This medical term were found from 1 different sources | Health Encyclopedia


The area between the shoulders and the buttocks. The back is supported by the spinal column (see spine), which is bound together by ligaments and supported by muscles that also control posture and movement. Disorders that affect the bones, muscles, ligaments, tendons, nerves, and joints in the spine may cause back pain. (See also spine, disorders of.)

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The keywords of this medical terms: Back

Back Pain

Pain affecting the back, often restricting movement. The pain usually lasts for only a week or so but can recur in some people. Rarely, persistent back pain causes long-term disability.

Back pain is usually caused by minor damage to the ligaments and muscles in the back. The lower back is especially vulnerable to these problems because it supports most of the body’s weight and is under continual stress from movements such as bending, twisting, and stretching. Less commonly, lower back pain may result from an underlying disorder such as a prolapsed intervertebral disc (see disc prolapse) in the spine.

In most cases, back pain can be treated with over-the-counter painkillers (see analgesic drugs) such as aspirin and related drugs, nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, or muscle-relaxant drugs. If the pain persists, a heat pad, a wrapped hot-water bottle or, sometimes, an ice-pack, may provide additional relief. Generally, it is advisable to remain as active as the pain permits. People whose pain worsens or is still too severe to allow normal movement after several days should consult a doctor for medical tests.

Investigations for back pain, such as X-rays, CT scanning, or MRI, sometimes reveal abnormalities, such as disc prolapse, that require surgical treatment and can be treated by a microdiscectomy.

Other treatments for back pain include acupuncture, spinal injection, exercise, or spinal manipulation.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Back Slaps

a manoeuvre for the treatment of a choking patient. Firm slaps are given to the patient’s back in an attempt to dislodge the obstructing article from the upper airway.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Backache

Back pain may arise from different causes – from prolapsed disc to a diseased vertebra requiring hospital treatment. For specific treatments reference should be made to appropriate entries: rheumatism, arthritis, fibrositis, lumbago, osteoporosis, sciatica, myalgia, ‘slipped disc’, etc.

Pain in upper spine and right shoulder: investigate for gallstones. Thousands suffer chronic back pain because of an enzyme defect in the blood. Such defect is the cause of an inability to clear fibrin, a protein which repairs damaged tissue.

Alternatives:– “Whole in One” Tea. Mix, equal parts: Hops, Valerian, Buchu, 1-2 teaspoons to each cup boiling water: infuse 15 minutes; 1 cup 2-3 times daily. Pinch Cayenne pepper enhances action. Decoction. Mix, equal parts: Valerian, Juniper, Black Cohosh. 2 teaspoons to each cup water simmered gently 20 minutes; half cup 2-3 times daily.

Powders. To alleviate low backache accompanying fluid retention. Dandelion leaf 60. Uva Ursi 15. Couch Grass 15. Buchu 10. Dose: half a teaspoon after meals thrice daily: children over 12 years. Tablets/capsules. Prickly Ash bark, Devil’s Claw, Juniper.

Tinctures. Mix, Juniper 2; Black Cohosh 1; Guaiacum quarter. 15-60 drops 2-3 times daily.

Topical. Analgesic cream, Olbas oil, Golden Fire, Stiff Neck Salve, Epsom salts soaks. Aromatherapy: mix essential oils, Rosemary 1 drop, Juniper 1 drop, Thyme 2 drops: add to 2 teaspoons Almond oil. After massage, wrap affected area with damp hot towel.

Diet. High fibre, low salt, low fat, Dandelion coffee.

Supplements. Vitamin B-complex, Niacin, Vitamins C, E. Dolomite. Evening Primrose oil capsules. Two Garlic capsules at night. Chiropractic. Osteopathy. ... Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

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Bartrams Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine

Backache

Most people suffer from backache at times during their lives, much of which has no identi?able cause – non-speci?c back pain. This diagnosis is one of the biggest single causes of sickness absence in the UK’s working population. Certain occupations, such as those involving long periods of sedentary work, lifting, bending and awkward physical work, are especially likely to cause backache. Back pain is commonly the result of sporting activities.

Non-speci?c back pain is probably the result of mechanical disorders in the muscles, ligaments and joints of the back: torn muscles, sprained LIGAMENTS, and FIBROSITIS. These disorders are not always easy to diagnose, but mild muscular and ligamentous injuries are usually relieved with symptomatic treatment – warmth, gentle massage, analgesics, etc. Sometimes back pain is caused or worsened by muscle spasms, which may call for the use of antispasmodic drugs. STRESS and DEPRESSION (see MENTAL ILLNESS) can sometimes result in chronic backache and should be considered if no clear physical diagnosis can be made.

If back pain is severe and/or recurrent, possibly radiating around to the abdomen or down the back of a leg (sciatica – see below), or is accompanied by weakness or loss of feeling in the leg(s), it may be caused by a prolapsed intervertebral disc (slipped disc) pressing on a nerve. The patient needs prompt investigation, including MRI. Resting on a ?rm bed or board can relieve the symptoms, but the patient may need a surgical operation to remove the disc and relieve pressure on the affected nerve.

The nucleus pulposus – the soft centre of the intervertebral disc – is at risk of prolapse under the age of 40 through an acquired defect in the ?brous cartilage ring surrounding it. Over 40 this nucleus is ?rmer and ‘slipped disc’ is less likely to occur. Once prolapse has taken place, however, that segment of the back is never quite the same again, as OSTEOARTHRITIS develops in the adjacent facet joints. Sti?ness and pain may develop, sometimes many years later. There may be accompanying pain in the legs: SCIATICA is pain in the line of the sciatic nerve, while its rarer analogue at the front of the leg is cruralgia, following the femoral nerve. Leg pain of this sort may not be true nerve pain but referred from arthritis in the spinal facet joints. Only about 5 per cent of patients with back pain have true sciatica, and spinal surgery is most successful (about 85 per cent) in this group.

When the complaint is of pain alone, surgery is much less successful. Manipulation by physiotherapists, doctors, osteopaths or chiropractors can relieve symptoms; it is important ?rst to make sure that there is not a serious disorder such as a fracture or cancer.

Other local causes of back pain are osteoarthritis of the vertebral joints, ankylosing spondylitis (an in?ammatory condition which can severely deform the spine), cancer (usually secondary cancer deposits spreading from a primary tumour elsewhere), osteomyelitis, osteoporosis, and PAGET’S DISEASE OF BONE. Fractures of the spine – compressed fracture of a vertebra or a break in one of its spinous processes – are painful and potentially dangerous. (See BONE, DISORDERS OF.)

Backache can also be caused by disease elsewhere, such as infection of the kidney or gall-bladder (see LIVER), in?ammation of the PANCREAS, disorders in the UTERUS and PELVIS or osteoarthritis of the HIP. Treatment is e?ected by tackling the underlying cause. Among the many known causes of back pain are:

Mechanical and traumatic causes

Congenital anomalies. Fractures of the spine. Muscular tenderness and ligament strain. Osteoarthritis. Prolapsed intervertebral disc. Spondylosis.

In?ammatory causes

Ankylosing spondylitis. Brucellosis. Osteomyelitis. Paravertebral abscess. Psoriatic arthropathy. Reiter’s syndrome. Spondyloarthropathy. Tuberculosis.

Neoplastic causes

Metastatic disease. Primary benign tumours. Primary malignant tumours.

Metabolic bone disease

Osteomalacia. Osteoporosis. Paget’s disease.

Referred pain

Carcinoma of the pancreas. Ovarian in?ammation and tumours. Pelvic disease. Posterior duodenal ulcer. Prolapse of the womb.

Psychogenic causes

Anxiety. Depression.

People with backache can obtain advice from www.backcare.org.uk... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Backbone

(spinal column, spine, vertebral column) n. a flexible bony column extending from the base of the skull to the small of the back. It encloses and protects the spinal cord, articulates with the skull (at the atlas), ribs (at the thoracic vertebrae), and hip girdle (at the sacrum), and provides attachment for the muscles of the back. It is made up of individual bones (see vertebra) connected by discs of fibrocartilage (see intervertebral disc) and bound together by ligaments. The backbone of a newborn baby contains 33 vertebrae: seven cervical (neck), 12 thoracic (chest), five lumbar (lower back), five sacral (hip), and four coccygeal. In the adult the sacral and coccygeal vertebrae become fused into two single bones (sacrum and coccyx, respectively); the adult vertebral column therefore contains 26 bones (see illustration). Anatomical name: rachis.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Biofeedback

A technique whereby an auditory or visual stimulus follows on from a physiological response. Thus, a subject’s ELECTROCARDIOGRAM (ECG) may be monitored, and a signal passed back to the subject indicating his or her heart rate: for example, a red light if the rate is between 50 and 60 beats a minute; a green light if it is between 60 and 70 a minute. Once the subject has learned to discriminate between these two rates, he or she can then learn to control the heart rate. How this is learned is not clear, but by utilising biofeedback some subjects can control heart rate and blood pressure, relax spastic muscles, bring migraine under control and even help constipation.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Biofeedback

n. the giving of immediate information to a subject about his or her bodily processes (such as heart rate), which are usually unconscious, by means of monitoring devices. This may enable some voluntary control over such processes. These processes can then be subject to operant *conditioning. This is an experimental treatment for disturbances of bodily regulation, such as hypertension.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Biofeedback Training

A technique in which a person uses information about a normally unconscious body function to gain conscious control over that function. Biofeedback training may help in the treatment of stress-related conditions, including certain types of hypertension, anxiety, and migraine.

The patient is connected to a recording instrument that measures one of the unconscious body activities, such as blood pressure, heart-rate, or the quantity of sweat on the skin. The patient receives information (feedback) on the changing levels of these activities from changes in the instrument’s signals. Using relaxation techniques, the patient learns to change the signals by conscious control of the body function. Once acquired, this control can be exercised without the instrument.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Ears, Pinning Back Of

See otoplasty.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Feedback

n. (in physiology) the coupling of the output of a process to the input. Feedback mechanisms are important in regulating many physiological processes; for example, the production of hormones and neurotransmitters. In negative feedback, a rise in the output of a substance will inhibit a further increase in its production, either directly or indirectly (see negative feedback loop). In positive feedback, a rise in the output of a substance is associated with an increase in the output of another substance, either directly or indirectly.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Feedback

A self-regulating mechanism that controls certain body processes such as hormone and enzyme production. If, for example, levels of a hormone are too high, output of any substance

that stimulates the hormone’s release is inhibited; the result is reduced hormone production (negative feedback). The reverse process,(positive feedback) restores the balance if the level of hormone becomes too low.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Feedback Mechanism

Many glands which produce HORMONES are in?uenced by other hormones, particularly those secreted by the HYPOTHALAMUS (a controlling centre in the brain) and the PITUITARY GLAND. If the amount of hormone produced by a gland rises, negative feedback mechanisms operate by instructing the pituitary gland, via the hypothalamus, to produce less of the stimulating hormones. This cuts activity in the target gland. Should the amount of hormone produced fall, the feedback mechanism weakens with the result that the output of stimulating hormones increases.... Medical Dictionary

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Medical Dictionary

Flashback

n. 1. vivid involuntary reliving of the perceptual abnormalities experienced during a previous episode of drug intoxication, including *hallucinations and *derealization, most commonly experienced with LSD. 2. a symptom of *post-traumatic stress disorder characterized by the reliving of a traumatic experience.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Hunchback

See kyphosis.... BMA Medical Dictionary

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BMA Medical Dictionary

Hunchback Deformity

see kyphos.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Negative Feedback Loop

a physiological loop for the control of hormone production by a gland. High levels of a circulating hormone act to reduce production of the releasing factors triggering its own production, i.e. they have a negative *feedback on these trigger factors. As circulating levels of the hormone fall, the negative feedback is reduced and the releasing factor starts to be produced again, allowing the hormone level to rise again.... Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

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Oxford | Concise Colour Medical Dictionary

Red Back Spider

Spider found mostly in Australia and is similar to the Black Widow of America and the Button spider of South Africa. Belongs to the species Latrodectus hasseltii.... Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

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Dictionary of Tropical Medicine

Tea For Back Pain

Back pain is usually an affection caused by both external and internal problems. Standing too long, pregnancy, weight lifting or pulmonary problems could cause severe back pains. Other than a prolonged pain localized in your back area, this affection could also interfere with your coronary and circulatory systems: the blood pressure is high and it’s hard for your heart to pump oxygen in your system. How a Tea for Back Pain Works A Tea for Back Pain’s main purpose is to make your body release enough endorphins to induce a state of calmness and well-being to your entire organism. In order to do that, a Tea for Back Pain must contain an important amount of nutrients, acids, volatile oils, antioxidants, enzymes and minerals (such as sodium, iron, magnesium and manganese). Efficient Tea for Back Pain An efficient Tea for Back Pain must show results as quickly as possible and be one hundred percent sure (when choosing an herbal treatment, always be well informed of the risks). If you don’t know which teas could have a positive effect on your health, here’s a list for guidance: - Ginger Tea – will bring relief to your pain and improve your general health in no time. You can also take it in case you’re suffering from anemia, asthenia, loss of appetite or headaches. However, in order to avoid other health complications, make sure you’re using a small amount of herbs when preparing this decoction. Otherwise, you might develop an acid foods and drinks intolerance. - Turmeric Tea – not very popular among Europeans, this Tea for Back pain acts as a great pain reliever, calming all your affected areas and restoring your general health in no time. You may also want to try it in case you’re suffering from inflammations, bruises, spreads, skin or digestive issues. Make sure you don’t drink more than 2 cups per day and everything will be fine. - Valerian Tea – used as a great sedative since ancient times, when the Greeks and the Romans drank a cup of it before every night, this Tea for Back Pain will nourish your nervous system and bring relief to your wounded areas. However, make sure you pay attention to the amount of tea you’re ingesting in order to avoid hallucinations and even death. Tea for Back Pain Side Effects When taken properly, these teas are generally safe. However, exceeding the number of cups recommended per day may lead to a series of affections, such as nausea, upset stomach, vomiting and even death. If you’ve been taking one of these teas for a while and you’ve noticed some unusual reactions from your body, ask for medical assistance immediately! If you have the green light from your doctor and there’s nothing that could interfere with your treatment, choose a Tea for Back Pain that fits best your needs and enjoy its health benefits!... Beneficial Teas

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Beneficial Teas