May also be congenital.

High blood glucose levels, diabetes, drugs, steroids, Down’s syndrome, kidney failure, uraemia and chronic diarrhoea predispose. There is no pain. Vision is as if looking through a frosted glass.

Treatment. Restore lens metabolism.

“My father-in-law knew people who had been cured by steeping Wild Burdock burrs and taking a small drink 3-4 times a day” (John Tobe, in “Cataract, Glaucoma and other Eye Disorders”) Cider Vinegar. 2 teaspoons to glass water, sips once or twice daily.

Chinese medicine. Hachimi jiogan to increase glutathione content of the lens.

Topical. Greater Celandine. 5-10 drops fresh juice of plant to 4oz distilled extract Witch Hazel. 10-20 drops in an eyebath half filled with warm water; use as a douche.

Cineraria maritima (Dusty Miller). 2-3 drops fresh plant juice applied to the eye with a medicine dropper. Same refers to Yucca and Chaparral. For early non-diabetic cataract.

Diet. Lacto-vegetarian. Carrot juice. Brewer’s Yeast, yellow-green vegetables. Spinach as an item of diet appears to reduce risk of cataract.

Supplementation. Vitamin C slows down the ageing process of the lens, protecting it from damage by free radicals: 1500mg daily. Vitamin B2. Vitamin E, 400iu daily. Selenium, 200mcg daily. Amino acids: cysteine, methionine, glutathione.

General. Surgical treatment is invariably successful. Cold packs and manipulation of the neck improve circulation and drainage of the head. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

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Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

Cataract Extraction

surgical removal of a cataract from the eye. In extracapsular cataract extraction the cataract alone is removed, leaving the lens capsule behind. Intracapsular cataract extraction is the removal of the whole lens, including the capsule that surrounds it.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Cataract Surgery

Removal of the lens from the eye, performed to restore sight in people whose vision is impaired by a cataract. The lens is usually replaced with a plastic implant during the operation, although for young people and those with other eye disorders, a contact or spectacle lens fitted after the operation may be preferable.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Catarrh

n. the excessive secretion of thick phlegm or mucus by the mucous membrane of the nose, nasal sinuses, nasopharynx, or air passages. The term is not used in any precise or scientific sense.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Catarrh

inflammation of mucous membranes, usually associated with an increase in secretion of mucus.... The Encyclopedia of Essential Oils

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The Encyclopedia of Essential Oils

Catarrh

Excessive secretion of mucus by the mucous membranes lining the nose (see rhinitis), sinuses (see sinusitus), or upper air passages, due to inflammation.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Catarrh

A condition in which the mucous membranes of the nose and breathing passages are inflamed, often chronically... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Catarrh

Inflamed mucous membranes, an older term that usually implied excess secretions, particularly with congestion.... Herbal Medical

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Herbal Medical

Catarrh

In?ammation of the mucous membranes, particularly those of the air passages, associated with a copious secretion of mucus. Commonly the result of infection or local allergy, catarrh can affect the nose, middle ear and sinuses.... Medicinal Plants Glossary

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Medicinal Plants Glossary

Catarrh

Inflammation of the mucous membrane (lining membrane) which becomes boggy and discharges excessive mucus. Aetiology: infection, allergy or toxaemia. May arise from lack of fresh air, stagnant atmosphere, irritation by dust, inflammation of the middle ear, tonsils or nasal sinuses, but chiefly from auto-toxaemia when it is a natural reaction to toxic matter – an effort to expel through the mucous membrane wastes that would otherwise leave the body via the skin, kidneys or bowel. Constipation worsens the condition.

It is often caused by a heavy intake of starches, salt, sugar, white flour products, and especially dairy products including milk. Some cases are due to poor diet, low blood calcium, vitamin and mineral deficiency. May manifest as catarrh of the nose, throat, stomach, bowels, bronchi or bladder. Alternatives:–Teas made from any of the following: Angelica, Avens, Coltsfoot, Comfrey leaves, German Chamomile, Elderflowers, Eyebright, Garlic, Ginseng, Gotu Kola, Ground Ivy, Hyssop, Marshmallow leaves, Mullein, Mouse-ear, Parsley, Plantain, Marsh Cudweed, White Horehound, Yarrow.

Garlic. Good results reported.

Traditional combination. Equal parts, herbs: Angelica, Eyebright, Yarrow. 1 heaped teaspoon to each cup of boiling water.

Fenugreek seeds. 2 teaspoons to each cup water simmered 5 minutes; 1 cup thrice daily. Or grind to a powder in a blender to sprinkle on salads or cereals.

Tablets/capsules. Garlic, Iceland Moss, Lobelia, Poke root, Goldenseal (Gerard). Horseradish and Garlic (Blackmore).

Tinctures. Alternatives. (1) Goldenseal: 3-5 drops. Formulae: (2) Angelica 2; Ginger 1. (3) Lobelia 1; Goldenseal 1; Juniper 1. One teaspoon – thrice daily.

Tincture Myrrh, BPC 1973. 3-5 drops in water thrice daily.

Tea Tree oil. 2-3 drops on teaspoon honey, or in water, thrice daily.

Heath and Heather Catarrh pastilles. Squills, Menthol, Pine oil, Eucalyptus oil.

Antifect. (Potter’s) Germicidal for blocked sinuses, etc.

Eric Powell. Liquid extracts: Angelica 1oz; Juniper 1oz; Peppermint half an ounce; Root Ginger half an ounce. 1-2 teaspoons in water thrice daily.

BHP (1983). (Bronchial) Irish Moss, Cinnamon, Liquorice.

Gargle. 3 drops Tincture Myrrh in half glass water.

Inhalation. Small handful Chamomile flowers or Eucalyptus leaves to 2 pints boiling water in washbasin. Cover head with towel and inhale 10 minutes. Or – see: FRIAR’S BALSAM.

Aromatherapy. Essential oils, diluted with 20 parts water, as injection for nasal catarrh: Eucalyptus, Thyme, Pine, Garlic, Hyssop, Tea Tree.

For catarrh of the womb and vagina: see LEUCORRHOEA.

Diet. Refer: GENERAL DIET. Commence with 3-day fast.

Supplementation. Vitamins A and D as in Cod Liver oil. Vitamins B-complex, C and E.

General. Cold sponge-down, deep-breathing exercises. Sea-bathing. Smoking promotes congestion.

Note: However inconvenient, catarrh has one useful protective role – it helps prevent bacteria and toxins reaching tissue. For instance, when present in the nasal organs it may prevent mercury vapour from teeth- amalgam reaching the brain. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

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Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

Catastrophic Health Insurance

Health insurance which provides protection against the high cost of treating severe or lengthy illnesses or disabilities. Generally such policies cover all, or a specified percentage of medical expenses above an amount that is the responsibility of another insurance policy, up to a maximum limit of liability.... Community Health

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Community Health

Catastrophic Illness

a US term for a health condition that severely affects an individual’s physical, mental, social, or economic wellbeing, lasts for an extended period of time, and (usually) requires very expensive treatment. In practice, the definition varies from government agency to agency and from employer to employer. The definition may focus specifically on the economic burden, the time lost from work, the seriousness of the condition, or a combination of these.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Catatonia

n. a state in which a person becomes mute or stuporous or adopts bizarre postures. The features include waxy flexibility (flexibilitas cerea), in which the limbs may be moved passively by another person into positions that are then retained for hours on end. Other common features include non-goal-directed excitement, *posturing, *negativism, rigidity, and command automatism (automatic compliance with instructions). Catatonia usually occurs in the context of *schizophrenia, but is now rarely seen in developed countries. It remains common in developing countries. Treatment includes high-dose *benzodiazepines and *electroconvulsive therapy. —catatonic adj.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Catatonia

A state in which a person becomes mute or adopts a bizarre, rigid pose.

It is seen in a rare form of schizophrenia and some types of brain disease.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Catatonia

A condition in which an individual takes up odd postures, often accompanied by muteness or semi-coma. The arms and legs may be moved passively by someone else into positions that the sufferer then holds for many hours. Catatonia occurs in SCHIZOPHRENIA. It may also be associated with organic brain disease such as encephalitis lethargica (see ENCEPHALITIS), tumours and carbon monoxide intoxication.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Catava

(Greek) One who is uncorrupted Catavah... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Catch-22

see di George syndrome.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Catchment Area

the geographic area from which a hospital can expect to receive patients and on which (in Britain) the designated population of the hospital is based. There is no statutory requirement for patients to use the hospital(s) of their area, but a code of zoning practice exists for some specialties (e.g. mental illness). A hospital may have a smaller catchment area for common specialties than for rarer ones, which may be shared between several districts (regional specialty) or regions (supraregional specialty).... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Catchment Area

A geographic area defined and served by a health programme or institution, such as a hospital or community health centre, which is delineated on the basis of such factors as population distribution, natural geographic boundaries, and transportation accessibility. By definition, all residents of the area needing the services of the programme are usually eligible for them, although eligibility may also depend on additional criteria.... Community Health

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Community Health

Catecholamines

pl. n. a group of physiologically important substances, including *adrenaline, *noradrenaline, and *dopamine, having various different roles (mainly as *neurotransmitters) in the functioning of the sympathetic and central nervous systems. Chemically, all contain a benzene ring with adjacent hydroxyl groups (catechol) and an amine group on a side chain. Catecholamines act at both alpha (?) and beta (?) *adrenoceptors. Some tumours (e.g. *phaeochromocytoma) secrete excess catecholamines.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Catecholamines

Hormones released by the body under any stressful reaction, or after envenomation (eg Irukandji), that affect the circulatory system, often increasing heart rate and blood pressure.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Catecholamines

Substances produced in the body from the dietary AMINO ACIDS, PHENYLALANINE and TYROSINE. They include ADRENALINE, NORADRENALINE and DOPAMINE which have varying functions, usually as NEUROTRANSMITTERS, in the sympathetic and central nervous systems (see under NERVOUS SYSTEM). Their chemical structure is based on a benzene ring with hydroxyl and amine side-chains.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

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Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

Catechu

Acacia catechu

Mimosaceae

San:Khadirah;

Hin:Khair, Khaira;

Ben: Kuth;

Mal: Karingali;

Tam: Karunkali;

Tel: Sandra, Khandiramu;

Kan: Kaggali

Importance: Catechu is a medium deciduous tree commonly used as a blood purifier and for leoprosy and leucoderma. Catechu or Cutch tree bark is useful in melancholia, conjunctivitis and haemoptysis. It is useful in vitiated conditions of kapha and pitta, catarrh, cough, pruritus, leprosy, leucoderma, skin diseases, helminthiasis, anorexia, diarrhoea, dysentery, foul ulcers and wounds, haemoptysis, haematemesis, haemorrhages, intermittent fever, inflammations, odontopathy, anaemia, diabetes, splenomegaly and pharyngodyna. The gummy extract of the wood (kath) is useful in laryngopathy, flatulence, anorexia, ulcers, wounds, helminthiasis, leucoderma, leoprosy, skin diseases, urorrhea, colporrhagia, erysipelas and odontopathy. For leprosy, root, leaf, flower, bark and fruits are made into a decoction which is given orally as well as for external dressing. In Unani system it is used in “Marham Kharish Jadid” for skin diseases. “Khadirarisht” is an oral medicine, while “Marham” is for external application.

Distribution:It is widely distributed in tropical countries. In India, it is observed from the Indus eastwards to Assam and throughout Peninsular India.

Botany: The genus Acacia belonging to the family Mimosaceae consists of a number of species. The important ones are listed as below:

A. catechu Willd. A. caesia Willd. A. arabica Willd. A. concinna DC.

A. farnesiana Willd.

A. ferruginea DC.

A. instia W. & A. syn. A. caesia Willd.

A. jacquemontii Benth. A. leucophloea Willd. A. modesta Wall.

A. pinnata (Linn.) Willd.

A. pycnantha Benth.

A. senegal Willd.

A. suma Buch-Ham. syn. A. suma Kurz.

A. catechu is a moderate sized deciduous tree, 9-12m in height with dark greyish or brown rough bark and hooked short spines. Leaves are bipinnately compound, leaflets 30-50 pairs, main rachis pubescent with a large conspicuous gland near the middle of the rachis. Flowers are pale yellow, sessile in peduncled axiallary spikes. Fruits are flat brown pods, shiny and with a triangular beak at the apex and narrowed at the base. Seeds are 3-10 per pod.

The gummy extract of the wood is commercially known as ‘ Kath’ or ‘Cutch’. The cutch available in the market is brittle, of different shapes and dark brown in colour. On breaking, it is found to be shiny and form crystal like pieces (Warrier et al, 1993).

Agrotechnology: Catechu is suited to hilly areas and rocky places. The plant is propagated by seeds.

Seeds are soaked in water for 6 hours and sown in seedbeds. Seeds germinate within a month. At four-leaf stage, seedlings are planted in polybags. Two months old seedlings from the polybags are used for transplanting. Pits of size 50cm cube are taken at a distance of 4-5m between plants and filled with topsoil, sand and dried cowdung in 1:1:1 ratio. Seedlings are planted in these pits. Application of organic manure every year during the rainy season is beneficial. Regular weeding is to be carried out. Pruning of branches and tender shoots developing from the base of the plant can be done from second year onwards. Tree is to be grown as single stemmed one. Flowering and fruiting commences from fourth year onwards. At the end of tenth year, the tree can be cut and heartwood collected (Prasad et al, 1997).

Properties and Activity: Heartwood contains kaempferol, dihydro kaempferol, taxifolin, iso rhamnetin(+)- afzelchin, a dimeric procyanidin, quercetin, (-)epi-catechin, (-)catechin, fisetin, quercetagetin and (+)-cyanidanol. The main constituent of heartwood is catechin and catechu tannic acid. Catechin is a mixture of at least four isomers and L(-)epicatechin has been isolated and characterised (Rao et al,1948; Husain et al,1992).

The bark is anthelmintic, antipyretic, antiinflammatory and antileprotic. The flowers are antigonorrhoeic. The cutch from wood is anthelmintic, tonic and aphrodisiac. Bark and cutch are antidiarrhoeal, astringent and stomachic. Cyanidanol is hepatoprotective. The wood is hypoglycaemic, antiinflammatory and hypotensive. The stem is spasmolytic and antiviral (Husain et al, 1992).... Tropical Medicinal Plants

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Tropical Medicinal Plants

Catechu, Black

 Acacia catechu Wild. dried extract from heartwood chips.

Action: antibacterial, antiseptic, haemostatic, powerful astringent to stomach and intestines.

Uses: Irritable bowel, dysentery, mucous colitis, chronic catarrh, haemorrhage, mouth ulcer, spongy and bleeding gums (mouth wash), sore throat (gargle). A wash for varicose ulcer. Nosebleed. “Indigestion in children.” (Chinese Traditional)

Reported use in cancer (J.L. Hartwell, Lloydia, 33, 97, 1970)

Preparations: Thrice daily.

Powder: 0.3 to 1 gram in honey or banana mash.

Tincture BHP (1983) 1:5 in 45 per cent alcohol. Dose half-1 teaspoon (2.5-5ml) in water. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

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Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

Catechu, Pale

 Gambier. Uncaria gambier Roxb. Shoots. Leaves. Constituents: flavonoids, tannins, indole alkaloids.

Action: Intestinal astringent.

Uses: similar to Black Catechu.

Preparations: Twice daily.

Powder: 0.3 to 1 gram (quarter of a teaspoon) in honey or banana mash.

Tincture Catechu BP. 1:5, with Cinnamon 1:20, in 45 per cent alcohol. Dose: 2.5 to 5ml. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

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Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

Categorical Imperative

see imperative.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Catgut

n. a natural fibrous material prepared from the tissues of animals, usually from the walls of sheep intestines, twisted into strands of different thicknesses and formerly widely used to sew up wounds (see suture) and tie off blood vessels during surgery. The catgut gradually dissolves and is absorbed by the tissues, so that the stitches do not have to be removed later. Catgut has now been replaced by synthetic absorbable suture material, such as vicryl.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Catgut

A traditional absorbable SUTURE used in surgery for tying cut arteries and stitching wounds. Consisting of twisted COLLAGEN (from sheep or cattle intestines), catgut is absorbed by phagocytes (see under PHAGOCYTE) over a variable period. There are two types: plain, and chromatised or chromic. Synthetic absorbable sutures cause less reaction, have a predictable absorption period and are more e?ective.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Catharanthus Roseus

(L.) G. Don.

Synonym: Vinca rosea L. Lochnera rosea (L.) Reichub.

Family: Apocynaceae.

Habitat: Commonly grown in Indian gardens.

English: Madagascar Periwinkle (Vinca major L. Pich. and Vinca minor Linn. are known as Greater Periwinkle and Lesser Periwinkle respectively).

Folk: Sadaabahaar, Nayantaaraa, Nityakalyaani.

Action: The cytotoxic dimeric alkaloids, present in Madagascar Periwinkle, Catharanthus roseus L. Don, Vincea rosea L., and used for the treatment of certain type of cancer, have not been found in V. major.

Catharanthus roseus (Madagascar Periwinkle) : cytostatic, anti-neoplas- tic, slows down growth of cells by su- pressing immune response. Vinblas- tine and Vincristine are said to prolong remission of leukaemia to more than five years. These chemotherapeutic agents are toxic to the nervous system. Vinblastine is also used for breast cancer and Hodgkin's disease.

Vinca major L. Pich. (Greater Periwinkle): astringent, anti-haemorrha- gic; used for menorrhagia and leu- corrhoea. Contains indole alkaloids including reserpinine and serpentine; tannins.

Vinca minor Linn. (Lesser Periwinkle): astringent; circulatory stimulant. Leaves—stomachic and bitter. Root— hypotensive. Used for gastric catarrh, chronic dyspepsia, flatulence; also for headache, dizziness, behaviours disorders. A homoeopathic tincture is given for internal haemorrhages.... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Catharsis

n. 1. purging or cleansing out of the bowels by giving the patient a *laxative (cathartic) to stimulate intestinal activity. 2. the release of strong pent-up emotions. See abreaction.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Catharsis

A term meaning purification or cleansing.

Catharsis is used to refer to the process of cleaning out the bowels.

Sigmund Freud used the term in psychoanalytic theory to describe the expression of repressed feelings and memories.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Cathartic

purgative, capable of causing a violent purging or catharsis of the body.... The Encyclopedia of Essential Oils

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The Encyclopedia of Essential Oils

Cathartic

n. see laxative.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Cathartic

A term that means having the power to purify or cleanse. A cathartic drug stimulates movement of the bowels (see laxative drugs).... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Cathartic

Having the power of cleaning the bowels-purgative... Medicinal Plants Glossary

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Medicinal Plants Glossary

Cathartics

Substances which produce an evacuation of the bowels (see LAXATIVES). The term ‘cathartic’ also means possessing the power to cleanse.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Cathepsin

n. one of a group of enzymes found in animal tissues, particularly the spleen, that digest proteins.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Catherine

(English) One who is pure; virginal Catharine, Cathrine, Cathryn, Catherin, Catheryn, Catheryna, Cathi, Cathia, Cathicen, Cathie, Cathlyn, Cathleen, Cathlin, Cathy, Catia, Catlee, Catlin, Catline, Catlyn, Cait, Caitie, Caitlin, Caitlan, Caitir, Cattee, Cat, Caitilin, Caitlyn, Caitlan, Caitland, Caitlinn, Caitlynn, Caitrin, Caitriona, Caitryn, Catalin, Catalina, Catalyn, Catalyna, Catarina, Catarine, Cate, Cateline, Catelyn, Catelyna, Caterina, Cath, Catharina, Catrin, Catrina, Catriona, Catylyn... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Catherisation

Use of a catheter (see CATHETERS).... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Catheter

n. a flexible tube for insertion into a narrow opening so that fluids may be introduced or removed (see illustration). Urinary catheters are passed into the bladder through the urethra to allow drainage of urine in certain disorders and to empty the bladder before abdominal operations.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Catheter

A flexible tube inserted into the body to drain or introduce fluids or carry out other functions. Catheters are commonly used to drain urine from the bladder (see catheterization, urinary). Other types are used to investigate the condition of the heart (see catheterization, cardiac), to widen obstructed blood vessels, or to control bleeding. (See also balloon catheter.)... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Catheterization

n. the introduction of a *catheter into a hollow organ or vessel. In urethral catheterization a catheter is introduced into the bladder through the urethra to relieve obstruction to the outflow of urine (see also intermittent self-catheterization). Catheters can also be passed above the pubis through the anterior abdominal wall (suprapubic catheterization) directly into a full bladder if urethral catheterization is not possible. Cardiac catheterization entails the introduction of special catheters into the chambers of the heart. This allows the measurement of pressures in the chambers and pressure gradients across the heart valves, as well as the injection of contrast medium for visualization of structures using X-rays (see coronary angiography). Vascular catheterization enables the introduction into the arteries or veins of: (1) contrast medium for angiography or venography; (2) drugs to constrict or expand vessels or to dissolve a thrombus (see thrombolysis); (3) metal coils or other solid materials to block bleeding vessels or to thrombose *aneurysms (see embolization); (4) devices for monitoring pressures within important vessels (e.g. *Swan-Ganz catheters for monitoring pulmonary artery pressure in critically ill patients); or (5) balloons and *stents to relieve obstruction.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Catheterization, Cardiac

A diagnostic test in which a fine, sterile catheter is introduced into the heart via a blood vessel. It is used to diagnose and assess the extent of congenital heart disease (see heart disease, congenital) and coronary artery disease, and to diagnose and treat some disorders of the heart valves (see valvuloplasty). During the procedure, the pressure within the heart’s chambers can be measured, samples of blood and tissue can be taken, and a radiopaque substance can be injected to allow the heart’s cavities to be X-rayed.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Catheterization, Urinary

Insertion of a sterile catheter into the bladder to drain urine. The procedure is used when a person is unable to empty the bladder normally or is incontinent (see incontinence, urinary). Urinary catheterization is also used during operations, in bladder function tests such as cystometry and cystourethrography, and to monitor urine production in the critically ill.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Catheters

Hollow tubes, usually made of rubber or plastic, used for passing into various organs of the body, either for investigational purposes or to give some form of treatment. They are used under strict sterile conditions.

Cardiac catheters are introduced through a vein in the arm and passed into the heart in order to diagnose some of the more obscure forms of congenital heart disease, and often as a preliminary to operating on the heart.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Cathresha

(American) One who is pure Cathreshah, Cathreshia, Cathreshiah, Cathreshea, Cathresheah, Cathrisha, Cathrishah, Cathrysha, Cathryshah... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Catima

(Greek) One who is innocent Catimah, Catyma, Catymah, Catiema, Catiemah, Cateima, Cateimah, Cateema, Cateemah, Cateama, Cateamah... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Cation

n. an ion of positive charge, such as a sodium ion (Na+). Compare anion. See electrolyte.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Cation-exchange Resins

complex insoluble chemical compounds that may be administered with the diet to alter the *electrolyte balance of the body in the treatment of heart, kidney, and metabolic disorders. For example, in patients on a strict low-sodium diet such resins combine with sodium in the food so that it cannot be absorbed and passes out in the faeces.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Catmint

Catnep. Nepeta cataria L. Leaves and flowers. German: Katzenkraut. French: Cataire. Spanish: Ne?beda. Italian: Cataria. Chinese: Chi-hsueh-ts’ao.

Action: anti-diarrhoeal, antispasmodic, emmenagogue, diaphoretic, carminative, gentle nerve relaxant for release of tension. To reduce temperature in simple fevers by inducing a free perspiration thus sweating- out toxins via the skin.

Keynote: crises of childhood.

Uses: Children: colic, restlessness, hyperactivity, convulsions, early stages of fever, hysteria with crying and violent twisting of the trunk, middle ear infection, sinuses. Colds, influenza, congestion of respiratory organs. Physical results of emotional disturbance.

Preparations: Two-hourly in acute cases, otherwise thrice daily.

Tea: (popular method) One heaped teaspoon to each cup boiling water; infuse 10 minutes. Half-1 cup. In its absence use Chamomile.

Liquid Extract: 30 drops to 1 teaspoon in water.

Enema: 2oz to 2 pints boiling water; for elimination of toxic wastes from colon.

Beloved by cats, making them frolicsome, amorous and full of fun. Not given in pregnancy. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

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Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

Catnep

Nepeta cataria. N.O. Labiateae.

Synonym: Catmint, Catnip.

Habitat: Hedgerows.

Features ? Square, grey, hairy stem, up to two feet high. Leaves stalked, cordate-ovate, serrate, whitish down beneath. Flowers white, crimson dots, two-lipped, in short, dense spikes. Characteristic mint-like scent.

Part used ? Herbs, leaves.

Action: Carminative, tonic, diaphoretic, anti-spasmodic.

Especially used for flatulence and digestive pains in children, and for production of perspiration in both children and adults. For diaphoretic

purposes in adults, 2-tablespoonful doses of the 1 ounce to 1 pint infusion thrice daily, with a cupful at bedtime; proportionate doses in children's complaints.

American physio-medical practice recommends blood-warm bowel injections of the infusion for babies with intestinal flatulence.... Herbal Manual

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Herbal Manual

Catnip

Cat Magic, Love, Beauty, Happiness...

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Catostylus

Commonly known as the blubber, Catostylus is a rhizostome jellyfish with no tentacles but which has 8 modified feeding `arms’ armed with nematocysts. Usually causes a very mild sting with slight skin irritation, although more severe stings have been rarely reported.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

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Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

Catrice

(Greek) A wholesome woman Catrise, Catryce, Catryse, Catreece, Catreese, Catriece, Catriese, Catreice, Catreise, Catreace, Catrease... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Cats, Diseases From

Various parasites and infectious organisms can spread from cats to humans. The most serious disease is rabies. Cat-scratch fever is an uncommon illness caused by infection with the bacterium ROCHALIMAEA HENDELAE following a cat scratch or bite. Cats commonly carry the protozoan TOXOPLASMA GONDII, which causes toxoplasmosis.

Infection, usually from contact with cat’s faeces, is not generally serious but has serious consequences if a woman is infected during pregnancy.

Cat faeces may also carry eggs of the cat roundworm, a possible cause of toxocariasis.

Rarely, a larva from an ingested roundworm egg migrates to and lodges in an eye, causing deterioration of vision or even blindness.

Children who have been playing in sand or soil contaminated by cat faeces are most commonly affected.

Other cat-related disorders in humans include tinea (ringworm), fungal infections of the skin, bites from cat fleas, and allergic reactions to dander that may cause asthma or urticaria.

Diseases from cats can be avoided by good hygiene, veterinary care for animals that are ill, and regular worming and flea treatment of cats.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Cattail

Typha latifolia

Description: Cattails are grasslike plants with strap-shaped leaves 1 to 5 centimeters wide and growing up to 1.8 meters tall. The male flowers are borne in a dense mass above the female flowers. These last only a short time, leaving the female flowers that develop into the brown cattail. Pollen from the male flowers is often abundant and bright yellow.

Habitat and Distribution: Cattails are found throughout most of the world. Look for them in full sun areas at the margins of lakes, streams, canals, rivers, and brackish water.

Edible Parts: The young tender shoots are edible raw or cooked. The rhizome is often very tough but is a rich source of starch. Pound the rhizome to remove the starch and use as a flour. The pollen is also an exceptional source of starch. When the cattail is immature and still green, you can boil the female portion and eat it like corn on the cob.

Other Uses: The dried leaves are an excellent source of weaving material you can use to make floats and rafts. The cottony seeds make good pillow stuffing and insulation. The fluff makes excellent tinder. Dried cattails are effective insect repellents when burned.... Medicinal Plants

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Medicinal Plants

Catuaba

Popular Brazilian folk remedy. Two species. Juniperus brasiliens.

Keynote: aphrodisiac.

Action: brain and nerve stimulant, aphrodisiac for men and women.

Uses: Sexual weakness, male impotence, nervous debility and exhaustion.

Preparation. Ground bark: half-1 teaspoon to each cup boiling water; infuse 15 minutes. Half-1 cup freely. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

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Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

Cat’s Claw

See Uña de gato.... Medicinal Plants

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Medicinal Plants

Central Venous Catheter

an intravenous catheter for insertion directly into a large vein, most commonly the subclavian vein, during its passage under the clavicle, or the jugular in the neck. Such catheters can also be inserted into the femoral vein at the groin. They enable intravenous drugs and fluids to be given and intravenous pressures to be measured, which is often useful during operations or in intensive care. Central venous catheters must be inserted under strictly sterile conditions using a local anaesthetic.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Certification

The process by which a government or nongovernmental agency or association evaluates and recognizes an individual, institution or educational programme as meeting predetermined standards. One so recognized is said to be “certified”. It is essentially synonymous with accreditation, except that certification is usually applied to individuals and accreditation to institutions. Certification programmes are generally nongovernmental and do not exclude the uncertified from practice, as do licensure programmes.... Community Health

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Community Health

Certification

An old term for procedures to commit a person to be compulsorily detained for mental health treatment.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Childbirth, Complications Of

Difficulties and problems occurring after the onset of labour. Some complications are potentially life-threatening, especially if they impair the baby’s oxygen supply (see fetal distress). Premature labour may occur, with the delivery of a small, immature baby (see prematurity). Premature rupture of the amniotic sac can lead to infection in the uterus, requiring prompt delivery of the baby and treatment with antibiotic drugs.

Slow progress in the 1st stage of a normal labour due to inadequate contractions of the uterus is usually treated with intravenous infusions of synthetic oxytocin. If the mother cannot push strongly enough, or contractions are ineffective in the 2nd stage of labour, the baby may be delivered by forceps delivery, vacuum extraction, or caesarean section. Rarely, a woman has eclampsia during labour, requiring treatment with anticonvulsant drugs and oxygen, and induction of labour or caesarean section. Bleeding before labour (antepartum haemorrhage) or during labour may be due to premature separation of the placenta from the wall of the uterus or, less commonly, to a condition called placenta praevia, in which the placenta lies over the opening of the cervix. Blood loss after the delivery (postpartum haemorrhage) is usually due to failure of the uterus to contract after delivery, or to

retention of part of the placenta. If the baby lies in the breech position (see breech delivery), caesarean section may be necessary. Multiple pregnancies (see pregnancy, multiple) carry an increased risk of premature labour and of problems during delivery. If the mother’s pelvis is too small in proportion to the head of her baby, delivery by caesarean section is necessary.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Chrozophora Plicata

Hook. f.

Synonym: C. rottleri Klotzsh.

Family: Euphorbiaceae.

Habitat: Throughout India except Jammu & Kashmir and northeastern India as a weed.

Ayurvedic: Suuryaavart.

Folk: Nilakanthi.

Action: Ash of root—bechic. Leaf— depurative. Seed—cathartic.

Roots contain xanthone glycosides and a chromone glycoside. Seeds gave oil rich in linoleate. The plant contains 9.0% tannin.... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Cicatricial

adj. associated with scarring. For example, cicatricial alopecia is a type of baldness associated with scarring (see alopecia).... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Cicatrisant

an agent which promotes healing by the formation of scar tissue.... The Encyclopedia of Essential Oils

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The Encyclopedia of Essential Oils

Cicatrix

Another word for scar.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Cicatrizing

Promoting the growth... Medicinal Plants Glossary

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Medicinal Plants Glossary

Classification

Assignment to predesignated classes on the basis of perceived common characteristics. A means of giving order to a group of disconnected facts.... Community Health

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Community Health

Classification Of Disease

Arrangement of diseases into groups having common characteristics. Useful in efforts to achieve standardization in the methods of presenting mortality and morbidity data from different sources and, therefore, in comparability. May include a systematic numerical notation for each disease entry. Examples include the International Statistical Classification of Diseases, Injuries and Causes of Death.... Community Health

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Community Health

Claudication

A cramp-like pain in a muscle, most often in the legs, due to inadequate blood supply. Claudication in the legs is usually caused by blockage or narrowing of arteries du to atherosclerosis (see peripheral vascular disease). A rarer cause is spinal stenosis. In intermittent claudication, pain is felt in the calves after walking a certain distance and is relieved by rest.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Claudication

n. limping. Intermittent claudication is a cramping pain, induced by exercise and relieved by rest, that is caused by an inadequate supply of blood to the affected muscles. It is most often seen in the calf and leg muscles as a result of *atheroma of the leg arteries. The leg pulses are often absent and the feet may be cold. The treatment is that of atheroma.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Claudication

A cramp-like pain that occurs in the legs on walking. It may cause the sufferer to limp or, if severe, stop him or her from walking. The usual cause is narrowing or blockage of the arteries in the legs due to ATHEROSCLEROSIS: smoking is a contributary factor. Intermittent claudication occurs when a person has to stop every so often to let the pain – caused by the build-up of waste products in the muscles – to subside. The condition may be improved by exercise, for example, for an hour a day (resting when the pain starts). Pentoxifylline, a vasodilator, may help, as may CALCIUM-CHANNEL BLOCKERS. Patients must avoid all tobacco products.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Complication

n. a disease or condition arising during the course of or as a consequence of another disease.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Complication

A condition resulting from a preceding disorder or from its treatment.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Congenital Dislocation Of The Hip

(CDH) an abnormality present at birth in which the head of the femur is displaced or easily displaceable from the acetabulum (socket) of the ilium, which is poorly developed; it frequently affects both hip joints. CDH occurs in about 1.5 per 1000 live births, being more common in first-born girls, in breech deliveries, and if there is a family history of the condition. The leg is shortened and has a reduced range of movement, and the skin creases may be asymmetrical. All babies are routinely screened for CDH at birth and at developmental check-ups by gentle manipulation of the hip causing it to be reduced and dislocated with a clunk (see Barlow manoeuvre; Ortolani manoeuvre). The diagnosis is confirmed by X-ray or ultrasound scan. Treatment is with a special harness holding the hip in the correct position. If this is unsuccessful, the hip is reduced under anaesthetic and held with a plaster of Paris cast or the defect is corrected by surgery. Successful treatment of an infant can give a normal hip; if the dislocation is not detected, the hip does not develop normally and osteoarthritis develops at a young age.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Continuing Education

Formal education obtained by a health professional after completing his/her degree and full-time postgraduate training.... Community Health

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Community Health

Contra-indicated

Not indicated. Against medical advice. A remedy which is contra-indicated is unsuitable for use. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

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Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

Contraindication

A clinical symptom, circumstance, condition indicating that the use of an otherwise advisable intervention would be inappropriate. A contraindication may be absolute or relative. An absolute contraindication is a situation which makes a particular treatment or procedure absolutely inadvisable. A relative contraindication is a condition which makes a particular treatment or procedure somewhat inadvisable, but does not rule it out (for example, X-rays in pregnancy).... Community Health

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Community Health

Contraindication

n. any factor in a patient’s condition that makes it unwise to pursue a certain line of treatment. For example, an attack of pneumonia in a patient would be a strong contraindication against the use of a general anaesthetic.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Contraindication

Factors in a patient’s condition that would make it unwise to pursue a certain line of treatment.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Cornification

n. see keratinization.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Cromoglicate

(sodium cromoglicate, cromoglycate) n. a drug thought to prevent the release of histamine from mast cells. It is used to prevent asthma attacks and hay fever and to treat other allergic conditions, including allergic conjunctivitis and food allergies.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Death Certificate

a legal document, signed by a doctor, stating (in Part 1) the immediate cause of a person’s death followed by diseases underlying the condition. For example, if the immediate cause of death was a myocardial infarction, the underlying disease might have been ischaemic heart disease or hypertension. Other diseases, which were not directly linked with the immediate cause of death but may have contributed to the patient’s overall condition, are mentioned in Part 2 of the certificate. The document usually states the decedent’s gender and date and place of death; other details, such as occupation, may also be included. The death certificate forms a vital record in most countries throughout the world; without a death certificate, there can be no funeral. For England and Wales, this information is held at the General Register Office, which is now in Southport. In Scotland death certificates are kept at the National Records of Scotland, and in Northern Ireland at the General Register Office for Northern Ireland. Following the case of the serial killer Dr Harold Shipman and the subsequent public enquiry, legislation has introduced greater checks on, and scrutiny of, death certification by doctors.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Death Certificate

A certi?cate required by law to be signed by a medical practitioner stating the main and any contributary causes of a person’s death.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Decalcification

n. loss or removal of calcium salts from a bone or tooth.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Decalcification, Dental

The dissolving of minerals in a tooth. Dental decalcification is the first stage of tooth decay. It is caused by the bacteria in plaque acting on refined carbohydrates (mainly sugar) in food to produce acid, which leads to changes on the surface of the tooth. If the decalcification penetrates the enamel, it spreads into the dentine and permits bacteria to enter the pulp.

(See also caries, dental.)... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Decortication

n. 1. the removal of the outside layer (cortex) from an organ or structure, such as the kidney. 2. an operation for removing the blood clot and scar tissue that forms after bleeding into the chest cavity (haemothorax). 3. (decapsulation) the surgical removal of a *capsule from an organ; for example, the stripping of the membrane that envelops the kidney or of the inflammatory capsule that encloses a chronic abscess, as in the treatment of *empyema.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Defaecation

The expulsion of faeces from the body via the anus.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Defaecation

Opening the bowels. (See CONSTIPATION; DIARRHOEA.)... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Defecation

n. a bowel movement in which faeces are evacuated through the rectum and anus. The amount and composition of the food eaten determine to a large degree the bulk of the faeces, and the transit time through the intestinal tract determines the water content. See constipation; diarrhoea.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Defecation

Another term for a bowel movement to expel wastes from the body. Also applies to a colostomy where faeces are voided through an artificial opening. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

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Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

Dendrophthoe Falcata

(Linn. f.) Etting.

Family: Loranthaceae.

Habitat: Throughout India.

Ayurvedic: Bandaaka, Vrkshaadani, Vrkshruuhaa.

Siddha: Pulluri, Plavithil (Tamil).

Folk: Baandaa.

Action: Bark—astringent and narcotic; used in menstrual disorders, consumption, asthma, also for treating wounds.

The plant contains several flavo- noids. Being parasitic, different flavo- noids have been recorded in plants growing on different host plants. Quer- citrin has been found to be the major common constituent. The plant also contains gallic, ellagic and chebulinic acids.

Aqueous and alcoholic extracts of the plant were tested in rats for their diuretic and anti-lithiatic activities. Alcoholic extract was found to be more effective than aqueous extract.

Dosage: Leaf, flower—10-20 ml juice. (CCRAS.)

Essential oil from leaves—antibacterial, antifungal.

Dosage: Bark—50-100 ml decoction; leaf—10-20 ml juice. (CCRAS.)... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Desiccating

Depriving of moisture... Medicinal Plants Glossary

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Medicinal Plants Glossary

Detoxication

Also called detoxi?cation, this is a process whereby toxic agents are removed from the body and toxic effects neutralised. (See POISONS and TOXINS.)... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Detoxification

(detoxication) n. 1. the process whereby toxic substances are removed or toxic effects neutralized. It is one of the functions of the liver. 2. the period of withdrawal when a person stops long-term consumption of alcohol or some other drug. Withdrawal symptoms (e.g. *delirium tremens) may occur during detoxification.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Digera Muricata

(Linn.) Mart.

Synonym: D. arvensis Forsk. Desmochaeta muricata (L.) DC.

Family: Amaranthaceae.

Habitat: Throughout the plains of India, as a weed in cultivated fields.

Ayurvedic: Katthinjara, Kunanjara.

Siddha/Tamil: Thoyya-keerai.

Folk: Lat-mahuriaa, Lahsuvaa.

Action: Astringent, antibilious. Laxative in large doses. Flowers and seeds—diuretic; given for urinary discharges.

The plant contains alpha-and beta- spinasterol.... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Digoxin Intoxication

Digoxin poisoning is possible from over-prescription of the drug, a crystalline glycoside, a powerful heart tonic for cardiac weakness. Doses may have been given over a long period during which toxicity builds up and manifests as nausea and vomiting, slow heart rate, faulty vision where objects appear green. Effective herbal alternatives to digoxin exist, reducing the current high mortality rate. Patient might die if not treated quickly.

Treatment: Once a patient is established on any of the digitalis (Foxglove) drugs it is very difficult to discontinue. Smaller doses are advised in the process of weaning to Lily of the Valley (Convallaria majalis) which has a digitalis-like effect by reversing heart rhythm disorders.

Dosage: dried leaves 60-200mg or by infusion. Liquid Extract, 0.6 to 2ml. Tincture, 0.5 to 1ml. Thrice daily.

Treatment by general medical practitioner or qualified phytotherapist. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

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Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

Dislocation

(luxation) n. displacement from their normal position of bones meeting at a joint such that there is complete loss of contact of the joint surfaces. It usually results from trauma (e.g. dislocation of the shoulder, which is common in sports injuries, and dislocation of the mandible from the temporomandibular joint) but may be congenital, in which case it usually affects the hip (see congenital dislocation of the hip). In a traumatic dislocation the bones are restored to their normal positions by manipulation under local or general anaesthesia (see reduction). Compare subluxation.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Dislocation, Joint

Complete displacement of the 2 bones in a joint so that they are no longer in contact, usually as a result of injury. (Displacement that leaves the bones in partial contact is called subluxation.) It is usually accompanied by tearing of the joint ligaments and damage to the membrane that encases the joint. Injury severe enough to cause dislocation often also causes bone to fracture. Dislocation restricts or prevents the movement of the joint; it is usually very painful. The joint looks misshapen and swells. In some cases, dislocation is followed by complications, for example, paralysis.A dislocated joint should only be manipulated by medical personnel. First- aid treatment consists of applying a splint or, in the case of a dislocated shoulder, a sling. Sometimes, an operation is necessary to reset the bones.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Dislocations

Injuries to joints of such a nature that the ends of the opposed bones are forced more or less out of connection with one another. Besides displacement of the bones, there is bruising of the tissues around them, and tearing of the ligaments which bind the bones together.

Dislocations, like fractures (see BONE, DISORDERS OF), are divided into simple and compound, the bone in the latter case being forced through the skin. This seldom occurs, since the round head of the bone has not the same power to wound as the sharp end of a broken bone. Dislocations are also divided according to whether they are (1) congenital, i.e. present at birth in consequence of some malformation, or (2) acquired at a later period in consequence of injury, the great majority falling into the latter class. The reduction of a dislocated joint is a skilled procedure and should be done by an appropriately trained professional.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Dislocations

Luxations. Displacement of a structure, usually bone, as in an osteopathic lesion. May occur spontaneously as a result of weak ligaments or from injury, posture. Common in the shoulder. Many dislocations of the spine and skeleton are resolved by osteopathy.

Alternatives. To strengthen ligaments: Comfrey (topical). Wild Yam, Irish Moss, Slippery Elm bark, Horsetail, Fenugreek seeds. St John’s Wort, Ginseng.

Supplementation. Calcium and Zinc, Vitamin C (1 gram thrice daily).

DISMUTASE ENZYMES (SOD). A dismutase enzyme is a biologically active enzyme complex present in most human cells and capable of converting tissue-damaging oxygen free radicals (highly reactive cellular toxins) into less harmful chemical substances that can be excreted from the body through the usual eliminatory channels.

Evidence shows that a number of chronic diseases including MS, diabetes, arthritis, even cancer, are the result of free radical damage. SOD is derived from a natural wheat sprout extract from specially cultured wheat that is hypoallergenic. It stimulates and supports the immune system, neutralises toxins, and minimises tissue damage in wasting diseases and organ transplantation. Protecting oxygen levels in body cells, it allays the ageing process and alleviates circulatory disorders. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

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Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

Disodium Cromoglycate

A drug used in the prophylactic (preventive) treatment of allergic disorders (see ALLERGY), particularly ASTHMA, conjunctivitis (see EYE, DISORDERS OF), nasal allergies, and food allergies – especially in children. Although inappropriate for the treatment of acute attacks of asthma, regular inhalations of the drug can reduce its incidence, and allow the dose of BRONCHODILATORS and oral CORTICOSTEROIDS to be cut.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Divarication

n. the separation or stretching of bodily structures. Rectus divarication is stretching of the *rectus abdominis muscle, a common condition associated with pregnancy or obesity.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Divaricator

n. 1. a scissor-like surgical instrument used to divide portions of tissue into two separate parts during an operation. 2. a form of retractor used to open out the sides of an abdominal incision and facilitate access.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Dolichandrone Falcate

Seem.

Family: Bignoniaceae.

Habitat: Moist forests of central and southern India.

Ayurvedic: Mesha-shringi (also equated with Gymnena sylvestre R. Br.), Vishaanikaa.

Siddha/Tamil: Kattu Varsana, Kaddalatti, Kaliyacca.

Action: Fruits—bitter, carminative, used in diabetes, urinary disorders, bronchitis and skin diseases. Leaves—applied externally to swollen glands. Abortifacient.

The leaves yield luteolin, chrysin and its 7-rutinoside and glucoside.

Fruits are also known as Rshabhaka in the South.... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Dolichos Falcatus

Seem Klein.

Family: Papilionaceae.

Habitat: The Himalayas from Kumaon to Khasi Hills and in Western Peninsula.

Ayurvedic: Kulatthikaa.

Action: Root—prescribed for constipation and skin diseases. A decoction of seeds is used for rheumatism.... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Dystrophic Calcification

the calcification of injured or necrotic tissue in the absence of systemic *hypercalcaemia. Dystrophic calcification is a characteristic feature in some cancers of the breast, ovary, and thyroid gland. Compare metastatic calcification.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Ecaterina

(Greek) Form of Catherine, meaning “one who is pure; virginal” Ecaterinah, Ecateryna, Ecatereena, Ekaterina, Ekateryna, Ekatereena, Ecterine, Ecterina, Ecteryne, Ecteryna... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Electrodesiccation

n. see fulguration.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Embrocate

To moisten and rub... Medicinal Plants Glossary

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Medicinal Plants Glossary

Embrocation

A medication rubbed into the skin in order to relieve muscular or joint pain.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Embrocation

n. a lotion rubbed onto the body to treat sprains and strains.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Embrocations

Embrocations are mixtures, usually of an oily nature, intended for external application in cases of rheumatism, sprains, and other painful conditions. Their action is due mainly to the massage employed in rubbing in the embrocations, in part to the counter-irritant action of the drugs which they contain. (See LINIMENTS.)... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Endotracheal Catheters Are Used To Pass

down the TRACHEA into the lungs, usually in the course of administering anaesthetics (see under ANAESTHESIA).

Eustachian catheters are small catheters that are passed along the ?oor of the nose into the Eustachian tube in order to in?ate the ear.

Nasal catheters are tubes passed through the nose into the stomach to feed a patient who cannot swallow – so-called nasal feeding.

Rectal catheters are passed into the RECTUM in order to introduce ?uid into the rectum.

Suprapubic catheters are passed into the bladder through an incision in the lower abdominal wall just above the pubis, either to allow urine to drain away from the bladder, or to wash out an infected bladder.

Ureteric catheters are small catheters that are passed up the ureter into the pelvis of the kidney, usually to determine the state of the kidney, either by obtaining a sample of urine direct from the kidney or to inject a radio-opaque substance preliminary to X-raying the kidney. (See PYELOGRAPHY.)

Urethral catheters are catheters that are passed along the urethra into the bladder, either to draw o? urine or to wash out the bladder.

It is these last three types of catheters that are most extensively used.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Environmental Modification

Making permanent changes to the environment with the objective of reducing vector abundance.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

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Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

Exsiccation

n. drying up, as may occur in tissues deprived of an adequate supply of water during dehydration or starvation.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Fabricated And Induced Illness

See MUNCHAUSEN’S SYNDROME.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Formication

n. a prickling sensation said to resemble the feeling of ants crawling over the skin. It is sometimes a symptom of drug intoxication and has also been reported by patients with Parkinson’s disease and multiple sclerosis.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Formication

An unpleasant sensation, as if ants were crawling over the skin.

This may occur following abuse of certain drugs, such as alcohol or morphine.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Fundoplication

n. a surgical operation for *gastro-oesophageal reflux disease in which the upper part of the stomach is wrapped around the lower oesophagus. Nissen fundoplication (named after Swiss surgeon Rudolf Nissen, 1896–1981) consists of a complete (360-degree) wrap; toupe fundoplication is a partial (270-degree) wrap. Fundoplication is now more often performed laparoscopically than via open surgery.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Furcation

n. the location on a multi-rooted tooth where branching occurs.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Glycated Haemoglobin

(glycosylated haemoglobin) any derivative of haemoglobin in which a glucose molecule is attached to the haemoglobin molecule. The most abundant form of glycated haemoglobin is haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), levels of which are significantly increased in diabetes. The percentage of the HbA molecules that become glycated is dependent on the general level of glucose in the plasma over the lifetime of the molecule (generally three months); this percentage is therefore used as the standard measure of the degree of control of *hyperglycaemia in a person with diabetes over this period. HbA1c values are now expressed in mmol per mol haemoglobin (mmol/mol) rather than as a percentage. The use of HbA1c as a screening tool for diabetes mellitus has become recognized.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Glycation

n. the chemical linkage of glucose to a protein, to form a glycoprotein. Glycation of body proteins has been postulated as a cause of complications of diabetes mellitus. see advanced glycation end-products; glycated haemoglobin.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Health Communication Strategy

A communication strategy to inform the public or communities about health issues with the objective of reducing health risks and improving health status.... Community Health

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Community Health

Health Education

methods used to inform people (either individually or collectively) and persuade and enable them to adopt lifestyles that the educators believe will improve health and to reject habits regarded as harmful to health. The term is also used in a broader sense to include instruction about bodily function, etc., so that the public is better informed about health issues. All children receive health education at school, often as part of a personal, social, and health education (PSHE) programme. See also health promotion.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Health Education

Constructed communication of knowledge to improve health literacy and improve skills in order to advance individual and community health.... Community Health

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Community Health

Health Education

The process of educating the public to adopt a healthy lifestyle and abandon dangerous or unhealthy behaviour. With the rising cost of health care and the increasing amount of illness and injury resulting from preventable causes, health professionals, governments and the World Health Organisation are strongly supporting more and better health education for everyone from schoolchildren to the elderly. Information on all aspects of health education in the United Kingdom can be obtained from

the HEALTH DEVELOPMENT AGENCY (HDA) (see also APPENDIX 7: STATUTORY ORGANISATIONS).... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Health Education England

(HEE) a *special health authority of the NHS responsible for leading education and training for the whole health-care and public health workforce. It was established following the Health and Social Care Act 2012. See also local education and training boards.

HEE website... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Health Indicator / Index

A characteristic of an individual, population or environment which is subjected to measurement and can be used to describe one or more aspects of the health of an individual or population (quality, quantity and time). A health index comprises a number of indicators.... Community Health

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Community Health

Hecate

(Greek) In mythology, a goddess of fertility and witchcraft Hekate... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Hedychium Spicatum

Ham. ex Smith.

Synonym: H. album Buch-Ham. Ex Wall.

Family: Zingiberaceae.

Habitat: Central Himalaya at 1,1002,500 m, East India and hills of South India.

English: Spiked Ginger Lily.

Ayurvedic: Shathi, Shati, Gand- hashathi, Gandhapalaashi, Kapu- urkachari, Suvrataa, Gandhaarikaa, Gandhavadhuu, Gandhamuulikaa.

Unani: Kapuurkachari.

Siddha/Tamil: Poolankizangu, Kichilikizangu.

Folk: Ban-haldi (Kumaon).

Action: Rhizome—carminative, spasmolytic, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, antiemetic, antidiarrhoeal, analgesic, expectorant, antiasthmatic, emmenagogue, hypoglycaemic, hypotensive, antimicrobial, anthelmintic, insect- repellent.

The rhizome shows hypotensive effect in dogs at low doses, lowers blood pressure in high doses.

EtOH (50%) extract—anti-inflammatory and hypoglycaemic; gave encouraging results in tropical pulmonary eosinophilia in clinical studies. Alcoholic extract of the plant—vasodilator, mild hypotensive and antiseptic in animals. Essential oil from rhizome—mild tranquilizer in male albino rats; antimicrobial.

Rhizome gave sitosterol and its glu- coside, a furanoid diterpene—hedy- chenone and 7-hydroxyhedychenone. The essential oil contains cineole, gamma-terpinene, limonene, beta- phellandrene, p-cymene, linalool and beta-terpineol as major constituents.

The oil inhibits the growth of several fungi. The ethanol (95%) extract showed antibacterial activity. The 50% extract showed antimalarial activity in vitro against Plasmodium berghei strain.

Dosage: Rhizome—1-3 g powder. (API Vol. I.)... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Hickman Catheter

A flexible plastic tube, also known as a skin-tunnelled catheter, that is passed through the chest and inserted into the subclavian vein, which leads to the heart. It is often used in people who have leukaemia or other cancers and need regular chemotherapy and blood tests. The catheter allows drugs to be injected directly into the bloodstream and blood samples to be obtained easily. The catheter is inserted, under local anaesthesia. It can remain in position for months; the external end is plugged when not in use.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Hickman Catheter

a fine plastic cannula usually inserted into the subclavian vein in the neck to allow administration of drugs and repeated blood samples. The catheter is tunnelled for several centimetres beneath the skin to prevent infection entering the bloodstream. It is used most frequently in patients receiving long-term chemotherapy, particularly infusion regimes (e.g. fluorouracil).... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Hip, Congenital Dislocation Of

See developmental hip dysplasia.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Humidification

The air we breathe must be moist for the e?cient working of the lungs (see RESPIRATION). Humidi?cation, or moistening of the air, is achieved largely by the NOSE, which acts as an air-conditioner, warming, moistening and ?ltering the 10,000 litres of air which we inhale daily – in the process of which, incidentally, it produces around 1·5 litres of secretion daily.

Humidity is expressed as relative humidity (RH). This is the amount of moisture in the air expressed as a percentage of the maximum possible at that temperature. If the temperature of a room is raised without increasing the moisture content, the RH falls. The average outdoor RH in Britain is around 70–80 per cent; with central heating it may drop to 25 per cent or lower. This is why humidi?cation, as it is known, of the air is essential in buildings heated by modern heating systems. The aim should be to keep the RH at around 30–50 per cent. In houses this may be achieved quite satisfactorily by having a jug or basin of water in the room, or some receptacle that can be attached to the heater. In o?ces, some more elaborate form of humidi?er is necessary. Those suffering from chronic BRONCHITIS are particularly susceptible to dry air, as are those individuals with disorders of the EYE because the secretions that bathe the eyes and keep them moist are unnaturally dried out. (See also VENTILATION.)... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Incapacity Certificate

Certificates of incapacity for work issued by the National Institute of Medical Herbalists are acceptable by the Department of Social Security. The official form should bear the patient’s name and diagnosis. Wording: I CERTIFY that I have examined you on the undermentioned date and that in my opinion you were incapable of work at the time of that examination by reason of . . . In my opinion you will be fit to resume work today/tomorrow or on . . . day. The date to be indicated must not be more than 3 days after the date of examination This is followed by the practitioner’s signature, address, date of examination, date of signing, and other relevant remarks. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

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Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

Independent Mental Capacity Advocate

(IMCA) a person who must, by virtue of the *Mental Capacity Act 2005, be contacted to represent the *best interests of a patient who lacks *capacity and has no family or friends while acting as a proxy in medical decision-making. IMCAs are available via the local Independent Mental Capacity Advocacy Service.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Indication

A clinical symptom or circumstance indicating that the use of a particular intervention would be appropriate.... Community Health

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Community Health

Indication

n. (in medicine) 1. a strong reason for believing that a particular course of action is desirable. In a wounded patient, the loss of blood, which would lead to circulatory collapse, is an indication for blood transfusion. 2. any of the conditions for which a particular drug treatment may be prescribed, as defined by its *licence. Compare contraindication.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Indicator

A variable, with characteristics of quality, quantity and time, used to measure, directly or indirectly, changes in a situation and to appreciate the progress made in addressing it. It also provides a basis for developing adequate plans for improvement. It is a variable that helps to measure changes in a health situation directly or indirectly and to assess the extent to which the objectives and targets of a programme are being attained.... Community Health

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Community Health

Installation- Qualification

Documented verification that all key aspects of the installation adhere to the appropriate codes and approved design intentions and that manufacturers recommendations are duly considered... Medicinal Plants Glossary

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Medicinal Plants Glossary

Intermittent Claudication

see claudication.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Intermittent Claudication

A cramping pain in the legs due to inadequate blood supply (see claudication).... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Intermittent Claudication

Lameness or spasmodic pain in the legs when walking a certain distance due to deficient blood supply to the muscles. Associated with artery disorders, muscular weakness. The diseased artery cannot carry enough blood to supply the oxygen needs of the muscles.

Treatment. Circulatory stimulants. Vaso-dilators.

Alternatives. BHP (1983) – Prickly Ash bark, Cramp bark, Black Cohosh, Angelica root, Hawthorn, Wild Yam. Prophylactic – Garlic.

Decoction. Mix, equal parts: Black Cohosh, Prickly Ash bark, Hawthorn berries. One teaspoon to each cup of water simmered gently 20 minutes. Half-1 cup thrice daily.

Formula. Hawthorn 2; Black Cohosh 1; Prickly Ash 1. Dose: Powders: 500mg (two 00 capsules or one- third teaspoon). Liquid Extracts: one 5ml teaspoon. Tinctures: two 5ml teaspoons. Thrice daily in water or honey.

Tablets/capsules. Prickly Ash. Hawthorn. Black Cohosh. Garlic, 2 at night. Cramp bark. Ginkgo.

Life Drops. 3-10 drops in cup of tea to relieve spasm.

Ginkgo biloba. “Walking distance is definitely increased.” (Rudolf F. Weiss MD. Herbal Medicine, Beaconsfield Publishers)

Garlic. 80 patients with symptomatic state II occlusive disease (claudication), randomised, to take either Garlic powder 800mg a day in tablet form (equivalent to Kwai) or placebo for 12 weeks. A significantly greater improvement in walking distance, apparent after just 4 weeks, occurred in the Garlic-treated group compared with the placebo group. (Professor H. Kiesewetter, Department of Clinical Haemostasiology, University of Saarland, Germany)

Diet. Lacto-vegetarian.

Supplements. Vitamin E, 400iu morning and evening.

General. Venesection sometimes necessary. No smoking or alcohol. See: BUERGER’S DISEASE, RAYNAUD’S DISEASE, ARTERIOSCLEROSIS, PHLEBITIS, THROMBOSIS. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

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Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

Intermittent Claudication

A condition occurring in middle-aged and elderly people, which is characterised by pain in the legs after walking a certain distance. The pain is relieved by resting for a short time. It is due to arteriosclerosis (see ARTERIES, DISEASES OF) of the arteries to the leg, which results in inadequate blood supply to the muscles. Drugs usually have little e?ect in easing the pain, but useful preventive measures are to stop smoking, reduce weight (if overweight), and to take as much exercise as possible within the limits imposed by the pain.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Intermittent Self-catheterisation

A technique in which a patient (of either sex) inserts a disposable catheter (see CATHETERS) through the URETHRA into the bladder to empty it of urine. It is increasingly used to manage patients with chronic retention of urine, or whose bladders do not empty properly

– usually the result of neurological disorder affecting the bladder (neuropathic bladder). (See URINARY BLADDER, DISEASES OF.)... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Intermittent Self-catheterization

(clean intermittent self-catheterization, ISC, CISC) a procedure in which the patient periodically passes a disposable catheter through the urethra into the bladder for the purpose of emptying it of urine. It is increasingly used in the management of patients of both sexes (including children) with chronic *retention and large residual urine volumes, often due to *neuropathic bladder. ISC may prevent back pressure and dilatation of the upper urinary tract with consequent infection and incontinence.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

International Classification Of Disease (icd)

A World Health Organisation classi?cation of all known diseases and syndromes. The diseases are divided according to system (respiratory, renal, cardiac, etc.) or type (accidents, malignant growth, etc.). Each of them is given a three-digit number to facilitate computerisation. This classi?cation allows mortality and morbidity rates to be compared nationally and regionally. A revised ICD is published every ten years; a similar classi?cation is being developed for impairments, disabilities and handicaps.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

International Classification Of Diseases

(ICD) a list of all known diseases and syndromes, including mental and behavioural disorders, published by the *World Health Organization every ten years (approximately). Over the years the classification has moved from being disease-orientated to include a wider framework of illness and other health problems. The version in current use, ICD-10, was published in 1992 and employs alphanumeric coding. It is used in many countries as the principal means of classifying both mortality and morbidity experience and allows comparison of morbidity and mortality rates nationally and internationally. The clinical utility of the ICD is a matter of some controversy, especially in the field of psychiatry. ICD-11 was published in June 2018 and is intended to come into use from 2022. It includes about 55,000 codes for injuries, diseases, and causes of death, which is three times more than its predecessor. It also differs substantially from ICD-10 as each disease entry includes descriptions and guidance as to what is covered by the term, rather than the term alone. For the first time it includes specific sections on sexual health and traditional medicine. A parallel list, the International Classification of Functioning, Disabilities and Health (ICF), has also been compiled and is being used alongside the ICD. See also handicap.

The standard international classification for statistical, administrative, and epidemiological purposes, as supplied by the World Health Organization

The WHO framework for measuring health and disability in individuals and populations... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

International Classification Of Functioning, Disability And Health (icf) A

Classification of health and health-related domains that describe body functions and structures, activities and participation. The domains are classified from body, individual and societal perspectives. Since an individual’s functioning and disability occurs in a context, this classification includes a list of environmental factors.... Community Health

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Community Health

International Classification Of Health Problems In Primary Care (ichppc)

A classification of diseases, conditions and other reasons for attendance for primary care. This classification is an adaptation of the ICD but makes allowance for the diagnostic uncertainty that prevails in primary care.... Community Health

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Community Health

International Classification Of Impairments, Disabilities And Handicaps (icidh)

A systematic taxonomy of the consequences of injury and disease. See “disability”; “handicap”; “impairment”.... Community Health

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Community Health

International Classification Of Primary Care (icpc)

The official classification of the World Organisation of Family Doctors. It includes three elements of the doctor-patient encounter: the reason for the encounter; the diagnosis; and the treatment or other action or intervention.... Community Health

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Community Health

International Statistical Classification Of Diseases And Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision (icd-10)

A list of diagnoses and identifying codes used by medical practitioners and other health care providers. The coding and terminology provide a uniform language that permits consistent communication on claim forms. Data from earlier time periods were coded using the appropriate revision of the ICD for that time period. Changes in classification of causes of death in successive revisions of the ICD may introduce discontinuities in cause of death statistics over time.... Community Health

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Community Health

Intoxication

n. the symptoms of poisoning due to ingestion of any toxic material, including alcohol and heavy metals.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Intoxication

A general term for a condition resulting from poisoning.

It customarily refers to the effects of excessive drinking (see alcohol intoxication), but also includes drug poisoning, poisoning from the accumulation of the by-products of metabolism in the body, or the effects of industrial poisons.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Intoxication

General condition which results following the absorption and diffusion in the body of a soluble poison... Medicinal Plants Glossary

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Medicinal Plants Glossary

Intoxication

A term applied to states of poisoning. The poison may be some chemical substance introduced from outside, for example, ALCOHOL; or it may be due to the products of bacterial action, the bacteria either being introduced from outside or developing within the body. The term autointoxication is applied in the latter case.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Ipomoea Muricata

(Linn.) Jacq., non-Cav.

Synonym: I. turbinata Lag. Convolvulus muricatus Linn.

Family: Convolvulaceae.

Habitat: The Himalayas, West Bengal, Bihar, Orissa, Maharashtra and South India.

English: Traveller’s Midnight Lilies.

Ayurvedic: Krishnabija (related species). (Sold as Kaalaadaanaa, seeds of Ipomoea nil.)

Siddha/Tamil: Kattu Talai.

Folk: Michaai.

Action: Purgative, febrifuge. Seeds—cardiac depressant, spasmolytic, hypotensive, antibacterial, antifungal. Plant juice destroys bedbugs.

The seeds contain resin glycosides which are laxative. Lysergol is also present in the seeds. It exhibits hypotensive, psychotropic, analgesic, and uterus and intestine-stimulating properties. The presence of indole alkaloids is reported in the seed.... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Jaundice, Catarrhal

 Now usually termed VIRAL HEPATITIS. Swelling of liver cells obstructs drainage. Plugged mucus in the bile duct; often caused by gluten foods. Aftermath of chills and colds or from excess milky or starchy foods. Congestion may be dispersed by speeding elimination of waste products of metabolism via the bowel (Blue Flag), the kidneys (Dandelion), and the skin (Devil’s Claw). Anti-catarrhals with special reference to the liver: Gotu Kola, Plantain, Goldenseal, Mountain Grape, Barberry.

Alternatives. Teas. Agrimony, Boldo, Balmony, Dandelion, Plantain, Gotu Kola.

Cold infusion. 2 teaspoons Barberry bark to each cup cold water; steep overnight. Half-1 cup every 3 hours.

Tablets/capsules. Goldenseal, Dandelion, Blue Flag, Devil’s Claw.

Formula. Equal parts: Dandelion, Devil’s Claw, Barberry. Dose – Powders: 500mg (two 00 capsules or one-third teaspoon). Liquid Extracts: one 5ml teaspoon. Tinctures: two 5ml teaspoons. Every 3 hours. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

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Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

Jaw, Dislocated

Displacement of the lower jaw from one or both temporomandibular joints.

A dislocated jaw is usually due either to a blow or to yawning.

There is pain in front of the ear on the affected side or sides, and the jaw projects forwards.

The mouth cannot be fully closed, making eating and speaking difficult.

Dislocation tends to recur.

Surgery may be carried out to stabilize the joint but is often unsuccessful.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Lancefield Classification

a classification of the *Streptococcus bacteria based on the presence or absence of antigenic carbohydrate on the cell surface. Species are classified into the groups A–S. Most species causing disease in humans belong to groups A, B, and D. [R. C. Lancefield (1895–1981), US bacteriologist]... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Le Fort Classification

a classification of fractures involving the *maxilla (upper jaw) and *orbit. Type I involves the maxilla only, type II the anterior orbit, and type III the posterior orbit. [R. Le Fort (19th century), French surgeon]... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Lens Dislocation

Displacement of the crystalline lens from its normal position in the eye. Lens dislocation is almost always caused by an injury that ruptures the fibres connecting the lens to the ciliary body. In Marfan’s syndrome, these fibres are particularly weak and lens dislocation is common.A dislocated lens may produce severe visual distortion or double vision, and sometimes causes a form of glaucoma if drainage of fluid from the front of the eye is affected. If glaucoma is severe, the lens may need to be removed. (See also aphakia.)... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Lichenification

Thickening and hardening of the skin caused by repeated scratching, often to relieve the intense itching of disorders such as atopic eczema or lichen simplex.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Lichenification

n. thickening of the epidermis of the skin with exaggeration of the normal creases, thought to resemble tree bark. The cause is abnormal scratching or rubbing of the skin. It is one of the cardinal features of chronic eczema, together with erythema (flushing), pruritus (itching), and xerosis (dryness).... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Local Education And Training Board

(LETB) a statutory committee of *Health Education England responsible for identifying the education and training needs in the health-care and public health workforce and for commissioning postgraduate medical and dental training to meet these needs. There are four local education and training boards in England.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Loranthus Falcatus

Linn. f.

Synonym: Dendrophthoe falcate (Linn. f.) Etting.

Family: Loranthaceae.

Habitat: Throughout India, as a parasite.

Ayurvedic: Bandaaka, Sanharshaa, Vrikshaadani, Vrikshaaruha, Vriksha-bhakshaa. (A large bushy parasite, which causes much damage to the host tree.)

Folk: Baandaa.

Action: Tender shoots—contain 10% tannins. Bark—astringent and narcotic.... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Magnesium Trisilicate

a compound of magnesium with antacid and absorbent properties, used in the form of tablets or a mixture for the treatment of indigestion.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Magnesium Trisilicate

A white powder with mild antacid properties (see ANTACIDS) and a prolonged action, it is used for treating peptic ulceration – commonly combined with quickly acting antacids. It has a mild laxative e?ect (see LAXATIVES).... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Magnesium Trisilicate

A magnesium compound used in antacid drugs.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Mastication

The process of chewing food. The canines and incisors (front teeth) shear the food. The tongue then pushes it between the upper and lower premolars and molars (back teeth) to be ground by movements of the lower jaw. Saliva is mixed with the food to help break it down for swallowing.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Mastication

n. the process of crushing, grinding, and chewing food.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Mastication

The act whereby, as a result of movements of the lower jaw, lips, tongue, and cheek, food is reduced to a condition in which it is ready to be acted on by the gastric juices in the process of DIGESTION. Adequate mastication before swallowing is an essential part of the digestive process.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Masticatory

A substance that is chewed to increase the flow of saliva... Medicinal Plants Glossary

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Medicinal Plants Glossary

Medical Certificate

a certificate stating a doctor’s diagnosis of a patient’s medical condition, disability, or fitness to work (see statement of fitness for work). It is known informally as a ‘fit note’ (formerly a ‘sick note’). See Appendix 8.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Medical Education

This term is used to de?ne the process of learning and knowledge-acquisition in the study of medicine. It also encompasses the expertise required to develop education and training for students and learners in all aspects of medical health care. Studies for undergraduate students, postgraduate students and individual health-care practitioners, from the initial stages to the ongoing development of a career in medicine or associated health ?elds, are also included in medical education. The word ‘pedagogy’ is sometimes applied to this process.

A range of research investigations has developed within medical education. These apply to course monitoring, audit, development and validation, assessment methodologies and the application of educationally appropriate principles at undergraduate and postgraduate levels. Research is undertaken by medical educationalists whose backgrounds include teaching, social sciences and medicine and related health-care specialties, and who will hold a medical or general educational diploma, degree or other appropriate postgraduate quali?cation.

Development and validation for all courses are an important part of continuing accreditation processes. The relatively conservative courses at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels, including diplomas and postgraduate quali?cations awarded by the specialist medical royal colleges (responsible for standards of specialist education) and universities, have undergone a range of reassessment and rede?nition driven by the changing needs of the individual practitioner in the last decade. The stimuli to change aspects of medical training have come from the government through the former Chief Medical O?cer, Sir Kenneth Calman, and the introduction of new approaches to specialist training (the Calman programme), from the GENERAL MEDICAL COUNCIL (GMC) and its document Tomorrow’s Doctors, as well as from the profession itself through the activities of the British Medical Association and the medical royal colleges. The evolving expectations of the public in their perception of the requirements of a doctor, and changes in education of other groups of health professionals, have also led to pressures for changes.

Consequently, many new departments and units devoted to medical education within university medical schools, royal colleges and elsewhere within higher education have been established. These developments have built upon practice developed elsewhere in the world, particularly in North America, Australia and some European countries. Undergraduate education has seen application of new educational methods, including Problem-Based Learning (PBL) in Liverpool, Glasgow and Manchester; clinical and communications skills teaching; early patient contact; and the extensive adoption of Internet (World Wide Web) support and Computer-Aided Learning (CAL). In postgraduate education – driven by European directives and practices, changes in specialist training and the needs of community medicine – new courses have developed around the membership and fellowship examinations for the royal colleges. Examples of these changes driven by medical education expertise include the STEP course for the Royal College of Surgeons of England, and distance-learning courses for diplomas in primary care and rheumatology, as well as examples of good practice as adopted by the Royal College of General Practitioners.

Continuing Professional Development (CPD) and Continuing Medical Education (CME) are also important aspects of medical education now being developed in the United Kingdom, and are evolving to meet the needs of individuals at all stages of their careers.

Bodies closely involved in medical educational developments and their review include the General Medical Council, SCOPME (the Standing Committee on Postgraduate Medical Education), all the medical royal colleges and medical schools, and the British Medical Association through its Board of Medical Education. The National Health Service (NHS) is also involved in education and is a key to facilitation of CPD/CME as the major employer of doctors within the United Kingdom.

Several learned societies embrace medical education at all levels. These include ASME (the Association for the Study of Medical Education), MADEN (the Medical and Dental Education Network) and AMEE (the Association for Medical Education in Europe). Specialist journals are devoted to research reports relating to medical educational developments

(e.g. Academic Medicine, Health Care Education, Medical Education). The more general medical journals (e.g. British Medical Journal, New England Journal of Medicine, The Lancet, Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons) also carry articles on educational matters. Finally, the World Wide Web (WWW) is a valuable source of information relating to courses and course development and other aspects of modern medical education.

The UK government, which controls the number of students entering medical training, has recently increased the quota to take account of increasing demands for trained sta? from the NHS. More than 5,700 students – 3,300 women and 2,400 men – are now entering UK medical schools annually with nearly 28,600 at medical school in any one year, and an attrition rate of about 8–10 per cent. This loss may in part be due to the changes in university-funding arrangements. Students now pay all or part of their tuition fees, and this can result in medical graduates owing several thousand pounds when they qualify at the end of their ?ve-year basic quali?cation course. Doctors wishing to specialise need to do up to ?ve years (sometimes more) of salaried ‘hands-on’ training in house or registrar (intern) posts.

Though it may be a commonly held belief that most students enter medicine for humanitarian reasons rather than for the ?nancial rewards of a successful medical career, in developed nations the prospect of status and rewards is probably one incentive. However, the cost to students of medical education along with the widespread publicity in Britain about an under-resourced, seriously overstretched health service, with sta? working long hours and dealing with a rising number of disgruntled patients, may be affecting recruitment, since the number of applicants for medical school has dropped in the past year or so. Although there is still competition for places, planners need to bear this falling trend in mind.

Another factor to be considered for the future is the nature of the medical curriculum. In Britain and western Europe, the age structure of a probably declining population will become top-heavy with senior citizens. In the ?nancial interests of the countries affected, and in the personal interests of an ageing population, it would seem sensible to raise the pro?le of preventive medicine – traditionally rather a Cinderella subject – in medical education, thus enabling people to live healthier as well as longer lives. While learning about treatments is essential, the increasing specialisation and subspecialisation of medicine in order to provide expensive, high-technology care to a population, many of whom are suffering from preventable illnesses originating in part from self-indulgent lifestyles, seems insupportable economically, unsatisfactory for patients awaiting treatment, and not necessarily professionally ful?lling for health-care sta?. To change the mix of medical education would be a di?cult long-term task but should be worthwhile for providers and recipients of medical care.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Medicated

adj. containing a medicinal drug: applied to lotions, soaps, sweets, etc. Medicated dressings are applied to wounds to prevent infection and allow normal healing.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Medicated

Description of a substance that contains a medicinal drug, commonly applied to items such as sweets and soaps.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Medication

Any substance prescribed to treat disease. (See also drug; medicine.)... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Medication

n. 1. a substance administered by mouth, applied to the body, or introduced into the body for the purpose of treatment. See also premedication. 2. treatment of a patient using drugs.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Mentha Spicata

Linn. emend. Nathh.

Synonym: M. viridis Linn.

Family: Labiatae; Lamiaceae.

Habitat: Cultivated in Punjab, Uttar Pradesh and Maharashtra.

English: Spearmint, Garden Mint.

Ayurvedic: Pudinaa, Podinaka, Puutihaa, Rochini.

Unani: Nanaa. Pudinaa Kohi.

Action: Carminative, stimulant, antispasmodic, antiemetic, diaphoretic, antiseptic. A tea of dry flowers and leaves is prescribed for tracheobronchitis and hypertension.

The chief constituents of the essential oil are carvone (55-75%) and limonene (up to 21.4%). The herb gave flavonoids, diosmin and diosmetin. Caffeic acid derivatives include ros- marinic acid in the volatile oil.

Dosage: Leaf—5-10 ml juice; 35 ml extract. (CCRAS.)... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Metastatic Calcification

the calcification of otherwise normal tissues in patients with *hypercalcaemia. Compare dystrophic calcification.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Modecate

n. see fluphenazine.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Mortification

n. see necrosis.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Mortification

Morti?cation is another name for GANGRENE.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Mummification

n. 1. the conversion of dead tissue into a hard shrunken mass, chiefly by dehydration. 2. (in dentistry) the application of a fixative to the dental pulp to prevent decomposition.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

National Statistics Socio-economic Classification

(NS-SEC) an occupational classification of the national population that was developed to replace older systems based on social classes and socio-economic groups. The groupings are intended to stratify the population according to different forms of employment: households are classified according to the occupation of the household reference person (the person renting, owning, or otherwise responsible for accommodation). The NS-SEC is used for official surveys and statistics, including the *census. The analytic version of the classification has eight classes and is the version used for most analyses.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Necator

n. a genus of *hookworms that live in the small intestine. The human hookworm, N. americanus, occurs in tropical Africa, Central and South America, India, and the Pacific Islands. The worm possesses two pairs of sharp cutting plates inside its mouth cavity, which enable it to feed on the blood and tissues of the gut wall. Compare Ancylostoma.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Necator Americanus

A hookworm, closely resembling but smaller than the Ancylostoma duodenale. (See ANCYLOSTOMIASIS.)... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Necatoriasis

n. an infestation of the small intestine by the parasitic hookworm Necator americanus. See also hookworm disease.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Nepeta Cataria

Linn.

Family: Labiatae, Lamiaceae.

Habitat: Cultivated in Britain and the USA. Occurs in Himalayas from Kashmir to Nepal at 2,000-3,300 m.

English: Catnip, Catnep, Catmint.

Action: Leaves and flowers— gentle nerve relaxant and sedative, carminative, antispasmodic, an- tidiarrhoeal, diaphoretic, febrifuge. Used in restlessness, convulsions, nervous headache, colic, early stages of fever, colds and influenza. The herb is to be infused (not boiled).

Catnip contains iridoids, tannins and volatile oil, major components being alpha- and beta-nepetalactone (up to 42%), citronellol and geraniol.

The catnip response in the domestic cat is being attributed to iridoid lac- tones, nepetalactone, dihydronepeta- lactone, iso-dihydronepetalactone and neonepetalactone. Its reputation as a hallucinogen has been disputed, but a few studies have shown behavioural effects, although weak, in young chicks, rodents and cats. (Potter's New Cyclopaedia.)

Neptalactone is structurally related to valepotriates found in valerian. (Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, 2007.)... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Operation- Qualification

documented verification that the system or sub system performs as intended throughout all anticipated operating ranges... Medicinal Plants Glossary

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Medicinal Plants Glossary

Ossification

The process by which bone is formed, renewed, and repaired, starting in the embryo and continuing throughout life. There are 3 main situations in which ossification occurs: bone growth, during which new bone forms at the epiphyses (ends) of bones; bone renewal as part of normal regeneration; and bone repair following a fracture.

In newborn babies, the diaphysis (shaft) has begun to ossify and is composed mainly of bone, while the epiphyses are made of cartilage that gradually hardens. In children, growth plates produce new cartilage to lengthen the bones, and further bone forms at secondary ossification centres in the epiphyses. By the age of 18, the shafts, growth plates, and epiphyses have all ossified and fused into continuous bone.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Ossification

The formation of BONE. In early life, centres appear in the bones previously represented by cartilage or ?brous tissue; and these cells, called osteoblasts, initiate the formation of true bone, which includes the deposition of calcium salts. When a fracture occurs, the bone mends by ossi?cation of the clot which forms between the fragments (see under BONE, DISORDERS OF). In old age, an unnatural process of ossi?cation often takes place in parts which should remain cartilaginous – for example, in the cartilages of the larynx and of the ribs, making these parts unusually brittle.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Ossification

(osteogenesis) n. the formation of *bone, which takes place in three stages by the action of special cells (osteoblasts). A meshwork of collagen fibres is deposited in connective tissue, followed by the production of a cementing polysaccharide. Finally the cement is impregnated with minute crystals of calcium salts. The osteoblasts become enclosed within the matrix as osteocytes (bone cells). In intracartilaginous (or endochondral) ossification the bone replaces cartilage. This process starts to occur soon after the end of the second month of embryonic life. Intramembranous ossification is the formation of a *membrane bone (e.g. a bone of the skull). This starts in the early embryo and is not complete at birth (see fontanelle).... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Performance Measure Or Indicator

Methods or instruments to estimate or monitor the extent to which the actions of an individual practitioner or whole programme conform to practice standards of quality or allow comparisons between services.... Community Health

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Community Health

Performance- Qualification

Documented verification of the appropriateness of critical process parameters, operating ranges and system reproducibility over an appropriate time period... Medicinal Plants Glossary

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Medicinal Plants Glossary

Phacoemulsification

(phakoemulsification) n. the use of a high-frequency *ultrasound probe to break up a cataract so that it can be removed through a very small incision. This is now the most popular method of performing cataract surgery in the developed world.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Picture Archiving And Communications System (pacs)

The use of digital imaging systems to replace conventional X-ray pictures and other imaging techniques. Though expensive to operate, digital imaging and storage systems o?er promising possibilities for transmission of clinical images within and between hospitals and community health-care units, providing fast access and remote working that will bene?t patients and health-care sta? alike. When security and con?dentiality are assured, images could be transferred via the Internet and teleradiology. In future, hospitals might be able to eliminate the costly physical transfer and storage of X-ray ?lms. The integration of PACS with hospital information systems in the NHS will (hopefully) facilitate the introduction of electronic radiology.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Plication

n. a surgical technique in which the size of a hollow organ or weakened and stretched tissue is reduced by taking tucks or folds in the walls. The posterior wall of the inguinal canal can be plicated with sutures as part of a hernia repair.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Plication

A surgical procedure in which tucks are taken in the walls of a hollow organ and then stitched to decrease the size of the organ.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Posterior Capsular Opacification

progressive clouding of the posterior lens capsule due to *Elschnig pearls and proliferation of lens fibres following extracapsular *cataract extraction by *phacoemulsification. This can lead to clouding of vision and is treated with YAG laser *capsulotomy.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Pre-admission Certification

A review of the medical necessity and appropriateness of a person’s admission to a hospital or other health care organization, conducted before, at or shortly after admission and to authorise a length of stay consistent with norms for the evaluation.... Community Health

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Community Health

Pregnancy Of Unknown Location

(PUL) a positive pregnancy test when no fetus can be seen on an ultrasound scan, which is due to a very early ongoing pregnancy, an early failing pregnancy, or an ectopic pregnancy not located on scan.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Premedication

A drug or drugs given to a patient to produce sedation before an operation, whether this is done under a local or general anaesthetic. A narcotic analgesic drug (see NARCOTICS; ANALGESICS) is usually used, as this relieves pain as well as anxiety. An antisecretory drug is often added to reduce the secretions in the airways and thus lessen the risk associated with general anaesthesia. Premedication reduces the amount of anaesthetic needed to make the patient unconscious.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Premedication

n. drugs administered to a patient before an operation (usually one in which an anaesthetic is used). Premedication usually comprises injection of a sedative (such as a *benzodiazepine, to calm the patient down, together with a drug, such as *hyoscine, to dry up the secretions of the lungs (which might otherwise be inhaled during anaesthesia).... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Premedication

The term applied to drugs given, often by injection, 1–2 hours before an operation to prepare a person for surgery. Premedication usually contains a opioid analgesic drug and often an anticholinergic drug.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Publication Bias

Unrepresentative publication of research reports that is not due to the quality of the research but to other characteristics, e.g. tendencies of investigators to submit, and publishers to accept, positive research reports (i.e. ones with results showing a beneficial treatment effect of a new intervention).... Community Health

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Community Health

Publication Ethics

the standards expected from those who write, publish, and disseminate research. The International Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE), comprising the editors and publishers of most major academic biomedical journals, consults and advises on aspects of publication ethics, such as research misconduct, plagiarism, so-called gift authorship, determination of contribution to research, and peer review processes.

A detailed guide to publication ethics from COPE... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Rectification

the process of redistillation applied to essential oils to rid them of certain constituents.... The Encyclopedia of Essential Oils

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The Encyclopedia of Essential Oils

Reduplication

n. doubling of the heart sounds, which may be heard in healthy individuals and shows variation with respiration due to the slightly asynchronous closure of the heart valves.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Replication

Research that attempts to reproduce the findings of previous investigators so as to increase confidence in (or refute) those findings.... Community Health

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Community Health

Replication

n. the process by which *DNA makes copies of itself when the cell divides. The two strands of the DNA molecule unwind and each strand directs the synthesis of a new strand complementary to itself (see illustration).... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Resident Classification Instrument

An instrument which assesses recipient’s care needs. It has a number of classification levels, ranging from high to low care. These classification levels are sometimes used for placement, staffing level and reimbursement purposes.... Community Health

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Community Health

Rusch Catheter

a catheter traditionally used for prostate surgery but now successful in the management of *postpartum haemorrhage as an alternative to hysterectomy. The catheter is inserted into the uterine cavity and the balloon filled passively with up to 500 ml warm saline to achieve a *tamponade effect. An alternative is the Bakri balloon, which has been designed specifically for obstetric use.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Salcatonin

n. see calcitonin.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Salter–harris Classification

(S–H classification) a classification of fractures involving the growth plate of bones (see physis), which is useful for their prognosis and treatment. There are five S–H categories of fracture. [R. Salter and R. I. Harris (20th century), Canadian orthopaedic surgeons]... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Scarification

n. the process of making a series of shallow cuts or scratches in the skin to allow a substance to penetrate the body. This was commonly performed during vaccination against smallpox; the vaccine was administered as a droplet left in contact with the scarified area.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Scat

(scato-) combining form denoting faeces.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Scatter Diagram

(in statistics) see correlation.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Scatter Diagram

A graph in which each dot represents paired values for two continuous variables, with the X axis representing one variable and the Y axis representing the other; used to display the relationship between two variables; also called a scattergram.... Community Health

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Community Health

Self Medication

The Government and health authorities of the UK and Europe express their desire that citizens take more responsibility for their own health. Also, the public’s disquiet towards some aspects of modern medicine leads them to seek alternatives elsewhere. As a generation of health-conscious people approach middle age, it is less inclined to visit the doctor but to seek over-the-counter products of proven quality, safety and efficacy for minor self-limiting conditions. This has the advantage of freeing the doctor for more serious cases. Intelligent self-medication has come to stay.

Prescriptions. While specimen combinations appear for each specific disease in this book, medicines from the dispensary may be varied many times during the course of treatment. The practitioner will adapt a prescription to a patient’s individual clinical picture by adding and subtracting agents according to the changing basic needs of the case. For instance, a first bottle of medicine or blend of powders may include a diuretic to clear the kidneys in preparation for the elimination of wastes and toxins unleashed by active ingredients.

The reader should never underestimate the capacity of herbal medicine to regenerate the human body, even from the brink of disaster.

Acknowledgements. I am indebted to my distinguished mentor, Edgar Gerald Jones, Mansfield, Nottinghamshire, England, to whom I owe more than I could ever repay. I am indebted also to the National Institute of Medical Herbalists, and to the British Herbal Medicine Association, both of which bodies have advanced the cause of herbal medicine. I have drawn heavily upon the British Herbal Pharmacopoeias 1983 and 1990, authentic publications of the BHMA, and have researched major works of ancient and modern herbalism including those pioneers of American Eclectic Medicine: Dr Samuel Thomson, Dr Wooster Beach, Dr Finlay Ellingwood and their British contemporaries. All made a vital contribution in their day and generation. I have endeavoured to keep abreast of the times, incorporating the latest scientific information at the time of going to press. For the purposes of this book I am especially indebted to my friend Dr John Cosh for checking accuracy of the medical material and for his many helpful suggestions.

A wealth of useful plants awaits further investigation. Arnica, Belladonna and Gelsemium are highly regarded by European physicians. It is believed that these plants, at present out of favour, still have an important role in medicine of the future. The wise and experienced clinician will wish to know how to harness their power to meet the challenge of tomorrow’s world.

Perhaps the real value of well-known alternative remedies lies in their comparative safety. Though largely unproven by elaborate clinical trials, the majority carry little risk or harm. Some have a great potential for good. The therapy is compatible with other forms of treatment.

The revival of herbal medicine is no passing cult due to sentimentality or superstition. It indicates, rather, a return to that deep devotion to nature that most of us have always possessed, and which seems in danger of being lost in the maze of modern pharmacy. It is an expression of loyalty to all that is best from

the past as we move forward into the 21st century with a better understanding of disease and its treatment. I believe the herbal profession has a distinguished and indispensible contribution to make towards the conquest of disease among peoples of the world, and that it should enjoy a place beside orthodox medicine.

Who are we to say that today’s antibiotics and high-tech medicine will always be available? In a world of increasing violence, war and disaster, a breakdown in the nation’s health service might happen at any time, thus curtailing production of insulin for the diabetic, steroids for the hormone-deficient, and anti-coagulants for the thrombotic. High-technology can do little without its specialised equipment. There may come a time when we shall have to reply on our own natural resources. It would be then that a knowledge of alternatives could be vital to survival. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

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Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

Sex Education

Information given to children and young adults about sexual relationships. Evidence suggests that young people want more information about the emotional aspects of sexual relationships, and about homosexuality and AIDS/HIV. There is growing concern about sexual risk-taking behaviour among adolescents, many of whom feel that sex education was provided too late for them. Although most parents or guardians provide some guidance by the age of 16, friends, magazines, television and ?lms are a more signi?cant source of information. Schools have been targeted as a place to address and possibly limit risky behaviour because they are geared towards increasing knowledge and improving skills, and have a captive audience of young adults. There are concerns that the conditions in schools may not be ideal: class time is limited; teachers are often not trained in handling sensitive subjects; and considerable controversy surrounds teaching about subjects such as homosexuality.

Sex education in schools is regarded as an e?ective way of reducing teenaged pregnancy, especially when linked with contraceptive services. Several studies have shown that it does not cause an increase in sexual activity and may even delay the onset of sexual relationships and lessen the number of partners. Programmes taught by youth agencies may be even more e?ective than those taught in the classroom – possibly because teaching takes place in small groups of volunteer participants, and the programmes are tailored to their target populations. Despite improvements in sex education, the United Kingdom has the highest incidence of teenaged pregnancies in the European Community.

Sex education, including information about AIDS/HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), is compulsory in all state-maintained secondary schools in England and Wales. The National Curriculum includes only biological aspects of AIDS/HIV, STIs and human sexual behaviour.

All maintained schools must have a written statement of their policy, which is available to parents. The local education authority, governing body and headteacher should ensure that sex education encourages pupils to have due regard to moral considerations and the value of family life. Sex-education policies and practices are monitored by the O?ce for Standards in Education (OFSTED) and the O?ce of HM Chief Inspector of Schools (OHMCI) as part of school inspections.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Shoulder, Dislocation Of

Displacement of the head of the humerus out of the shoulder joint. The main symptom is pain in the shoulder and upper arm, made worse by movement. A forward dislocation often produces obvious deformity; a backward dislocation usually does not.

Diagnosis is by X-rays. The head of the humerus is repositioned in the joint socket. The shoulder is then immobilized in a sling for about 3 weeks.

Complications of shoulder dislocation include damage to nerves, causing temporary weakness and numbness in the shoulder; damage to an artery in the upper arm, causing pain and discoloration of the arm and hand; and damage to muscles that support the shoulder.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Six-category Intervention Analysis

a framework for exploring how care is delivered, based on the idea that there are six main styles of interaction (prescriptive, informative, confronting, cathartic, catalytic, and supportive). The analysis is widely used to help health-care professionals develop an understanding of interpersonal relationships, reflect on their own practice, and enhance their interactions with clients.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Social And Communication Disorders

A collective term for disorders such as Asperger’s syndrome and autism, which begin in childhood. Problems tend to persist throughout life.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Sodium Cromoglicate

A drug given by inhaler to control mild asthma in children and allergic or exercise-induced asthma in adults; as a nasal spray to treat allergic rhinitis; in eye-drops for allergic conjunctivitis; and orally for food allergy.

Side effects include coughing and throat irritation on inhalation.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Sodium Cromoglicate

see cromoglicate.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Sodium Cromoglycate

Used in the prophylaxis of ASTHMA, it is administered by inhalation and can reduce the incidence of asthmatic attacks but is of no value in the treatment of an acute attack. It acts by preventing the release of pharmacological mediators of BRONCHOSPASM, particularly HISTAMINE, by stabilising mast-cell membranes. It is of particular use in patients whose asthma has an allergic basis; children over four may respond better than adults. It is less potent than inhaled steroids. The dose frequency is adjusted to the patient’s response but is usually administered by inhalation four times daily. Sodium cromoglycate is also used in the prophylaxis of allergic RHINITIS and to treat allergic conjunctivitis (see under EYE, DISORDERS OF).... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Special Educational Needs

(SEN) the requirements of children who have difficulties in learning or in accessing education. Children with SEN can be supported via mainstream schools or may attend a *special school. Children identified as having SEN that cannot be met by a mainstream school should be assessed by their local authority, which may issue a statement of special educational needs. This statement describes the child and the additional help needed.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Stratification

The process or result of separating a sample into sub-samples according to specified criteria, such as age or occupational group.... Community Health

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Community Health

Suffocation

n. cessation of breathing as a result of drowning, smothering, etc., leading to unconsciousness or death (see asphyxia).... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Suffocation

A condition in which there is a lack of oxygen due to obstruction to the passage of air into the lungs. (See also asphyxia; choking; strangulation.)... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Suffocation

See ASPHYXIA; CHOKING.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Suprapubic Catheter

a catheter passed through the abdominal wall above the pubis, usually into a very enlarged bladder with urinary retention. Usually, suprapubic *catheterization is performed only if it is not possible to perform urethral catheterization.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Swan-ganz Catheter

(See also CATHETERS.) A ?exible tube with a double lumen and a small balloon at its distal end. It is introduced into a vein in the arm and advanced until the end of the catheter is in the right atrium (see HEART). The balloon is then in?ated with air through one lumen and this enables the bloodstream to propel the catheter through the right ventricle to the pulmonary artery. The balloon is de?ated and the catheter can then record the pulmonary artery pressure. When the balloon is in?ated, the tip is isolated from the pulmonary artery and measures the left atrial pressure. These measurements are important in the management of patients with circulatory failure, as under these circumstances the central venous pressure or the right atrial pressure is an unreliable guide to ?uid-replacement.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Swan–ganz Catheter

a catheter with an inflatable balloon at its tip, which can be inserted into the pulmonary artery via the right chambers of the heart. Inflation of the balloon enables indirect measurement of pressure in the left atrium. [H. J. C. Swan (1922–2005), US cardiologist; W. Ganz (20th century), US engineer]... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

S–h Classification

see Salter–Harris classification.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Taxus Baccata

Linn.

Family: Taxaceae.

Habitat: Temperate Himalayas, Khasi Hills and Manipur.

English: European Yew. Himalayan Yew is equated with Taxus wal- lichiana Zucc., synonym T. baccata Linn. subspecies wallichiana (Zucc.) Pilgoe, T. baccata Hook. f.

Ayurvedic: Thunera, Sthauneya, Sthauneyaka, Shukapushpa, Dhaatri-patra, Vikarna. (Not a substitute for Taalisapatra.)

Unani: Zarnab.

Siddha/Tamil: Taaleespatri Bhedam.

Folk: Birmi, Thuno.

Action: Herb—CNS depressant; reduces motor activity; analgesic, anticonvulsant. Leaf used in nervousness, epilepsy, hysteria, asthma, chronic bronchitis. Leaf and fruit—antispasmodic, sedative, emmenagogue.

Berry—used in chronic bronchitis. Taxol—antimitotic; also being tried for the treatment of severe drug-resistant human malaria. (Chem Abstr, 1994, 21, 124674 j.) (The taxol content in Himalayan Yew varied with season and location from 0.045-0.130%.)

The needles contain diterpene esters of taxane-type (mixture is known as taxine 0.6-2.0%). Taxine consists of 11 compounds of which only tax- ine A and B have been characterized. Taxol, the diterpene amide, is found active against ovarian cancer in humans. (clinical results showed 24-30% response). The ester alkaloids in higher doses are cardiotoxic.

Dried needles contain biflavonoids, including sotetsuflavone, sequoifla- vone, sciadopitysin, ginkgetin, kayafla- vone, amentoflavone, beta-sitosterol, heptacosanol and surcose.

The needles gave several phenolics. Betuloside (rhododendron) exhibited hepatoprotective activity against hepa- totoxins in rats.

The seeds are poisonous and contain taxine.

The aqueous extract of leaves showed a depressant effect on the central nervous system in rats.

The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia ofIn- dia attributed antirheumatic, anticatar- rhal, insecticidal and wound-healing properties to the dried needles of Himalayan Yew and indicated the use of the drug in powder form (1-3 g) in disorders due to vitiated blood, tumours, dermatosis and helminthiasis.

Dosage: Leaf—1-3 g powder. (API, Vol. III.) Leaf, bark—3-5 g powder. (CCRAS.)... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Terminalia Catappa

Linn.

Synonym: T. procera Roxb.

Family: Combretaceae.

Habitat: Cultivated throughout hotter parts of India, also in the Andamans.

English: Indian Almond, Tropical Almond.

Siddha/Tamil: Natuvadom.

Folk: Jangali Baadaam, Desi Baadaam.

Action: Bark—astringent, an- tidysenteric, mild diuretic. Leaf— antiseptic, anti-inflammatory. Oil from kernel—substitute for almond oil; contains oleic, linoleic, palmitic and stearic acids. Fresh kernels resemble almonds; contain fat 52.02, protein 25.42, sugars as glucose 5.98%. Leaf—sudorific; applied to rheumatic joints. Ointment made from juice—used in scabies and other cutaneous affections.

The husk and endocarp contain tannins and pentosans. The heartwood and stembark contain beta-sitosterol and its palmitate. The heartwood, in addition, contain terminolic acid and triterpenic methyl esters.... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Tnm Classification

A method of classifying cancers to determine how far they have spread. This helps doctors to determine the best course of treatment and the prognosis; it is also useful in research. Originally de?ned by the American Joint Committee on Cancer, the T applies to the primary tumour, the N to any lymph-node involvement, and the M to any metastatic spread. (See CANCER; METASTASIS; TUMOUR; LYMPH NODES.)... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Tnm Classification

a classification defined by the *UICC for the extent of spread of a cancer. T refers to the size of the tumour, N the presence and extent of lymph node involvement, and M the presence of distant spread (metastasis).... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation

(TAVI) replacement of the aortic valve in patients with *aortic stenosis using a catheter-delivered prosthesis rather than open heart surgery. Usually the catheter is passed via the femoral artery, but sometimes it can be passed via the subclavian artery or through the wall of the left ventricle via a localized *thoracotomy.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Translocation

The term used to describe an exchange of genetic material between CHROMOSOMES. It is an important factor in the etiology, or causation, of certain congenital abnormalities such as, for example, DOWN’S (DOWN) SYNDROME. It is one of the main abnormalities sought for in AMNIOSCOPY.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Translocation

n. (in genetics) a type of chromosome mutation in which a part of a chromosome is transferred to another part of the same chromosome or to a different chromosome. This changes the order of the genes on the chromosomes and can lead to serious genetic disorders, e.g. chronic myeloid leukaemia.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Translocation

A rearrangement of the chromosomes inside a person’s cells; it is a type of mutation. Sections of chromosomes may be exchanged or the main parts of 2 chromosomes may be joined. A translocation may be inherited or acquired as the result of a new mutation.

A translocation often has no obvious effect, and causes no abnormality.

However, in some cases, it can mean that some of the affected person’s egg or sperm cells carry too much or too little chromosomal material, which may cause a chromosomal abnormality, such as Down’s syndrome, in his or her children.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Trigonella Uncata

Boiss.

Family: Papilionaceae, Fabaceae.

Habitat: Afghanistan, Persia.

English: Tonkin Bean, Melilot, King's Crown.

Unani: Iklil-ul-Malik (also equated with Melilotus alba Desv., and Astragalus homosus Linn.).

Folk: Sainji (white-flowered var.).

Action: Beans—anti-inflammatory, anodyne, diuretic, emmenagogue. (Indian species, bearing smaller beans, has been equated with Trigonella corniculata and is known as Pirang.)... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Vitrification

n. a process in which eggs or embryos in vitro are preserved by being dehydrated, treated with an antifreeze chemical, and then flash-frozen with liquid nitrogen. They instantly become converted into a glassy material without the formation of ice crystals, which can damage the genetic material, seen with slower forms of freezing.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Vocational Training

see foundation training.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Wagatea Spicata

Dalz.

Family: Caesalpiniaceae.

Habitat: Western Ghats.

Ayurvedic: Guchh-karanja.

Siddha: Okkadi-kodi, Pulinakk- agondai.

Folk: Vaakeri (Maharashtra). Caesalpinia digyna Rottl. is also known as Vaakeri.

Action: Roots—used in pneumonia. Bark—used externally in skin diseases.

The root contains vakerin. Vakerin did not inhibit the stimulating effect of histamine and acetylcholine.

Pods contain considerable quantity of tannic acid.... Indian Medicinal Plants

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Indian Medicinal Plants

Water Intoxication

A disorder resulting from excessive retention of water in the brain. Main symptoms are dizziness, headaches, confusion and nausea. In severe cases the patient may have ?ts (see SEIZURE) or lose consciousness. Several conditions can disturb the body’s water balance causing accumulation of water in the tissues. Heart or kidney failure, CIRRHOSIS of the liver and disorders of the ADRENAL GLANDS can all result in water retention. Other causes are stress as a result of surgery, when increased secretion of antidiuretic hormone (VASOPRESSIN) by the adrenal gland may occur. Treatment is of the underlying condition and the judicious use of DIURETICS, with careful monitoring of the body’s ELECTROLYTES.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Water Intoxication

A condition that is caused by excessive water retention in the brain. The principal symptoms are headaches, dizziness, nausea, confusion, and, in severe cases, seizures and unconsciousness.

Various disorders can disrupt the water balance in the body, leading to accumulation of water in the tissues. Examples include kidney failure, liver cirrhosis, severe heart failure, diseases of the adrenal glands, and certain lung or ovarian tumours producing a substance similar to ADH (antidiuretic hormone). Water intoxication is also seen in association with the use of Ecstasy (MDMA), during which excessive amounts of water are drunk. There is also a risk of water intoxication after surgery, caused by increased ADH production.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary