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computerized axial tomography, now referred to as *computerized tomography (CT).
Habitat: Throughout the country, ascending to an altitude of about 1,050 m in the outer Himalayas.English: Indian Wild Liquorice, Jequirity, Crab's Eye, Precatory Bean.Ayurvedic: Gunjaa, Gunjaka, Chirihintikaa, Raktikaa, Chirmi- ti, Kakanti, Kabjaka, Tiktikaa, Kaakananti, Kaakchinchi. (Not to be used as a substitute for liquorice.)Unani: Ghunghchi, Ghamchi.Siddha/Tamil: Kunri.Folk: Chirmiti, Ratti.
Action: Uterine stimulant, abortifa- cient, toxic. Seeds—teratogenic. A paste of seeds is applied on vitiligo patches.Along with other therapeutic applications, The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India has indicated the use of seeds in baldness.Seeds contain abrin, a toxalbumin, indole derivatives, anthocyanins, ste- rols, terpenes. Abrin causes agglutination of erythrocytes, haemolysis and enlargement of lymph glands. A non- toxic dose of abrin (1.25 mcg/kg body weight), isolated from the seeds of red var., exhibited a noticeable increase in antibody-forming cells, bone marrow cellularity and alpha-esterase-positive bone marrow cells.Oral administration of agglutinins, isolated from the seeds, is useful in the treatment of hepatitis and AIDS.The seed extract exhibited antischis- tosomal activity in male hamsters.The methanolic extract of seeds inhibited the motility of human spermatozoa.The roots contain precol, abrol, gly- cyrrhizin (1.5%) and alkaloids—abra- sine and precasine. The roots also contain triterpenoids—abruslactone A, methyl abrusgenate and abrusgenic acid.Alkaloids/bases present in the roots are also present in leaves and stems.A. fruticulosus Wall. Ex Wight and Arn. synonym A. pulchellus Wall., A. laevigatus E. May. (Shveta Gunjaa) is also used for the same medicinal purposes as A. precatorius.Dosage: Detoxified seed—1-3 g powder. Root powder—3-6 g. (API Vols. I, II.)... Indian Medicinal Plants
Habitat: Drier regions of India, particularly Punjab, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa and Rajasthan.English: Cutch tree, Catechu.Ayurvedic: Khadira, Kadara, Somavalka, Gaayatri, Dantdhaavan, Kantaki, Raktasaara (heartwood extract).Unani: Khair, Kaat, Katthaa (heartwood extract).Siddha/Tamil: Karunkaali (bark), Kalippakku, Kadiram. Katthakkaambu, Kaasukkatti (heartwood extract).
Action: Cutch from wood— powerful astringent (in urinary and vaginal discharge), antidiarrhoeal, haemostatic; used for treating excessive mucous discharges, haemorrhages, relaxed conditions of gums, throat and mouth, stomatitis, irritable bowel; also used as an antileprotic drug.Along with other therapeutic applications, The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India indicates the use of dried pieces of heartwood in inflammations, skin diseases and urinary disorders, recommends its use as a blood purifier, in diseases caused by lipid disorders.Cutch (the concentrated extract) contains tannins 2-20%, catechin 2533%, phlobatannins including cate- chutannic acid 20-50%; flavonoids including quercetin, quercitrin, fisetin; gums, resins, pigments. The gum from A. catechu is a good substitute for Gum arabic.Seed extract—hypoglycaemic to normal albino rats, but not effective in diabetic rats. The saline extract of seeds shows leuco-agglutinating activity against leukaemic cells. It agglutinates white cells from patients with different types of leukaemia. The activity is inhibited by simple sugars. Root extract shows antibacterial and fungi- cidal activity.The heartwood contains a hepato- protective principle—cyanidanol.Astringent and antibacterial properties of catechu result from its high tannin content.Gambrine in pale catechu shows hy- potensive effects.Fisetin in black catechu and (+)- catechin in black and pale catechu may protect against liver damage; (+)- catechin is also thought to protect against experimentally induced ulcers in animals; (+)-catechin (cianidanol) is associated with fatal anaemia. Methyl- catechin, one of the major metabolites of (+)-catechin, inhibits the binding of monocytes to vascular endothelial cells; thus, the catechin found in catechu may reduce atherosclerosis. (Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, 2007.)Dosage: Heartwood—20-30 g for decoction. (API Vol. I.)... Indian Medicinal Plants
Habitat: The alpine zone of the Himalayas of Sikkim and Chumbi. Principal source of Bikh or Bish of Kolkata market. English: Nepal Aconite. Ayurvedic: Vatsanaabha (related sp.).
Action: Antipyretic, analgesic.The roots yield 1.75% of alkaloids which contain mainly pseudoaconitine and bikhaconitine.... Indian Medicinal Plants
Habitat: Native to Europe; grows in temperate Himalayas from Hazara to Bhutan.English: Baneberry Grapewort.Folk: Visha-phale (Kannada).
Action: Root—antirheumatic, anti-inflammatory, nerve sedative, emetic, purgative; used in the treatment of rheumatic fever, lumbago, scrofula, nervous disorders, chorea.The plant is reported to contain trans-aconitic acid, which shows a strong cytostatic action. Its Me ether is active against Ehrlich's ascites tumours.In folk medicine, roots are used in cases of ovarian neuralgia, uterine tenderness and sub-involution. They are adulterant of the roots of Helleborus niger. Berries are poisonous; used topically for skin diseases. The toxic constituent is protoanemonin (lactone). It is irritant to mucous membrane.... Indian Medicinal Plants
In most cases, recovery from alcohol intoxication takes place naturally as the alcohol is gradually broken down in the liver. Medical attention is required if the intoxication has resulted in coma. For the chronic mental, physical, and social effects of long-term heavy drinking, see alcohol dependence and alcohol-related disorders.... BMA Medical Dictionary
Habitat: Native to Central America and Brazil. Grown in Indian gardens.English: Golden Trumpet.Folk: Zahari Sontakkaa. (Maharashtra).
Action: Leaves—cathartic (in moderate doses; emetic in large doses). Bark—hydragogue, in ascites.The purgative property of the aqueous extract of leaves was confirmed pharmacologically in rats. The extract also showed antifungal activity against ringworm causing fungi. Flower extract inhibits fungal growth.EtOH extract of roots showed in- vivo activity against P-388 leukaemia in mouse and in vitro against human carcinoma cells of nasopharynx (KB). The root contains antileukaemic iri- doid lactone, allamandin and two other iridoids, allamandicin and allamdin.The stems and leaves contain beta- amyrin, beta-sitosterol and ursolic acid. Petals gave flavonoids—kaem- pferol and quercetin.... Indian Medicinal Plants
Habitat: Distributed in the Mediterranean region, extending to Central Asia and India.Ayurvedic: Brahmadandi (Tri- cholepis glaberrima DC. of the same family is also equated with Brahmadandi.)Unani: Baadaavard.
Action: Deobstruent, aperient, febrifuge, nervine (used in debility), antiseptic (used in leucoderma).... Indian Medicinal Plants
Habitat: All over India.English: Vetiver, Cuscus.Ayurvedic: Ushira.Unani: Khas.Siddha: Vettiveru.
Action: Roots—refrigerant, febrifuge, diaphoretic, stimulant, stomachic and emmenagogue; used in strangury, colic, flatulence, obstinate vomiting; paste used as a cooling application in fevers.Major constituents of the essential oil are vetiselinenol and khusimol. Several sesquiterpenoids, including vetid- iol, are also present. The two types of oils, laevorotatory and dextrorotatory, from northern India and southern India, respectively, are biochemically different.Andropogon sp.: see Cymbopogon sp.... Indian Medicinal Plants
Habitat: Native to Malaysia; now grown along the coasts of Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal, Assam and Maharashtra.English: Arecanut, Betel Nut.Ayurvedic: Puuga, Puugi, Kramuka, Ghontaa, Guwaak, Ghorant.Unani: Fufal, Chhaalia, Supaari.Siddha/Tamil: Kottai Paakku, Kamugu.
Action: Taeniacide (confined to veterinary medicine), astringent, stimulant.Along with other therapeutic application, The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India indicates the use of dried ripe seed in leucorrhoea and vaginal laxity.Arecanut contains several alkaloids belonging to pyridine group, the most important being arecoline (0.1-0.5%). Arecaidine, guvacine and isoguvacine are also present. Arecoline is an- thelmintic (in animals, not in humans). Arecaidine has no parasympa- thomimetic effects, but only stimulating properties; sedative in higher doses. Isoguvacine produces hypotension.Contraindicated in asthma due to bronchoconstrictive effects of the alkaloid arecoline (human case reports). (Francis Brinker.)Arecanut tannins (8.0-18.0%) are predominantly catechol tannins which closely resemble Mimosa bark tannins. Powdered nuts are prescribed in diarrhoea and urinary disorders. In combination with other astringent and styptic herbs, arecanut is used as a major constituent in confections of Indian medicine for gynaecological disorders.Aqueous extract of the nut exhibits direct vasoconstriction and adrenaline potentiation in rats. Antimicrobial activity is due to polyphenolic fraction. Tannins potentiated the action of acetylcholine in ileum and uterus of rat and noradrenaline on seminal vesicle at low concentration.Due to increased incidence of oral cancer associated with betel chewing, the use of arecanut as a masticatory is being discouraged.Seeds are toxic at 8-10 g, fluid extract at 3.7 ml; and arecoline hydrobromide at 4.3-6.5 mg. (Francis Brinker.)Dosage: Dried ripe fruit—1-2 g powder. (API Vol. I.)... Indian Medicinal Plants
One type is used to drain urine from the bladder (see catheterization, urinary).
Balloon catheters are sometimes used to expand narrowed arteries (balloon angioplasty).
They may also be used to control bleeding oesophageal varices before surgery.... BMA Medical Dictionary
Type I: a benign cyst with smooth margins and no calcification or septa that does not enhance with contrast material.
Type II: a benign cyst with a few hairline septa and/or minimal calcification that does not enhance with contrast.
Type IIF: a cyst with more septa and increased calcification but no contrast enhancement.
Type III: a complicated cyst with irregular margins, moderate calcification, thick septa, and contrast enhancement.
Type IV: a malignant cyst with irregular margins and solid enhancing elements.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary
Calcification also occurs in injured muscles, in arteries affected by atherosclerosis, and when blood calcium levels are raised by disorders of the parathyroid glands.... BMA Medical Dictionary
Kittens proved the greatest hazard, particularly those with fleas. Local inflammation with glandular swelling and fever. Organism: usually Pasteurella multocida. Often with great weakness. One of the commonest causes of swollen glands in the USA.
Treatment. Poke root to combat infection of the glandular system. Echinacea to increase powers of resistance.
Alternatives. Tablets/capsules. Poke root. Echinacea. Wild Yam.
Powders. Formula: Echinacea 2; Gum Myrrh half; Goldenseal half. Dose: 500mg (two 00 capsules or one-third teaspoon) every 3 hours.
Tinctures. Formula. Echinacea 2; Poke root 1; Goldenseal half. Mix. One teaspoon in water every 3 hours.
Dosage for children: see – DOSAGE.
Topical. Apply Tea Tree oil diluted. May be diluted many times. Vitamin C. 1g morning and evening.
Calcium ascorbate powder. 1g morning and evening. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine
The main symptom, appearing after 3–10 days, is a swollen lymph node near the bite or scratch.
The node may become painful and tender, and an infected blister may develop at the site of the injury.
A fever, rash, and headache may occur.
Diagnosis is confirmed by biopsy of the swollen lymph node and a skin test.
Analgesic drugs (painkillers) may be used to relieve the fever and headache.... BMA Medical Dictionary
Catalepsy occurs in people with schizophrenia or epilepsy, but may also be caused by brain disease or some drugs.... BMA Medical Dictionary
As swallowing is not possible, the gums should be rubbed with a little dilute Tincture or Liquid
Extract Lobelia, Eucalyptus, Thyme, Valerian or Wild Lettuce. When swallowing is possible, a cup of Chamomile, Lime blossom or Ephedra tea assists.
Practitioner: Ephedrine, 8-60mg by mouth, thrice daily. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine
Cataract is treated by removal of the affected lens (see cataract extraction; phacoemulsification); patients may wear appropriate spectacles or a contact lens to compensate for the missing lens but in modern practice a synthetic intraocular lens implant is routinely placed inside the eye as a part of the surgical procedure.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary
Almost everyone over 65 has some degree of cataract. Regular exposure to ultraviolet light increases the risk. Other causes include injury to the eye, particularly if a foreign body enters the lens. Cataract is common in people who have diabetes mellitus. Long-term use of corticosteroid drugs may contribute to cataract development. Congenital cataract may be due to an infection of the mother in early pregnancy, especially with rubella, to the toxic effects of certain drugs in pregnancy, or be associated with Down’s syndrome or galactosaemia.
Onset of symptoms is almost imperceptible, although night driving may be affected early on.
There is slow, progressive loss of visual acuity.
The person may become shortsighted and notice disturbances in colour perception.
When vision has become seriously impaired, cataract surgery is performed to remove the lens.... BMA Medical Dictionary
High blood glucose levels, diabetes, drugs, steroids, Down’s syndrome, kidney failure, uraemia and chronic diarrhoea predispose. There is no pain. Vision is as if looking through a frosted glass.
Treatment. Restore lens metabolism.
“My father-in-law knew people who had been cured by steeping Wild Burdock burrs and taking a small drink 3-4 times a day” (John Tobe, in “Cataract, Glaucoma and other Eye Disorders”) Cider Vinegar. 2 teaspoons to glass water, sips once or twice daily.
Chinese medicine. Hachimi jiogan to increase glutathione content of the lens.
Topical. Greater Celandine. 5-10 drops fresh juice of plant to 4oz distilled extract Witch Hazel. 10-20 drops in an eyebath half filled with warm water; use as a douche.
Cineraria maritima (Dusty Miller). 2-3 drops fresh plant juice applied to the eye with a medicine dropper. Same refers to Yucca and Chaparral. For early non-diabetic cataract.
Diet. Lacto-vegetarian. Carrot juice. Brewer’s Yeast, yellow-green vegetables. Spinach as an item of diet appears to reduce risk of cataract.
Supplementation. Vitamin C slows down the ageing process of the lens, protecting it from damage by free radicals: 1500mg daily. Vitamin B2. Vitamin E, 400iu daily. Selenium, 200mcg daily. Amino acids: cysteine, methionine, glutathione.
General. Surgical treatment is invariably successful. Cold packs and manipulation of the neck improve circulation and drainage of the head. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine
It is often caused by a heavy intake of starches, salt, sugar, white flour products, and especially dairy products including milk. Some cases are due to poor diet, low blood calcium, vitamin and mineral deficiency. May manifest as catarrh of the nose, throat, stomach, bowels, bronchi or bladder. Alternatives:–Teas made from any of the following: Angelica, Avens, Coltsfoot, Comfrey leaves, German Chamomile, Elderflowers, Eyebright, Garlic, Ginseng, Gotu Kola, Ground Ivy, Hyssop, Marshmallow leaves, Mullein, Mouse-ear, Parsley, Plantain, Marsh Cudweed, White Horehound, Yarrow.
Garlic. Good results reported.
Traditional combination. Equal parts, herbs: Angelica, Eyebright, Yarrow. 1 heaped teaspoon to each cup of boiling water.
Fenugreek seeds. 2 teaspoons to each cup water simmered 5 minutes; 1 cup thrice daily. Or grind to a powder in a blender to sprinkle on salads or cereals.
Tablets/capsules. Garlic, Iceland Moss, Lobelia, Poke root, Goldenseal (Gerard). Horseradish and Garlic (Blackmore).
Tinctures. Alternatives. (1) Goldenseal: 3-5 drops. Formulae: (2) Angelica 2; Ginger 1. (3) Lobelia 1; Goldenseal 1; Juniper 1. One teaspoon – thrice daily.
Tincture Myrrh, BPC 1973. 3-5 drops in water thrice daily.
Tea Tree oil. 2-3 drops on teaspoon honey, or in water, thrice daily.
Heath and Heather Catarrh pastilles. Squills, Menthol, Pine oil, Eucalyptus oil.
Antifect. (Potter’s) Germicidal for blocked sinuses, etc.
Eric Powell. Liquid extracts: Angelica 1oz; Juniper 1oz; Peppermint half an ounce; Root Ginger half an ounce. 1-2 teaspoons in water thrice daily.
BHP (1983). (Bronchial) Irish Moss, Cinnamon, Liquorice.
Gargle. 3 drops Tincture Myrrh in half glass water.
Inhalation. Small handful Chamomile flowers or Eucalyptus leaves to 2 pints boiling water in washbasin. Cover head with towel and inhale 10 minutes. Or – see: FRIAR’S BALSAM.
Aromatherapy. Essential oils, diluted with 20 parts water, as injection for nasal catarrh: Eucalyptus, Thyme, Pine, Garlic, Hyssop, Tea Tree.
For catarrh of the womb and vagina: see LEUCORRHOEA.
Diet. Refer: GENERAL DIET. Commence with 3-day fast.
Supplementation. Vitamins A and D as in Cod Liver oil. Vitamins B-complex, C and E.
General. Cold sponge-down, deep-breathing exercises. Sea-bathing. Smoking promotes congestion.
Note: However inconvenient, catarrh has one useful protective role – it helps prevent bacteria and toxins reaching tissue. For instance, when present in the nasal organs it may prevent mercury vapour from teeth- amalgam reaching the brain. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine
It is seen in a rare form of schizophrenia and some types of brain disease.... BMA Medical Dictionary
Action: antibacterial, antiseptic, haemostatic, powerful astringent to stomach and intestines.
Uses: Irritable bowel, dysentery, mucous colitis, chronic catarrh, haemorrhage, mouth ulcer, spongy and bleeding gums (mouth wash), sore throat (gargle). A wash for varicose ulcer. Nosebleed. “Indigestion in children.” (Chinese Traditional)
Reported use in cancer (J.L. Hartwell, Lloydia, 33, 97, 1970)
Preparations: Thrice daily.
Powder: 0.3 to 1 gram in honey or banana mash.
Tincture BHP (1983) 1:5 in 45 per cent alcohol. Dose half-1 teaspoon (2.5-5ml) in water. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine
Action: Intestinal astringent.
Uses: similar to Black Catechu.
Preparations: Twice daily.
Powder: 0.3 to 1 gram (quarter of a teaspoon) in honey or banana mash.
Tincture Catechu BP. 1:5, with Cinnamon 1:20, in 45 per cent alcohol. Dose: 2.5 to 5ml. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine
Habitat: Commonly grown in Indian gardens.English: Madagascar Periwinkle (Vinca major L. Pich. and Vinca minor Linn. are known as Greater Periwinkle and Lesser Periwinkle respectively).Folk: Sadaabahaar, Nayantaaraa, Nityakalyaani.
Action: The cytotoxic dimeric alkaloids, present in Madagascar Periwinkle, Catharanthus roseus L. Don, Vincea rosea L., and used for the treatment of certain type of cancer, have not been found in V. major.Catharanthus roseus (Madagascar Periwinkle) : cytostatic, anti-neoplas- tic, slows down growth of cells by su- pressing immune response. Vinblas- tine and Vincristine are said to prolong remission of leukaemia to more than five years. These chemotherapeutic agents are toxic to the nervous system. Vinblastine is also used for breast cancer and Hodgkin's disease.Vinca major L. Pich. (Greater Periwinkle): astringent, anti-haemorrha- gic; used for menorrhagia and leu- corrhoea. Contains indole alkaloids including reserpinine and serpentine; tannins.Vinca minor Linn. (Lesser Periwinkle): astringent; circulatory stimulant. Leaves—stomachic and bitter. Root— hypotensive. Used for gastric catarrh, chronic dyspepsia, flatulence; also for headache, dizziness, behaviours disorders. A homoeopathic tincture is given for internal haemorrhages.... Indian Medicinal Plants
Catharsis is used to refer to the process of cleaning out the bowels.
Sigmund Freud used the term in psychoanalytic theory to describe the expression of repressed feelings and memories.... BMA Medical Dictionary
Cardiac catheters are introduced through a vein in the arm and passed into the heart in order to diagnose some of the more obscure forms of congenital heart disease, and often as a preliminary to operating on the heart.... Medical Dictionary
Action: anti-diarrhoeal, antispasmodic, emmenagogue, diaphoretic, carminative, gentle nerve relaxant for release of tension. To reduce temperature in simple fevers by inducing a free perspiration thus sweating- out toxins via the skin.
Keynote: crises of childhood.
Uses: Children: colic, restlessness, hyperactivity, convulsions, early stages of fever, hysteria with crying and violent twisting of the trunk, middle ear infection, sinuses. Colds, influenza, congestion of respiratory organs. Physical results of emotional disturbance.
Preparations: Two-hourly in acute cases, otherwise thrice daily.
Tea: (popular method) One heaped teaspoon to each cup boiling water; infuse 10 minutes. Half-1 cup. In its absence use Chamomile.
Liquid Extract: 30 drops to 1 teaspoon in water.
Enema: 2oz to 2 pints boiling water; for elimination of toxic wastes from colon.
Beloved by cats, making them frolicsome, amorous and full of fun. Not given in pregnancy. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine
Habitat: Hedgerows.Features ? Square, grey, hairy stem, up to two feet high. Leaves stalked, cordate-ovate, serrate, whitish down beneath. Flowers white, crimson dots, two-lipped, in short, dense spikes. Characteristic mint-like scent.Part used ? Herbs, leaves.
Action: Carminative, tonic, diaphoretic, anti-spasmodic.Especially used for flatulence and digestive pains in children, and for production of perspiration in both children and adults. For diaphoreticpurposes in adults, 2-tablespoonful doses of the 1 ounce to 1 pint infusion thrice daily, with a cupful at bedtime; proportionate doses in children's complaints.American physio-medical practice recommends blood-warm bowel injections of the infusion for babies with intestinal flatulence.... Herbal Manual
Infection, usually from contact with cat’s faeces, is not generally serious but has serious consequences if a woman is infected during pregnancy.
Cat faeces may also carry eggs of the cat roundworm, a possible cause of toxocariasis.
Rarely, a larva from an ingested roundworm egg migrates to and lodges in an eye, causing deterioration of vision or even blindness.
Children who have been playing in sand or soil contaminated by cat faeces are most commonly affected.
Other cat-related disorders in humans include tinea (ringworm), fungal infections of the skin, bites from cat fleas, and allergic reactions to dander that may cause asthma or urticaria.
Diseases from cats can be avoided by good hygiene, veterinary care for animals that are ill, and regular worming and flea treatment of cats.... BMA Medical Dictionary
Action: brain and nerve stimulant, aphrodisiac for men and women.
Uses: Sexual weakness, male impotence, nervous debility and exhaustion.
Preparation. Ground bark: half-1 teaspoon to each cup boiling water; infuse 15 minutes. Half-1 cup freely. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine
Slow progress in the 1st stage of a normal labour due to inadequate contractions of the uterus is usually treated with intravenous infusions of synthetic oxytocin. If the mother cannot push strongly enough, or contractions are ineffective in the 2nd stage of labour, the baby may be delivered by forceps delivery, vacuum extraction, or caesarean section. Rarely, a woman has eclampsia during labour, requiring treatment with anticonvulsant drugs and oxygen, and induction of labour or caesarean section. Bleeding before labour (antepartum haemorrhage) or during labour may be due to premature separation of the placenta from the wall of the uterus or, less commonly, to a condition called placenta praevia, in which the placenta lies over the opening of the cervix. Blood loss after the delivery (postpartum haemorrhage) is usually due to failure of the uterus to contract after delivery, or to
retention of part of the placenta. If the baby lies in the breech position (see breech delivery), caesarean section may be necessary. Multiple pregnancies (see pregnancy, multiple) carry an increased risk of premature labour and of problems during delivery. If the mother’s pelvis is too small in proportion to the head of her baby, delivery by caesarean section is necessary.... BMA Medical Dictionary
Habitat: Throughout India except Jammu & Kashmir and northeastern India as a weed.Ayurvedic: Suuryaavart.Folk: Nilakanthi.
Action: Ash of root—bechic. Leaf— depurative. Seed—cathartic.Roots contain xanthone glycosides and a chromone glycoside. Seeds gave oil rich in linoleate. The plant contains 9.0% tannin.... Indian Medicinal Plants
(See also caries, dental.)... BMA Medical Dictionary
Habitat: Throughout India.Ayurvedic: Bandaaka, Vrkshaadani, Vrkshruuhaa.Siddha: Pulluri, Plavithil (Tamil).Folk: Baandaa.
Action: Bark—astringent and narcotic; used in menstrual disorders, consumption, asthma, also for treating wounds.The plant contains several flavo- noids. Being parasitic, different flavo- noids have been recorded in plants growing on different host plants. Quer- citrin has been found to be the major common constituent. The plant also contains gallic, ellagic and chebulinic acids.Aqueous and alcoholic extracts of the plant were tested in rats for their diuretic and anti-lithiatic activities. Alcoholic extract was found to be more effective than aqueous extract.Dosage: Leaf, flower—10-20 ml juice. (CCRAS.)Essential oil from leaves—antibacterial, antifungal.Dosage: Bark—50-100 ml decoction; leaf—10-20 ml juice. (CCRAS.)... Indian Medicinal Plants
Habitat: Throughout the plains of India, as a weed in cultivated fields.Ayurvedic: Katthinjara, Kunanjara.Siddha/Tamil: Thoyya-keerai.Folk: Lat-mahuriaa, Lahsuvaa.
Action: Astringent, antibilious. Laxative in large doses. Flowers and seeds—diuretic; given for urinary discharges.The plant contains alpha-and beta- spinasterol.... Indian Medicinal Plants
Treatment: Once a patient is established on any of the digitalis (Foxglove) drugs it is very difficult to discontinue. Smaller doses are advised in the process of weaning to Lily of the Valley (Convallaria majalis) which has a digitalis-like effect by reversing heart rhythm disorders.
Dosage: dried leaves 60-200mg or by infusion. Liquid Extract, 0.6 to 2ml. Tincture, 0.5 to 1ml. Thrice daily.
Treatment by general medical practitioner or qualified phytotherapist. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine
Dislocations, like fractures (see BONE, DISORDERS OF), are divided into simple and compound, the bone in the latter case being forced through the skin. This seldom occurs, since the round head of the bone has not the same power to wound as the sharp end of a broken bone. Dislocations are also divided according to whether they are (1) congenital, i.e. present at birth in consequence of some malformation, or (2) acquired at a later period in consequence of injury, the great majority falling into the latter class. The reduction of a dislocated joint is a skilled procedure and should be done by an appropriately trained professional.... Medical Dictionary
Alternatives. To strengthen ligaments: Comfrey (topical). Wild Yam, Irish Moss, Slippery Elm bark, Horsetail, Fenugreek seeds. St John’s Wort, Ginseng.
Supplementation. Calcium and Zinc, Vitamin C (1 gram thrice daily).
DISMUTASE ENZYMES (SOD). A dismutase enzyme is a biologically active enzyme complex present in most human cells and capable of converting tissue-damaging oxygen free radicals (highly reactive cellular toxins) into less harmful chemical substances that can be excreted from the body through the usual eliminatory channels.
Evidence shows that a number of chronic diseases including MS, diabetes, arthritis, even cancer, are the result of free radical damage. SOD is derived from a natural wheat sprout extract from specially cultured wheat that is hypoallergenic. It stimulates and supports the immune system, neutralises toxins, and minimises tissue damage in wasting diseases and organ transplantation. Protecting oxygen levels in body cells, it allays the ageing process and alleviates circulatory disorders. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine
Habitat: Moist forests of central and southern India.Ayurvedic: Mesha-shringi (also equated with Gymnena sylvestre R. Br.), Vishaanikaa.Siddha/Tamil: Kattu Varsana, Kaddalatti, Kaliyacca.
Action: Fruits—bitter, carminative, used in diabetes, urinary disorders, bronchitis and skin diseases. Leaves—applied externally to swollen glands. Abortifacient.The leaves yield luteolin, chrysin and its 7-rutinoside and glucoside.Fruits are also known as Rshabhaka in the South.... Indian Medicinal Plants
Habitat: The Himalayas from Kumaon to Khasi Hills and in Western Peninsula.Ayurvedic: Kulatthikaa.
Action: Root—prescribed for constipation and skin diseases. A decoction of seeds is used for rheumatism.... Indian Medicinal Plants
Eustachian catheters are small catheters that are passed along the ?oor of the nose into the Eustachian tube in order to in?ate the ear.
Nasal catheters are tubes passed through the nose into the stomach to feed a patient who cannot swallow – so-called nasal feeding.
Rectal catheters are passed into the RECTUM in order to introduce ?uid into the rectum.
Suprapubic catheters are passed into the bladder through an incision in the lower abdominal wall just above the pubis, either to allow urine to drain away from the bladder, or to wash out an infected bladder.
Ureteric catheters are small catheters that are passed up the ureter into the pelvis of the kidney, usually to determine the state of the kidney, either by obtaining a sample of urine direct from the kidney or to inject a radio-opaque substance preliminary to X-raying the kidney. (See PYELOGRAPHY.)
Urethral catheters are catheters that are passed along the urethra into the bladder, either to draw o? urine or to wash out the bladder.
It is these last three types of catheters that are most extensively used.... Medical Dictionary
This may occur following abuse of certain drugs, such as alcohol or morphine.... BMA Medical Dictionary
the HEALTH DEVELOPMENT AGENCY (HDA) (see also APPENDIX 7: STATUTORY ORGANISATIONS).... Medical Dictionary
HEE website... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary
Habitat: Central Himalaya at 1,1002,500 m, East India and hills of South India.English: Spiked Ginger Lily.Ayurvedic: Shathi, Shati, Gand- hashathi, Gandhapalaashi, Kapu- urkachari, Suvrataa, Gandhaarikaa, Gandhavadhuu, Gandhamuulikaa.Unani: Kapuurkachari.Siddha/Tamil: Poolankizangu, Kichilikizangu.Folk: Ban-haldi (Kumaon).
Action: Rhizome—carminative, spasmolytic, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, antiemetic, antidiarrhoeal, analgesic, expectorant, antiasthmatic, emmenagogue, hypoglycaemic, hypotensive, antimicrobial, anthelmintic, insect- repellent.The rhizome shows hypotensive effect in dogs at low doses, lowers blood pressure in high doses.EtOH (50%) extract—anti-inflammatory and hypoglycaemic; gave encouraging results in tropical pulmonary eosinophilia in clinical studies. Alcoholic extract of the plant—vasodilator, mild hypotensive and antiseptic in animals. Essential oil from rhizome—mild tranquilizer in male albino rats; antimicrobial.Rhizome gave sitosterol and its glu- coside, a furanoid diterpene—hedy- chenone and 7-hydroxyhedychenone. The essential oil contains cineole, gamma-terpinene, limonene, beta- phellandrene, p-cymene, linalool and beta-terpineol as major constituents.The oil inhibits the growth of several fungi. The ethanol (95%) extract showed antibacterial activity. The 50% extract showed antimalarial activity in vitro against Plasmodium berghei strain.Dosage: Rhizome—1-3 g powder. (API Vol. I.)... Indian Medicinal Plants
Humidity is expressed as relative humidity (RH). This is the amount of moisture in the air expressed as a percentage of the maximum possible at that temperature. If the temperature of a room is raised without increasing the moisture content, the RH falls. The average outdoor RH in Britain is around 70–80 per cent; with central heating it may drop to 25 per cent or lower. This is why humidi?cation, as it is known, of the air is essential in buildings heated by modern heating systems. The aim should be to keep the RH at around 30–50 per cent. In houses this may be achieved quite satisfactorily by having a jug or basin of water in the room, or some receptacle that can be attached to the heater. In o?ces, some more elaborate form of humidi?er is necessary. Those suffering from chronic BRONCHITIS are particularly susceptible to dry air, as are those individuals with disorders of the EYE because the secretions that bathe the eyes and keep them moist are unnaturally dried out. (See also VENTILATION.)... Medical Dictionary
Treatment. Circulatory stimulants. Vaso-dilators.
Alternatives. BHP (1983) – Prickly Ash bark, Cramp bark, Black Cohosh, Angelica root, Hawthorn, Wild Yam. Prophylactic – Garlic.
Decoction. Mix, equal parts: Black Cohosh, Prickly Ash bark, Hawthorn berries. One teaspoon to each cup of water simmered gently 20 minutes. Half-1 cup thrice daily.
Formula. Hawthorn 2; Black Cohosh 1; Prickly Ash 1. Dose: Powders: 500mg (two 00 capsules or one- third teaspoon). Liquid Extracts: one 5ml teaspoon. Tinctures: two 5ml teaspoons. Thrice daily in water or honey.
Tablets/capsules. Prickly Ash. Hawthorn. Black Cohosh. Garlic, 2 at night. Cramp bark. Ginkgo.
Life Drops. 3-10 drops in cup of tea to relieve spasm.
Ginkgo biloba. “Walking distance is definitely increased.” (Rudolf F. Weiss MD. Herbal Medicine, Beaconsfield Publishers)
Garlic. 80 patients with symptomatic state II occlusive disease (claudication), randomised, to take either Garlic powder 800mg a day in tablet form (equivalent to Kwai) or placebo for 12 weeks. A significantly greater improvement in walking distance, apparent after just 4 weeks, occurred in the Garlic-treated group compared with the placebo group. (Professor H. Kiesewetter, Department of Clinical Haemostasiology, University of Saarland, Germany)
Supplements. Vitamin E, 400iu morning and evening.
General. Venesection sometimes necessary. No smoking or alcohol. See: BUERGER’S DISEASE, RAYNAUD’S DISEASE, ARTERIOSCLEROSIS, PHLEBITIS, THROMBOSIS. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine
– usually the result of neurological disorder affecting the bladder (neuropathic bladder). (See URINARY BLADDER, DISEASES OF.)... Medical Dictionary
The standard international classification for statistical, administrative, and epidemiological purposes, as supplied by the World Health Organization
The WHO framework for measuring health and disability in individuals and populations... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary
It customarily refers to the effects of excessive drinking (see alcohol intoxication), but also includes drug poisoning, poisoning from the accumulation of the by-products of metabolism in the body, or the effects of industrial poisons.... BMA Medical Dictionary
Habitat: The Himalayas, West Bengal, Bihar, Orissa, Maharashtra and South India.English: Traveller’s Midnight Lilies.Ayurvedic: Krishnabija (related species). (Sold as Kaalaadaanaa, seeds of Ipomoea nil.)Siddha/Tamil: Kattu Talai.Folk: Michaai.
Action: Purgative, febrifuge. Seeds—cardiac depressant, spasmolytic, hypotensive, antibacterial, antifungal. Plant juice destroys bedbugs.The seeds contain resin glycosides which are laxative. Lysergol is also present in the seeds. It exhibits hypotensive, psychotropic, analgesic, and uterus and intestine-stimulating properties. The presence of indole alkaloids is reported in the seed.... Indian Medicinal Plants
Alternatives. Teas. Agrimony, Boldo, Balmony, Dandelion, Plantain, Gotu Kola.
Cold infusion. 2 teaspoons Barberry bark to each cup cold water; steep overnight. Half-1 cup every 3 hours.
Tablets/capsules. Goldenseal, Dandelion, Blue Flag, Devil’s Claw.
Formula. Equal parts: Dandelion, Devil’s Claw, Barberry. Dose – Powders: 500mg (two 00 capsules or one-third teaspoon). Liquid Extracts: one 5ml teaspoon. Tinctures: two 5ml teaspoons. Every 3 hours. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine
A dislocated jaw is usually due either to a blow or to yawning.
There is pain in front of the ear on the affected side or sides, and the jaw projects forwards.
The mouth cannot be fully closed, making eating and speaking difficult.
Dislocation tends to recur.
Surgery may be carried out to stabilize the joint but is often unsuccessful.... BMA Medical Dictionary
Habitat: Throughout India, as a parasite.Ayurvedic: Bandaaka, Sanharshaa, Vrikshaadani, Vrikshaaruha, Vriksha-bhakshaa. (A large bushy parasite, which causes much damage to the host tree.)Folk: Baandaa.
Action: Tender shoots—contain 10% tannins. Bark—astringent and narcotic.... Indian Medicinal Plants
A range of research investigations has developed within medical education. These apply to course monitoring, audit, development and validation, assessment methodologies and the application of educationally appropriate principles at undergraduate and postgraduate levels. Research is undertaken by medical educationalists whose backgrounds include teaching, social sciences and medicine and related health-care specialties, and who will hold a medical or general educational diploma, degree or other appropriate postgraduate quali?cation.
Development and validation for all courses are an important part of continuing accreditation processes. The relatively conservative courses at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels, including diplomas and postgraduate quali?cations awarded by the specialist medical royal colleges (responsible for standards of specialist education) and universities, have undergone a range of reassessment and rede?nition driven by the changing needs of the individual practitioner in the last decade. The stimuli to change aspects of medical training have come from the government through the former Chief Medical O?cer, Sir Kenneth Calman, and the introduction of new approaches to specialist training (the Calman programme), from the GENERAL MEDICAL COUNCIL (GMC) and its document Tomorrow’s Doctors, as well as from the profession itself through the activities of the British Medical Association and the medical royal colleges. The evolving expectations of the public in their perception of the requirements of a doctor, and changes in education of other groups of health professionals, have also led to pressures for changes.
Consequently, many new departments and units devoted to medical education within university medical schools, royal colleges and elsewhere within higher education have been established. These developments have built upon practice developed elsewhere in the world, particularly in North America, Australia and some European countries. Undergraduate education has seen application of new educational methods, including Problem-Based Learning (PBL) in Liverpool, Glasgow and Manchester; clinical and communications skills teaching; early patient contact; and the extensive adoption of Internet (World Wide Web) support and Computer-Aided Learning (CAL). In postgraduate education – driven by European directives and practices, changes in specialist training and the needs of community medicine – new courses have developed around the membership and fellowship examinations for the royal colleges. Examples of these changes driven by medical education expertise include the STEP course for the Royal College of Surgeons of England, and distance-learning courses for diplomas in primary care and rheumatology, as well as examples of good practice as adopted by the Royal College of General Practitioners.
Continuing Professional Development (CPD) and Continuing Medical Education (CME) are also important aspects of medical education now being developed in the United Kingdom, and are evolving to meet the needs of individuals at all stages of their careers.
Bodies closely involved in medical educational developments and their review include the General Medical Council, SCOPME (the Standing Committee on Postgraduate Medical Education), all the medical royal colleges and medical schools, and the British Medical Association through its Board of Medical Education. The National Health Service (NHS) is also involved in education and is a key to facilitation of CPD/CME as the major employer of doctors within the United Kingdom.
Several learned societies embrace medical education at all levels. These include ASME (the Association for the Study of Medical Education), MADEN (the Medical and Dental Education Network) and AMEE (the Association for Medical Education in Europe). Specialist journals are devoted to research reports relating to medical educational developments
(e.g. Academic Medicine, Health Care Education, Medical Education). The more general medical journals (e.g. British Medical Journal, New England Journal of Medicine, The Lancet, Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons) also carry articles on educational matters. Finally, the World Wide Web (WWW) is a valuable source of information relating to courses and course development and other aspects of modern medical education.
The UK government, which controls the number of students entering medical training, has recently increased the quota to take account of increasing demands for trained sta? from the NHS. More than 5,700 students – 3,300 women and 2,400 men – are now entering UK medical schools annually with nearly 28,600 at medical school in any one year, and an attrition rate of about 8–10 per cent. This loss may in part be due to the changes in university-funding arrangements. Students now pay all or part of their tuition fees, and this can result in medical graduates owing several thousand pounds when they qualify at the end of their ?ve-year basic quali?cation course. Doctors wishing to specialise need to do up to ?ve years (sometimes more) of salaried ‘hands-on’ training in house or registrar (intern) posts.
Though it may be a commonly held belief that most students enter medicine for humanitarian reasons rather than for the ?nancial rewards of a successful medical career, in developed nations the prospect of status and rewards is probably one incentive. However, the cost to students of medical education along with the widespread publicity in Britain about an under-resourced, seriously overstretched health service, with sta? working long hours and dealing with a rising number of disgruntled patients, may be affecting recruitment, since the number of applicants for medical school has dropped in the past year or so. Although there is still competition for places, planners need to bear this falling trend in mind.
Another factor to be considered for the future is the nature of the medical curriculum. In Britain and western Europe, the age structure of a probably declining population will become top-heavy with senior citizens. In the ?nancial interests of the countries affected, and in the personal interests of an ageing population, it would seem sensible to raise the pro?le of preventive medicine – traditionally rather a Cinderella subject – in medical education, thus enabling people to live healthier as well as longer lives. While learning about treatments is essential, the increasing specialisation and subspecialisation of medicine in order to provide expensive, high-technology care to a population, many of whom are suffering from preventable illnesses originating in part from self-indulgent lifestyles, seems insupportable economically, unsatisfactory for patients awaiting treatment, and not necessarily professionally ful?lling for health-care sta?. To change the mix of medical education would be a di?cult long-term task but should be worthwhile for providers and recipients of medical care.... Medical Dictionary
Habitat: Cultivated in Punjab, Uttar Pradesh and Maharashtra.English: Spearmint, Garden Mint.Ayurvedic: Pudinaa, Podinaka, Puutihaa, Rochini.Unani: Nanaa. Pudinaa Kohi.
Action: Carminative, stimulant, antispasmodic, antiemetic, diaphoretic, antiseptic. A tea of dry flowers and leaves is prescribed for tracheobronchitis and hypertension.The chief constituents of the essential oil are carvone (55-75%) and limonene (up to 21.4%). The herb gave flavonoids, diosmin and diosmetin. Caffeic acid derivatives include ros- marinic acid in the volatile oil.Dosage: Leaf—5-10 ml juice; 35 ml extract. (CCRAS.)... Indian Medicinal Plants
Habitat: Cultivated in Britain and the USA. Occurs in Himalayas from Kashmir to Nepal at 2,000-3,300 m.English: Catnip, Catnep, Catmint.
Action: Leaves and flowers— gentle nerve relaxant and sedative, carminative, antispasmodic, an- tidiarrhoeal, diaphoretic, febrifuge. Used in restlessness, convulsions, nervous headache, colic, early stages of fever, colds and influenza. The herb is to be infused (not boiled).Catnip contains iridoids, tannins and volatile oil, major components being alpha- and beta-nepetalactone (up to 42%), citronellol and geraniol.The catnip response in the domestic cat is being attributed to iridoid lac- tones, nepetalactone, dihydronepeta- lactone, iso-dihydronepetalactone and neonepetalactone. Its reputation as a hallucinogen has been disputed, but a few studies have shown behavioural effects, although weak, in young chicks, rodents and cats. (Potter's New Cyclopaedia.)Neptalactone is structurally related to valepotriates found in valerian. (Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, 2007.)... Indian Medicinal Plants
In newborn babies, the diaphysis (shaft) has begun to ossify and is composed mainly of bone, while the epiphyses are made of cartilage that gradually hardens. In children, growth plates produce new cartilage to lengthen the bones, and further bone forms at secondary ossification centres in the epiphyses. By the age of 18, the shafts, growth plates, and epiphyses have all ossified and fused into continuous bone.... BMA Medical Dictionary
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Prescriptions. While specimen combinations appear for each specific disease in this book, medicines from the dispensary may be varied many times during the course of treatment. The practitioner will adapt a prescription to a patient’s individual clinical picture by adding and subtracting agents according to the changing basic needs of the case. For instance, a first bottle of medicine or blend of powders may include a diuretic to clear the kidneys in preparation for the elimination of wastes and toxins unleashed by active ingredients.
The reader should never underestimate the capacity of herbal medicine to regenerate the human body, even from the brink of disaster.
Acknowledgements. I am indebted to my distinguished mentor, Edgar Gerald Jones, Mansfield, Nottinghamshire, England, to whom I owe more than I could ever repay. I am indebted also to the National Institute of Medical Herbalists, and to the British Herbal Medicine Association, both of which bodies have advanced the cause of herbal medicine. I have drawn heavily upon the British Herbal Pharmacopoeias 1983 and 1990, authentic publications of the BHMA, and have researched major works of ancient and modern herbalism including those pioneers of American Eclectic Medicine: Dr Samuel Thomson, Dr Wooster Beach, Dr Finlay Ellingwood and their British contemporaries. All made a vital contribution in their day and generation. I have endeavoured to keep abreast of the times, incorporating the latest scientific information at the time of going to press. For the purposes of this book I am especially indebted to my friend Dr John Cosh for checking accuracy of the medical material and for his many helpful suggestions.
A wealth of useful plants awaits further investigation. Arnica, Belladonna and Gelsemium are highly regarded by European physicians. It is believed that these plants, at present out of favour, still have an important role in medicine of the future. The wise and experienced clinician will wish to know how to harness their power to meet the challenge of tomorrow’s world.
Perhaps the real value of well-known alternative remedies lies in their comparative safety. Though largely unproven by elaborate clinical trials, the majority carry little risk or harm. Some have a great potential for good. The therapy is compatible with other forms of treatment.
The revival of herbal medicine is no passing cult due to sentimentality or superstition. It indicates, rather, a return to that deep devotion to nature that most of us have always possessed, and which seems in danger of being lost in the maze of modern pharmacy. It is an expression of loyalty to all that is best from
the past as we move forward into the 21st century with a better understanding of disease and its treatment. I believe the herbal profession has a distinguished and indispensible contribution to make towards the conquest of disease among peoples of the world, and that it should enjoy a place beside orthodox medicine.
Who are we to say that today’s antibiotics and high-tech medicine will always be available? In a world of increasing violence, war and disaster, a breakdown in the nation’s health service might happen at any time, thus curtailing production of insulin for the diabetic, steroids for the hormone-deficient, and anti-coagulants for the thrombotic. High-technology can do little without its specialised equipment. There may come a time when we shall have to reply on our own natural resources. It would be then that a knowledge of alternatives could be vital to survival. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine
Sex education in schools is regarded as an e?ective way of reducing teenaged pregnancy, especially when linked with contraceptive services. Several studies have shown that it does not cause an increase in sexual activity and may even delay the onset of sexual relationships and lessen the number of partners. Programmes taught by youth agencies may be even more e?ective than those taught in the classroom – possibly because teaching takes place in small groups of volunteer participants, and the programmes are tailored to their target populations. Despite improvements in sex education, the United Kingdom has the highest incidence of teenaged pregnancies in the European Community.
Sex education, including information about AIDS/HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), is compulsory in all state-maintained secondary schools in England and Wales. The National Curriculum includes only biological aspects of AIDS/HIV, STIs and human sexual behaviour.
All maintained schools must have a written statement of their policy, which is available to parents. The local education authority, governing body and headteacher should ensure that sex education encourages pupils to have due regard to moral considerations and the value of family life. Sex-education policies and practices are monitored by the O?ce for Standards in Education (OFSTED) and the O?ce of HM Chief Inspector of Schools (OHMCI) as part of school inspections.... Medical Dictionary
Diagnosis is by X-rays. The head of the humerus is repositioned in the joint socket. The shoulder is then immobilized in a sling for about 3 weeks.
Complications of shoulder dislocation include damage to nerves, causing temporary weakness and numbness in the shoulder; damage to an artery in the upper arm, causing pain and discoloration of the arm and hand; and damage to muscles that support the shoulder.... BMA Medical Dictionary
Side effects include coughing and throat irritation on inhalation.... BMA Medical Dictionary
Habitat: Temperate Himalayas, Khasi Hills and Manipur.English: European Yew. Himalayan Yew is equated with Taxus wal- lichiana Zucc., synonym T. baccata Linn. subspecies wallichiana (Zucc.) Pilgoe, T. baccata Hook. f.Ayurvedic: Thunera, Sthauneya, Sthauneyaka, Shukapushpa, Dhaatri-patra, Vikarna. (Not a substitute for Taalisapatra.)Unani: Zarnab.Siddha/Tamil: Taaleespatri Bhedam.Folk: Birmi, Thuno.
Action: Herb—CNS depressant; reduces motor activity; analgesic, anticonvulsant. Leaf used in nervousness, epilepsy, hysteria, asthma, chronic bronchitis. Leaf and fruit—antispasmodic, sedative, emmenagogue.Berry—used in chronic bronchitis. Taxol—antimitotic; also being tried for the treatment of severe drug-resistant human malaria. (Chem Abstr, 1994, 21, 124674 j.) (The taxol content in Himalayan Yew varied with season and location from 0.045-0.130%.)The needles contain diterpene esters of taxane-type (mixture is known as taxine 0.6-2.0%). Taxine consists of 11 compounds of which only tax- ine A and B have been characterized. Taxol, the diterpene amide, is found active against ovarian cancer in humans. (clinical results showed 24-30% response). The ester alkaloids in higher doses are cardiotoxic.Dried needles contain biflavonoids, including sotetsuflavone, sequoifla- vone, sciadopitysin, ginkgetin, kayafla- vone, amentoflavone, beta-sitosterol, heptacosanol and surcose.The needles gave several phenolics. Betuloside (rhododendron) exhibited hepatoprotective activity against hepa- totoxins in rats.The seeds are poisonous and contain taxine.The aqueous extract of leaves showed a depressant effect on the central nervous system in rats.The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia ofIn- dia attributed antirheumatic, anticatar- rhal, insecticidal and wound-healing properties to the dried needles of Himalayan Yew and indicated the use of the drug in powder form (1-3 g) in disorders due to vitiated blood, tumours, dermatosis and helminthiasis.Dosage: Leaf—1-3 g powder. (API, Vol. III.) Leaf, bark—3-5 g powder. (CCRAS.)... Indian Medicinal Plants
Habitat: Cultivated throughout hotter parts of India, also in the Andamans.English: Indian Almond, Tropical Almond.Siddha/Tamil: Natuvadom.Folk: Jangali Baadaam, Desi Baadaam.
Action: Bark—astringent, an- tidysenteric, mild diuretic. Leaf— antiseptic, anti-inflammatory. Oil from kernel—substitute for almond oil; contains oleic, linoleic, palmitic and stearic acids. Fresh kernels resemble almonds; contain fat 52.02, protein 25.42, sugars as glucose 5.98%. Leaf—sudorific; applied to rheumatic joints. Ointment made from juice—used in scabies and other cutaneous affections.The husk and endocarp contain tannins and pentosans. The heartwood and stembark contain beta-sitosterol and its palmitate. The heartwood, in addition, contain terminolic acid and triterpenic methyl esters.... Indian Medicinal Plants
A translocation often has no obvious effect, and causes no abnormality.
However, in some cases, it can mean that some of the affected person’s egg or sperm cells carry too much or too little chromosomal material, which may cause a chromosomal abnormality, such as Down’s syndrome, in his or her children.... BMA Medical Dictionary
Habitat: Afghanistan, Persia.English: Tonkin Bean, Melilot, King's Crown.Unani: Iklil-ul-Malik (also equated with Melilotus alba Desv., and Astragalus homosus Linn.).Folk: Sainji (white-flowered var.).
Action: Beans—anti-inflammatory, anodyne, diuretic, emmenagogue. (Indian species, bearing smaller beans, has been equated with Trigonella corniculata and is known as Pirang.)... Indian Medicinal Plants
Habitat: Western Ghats.Ayurvedic: Guchh-karanja.Siddha: Okkadi-kodi, Pulinakk- agondai.Folk: Vaakeri (Maharashtra). Caesalpinia digyna Rottl. is also known as Vaakeri.
Action: Roots—used in pneumonia. Bark—used externally in skin diseases.The root contains vakerin. Vakerin did not inhibit the stimulating effect of histamine and acetylcholine.Pods contain considerable quantity of tannic acid.... Indian Medicinal Plants
Various disorders can disrupt the water balance in the body, leading to accumulation of water in the tissues. Examples include kidney failure, liver cirrhosis, severe heart failure, diseases of the adrenal glands, and certain lung or ovarian tumours producing a substance similar to ADH (antidiuretic hormone). Water intoxication is also seen in association with the use of Ecstasy (MDMA), during which excessive amounts of water are drunk. There is also a risk of water intoxication after surgery, caused by increased ADH production.... BMA Medical Dictionary